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Sample records for lymphocyte cultures evaluation

  1. Isolation and evaluation of cytogenetic effect of Brahmi saponins on cultured human lymphocytes exposed in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachaveedu, Mangathayaru; Papacchan, Sunu; Sanyal, Sudip; Koshy, Teena; Telapolu, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Major saponins of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera, Fam: Scrophulariaceae) - bacosides A and B - were isolated from the total methanol extract and characterised based on melting point, TLC, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. They were evaluated for their in vitro cytogenetic effects on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. The frequency of chromatid type aberrations and reciprocal interchanges between sister chromatids in the treated cells was scored in comparison to the untreated control. At 30 μg/mL dose, bacoside A showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of both CA and SCE and bacoside B showed an increase only in SCE. Our report of the genotoxicity of the saponins is significant in view of the reports of anticancer activity of Brahmi extracts.

  2. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...

  3. Transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to lymphocytes in culture.

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    de Bittencourt Júnior, P I; Curi, R

    1998-02-01

    A major feature of macrophage metabolism is its capacity to produce and export cholesterol. Several reports have shown that the manipulation of lymphocyte cholesterol content elicits important changes in lymphocyte proliferation. These findings lead to an inquiry as to whether macrophage-derived cholesterol released into the lymphocyte surroundings may be transferred to the latter thus affecting lymphocyte function. In this study, cholesterol transfer from macrophages to lymphocytes was examined in vitro using rat cells in culture. The findings indicate that there may be a significant transfer of cholesterol from [4-14C]cholesterol labeled resident peritoneal macrophages to mesenteric lymph node resting lymphocytes (up to 173.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages when co-cultivated for 48 h), in a lipoprotein-dependent manner. This represents the mass transfer of ca. 17 nmoles of cholesterol molecules per 10(7) lymphocytes from 10(7) macrophages (calculated on the basis of specific radioactivity incorporated into macrophages after the pre-labelling period), which suggests that macrophages are capable of replacing the whole lymphocyte cholesterol pool every 21 h. Moreover, an 111%-increase in the total cholesterol content of lymphocytes was found after co-cultivation with macrophages for 48 h. When compared to peritoneal cells, monocytes/macrophages obtained from circulating blood leukocytes presented a much higher cholesterol transfer capacity to lymphocytes (3.06 +/- 0.10 nmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages co-cultivated for 24 h). Interestingly, inflammatory macrophages dramatically reduced their cholesterol transfer ability (by up to 91%, as compared to resident macrophages). Cholesterol transfer may involve a humoral influence, since it is not only observed when cells are co-cultivated in a single-well chamber system (cells in direct contact), but also in a two-compartment system (where cells can communicate but not by direct contact). Co

  4. Genotoxicity of the herbicide butachlor in cultured human lymphocytes.

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    Sinha, S; Panneerselvam, N; Shanmugam, G

    1995-08-01

    Butachlor, a pre-emergence herbicide was investigated for its ability to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and chromosome aberrations (CA) in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes were treated with three different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 micrograms/ml) of butachlor for 24, 48 and 72 h. Our results indicate a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations at 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment with butachlor. No SCE was promoted by butachlor.

  5. Establishment of a heterotypic 3D culture system to evaluate the interaction of TREG lymphocytes and NK cells with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Tanya N; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Duarte, Raquel; Candy, Geoffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture approaches to investigate breast tumour progression are yielding information more reminiscent of the in vivo microenvironment. We have established a 3D Matrigel system to determine the interactions of luminal phenotype MCF-7 cells and basal phenotype MDA-MB-231 cells with regulatory T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Immune cells were isolated from peripheral blood using magnetic cell sorting and their phenotype validated using flow cytometry both before and after activation with IL-2 and phytohaemagglutinin. Following the establishment of the heterotypic culture system, tumour cells displayed morphologies and cell-cell associations distinct to that observed in 2D monolayer cultures, and associated with tissue remodelling and invasion processes. We found that the level of CCL4 secretion was influenced by breast cancer phenotype and immune stimulation. We further established that for RNA extraction, the use of proteinase K in conjunction with the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and only off-column DNA digestion gave the best RNA yield, purity and integrity. We also investigated the efficacy of the culture system for immunolocalisation of the biomarkers oestrogen receptor-α and the glycoprotein mucin 1 in luminal phenotype breast cancer cells; and epidermal growth factor receptor in basal phenotype breast cancer cells, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax embedded cultures. The expression of these markers was shown to vary under immune mediation. We thus demonstrate the feasibility of using this co-culture system for downstream applications including cytokine analysis, immunolocalisation of tumour biomarkers on serial sections and RNA extraction in accordance with MIQE guidelines.

  6. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

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    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  7. [Computer-assisted histocompatibility assessment in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC)].

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    Schwartz, D; Hajek-Rosenmayr, A

    1987-02-20

    Analysis of the results of mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) for compatibility testing preceding transplantation of bone marrow and other organs has so far required a vast input, both in terms of laboratory staff and work hours. We have developed a computer programme which performs this work rapidly. Graphics of the reaction patterns can be obtained, moreover, and these can prove a helpful tool in interpretation of the results.

  8. Light microscope observation of circulating human lymphocytes cultured in vitro

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    Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the isolation and a light microscopy technique for cultured lymphocytes. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture with an anticoagulant added and centrifuged in a Percoll density gradient to separate the leukocytes. Lymphocytes were placed in 25 cm ³ tissue culture flasks at 37ºC. After culturing, they were fixed and stained with the methods used for blood smears. Results showed that not all fixing solutions and stains were an equally good choice for cultured lymphocytes.Os linfócitos são células importantes do sistema imune e têm sido largamente utilizados em estudos morfológicos. Entretanto, a literatura sobre técnicas de preparação dessas células é escassa e antiga, especialmente para linfócitos cultivados in vitro. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi relatar com detalhes as técnicas de isolamento e microscopia de luz de linfócitos mantidos em cultura. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas por punção venosa e centrifugadas em gradiente de densidade de Percoll, para separar os leucócitos. Os linfócitos foram mantidos em frascos de cultura de 25 cm³ a 37ºC. Após a cultura, as células foram fixadas e coradas de acordo com a metodologia utilizada para esfregaços sanguíneos. Nossos resultados mostraram que nem todos os fixadores e corantes utilizados para esfregaços sanguíneos são uma boa escolha para linfócitos cultivados in vitro.

  9. Assessment of genotoxicity of Lannate-90® and its plant and animal metabolites in human lymphocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct and metabolic genotoxic effects caused by Lannate-90®, a methomyl-based formulation (90 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures using sister chromatid exchange assay (SCE). Two processes were used for the plant promutagens evaluation: in vivo activation, applying the insecticide systemically in plants for 4 h and subsequently adding plant metabolites containing extracts to lymphocyte cultures; and in vitro activation, where the insecticide was incubated with Vicia faba S10 mix plus human lymphocyte culture. Direct treatment with the insecticide significantly increased SCE frequency in human lymphocytes (250-750 mgL-1), with cellular death observed at 1000 mgL-1 concentration. Using the extracts of Vicia faba treated with Lannate-90® to treat human lymphocytes, a dose-response relationship was observed. In lymphocyte cultures treated directly with the insecticide for 2 h, a negative response was obtained. When S10 mix was added, SCE frequency did not change significantly. Meanwhile, a mixture of S9 mammalian metabolic mix and Lannate-90® increased the SCE frequency, with an observed concentration-dependent response. Although Lannate-90® induced cellular death at the highest concentrations, it did not cause a delay in cell proliferation in any of the treatments, confirming its genotoxic action. This study is one of the first to evaluate and compare the direct effect of Lannate-90® in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential.

  10. Analysis of Delphinidin and Luteolin Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocyte Culture

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    Jasmin Ezić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioflavonoids delphinidin (2-(3,4,5-Trihydroxyphenylchromenylium-3,5,7-triol and luteolin (2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromenone have been recognized as promising antioxidants and anticancer substances. Due to their extensive use, the goal of the research was to determine whether they have any genotoxic potential in vitro.Methods: Analysis of genotoxic potential was performed applying chromosome aberrations test in human lymphocyte culture, as this kind of research was not conducted abundantly for these two bioflavonoids. Delphinidin and luteolin were dissolved in DMSO and added to cultures in final concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μM.Results: In human lymphocytes cultures Delphinidin induced PCDs in all treatments, potentially affecting the cell cycle and topoisomerase II activity. In concentration of 50 μM luteolin showed strong genotoxic effects and caused significant reduction of cell proliferation.Conclusion: Luteolin exhibited certain genotoxic and cytostatic potential. Delphinidin was not considered genotoxic, however its impact on mitosis, especially topoisomerase II activity, was revealed.

  11. Influence of a constant magnetic field on human lymphocyte cultures.

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    Ardito, G; Lamberti, L; Bigatti, P; Prono, G

    1984-07-31

    The growing exposure to magnetic fields of a certain intensity could represent a serious hazard for our health. In the present note we analyze the effect of a 740 Gauss magnetic field on human lymphocyte cell cultures. From the analysis of our data it is possible to point out that this field produces an inhibition of the cell growth, while does not affect at all the sister chromatid exchange frequency of the chromosomes. Conversely we found a significant increase of chromosome aberrations in the exposed cells. The chromosome aberrations found were mostly gaps and breaks.

  12. Cytogenetic effects of the herbicide chloridazon in cultured sheep lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviková, K; Dianovský, J

    1997-01-01

    The effect of in vitro exposure to the herbicide chloridazon on the induction of chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was studied in cultured sheep peripheral lymphocytes. A positive clastogenic effect was observed in chloridazon-treated cultures at a dose of 7 x 10(-4) M both in the presence and absence of the S9 fraction, but no significant increase of chromosome breaks was seen at lower doses (7 x 10(-6) M and 7 x 10(-5) M, respectively). A clear dose-dependence and significant differences were found in chloridazon potency to induce SCEs. Induction of cell cycle delays as compared to the controls was not observed.

  13. Protective effects of hesperidin against genotoxicity induced by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in human cultured lymphocyte cells

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    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sjhosseinim@yahoo.com; Ahmadi, Amirhossein [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beiki, Davood [Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Emran [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudzadeh, Aziz [Laboratory of Cytogenetics, Novin Radiation Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Radiopharmaceuticals have been widely used as nuclear tracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of hesperidin as a flavonoid which protects against the genotoxic effects of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in human cultured lymphocytes. Methods: Whole blood samples from human volunteers were incubated with hesperidin at doses of 10, 50 and 100 {mu}mol. After 1 h of incubation, the lymphocytes were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (200 {mu}Ci/2 ml) for 3 h. The lymphocyte cultures were then mitogenically stimulated to allow for evaluation of the number of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: Incubation of lymphocytes with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI at this high dose induces additional genotoxicity and shown by increases in micronuclei frequency in human lymphocytes. Hesperidin at these doses significantly reduced the micronuclei frequency in cultured lymphocytes. The maximum protective effect and greatest decrease in micronuclei frequency occurred when cultures were incubated with a 100-{mu}mol dose of 65% hesperidin. Conclusion: This study has important implications for patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures. The results indicate a protective role for hesperidin against the genetic damage and side effects induced by radiopharmaceutical administration.

  14. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases...... the endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native...

  15. [Genetic regulation of T-lymphocyte responsiveness to PHA is independent of culture conditions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffel, C; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Decreusefond, C; Lambert, F

    1979-01-01

    A maximal interline separation has been obtained after 10 consecutive generations of selective breeding for the character "quantitative in vitro response of lymph node lymphocytes to the mitogenic effect of phytohaemagglutinin". At the selection limit the difference between high and low responder lines was about 20-fold. A similar interline separation has been demonstrated for the T-mitogen effect of concanavalin A. The identical response to PPD (purified protein derivative of tuberculin), a B mitogen, proved that the genetic selection has only modified the potentialities of T lymphocytes. During the selective breeding, responsiveness to PHA stimulation has been always measured under identical culture conditions. To demonstrate that the interline difference in responsiveness was due essentially to genetic factors independent of environmental effects, a systematic study of various culture conditions has been undertaken. The optimal stimulation was found after two days of culture for high line cells and after three days for low line cells. The difference between maximal responses was only slightly lower than that obtained after a two-day culture as used for the selection test. Increase in cell concentrations produced higher thymidine incorporation. In the two lines, a linear correlation was established between the cell concentration and the response produced. The maximal response given by the highest number of low line lymphocytes was equivalent to that given by a number, 11-fold smaller, of high line cells. Within certain limits, changes in the amount of tritiated thymidine added to the culture did not affect the interline separation. With a thymidine of high specific activity, a sub-evaluation of uptake by high line cells decreased the interline difference. Results in mixed culture of lymph node cells from high and low lines indicated that the low response was not due to the release of inhibiting factors or to the presence of suppressive cells in low responder mice

  16. Differential Micronuclei Induction in Human Lymphocyte Cultures by Imidacloprid in the Presence of Potassium Nitrate

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    Polychronis Stivaktakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to pesticides as a consequence of their application in farming or their persistence in a variety of media, including food, water, air, soil, plants, animals, and smoke. The interaction of pesticides with environmental factors may result in the alteration of their physicochemical properties. Square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry (SW-CSV, a technique that simulates electrodynamically the cellular membrane, is used to investigate whether the presence of potassium nitrate (KNO3 in the culture medium interferes with the genotoxic behavior of imidacloprid. The cytokinesis block micronuclei (CBMN method is used to evaluate imidacloprid's genotoxicity in the absence or presence of KNO3 in the culture medium and, as a consequence, its adsorption by lymphocytes. Comparing micronuclei (MN frequencies in control and imidacloprid-treated blood cell cultures, statistically significant differences were not detected. KNO3 did not induce MN frequencies compared to control. Statistically significant differences in MN frequencies were observed when blood cell cultures were treated with imidacloprid in the presence of increasing concentrations of KNO3. SW-CSV revealed that by increasing KNO3 molarity, imidacloprid's concentration in the culture medium decreased in parallel. This finding indicates that imidacloprid is adsorbed by cellular membranes. The present study suggests a novel role of a harmless environmental factor, such as KNO3, on the genotoxic behavior of a pesticide, such as imidacloprid. KNO3 rendered imidacloprid permeable to lymphocytes, resulting in elevated MN frequencies.

  17. Expression of an accessory cell phenotype by hairy cells during lymphocyte colony formation in agar culture.

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    Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; Testa, U; Andre, C; Jouault, H; Reyes, F

    1983-01-01

    Human T lymphocytes require the cooperation of accessory cells to generate lymphocyte colonies in agar culture under PHA stimulation. Various hairy cell enriched fractions, as well as normal monocytes, have been found to be able to initiate colony formation by normal lymphocytes. Leukemic monocytes from CMML patients were also effective, but not the leukemic lymphocytes from CLL patients. The phenotype expressed by HC in agar colonies was further studied using cell surface and enzymatic markers. We have concluded that HC in agar culture in the presence of both normal T lymphocytes and PHA lose the B phenotype that they express in vivo and function like an accessory cell in contrast to normal or leukemic B lymphocytes.

  18. Cultured lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects have altered cAMP signal transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, L E; Diamond, I; Gordon, A.

    1988-01-01

    Previous work has shown that freshly isolated lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects show significantly reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels. This decrease could be due to ethanol-induced cellular adaptation or to a genetic difference in the regulation of cAMP signal transduction. Therefore, we cultured human lymphocytes in defined medium without ethanol for 7-8 days and then examined differences in receptor-dependent cAMP accumulation between lymphocytes from alcoholic an...

  19. Post-thaw non-cultured and post-thaw cultured equine cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells equally suppress lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

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    Lynn B Williams

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are receiving increased attention for their non-progenitor immunomodulatory potential. Cryopreservation is commonly used for long-term storage of MSC. Post-thaw MSC proliferation is associated with a lag-phase in vitro. How this lag-phase affect MSC immunomodulatory properties is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro there is no difference in lymphocyte suppression potential between quick-thawed cryopreserved equine cord blood (CB MSC immediately included in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and same MSC allowed post-thaw culture time prior to inclusion in MLR. Cryopreserved CB-MSC from five unrelated foals were compared using two-way MLR. For each of the five unrelated MSC cultures, paired MLR assays of MSC allowed five days of post-thaw culture and MSC included in MLR assay immediately post-thawing were evaluated. We report no difference in the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by CB-MSC that had undergone post-thaw culture and MSC not cultured post-thaw (p<0.0001. Also, there was no inter-donor variability between the lymphocyte suppressive properties of MSC harvested from the five different donors (p = 0.13. These findings suggest that cryopreserved CB-MSC may have clinical utility immediately upon thawing. One implication hereof is the possibility of using cryopreserved CB-MSC at third party locations without the need for cell culture equipment or competencies.

  20. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Riqin; ZHANG Peijun; LI Jun; XU Yongli

    2005-01-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood,spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-1ike factor in the supematant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes (P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74± 0.67%.

  1. Addition of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte culture for selecting related donors for bone marrow transplantation

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    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mixed lymphocyte culturing has led to conflicting opinions regarding the selection of donors for bone marrow transplantation. The association between a positive mixed lymphocyte culture and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is unclear. The use of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte cultures could be an alternative for increasing the sensitivity of culture tests. OBJECTIVE: To increase the sensitivity of mixed lymphocyte cultures between donor and recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA identical siblings, using exogenous cytokines, in order to predict post-transplantation GVHD and/or rejection. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen patients with hematological malignancies and their respective donors selected for bone marrow transplantation procedures. PROCEDURES: Standard and modified mixed lymphocyte culturing by cytokine supplementation was carried out using donor and recipient cells typed for HLA. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Autologous and allogenic responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures after the addition of IL-4 or IL-2. RESULTS: In comparison with the standard method, average responses in the modified mixed lymphocyte cultures increased by a factor of 2.0 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 6.4 using IL-2 (p < 0.001, for autologous donor culture responses. For donor-versus-recipient culture responses, the increase was by a factor of 1.9 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 4.1 using IL-2 (p < 0.001. For donor-versus-unrelated culture responses, no significant increase was observed using IL-4, and a mean response inhibition of 20% was observed using IL-2 (p < 0.001. Neither of the cytokines produced a significant difference in the unrelated control versus recipient cell responses. CONCLUSION: IL-4 supplementation was the best for increasing the mixed lymphocyte culture sensitivity. However, IL-4 also increased autologous responses, albeit less

  2. Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rates in cultured lymphocytes of head and neck cancer patients.

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    George, Alex; Dey, Rupraj; Bhuria, Vikas; Banerjee, Shouvik; Ethirajan, Sivakumar; Siluvaimuthu, Ashok; Saraswathy, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNC) are extremely complex disease types and it is likely that chromosomal instability is involved in the genetic mechanisms of its genesis. However, there is little information regarding the background levels of chromosome instability in these patients. In this pilot study, we examined spontaneous chromosome instability in short-term lymphocyte cultures (72 hours) from 72 study subjects - 36 newly diagnosed HNC squamous cell carcinoma patients and 36 healthy ethnic controls. We estimated chromosome instability (CIN) using chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and nuclear level anomalies using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMN Cyt Assay). The proliferation rates in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were assessed by calculating the Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI). Our results showed a significantly higher mean level of spontaneous chromosome type aberrations (CSAs), chromatid type aberration (CTAs) dicentric chromosomes (DIC) and chromosome aneuploidy (CANEUP) in patients (CSAs, 0.0294±0.0038; CTAs, 0.0925±0.0060; DICs, 0.0213±0.0028; and CANEUPs, 0.0308±0.0035) compared to controls (CSAs, 0.0005±0.0003; CTAs, 0.0058±0.0015; DICs, 0.0005±0.0003; and CANEUPs, 0.0052±0.0013) where pnuclear anomalies showed significantly higher mean level of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) among cases (MNi, 0.01867±0.00108; NPBs, 0.01561±0.00234; NBUDs, 0.00658±0.00068) compared with controls (MNi, 0.00027±0.00009; NPBs, 0.00002±0.00002; NBUDs, 0.00011±0.00007).The evaluation of CBPI supported genomic instability in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showing a significantly lower proliferation rate in HNC patients (1.525±0.005552) compared to healthy subjects (1.686±0.009520 ) (pproliferation in the cultured peripheral lymphocytes of solid tumors could be biomarkers to predict malignancy in early stages.

  3. Dioxidine-induced changes in genome-wide DNA methylation in a culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

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    Smirnikhina, S A; Voronina, E S; Lavrov, A V; Bochkov, N P

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of dioxidine on genome-wide methylation in short-term cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from healthy donors. Methylation was evaluated in lymphocytes before culturing, after 25 h in culture, and 1 h after addition of dioxidine in two concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml). The total time in culture was 25 h. The level of methylation was assessed using methyl-sensitive single-cell gel electrophoresis ("comet assay") with additional restriction with HpaII amd MspI. Significant individual differences were found in the levels of methylation in both native cells and in cells treated with dioxidine in both concentrations. Mean group indicators of methylation did not differ before culturing and after 25 h in culture (45.28 and 44.80%, respectively). The mean group rate of methylation increased to 46.14% (p<0.001) after dioxidine treatment in a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml. Dioxidine in 0.1 mg/ml reduced the level of methylation (mean group rate 42.31%; p<0.001).

  4. Use of lymphocyte cultures for BrdU replication banding patterns in anuran species (Amphibia

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    Kasahara Sanae

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the standardization of lymphocyte culture procedures in order to improve cytological preparations of anuran species. This methodology permits the use of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU treatment to obtain replication banding patterns in the chromosomes of these species.

  5. Flow microfluorometric DNA content measurements of tissue culture cells and peripheral lymphocytes

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    Cram, L.S. (Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM); Lehman, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The difference in DNA content of peripheral lymphocytes from normal males, normal females, and an individual with a 48 (xxxy) chromosome constitution was determined by rapid flow microfluorometric techniques. A similar comparison was performed using tissue culture fibroblasts derived from an individual with a 49 (xxxxy) chromosome constitution and WI-38 cells as a normal control. Less than 60 min were required to isolate the lymphocytes, to stain the cells fluorescently, and to measure the increased DNA content. The measured increase in DNA content is consistent with chromosome DNA analyses and chromosome length measurements.

  6. Induction of DNA repair synthesis by ultraviolet radiation and methylmethanesulphonate in cultured mouse lymphocytes

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    Bianchi, V.; Zantedeschi, A.; Levis, A.G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata); Ronchese, F. (Inst. of Pathological Anatomy, Padua (Italy))

    1983-02-01

    The induction of DNA repair synthesis by UV-radiation and methylmethanesulphonate (MMS) was studied in mouse lymphocytes and leukemic cells by means of autoradiography and scintillation counting, after labelling in vitro with tritiated thymidine ((/sup 3/H)dThd). Repair stimulation was detected by both procedures in LSTRA AND YC8 leukemic cell lines as well as in primary fibroblasts of BALB/c and BALB/Mo mice. No stimulation was observed in primary cultures of lymphocytes from the spleen, thymus and lymph-nodes of the same mice. In primary lymphocytes neither stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) nor pre-incubation with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) were effective in making evident DNA repair. The data put into question the reliability of the repair test for the prediction of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

  7. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  8. Anti-HIV-1 activity of propolis in CD4(+) lymphocyte and microglial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekker, Genya; Hu, Shuxian; Spivak, Marla; Lokensgard, James R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2005-11-14

    An urgent need for additional agents to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection led us to assess the anti-HIV-1 activity of the natural product propolis in CD4(+) lymphocytes and microglial cell cultures. Propolis inhibited viral expression in a concentration-dependent manner (maximal suppression of 85 and 98% was observed at 66.6 microg/ml propolis in CD4(+) and microglial cell cultures, respectively). Similar anti-HIV-1 activity was observed with propolis samples from several geographic regions. The mechanism of propolis antiviral property in CD4(+) lymphocytes appeared to involve, in part, inhibition of viral entry. While propolis had an additive antiviral effect on the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine, it had no noticeable effect on the protease inhibitor indinavir. The results of this in vitro study support the need for clinical trials of propolis or one or more of its components in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  9. Evaluation of lymphocyte subgroups in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Oner, A F; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be fully elucidated, although it follows infection with a hypermutant defective M-protein measles virus. This study analysed peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups to determine their role in the pathophysiology of SSPE. It included 22 children with SSPE aged 2 - 15 years (patient group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy children (control group). In children or= 6 years old, there were no significant differences in the lymphocyte subgroups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a low CD4(+) lymphocyte count might be responsible for SSPE in younger children.

  10. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods:Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results: The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein,β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions:The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects.

  11. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  12. "Cultural Paranoia" and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsnafszky, Jane; Hendel, Darwin D.

    The present report describes the results of an evaluation study of the first course in the new Women's Studies program at the University of Minnesota and the resistance of the teaching assistants for the course to the evaluation. A hypothesis to explain this resistance is that an outside evaluator may face inherent difficulties in evaluating new…

  13. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract on cultured human lymphocytes using the chromosome aberration and Comet assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Leite-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fucales, Fucaceae was screened for its protective activity using doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. In this study, we assessed the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of three different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL-1 of F. vesiculosus aqueous extract using the chromosome aberration and Comet assays. Treatment of human lymphocyte cultures with 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL-1 F. vesiculosus aqueous extract had no effect on the chromosome aberration frequency or on the extent of DNA damage detected by the Comet assay. The antigenotoxic effects of the extract were tested in human lymphocyte cultures treated with 15 µg mL-1 of doxorubicin, either alone or combined with the different concentrations of the extract, which was added to the cultures before, simultaneously with or after the doxorubicin. Only when lymphocytes were pre-treated with extract there was a reduction in doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and DNA damage as detected by the Comet assay. These results demonstrate that F. vesiculosus aqueous extract is not genotoxic in cultured human lymphocytes and indicate that when added to lymphocyte cultures before doxorubicin it has antigenotoxic activity against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage.

  14. Anti-oxidative and anti-genotoxic effects of methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium on human lymphocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpsoy, Lokman; Sahin, Hilal; Karaman, Seyda

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium from Erzurum, Turkey, was used in order to report the results of anti-oxidant capacity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-genotoxic effects. The total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were measured by using CUPRAC, ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content was higher than the total antioxidant capacity (for the results of both the CUPRAC and ABTS methods) of methanolic extract of M pulegium (ME). Also, we evaluated the anti-oxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutation peroxidase, total glutation (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in human lymphocyte culture. In CCl₄-treated group, the activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and GSH decreased significantly and the level of MDA increased significantly. A significant increase in the activity of SOD, GPx and the level of GSH were seen when supplemented with ME to CCl₄-treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the level of MDA was observed when compared with CCl₄ alone treated group. In addition, anti-genotoxic effect of ME was studied by using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method. As a result, ME has shown anti-genotoxic effect depend on anti-oxidative effect on human lymphocyte culture.

  15. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  16. T Lymphocyte Activation Threshold and Membrane Reorganization Perturbations in Unique Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative activation thresholds and cellular membrane reorganization are mechanisms by which resting T cells modulate their response to activating stimuli. Here we demonstrate perturbations of these cellular processes in a unique culture system that non-invasively inhibits T lymphocyte activation. During clinorotation, the T cell activation threshold is increased 5-fold. This increased threshold involves a mechanism independent of TCR triggering. Recruitment of lipid rafts to the activation site is impaired during clinorotation but does occur with increased stimulation. This study describes a situation in which an individual cell senses a change in its physical environment and alters its cell biological behavior.

  17. Evaluation of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocyte response time kinetics in patients with chronic Chagas disease after in vitro stimulation with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Carvalho de Moura Braz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes have been implicated in the regulation of host inflammatory response against Trypanosoma cruzi, and may be involved in the clinical course of the disease. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic Chagas disease were cultured in the presence of T. cruzi recombinant antigens and assayed for lymphocytes at distinct time points. Results It was possible to differentiate clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease at days 3 and 5 according to presence of CD4+CD25+ T cells in cell cultures. Conclusions Longer periods of cell culture proved to be potentially valuable for prospective evaluations of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes in patients with chronic Chagas disease.

  18. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences’ helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users’ cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  19. Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paula H; Nascimento, José S; Rocha, Beatriz H G; Piana, Clause F B; Santos, Raquel A; Takahashi, Catarina S

    2013-02-01

    The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes.

  20. Genotoxic effects of the carbamate insecticide Pirimor-50® in Vicia faba root tip meristems and human lymphocyte culture after direct application and treatment with its metabolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Milić, Mirta; Olivares, José Luis Gómez; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of Pirimor-50®, a pirimicarb-based formulation (50 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures and Vicia faba root meristems. Furthermore, the objective was to examine a combined influence of insecticide treatment with mammalian microsomal S9 and vegetal S10 metabolic fractions or S10 mix metabolic transformation extracts (after Vicia faba primary roots treatment with Pirimor-50®). We used sister chromatid exchange assay-SCE and measured cell cycle progression and proliferation (proportion of M1-M3 metaphases and replication index ratio-RI). Two processes were used for plant promutagen activation: in vivo activation-Pirimor-50® was applied for 4 h to the plant and then S10 mix was added to lymphocytes; and, in vitro activation-lymphocytes were treated with Pirimor-50® and S10 or S9 for 2 h. Direct treatment induced significantly higher SCE frequencies in meristems at 0.01 mg mL-1. In lymphocytes, significantly higher SCE was at 1 mg mL-1 with decrease in RI and M1-M3 metaphase proportions at 0.5 mg mL-1 and cell division stop at 2.5 mg mL1. S10 mix lymphocyte treatment showed significantly elevated SCE values at 2-2.5 mg mL-1, with cell death at 3 mg mL-1. Lymphocyte treatment with Pirimor-50® together with S9 or S10 showed slightly elevated SCE frequency but had a significant influence on RI decrease, with lowest values in S9 treatment. Since no data are available on the genotoxicity of Pirimor-50®, this study is one of the first to evaluate and compare its direct effect in two bioassays, animal and vegetal, and also the effect of plant and animal metabolism on its genotoxic potential.

  1. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human lymphocytes with metabolic activation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna Blaszkowska; Wanda Bratkowska; Dobroslawa Lopaczynska; Tomasz Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor (ATI) isolated from gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum was tested in vitro for induction of chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Genotoxicity assessment of purified ATI was carried out on metaphase plates received from peripheral blood lymphocyte macroculture (48 h test of structural chromosome aberrations and 72 h test of SCE) with exogenous metabolic activation. ATI was tested in dose of 25, 50 and 100 μg per ml of culture. Kinetics of cell divisions were determined by the replication index (RI). The mitotic index (MI) was expressed as a number of metaphases per 1000 nuclei analysed. Analysis of chromosome aberrations showed that higher doses of ATI (50 and 100 /ml) significantly increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (mainly of chromatid gaps and breaks) compared to the negative control. All concentrations of ATI caused a statistically significant reduction in the MI and RI. In comparison with the negative control, a significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in all applied doses of ATI. Thus, in the presence of S9 activation, the Ascaris trypsin inhibitor showed potential clastogenic activity and inhibition of the dynamics of lymphocyte divisions.

  2. Evaluation of Atypical Lymphocyte Warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in Outpatient Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueling GUO; Tingbo ZHANG; Maofan WANG

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the atypical lymphocyte warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in outpatient children. [Method] Randomly 280 specimens of outpatient children were selected to analyze atypical lymphocytes with Sysmex XE-4000 and artificial smear microscopy simultaneously. [Result] With artificial smear microscopy as the gold standard, the atypical lymphocyte warnings of Sysmex XE-4000 in outpatient children exhibited a sensitivity of 97.4%, specificity of 69.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 55%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.5%. [Conclusion] Sysmex XE-4000 shows a high sensitivity in atypical lymphocyte warnings, which can reduce the number of blood smears, improve the specificity of microscopy, and decline the labor intensity of inspection personnel. However, there are stil certain false positives to be confirmed by artificial microscopy.

  3. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  4. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  5. Single-Pass, Closed-System Rapid Expansion of Lymphocyte Cultures for Adoptive Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Jacob A.; Thomasian, Armen A.; Smith, Douglas M.; Gorgas, Gayle C.; Wunderlich, John R.; Smith, Franz O.; Hampson, Brian S.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Dudley, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for metastatic melanoma involves the ex vivo expansion and re-infusion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from resected specimens. With an overall objective response rate of fifty-six percent, this T-cell immunotherapy provides an appealing alternative to other therapies, including conventional therapies with lower response rates. However, there are significant regulatory and logistical concerns associated with the ex vivo activation and large scale expansion of these cells. The best current practice uses a rapid expansion protocol (REP) consisting of an ex vivo process that occurs in tissue culture flasks (T-flasks) and gas-permeable bags, utilizes OKT3 (anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody), recombinant human interleukin-2, and irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells to initiate rapid lymphocyte growth. A major limitation to the widespread delivery of therapy to large numbers of melanoma patients is the open system in which a REP is initiated. To address this problem, we have investigated the initiation, expansion and harvest at clinical scale of TIL in a closed-system continuous perfusion bioreactor. Each cell product met all safety criteria for patient treatment and by head-to-head comparison had a similar potency and phenotype as cells grown in control T-flasks and gas-permeable bags. However, the currently available bioreactor cassettes were limited in the total cell numbers that could be generated. This bioreactor may simplify the process of the rapid expansion of TIL under stringent regulatory conditions thereby enabling other institutions to pursue this form of ACT. PMID:19389403

  6. Evaluation of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a measure of distress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Melissa P; Hickman, Debra L

    2014-08-01

    The ability to evaluate distress in laboratory animals is needed in order to ensure that husbandry and experimental procedures do not negatively impact animal welfare. Accurate measurement of acute stress and chronic stress, and distinguishing between stress that is harmful (distress) and stress that does no harm (eustress), can be challenging. Whereas corticosterone concentrations are commonly used to measure stress in laboratory animals, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio has been proposed as a potentially better indicator of chronic stress. Furthermore, an association between such measures of stress and concurrent behavioral indicators of negative welfare is required to determine their accuracy in evaluating distress. The authors compared serum corticosterone concentrations and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios to assess acute or chronic stress in male Sprague Dawley rats. Elevated serum corticosterone concentrations, but not neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios, were associated with acute stress exposure, whereas elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios, but not serum corticosterone concentrations, were associated with chronic stress exposure. Because the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio differences corresponded with a behavioral indicator of distress in chronically stressed rats, it may serve as a valuable tool for the physiological assessment of distress in rats.

  7. Evaluation of radioinduced damage and repair capacity in blood lymphocytes of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Nascimento

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic damage caused by ionizing radiation and repair capacity of blood lymphocytes from 3 breast cancer patients and 3 healthy donors were investigated using the comet assay. The comets were analyzed by two parameters: comet tail length and visual classification. Blood samples from the donors were irradiated in vitro with a 60Co source at a dose rate of 0.722 Gy/min, with a dose range of 0.2 to 4.0 Gy and analyzed immediately after the procedure and 3 and 24 h later. The basal level of damage and the radioinduced damage were higher in lymphocytes from breast cancer patients than in lymphocytes from healthy donors. The radioinduced damage showed that the two groups had a similar response when analyzed immediately after the irradiations. Therefore, while the healthy donors presented a considerable reduction of damage after 3 h, the patients had a higher residual damage even 24 h after exposure. The repair capacity of blood lymphocytes from the patients was slower than that of lymphocytes from healthy donors. The possible influence of age, disease stage and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are discussed. Both parameters adopted proved to be sensitive and reproducible: the dose-response curves for DNA migration can be used not only for the analysis of cellular response but also for monitoring therapeutic interventions. Lymphocytes from the breast cancer patients presented an initial radiosensitivity similar to that of healthy subjects but a deficient repair mechanism made them more vulnerable to the genotoxic action of ionizing radiation. However, since lymphocytes from only 3 patients and 3 normal subjects were analyzed in the present paper, additional donors will be necessary for a more accurate evaluation.

  8. Evaluation of culture techniques and bacterial cultures from uroliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Leigh A; Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Dee L; Ruby, Annette L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Westropp, Jodi L

    2013-03-01

    The association between urolithiasis and growth of bacteria in the urine or urolith has not been recently evaluated in the past 15 years, and the effects of antimicrobial administration on urolith cultures have not been reported. As well, laboratory techniques for urolith cultures have not been critically evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to 1) report bacterial isolates from uroliths and their association with signalment, urolith composition, antimicrobial use, and urine cultures and 2) evaluate laboratory techniques for urolith cultures. For the first objective, a retrospective search of bacterial isolates cultured from uroliths submitted to the laboratory as well as the signalment, urine culture results, and antimicrobial use were recorded. For the second objective, 50 urolith pairs were cultured by washing each urolith either 1or 4 times and culturing the core. Five hundred twenty canine and 168 feline uroliths were reviewed. Struvite-containing uroliths had an increased prevalence of a positive culture compared to nonstruvite-containing uroliths (P culture results and previous antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.41). Eighteen percent of cases with negative urine cultures had positive urolith cultures. There was no significant difference in core culture results whether the urolith was washed 1 or 4 times (P = 0.07). Urolith culture outcome was not always influenced by previous antimicrobial administration, and bacterial culture of a urolith may not yield the same results as those obtained from the urine. The modified protocol, which requires less time and expense for urolith cultures, may be an acceptable alternative.

  9. Culture and Influence in Multisite Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhart, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of multisite evaluation requires careful consideration of cultural context. The author illustrates dimensions of influence and culture with excerpts from four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies and summarizes what influence teaches everyone about culture and what culture teaches everyone about…

  10. DNA repair capacity of cultured human lymphocytes exposed to mutagens measured by the comet assay and array expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Repair of mutagen-induced DNA lesions during transportation, storage and cultivation of lymphocytes may have a significant impact on results obtained in human biomonitoring after occupational and environmental exposure of human populations to genotoxic chemicals. Using the comet assay in combination with the repair inhibitor aphidicolin and array gene expression analysis of 92 DNA repair genes, we investigated the repair of DNA lesions induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrenediolepoxide (BPDE) in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultured human lymphocytes in the time segment before replication. The comet assay indicated fast repair of MMS-induced damage during the first hours of cultivation. In contrast, removal of BPDE-induced lesions was slower and significant amounts of damage seem to persist until S-phase. Gene expression analysis revealed that PHA stimulation had a clear effect on gene regulation in lymphocytes already during the first 18h of cultivation. Under the conditions of this study, genotoxic concentrations of MMS did not induce significant changes in gene expression. In contrast, exposure to BPDE led to altered expression of several genes in a time- and concentration-related manner. Of the significantly up-regulated genes, only two genes (XPA and XPC) were directly related to nucleotide excision repair. Our results suggest that PHA stimulation of human lymphocytes influences the expression of DNA repair genes in human lymphocytes. The effect of induced DNA damage on gene expression is comparatively low and depends on the mutagens used. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes repair induced DNA damage before they start to replicate but the repair activity during the first 18h of cultivation is not affected by changes in the expression of DNA repair genes during this period of time.

  11. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E

    2000-01-01

    Melanoma is generally accepted as being an antigenic tumor capable of eliciting T-cell responses that, however, in most cases are inadequate to control tumor growth. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in melanoma lesions comprise clonotypic T cells, indicating the in situ recognition of melanoma......-associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...

  12. Abnormal humoral immune responses in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, S G; Pahwa, R N; Friedrich, W; O'Reilly, R J; Good, R A

    1982-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating recovery of humoral immunity in vitro after bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute leukemia and severe aplastic anemia. Hemolytic plaque assays were utilized to quantitate pokeweed mitogen-stimulated polyclonal immunoglobulin production and sheep erythrocyte antigen-specific antibody responses in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 39 patients beginning at 1 month, for variable periods up to a maximum of 4 years after marrow transplantation. Three phases were identified: an early period of primary B cell dysfunction with concomitant immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities--i.e., decreased helper and increased suppressor activities; an intermediate phase in which B cell dysfunction could be attributed in large measure to immunoregulatory T cell abnormalities; and a late phase of normal B and T lymphocyte functions. Patients with graft-versus-host disease differed from those without it in that they often did not manifest increased T cell suppressor activity in the early period, and they were noted to have prolonged and profound B and T cell abnormalities in the chronic phase of their disease. In selected patients, simultaneous assessment of ratios of Leu-2 to Leu-3 antigens on T cells by monoclonal antibodies and of immunoregulatory T cell functions revealed a correlation between the two only late in the post-transplant period. These studies provide an insight into the ontogeny of B cell function in the post-transplant period and indicate that in certain situations phenotypic alterations in T cell subsets cannot reliably be used to predict abnormalities in their function in recipients of marrow transplantation. Images PMID:6211673

  13. Viability of lymphocyte culture, at different times after blood collection, for karyotype analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Crubelati Bulla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cytogenetics is the area of genetics that studies chromosomes, including numerical changes, and their relationship to structural imbalances. Among the classical cytogenetics tests, the GTG banding karyotype is the most widely used. The period of culture establishment is a critical step, which can affect the pre-analytical phase of the test.Objective:To evaluate, at different establishment times, culture viability and banding resolution.Material and methods:Collection of 10 ml blood from 10 subjects was carried out for culture analysis. For viability analysis, mitotic index (MI and banding resolution were assessed. Results: The comparative analysis of MI showed significant difference between times. In the assessment of banding resolution, the mean value of the bands was higher at times zero and 24 hour.Discussion:The MI reflects inhibition of cell cycle progression and/or loss of ability to proliferate. When the pair analysis was performed, a difference between zero and 48 hours was observed. The average number of bands analyzed at times zero and 24 hours did not indicate difference in the quantity and quality of the bands when cultures were grown immediately after blood collection or within 24 hours. At the 48th hour after blood collection significant reduction of band resolution was observed.Conclusion:These data highlight the importance of the biological material quality, as viability is lower when the culture is grown after 24 hours, as well as the banding resolution.

  14. DEPTOR-mTOR Signaling Is Critical for Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation Homeostasis of Lymphocytes in Human PBMC Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-bing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues causes autoimmune diseases, such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Irregular lipid metabolism and inflammation may be a significant cause of autoimmune diseases. Although much progress has been made, mechanisms of initiation and proceeding of metabolic and inflammatory regulation in autoimmune disease have not been well-defined. And novel markers for the detection and therapy of autoimmune disease are urgent. mTOR signaling is a central regulator of extracellular metabolic and inflammatory processes, while DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR is a natural inhibitor of mTOR. Here, we report that overexpression of DEPTOR reduces mTORC1 activity in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Combination of DEPTOR overexpression and mTORC2/AKT inhibitors effectively inhibits lipogenesis and inflammation in lymphocytes of PBMC culture. Moreover, DEPTOR knockdown activates mTORC1 and increases lipogenesis and inflammations. Our findings provide a deep insight into the relationship between lipid metabolism and inflammations via DEPTOR-mTOR pathway and imply that DEPTOR-mTOR in lymphocytes of PBMC culture has the potential to be as biomarkers for the detection and therapies of autoimmune diseases.

  15. DEPTOR-mTOR Signaling Is Critical for Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation Homeostasis of Lymphocytes in Human PBMC Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Yang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues causes autoimmune diseases, such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Irregular lipid metabolism and inflammation may be a significant cause of autoimmune diseases. Although much progress has been made, mechanisms of initiation and proceeding of metabolic and inflammatory regulation in autoimmune disease have not been well-defined. And novel markers for the detection and therapy of autoimmune disease are urgent. mTOR signaling is a central regulator of extracellular metabolic and inflammatory processes, while DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is a natural inhibitor of mTOR. Here, we report that overexpression of DEPTOR reduces mTORC1 activity in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Combination of DEPTOR overexpression and mTORC2/AKT inhibitors effectively inhibits lipogenesis and inflammation in lymphocytes of PBMC culture. Moreover, DEPTOR knockdown activates mTORC1 and increases lipogenesis and inflammations. Our findings provide a deep insight into the relationship between lipid metabolism and inflammations via DEPTOR-mTOR pathway and imply that DEPTOR-mTOR in lymphocytes of PBMC culture has the potential to be as biomarkers for the detection and therapies of autoimmune diseases. PMID:28349073

  16. Radiation-induced chromosomal hot spots at G 1 and G 2 stages of human lymphocytes in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced chromosomal break points in cultured lymphocytes of normal healthy individuals as well as of those with certain genetic disorders are reported to be localized at certain specific loci (hot spots. These reports are based on studies carried out in lymphocytes irradiated at G 1 stage. The present study examines whether the location of hot spots and the frequency seen in cells irradiated at G 1 are similar to those irradiated at G 2 stage of the cell cycle and also tests whether cells of patients exhibit hot spots on irradiation.The results showed that the radiation induced chromosomal break points to be similar in those irradiated are G 1 and G 2 stages of the cell cycle and also that cells of patients exhibited chromosomal hot spots.

  17. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection in patients with leg lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Uchisako, Hiroji; Yoneshiro, Shu; Fujita, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Takafumi; Esato, Kensuke (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    Three patients with chronic leg lymphedema were treated by intra-arterial lymphocyte injection and the effect was evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy using intradermal injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA. In all of the patients, the followed-up lymphoscintigraphy showed disappearance of the abnormalities of dermal back flow and/or collateral pathways observed before treatment and these findings were thought to indicate reduced load of dermal lymphatics induced by the treatment. These results indicated the usefulness of imaging with intradermal injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HSA for assessing the effect of treatment with intra-arterial lymphocyte injection. In addition, in two patients of them, analysis of lymph flow after treatment was underwent by time-activity curves obtained by lymphoscintigraphy using a load produced by standing. We also described the significance of the load test with standing. (author).

  18. Effects of age on segregation of the X and Y chromosomes in cultured lymphocytes from Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yaxian; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Ding; Shi, Qinghua

    2009-08-01

    Chromosome malsegregation in binucleated lymphocytes is a useful endpoint to evaluate age effect on genetic stability. However, the investigations on chromosome malsegregation in binucleated lymphocytes from Chinese are scarce. In this study, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from 14 old (60-70 years) and 10 young (22-26 years) healthy Chinese men. To detect malsegregation of the sex chromosomes, multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on binucleated lymphocytes, cytokinesis-blocked by cytochalasin B at the first mitosis after phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. Compared with that in young men, a significant increase in frequencies of loss of chromosome X (9.2 +/- 3.2 per thousand vs. 1.1 +/- 0.9 per thousand, P men. Similarly, nondisjunction of chromosome X (16.5 +/- 3.4 per thousand vs. 3.5 +/- 1.1 per thousand, P men than in young men. Regardless of donor's age, nondisjunction is more prevalent than loss for both chromosome X and Y. The frequencies of observed simultaneous malsegregation were relatively higher than the expected, suggesting an association between malsegregation. These results indicated that in Chinese men, malsegregation of the sex chromosomes increases with age in an associated fashion, and nondisjunction accounts for the majority of spontaneous chromosome malsegregation.

  19. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of copper oxychloride in cultured human lymphocytes using cytogenetic and molecular tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Suleyman; Genc, Ahmet; Buyukleyla, Mehmet; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup

    2016-10-01

    The genotoxicity of copper oxychloride was investigated in human lymphocytes using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests and the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction technique. The lymphocytes were treated with 3, 6, and 12 µg/mL of copper oxychloride for 24 and 48 h. Copper oxychloride increased CA and abnormal cells in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN and micronucleated binuclear cells also increased at all concentrations and treatment periods. However, copper oxychloride cytotoxicity, observed through lower mitotic and nuclear division index, was significantly lower only at the higher concentrations (6 and 12 µg/mL). Copper oxychloride increased the polymorphic bands and decreased genomic template stability. In conclusion, in this study it was confirmed that copper oxychloride has genotoxic potential for human lymphocytes in vitro. Additionally, caution is advised for its use as a fungicide, because it may increase the risk of exposure through the food chain.

  20. In vivo synergistic cytogenetic effects of aminophylline on lymphocyte cultures from patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonaki, Effie; Manika, Katerina [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Zarogoulidis, Paul, E-mail: pzarog@hotmail.com [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Domvri, Kalliopi; Voutsas, Vasilis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Mourelatos, Dionysios [Biology and Genetics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► SCEs in vivo, a possible predictor of tumor chemoresponse. ► In vivo exposure to combined treatment, applying the SCE assay. ► Aminophylline enhances DNA instability induced by chemotherapy in vivo. ► In vivo synergistic effect of Aminophylline with the chemotherapeutic agents. - Abstract: Background: The anti-cancer and cytogenetic effects of aminophylline (AM) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo cytogenetic effects of AM in newly diagnosed patients with small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), receiving chemotherapy for the first time. Methods: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from six patients with SCLC and six patients with NSCLC after the in vitro addition of AM and after the in vivo administration of AM in patients receiving chemotherapy. Results: The in vitro addition of AM significantly increased SCEs only in SCLC patients (p < 0.001). The in vivo administration of AM after chemotherapy increased SCEs in both cancer types (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.003) and this increase was synergistic, the rates of SCEs in the presence of AM were higher than the expected SCE values if the increases above background for chemotherapy and AM were independent and additive (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.008). Although in both groups of patients cell division delays were observed after the combined chemotherapy plus in vivo AM treatment, the correlation between the magnitude of the SCE response and the PRI depression was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These observations suggest that AM enhances the results of concurrently administered chemotherapy by synergistically increasing its cytogenetic effects in patients with lung cancer.

  1. UV-induced chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and cell survival in cultured lymphocytes from malnourished children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.B.; Rahiman, M.A.; Tulpule, P.G.

    1982-08-01

    Cultured lymphocytes from children with kwashiorkor and from normal children were examined for their susceptibility to ultraviolet (UV)-induced chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges and cell survival. Cells from kwashiorkor exhibited increased chromosome aberrations, but not sister-chromatid exchanges, when exposed to higher doses of UV. Furthermore, when cells from these patients were exposed to higher doses of UV, there was a significant reduction in viability. These results indicate that, as compared to normals, cells from kwashiorkor were more sensitive to the lethal effects of UV.

  2. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the whole protein extract from Bar-transgenic rice on Mus musculus lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X B

    2017-01-23

    With the expanding demand for genetically modified (GM) rice, its safety evaluation is of great significance. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the acute cytotoxicity of the whole protein extract from GM rice Bar68-1 in Mus musculus lymphocytes in vitro. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) tests. CCK-8 tests was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cell dehydrogenase (catalytic redox enzymes) activity was spectrophotometrically determined at 450 nm. The tests result were recorded immediately. NRU tests were completed under yellow light in a dark room according to an improved protocol. Lysosomal uptake of neutral red was spectrophotometrically determined at 540 nm and the results were recorded immediately. The results showed that the survival rate of M. musculus lymphocytes in the positive control group was significantly less than in the blank control group (P tests. There was no significant difference in survival rate between GM rice Bar68-1group and non-GM rice D68 group (P > 0.05). The GM rice Bar68-1 group also did not show a higher survival rate than non-GM rice D68 group (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the whole protein extract from Bar68-1 and D68 were equivalent in their cytotoxicity, and GM rice Bar68-1 had no acute cytotoxic effect on M. musculus lymphocytes in vitro.

  3. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; C Mogensen, Søren; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    -chain studies by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that all T lymphocytes had access to the skin compartment. Single-stranded conformational analysis showed clonally expanded T cells numbering between 40 and 60 clones. After approximately 2 months of growth, the mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio...

  4. Vitamin D and inflammation: evaluation with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Adem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Akbas, Nergis; Askin, Seda; Polat, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Association of vitamin D, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, beside the classic bone metabolism disorders, may explain the pathogenesis of numerous diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency. While large numbers of reports support the relationship of vitamin D with inflammation, several reports fail to confirm this relationship. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are novel and inexpensive markers of inflammation that can be studied in all centers. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and inflammation with the novel inflammatory markers NLR and PLR. Material and methods This study was performed retrospectively. Results of the simultaneously performed 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine level measurements and complete blood count were recorded. The data of 4120 patients were included in the study. Results Between vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups there were significant differences in PLR (p < 0.001) and NLR (p = 0.001). Vitamin D had a significant negative correlation with PLR (p < 0.001) and NLR (p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that 25(OH)D was independently and negatively correlated with PLR (OR = 0.994, 95% CI 0.991–0.998, p = 0.02). Conclusions Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and NLR were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels, and PLR was found to be an independent predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Our study revealed an inverse association of vitamin D levels and inflammation with these inexpensive and universally available markers. PMID:27478451

  5. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Thomas, Philip-Aloysius; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-12-29

    Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid, plays a major role in modulating the immune response. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of astaxanthin on cytokine production in primary cultured lymphocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct administration of astaxanthin (70-300 nM) did not produce cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/ mL)- or concanavalin A (Con A, 10 µg/ mL)-activated lymphocytes, whereas astaxanthin alone at 300 nM induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes (p astaxanthin, alone or with Con A, had no apparent effect on interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin (IL-2) production in primary cultured lymphocytes, it enhanced LPS-induced INF-γ production. In an ex vivo experiment, oral administration of astaxanthin (0.28, 1.4 and 7 mg/kg/day) for 14 days did not cause alterations in the body or spleen weights of mice and also was not toxic to lymphocyte cells derived from the mice. Moreover, treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo but not Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that administration of astaxanthin significantly enhanced INF-γ production in response to both LPS and Con A stimulation, whereas IL-2 production increased only in response to Con A stimulation. Also, astaxanthin treatment alone significantly increased IL-2 production in lymphocytes derived from mice, but did not significantly change production of INF-γ. These findings suggest that astaxanthin modulates lymphocytic immune responses in vitro, and that it partly exerts its ex vivo immunomodulatory effects by increasing INF-γ and IL-2 production without inducing cytotoxicity.

  6. An alternative approach to studying the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in cultured human lymphocytes: combining electrochemistry and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branica, Gina; Mladinić, Marin; Omanović, Dario; Želježić, Davor

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle use has increased radically raising concern about possible adverse effects in humans. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most common nanomaterials in consumer and medical products. Several studies indicate problems with their safe use. The aim of our study was to see at which levels ZnO NPs start to produce adverse cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as an early attempt toward establishing safety limits for ZnO NP exposure in humans. We assessed the genotoxic effects of low ZnO NP concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μg mL-1) in lymphocyte cultures over 14 days of exposure. We also tested whether low and high-density lymphocytes differed in their ability to accumulate ZnO NPs in these experimental conditions. Primary DNA damage (measured with the alkaline comet assay) increased with nanoparticle concentration in unseparated and high density lymphocytes. The same happened with the fragmentation of TP53 (measured with the comet-FISH). Nanoparticle accumulation was significant only with the two highest concentrations, regardless of lymphocyte density. High-density lymphocytes had significantly more intracellular Zn2+ than light-density ones. Our results suggest that exposure to ZnO NPs in concentrations above 5 μg mL-1 increases cytogenetic damage and intracellular Zn2+ levels in lymphocytes.

  7. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the DNA damaging effects of amitraz on human lymphocytes in the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Milena; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Djelic, Ninoslav; Lakic, Nada; Knezevic-Vukcevic, Jelena; Vukovic-Gacic, Branka; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-03-01

    Amitraz is formamidine pesticide widely used as insecticide and acaricide. In veterinary medicine, amitraz has important uses against ticks, mites and lice on animals. Also, amitraz is used in apiculture to control Varroa destructor. It this study, the alkaline Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damaging effects of amitraz in human lymphocytes. Isolated human lymphocytes were incubated with varying concentrations of amitraz (0.035, 0.35, 3.5, 35 and 350 mu g/mL). The Comet assay demonstrated that all concentrations of amitraz caused statistically significant increase in the level of DNA damage, thus indicating that amitraz possesses genotoxic potential. The concentration of amitraz that produced the highest DNA damage (3.5 mu g/mL) was chosen for further analysis with the antioxidant catalase. The obtained results showed that co-treatment with antioxidant catalase (100 IU/mL or 500 IU/mL) significantly reduced the level of DNA damage, indicating the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species in DNA damaging effects of amitraz. Flow cytometric analysis revealed increase of the apoptotic index following treatment with amitraz. However, co-treatment with catalase reduced the apoptotic index, while treatment with catalase alone reduced the percentage of apoptotoc cells even in comparison with the negative control. Therefore, catalase had protective effects against ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis.

  9. Evaluation of the DNA damaging effects of amitraz on human lymphocytes in the Comet assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Milena Radakovic; Jevrosima Stevanovic; Ninoslav Djelic; Nada Lakic; Jelena Knezevic-Vukcevic; Branka Vukovic-Gacic; Zoran Stanimirovic

    2013-03-01

    Amitraz is formamidine pesticide widely used as insecticide and acaricide. In veterinary medicine, amitraz has important uses against ticks, mites and lice on animals. Also, amitraz is used in apiculture to control Varroa destructor. It this study, the alkaline Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damaging effects of amitraz in human lymphocytes. Isolated human lymphocytes were incubated with varying concentrations of amitraz (0.035, 0.35, 3.5, 35 and 350 g/mL). The Comet assay demonstrated that all concentrations of amitraz caused statistically significant increase in the level of DNA damage, thus indicating that amitraz possesses genotoxic potential. The concentration of amitraz that produced the highest DNA damage (3.5 g/mL) was chosen for further analysis with the antioxidant catalase. The obtained results showed that co-treatment with antioxidant catalase (100 IU/mL or 500 IU/mL) significantly reduced the level of DNA damage, indicating the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species in DNA damaging effects of amitraz. Flow cytometric analysis revealed increase of the apoptotic index following treatment with amitraz. However, co-treatment with catalase reduced the apoptotic index, while treatment with catalase alone reduced the percentage of apoptotoc cells even in comparison with the negative control. Therefore, catalase had protective effects against ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis.

  10. Evaluative meaning and its cultural significance

    OpenAIRE

    Drazdauskiene, Maria Liudvika

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of traditional descriptive semantics, evaluative meaning is defined as an aspect of affective meaning. By virtue of its general positive and negative evaluation, evaluative meaning finds its place in the compartment of interpersonal meaning in functional linguistics. The concept of evaluative meaning is also in agreement with the categorisation of meaning in contemporary stylistics. Having stated its spread and disagreement with logic, the cultural significance of...

  11. Culturally Responsive Evaluation Meets Systems-Oriented Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Parsons, Beverly A.

    2017-01-01

    The authors of this article each bring a different theoretical background to their evaluation practice. The first author has a background of attention to culturally responsive evaluation (CRE), while the second author has a background of attention to systems theories and their application to evaluation. Both have had their own evolution of…

  12. Chronic Brucellosis Patients Retain Low Frequency of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes Expressing CD25 and CD28 after Escherichia coli LPS Stimulation of PHA-Cultured PBMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Skendros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic brucellosis patients display a defective Th1 response to PHA. We have previously shown that heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA can downregulate the PHA-induced increase of CD4+/CD25+ and CD14+/CD80+ cells of brucellosis patients. In the present study, we investigate the effect of E. coli LPS, as a potent stimulant of monocytes and autologous T-lymphocytes, on the PHA-cultured PBMCs of the same groups of patients. Thirteen acute brucellosis (AB patients, 22 chronic brucellosis (CB patients, 11 “cured” subjects, and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. The percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes as well as CD14+/CD80+ monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry after PBMCs culture with PHA plus E. coli LPS. A significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD28+ T-lymphocytes was observed in CB compared to AB. In HKBA cultures, compared to E. coli LPS-cultures, there was a significant reduction of CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes in all groups and CD14+/CD80+ in patients groups. We suggest that Brucella can modulate host immune response, leading to T-cell anergy and chronic infection.

  13. Inhibitory effect of mycoplasma-released arginase. Activity in mixed-lymphocyte and tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Tscherning, T; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1990-01-01

    Non-fermenting mycoplasma species deplete culture media for arginine through arginase activity linked to their arginine deiminase pathway, resulting in proliferation arrest and cell death in mycoplasma-contaminated cell cultures. The presence of only 2-3 Mycoplasma (M.) arginini-contaminated T...... inhibition can be reversed by addition of excess arginine to the culture medium. Antisera raised against non-fermenting, but not against fermenting, mycoplasma species block the inhibitory effect of MAE. SDS-PAGE separation of MAE disclosed a broad band at 60 kDa which contained arginase activity when...

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by exposure to antineoplastic drugs in lymphocytes of oncology nurses and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Abuelfadl, Arwa A; Sarhan, Naglaa I

    2013-03-01

    The hazards of handling antineoplastic drugs have been raised and discussed in several studies. Introduction of new antineoplastics together with abuse of safety standards have contributed to the exposure risk for personnel who handle these substances. Interactions of antineoplastic drugs with biological structures vary according to the drug(s) and the individual's genetic susceptibility. This study was carried out to evaluate the genome damage induced by exposure to antineoplastic drugs in nurses (n = 20) and pharmacists (n = 18) working in the Oncology Department of Tanta Cancer Center. Thirty subjects matched in age, gender and smoking habit were selected as controls. Both chromosomal aberration analysis and micronucleus assay were used to evaluate genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the study subjects. The numbers of aberrant lymphocytes, as well as chromosomal aberration and micronuclei frequencies, were significantly increased in exposed personnel in comparison to matched controls. Compared with pharmacists, nurses showed notably higher level of chromosome damage. On the other hand, no significant difference in micronuclei frequency was observed between nurses and pharmacists. Correlation analyses pointed to the influence of age and duration of occupational exposure on the level of chromosome damage among exposed subjects. The results of this study confirmed that handling antineoplastic drugs without appropriate precautions imposed a genotoxic risk for exposed healthcare workers. These results address the need for regular biomonitoring of exposed personnel. In addition, they call attention to the need for proper implementation of intervention measures aiming to eliminate or significantly reduce worker exposure and prevent untoward biological effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Role of the MAPK pathway in the observed bystander effect in lymphocytes co-cultured with macrophages irradiated with γ-rays or carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Ren, Ruiping; Xie, Yuexia; Yuan, Dexiao; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Wenjian; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-04-15

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has potential implications in cancer risks from space particle radiation; however, the mechanisms underlying RIBE are unclear. The role of the MAPK pathway in the RIBEs of different linear energy transfer (LET) was investigated. Human macrophage U937 cells were irradiated with γ-rays or carbon ions and then co-cultured with nonirradiated HMy2.CIR (HMy) lymphocytes for different periods. The activation of MAPK proteins and the generation of intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the irradiated U937 cells were measured. Micronuclei (MN) formation in the HMy cells was applied to evaluate the bystander damage. Some U937 cells were pretreated with different MAPK inhibitors before irradiation. Additional MN formation was induced in the HMy cells after co-culturing with irradiated U937 cells, and the yield of this bystander MN formation was dependent on the co-culture period with γ-ray irradiation but remained high after 1h of co-culture with carbon irradiation. Further investigations disclosed that the time response of the RIBEs had a relationship with LET, where ERK played a different role from JNK and p38 in regulating RIBEs by regulating the generation of the bystander signaling factors NO and ROS. The finding that the RIBE of high-LET radiation could persist for a much longer period than that of γ-rays implies that particle radiation during space flight could have a high risk of long-term harmful effects. An appropriate intervention targeting the MAPK pathway may have significant implications in reducing this risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of fungicide formulation Tango(®) Super in bovine lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbacherová, Viera; Wnuk, Maciej; Lewinska, Anna; Potocki, Leszek; Zebrowski, Jacek; Koziorowski, Marek; Holečková, Beáta; Šiviková, Katarína; Dianovský, Ján

    2017-01-01

    Tango(®) Super is a two-compound fungicide formulation widely employed in grain protection. However, details of Tango(®) Super effects on cell cultures have not been fully investigated. In this study, bovine lymphocytes were exposed to a concentration range 0.5; 1.5; 3; 6; and 15 μg mL(-1) for 4 h to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the fungicide. Our experiments revealed that this fungicide treatment reduced cell viability, decreased cell proliferation and provoked apoptotic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed predominant accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The fungicide was able to induce mitochondrial superoxide production accompanied by elevated levels of carbonylated proteins and changes in the lipid membrane composition. The fungicide did not induce micronuclei production, but stimulated both DNA double-strand breaks and the formation of p53 binding protein, which is accumulated during the DNA repair process at the site of double-strand breaks. Based on the obtained data we suppose that the fungicide-induced DNA damage is the result of oxidative stress, which may contribute to higher occurrence of apoptotic cell death. Because ergosterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides are widely used in agriculture to ensure higher crop yields and may cause health impairment of animals and humans, there is a need for further testing to elucidate their potential genotoxic effects using in vivo and/or in vitro systems.

  17. Evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by BAC-based microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Lisa D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a highly variable disease with life expectancies ranging from months to decades. Cytogenetic findings play an integral role in defining the prognostic significance and treatment for individual patients. Results We have evaluated 25 clinical cases from a tertiary cancer center that have an established diagnosis of CLL and for which there was prior cytogenetic and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH data. We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based microarray designed for the detection of known constitutional genetic syndromes. In 15 of the 25 cases, aCGH detected all copy number imbalances identified by prior cytogenetic and/or FISH studies. For the majority of those not detected, the aberrations were present at low levels of mosaicism. Furthermore, for 15 of the 25 cases, additional abnormalities were detected. Four of those cases had deletions that mapped to intervals implicated in inherited predisposition to CLL. For most cases, aCGH was able to detect abnormalities present in as few as 10% of cells. Although changes in ploidy are not easily discernable by aCGH, results for two cases illustrate the detection of additional copy gains and losses present within a mosaic tetraploid cell population. Conclusions Our results illustrate the successful evaluation of CLL using a microarray optimized for the interrogation of inherited disorders and the identification of alterations with possible relevance to CLL susceptibility.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of leg lymphedema by MR imaging. Estimation of therapeutic effect by intra-arterial injection of lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makimoto, Yumi; Harada, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yoshizumi, Masanori; Yoshida, Osamu; Katoh, Itsuo [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain characteristic findings of lymphedema and reactions after intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy by MRI and to evaluate quantitatively effect of intra-arterial lymphocytes injection. Five patients were treated by several intra-arterial lymphocytes injections. We measured T{sub 2} value on edematous tissue using triple echo sequence and shot TI IR (STIR) images to assess the extent of lymphedema. MRI was measured before and after each intra-arterial lymphocytes injection. Mean T{sub 2} and standard deviation (SD) of T{sub 2} distribution were obtained from T{sub 2}-calculated images. Characteristic findings of lymphedema were the thickening of subcutaneous, meshed pattern of fluid, thickening of skin, and fluid on the fascia. After therapy, thickness of subcutaneous tissue and meshed pattern were greatly decreased, but thickening of skin and fluid on the fascia still remained. Mean T{sub 2} and SD of T{sub 2} in edematous tissue were much higher than those of normal tissue. Both of them decreased extremely after therapy on improved cases but did not change on less effective cases. STIR could differentiate water from adipose tissue and clearly indicated the distribution of water. Mean T{sub 2} and SD of T{sub 2} distribution were useful to indicate evaluation of lymphedema and assessment of therapy. (author).

  19. EVALUATING THE CULTURE-LED REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo Francesca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a new approach to urban planning, evaluating the culture-led regeneration processes. In the last few years, the cultural turn in urban planning played a central role in the urban studies. In this way we try to elaborate a more robust perspective interpreting the complex phenomenology emerging from the culture-led regeneration processes. Within the concept of complexity we discuss about the metabolic process that are the processes necessary to transform energy, material and information in goods and service functional to the complex urban system life. The approach that will be employed is the MuSIASEM that is based on several novel concept and an innovative methods never applied in this research field.

  20. The use of FISH-comet to detect c-Myc and TP 53 damage in extended-term lymphocyte cultures treated with terbuthylazine and carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinic, Marin; Zeljezic, Davor; Shaposhnikov, Sergey A; Collins, Andrew R

    2012-05-20

    Terbuthylazine and carbofuran are suspected to cause non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer. We evaluated the effects of prolonged exposure to low concentrations on primary DNA damage by comet assay, and on the structural integrity of c-Myc and TP 53 genes by FISH-comet. Another novelty in studying these pesticides' genotoxicity is the use of 14-day extended-term human lymphocyte cultures. Concentrations corresponded to values of ADI and OEL: for terbuthylazine 0.58 ng/ml and 8 ng/ml; for carbofuran 8 ng/ml and 21.6 ng/ml, respectively. A possible effect of metabolic activation (S9) was also considered. Carbofuran treatment induced a significant migration of DNA into the tail in a concentration-dependent manner, while for terbuthylazine the effect was significant only at the higher concentration. Terbuthylazine caused migration of both c-Myc signals into the comet tail. A significant occurrence of TP 53 signals in the tail was observed at 8 ng/ml. Prolonged carbofuran treatment significantly elevated the migration of a single c-Myc signal into the tail in a concentration-dependent manner. With S9, distribution of signals shifted toward increased presence of both signals in tail. Our results showed impaired structural integrity of c-Myc and TP 53 due to prolonged exposure to terbuthylazine and carbofuran.

  1. In vitro evaluation of genotoxicity of avocado (Persea americana) fruit and leaf extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Paresh; Paul, Rajkumar; Ganesh, N

    2010-07-01

    Persea americana is much sought after both for the nutritional value of its fruit and the medicinal values of its various plant parts. A chromosomal aberration assay was undertaken to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of crude extracts from avocado fruits and leaves. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes exposed to separately increasing concentrations of 50% methanolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves. The groups exposed to leaf and fruit extracts, respectively, showed a concentration-dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations as compared to that in a control group. The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of leaf extract were found respectively to be 58 ± 7.05, 72 ± 6.41, and 78 ± 5.98, which were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 each) than that in the control group (6 ± 3.39). The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of fruit extract were found to be 18 ± 5.49, 40 ± 10.00, and 52 ± 10.20, respectively, which were significantly higher (p = 0.033, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively) than that for control (6 ± 3.39). Acrocentric associations and premature centromeric separation were the two most common abnormalities observed in both the exposed groups. The group exposed to leaf extracts also showed a significant number of a variety of other structural aberrations, including breaks, fragments, dicentrics, terminal deletion, minutes, and Robertsonian translocations. The group exposed to leaf extract showed higher frequency of all types of aberrations at equal concentrations as compared to the group exposed to fruit extract.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Two Globalization Projects on College Students' Cultural Competence and Cultural Intelligence (CQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural competence and CQ involve awareness of cultural similarities and differences, knowledge of differences in cultural values, and intercultural encounters. To assess college students' cultural competence and cultural intelligence gains, this experimental study evaluated the impact of two globalization projects on these two constructs. The…

  3. Role of anti-human lymphocyte culture cytotoxic antibodies in recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss women

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    Shankarkumar Umapathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Recurrent spontaneous pregnancy (RSA is defined as a sequence of three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. One of the major causes of RSA is immunological where alloimmune antibodies develop towards human leucocyte antigen (HLA antigens. Earlier research had suggested that anti-HLA antibodies are produced in normal women; studies have been reported that normal pregnant women develop anti-HLA antibodies, mostly after 20-28 weeks of gestation. Aim : To evaluate the role of anti-HLA antibodies in RSA patients Materials and Methods : A total of 80 randomly selected couples with unexplained three or more RSA and control group of 50 normal pregnant women were screened for anti-HLA A and B antibodies. The anti-HLA antibodies were analyzed following the standard two-stage NIH microlymphocytotoxicity assay. Results : In our study group a high frequency of anti-HLA antibodies among women with RSA (26.25% was detected compared to normal pregnant women (8.0%. Most of the sera showed HLA-A and HLA-B antibodies which had high titer, up to a dilution of 1: 4096. Conclusion : This incidence of high anti-HLA antibodies in RSA women during early weeks of gestation may explain the recurrent pregnancy loss.

  4. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivask, Angela; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kapruwan, Pankaj; Stone, Vicki; Yin, Hong; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles.

  5. Bridging Cultures: Evaluating Teachers' Understanding of Cross-Cultural Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Elise; Greenfield, Patricia; Quiroz, Blanca; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    The Bridging Cultures Project is a collaboration among several researchers and teachers (n=8) to design professional development activities on the topic of cross-cultural understanding. During the fall of 1996, participating teachers will be given a pre-assessment and post-assessment. The assessments are designed to give some information on how…

  6. Proliferative kinetics and chromosome damage in trisomy 21 lymphocyte cultures exposed to gamma-rays and bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, K.; Kaneko, T.; Iijima, K.; Koizumi, A.

    1984-04-01

    Lymphocytes from patients with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) have been investigated for cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation delays, and chromosomal aberrations after exposure to gamma-rays or bleomycin. Analysis by sister chromatid differential staining revealed that trisomy 21 lymphocytes started cell cycling about 5 hr earlier than did normal diploid lymphocytes after phytohemagglutinin stimulation as a whole, but that cycling trisomic and normal cells had the same mean cell cycle times. When exposed to gamma-rays or bleomycin in G0, trisomy 21 lymphocytes showed a 30% or, on average, 50% longer duration of cell turnover times, respectively, than normal cells; only bleomycin-treated trisomic cells had a biphasic dose-response. Frequencies of dicentrics and rings in first-division cells after gamma-ray or bleomycin exposure were twice as high in trisomic cells as in normal cells. The frequency of aberrations decreased by 50% (gamma-ray-exposed) or 65 to 85% (bleomycin-treated) through successive divisions; trisomic cells showed a more marked decline in aberration yields compared to normal cells after bleomycin treatment. These data support the idea that circulating lymphocytes in trisomy 21 patients have a shorter average life span or a younger average age.

  7. An association, in adult Japanese, between the occurrence of rogue cells among cultured lymphocytes (JC virus activity) and the frequency of simple chromosomal damage among the lymphocytes of persons exhibiting these rogue cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J.V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Human Genetics

    1998-08-01

    Data from a previous study of the cytogenetic effects, in cultured lymphocytes, of exposure to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima have been reanalyzed to determine the relationship between the occurrence of rogue cells in an individual and the frequency of simple chromosomal damage in the nonrogue cells of the same individual. Rogue cells are cells with complex chromosomal damage, currently believed to be a manifestation of the activity of a human polyoma virus termed JC. Among a total of 1,835 persons examined, there were 45 exhibiting rogue cells. A total of 179,599 cells were scored for simple chromosomal damage. In both the exposed and the control populations, there was an absolute increase of {approximately}1.5% in the frequency of simple chromosomal damage in the nonrogue cells of those exhibiting rogue cells, when compared with the frequencies observed in those not exhibiting rogue cells, which is a statistically significant difference. It is argued that this phenomenon, occurring not only in lymphocytes but possibly also in other cells/tissues, may play a contributory role in the origin of malignancies characterized by clonal chromosome abnormalities. Unexpectedly, among those exhibiting rogue cells, there was a disproportionately greater representation of persons who had received relatively high radiation exposures from the bomb. The reason for this is unclear, but it is tempting to relate the finding to some lingering effect of the exposure (or the circumstances surrounding the exposure) on immunocompetence.

  8. Evaluation of genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human peripheral lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kubra Kurt; Lale Donbak; Ahmet Kayraldiz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) iinfection, treat by preventing the proliferation of HIV in human body. People with HIV have to use this drugs for lifelong because of inability of the drugs to eradicate the viruses. In this study, we investigated the in vitro genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate one of the antiretroviral drugs, in human peripheral lymphocytes. Material and Methods: The cells were treated with four d...

  9. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  10. A mouse model of cytogenetic analysis to evaluate caesium137 radiation dose exposure and contamination level in lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Martin-Bodiot, Cecile; Gregoire, Eric; Roy, Laurence [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique (PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB), Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Desbree, Aurelie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI, Laboratoire d' Evaluation de la Dose Interne, Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique (PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB), Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In case of external overexposure to ionizing radiation, an estimation of its genotoxic effects on exposed individuals can be made retrospectively by the measurement of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations on circulating lymphocytes. Compared with external irradiation, intakes of radionuclides may, however, lead to specific features influencing dose distribution at the scale of body, of tissue or even of cell. Therefore, in case of internal contamination by radionuclides, experimental studies, particularly using animal models, are required to better understand mechanisms of their genotoxic effects and to better estimate the absorbed dose. The present study was designed to evaluate a cytogenetic method in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes that would allow determination of yields and complexities of chromosome aberrations after low-dose rate exposure to {sup 137}Cs delivered in vitro either by irradiation or by contamination. By using M-FISH analysis, we compared the low-dose rate responses observed in mouse to the high-dose rate responses observed both in mouse and in human. Promising similarities between the two species in the relative biological effect evaluation show that our cytogenetic model established in mouse might be useful to evaluate various radiation exposures, particularly relevant in case of intakes of radionuclides. (orig.)

  11. Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of {sup 111}In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Masanori; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Hori, Takaki; Katoh, Itsuo; Harada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the {sup 111}In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T{sub 2} ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author).

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Lymphocyte subpopulations in a Two‐year Follow‐up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siadat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intractions of the immune system of the immune system, nutrition, and nervous system are one of the main research areas of interest in immunology and disease treatment. Due to changes in the mood, behavior, and diet of an individual during fasting period, the body's internal homeostasis is affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on lymphocyte subgroups, which are the main specific immune cells in the body. For this purpose, in years 1999 and 2000, thirty‐eight healthy Muslims (9 females and 29 males, within the age range of 17 to 51 years (mean age=35.4 years, were assessed before the start and one day before the end of Ramadan. The pre‐Lymphocytic subpopulations analysis was conducted using flow cytometery. The results showed that the percentage of total lymphocytes was 25.82% and 26.23% in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; the observed difference was insignificant. However, the absolute lymphocyte counts were 2.3×103 and 2.1×103 mm3 before and late Ramadan, respectively, and the difference was considered significant (P‐value=0.06. The percentage of CD3+ cells (T cells was 70.12% before Ramadan and 70.25% late Ramadan, and the absolute lymphocyte counts were 1.6×103 and 1.5×103 mm3, respectively; therefore, the differences were not significant. Regarding the subgroups of CD4+cells (TH, the percentage ratios of the cells were 53.46% and 52.8% in the pre‐ and late Ramadan periods, and the absolute counts were 0.087×103 and 0.081×103 mm3, respectively; however, the differences were not significant in this cell subgroup. The percentage of CD8+ (TC cells was 37.7% before Ramadan and 37.8% late Ramadan, and the absolute counts were 0.6×103 and 0.54×103 mm3 in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; therefore, the differences were considered insignificant. In addition, the percentage ratios of Blymphocytes cells were 14.56 % and 14.74% in the pre

  13. The evaluation of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Varsak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a growing consensus in the literature that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is a simple, inexpensive and reliable marker of inflammation. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between first episode psychosis (FEP and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR and to investigate if there is a relation between NLR and severity of disease.Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed 58 FEP patients’ medical records from January 2011 to June 2014 who had been treated at our hospital. Hematologic parameters, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores and demographic data of the patients were obtained from the medical records of 58 FEP patients. Hematologic parameters and NLR values of 58 patients with FEP compared to values of 37 healthy control group. Correlation between NLR and BPRS scores were calculated.Results: Mean NLR was significantly higher in patients compared to control group (2.22 ± 1.25 vs. 1.63 ± 0.38, p = 0.041. Neutrophil count was not different between patients and healthy control (4.03 ± 0.70 vs. 4.20 ± 1.48, p = 0.525, but lymphocyte count was significantly lower in patients (2.56 ± 0.55 vs. 2.19 ± 0.77, p = 0.013.  In the FEP patients, NLR was not significantly correlate with severity of disease (BPRS score (n = 58; r = 0.060, p = 0.655.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NLR levels are increased in physically healthy antipsychotic- naive first episode psychosis patients compared to physically and mentally healthy individuals.

  14. Emphasizing Cultural Competence in Evaluation: A Process-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botcheva, Luba; Shih, Johanna; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process-oriented approach to culturally competent evaluation, focusing on a case study of an evaluation of an HIV/AIDS educational program in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. We suggest that cultural competency in evaluation is not a function of a static set of prescribed steps but is achieved via ongoing reflection, correction, and…

  15. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of Halfenprox using the human peripheral lymphocyte micronucleus assay and the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyıl, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Konuk, Muhsin; Dere, Hatice; Serteser, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Halfenprox, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide, was assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. In the Ames test, Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were treated with or without S9 fraction. The doses of Halfenprox were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/plate and test materials were dissolved in DMSO. The concentrations of Halfenprox did not show mutagenic activity on both strains with and without S9 fraction. The MN assay was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of Halfenprox in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μg/ml concentrations of Halfenprox for 24 and 48 h, and at 1000 μg/ml the concentration was significantly increased and the MN formation was compared with the negative control for both treatment periods. In addition, a significant decrease of the nuclear devision index (NDI) values at the higher concentrations of Halfenprox and at both treatment periods was observed.

  17. Genotoxicity evaluation of drinking water sources in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yulin; CHEN Haigang; LI Zhaoli; SUN Liwei; QU Mengmeng; LI Mei; KONG Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    The potential harm of organic pollutants in drinking water to human health is widely focused on in the world; more and more pollutants with genotoxic substances are released into the aquatic environment. Water source samples were collected from 7 different localities of Nanjing City. The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results showed that all the organic extracts from all the water source samples could induce DNA damages of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at different levels. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed when compared with the solvent control. The DNA damage increased with the increase of the dosage of the original water source. Significant differences of DNA damage were observed in different drinking water sources, as shown by the multiple comparisons analysis at the dosage of 100×; the degree of DNA damage treated by Hushu waterworks (at town level) was the most serious, the arbitrary units (AU) was 141.62±6.96, however, that of Shangyuanmen waterworks (at city level) was only 109.64±2.97. The analysis also revealed that the genotoxicity of town's water sources was higher than that of the city. The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources.

  18. Evaluation of genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human peripheral lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubra Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus iinfection, treat by preventing the proliferation of HIV in human body. People with HIV have to use this drugs for lifelong because of inability of the drugs to eradicate the viruses. In this study, we investigated the in vitro genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate one of the antiretroviral drugs, in human peripheral lymphocytes. Material and Methods: The cells were treated with four different concentrations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for 24 and 48 hours. The levels of sister chromatid exchanges, chromosomal aberrations, and micronucleus in the cells were examined for the genotoxic activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Mitotic index, proliferation index, and nucleer division index of treated cells were also determined for the cytotoxic effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Results: There was no significant differences in the level of sister chromatid exchanges, chromosomal aberrations, and micronucleus in human lyphocytes treated with all concetrations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for all treatment period as compared to control group. Similarly, it was observed that treatment of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate did not affect the mitotic index, proliferation index, and nucleer division index values. Conclusion: As a result, in this study, it is demonstrated that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate did not have genotoxic or cytotoxic effect in the human peripheral lymphocytes. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 229-235

  19. The Use of Culture Portfolio Project in a Korean Culture Classroom: Evaluating Stereotypes and Enhancing Cross-Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a case of designing, implementing, and evaluating a semester-long culture portfolio project in a Korean culture class in an American university setting. The paper addresses the following four issues: (1) How does the project help the students gain insights into a particular aspect of Korean culture and encourage them to…

  20. Indicators to Evaluate Pre-Service Teachers' Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Zhang, Gang

    2009-01-01

    This study identifies and examines multiple indicators to evaluate cultural competence of pre-service teachers in teacher education institutions. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education's concepts of culturally responsive teaching and theory discussions on cultural competence serve as the impetus for the study. The analysis applied…

  1. An evaluation of diagnostic techniques utilized in the initial workup of pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, D J; Leonard, J C; Nitschke, R M; Vanhoutte, J J; Wilson, D A; Basmadjian, G P

    1984-07-01

    The records of 32 pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were reviewed to evaluate the role of various diagnostic techniques used to assess the extent of extramedullary disease. Our findings indicate that adequate screening for hepatosplenomegaly is obtained by clinical assessment and for bone and renal involvement by bone scintigraphy including concomitant renal imaging. We recommend that radiographs be restricted to scintigraphically abnormal areas and/or sites of bone pain. Liver-spleen scintigraphy, gallium studies, intravenous pyelography, and ultrasound studies of the abdomen and pelvis should be utilized only to answer specific clinical questions. Evaluation in this manner reduces both radiation exposure and patient expense, while it adequately defines the extent of disease in these organs.

  2. MiR-181b: new perspective to evaluate disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visone, Rosa; Veronese, Angelo; Balatti, Veronica; Croce, Carlo M

    2012-02-01

    Over the past decades numerous markers of the tumor burden have been discovered in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Among these, the microRNAs seem to have a promising role. The development and validation of miRNAs as biomarkers should have significant impact in improving early cancer detection and diagnosis, enhancing therapeutic success, and increasing the life expectancy of patients. We identified miR-181b as a biomarker for the progression of this disease from indolent to aggressive. For this study we used sequential samples from patients with either progressive or stable course of the illness. Here, we discuss more extensively this issue by adding novel findings and introducing a novel approach for monitoring CLL patients.

  3. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP.

  4. Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as In Vitro Model to Evaluate Genomic Instability Caused by Low Dose Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Shikha; Khan, Kainat; Husain, Nuzhat; Rastogi, Madhup; Mishra, Surendra P; Srivastav, Anoop K

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation. The micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration can indicate genetic damage and our present aim was to establish these with lymphocytes in an in vitro model to predict the immediate effects low dose radiation. Blood was collected from healthy individuals and divided into 6 groups with increasing radiation dose i.e., 0Gy, 0.10Gy, 0.25Gy, 0.50Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy. The samples were irradiated in duplicates using a LINAC in the radiation oncology department. Standard protocols were applied for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. Metaphases were stained in Giemsa and 200 were scored per sample for the detection of dicentric or acentric forms. For micronuclei detection, 200 metaphases. Giemsa stained binucleate cells per sample were analysed for any abnormality. The micronuclei (MN) frequency was increased in cells exposed to the entire range of doses (0.1- 2Gy) delivered. Controls showed minimal MN formation (2.0%±0.05) with triple MN (5.6%±2.0) frequency at the lowest dose. MN formation increased exponentially with the radiation dose thereafter with a maximum at 2Gy. Significantly elevated numbers of dicentric chromosomes were also observed, even at doses of 0.1- 0.5Gy, compared to controls, and acentric chromosomes were apparent at 2Gy. In conclusion we can state that lymphocytes can be effectively used to study direct effect of low dose radiation.

  5. Evaluation of organisational culture and nurse burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jenny; Robertson, Noelle; Winter, Rachel; Leeson, David

    2013-10-01

    A survey of nurses working with older adults across three NHS trusts was conducted to explore how perceptions of the workplace affect nurse wellbeing. Standardised validated measures were used to assess burnout, perceived organisational support and organisational culture. Significant associations were found between innovative organisational culture and nurses' sense of personal accomplishment, which reduce the likelihood of burnout. Multiple regression showed experience of burnout to be predicted by the nature of organisational culture. It seems therefore that nurses' wellbeing may be affected by their perceptions of the working environment. Applications of this knowledge and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes treated with sodium metabisulfite, a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencüzogullari, E; Ila, H B; Kayraldiz, A; Topaktaş, M

    2001-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) which is used as an antimicrobial substance in food, to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes. SMB-induced CAs and SCEs at all concentrations (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) and treatment periods (24 and 48h) dose-dependently. However, SMB decreased the replication index (RI) and the mitotic index (MI) at the concentrations of 150 and 300 microg/ml for 24 and 48h treatment periods. This decrease was dose-dependent as well.

  7. A functional paradigm for evaluating culture: An example with cetaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alison Linda GREGGOR

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman culture was first considered in nonhuman primates because they are genetically similar to humans.However,evolution is not progressive and therefore many species may occupy niches that favor socially transmitted,group specific behavior.Not surprisingly,evidence for culture has accrued in several taxonomic groups,including cetaceans.If culture is an adaptation,it is imperative we understand the factors that favor its formation.Understanding the evolutionary origin of culture will allow for a wider range of species to be studied,including those that are difficult to test in the laboratory.I propose a broad-based functional paradigm for evaluating nonhuman culture; based on the idea that while not all cultural behaviors may garner fitness benefits to the individual,the ecological and social environments in which cultural behaviors evolved must have favored the physical attributes and social learning capabilities that allow for cultural formation.Specifically this framework emphasizes the relationships between social learning,ecology,social systems,and biology in relation to culture.I illustrate the utility of the functional paradigm with evidence from the ceteacean group,while setting the stage for a stringent species by species analysis.By means of contextualizing culture,the Functional Paradigm can evaluate a species' potential to exhibit culture and can investigate potentially cultural behaviors [Current Zoology 58 (2):271-286,2012].

  8. Inhibitory effects of telmisartan on culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. Methods: CD4+ T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-17 in the blood of the healthy control and case control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes were first activated and proliferated in vitro and then incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h under various treatment conditions. Thereafter, changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytic proliferation were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscope photography. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. Results: The IL-6 and IL-17 expression levels were significantly higher in the blood of the hypertensive Kazakh patients than in the healthy Kazakh people. Telmisartan inhibited T-lymphocytic proliferation, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and the inhibitory effects were time-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed after 48 h and significantly weaker inhibition observed after 24 h of treatment. Conclusions: Telmisartan may potentially regulate hypertensive inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-lymphocytic proliferation and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  9. Inhibitory effects of telmisartan on culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Qiu-Bing; Yuan, Qing-Yan; He, Si-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. CD4(+) T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17 in the blood of the healthy control and case control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes were first activated and proliferated in vitro and then incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h under various treatment conditions. Thereafter, changes in CD4(+) T-lymphocytic proliferation were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscope photography. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4(+) T lymphocytes were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. The IL-6 and IL-17 expression levels were significantly higher in the blood of the hypertensive Kazakh patients than in the healthy Kazakh people. Telmisartan inhibited T-lymphocytic proliferation, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and the inhibitory effects were time-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed after 48 h and significantly weaker inhibition observed after 24 h of treatment. Telmisartan may potentially regulate hypertensive inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-lymphocytic proliferation and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Comparison of differences between dicentric assay and translocation analysis for biodosimetry in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Mi Young; Seo, Min Ji; Kwon, Hee Kyung; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil; Ji, Young Hoon; Choi, Soo Yong; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kang, Chang Mo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome aberrations are considered to be important indicators of induced DNA damage and genomic instability. For this reason, they constitute the main parameter used to monitor individuals exposed to radiation. Biological dosimetry using the analysis of dicentrics in human lymphocytes is well established, especially in case of acute exposure, when the blood samples are taken within a few weeks. However, dicentric analysis is not an adequate parameter in case of chronic exposure, because these aberrations are unstable with time, and have a limited use for dose assessment of past exposures. In contrast to dicentrics, however, translocations are considered stable in cell division and so the yield should not fall with time. In the present study, using FISH-chromosome painting analysis with the dose-response curve for chromosome aberrations, we monitored the stable and unstable chromosome aberrations of 2 Korean's periperal blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with {gamma}-rays from {sup 137}Cs (doses between 0.0 and 2.0 Gy). By using the dose-response curve for chromosome aberration, our aim was to estimate the absorbed doses, and then establish comparison with the results obtained by conventional dicentric analysis, thus taking the opportunity to test the validity of chromosome aberration analysis by FISH painting method for retrospective biodosimetry in Korean individual.

  11. Determination of TiO2, ZrO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles on genotoxic responses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured embyronic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Burgucu, Durmuş; Turna, Fatma; Aksakal, Sezgin; Kaya, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this study a genotoxic evaluation of titanium dioxide (TiO2, 2.3 nm), zirconium oxide (ZrO2, 6 nm), aluminum oxide (Al2O3, 16.7 nm) nanoparticles (NP) and their ionic forms was conducted using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by means of a modified alkaline comet assay with/without the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (Endo III) enzymes. Modifications to the comet assay by using lesion-specific endonucleases, such as Endo III and Fpg, detect DNA bases with oxidative damage. Both human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured embryonic kidney cells were incubated with TiO2, ZrO2, or Al2O3 NP at concentrations of 1, 10, or 100 μg/ml. Our results showed no significant induction in DNA damage by the comet assay with/without the Endo III and Fpg enzymes at all concentrations of ZrO2 and Al2O3. In the case of TiO2 NP only the highest concentration of 100 μg/ml significantly induced a genotoxic response. Data thus indicate that both ZrO2 and Al2O3 NP were not genotoxic in our system and in the case of TiO2 the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for genotoxicity was 100 μg/ml. Evidence indicates that these metallic NP are considered safe in light of the fact that no genotoxicity was noted with ZrO2 and Al2O3 and that the highest TiO2 concentration is not environmentally relevant.

  12. T-cell activation. VI. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Röpke, C; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1993-01-01

    Murine T splenocytes stimulated in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were incubated with soluble anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies induced inhibition in the cytotoxicity of the responding population and this inhibition...... was not dependent on the domain on class I molecules recognized by the antibodies. Cross-reactivity of the antibodies between the responder and stimulating cell population caused a marked reduction in the inhibitory effect compared to systems where no such cross-reactivity was present. Saturating levels...... of the antibodies caused a reduction in generation of T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas low concentrations stimulated the same response. These results demonstrate that the MHC class I molecules of T cells are of significant importance in antigen-induced signal transduction....

  13. [Effect evaluation of three cell culture models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuemin

    2003-11-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using three kinds of models in vitro and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH in the medium decreased over time in the period of culture. However, on 5 days, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after 8 days LDH was not detected in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT in the medium did not change significantly over the investigated time. The basic CYP 1A activity gradually decreased with time in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A in rat hepatocytes was faster in MC than that in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducers such as omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than that in SC. Basic CYP 1A activity in bioreactor was keeped over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor, and next were SC and MC. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that there have some advantages and disadvantages in each of models in which can address different questions in metabolism of toxicants and drugs.

  14. Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen J; Segal, Jeffrey; Aschner, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There are reports suggesting that some autistic children are unable to mount an adequate response following exposure to environmental toxins. This potential deficit, coupled with the similarity in clinical presentations of autism and some heavy metal toxicities, has led to the suggestion that heavy metal poisoning might play a role in the etiology of autism in uniquely susceptible individuals. Thimerosal, an anti-microbial preservative previously added routinely to childhood multi-dose vaccines, is composed of 49.6% ethyl mercury. Based on the levels of this toxin that children receive through routine immunization schedules in the first years of life, it has been postulated that thimerosal may be a potential triggering mechanism contributing to autism in susceptible individuals. One potential risk factor in these individuals may be an inability to adequately up-regulate metallothionein (MT) biosynthesis in response to presentation of a heavy metal challenge. To investigate this hypothesis, cultured lymphocytes (obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, AGRE) from autistic children and non-autistic siblings were challenged with either 10 microM ethyl mercury, 150 microM zinc, or fresh media (control). Following the challenge, total RNA was extracted and used to query "whole genome" DNA microarrays. Cultured lymphocytes challenged with zinc responded with an impressive up-regulation of MT transcripts (at least nine different MTs were over-expressed) while cells challenged with thimerosal responded by up-regulating numerous heat shock protein transcripts, but not MTs. Although there were no apparent differences between autistic and non-autistic sibling responses in this very small sampling group, the differences in expression profiles between those cells treated with zinc versus thimerosal were dramatic. Determining cellular response, at the level of gene expression, has important implications for the understanding and treatment of conditions that result

  15. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each compone

  16. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Tanya M.; Orme, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The psychometric properties of a new measure of foster parents' openness toward participating in activities that promote children's cultural development are evaluated. The measure is titled the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale (CRFS). Method: Data from 304 foster mothers who completed the CRFS and a battery of measures on…

  17. Evaluation and Analyses of Cultural Diversity Training with Environmental Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Alma R.; LaRocque, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Education and Training Partnership Cultural Diversity Workshops were based on theoretical models and designed to increase individuals' awareness, knowledge, and intentions toward increasing culturally sensitivity. This study reports on the evaluation results from 191 participants. Their responses indicate significant changes in…

  18. Evaluation and Analyses of Cultural Diversity Training with Environmental Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Alma R.; LaRocque, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Education and Training Partnership Cultural Diversity Workshops were based on theoretical models and designed to increase individuals' awareness, knowledge, and intentions toward increasing culturally sensitivity. This study reports on the evaluation results from 191 participants. Their responses indicate significant changes in…

  19. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E;

    2000-01-01

    -associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...... mapping methodology to conduct a full and detailed analysis of the T-cell clonotypes in melanoma lesions and in corresponding lines of TIL established in vitro. All melanoma lesions and the corresponding TIL cultures comprised high numbers of T-cell clonotypes, typically in the range of 40 to more than 60...... that in situ T-cell clonotypes in melanoma are not readily expanded in vitro and that the majority of T-cell clonotypes present in cultured TIL are not present in situ....

  20. Building an Evaluative Culture: The Key to Effective Evaluation and Results Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, John

    2009-01-01

    As many reviews of results-based performance systems have noted, a weak evaluative culture in an organization undermines attempts at building an effective evaluation and/or results management regime. This article sets out what constitutes a strong evaluative culture where information on performance results is deliberately sought in order to learn…

  1. In vitro Safety Evaluation and Anticlastogenic Effect of BacoMindTM on Human Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIPANWITA DUTTADEB; PREETI KAPOOR; R.P.DIGHE; R.PADMAJA; M.S.ANAND; P.D'SOUZA; M.DEEPAK; B.MURALI; AAMIT AGARWAL

    2008-01-01

    Objective BacoMindTM (BM) is a standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri,which belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and is a creeping annual plant found throughout the Indian subcontinent.It has been used by Ayurvedic medicinal practitioners in India for almost 3000 years and is classified as a medharasayana,a substance which improves memory and intellect.With the widespread traditional use as well as scientific validation of Bacopa monnieri for nootropic activity,a bioactive-rich unique Phvtochemical composition-BacoMindTM was developed from B.monnieri for use as a cognition and memory enhancing agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro toxicity of this formulation of BacoMindTM on human lymphocytes and to rule out its possible contribution to mutagenicity. Methods In the present investigation the active ingredients present in BM were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)and high performance thin-layer chromatography(HPTLC).Antioxidant and anticlastogenic properties of BM were studied in vitro with and without metabolic activation.Doses of BM were chosen on the basis of mitotic index(MI)and cytokinesis-block proliferation index(CBPI).Clastogenicity assays were performed at 31.2 μg/mL,62.5 μg/mL,and 125 μg/mL,while the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test)was performed at doses of 61.72,185.18,555.55,1666.67,and 5000.00 μg/plate. Results HPLC and HPTLC analysis of BM revealed the presence of bacosidc A3,bacopaside I,bacopaside Ⅱ,iujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C,bacosine,luteolin,apigemn,bacosine,and β-sitosterol D glucoside.BM demonstrated significant antioxidant activity.The number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronuclei induced by BM were not statistically significant up to a dose of 62.5 μg/mL.A subsequent dose of 125 μg/mL prior to metabolic activation induced mild clastogenicity,but it was found to be biologically insignificant as this effect was not seen post

  2. Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajkumar; Kulkarni, Paresh; Ganesh, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with reduced risks for many types of cancers. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a widely consumed fruit containing many cancer preventing nutrients, vitamins and phytochemicals. Studies have shown that phytochemicals extracted from the avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. Our recent studies indicate that phytochemicals extracted with 50% Methanol from avocado fruits help in proliferation of human lymphocyte cells and decrease chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide. Among three concentrations (100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg per Kg Body Weight), the most effective conc. of extract was 200 mg/Kg Body Wt. It decreased significant level of numerical and structural aberrations (breaks, premature centromeric division etc. up to 88%, p < 0.0001)), and accrocentric associtation within D & G group (up to 78%, p = 0.0008). These studies suggest that phytochemicals from the avocado fruit can be utilized for making active chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy.

  3. Assessment of the genotoxicity of imidacloprid and metalaxyl in cultured human lymphocytes and rat bone-marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demsia, Georgia; Vlastos, Dimitris; Goumenou, Marina; Matthopoulos, Demetrios P

    2007-12-01

    Imidacloprid and metalaxyl are two pesticides that are widely used in agriculture, either separately, or in combination. These agents were studied for their possible genotoxic effects with respect to the following cytogenetic end-points: (1) in vitro micronucleus (MN) formation and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in human lymphocytes and (2) in vivo micronucleus induction in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) of the rat bone-marrow. The results of the MN analysis indicate that MN frequencies after treatment with both pesticides, separately or as a mixture, do not significantly differ from those in the controls except after treatment with metalaxyl alone at 50 microg/ml (pmetalaxyl at 5, 10 and 100 microg/ml and with the combination of imidacloprid and metalaxyl at 100 and 200 microg/ml. Finally, the in vivo micronucleus assay with rat bone-marrow polychromatic erythrocytes showed a statistically significant effect upon separate treatments with imidacloprid and metalaxyl at doses of 300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) (p<0.01) or upon combined treatment with 200 mg/Kg b.w. (p<0.001) and 400 mg/kg b.w. (p<0.05).

  4. An implementation evaluation of a qualitative culture assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D C; Bentley, T A; Ashby, L E

    2015-03-01

    Safety culture has been identified as a critical element of healthy and safe workplaces and as such warrants the attention of ergonomists involved in occupational health and safety (OHS). This study sought to evaluate a tool for assessing organisational safety culture as it impacts a common OHS problem: musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). The level of advancement across nine cultural aspects was assessed in two implementation site organisations. These organisations, in residential healthcare and timber processing, enabled evaluation of the tool in contrasting settings, with reported MSD rates also high in both sectors. Interviews were conducted with 39 managers and workers across the two organisations. Interview responses and company documentation were compared by two researchers to the descriptor items for each MSD culture aspect. An assignment of the level of advancement, using a five stage framework, was made for each aspect. The tool was readily adapted to each implementation site context and provided sufficient evidence to assess their levels of advancement. Assessments for most MSD culture aspects were in the mid to upper levels of advancement, although the levels differed within each organisation, indicating that different aspects of MSD culture, as with safety culture, develop at a different pace within organisations. Areas for MSD culture improvement were identified for each organisation. Reflections are made on the use and merits of the tool by ergonomists for addressing MSD risk.

  5. Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis in P388 lymphocytic leukemia cells in culture by cis-platinum derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, C B; Chaney, S G; Hall, I H

    1990-01-01

    Cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II) [cDDP] and three related derivatives Pt(mal)(NH3)2, PtCl2(dach) and Pt(mal) (dach) have been observed to possess cytotoxicity against the growth of P388 lymphocytic leukemia cells. DNA synthesis in P388 cells was inhibited by the agents in a manner which was consistent with their ED50 values for cytotoxicity. When P388 cells were treated with these platinum complexes in vitro at doses which caused more than 80% inhibition of DNA synthesis, no significant inhibition was observed for thymidine, kinase, thymidine monophosphate kinase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, or aspartate transcarbamoylase activities. Thus, there was no evidence that these agents inhibited de novo purine, pyrmidine, or deoxynucleotide synthesis. All of the agents did inhibit the nuclear DNA polymerase activity, but the extent of inhibition was 20% or less at doses which caused greater than 70% inhibition of DNA synthesis. Thus, the inhibition of DNA synthesis appeared to be due to cisplatinum(II) drug binding to the DNA bases. This was estimated to be 1 atom of platinum per 1500-3000 DNA base pairs which is consistent with other studies. The platinum complexes with chloro leaving ligands caused considerable DNA strand scission by 24 h at 10 times the ED50 dose, most likely a measure of impending cell death. In contrast, the platinum complexes with malonato leaving ligands did not cause significant strand scission by 24 h at similar doses. They also exhibited a significant delay in the inhibition of DNA synthesis. These data were interpreted as resulting from slower monoadduct to diadduct conversion, but it is not possible to eliminate the possibility of a different mode of interaction with DNA or a different mechanism of cytotoxicity for the malonato compounds.

  6. Nonexpert Evaluations on Architectural Design Creativity across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Wan; Lee, Jae Seung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural differences and the nonexpert evaluations of architectural design creativity. In study I, Caucasian Americans (N = 126) and East Asians (N = 137), who did not major in architecture and urban design, evaluated the novelty and appropriateness of 5 unusual architectural shapes, selected by 5…

  7. Nonexpert Evaluations on Architectural Design Creativity across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Wan; Lee, Jae Seung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural differences and the nonexpert evaluations of architectural design creativity. In study I, Caucasian Americans (N = 126) and East Asians (N = 137), who did not major in architecture and urban design, evaluated the novelty and appropriateness of 5 unusual architectural shapes, selected by 5…

  8. Genotoxicity evaluation of nanosized titanium dioxide, synthetic amorphous silica and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana M; Louro, Henriqueta; Antunes, Susana; Quarré, Stephanie; Simar, Sophie; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Verleysen, Eveline; Mast, Jan; Jensen, Keld A; Norppa, Hannu; Nesslany, Fabrice; Silva, Maria João

    2014-02-01

    Toxicological characterization of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) is essential for safety assessment, while keeping pace with innovation from their development and application in consumer products. The specific physicochemical properties of NMs, including size and morphology, might influence their toxicity and have impact on human health. The present work aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity of nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2), synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), in human lymphocytes. The morphology and size of those NMs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the hydrodynamic particle size-distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering. Using a standardized procedure to ensure the dispersion of the NMs and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (without metabolic activation), we observed significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBCs) for some TiO2 NMs and for two MWCNTs, although no clear dose-response relationships could be disclosed. In contrast, all forms of SAS analyzed in this study were unable to induce micronuclei. The present findings increase the weight of evidence towards a genotoxic effect of some forms of TiO2 and some MWCNTs. Regarding safety assessment, the differential genotoxicity observed for closely related NMs highlights the importance of investigating the toxic potential of each NM individually, instead of assuming a common mechanism and equal genotoxic effects for a set of similar NMs.

  9. Evaluation of Lymphocyte Transformation Test Results in Patients with Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions following the Use of Anticonvulsant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Zahra; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Taghdiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayhanidoost, Zarrintaj; Jebelli, Bita; Shekarriz Foumani, Reza; Babaie, Delara; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Administration of the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine and lamotrigine can be associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a method to determine which drug has caused the hypersensitivity reaction. This study was done to evaluate the results of LTT in patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of anticonvulsants. Twenty-four patients with hypersensitivity reactions, e.g. drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug rash and eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), following the administration of anticonvulsant drugs, and 24 patients who had used anticonvulsant drugs but did not have hypersensitivity reactions (the control group) were included in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. The cells were stimulated with the drugs, phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen and Candida as an antigen (positive controls). Lymphocyte proliferation was measured using the BrdU proliferation assay kit (Roche, Germany). The stimulation index was calculated as the mean ratio of the OD of stimulated cells divided by the OD of unstimulated cells. The results in the case and control groups were compared. Of 24 patients in the test group, 14 (58.3%) had positive LTT results and 10 (41.7%) had negative results. Among patients in the control group, 1 (4.2%) had a positive LTT result and 23 (95.8%) had negative results. Among the patients who had received carbamazepine and phenytoin, there was a significant difference between the results of LTT in the case and control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.028, respectively). Although patients receiving lamotrigine and phenobarbital had more positive LTT results in the case group than in the control group, these differences were not statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of LTT

  10. Cultural bases for self-evaluation: seeing oneself positively in different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-05-01

    Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.

  11. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Calderón-Segura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calypso (thiacloprid, Poncho (clothianidin, Gaucho (imidacloprid, and Jade (imidacloprid are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated using two genotoxicity parameters: tail length and comet frequency. Exposure to 9.5×10-6 to 5.7×10-5 M Jade; 2.8×10-4 to 1.7×10-3 M Gaucho; 0.6×10-1 to 1.4×10-1 M Calypso; 1.2×10-1 to 9.5×10-1 M Poncho for 2 h induced a significant increase DNA damage with a concentration-dependent relationship. Jade was the most genotoxic of the four insecticides studied. Cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to 18×10-3 M Jade, 2.0×10-3 M Gaucho, 2.0×10-1 M Calypso, 1.07 M Poncho, and cell death occurred at 30×10-3 M Jade, 3.3×10-3 M Gaucho, 2.8×10-1 M Calypso, and 1.42 M Poncho. This study provides the first report of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in PBL following in vitro exposure to commercial neonicotinoid insecticides.

  12. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Calderón-Ezquerro, María del Carmen; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; García-Martínez, Rocío; Flores-Ramírez, Diana; Rodríguez-Romero, María Isabel; Méndez-Pérez, Patricia; Bañuelos-Ruíz, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Calypso (thiacloprid), Poncho (clothianidin), Gaucho (imidacloprid), and Jade (imidacloprid) are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated using two genotoxicity parameters: tail length and comet frequency. Exposure to 9.5 × 10−6 to 5.7 × 10−5 M Jade; 2.8 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−3 M Gaucho; 0.6 × 10−1 to 1.4 × 10−1 M Calypso; 1.2 × 10−1 to 9.5 × 10−1 M Poncho for 2 h induced a significant increase DNA damage with a concentration-dependent relationship. Jade was the most genotoxic of the four insecticides studied. Cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to 18 × 10−3 M Jade, 2.0 × 10−3 M Gaucho, 2.0 × 10−1 M Calypso, 1.07 M Poncho, and cell death occurred at 30 × 10−3 M Jade, 3.3 × 10−3 M Gaucho, 2.8 × 10−1 M Calypso, and 1.42 M Poncho. This study provides the first report of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in PBL following in vitro exposure to commercial neonicotinoid insecticides. PMID:22545045

  13. Tissue culture of Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. and its quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Hua, Wei; Lin-Xuan, Li; Yong-Cai, Huang; Mei-Ying, Wang; Cui, Li; Jian-Hua, Miao

    2013-10-01

    Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. is an important rare medicinal plant in China. There were only a few papers on the rapid propagation of S. tonkinensis through in vitro tissue culture, and still no report focuses on the quality analysis of in vitro tissue culture plantlets. The different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KT), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used to establish and screen the optimal rapid propagation technology of S. tonkinensis by orthogonal test; the different concentrations of a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and ABT rooting power (ABT) were used to screen the optimal rooting technology. For quality evaluation of tissue culture plants, three different sites were chose to finish planting experiment. The leaf characteristics, radix ex rhizoma yield, and contents of matrine and oxymatrine were evaluated, respectively, to provide evidence of high yield and good qualities of tissue culture plants. A large number of buds could be induced directly from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA, and 0.5 mg/l KT; the best root induction medium was solid MS medium at half the macronutrient concentration supplemented with 1.0 mg/l NAA, 0.4 mg/l IBA, and 0.1 mg/l ABT. The rooting rate was 98%. All tissue culture plants showed normal leaf characteristics. Tissue culture plants from two sites possessed higher radix ex rhizoma yield and overall productivity of matrine and oxymatrine than those of seed plants. Tissue culture is a rapid, effective, and convenient propagation method for S. tonkinensis, and the quality of S. tonkinensis tissue culture plants meets the requirement of quality standard of China Pharmacopoeia (edition 2010), the crude drug from S. tonkinensis tissue culture plants will be suitable for substituting the crude drug from seed plants.

  14. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  15. Evaluating human, social and cultural capital in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Using the concepts of human, social and cultural capital this paper will review the literature on these theories and evaluate their application to nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK). Each concept will be explored before considering the impact and application within nurse education. Issues of sponsorship via mentoring and increased skills and contribution to the knowledge economy alongside the delivery of quality care by nursing students will be discussed with reference to theory and current policy drivers. As nursing education moves to a graduate profession in the UK this paper evaluates the drivers of human, social and cultural capital that affect this development.

  16. Could Intrathymic Injection of Myelin Basic Protein Suppress Inflammatory Response After Co-culture of T Lymphocytes and BV-2 Microglia Cells?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Qun Cui; Bao-Long Liu; Qiao-Li Wu; Ying Cai; Wei-Jia Fan; Ming-Chao Zhang; Wei-Liang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background:The interaction between activated microglia and T lymphocytes can yield abundant pro-inflammatory cytokines.Our previous study proved that thymus immune tolerance could alleviate the inflammatory response.This study aimed to investigate whether intrathymic injection of myelin basic protein (MBP) in mice could suppress the inflammatory response after co-culture ofT lymphocytes and BV-2 microglia cells.Methods:Totally,72 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to three groups (n =24 in each):Group A:intrathymic injection of 100 μl MBP (1 mg/ml);Group B:intrathymic injection of 100 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS);and Group C:sham operation group.Every eight mice in each group were sacrificed to obtain the spleen at postoperative days 3,7,and 14,respectively.T lymphocytes those were extracted and purified from the spleens were then co-cultured with activated BV-2 microglia cells at a proportion of 1:2 in the medium containing MBP for 3 days.After identified the T lymphocytes by CD3,surface antigens of T lymphocytes (CD4,CD8,CD152,and CD154) and BV-2 microglia cells (CD45 and CD54) were detected by flow cytometry.The expressions of pro-inflammatory factors ofBV-2 microglia cells (interleukin [IL]-1β,tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α],and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference test were used for data analysis.Results:The levels of CD152 in Group A showed an upward trend from the 3rd to 7th day,with a downward trend from the 7th to 14th day (20.12 ± 0.71%,30.71 ± 1.14%,13.50 ± 0.71% at postoperative days 3,7,and 14,respectively,P < 0.05).The levels of CD154 in Group A showed a downward trend from the 3rd to 7th day,with an upward trend from the 7th to 14th day (10.00 ± 0.23%,5.28 ± 0.69%,14.67 ± 2.71% at postoperative days 3,7,and 14,respectively,P < 0.05).The ratio ofCD4+/CD8 + T in Group

  17. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The politics of evaluation: The case of cultural organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.; Piber, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural policy always means to decide how to spend money. This is a problem, as there are usually more useful options to use financial means than money available . Hence a sound evaluation of the proposed results and the predicted outcome as well as to some extent also a comparison of different pro

  19. The politics of evaluation: The case of cultural organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.; Piber, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural policy always means to decide how to spend money. This is a problem, as there are usually more useful options to use financial means than money available . Hence a sound evaluation of the proposed results and the predicted outcome as well as to some extent also a comparison of different

  20. Towards the Development of Objective, Universal Criteria of Cultural Evaluation: The Challenges Posed by Anti-Foundationalism, Culturalism and Romanticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of the last century, it has become increasingly unfashionable in the social sciences to make cross-cultural evaluations. The advance of cultural relativism has ensured that criticisms of other cultures are regarded as subjective and ethnocentric. There remain, however, cultural beliefs, practices and traditions which appear, "prima…

  1. Towards the Development of Objective, Universal Criteria of Cultural Evaluation: The Challenges Posed by Anti-Foundationalism, Culturalism and Romanticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of the last century, it has become increasingly unfashionable in the social sciences to make cross-cultural evaluations. The advance of cultural relativism has ensured that criticisms of other cultures are regarded as subjective and ethnocentric. There remain, however, cultural beliefs, practices and traditions which appear, "prima…

  2. Evaluation of ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometry in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A multicentric international harmonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letestu, Remi; Rawstron, Andy; Ghia, Paolo; Villamor, Neus; Boeckx, Nancy; Leuven, Nancy Boeckx; Boettcher, Sebastian; Buhl, Anne Mette; Duerig, Jan; Ibbotson, Rachel; Kroeber, Alexander; Langerak, Anton; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Mockridge, Ian; Morilla, Alison; Padmore, Ruth; Rassenti, Laura; Ritgen, Matthias; Shehata, Medhat; Smolewski, Piotr; Staib, Peter; Ticchioni, Michel; Walker, Clare; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, Florence

    2006-07-15

    The clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is heterogeneous with some patients requiring early therapy whereas others will not be treated for years. The evaluation of an individual CLL patient's prognosis remains a problematic issue. The presence or absence of somatic mutations in the IgVH genes is currently the gold-standard prognostic factor, but this technique is labor intensive and costly. Genomic studies uncovered that 70 kDa zeta-associated protein (ZAP-70) expression was associated with unmutated IgVH genes and ZAP-70 protein expression was proposed as a surrogate for somatic mutational status. Among the available techniques for ZAP-70 detection, flow cytometry is most preferable as it allows the simultaneous quantification of ZAP-70 protein expression levels in CLL cells and residual normal lymphocyte subsets. However, several factors introduce variability in the results reported from different laboratories; these factors include the anti-ZAP-70 antibody clone and conjugate, the staining procedure, the gating strategy, and the method of reporting the results. The need for standardization of the approach led to the organization of an international working group focused on harmonizing all aspects of the technique. During this workshop, a technical consensus was reached on the methods for cell permeabilization and immunophenotyping procedures. An assay was then designed that allowed comparison of two clones of anti-ZAP-70 antibody and the identification of the expression of this molecule in B, T, and NK cells identified in a four multicolor analysis. This procedure was applied to three stabilized blood samples, provided by the UK NEQAS group to all participating members of this study, in order to minimize variability caused by sample storage and shipment. Analysis was performed in 20 laboratories providing interpretable data from 14 centers. Various gating strategies were used and the ZAP-70 levels were expressed as percentage

  3. Evaluation of blood neutrophil to lymphocyte and platelet to lymphocyte ratios according to plasma glucose status and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, R; Aslan, M; Atmaca, M; Alay, M; Ademoğlu, E N; Gülşen, I

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular, respiratory, and cerebrovascular diseases and malignancies are responsible for morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. Also these diseases are associated with chronic inflammation. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are currently gaining interest as new markers of inflammation. Moreover, increased morbidity and mortality are positively correlated with the presence of diabetes and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in acromegaly. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between these markers and acromegaly according to plasma glucose status and serum IGF-1 levels. We retrospectively analyzed data from 61 acromegaly patients who were in a newly diagnosed period (35 male, 26 female; mean age 38.13 ± 13.98). Patients with normal plasma glucose (n = 27), impaired fasting glucose (n = 18), and diabetes mellitus (n = 16) were categorized into three different groups. NLR and PLR were compared between the study groups and were evaluated according to IGF-1 levels. There were no statistically significant differences in NLR and PLR measurements among the study groups (p > 0.05). However, there were significant positive correlations between NLR and IGF-1 levels and between PLR and IGF-1 levels when all patients were evaluated (r = 0.334, p = 0.011 and r = 0.277, p = 0.035, respectively). This is the first report studying the relationship of NLR and PLR with glucose status and IGF-1 levels in acromegaly patients. Our study results suggest that subclinical inflammation may play a role in increased incidence of mortality and morbidity, which depends on uncontrolled IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Evaluation of the Alere Pima™ for CD4+ T lymphocytes counts in HIV-positive outpatients in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathunde, L; Kussen, G M B; Beltrame, M P; Dalla Costa, L M; Raboni, S M

    2014-11-01

    CD4 + lymphocyte counts are routinely ordered during the early phases of antiretroviral therapy and for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients. Flow cytometry is the standard methodology for CD4 counts in Brazilian reference laboratories. However, these laboratories are located in large cities, frequently distant from patients, thus limiting patient access and delaying results. We compared a point-of-care test with flow cytometry determination of CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts in HIV patients. We analysed 107 consecutive samples by both methods. Overall, the point-of-care test performed well, with excellent agreement between it and the standard method. Test results were concordant for patients with CD4(+) T lymphocyte values above and below 200 cells/mm (3). The performance characteristics obtained were sensitivity 94% (95% CI 89.5-98.5%), specificity 93% (95% CI 88.2-97.8%), positive predictive value 86% (95% CI 79.4-92.6%), and negative predictive value 97% (95% CI 94-100%). The high sensitivity and specificity of the point-of-care test methodology suggest its utility as an alternative method for rapid measurement of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with limited access to reference laboratories, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention for patients at risk of progression to AIDS.

  5. In vitro and in vivo analyses of a genetically—restricted antigen specific factor from mixed cell cultures of macrophage,T and B lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAURMW; LAUASK

    1990-01-01

    An immunostimulatory factor was identified to be secreted by antigen-pulsed macrophages.This factor was able to induce the generation of antigen specific T helper lymphocytes in vitro as well as in vivo.Further in vitro experiments testing for the genetic restriction of this factor indicated that it is a geneticallyrestricted antigen specific factor (ASF).The Cunningham plaque assay was used to quantify the generation of T helper lymphocytes by measuring the number of plaque forming cells after sequential incubations of antigen-qulsed macrophages with T lymphocytes,and then spleen cells,and finally the TNP-coated sheep red blood cells.

  6. Cultural heritage evaluation: a reappraisal of some critical concepts involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IACOB

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to build a synoptic picture of the facets of the economic category called “value”, with practicality in the tangible cultural heritage field, from the point of view of a traditionally economists-specific approach: concern for the financial sustainability of any decision. Moreover, the methods from the economics literature regarding the valences of the “cultural value” concept prove the obsoleteness of the common opinion according to which the economic approach is primarily interested in financial metrics. In as much as the ultimate goal of the scientific process is to identify the most effective cultural heritage preservation and evaluation methods, the study also reflects the public-private interference in this area.

  7. [Evaluation of chromogenic medium Uriselect4 in urine culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, Asma; Marzouk, Manel; Idriss, Nadia; Sammoud, Sammoud; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Janel

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance and the cost of chromogenic medium Uriselect4 agar with regard to the standard medium for the detection and identification of urinary tract pathogens. A total of 503 clinical urine specimens containing leucocytes greater or equal to 104/mL were analysed prospectively, in parallel by two different persons on blood agar (GS) and Uriselect4 according to the manufacturers' instructions. Of the 503 urine specimens tested, 210 gave a positive culture on Uriselect4 versus 181 on GS. The majority of bacterial species grew on both media; enterobacteria grew on Uriselect4 better than GS. The identification of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), KES group and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) did not require the use of galleries Api and has a gain of 24  h. Positive pure cultures on Uriselect4 corresponding to negative cultures of GS were noted in 17 ases. Conversely, in seven cases a positive pure culture on GS was noted while the corresponding Uriselect4 cultures were negative. The cost of identification on GS (including the cost of galleries Api), was about two times higher than Uriselect4. Uriselect4 medium isolates the most frequent urinary tract pathogens and identify them so almost immediately, with a lower cost.

  8. Preferences Evaluation with a Choice Experiment on Cultural Heritage Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bravi, Marina; Gasca, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the elicitation of tourist preferences from an economic evaluation standpoint and in relation to the Royal Savoy's Residences, a cultural network included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. After analyzing the visits to the Metropolitan Museum System of Turin City (Italy), a conjoint choice experiment was implemented, where future scenarios of public/private supply were defined by a certain number of tour packages, characterized by different services and prices. The resul...

  9. 同种异体淋巴细胞与黑素细胞混合培养的实验研究%Allogeneic Mixed Melanocyte-Lymphocyte Culture: An Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项蕾红; 郑志忠; 祝绿川; 廖康煌; 傅雯雯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the melanocyte-lymphocyte reacion when the allogeneic lymphocytes are cultured with normal melanocytes. Methods 3H - thymidine was incorporated into the mixed culture and the transformation and proliferation rates of lymphocytes were detected by liquid scintillation counting and expressed as cpm. Electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of melanocytes after mixed culture.Results The results of lymphocyte proliferation were expressed by the stimulation indexes. The stimulation indexes in active vitiligo group was significantly different from that in stable vitiligo group and normal controls. The stimulation indexes of the melanocyte-stimulated group was significantly different from that of ConA-stimulated group. In the mixed melanocyte-lymphocyte reaction, the allogeneic lymphocytes had little effect on the melanocytes. The ultrastructure of the melanocytes in the mixed culture showed normal morphology and normal function of synthesis of melanin. Conclusion As a specific antigen in mixed melanocyte-lymphocyte reaction, melanocyte has a weak effect on the lymphocytes. The melanocytes from stable stage vitiligo patients seem more suitble to be allografted.%目的黑素细胞与同种异体淋巴细胞混合培养,从体外实验来研究排斥反应的可能性。方法采用3H-dTR掺入同位素液态闪烁计数法测定淋巴细胞的转化增殖率,并用透射电镜观察混合培养后黑素细胞的超微结构。结果黑素细胞对同种异体淋巴细胞的转化增殖率与ConA刺激淋巴细胞转化增殖的阳性对照比较,结果显示黑素细胞的促淋巴细胞转化增殖的特异性抗原作用较弱。进一步比较黑素细胞对不同病期白癜风患者淋巴细胞的影响,发现黑素细胞对活动期白癜风患者淋巴细胞的刺激作用相对较强,而稳定期患者和正常人对照组结果差异无显著性。同时电镜观察结果显示同种异体的淋巴细胞对黑

  10. THE STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: METHODOLOGY FOR QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To Thu Trang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept: methodof evaluation organizational culture, qualitative and quantitative assessment methodology and lists the basic methodologyfor assessing organizational culture. Fullydescribe professor Denison’s methodology for assessing organizational culture.

  11. Effect evaluation on sorting method of CD4+T lymphocytes%CD4+T淋巴细胞分选方法的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 王记红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish an accurate sorting method with less interference to the cell activity for isolating CD4+T lymphocytes.Methods Human peripheral blood cells were sorted by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) in turn,and then the cell purity,morphological observation and survival rate of CD4+T lymphocytes were adopted to conduct the evaluation on the sorting method.Results The purity of CD4+T lymphocytes was (38.8 ± 2.7)%,while the purity of CD4+T lymphocytes was (96.2 ± 0.7)% after magnetic activated cells being sorted,the difference between them was statistically significant (P < 0.01).The activity was the highest within 24 hours with intact cell shape and function.Conclusion The Percoll DGC combined with the MACS can collect highly pure CD4+T lymphocytes with less influence on the cell activity and shape,the sorted cells can continue to be used for related researches.%目的 建立一种准确且对细胞活性影响小的分离人外周血CD4+T细胞的分选方法.方法 对人外周血依次采用密度梯度离心(density gradient centrifugation,DGC)和免疫磁珠分选(magnetic-activated cell sorting,MACS)进行CD4+T细胞分选.分选后的细胞用流式细胞仪(flow cytometry,FCM)、倒置显微镜及细胞周期分析进行分选纯度和生长状态检测.结果 Percoll密度梯度离心法收集的单个核细胞中CD4+T细胞纯度为(38.8±2.7)%,免疫磁珠分选后CD4+T细胞纯度为(96.2±0.7)%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且分选后细胞形态及功能完好,24 h内活性最高.结论 密度梯度离心和免疫磁珠分选相结合可以有效提高CD4+T细胞的分选纯度及保持其活性,可继续用于相关功能研究.

  12. 76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division (ECA/P/ V). Form Number...: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division (ECA/P...: New Collection. Originating Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and...

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Cultural Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Stagl, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural competency, and the underlying communication and affective skills required to develop such expertise, is becoming increasingly important for a wide variety of domains. To address this need, we developed a blended learning platform which combines virtual role-play with tutorials, assessment and feedback. A Middle-Eastern Curriculum (MEC) exemplar for cross-cultural training U.S. military personnel was developed to guide the refinement of an existing game-based training platform. To complement this curriculum, we developed scenario authoring tools to enable end-users to define training objectives, link performance measures and feedback/remediation to these objectives, and deploy experiential scenarios within a game-based virtual environment (VE). Lessons learned from the design and development of this exemplar cross-cultural competency curriculum, as well as formative evaluation results, are discussed. Initial findings suggest that the underlying training technology promotes deep levels of semantic processing of the key information of relevant cultural and communication skills.

  14. [原著]Prethymic Nylon Wool-Passed Bone Marrow Cells Can Make Distinction between Self and Non-Self X-Chromosome-Linked Gene Products (Xir Antigens) on the Stimulator Cells, Resulting in Regulation of the Generation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Moritake; Tanabe, MasaoJ; Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Research Institute of Comprehensive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported that nylon wool-passed bone marrow cells treated with anti-Thy.1 antibody and complement (Thy.1 NW-BM cells) had helper-like activity which could augment the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In this study, we determined the antigens to which these NW-BM cells responded and recognized. When a few responder lymph node (LN) cells and an excess of NW-BM responder cells from BIOBR (H-2^k B10 background) mice were cultured with stimulator spleen cells from ei...

  15. Using Social Scientific Criteria to Evaluate Cultural Theories: Encoding/Decoding Evaluated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Kropp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article transcends the issue of conflicting theoretical schools of thought to formulate a method of social scientific style theory evaluation for cultural studies. It is suggested that positivist social scientific models of theory critique can be used to assess cultural models of communication to determine if they should be classified as theories. A set of evaluation criteria is formulated as a guide and applied to Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding to determine if it is a theory. Conclusions find the sharing of criteria between schools of thought is judicious, Encoding/Decoding fits the established criteria, and Encoding/Decoding should be referred to as a theory.

  16. Evaluation of the lymphocyte interphase nuclei phenotype by quantitative phase imaging (QPI in patients with endometrial ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gasparyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Ovarian endometriosis is a progressive disease with growing prevalence and severity. Therefore, the development of robust non-invasive laboratory screening methods for early diagnosis on the out-patient basis seems quite relevant. Aim: To assess a potential of the quantitative phase imaging technique for early diagnosis of ovarian endometrial cysts and post-operative relapses of the disease. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1578 nuclei of the peripheral blood lymphocytes from 82 patients with ovarian endometrial cysts, aged 21 to 37 years (mean age 26.4 ± 3.6 years. The patients were follow-up in a gynecology out-patient clinic (the town of Yessentuki, Russia. Assessments were made longitudinally, i.e., before a laparoscopic cystectomy, at 6 and 12 months in the post-operative period with or without treatment with dienogest-containing agents. Morphological and functional status of the nuclei from the peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed in the real-time mode by quantitative phase imaging (QPI with the phase-interference microscopy module of the Bioni hardware and software complex (Westgrade Ltd., Moscow for clinical and laboratory diagnostics, and the morphodensitometric segmentation technology. Results: The comparative analysis of morphometric parameters of CD3+ cells taken from peripheral blood of healthy non-pregnant women and patients with ovarian endometrial cysts before surgery showed a significant increase of the calculated functional activities of the lymphocyte nuclei (0.898 vs 0.783, p < 0.05. Assessment of changes overt time in the differential diagnostic criteria of the nuclear response in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with endometrial ovarian cysts showed the following. Compared to the parameters obtained before treatment, at 6 and 12 months of the post-operative period the relative intensity of nuclear segments (ΔI decreased by 10.3 and 14.7, 10.6 and 12.9% in the group treated with and without

  17. Research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Zeng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to build enterprise project culture evaluation model and search for the best evaluation method for Chinese enterprise project culture on the basis of studying and drawing lessons from enterprise culture evaluation theory and method at home and abroad. Design/methodology/approach: Referring to the Denison enterprise culture evaluation model, this paper optimizes it according to the difference of enterprise project culture, designs the enterprise project culture evaluation model and proves the practicability of the model through empirical. Finding: This paper finds that it`s more applicable to use the Denison model for enterprise project culture evaluation through the comparative analysis of domestic and foreign enterprise culture evaluation theory and method, the systematic project culture management framework of Chinese enterprises has not yet formed through empirical research, and four factors in enterprise project culture have important influence on project operation performance improvement. Research limitations/implications: The research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model is a preliminary attempt, the design of evaluation index system, evaluation model and scale structure also need to be improved, but the thinking of this paper in this field provides a valuable reference for future research. Practical Implications: This paper provides the support of theory and practice for evaluating the present situation of enterprise project culture construction and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of project culture, which contributes to the "dialectical therapy" of enterprise project management, enterprise management and enterprise project culture construction. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of Denison enterprise culture model. Combining with the actual situation of enterprises, this paper also builds the evaluation model for

  18. Interference of CD95 expression on human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petanova, Jitka; Fucikova, Terezie; Bencko, Vladimir

    2002-02-01

    The study presents the exogenous influence of cadmium in comparison with zinc on the apoptosis of human lymphocytes by CD95 expression and its kinetic changes. The salts of both metals were used in final concentrations of 20 microM in cell cultures with whole blood. The duration of cultivation was 18 and 90 hours. The expression of surface antigens was evaluated by flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies. In cultures of not stimulated cells we found in average 51.54% CD95 positive lymphocytes. The kinetic study of untreated cells showed elevation after 18 hours of cultivation and a very low expression after 90 hours. The CD95 expression on lymphocytes in cell culture with cadmium and zinc was lower after 18 hours of cultivation than in untreated cells. After 90 hours cultivation we found low levels of CD95 expression on cells treated with cadmium and a great individual variability in the number of positive cells upon the influence of zinc.

  19. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (PHIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  20. 5-HT7 receptors and tryptophan hydroxylase in lymphocytes of rats: mitogen activation, physical restraint or treatment with reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mary; Arroyo, Rubén; Lima, Lucimey

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)7 receptors in lymphocytes play a relevant role as modulators of T cell functions and might be modified by stress protocols. The aims of this work were to evaluate: (i) the presence of 5-HT7 receptors in specific lymphocyte populations, (ii) the probable modifications of them by inflammatory stress with mitogen and (iii) the effects of physical and pharmacological stress. Blood lymphocytes were isolated by density gradients and differential adhesion to plastic. Concanavalin A (Con A) was systemically administered (500 μg/kg) or added to lymphocyte cultures (2.5 μg/ml, final volume 200 μl). Physical restraint was performed in Plexiglass boxes for 5 h per day for 5 days. Reserpine administration was 2.5 mg/kg for 3 days. Immunocytochemical labeling of CD4+, CD8+ and 5-HT7 receptors, and also tryptophan hydroxylase cells was performed. mRNA of 5-HT7 receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR. Controls were included for each protocol. Con A treatment or culture exposure increased the number of lymphocytes expressing 5-HT7 receptors or tryptophan hydroxylase, as compared to absence of the mitogen. Receptors were present in 12-16% of total rat lymphocytes, in ∼10% of CD4+ and in ∼5% of CD8+ cells from control rats. CD4+ decreased, and CD8+ and 5-HT7 cells increased after physical restraint. Reserpine treatment elevated CD8+ and 5-HT7 cells. Con A and physical restraint, but not reserpine treatment, significantly augmented 5-HT7 receptor mRNA in lymphocytes. Rat lymphocytes, expressing tryptophan hydroxylase, could synthesize 5-HT, functioning as a direct autocrine modulator. The modifications of CD4+, CD8+ and 5-HT7 receptors in lymphocytes by three stress protocols could have an impact on immune responses. In addition, the differential distribution of 5-HT7 receptors indicates potential specific physiopathological roles. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  2. "WHERE SOULS ARE FORGOTTEN" : Cultural Competencies, Forensic Evaluations, and International Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlin, Michael L.; McClain, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competency is critical in criminal forensic evaluations. Cultural competency eschews reliance on stereotypes, precluding the mistake of assuming that cultural dictates apply with equal force to all who share a cultural background, thus allowing the forensic examiner to provide a comprehensi

  3. Development and Validation of the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) Self-Report Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, Krystall E.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Porter, Bryan E.

    2012-01-01

    No self-report measure of cultural competence currently exists in program evaluation. Adapting items from cultural competence measures in fields such as counseling and nursing, the researchers developed the Cultural Competence of Program Evaluators (CCPE) self-report scale. The goals of this study were to validate the CCPE and to assess…

  4. Association of Large-Airway Lymphocytic Bronchitis with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, John R.; Jones, Kirk D.; Hays, Steve R.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Urisman, Anatoly; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Caughey, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Lung transplantation offers great promise for otherwise terminal lung diseases, but the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) continues to limit survival. Although acute rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis have been identified as risk factors for the development of BOS, it is unclear whether large-airway lymphocytic inflammation conveys the same risk. Objectives: We evaluated lymphocytic bronchitis on endobronchial biopsies as a risk factor for BOS and mortality. Methods: Endobronchial biopsies were collected and graded during surveillance after lung transplantation. We assessed samples with negative cultures collected in the first 90 days from 298 subjects and compared large-airway lymphocytic bronchitis assessed by a 0–2 “E-score” and with standard A and BR pathology scores for acute rejection and small-airway lymphocytic bronchiolitis, respectively. Measurements and Main Results: We found surprisingly little association between large- and small-airway lymphocytic inflammation scores from a given bronchoscopy. Endobronchial lymphocytic bronchitis was more prevalent in subjects in BOS stage 0p and BOS stages 1–3 at the time of biopsy. Within 90 days after transplantation, increasing maximum E-score was associated with greater risk of BOS (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.78; P = 0.02) and in this analysis 90-day maximum E-scores were the only score type predictive of BOS (P < 0.01). Conclusions: These results support a multicenter study to evaluate endoscopic biopsies for the identification of patients at increased risk for BOS. The association of endobronchial lymphocytic inflammation and BOS may have mechanistic implications. PMID:23239157

  5. Effects of dental adhesives on micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prica, Dunja; Tadin, Antonija; Marović, Danijela; Katunarić, Marina; Prica, Adriana; Galić, Nada

    2013-09-01

    Dental adhesives come into direct contact with oral tissues. Due to this close and long-term contact, the materials should exhibit a high degree of biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of dental adhesives on human lymphocytes in vitro. Polymerized dental adhesives (Excite, Adper Single Bond 2, Prompt L-pop and OptiBond Solo Plus) were eluted in dimethyl sulfoxide for 1 hour, 24 h and 120 h (5 days). Thereafter, lymphocyte cultures were treated with different concentrations of eluates (0.2 microg/mL, 0.5 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL) obtained from each of the tested materials. Genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test. The chi2-test was used on statistical analysis (p dental adhesives causes genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes. Toxic effect of these dental adhesives increases with the tested material concentration and decreases with the length of elution period.

  6. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  7. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  8. EVALUATING UNMANNED AERIAL PLATFORMS FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE LARGE SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  9. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in ovine lymphocytes exposed in vitro to tolylfluanid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiaková, Irena; Kovalkovičová, Natália; Sutiak, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations have been used as important cytogenetic biomarkers to study the mutagenic effects of different chemicals in vivo and in vitro. Chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in cultures of sheep lymphocytes in vitro exposed to the fungicide tolylfluanid. Lymphocyte cultures from three donors were exposed to four different concentrations of fungicide (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L; 1.10(-6) M(.)L; 1 × 10(-7) M(.)L). Chromosomal analysis showed a significant (P = 0.018 and 0.038 respectively, Anova test, P Tukey test) increase in the frequency of aberrant cells (ABC) in cultures treated with the highest negative experimental concentrations of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L) compared to control. Significantly increased numbers of chromatid breaks (7.67 ± 0.58% against 1.67 ± 2.08%, P = 0.009, Anova test, P Tukey test) and chromatid gaps (7.67 ± 1.15% against 2.67 ± 0.58%, P = 0.003, Anova test, P Tukey test) were observed in ovine cultures treated with the highest experimental concentration of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L). Tolylfluanid induced also chromosomal exchanges (P = 0.038, and 0.016 respectively, Anova test, P Tukey test) in ovine cultures treated with the highest experimental concentrations of tolylfluanid (1.10(-4) M(.)L; 1.10(-5) M(.)L). The mitotic index has not shown any statistical differences between the various treatments and control groups. Our results suggest a significant genotoxic effect of tolylfluanid only at the highest concentration in sheep peripheral lymphocytes in vitro.

  11. Sequential Assessment of Cell Cycle S Phase in Flow Cytometry: A Non-Isotopic Method to Measure Lymphocyte Activation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Kohler

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocyte multiplication can be induced in vitro by mitogens or specific antigens, and is usually measured using isotopic methods involving tritiated thymidine. Cellular proliferation can also be analyzed by flow cytometry techniques based on cell cycle analysis through the measurement of DNA content. We applied this method to lymphocytes from 113 individuals, to evaluate lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation in vitro by a mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA or a recall antigen (tetanus toxoid, using a kinetic approach with four points sequential measurements of the S and G2 phases over six days of culture. The proportion of cells in S phase after PHA stimulation was significantly higher than in controls overall and as early as on day three of the culture. Activation with a recall antigen significantly induced increasing S phase cell proportions up to day six. These data suggest that flow cytometric assessment of the S phase could be a useful alternative to isotopic methods measuring lymphocyte reactivity in vitro.

  12. Evaluation of bioresorbable polymers of lactic acid in a culture of human bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemberg, F; Wilke, A

    2001-01-01

    Long term cultures of human bone marrow cells on poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) 70:30 and 90:10 plates were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-EDX (SEM combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis), flow cytometry, histochemical stainings, and culture medium analysis. After 14 days culture, cell numbers were only slightly lower compared with our reference material, hydroxyapatite, and much higher compared with polyethylene. There was evidence of collagenous matrix production with osteoblast activity. Acridine orange stainings as well as flow cytometry after incubation with propidium iodide showed only a few non-viable cells. By means of flow cytometry, we found about 30% of cells with granulocyte-markers, some monocyte-derived cells, and only small amounts of lymphocytes. After 9 weeks culture, there was evidence of calcium-phosphate deposition with extracellular matrix. There were only slight differences between the two tested polymers. Our culture system with human bone marrow cells plated on two bioresorbable polymers suggests a biocompatibility almost as good as hydroxyapatite, which is usually well tolerated. There was even evidence of mineralized collagenous matrix after some weeks of culture, which was detected earlier than the mineralization of cell-free controls.

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of direct rhenium-188-labeled anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab for radio immunotherapy of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Decker, Mario; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert; Slegers, Guido; Dierckx, Rudi A.; De Vos, Filip

    2008-01-01

    Alemtuzumab (Campath, Berlex) is a humanized IgG1 rat monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface CD52 antigen, found on lymphocytes and monocytes. It is being developed for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), autoinumme disease and for the prevention of transplant rejecti

  14. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  15. T-cell receptor v-alpha and v-Beta gene usage in interleukin-2-cultured tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E; Scholler, J; Straten, P;

    1994-01-01

    surface through the T cell receptor (TCR) complex. We have studied the phenotype, cytotoxicity, and expression of TCR variable (V) alpha and beta chain on in vitro IL-2-cultured TIL isolated from primary malignant breast tumors from 11 patients. 10/11 cultures were dominated by CD4(+) (T-helper) cells....... The different TIL cultures exhibited varying levels of cytotoxicity against the natural killer (NK)-sensitive cell line K562 and breast cancer cell line T47D. The level of clonality, as measured by PCR-based analyses of usage of the different V segments was low, as only a few tumors showed patterns...... of restricted V gene expression. The mean number of V alpha segments per TIL culture was higher than the number of V beta segments per culture. A significant negative correlation was observed between the number of CD4+ cells and the number of V beta segments per culture, and no other correlations between...

  16. Cell-cycle research with synchronous cultures: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, C. E.; Thornton, M.; Grover, N. B.

    2001-01-01

    The baby-machine system, which produces new-born Escherichia coli cells from cultures immobilized on a membrane, was developed many years ago in an attempt to attain optimal synchrony with minimal disturbance of steady-state growth. In the present article, we put forward a model to describe the behaviour of cells produced by this method, and provide quantitative evaluation of the parameters involved, at each of four different growth rates. Considering the high level of selection achievable with this technique and the natural dispersion in interdivision times, we believe that the output of the baby machine is probably close to optimal in terms of both quality and persistence of synchrony. We show that considerable information on events in the cell cycle can be obtained from populations with age distributions very much broader than those achieved with the baby machine and differing only modestly from steady state. The data presented here, together with the long and fruitful history of findings employing the baby-machine technique, suggest that minimisation of stress on cells is the single most important factor for successful cell-cycle analysis.

  17. Evaluation of chemical, botanical and cultural managements of termites control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufera, Jiregna Tasisa; Fufa, Tena Gobena

    2014-01-15

    The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area.

  18. Evaluation of soymilk fermentation with a lactic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Quicazán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk, the protein slurry extracted in water from soybeans, obtained by means of a process tested previously at ICTA (the National University of Colombia's Institute of Food Science and Technology, was fermented by using a thermophyllic lactic culture consisting of L delbrueckii ss. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii ss. lactis and S. salivarius ss. thermophilus. The soymilk composition was standardised (before fermentation, regarding solids and protein contení, by means of Brix0 as process variable. Soymilk was fermented by applying those same basic operations followed in cow milk fermentation. Acidification was assessed by evaluating pH, titrable acidity and organic acid production during the process by HPLC in an ionic exclusion column. Reologyc property modification was studied and compared with that for cow milk. It was proved that, despite the absence of lactose as substrate, soymilk acidification during this process can be explained by lactic acid production and that soymilk solid content influences acid production and changes in viscosity. 

  19. A NEW METHOD FOR SAFETY CULTURE EVALUATION IN PROCESS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; VIDAL, Mario Cesar Rodríguez; GRECCO, Cláudio Henrique dos Santos; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The culture of any organization that deals with safe-critical processes should be centered on safety. Safety culture reflects human awareness of the significant destructive capability of process plants when control is lost, and the recognition that strict attention to safety is essential to achieve the expected benefits. Safety culture appeared as paradigmatic change in the safety approach for process plants in the aftermath of the Chernobyl and Bhopal accidents. The Internati...

  20. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Limiting dilution analysis has been used in the context of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to determine anti-recipient interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies, which in several studies have been predictive of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently...... of IL-4 detection was not due to high amounts of soluble IL-4 receptor. With the use of 1x10(6) responder cells/well in HLA-mismatched MLC, we found limited IL-4 accumulation still increasing at day 12. We conclude that the CT.h4S bioassay is a reliable and specific method for quantification of IL-4...... accumulation in cultures of human MNC. The difference in optimal timing for IL-2 (day 3) and IL-4 (>/=day 12) detection and evidence of very low IL-4 producing HTLp frequencies makes the relevance of a combined IL-2/IL-4 HTLp assay questionable....

  1. An Evaluation of Sisters of Nia: A Cultural Program for African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Butler, Deborah S.; Allison, Kevin W.; Davis, Trina

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a cultural intervention for increasing cultural values and beliefs. Fifty-nine African American girls in early adolescence participated in a 15-session cultural program or in an activity comparison group. Measures of ethnic identity, gender roles, and relational aggression were administered…

  2. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  3. Molybdate modulates mitogen and cyclosporin responses of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelis, Fotios V; Delitheos, Andreas; Tiligada, Ekaterini

    2011-07-01

    The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is an essential component of key physiological systems in animals, plants and microorganisms. The molybdate oxoanion MoO(4)(2-) has been demonstrated to cause diverse yet poorly understood biochemical and pharmacological effects, such as non-specific inhibition of phosphatases and stabilization of steroid receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of molybdate on the activation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) ex vivo and its potential interaction with the widely used immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA). Lymphocyte activation was evaluated by performing multiple experiments determining blastogenesis in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 5 healthy volunteers, following stimulation induced by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), in the absence or presence of 0.05-10 mM sodium molybdate or/and 2.5-30 μg/mL CsA. Blastogenesis was assessed by a morphometric assay based on the relative proportions of unactivated lymphocytes, activated lymphoblasts and cells with aberrant morphology after PHA-induced activation. Molybdate concentrations up to 1 mM showed no effect on lymphocyte blastogenesis, while higher concentrations exerted immunosuppressive actions on cultured hPBLs. Co-administration of 0.1 mM sodium molybdate with CsA, at doses up to 20 μg/mL, induced no alteration in the response of cultured hPBLs to CsA. However, molybdate potentiated the immunosuppressive action of higher CsA concentrations, implying a likely dose-related synergistic interaction of the two agents in PHA-stimulated blood lymphocytes. These observations are indicative of the possible biological importance of molybdate oxoanions in the modulation of hPBL activation that may have pharmacological consequences during the therapeutic application of immunomodulatory drugs.

  4. Genotoxicity test of self-renovated ceramics in primary human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Nan; Zhu, Huifang; Zhuang, Jing; Chen, Liping

    2014-12-01

    Zirconia-based ceramics is widely used in dentistry. Different compositions of ceramics have different features. Our self-renovated ceramics become more machinable without scarifying its dental restoration properties after adjusting ratio of lanthanum phosphate (LaPO4)/yttrium oxide (Y2O3). In order to evaluate its safety, here, we tested its genotoxicity in primary human peripheral lymphocytes. The human lymphocytes cultured on three groups of different ratios of LaPO4/Y2O3 diphase ceramics for 6 days showed little effect of growth inhibition and similar effect of growth trend to the negative control. Furthermore, single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) indicated that there was no significant difference of the value of tail moment between the tested ceramics and negative control, the IPS Empress II (P > 0.05). Our findings implicate that our self-renovated ceramics do not induce DNA damages in human peripheral lymphocytes and support their future clinic application.

  5. Absolute lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count in monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, Northwest Ethiopia: retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschalew Gelaw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the use of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count among HIV infected patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy laboratory from December 2011 to May 2012. Data on CD4+ cell count, total lymphocyte count, sex, and age were collected from 2964 HIV infected patients and analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software. Results: Total lymphocyte count was significantly correlated with CD4+ cell count (P<0.001; r 2 =0.434. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of total lymphocyte count<1 200 cells/mm3 to predict CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3 was 57.8%, 86.4%%, 34.1%, 86.39%, respectively. A total lymphocyte count<1 000cells/mm3 was found to have suboptimal sensitivity (69.0%, and specificity (85.0% for predicting a CD4+ cell count <200 cells/ mm 3 . Conclusions: Total lymphocyte count and CD4+ cell count was positively correlated. Hence, lymphocyte count less than or equal to 1 000/mm3 can be used as a cutoff value in place where there is no CD4+ cell counting machine.

  6. [Radiation-induced "bystander effect" revealed by means of adaptive response in cocultured lymphocytes from humans of different genders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, I S; Vorobtsova, I E

    2011-01-01

    The "bystander effect" was investigated in mixed cultures of lymphocytes from humans of opposite genders. Development of the adaptive response (AR) in non-irradiated female/male cells was estimated after adaptive pretreatment of opposite gender lymphocytes, chromosome aberrations being evaluated. Experiments were performed using two schedules of adaptive (0.05 Gy) and challenging (1 Gy) irradiations: G0-G1 and G1-G1. The results obtained indicate the development of a mediated adaptive response ("bystander effect") in the lymphocytes neighboring pre-irradiated cells, as well as the influence of a time scheme of adapting and challenging irradiations on the amount of induced chromosome aberrations in mixed cultures and a possible dependence of the adaptive response intensity on the donor gender.

  7. Contribution of the PET/CT with F.D.G. to evaluate the tri therapy and the lymphocyte reconstitution in patients infected by HIV; Apport de la TEP/TDM au FDG pour l'evaluation de la tritherapie et de la reconstitution lymphocytaire chez les patients infectes par le VIH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, F.; Yeddes, I.; El Bez, I.; Evangelista, E.; Meignan, M.; Itti, E. [CHU Henri-Mondor, Service de medecine nucleaire, 94 - Creteil (France); Lelievre, J.D.; Levy, Y. [CHU Henri-Mondor, service immunologie clinique, 94 - Creteil (France); Cheynier, R. [Institut Pasteur, service de virologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: HIV infection is accompanied by impairment of lymphoid organs that can be detected by PET / CT with F.D.G.. The purpose of this study was to correlate lymphocyte reconstitution with the metabolic activity of lymphoid organs. Conclusions: PET / CT with F.D.G. is an appropriate assessment tool to evaluate the effect of antiviral treatment in lymphoid organs. In addition, she is helping to understand the mechanisms of lymphocyte reconstitution under triple therapy. (N.C.)

  8. Polysaccharide-Rich Fraction of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) as Doxorubicin Co-Chemotherapy: Evaluation of Catalase, Macrophages, and TCD8+ Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmito, Ediati; Hertiani, Triana; Novlita Renggani, Tiya; Jaya Laksana, Brata

    2015-01-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) has been acknowledged for its cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity. Our previous results on the immunomodulatory effect of a noni juice polysaccharide-rich fraction encouraged this research to evaluate the potency of the polysaccharide-rich fraction as co-chemotherapy with doxorubicin (DOX) administration. Macrophage activity (MA) was evaluated with the latex bead method. The phagocytic index (PI) was measured as the number of latex beads ingested by 100 macrophages, while the phagocytosis ratio (PR) was indicated by the percentage of macrophages that ingested three or more latex beads. The CEC was evaluated by using a commercial assay kit, while CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated using a flowcytometry method following in vivo administration. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 each). The control group received DOX via i.p. at a concentration of 4.67 mg/kg BW on days 1 and 4; four treatment groups received PF p.o. at a concentration of 25; 50; 100; 200 mg/kg BW daily, respectively, and additionally DOX i.p. 4.67 mg/kg BW (days 1 and 4) for 7 days. The phagocytic activity was not affected significantly by PF administration compared to the Dox control, but PF administration at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg BW has been proven to increase TCD8+ cell proliferation in combination with DOX. The catalase concentration, on the other hand, significantly decreased following PF administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. The results suggest that the polysaccharide-rich fraction of noni juice might induce immunomodulatory effects via TCD8+ activation, have antioxidant activity, and thus might be a potential candidate to be used as an adjuvant to DOX chemotherapy.

  9. Evaluation of the organizational cultural competence of a community health center: a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca; Olavarria, Marcela; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim; Marchant, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Cultural competence is an important component of client-centered care in health promotion and community health services, especially considering the changing demographics of North America. Although a number of tools for evaluating cultural competence have been developed, few studies have reported on the results of organizational cultural competence evaluations in health care or social services settings. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a description of a cultural competence evaluation of a community health center serving a diverse population. Data collection included reviewing documents, and surveying staff, management, and the Board of Directors. The organization fully met 28 of 53 standards of cultural competence, partially met 21 standards, and did not meet 2 standards, and 2 standards could not be assessed due to missing information. The advantages and lessons learned from this organizational cultural competence evaluation are discussed. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Specific proliferative response of human lymphocytes to purified soluble antigens from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro cultures and to antigens from malaria patients' sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G;

    1985-01-01

    . The responses were strongest with lymphocytes from individuals infected with falciparum and ovale malaria; vivax malaria infections induced a lower level of response and lymphocytes of unsensitized individuals were little affected. Lymphocytes from unsensitized individuals did not respond to the affinity...

  11. 金属硫蛋白对热应激下体外培养奶牛淋巴细胞的影响%Effect of metallothionein on lymphocyte apoptosis of the dairy cow cultured in vitro under heat stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占今舜; 吴力专; 李丽立; 张彬

    2014-01-01

    本研究的目的在于探讨外源性金属硫蛋白(MT)对热应激下体外培养奶牛淋巴细胞凋亡的影响。将屠宰获取的奶牛脾脏淋巴细胞随机分为4组,每组细胞培养液中MT的终浓度分别为0μg/mL(对照组)、70μg/mL(第Ⅰ组)、140μg/mL(第Ⅱ组)、210μg/mL(第Ⅲ组),同时置于细胞培养箱(37℃、5%CO2)中培养20 h,之后同时置于43℃水浴锅中进行热应激处理1 h,再回细胞培养箱中培养3 h,然后利用形态学观察、RT-PCR等方法进行各项指标的检测。结果如下,1)通过形态学观察和AO/EB染色观察,表明添加MT可以有效缓解热应激对奶牛淋巴细胞的损伤,但缓解效果随 MT浓度的增加而下降;2)第Ⅰ~Ⅲ组的CAT活性、SOD活性和 GSH-Px活性均高于对照组(P<0.01),MDA含量均低于对照组(P<0.01),表明 MT能够有效改善淋巴细胞的抗氧化能力;3)试验Ⅰ~Ⅲ组的Bax基因相对表达量均显著低于对照组(P<0.01),但试验Ⅰ~Ⅲ组Bcl-2基因的表达量和p50基因的表达量均显著低于对照组(P<0.01),表明MT可以调节与细胞凋亡相关基因的表达。综上所述,添加MT可以降低奶牛淋巴细胞死亡率,改善奶牛淋巴细胞抗氧化性能,抑制奶牛淋巴细胞凋亡,以添加终浓度为70μg/mL的 MT效果最好。%The effect of exogenous MT on lymphocyte apoptosis of the dairy cow was studied invitro under heat stress.The splenic dairy cow lymphocytes were divided into 4 groups which had final concentrations of MT 0 (control group),70 (groupⅠ),140 (groupⅡ)and 210μg/mL (groupⅢ).The cells of each group were cul-tured in a cell incubator (37℃,5%CO2 ).After 20 h,the cells of each group were put into water bath pot (43℃)for 1 h,and then recultured in a cell incubator (37℃,5%CO2)for 3 h.Finally,various indexes were tested by observation of morphology and RT-PCR.1)MT added in cell

  12. Cultural divergence and performance evaluation systems: A comparative study of three Serbian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have argued that human resource systems are the business practices most likely to be affected by the cultural context within which they are applied. Among other HRM practices cultural differences significantly affect performance evaluation, causing various difficulties and inefficiencies in the implementation of performance evaluation systems (PES. In order to provide for a deeper understanding of difficulties in the implementation of PES within specific cultural contexts, this paper therefore intends to explore the design and implementation of performance evaluation systems in three Serbian companies. The research findings point out the importance of building more culturally sensitive PES, calling attention to some possible directions, particularly in Serbia.

  13. Evaluation of Patient Safety Culture and Organizational Culture as a Step in Patient Safety Improvement in a Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Afrisya Iriviranty; Dumilah Ayuningtyas; Misnaniarti Misnaniarti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Establishment of patient safety culture is the first step in the improvement of patient safety. As such, assessment of patient safety culture in hospitals is of paramount importance. Patient safety culture is an inherent component of organizational culture, so that the study of organizational culture is required in developing patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate patient safety culture among the clinical staff of a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia and identify organizationa...

  14. Evaluating the European capital of culture that never was : The case of BrabantStad 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Major events such as the European capital of culture (ECOC) are becoming more important as tools for economic, social and cultural regeneration, and therefore it also becomes more important to monitor and evaluate their effects. This article analyses the development of the evaluation process for the

  15. Monitoring Educational Organizations' Culture of Sustainable Consumption: Initiating and Evaluating Cultural Change in Schools and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Patterns of consumption are considered as a main driver of unsustainable development. In the debate, education and educational organizations are unisonous considered as a key player to contribute to a more sustainable socialization of young consumers. Both schools and universities are challenged to become places and life-worlds in which sustainable consumption can be learned and experienced. The objective of this paper was to explore how educational organizations can effectively engage their members in bringing about the aspired transformations and monitoring their effects. Approach: The study used a conceptual approach that included three steps. Firstly, the concept of an educational organization’s Culture Of Consumption (COC was adopted as an analytical frame of reference. In a second step, methodological propositions for changing the organizational COC were discussed drawing on the concepts of mode-2 knowledge production and participatory change management. In a third step, existing tools and approaches to sustainability auditing in the educational context were screened and critically discussed against the background of recent innovations in mode-2 approaches to sustainability evaluation. Results: The findings revealed that while existing sets of indicators did adequately account for key consumption-related organizational operations and to some extent for educational goals and aspirations, they failed to tap the realm of underlying and tacit basic assumptions that substantiate the essence of an organizational COC. To remedy this shortcoming, additional indicators and modifications were proposed. As a synthesis, a synoptic framework of a monitoring system for an educational organization’s COC was presented. Conclusion: The study’s results highlighted the need to develop monitoring frameworks that go beyond assessing operative performances and pay greater attention to reflective, interpretative and deliberative

  16. Promutagen activation of triazine herbicides metribuzin and ametryn through Vicia faba metabolism inducing sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes in vitro and in V. faba root tip meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan M; de la Cruz, Leticia Gómez

    2005-03-01

    The aim of our study was the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro and in root tip meristems of Vicia faba to evaluate the genotoxic effects of metribuzin and ametryn. Direct treatments of these herbicides on human lymphocytes in vitro applied 24 h after the beginning of culture did not induce SCE; however, they showed a cytotoxic effect in the cultures expressed as cellular death. On the contrary, when extracts of V. faba roots, treated for 4 h with metribuzin and ametryn (in vivo activation), were added to the lymphocyte cultures, SCEs were significantly induced with an asymptotic response. Negative responses appeared with the in vitro assays, in which metribuzin and ametryn were added directly to the 48 h lymphocyte cultures for 4 h. Nevertheless, in treatments in which the S10 metabolic mix was added, the SCE frequencies were significantly different to the control, although a concentration-response relationship was only observed with metribuzin. The results showed that both herbicides needed the V. faba metabolism to produce SCE in human lymphocyte cultures. Metribuzin and ametryn applied to V. faba root tip meristems for 4 h increased SCE frequency significantly, and a concentration-response relationship was observed with both herbicides.

  17. A conceptual model for culture change evaluation in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Snow, A Lynn; Allen, Rebecca S; Parmelee, Patricia A; Palmer, Jennifer A; Berlowitz, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and particulars of a new, comprehensive model of nursing home culture change, the Nursing Home Integrated Model for Producing and Assessing Cultural Transformation (Nursing Home IMPACT). This model is structured into four categories, "meta constructs," "care practices," "workplace practices," and "environment of care," with multiple domains under each. It includes detailed, triangulated assessment methods capturing various stakeholder perspectives for each of the model's domains. It is hoped that this model will serve two functions: first, to help practitioners guide improvements in resident care by identifying particular areas in which culture change is having positive effects, as well as areas that could benefit from modification; and second, to emphasize the importance in culture change of the innumerable perspectives of residents, family members, staff, management, and leadership. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of spleen lymphocyte responsiveness to a T-cell mitogen during early infection with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C; Schurig, G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of taeniid infection on the in vitro cellular response of the host was investigated. Infections of Taenia taeniaeformis decreased the ability of spleen cells from susceptible C3H/He mice to respond to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) as early as 2 days postinfection (pi) reaching a suppression peak at day 12 pi. Similar experiments performed with spleen cells from infected BALB/c mice, resistant to the infection, revealed little or no suppression of Con A stimulation. The results suggested that susceptibility to the parasite may be due to its ability to induce a partial suppression of the host's immune system. The role of adherent splenocytes from infected C3H/He mice in the production of a deficient response to Con A during early infection was studied by coculturing experiments. These experiments demonstrated that adherent populations from infected mice did not play a direct role in the Con A-suppressor mechanisms. Concomitant with the suppressor activity an increased background proliferation was observed with nonstimulated splenocytes from C3H/He mice infected with T. taeniaeformis. Plasma from infected mice was able to suppress the response of normal spleen cells to Con A and to stimulate a proliferative response in cultured splenocytes from noninfected animals. The results suggest the presence of factors in the plasma of infected mice which may be modulating the immune response to the parasite.

  19. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado LF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Felipe Casado,1 Amparo Burgos,2 Eva González-Haba,3 Javier Loscertales,4 Tania Krivasi,5 Javier Orofino,6 Carlos Rubio-Terres,7 Darío Rubio-Rodríguez7 1Hematology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; 3Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 4Hematology Deparment, Hospital Universitario De La Princesa, Madrid, Spain; 5Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland; 6Roche Farma SA, Madrid, Spain; 7Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System.Methods: A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment, progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen.Results: In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of direct rhenium-188-labeled anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab for radioimmunotherapy of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Mario de [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: mario.dedecker@health.wa.gov.au; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Slegers, Guido [Department of Medical Imaging of Domestic Animals, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Dierckx, Rudi A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vos, Filip de [Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    Alemtuzumab (Campath, Berlex) is a humanized IgG1 rat monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface CD52 antigen, found on lymphocytes and monocytes. It is being developed for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), autoimmune disease and for the prevention of transplant rejection. This study focused on synthesis, quality control, in vitro evaluation and biodistrubution of {sup 188}Re-labeled alemtuzumab for radioimmunotherapy of B-cell CLL. {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab was synthesized using a direct radiolabeling method. Reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bonds of the antibody was performed with tris-(carboxyethyl)-phosphine (Pierce), using a 1:60 molar excess. Reaction took place at room temperature for 20 min. A PD-10 desalting column was used to purify the reduced antibody from excess phospine. Complexation and transchelation of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4}{sup -} was achieved using sodium gluconate as weak chelator and SnCl{sub 2} as reducing agent. Quality control was done using instant thin-layer chromatography. Binding assays were performed on a CD52-positive cell line (HuT-78). Female NMRI mice were injected intravenously with 20 {mu}g radiolabeled alemtuzumab and killed at preset time intervals for biodistribution studies. Tissues were dissected, weighed and counted for determination of radioactivity. Data were expressed as percentage injected activity per gram of tissue (% IA/g tissue) or as percentage injected activity (% IA). {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab was prepared achieving high radiochemical yields. Labeling efficiency of more than 95% can be obtained using optimal reaction conditions. {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab showed good in vitro stability, remaining intact at 24 h after radiolabeling. In mice, {sup 188}Re-alemtuzumab showed high uptake in the blood (25.10{+-}1.36% IA at 1 h p.i.), followed by a biexponential clearance (t{sub 1/2{alpha}}=4.790 h and t{sub 1/2{beta}}=55.45 h). Increased uptake was observed in kidneys and heart (9

  1. Evaluation of T, B and natural killer lymphocyte in the cervical stroma of HIV-positive and negative patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Adriana A S; Guimarães, Mírian Viviane M B; Michelin, Márcia A; Lodi, Cláudia T C; Lima, Maria Inês M; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Melo, Victor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) are closely associated with oncogenic subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the presence of this virus, it is known that the activation or suppression of immune system is the key to the development, progression and/or regression of cervical lesions. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare the local immune response among HIV-seropositive and seronegative patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia regarding the expression of T lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD20+) and natural killers cells (CD56+) in the cervical stroma. A cross-sectional study of paraffin blocks containing cervical tissue after conization by the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) from 47 HIV-seropositive and 38 seronegative patients with CIN. Cervical stroma immunohistochemistry was performed in the CIN area. The Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical analysis. When HIV-seropositive and seronegative women were compared, the seropositive women had a higher count of CD8+ T lymphocytes (52.1% versus 28.9%, PHIV-seronegative patients with CIN 1 had a low count of CD20+B-lymphocytes (7.1%) in comparison with CIN 1 HIV seropositive and with CIN 2/3 HIV-seronegative patients, respectively 50% (PHIV infection and degree of CIN influenced the cytotoxic lymphocytes inducing an increase in the number of cells high count of CD20+ lymphocytes with CIN 1.

  2. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard ranch (5JA784) on Arapaho National...

  3. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA783

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Case ranch (5JA783) on Arapaho National...

  4. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  5. An alternative to evaluate the efficiency of in vitro culture medium using a logistic regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Furtado Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a culture medium for the in vitro culture of a species is performed using its physical and/or chemical properties. However, the analysis of the experimental results makes it possible to evaluate its quality. In this sense, this work presents an alternative using a logistic model to evaluate the culture medium to be used in vitro. The probabilities provided by this model will be used as a medium evaluator index. The importance of this index is based on the formalization of a statistical criterion for the selection of the adequate culture medium to be used on in vitro culture without excluding its physical and/or chemical properties. To demonstrate this procedure, an experiment determining the ideal medium for the in vitro culture of primary explants of Ipeca [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes] was evaluated. The differentiation of the culture medium was based on the presence and absence of the growth regulator BAP (6-benzilaminopurine. A logistic model was adjusted as a function of the weight of fresh and dry matter. Minimum, medium and maximum probabilities obtained with this model showed that the culture medium containing BAP was the most adequate for the explant growth. Due to the high discriminative power of these mediums, detected by the model, their use is recommended as an alternative to select culture medium for similar experiments.

  6. Role of oxidative stress and intracellular calcium in nickel carbonate hydroxide-induced sister-chromatid exchange, and alterations in replication index and mitotic index in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Human peripheral lymphocytes from whole blood cultures were exposed to either soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-60 {mu}M), or of nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (0-120 {mu}M), or of nickel oxide (NiO) (0-120 {mu}M), or nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) (0-120 {mu}M) for a short duration of 2 h. The treatments occurred 46 h after the beginning of the cultures. The cultures were harvested after a total incubation of 72 h, and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), replication index (RI), and mitotic index (MI) were measured for each nickel compound. The soluble form of NiCH at 30 {mu}M but those of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and NiO at 120 {mu}M produced significant increase in the SCE per cell compared to the control value, whereas NiSO{sub 4} failed to produce any such significant increase. Except NiSO{sub 4}, the soluble forms of NiCH, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and NiO produced significant cell-cycle delay (as measured by the inhibition of RI) as well as significant inhibition of the MI at respective similar concentrations as mentioned above. Pretreatment of human blood lymphocytes with catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or superoxide dismutase (superoxide anion scavenger), or dimethylthiourea (hydroxyl radical scavenger), or deferoxamine (iron chelator), or N-acetylcysteine (general antioxidant) inhibited NiCH-induced SCE, and changes in RI and MI. This suggests the participation of oxidative stress involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical, and iron in the NiCH-induced genotoxic responses. Cotreatment of NiCH with either verapamil (inhibitor of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) movement through plasma membranes), or dantrolene (inhibitor of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum), or BAPTA (Ca{sup 2+} chelator) also inhibited the NiCH-induced responses. These results suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is also implicated in the genotoxicity of NiCH. Overall these data indicate that various types

  7. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  8. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  9. Phenotypic analysis and effects of sequential administration of activated canine lymphocytes on healthy beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yuki; Takagi, Satoshi; Osaki, Tomohiro; Okumura, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Toru

    2008-06-01

    We attempted to accumulate the basic data for evaluation of activated lymphocyte therapy for small animal medicine. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy dogs were activated using anti-CD3 antibody and human recombinant (hr) interleukin (IL)-2 and reactivated using hr interferon (IFN)-alpha and hr IL-2. The property of obtained cells was compared with PBMCs. The number of cells was shown to have increased approximately>50 -fold by cultivation. The proportion of CD8+ cells was significantly increased, the cytotoxicity of the cultured cells was revealed to have been reinforced. Additionally, CD56 mRNA levels tended to have increased. The cells obtained by this method were confirmed to be activated lymphocytes. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of sequential administration of the obtained cells to healthy dogs. By sequential administration of the activated lymphocytes, the cell proliferative activity, proportion of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells, and serum IFN-gamma concentration were shown to have increased, and no severe adverse effects were observed. Consequently, activated lymphocytes could be induced using anti-CD3 antibody and IL-2 in healthy dogs, and sequential administration of activated lymphocytes reinforced the recipient's immunity.

  10. Vincristine-induced bystander effect in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testi, Serena; Azzarà, Alessia; Giovannini, Caterina; Lombardi, Sara [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Piaggi, Simona [Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Pisa University, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Facioni, Maria Sole [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Scarpato, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scarpato@unipi.it [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Research Center of Nutraceuticals and Food for Health, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We studied whether or not vincristine induced a bystander response in human lymphocytes. • Vincristine significantly increased MN frequencies in mononucleated recipient cells. • ROS or soluble proteins (IL-32 and TGF-β) may account for the observed response. - Abstract: Bystander effect is a known radiobiological effect, widely described using ionizing radiations and which, more recently, has also been related to chemical mutagens. In this study, we aimed to assess whether or not a bystander response can be induced in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes by vincristine, a chemotherapeutic mutagen acting as spindle poison, and by mitomycin-C, an alkylating agent already known to induce this response in human lymphoblastoid cells. Designing a modified ad hoc protocol for the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay, we detected the presence of a dose-dependent bystander response in untreated cultures receiving the conditioned medium (CM) from mitomycin-C (MMC) or vincristine (VCR) treated cultures. In the case of MMC, MN frequencies, expressed as micronucleated binucleates, were: 13.5 ± 1.41 at 6 μM, 22 ± 2.12 at 12 μM or 28.25 ± 5.13 at 15 μM vs. a control value of 4.75 ± 1.59. MN levels for VCR, expressed as micronucleated mononucleates were: 2.75 ± 0.88 at 0.0 μM, 27.25 ± 2.30 at 0.4 μM, 46.25 ± 1.94 at 0.8 μM, 98.25 ± 7.25 at 1.6 μM. To verify that no mutagen residual was transferred to recipient cultures together with the CM, we evaluated MN levels in cultures receiving the medium immediately after three washings following the chemical treatment (unconditioned medium). We further confirmed these results using a cell-mixing approach where untreated lymphocytes were co-cultured with donor cells treated with an effect-inducing dose of MMC or VCR. A distinct production pattern of both reactive oxygen species and soluble mediator proteins by treated cells may account for the differences observed in the manifestation of the

  11. Toward Defining, Measuring, and Evaluating LGBT Cultural Competence for Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S.; Andres Bedoya, C.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    A central part of providing evidence-based practice is appropriate cultural competence to facilitate psychological assessment and intervention with diverse clients. At a minimum, cultural competence with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people involves adequate scientific and supervised practical training, with increasing depth and complexity across training levels. In order to further this goal, we offer 28 recommendations of minimum standards moving toward ideal training for LGBT-specific cultural competence. We review and synthesize the relevant literature to achieve and assess competence across the various levels of training (doctoral, internship, post-doctoral, and beyond) in order to guide the field towards best practices. These recommendations are aligned with educational and practice guidelines set forth by the field and informed by other allied professions in order to provide a roadmap for programs, faculty, and trainees in improving the training of psychologists to work with LGBT individuals. PMID:26279609

  12. In Vitro Influence of Mycophenolic Acid on Selected Parameters of Stimulated Peripheral Canine Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Guzera

    Full Text Available Mycophenolic acid (MPA is an active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, a new immunosuppressive drug effective in the treatment of canine autoimmune diseases. The impact of MPA on immunity is ambiguous and its influence on the canine immune system is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine markers of changes in stimulated peripheral canine lymphocytes after treatment with MPA in vitro. Twenty nine healthy dogs were studied. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with mitogens and different MPA concentrations- 1 μM (10-3 mol/m3, 10 μM or 100 μM. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD. The expression of antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, forkhead box P3 [FoxP3] and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] was assessed with monoclonal antibodies. The proliferation indices were analyzed in carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE-labeled cells. All analyses were performed using flow cytometry. The influence of MPA on apoptosis was dependent on the mechanism of cell activation and MPA concentration. MPA caused a decrease in the expression of lymphocyte surface antigens, CD3, CD8 and CD25. Its impact on the expression of CD4 and CD21 was negligible. Its negative influence on the expression of FoxP3 was dependent on cell stimulation. MPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, MPA inhibited the activity of stimulated canine lymphocytes by blocking lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The influence of MPA on the development of immune tolerance-expansion of Treg cells and lymphocyte apoptosis-was ambiguous and was dependent on the mechanism of cellular activation. The concentration that MPA reaches in the blood may lead to inhibition of the functions of the canine immune system. The applied panel of markers can be used for evaluation of the effects of immunosuppressive compounds in the dog.

  13. Platelet-Activating Factor Antagonists Decrease Follicular Dendritic-Cell Stimulation of Human B Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halickman Isaac

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and tonsillar B lymphocytes express receptors for platelet-activating factor (PAF. In lymph node germinal centres, B lymphocytes interact with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, which present antigen-containing immune complexes to B lymphocytes. FDCs have phenotypic features that are similar to those of stromal cells and monocytes and may therefore be a source of lipid mediators. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the PAF antagonist WEB 2170 on the activation of tonsillar B lymphocytes by FDCs. FDCs were isolated from tonsils by Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA gradient centrifugation. After being cultured for 6 to 10 days, they were incubated with freshly isolated B cells in the presence or absence of the specific PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. B-lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and immunoglobulin (Ig G and IgM secretion was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. WEB 2170 (10-6 to 10-8 M inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation by up to 35% ± 3%. Moreover, the secretion of IgG and IgM was inhibited by up to 50% by WEB 2170 concentrations ranging from 10-6 to 10-8 M. There was no evidence of toxicity by trypan blue staining, and the addition of WEB 2170 to B cells in the absence of FDCs did not inhibit the spontaneous production of IgG or IgM. The effect of the PAF antagonist is primarily on B lymphocytes, as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected little PAF receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA from FDCs. These data suggest that endogenous production of PAF may be important in the interaction of B lymphocytes with FDCs.

  14. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved.

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  16. 糖酵解抑制剂3-溴丙酮酸对异基因小鼠混合培养脾细胞增殖的影响及其机制初步研究%Effect of glycolytic inhibitor 3-BrPA on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse splenic lymphocytes in mixed lymphocytes culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周睿卿; 王静; 邱大发; 牛晓敏; 郭子文; 何慧清; 许晓军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of glycolytic inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse spleen lymphocytes and explore its mechanism.Methods An one-way mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) system was established,including BALB/c mouse spleen cells (H-2d) as stimulator and C57BL/6 mouse spleen cells (H-2b) as responder.With treatment of 3-BrPA at different concentrations (0-200 μmol/L),lymphocyte proliferation capacity was detected by the CCK-8 method,the expression of CD3,CD4,and CD8 by flow cytometry,and the concentrations of cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the supernatant by ELISA.Results At a middle or high dose (over 20 μmol/L),3-BrPA displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in the MLC system.The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.6,41.2,and 41.9 μmol/L after 24,36,and 48 h culture,respectively.With treatment of 50 μmol/L 3-BrPA,the IFN-γ level [(164.25±20.14) ng/L] was significantly lower,compared with control [(277.61 ± 18.46) ng/L].The IL-4 level [(31.06 ± 6.06)ng/L] was significantly higher,compared with control [(28.64 ± 3.97) ng/L].Consequently,the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio decreased significantly.Conclusions These results indicate that 3-BrPA had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes cultured in MLC system,accompanied with the Th2-biased secretion of cytokines.%目的 研究糖酵解抑制剂3-溴丙酮酸(3-BrPA)对单向混合培养的异基因小鼠脾细胞增殖的影响及其机制.方法 以BALB/c(H-2d)小鼠脾细胞为刺激细胞,以C57BL/6(H-2b)小鼠脾细胞为反应细胞,建立单向混合淋巴细胞培养(MLC)体系,给予不同浓度3-BrPA(0~200 μmol/L)处理后,采用CCK-8法检测淋巴细胞增殖活性,流式细胞术检测MLC体系中反应细胞CD3、CD4、CD8等表面标志表达,ELISA法检测MLC体系上清中IL-4、IFN-γ等细胞因子水平.结果 CCK-8检测结果显示,高浓度(20

  17. Integration Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Cultured in Modeled Microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Girardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs incubated in microgravity condition, simulated by a ground-based rotating wall vessel (RWV bioreactor. Our results show that 42 miRNAs were differentially expressed in MMG-incubated PBLs compared with 1 g incubated ones. Among these, miR-9-5p, miR-9-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-150-3p, and miR-378-3p were the most dysregulated. To improve the detection of functional miRNA-mRNA pairs, we performed gene expression profiles on the same samples assayed for miRNA profiling and we integrated miRNA and mRNA expression data. The functional classification of miRNA-correlated genes evidenced significant enrichment in the biological processes of immune/inflammatory response, signal transduction, regulation of response to stress, regulation of programmed cell death, and regulation of cell proliferation. We identified the correlation of miR-9-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-150-3p, and miR-378-3p expression with that of genes involved in immune/inflammatory response (e.g., IFNG and IL17F, apoptosis (e.g., PDCD4 and PTEN, and cell proliferation (e.g., NKX3-1 and GADD45A. Experimental assays of cell viability and apoptosis induction validated the results obtained by bioinformatics analyses demonstrating that in human PBLs the exposure to reduced gravitational force increases the frequency of apoptosis and decreases cell proliferation.

  18. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by parainfluenza virus type 3-infected bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaraba, R J; Brown, P R; Laegreid, W W; Silflow, R M; Evermann, J F; Leid, R W

    1993-06-01

    Lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) or antigen in the presence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) infected bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) or monocytes, had depressed [3H]thymidine incorporation. This failure of lymphocytes to incorporate radiolabel required live virus, was time dependent and was most pronounced when BAM were infected for 48 hr prior to the addition of lymphocytes. The rate of infection of alveolar macrophages and the release of infectious virus into culture supernatants paralleled suppression of lymphocyte mitogenesis by PIV-3. However, the peak titre of exogenous, live or inactivated virus was not suppressive when added to lymphocyte macrophage cultures just prior to Con A stimulation. Neither the loss of viable alveolar macrophages nor a shift in antigen or mitogen dose response in virally infected cultures could account for the deficit in [3H]thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes. Despite the presence of lymphocyte-associated virus antigen detected by direct immunofluorescence, no increase in PIV-3 titre above baseline was seen from infected lymphocytes, irrespective of mitogen stimulation. Likewise, lymphocytes did not contribute to the extracellular virus pool in lymphocyte-macrophage cultures as the increases in viral titre above basal levels in supernatants were equal to levels released by macrophages alone. The expression of viral antigen on lymphocytes stimulated in the presence of PIV-3-infected BAM suggests a non-productive or abortive infection of lymphocytes mediated through contact with infected macrophages.

  19. Evaluation of conidia production and mycelial growth in solid culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FATIMAYALBERTO

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... solid culture media for the determination of the production of conidia and mycelial growth of twenty- five native isolates from the Mexican states of Sinaloa, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo .... sucrose, lactose, maltose and polysaccharides such as ..... fermentation and the substrate in the production of Trichoderma.

  20. Theoretical Framework for Evaluation of Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    Considers six types of cross-cultural training including general, specific, affective, cognitive, behavioral and self-insight, and examines the quantity and timing of the training and the attributes of the trainers and the trainees. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903,…

  1. AN EVALUATION OF THE URHOBO CULTURAL CONCEPTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    journey, it has a destination. However, the ... Ogirisi: a new journal of African Studies vol 11 2015. 45 .... They occupy the southern portion of the Benin lowland and the .... women as passed on by the forebears, the definition of culture could.

  2. Evaluation of Bacterial & Fungal Culture Practices in School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of activities may be undertaken in elementary and secondary school science laboratories as part of regular curricular activities or optional classroom activities, including science fair projects. Among these is the culturing of microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. There are various potential educational opportunities associated…

  3. Culture and identification of mouse bone marrow derived DCs that induce T lymphocyte proliferation%小鼠骨髓来源树突状细胞培养鉴定和诱导T淋巴细胞增殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昆; 拜合提亚·阿扎提; 王文光; 安尼瓦尔·牙生; 王玉杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method of inducing and culturing dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow in vitro,and observe their biological feature and function of stimulating T lymphocytes proliferate in different stages. Methods: Mononuclear cells isolated from mouse bone marrow were induced into dendritic cells by being cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4,and then examined from aspects of morphology,phenotype and function. Results:Modality of mononuclear cells diversified after being cultured in CM-CSF and IL-4 for 3 days,and growthing clustered-liked. When culturing for S days,typical morphology with dendritic processes can be observed. A large number of morphologically typical dendritic cells were observed after culturing for 8 days,under scan electron microscope. DCs displayed typical morphology with dendritic processes and high expressed specific marker of bone marrow derived DC-CD11c and costimulatory molecules of CD40,CD80,CD86 and MHC-Ⅱ. Mature BMDC could stimulate syngenic and allogenic mixed lymphocyte proliferation. Conclusion: A large number of dendritic cells can be generated by culturing the mononuclear cells derived from mouse bone marrow in vitro, and thus will lay a foundation for future research in producing the anti-tumor vaccine.%目的:建立一种体外诱导培养小鼠树突状细胞(DCs)的方法,并观察其不同生长阶段生物学形态及刺激淋巴细胞增殖的能力。方法:联合应用粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)、白细胞介素-4(IL-4)诱导培养小鼠骨髓单个核细胞向DCs分化,并从形态学、表型及功能方面对其加以检测。结果:用GM-CSF和IL-4诱导培养小鼠骨髓来源的单核细胞,3 d后可见细胞形态改变,并呈集簇生长,培养至5 d可见典型的树突状突起,体外诱导培养8 d后获得大量成熟的DCs,扫描电镜可见典型的树突状细胞形态,高表达骨髓来源DCs特异性标记CD11c和共刺激分子CD40、CD80、CD86和MHC-Ⅱ

  4. The educational evaluation in Brazil: from the transfer cultural to emancipatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ignacio Calderón

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the historical trajectory of educational assessment in the Brazilian academic scenario, pointing out the influence of American literature on the Brazilian scientific production, its models break as well as the efforts in order to construct a theory and a practical assessment applied to the Brazilian reality. It supports the hypothesis that educational evaluation is still an area of knowledge that is in process of setting up and strengthening in the country, the last two decades enabled them to overcome the named «cultural transfer» in the field of scientific production, allowing the constitution and hegemony of an approach grounded on a emancipatory political-pedagogical character in the scientific community

  5. Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis promote proliferation of keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-mei; ZHONG Ren-qian; CHEN Sun-xiao; ZHOU Ye; KONG Xian-tao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of lymphocytes on proliferation of keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Lymphocytes in lesion and peripheral blood were isolated and amplified, then cultured together with normal keratinocytes. By MTT method, the living cells were quantified in the mixed culture.Results: Compared with normal controls, lymphocytes from lesion and peripheral blood of psoriasis both promote the proliferation of keratinocytes (P<0. 01 and P<0. 05 respectively). The concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the mixture of lesion lymphocytes and keratinocytes were significantly higher than that of controls.Tripterygium glycosides inhibited this promotion. Conclusion: Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis (mainly Thl cell) play an important role in proliferation of keratinocytes. This psoriasis cell model is useful for studies on signal transduction in psoriasis.

  6. National and Organizational Culture, Performance Evaluation and Trust: Evidence from Multinational Company Subsidiary in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unggul Purwohedi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of national and organizational culture on the relationship between accounting and trust in a subsidiary of a Western Multi-National Company (MNC in Indonesia. This study use a qualitative field study of one French MNC subsidiary and interview four expatriate directors, nine Indonesian managers and 10 Indonesian employees. Key themes were identified with the assistance of NVivo software. In this study, accounting, through formal performance evaluation, contributes to trust building between supervisors and their subordinates. Formal performance evaluation through transparent and objective evaluation increases trust in the supervisor. On the other hand, informal performance evaluation tends to decrease trustful behaviour due to secrecy in the evaluation process.  It appears that Indonesian national culture does influence organizational culture preference in the local staff. Individuals share national culture as a result of values developed from family, religion, education, and experience. 

  7. Lymphocytic colitis: A clue to bacterial etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanaa EA Helal; Naglaa S Ahmed; Osama Abo El Fotoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To find out the role of bacteria as a possible etiological factor in lymphocytic colitis.METHODS: Twenty patients with histopathological diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis and 10 normal controls were included in this study. Colonoscopic biopsies were obtained from three sites (hepatic and splenic flexures and rectosigmoid region). Each biopsy was divided into two parts. A fresh part was incubated on special cultures for bacterial growth. The other part was used for the preparation of histologic tissue sections that were examined for the presence of bacteria with the help of Giemsa stain.RESULTS: Culture of tissue biopsies revealed bacterial growth in 18 out of 20 patients with lymphocytic colitis mostly Escherichia coli(14/18), which was found in all rectosigmoid specimens (14/14), but only in 8/14 and 6/14 of splenic and hepatic flexure specimens respectively. In two of these cases, E coliwas associated with proteus. Proteus was found only in one case, Klebsiella in two cases, and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. In the control group, only 2 out of 10 controls showed the growth of E coliin their biopsy cultures.Histopathology showed rod-shaped bacilli in the tissue sections of 12 out of 14 cases with positive E coliin their specimen's culture. None of the controls showed these bacteria in histopathological sections.CONCLUSION: This preliminary study reports an association between E coliand lymphocytic colitis, based on histological and culture observations. Serotyping and molecular studies are in process to assess the role of E coliin the pathogenesis of lymphocytic colitis.

  8. Does Teacher Evaluation Mediate the Effect of Cultural Capital on Educational Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asta Breinholt; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This study analyzes whether teachers' evaluations of children's academic skills mediate the effect of cultural capital on educational performance. We use ECLS-K data with repeated measures on children in 1st, 3rd and 5th grade and apply fixed effects models, that control for unobserved time...... invariant child and family characteristics. The analysis shows that teacher evaluations have positive effect on educational performance, but that cultural capital has no effect on teacher evaluations. Instead cultural capital has a direct positive effect on educational performance....

  9. Suppressive effects of antigens on the activity of specific activated lymphocytes: A test to define the specificity of activated lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; PAN Sheng-jun; CAI Zhen-jie; GUAN De-lin; LIU Xiao-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:With the regular mixed lymphocytes culture (MLC) to detect the allograft rejection, the reactivity of the activated lymphocytes (primed lymphocytes) of a recipient shows sometimes increase and sometimes decrease against the antigens from the donor, which is inconsistent with the clinical results. In order to establish a convenient method for testing the specificity of the activated lymphocytes in vitro, so as to know the rejection occurred or not by testing the existence of the specific activated lymphocytes against donor's HLA antigens in the recipient's peripheral blood. Methods: Anti-IL-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-2 N-mAb) and immunosuppressors were introduced in this test system in the presence of specific stimulators and activated lymphocytes. Results: When the activated lymphocytes were chosen from the one-way MLC 4 d to undergo re-stimulation by specific stimulators, the activity of activated lymphocytes in the treatment group was suppressed significantly compared with that in the control group. The result of this test method is consistent with the biopsy in the clinical diagnosis of rejection.Conclusion :It suggests that the activated lymphocytes can be inactivated by specific antigens in certain conditions. This can be a useful tool to define the specificity of the activated lymphocytes.

  10. Comparison of the effects of polysaccharides from wood-cultured and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum on murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation in vitro%段木栽培及袋栽灵芝多糖对体外培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立珍; 林志彬

    2003-01-01

    目的比较段木栽培灵芝多糖(wood-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Gl-PS-WC) 及袋栽灵芝多糖(bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Gl-PS-BC)对体外培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖活性的影响,探讨袋栽灵芝多糖替代段木栽培灵芝多糖的可能性. 方法检测两种灵芝多糖对混合淋巴细胞培养(MLC)反应的影响;观察对刀豆蛋白A (Con A)、细菌脂多糖(LPS)诱导淋巴细胞增殖的影响以及对环孢素A (CsA)、丝裂霉素C(Mit C)、足叶乙苷(VP-16) 等抑制MLC反应的影响.结果当质量浓度为0.2~12.8 mg*L-1时,两种灵芝多糖均可促进MLC反应,增强Con A或LPS诱导的淋巴细胞增殖,并拮抗CsA, Mit C或VP-16对MLC反应的抑制作用.未发现两种多糖之间有显著性差异.结论 Gl-PS-WC及Gl-PS-BC对体外培养脾淋巴细胞的增殖活性有类似作用.%Aim To compare the influences of wood-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS-WC) and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS-BC) on the proliferation activities of murine spleen lymphocytes in vitro, and investigate whether Gl-PS-BC can be substituted for Gl-PS-WC. Methods Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reaction, lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A, 1 mg*L-1) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg*L-1), MLC reactions inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.1 mg*L-1), mitomycin (Mit C, 0.1 mg*L-1), or antitumor drug, etoposide (VP-16, 0.1 mg*L-1), were detected in the presence or absence of Gl-PS-WC and Gl-PS-BC in the concentration range of 0.2-12.8 mg*L-1. Results Two kinds of polysaccharides were shown to promote MLC in the range of 0.2-12.8 mg*L-1, increase lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS and antagonize the inhibitory effects of CsA, Mit C or VP-16 on MLC. No significant difference was observed between these two kinds of polysaccharides in selected concentrations. Conclusion Gl-PS-WC and Gl-PS-BC showed similar effects

  11. Apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes induced by mouse sertoli cells in cocultures in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; LIN Zi-hao; ZHU Xiao-hai; LIU Shan-rong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study whether mouse sertoli cells can induce the apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes in cocultures in vitro. Methods: With TUNEL, DNA electrophoresis, eleetro-mierography and flow cytometry, we examined the apoptosis and its rates of mouse matured T lymphocytes in control group (T lymphocytes only), group A (T lymphocytes + culture medium of sertoli cells), group B (T lymphocytes + sertoli cells). Results: Under electro-micrography, chromatin condensation, karyopyknosis, karyorhexis and apoptotic body were observed in some T lymphocytes in 3 groups; some nucleuses were stained dark blue with TUNEL; a typical DNA ladder was found with DNA electrophoresis. The apoptotic rates of T lymphocytes in group A and B were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The apoptotic rate of T lymphocytes in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P<0.01). Conclusion: In coculture condition in vitro,mouse sertoli cells can induce the apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes.

  12. Carbon nanotube-mediated delivery of nucleic acids does not result in non-specific activation of B lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Dong [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Doughty, Cheryl A [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Potocky, Terra B [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Dufort, Fay J [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Huang Zhongping [NanoLab, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Blair, Derek [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Kempa, Krzysztof [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Ren, Z F [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Chiles, Thomas C [Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)

    2007-09-12

    The efficient delivery of genes and proteins into primary mammalian cells and tissues has represented a formidable challenge. Recent advances in the research of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer much promise for their use as delivery platforms into mammalian cells. Ideally, CNT-mediated applications should not result in cellular toxicity nor perturb cellular homeostasis (e.g., result in non-specific activation of primary cells). It is therefore critical to evaluate the impact of CNT exposure on the cellular metabolism, proliferation and survival of primary mammalian cells. We investigated the compatibility of a recently developed CNT-mediated delivery method, termed nanospearing, with primary ex vivo cultures of B lymphocytes. Several parameters were evaluated to assess the impact of CNTs on naive B lymphocytes, including cell survival, activation, proliferation and intracellular signal transduction. Our results indicate that nanospearing does not result in the activation of naive primary B lymphocytes nor alter survival in ex vivo cultures. Herein, B cells exposed to CNTs were capable of responding to extrinsic pro-survival signals such as interleukin-4 and signaling by the B-cell antigen receptor in a manner similar to that of B cells cultured in the absence of CNTs. Our study demonstrates the biocompatibility of the CNT-mediated nanospearing procedure with respect to primary B lymphocytes.

  13. Cultural cognition in the thinking-aloud method for usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  14. Biocompatibility of alloys used in orthodontics evaluated by cell culture tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locci, P; Marinucci, L; Lilli, C; Belcastro, S; Staffolani, N; Bellocchio, S; Damiani, F; Becchetti, E

    2000-09-15

    The cytotoxicity of the most common alloys used in orthodontic appliances was determined by cell culture testing. Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured on 304 and 316 stainless steel, on brazing alloy composed of palladium (Pd), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag), and on plastic substrate (control). Studies were carried out with SEM and radiolabeled precursor incorporation. Cells were cultured in MEM without serum but with the addition of (3)H-thymidine to evaluate cell proliferation and (3)H-glucosamine to evaluate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis and secretion in the culture medium. Moreover, gingival fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of some metal ions generally released by orthodontic appliances to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of single ions. Morphologic observations with SEM and radiolabeled incorporation studies showed that 304 and 316 stainless steel were more biocompatible than the brazing alloy. Among the metal ions tested, Ag and Pd, constituents of the brazing alloy, showed the highest cytotoxicity.

  15. Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Brey, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other extreme, one finds those who lament the harms and disadvantages of the Internet, and who consider it a grave danger to existing social structures and institutions, to culture, morality and human r...

  16. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Luis Felipe; Burgos, Amparo; González-Haba, Eva; Loscertales, Javier; Krivasi, Tania; Orofino, Javier; Rubio-Terres, Carlos; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb) versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb) in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. Methods A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment), progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen. Results In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was €23,314 and €24,838, respectively. The results proved stable in most of the univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, with a probabilistic cost per QALY gained of €24,734 (95% confidence interval: €21,860–28,367). Conclusion Using GClb to treat patients with previously untreated CLL for whom full-dose fludarabine-based therapy is unsuitable allows significant gains in terms of LYs and QALYs versus treatment with RClb. Treatment with GClb versus RClb can be regarded as efficient when considered the willingness to pay thresholds commonly used in Spain. PMID:27703384

  17. Does lean management improve patient safety culture? An extensive evaluation of safety culture in a radiotherapy institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Houben, Ruud; Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    The importance of a safety culture to maximize safety is no longer questioned. However, achieving sustainable culture improvements are less evident. Evidence is growing for a multifaceted approach, where multiple safety interventions are combined. Lean management is such an integral approach to improve safety, quality and efficiency and therefore, could be expected to improve the safety culture. This paper presents the effects of lean management activities on the patient safety culture in a radiotherapy institute. Patient safety culture was evaluated over a three year period using triangulation of methodologies. Two surveys were distributed three times, workshops were performed twice, data from an incident reporting system (IRS) was monitored and results were explored using structured interviews with professionals. Averages, chi-square, logistical and multi-level regression were used for analysis. The workshops showed no changes in safety culture, whereas the surveys showed improvements on six out of twelve dimensions of safety climate. The intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased in accordance with the decreasing number of reports in the IRS. However, the intention to take action in order to prevent future incidents improved (factorial survey presented β: 1.19 with p: 0.01). Due to increased problem solving and improvements in equipment, the number of incidents decreased. Although the intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased, employees experienced sustained safety awareness and an increased intention to structurally improve. The patient safety culture improved due to the lean activities combined with an organizational restructure, and actual patient safety outcomes might have improved as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Cultural Competence of Pediatric Oncology Nurses at a Teaching Hospital: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eche, Ijeoma Julie; Aronowitz, Teri

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated registered nurses' self-ratings of cultural competence on the hematology/oncology unit at a large Northeastern urban children's hospital. The Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals was used to measure 5 constructs of cultural competence. The study findings show that there were significant correlations between the knowledge and skill subscales (ρ = .57, P cultural desire (mean = 15.5), indicating that nurses were motivated to engage in the process of becoming culturally competent. The lowest mean among the 5 subscales was cultural knowledge (mean = 11.2), followed by cultural skill (mean = 11.8), indicating that nurses did not perceive themselves to be well informed in these areas. The findings from this pilot study suggest that nurses on this pediatric oncology unit are most likely to possess cultural desire and cultural awareness, but there is certainly opportunity to engage and educate the staff. Targeted interventions to improve cultural competence on this inpatient unit are being explored and a larger scale study is being planned to assess the cultural competence of nurses across the hospital.

  19. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Good sources include the National Cancer Institute, the ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/basics/definition/CON-20042915 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  20. Evaluation of predictive tools for cell culture clarification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senczuk, Anna; Petty, Krista; Thomas, Anne; McNerney, Thomas; Moscariello, John; Yigzaw, Yinges

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in the productivity of industrial mammalian cell culture processes have resulted in part in increased cell density. This increase and the associated increase in cellular debris are known to challenge harvest operations, however this understanding is limited and largely qualitative. Part of the issue arises from the heterogeneous size and composition of cellular debris, which makes harvest feed stream extremely difficult to characterize. Improved characterization methods would facilitate the development of clarification approaches that are consistent and scalable. This work describes how both particle size and cholesterol analysis can be used to characterize the feed stream. Particle size analysis by focused beam reflectance and dynamic light scattering are shown to be predictive of centrate filterability under certain harvest conditions. Because of the particle size range limitations of each detector, their applicability is limited to a particular stage or method of clarification. The measurement of cholesterol present in the cell culture supernatant or centrate was successfully used in providing relative amount of lysed cellular debris and enabled us to predict clarification performance of acid precipitated harvest regardless of particle size distribution profile. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Shiota

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives were to compare the numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from asthmatic patients and from healthy subjects, and to determine the effect of inhaled anti-asthmatic steroid therapy on these cell numbers. Hypertonic saline inhalation was used to non-invasively induce sputum samples in 34 patients with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy subjects. The sputum samples were reduced with dithioerythritol and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. To assess the effect of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP on induced sputum, numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in sputum also were evaluated after 4 weeks of BDP inhalation treatment in seven asthmatic patients. An adequate sample was obtained in 85.3% of patients with asthma and in 79.2% of the healthy subjects. Induced sputum from patients with asthma had increased numbers of lymphocytes (P = 0.009; CD4+ cells (P = 0.044; CD4+ cells-bearing interleukin-2 receptor (CD25; P = 0.016; and CD4+ cells bearing human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR (P = 0.033. CD8+ cells were not increased in asthmatic patients. In patients treated with inhaled steroids, numbers of lymphocytes, CD4+ cells, CD25-bearing CD4+ cells and HLA-DR-bearing CD4+ cells in sputum decreased from pretreatment numbers (P = 0.016, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Analysis of lymphocytes in induced sputum by flow cytometry is useful in assessing bronchial inflammation, and activated CD4+ lymphocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.

  2. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Induced sputum evaluation in restorers and conservators of cultural heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Trošić, Ivančica; Varnai, Veda Marija; Pavičić, Ivan; Macan, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine induced sputum (IS) cells profile from restorers/conservators of cultural heritage (restorers) with no lower airway symptoms and normal ventilatory lung function. The study involved 22 restorers and 48 control workers. Medical interview, physical examination, spirometry, skin prick testing to inhalatory allergens, and IS collection were performed. Compared with control workers, restorers demonstrated higher percentage of neutrophils (34% vs 15.5%; p = .004). This pattern was found only in male workers. They had almost 9 times greater chance to have increased proportion of sputum neutrophils than male controls (odds ratio [OR] 8.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-40.7). The mobilization of eosinophils or macrophages into the airways was not established regardless of workers sex. Additional gender difference in sputum cells distribution was found for occupationally unexposed subjects, with higher proportion of sputum neutrophils in women.

  4. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  5. Building a Culture of Growth and Evaluation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that there are four key ingredients to a growth mindset in schools: observation, dialog, feedback, and investment. In addition, teachers and supervisors need to be jointly invested in the growth mindset of the school. The author suggests that if a school is considering a new faculty evaluation system, it is crucial that…

  6. Building a Culture of Growth and Evaluation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that there are four key ingredients to a growth mindset in schools: observation, dialog, feedback, and investment. In addition, teachers and supervisors need to be jointly invested in the growth mindset of the school. The author suggests that if a school is considering a new faculty evaluation system, it is crucial that…

  7. Evaluation of radio-induced DNA damage and their repair in human lymphocytes by comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis; Avaliacao do dano radioinduzido no DNA e reparo em linfocitos humanos pelo metodo do cometa (single cell gel electrophoresis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Patricia A. do; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The comet assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis technique, permits to evaluate quantitatively DNA breakage induced by chemical and physical agents at the level of the single cell. The present paper refers to the construction of dose-response curves to DNA damage and repair studies in human peripheral lymphocytes, utilizing the comet assay for the radiosensitivity analysis. So, the blood samples were obtained from healthy donors (40-50 year old), irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source (GAMMACEL 220) with doses of 0.17, 0.25, 0.57, 1.10, 2.12 and 4.22 Gy (0.59 Gy/min.) and processed 1 and 24 hours after the exposition. Results obtained showed a increase in the total lenght of comet (DNA migration) as a function of radiation dose in samples processed 1 and 24 hours after the treatment. The DNA lesion in irradiated lymphocytes with 4.22 Gy (means value of 101.4 {mu}m) were 3.4 times higher than in the untreated lymphocytes (mean value of 30 {mu}m) instead of 24 hours after the irradiation were 1.5 times higher (mean value of 46.3 {mu}m). This reduction on DNA repair occurred in these cells. It was also possible visualized the presence of subpopulations of the cells with different sensitivity and repair capacity to ionizing radiation in these donors. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Cultural competence in mental health care: a review of model evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Kwame

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural competency is now a core requirement for mental health professionals working with culturally diverse patient groups. Cultural competency training may improve the quality of mental health care for ethnic groups. Methods A systematic review that included evaluated models of professional education or service delivery. Results Of 109 potential papers, only 9 included an evaluation of the model to improve the cultural competency practice and service delivery. All 9 studies were located in North America. Cultural competency included modification of clinical practice and organizational performance. Few studies published their teaching and learning methods. Only three studies used quantitative outcomes. One of these showed a change in attitudes and skills of staff following training. The cultural consultation model showed evidence of significant satisfaction by clinicians using the service. No studies investigated service user experiences and outcomes. Conclusion There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of cultural competency training and service delivery. Further work is required to evaluate improvement in service users' experiences and outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of urine culture screening by light-scatter photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.C.; Thrupp, L.D.; Matsen, J.M.

    1981-08-01

    Urine screening for bacteriuria by light-scatter photometry (Autobac) was evaluated for accuracy and compared with a colony count by the calibrated loop method. Incubation time, inoculum size, precision, and interference of particulate matter were evaluated in an effort to standardize the screening procedure. Results showed that urines could be accurately screened for Enterobacteriaceae by inoculating a single Autobac cuvette chamber with 0.1 or 0.2 ml of urine and determining the voltage change after four hours. A change of greater than or equal to 0.2 units indicates significant bacteriuria. Decreased accuracy was noted for urines having greater than 10(5) cfu/ml of Pseudomonas species or gram-positive cocci, possibly because these organisms grow more slowly.

  10. Wartime Test and Evaluation; Initiatives Lead to Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-14

    Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision; Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona; and White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico , and each specializes in...MRTFBs, led to the “ Uber Lean” process of evaluating each test center’s mission, functions and core competencies. That analysis identified each test...facilities that could be eliminated. The outcome led to the development of investment strategies from a holistic DTC perspective. The DTC “ Uber Lean

  11. Mutagenic biomonitoring of pirethroid insecticides in human lymphocyte cultures: use of micronuclei as biomarkers and recovery by Rosa canina extracts of mutagenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimoglu, Caner; Uysal, Handan

    2015-05-01

    Insecticides are used to control pests. Cypermethrin and fenvalerate are widely used pirethroid insecticides in the world. Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) is used as a traditional medicinal plant against viral infections and disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract due to its high vitamin C level. The genotoxic effects of cypermethrin and fenvalerate were examined with the micronucleus (MN) test. Then, we determined the ability of the water (RC(wtr)) and ethanol (RC(eta)) extracts of rosehip (R. canina) to overcome the possible genotoxic effects of the insecticides. Preliminary studies determined that the application concentrations were 20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm for cypermethrin, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for fenvalerate, and 100 ppm for rosehip extracts. DMSO (dimethyl sulphoxide) (1%) and 1 mM EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) were used as negative and positive control groups, respectively. The application groups belonging to insecticides and plant extracts were added to culture tubes including chromosome B medium and peripheral blood for MN test. The MN frequencies were found 0.725 in the negative control group, 2.700 in the positive control groups, 1.275 in the highest application group of cypermethrin, and 1.600 in the highest application group of fenvalerate. The MN frequencies in cypermethrin + RC(wtr), cypermethrin + RC(eta), fenvalerate + RC(wtr), and fenvalerate + RC(eta) application groups were, respectively, determined as 1.000, 1.075, 1.225, and 1.275. According to the results, cypermethrin and fenvalerate have genotoxic effects, the water and ethanol extracts of rosehip reduced the genotoxicity of the both insecticides.

  12. The cross-culture impact on managing business: an evidence from culture, performance evaluation practices, and trust in a Western Multinational Company’s subsidiary in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Purwohedi, Unggul

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural influence on organizational practices, performance evaluation process and trust on supervisors in a Multinational Company (MNC) in Indonesia. Amongst studies of national culture and MNCs there appears to have been no studies investigating the interaction between cross-culture, performance evaluation, and trust. Therefore, I conducted a case study research in one French MNC in Indonesia to understand this process. I int...

  13. Evaluation of a PCR for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Nielsen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A PCR for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was evaluated. All of 102 field isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae reacted in the PCR by amplification of a 985 bp product. No PCR amplification product was observed when examining strains of A. ureae, A. capsulatus, A. hominis, A. equuli, A...... strains of A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR test was 10(3) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/PCR test tube and was not affected by addition of 10(6) E. coli CFU/PCR test tube. Mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of 101 pigs from 9 different herds were tested by culture and by PCR using four...... mixed bacterial cultures. Tonsil cultures from 50 pigs from an A. pleuropneumoniae-negative herd did not react in the PCR. The results show that PCR on mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils may be a highly sensitive method for the detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in pig herds....

  14. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    is an emerging evidence that T cell-induced apoptosis is a dominant effector mechanism ... Patients were subjected to clinical evaluation with special ... The percentage of CD95 on T-lymphocytes could not be ..... Correlation between CD3 lymphocytes and CD95 antigen .... control.36 On the other hand, Tchórzewski et al.1.

  15. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  16. Evaluation of ten commercial blood culture systems to isolate a pyridoxal-dependent streptococcus.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of ten commercial blood cultures to support the growth of a nutritional variant Streptococcus mitior (pyridoxal-dependent). The abilities of two established and two new agar formulations are also reported. The dependable isolation of a fastidious streptococcus can best be obtained with fastidious anaerobe broth (FAB) (Lab M Ltd, Ford Lane, Salford) for blood cultures in conjunction with one of the new media. FAB agar with the addition of heated blood was found...

  17. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) culture water recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Sánchez O; Wilmer Sanguino O.; Ariel Gómez C.; Roberto García C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tu...

  18. Deriving equity from expectations: A cross-cultural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops and evaluates a new model for predicting just rewards. The model produces point predictions for individual just rewards based on status characteristics and the expected value of a valued good. The equity model borrows from Berger and colleagues' (1998) reward expectations theory the ability to define different reward expectations. Drawing from Melamed and Walker's (2010) recent generalization of the mathematics of reward expectations theory, I illustrate how the model generates a continuous distribution of just rewards. The general model is applied to data from thirteen countries using the International Social Justice Project. The results illustrate the predictive power of the model using data from over 10,000 respondents. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  19. Protective effect of apigenin on radiation-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Tungjai, Montree; Whorton, Elbert B.

    2005-01-01

    The potential use of flavonoids as a radioprotector is of increasing interest because of their high antioxidant activity and abundance in the diet. The aim of this study is to examine genotoxic and radioprotective effects of one of the most common flavonoids, apigenin, on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was used to evaluate such effects of apigenin. Blood samples were collected from two non-smoking healthy male volunteers who had no history of previous exposure to other clastogenic agents. Isolated lymphocytes were cultured. There were two tubes per concentration for all treatments. To evaluate the genotoxicity of apigenin, cells were first treated with different concentrations of apigenin (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 25 microg/mL) at 24 h after culture initiation, followed by cytochalasin-B (Cyt-B) treatment (3 microg/mL) and cell harvest at 44 and 72 h, respectively. Secondly, to investigate the radioprotective effect, cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of apigenin as described above for 30 min before being irradiated to 2 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (at a dose rate of 0.75 Gy/min). In all instances, the frequency of MN was scored in binucleated (BN) cells. The nuclear proliferation index also was calculated. We did not detect an increase in the frequency of MN in non-irradiated human lymphocyte cultures treated with 2.5, 5.0 or 10 microg/mL apigenin; although, we did observe an increase in cultures treated with 25 microg/mL apigenin (the highest concentration of apigenin used in our study). We also observed a significant increase in the frequency of MN in irradiated cells overall; however, the frequency was decreased as the concentration of apigenin increased, suggesting a radioprotective effect. These findings provide a basis for additional studies to help clarify the potential use and benefit of apigenin as a radioprotector.

  20. Evaluation of a PCR assay on overgrown environmental samples cultured for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Labrecque, Olivia; Paré, Julie; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the definitive antemortem test method for paratuberculosis. Microbial overgrowth is a challenge for MAP culture, as it complicates, delays, and increases the cost of the process. Additionally, herd status determination is impeded when noninterpretable (NI) results are obtained. The performance of PCR is comparable to fecal culture, thus it may be a complementary detection tool to classify NI samples. Our study aimed to determine if MAP DNA can be identified by PCR performed on NI environmental samples and to evaluate the performance of PCR before and after the culture of these samples in liquid media. A total of 154 environmental samples (62 NI, 62 negative, and 30 positive) were analyzed by PCR before being incubated in an automated system. Growth was confirmed by acid-fast bacilli stain and then the same PCR method was again applied on incubated samples, regardless of culture and stain results. Change in MAP DNA after incubation was assessed by converting the PCR quantification cycle (Cq) values into fold change using the 2(-ΔCq) method (ΔCq = Cq after culture - Cq before culture). A total of 1.6% (standard error [SE] = 1.6) of the NI environmental samples had detectable MAP DNA. The PCR had a significantly better performance when applied after culture than before culture (p = 0.004). After culture, a 66-fold change (SE = 17.1) in MAP DNA was observed on average. Performing a PCR on NI samples improves MAP culturing. The PCR method used in our study is a reliable and consistent method to classify NI environmental samples.

  1. Vincristine-induced bystander effect in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Serena; Azzarà, Alessia; Giovannini, Caterina; Lombardi, Sara; Piaggi, Simona; Facioni, Maria Sole; Scarpato, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Bystander effect is a known radiobiological effect, widely described using ionizing radiations and which, more recently, has also been related to chemical mutagens. In this study, we aimed to assess whether or not a bystander response can be induced in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes by vincristine, a chemotherapeutic mutagen acting as spindle poison, and by mitomycin-C, an alkylating agent already known to induce this response in human lymphoblastoid cells. Designing a modified ad hoc protocol for the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay, we detected the presence of a dose-dependent bystander response in untreated cultures receiving the conditioned medium (CM) from mitomycin-C (MMC) or vincristine (VCR) treated cultures. In the case of MMC, MN frequencies, expressed as micronucleated binucleates, were: 13.5±1.41 at 6μM, 22±2.12 at 12μM or 28.25±5.13 at 15μM vs. a control value of 4.75±1.59. MN levels for VCR, expressed as micronucleated mononucleates were: 2.75±0.88 at 0.0μM, 27.25±2.30 at 0.4μM, 46.25±1.94 at 0.8μM, 98.25±7.25 at 1.6μM. To verify that no mutagen residual was transferred to recipient cultures together with the CM, we evaluated MN levels in cultures receiving the medium immediately after three washings following the chemical treatment (unconditioned medium). We further confirmed these results using a cell-mixing approach where untreated lymphocytes were co-cultured with donor cells treated with an effect-inducing dose of MMC or VCR. A distinct production pattern of both reactive oxygen species and soluble mediator proteins by treated cells may account for the differences observed in the manifestation of the bystander effect induced by VCR. In fact, we observed an increased level of ROS, IL-32 and TGF-β in the CM from VCR treated cultures, not present in MMC treated cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of PFOS-mediated neurotoxicity in rat primary neurons and astrocytes cultured separately or in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Chang; Li, Chunna; Li, Yachen; Li, Shuangyue; Liu, Xiaohui; Shao, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a potential neurotoxicant reported by epidemiological investigations and experimental studies, while the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Astrocytes not only support for the construction of neurons, but also conduct neuronal functions through glutamate-glutamine cycle in astrocyte-neuron crosstalk. In the present study, the effect of PFOS exposure on rat primary hippocampal neurons or cortex astrocytes was evaluated. Then the role of the astrocytes in PFOS-induced toxic effect on neurons was explored with astrocyte-neuron co-culture system. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to PFOS has led to oxidation-antioxidation imbalance, increased apoptosis and abnormal autophagy. The adverse effect of PFOS on rat primary cortex astrocytes manifested in the form of altered extracellular glutamate and glutamine concentrations, decreased glutamine synthase activity, as well as decreased gene expression of glutamine synthase, glutamate transporters and glutamine transporters in the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Especially, the alleviation of PFOS-inhibited neurite outgrowth in neurons could be observed in astrocyte-neuron co-culture system, though the ability of astrocytes in fostering neurite outgrowth was affected by PFOS. These results indicated that both astrocytes and neurons might be the targets of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity, and astrocytes could protect against PFOS-inhibited neurite outgrowth in primary cultured neurons. Our research might render some information in explaining the mechanisms of PFOS-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  4. T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niblack, G.D.; Kateley, J.R.; Gengozian, N.

    1977-01-01

    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vascular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields >95% T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yields >95% B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens.

  5. Some Experiences in 3D Laser Scanning for Assisting Restoration and Evaluating Damage in Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, L. M.; Finat, Javier; Fernández-Martin, J. J.; Martínez, J.; SanJose, J. I.

    The recent incorporation of laser devices provides advanced tools for assisting the conservation and restoration of Cultural Heritage. It is necessary to have as complete as possible understanding of the object state before evaluating or defining the reach of the restoration process. Thus, a special effort is devoted to surveying, measuring and generating a high-resolution 3D model prior to restoration planning. This work presents results of several experiments performed on damaged pieces for evaluation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Some software tools are applied for carving-work analysis, conservation-state monitoring, and simulation of weathering processes for evaluating temporal changes. In all cases considered, a high resolution information capture has been performed with a laser scanner, the Minolta 910. Our approach is flexible enough to be adapted to other kinds of pieces or Cultural Heritage artefacts, in order to provide an assessment for intervention planning in conservation and restoration tasks.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes Efeito imunomodulador de hipoglicemiantes orais em cultura de linfócitos de pacientes com diabetes tipo 2

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin) on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulate...

  7. The evaluation of staphylococci strains isolated from nasal and bone cultures in patients with chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uluğ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, it was aimed to determine theprevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus in chronic osteomyelitis,assessed trends in methicillin resistance withtime, and evaluated the bone and nasal cultures in staphylococcalchronic osteomyelitis.Materials and methods: Bone and nasal cultures wereperformed intra-operative and pre-operatively from 43patients with chronic osteomyelitis. Inoculation was performedon 5% sheep blood and eosine-methylen-blueagar. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours.Catalase and coagulase tests were performed on Grampositive coccus strains. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of allS. aureus strains were evaluated by disc diffusion methodaccording to CLSI for oxacillin and other antibiotics.Results: In this study pre-operative nasal cultures andintra-operative bone cultures obtained between May 2005and September 2006 were evaluated retrospectively. Ofthe 43 nasal cultures, 31 (72% yielded staphylococcalstrain, of these 18 (58% were S. aureus. Of the 18 S.aureus strains, 13 (72.2% have methicilline resistance.On the other hand, of the 43 bone cultures, 29 (67.4%yielded staphylococci strain, of these 23 (79.3% were S.aureus. Of the 23 S. aureus strains, 52.1% have methicillineresistance. Overall the similarity rate of staphylococcalstrains was 38% (11/29, while considering the statusof strains resistant to antibiotics; this ratio was 24% (7/29.Conclusions: Nasal S. aureus carriage rate (58% in patientswith chronic osteomyelitis was higher than the communityand the other patient groups. However, the surveillancecultures can give knowledge about the causativepathogen of 25% of the culture negative cases.Key words: Chronic osteomyelitis, nasal carriage, Staphylococcusaureus, bone culture

  8. Development and evaluation of a porcine in vitro colon organ culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Matheus O; Harding, John C S; Hill, Janet E

    2016-10-01

    The intestinal mucosa comprises a complex assemblage of specialized tissues that interact in numerous ways. In vitro cell culture models are generally focused on recreating a specific characteristic of this organ and do not account for the many interactions between the different tissues. In vitro organ culture (IVOC) methods offer a way to overcome these limitations, but prolonging cell viability is essential. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and optimal conditions for in vitro culture of swine colonic mucosa for use as an enteric pathogen infection model. Explants (n = 168) from commercial pigs (n = 12), aged 5 to 10 wk, were used to assess the impact of various culture protocols on explant viability. Explants were cultured for up to 5 d and formalin fixed at 24-h intervals. Following establishment of the culture protocol, explants (n = 208) from 13 pigs were evaluated at Day 0 and 5 of culture. Assessment of viability was based on histological changes (tissue architecture evaluated by H&E, immunostaining of cell proliferation marker Ki-67) and expression of genes encoding IL-1α, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and e-cadherin. After 5 d in culture, 20% of explants displayed over 80% of epithelial coverage, whereas 31% of explants had more than 50% of their surface covered by columnar epithelium, and 81% had crypts but with a decreased number of Ki-67-positive cells when compared to Day 0. Notably, large variability in explant quality was observed between donor pigs. Best possible explants were obtained from the distal colon of pigs, processed immediately after euthanasia, cultured at the liquid-tissue-gas interface in media supplemented with a mixture of antibiotics and antifungals and an oxygen-rich gas mix.

  9. Growth evaluation of Lentinula edodes in solid medium cultures for mycelium production as inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas E Valeska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shitake (Lentinula edodes Pegler jumbo strain growth was evaluated in different solid mediums and growth substrates for spawn production. Mycelium growth was tested in three culture mediums (MYA, OMYA, PDYA at two pHs (5, 5.5, using two eucalyptus sawdust percentages (0.3%, 0.2%. Analysing variance revealed significant differences in culture medium (P0.05. The liquid inoculation technique was used for evaluating mushroom spawn production using five different combinations of eucalyptus sawdust and wheat grain, finding significant differences between treatments, the best combination for shiitake growth being 80% wheat grain and 20% eucalyptus sawdust.

  10. Evaluation of an intervention to improve blood culture practices: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, P; Maillet, M; Vitrat-Hincky, V; Recule, C; Vittoz, J-P; Guyomard, A; Seigneurin, A; François, P

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention to improve blood culture practices. A cluster randomised trial in two parallel groups was performed at the Grenoble University Hospital, France. In October 2009, the results of a practices audit and the guidelines for the optimal use of blood cultures were disseminated to clinical departments. We compared two types of information dissemination: simple presentation or presentation associated with an infectious diseases (ID) specialist intervention. The principal endpoint was blood culture performance measured by the rate of patients having one positive blood culture and the rate of positive blood cultures. The cases of 130 patients in the "ID" group and 119 patients in the "simple presentation" group were audited during the second audit in April 2010. The rate of patients with one positive blood culture increased in both groups (13.62 % vs 9.89 % for the ID group, p = 0.002, 15.90 % vs 13.47 % for the simple presentation group, p = 0.009). The rate of positive blood cultures improved in both groups (6.68 % vs 5.96 % for the ID group, p = 0.003, 6.52 % vs 6.21 % for the simple presentation group, p = 0.017). The blood culture indication was significantly less often specified in the request form in the simple presentation group, while it remained stable in the ID group (p = 0.04). The rate of positive blood cultures and the rate of patients having one positive blood culture improved in both groups. The ID specialist intervention did not have more of an impact on practices than a simple presentation of audit feedback and guidelines.

  11. Comparative evaluation of cell culture-adapted and chicken embryo-adapted fowl pox vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S

    1999-01-01

    Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively.

  12. Lymphocyte subpopulations in Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Araslı, Mehmet; Yazıcı, Zihni Acar; Armutçu, Ferah; Tekin, Ishak Özel

    2013-06-01

    The role of autoimmunity in the development of Sheehan's syndrome is obscure. There are a limited number of studies investigating the immunological alterations accompanying Sheehan's Syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional clinical study. Cytofluorometry was used for the immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with Sheehan's syndrome followed up in the endocrine clinic during 2005-2009. Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 61.6 ± 11.3, range 34-75 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 56.7 ± 10.6, range 34-80 years) were included. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age. The percentages of CD19(+), CD16(+)/56(+), CD8(+)28(-), γδTCR(+), CD8(+); the total lymphocyte counts; and the ratio of CD8(+)28(-)/CD8(+)28(+) were similar (p > 0.05) between patients and controls. Whereas the leucocyte counts (p = 0.003), the percentage of CD3 (+) DR (+) (p Sheehan's syndrome compared to healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between the duration of illness and the percentage of CD3(+)DR(+) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) expression. Some peripheral lymphocyte cell subsets show marked variation in patients with Sheehan's syndrome in comparison to matched healthy subjects, which may have implications for altered immune regulation in these patients. High CD3 (+) DR (+) expression that correlates with the duration of illness in Sheehan's patients is suggestive of an ongoing inflammation accompanying the slow progression of pituitary dysfunction in Sheehan's syndrome. It is not clear if these cellular alterations contribute to the cause or consequence of pituitary deficiency in Sheehan's syndrome.

  13. LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. M. Kapuler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Forty-two patients with progressive vulgar psoriasis (PASI = 19.7 ± 1.5 and 40 healthy volunteers were under investigation. Psoriatic patients were characterized by increased number of CD4+ CD95+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes, which correlates with clinical psoriatic score, and by increased levels of soluble Fas (sFas in serum, as compared to controls (resp., 1868.1 ± 186.8 pg/ml vs. 1281.4 ± 142.5 pg/ml, PLSD = 0.019. The levels of spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis and anti-Fas (Mab-induced apoptosis in psoriatic patients did not differ from the controls. However, apoptosis induced by “oxidative stress” (50 M Н202, 4 hrs was depressed in the patients. Moreover, a simultaneous assessment of cell cycle structure (metachromatic staining with Acridine Orange, apoptosis and Fas receptor expression (AnnV-FITC/antiFas mAbs-PE staining following a short-term mitogenic stimulation (PHA-P, 5 µg/ml, 24 hrs were performed. We found no marked differences in mitogenic reactivity, activation-induced apoptosis, and activation-induced Fas receptor expression when studying lymphocytes from healthy donors and psoriatic patients. However, PHA-activated lymphocytes from psoriatic patients displayed a significantly decreased ratio of AnnV+CD95+ to the total AnnV+ subpopulation, thus suggesting a decreased role of Fas-dependent mechanisms of apoptosis during the cell activation. The data obtained confirm a view, that an abnormal lymphocyte “apoptotic reactivity”, which plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of autoimmunity, may also of importance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  14. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that activated C1s complement and activated T cells cleave beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in vitro leading to the formation of desLys58 beta2m. This process can specifically be inhibited by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). Furthermore we showed that exogenously added desLys58...... beta2m in nanomolar amounts to a one-way allogenic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) increased the endogenous production of IL-2 and the generation of allo-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. C1-inh was purified from fresh human plasma and added to human or murine MLC and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte...... of allospecific cytotoxic activity, and changed the endogenous production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma. These data clearly demonstrate a regulatory function of C1-inh on T cell-mediated immune functions....

  15. Influence of gamma-irradiation on telomere length of cultured human lymphocytes%γ射线辐射对人淋巴细胞端粒长度影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭月凤; 张睿凤; 张慧芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨γ射线辐射对人淋巴细胞平均端粒长度的影响。方法培养非洲淋巴细胞瘤病毒转化正常人B淋巴细胞( Peng-EBV细胞),接受钴-60γ射线照射,剂量率为0.96 Gy/min,吸收剂量分别为0.2、0.6、1.6、3.0和6.0 Gy;以不进行照射的细胞作为对照组。分别收集照射后24、48和72 h细胞样品,提取基因组DNA。采用定量聚合酶链式反应( Q-PCR)法检测样品平均端粒长度。分析γ辐射影响人淋巴细胞端粒长度的剂量-效应和时间-效应。结果端粒标准DNA的标准曲线为Ct=B+M ×lg D=35.264-3.339 lg D(相关系数=0.964,P<0.05)。γ射线单次照射可导致Peng-EBV细胞在照射后24~72 h端粒长度较同时间点对照组延长(P<0.05)。在0.0~1.6 Gy剂量范围内,γ射线诱导的Peng-EBV细胞端粒长度在照射后48 h有随剂量增加而增加的趋势(P<0.05)。0.6和1.6 Gy 2个剂量组的端粒延长幅度有随照后时间延长而增大的趋势(P<0.05)。结论Q-PCR方法适用于淋巴细胞绝对端粒长度检测。γ射线单次照射可以导致Peng-EBV细胞平均端粒长度增加。%Objective To investigate the effect of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on average telomere length of human lymphocytes.Methods Epstein-Barr virus transformated human B homeocyte lines ( Peng-EBV cells) were cultured, and then were exposed to 60 Coγ-ray at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min.The absorbed doses were 0.2, 0.6, 1.6, 3.0, and 6.0 Gy, respectively.The Peng-EBV cells without irradiation exposure were selected as control group.The sample cells were collected after irradiation for 24, 48, and 72 hours respectively and genome DNA was extracted.The average telomere length of samples was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( Q-PCR) .Then, the time-effect and dose-effect of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on the telomere length of human lymphocytes

  16. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  17. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety culture values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabrera, D; Hernández-Fernaud, E; Isla-Díaz, R

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this research is to evaluate a safety culture measuring instrument centred upon relevant organisational values and practices related to the safety management system. Seven dimensions that reflect underlying safety meanings are proposed. A second objective is to explore the four cultural orientations in the field of safety arising from the competing values framework. The study sample consisted of 299 participants from five companies in different sectors. The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the competing values framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed.

  18. Evaluation of Lo"wenstein-Jensen Medium Culture,MGIT 960 Culture and Different Specimen Types inDiagnosis of Bone and Joint Tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guirong Wang[1; Weijie Dong[2; Liping Zhao[1; Xia Yu[1; Suting Chen[1; Yuhong Fu[1; Shibing Qin[1; Hairong Huang[1

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate L-J (Lo"wenstein-Jensen) medium culture, MGIT 960 culture anddifferent specimen types in diagnosis of BJTB (bone and joint tuberculosis). Methods:: Specimens of pus, caseous necrosis,tuberculous granuloma and sequestrum were collected from 52 BJTB patients. All specimens were cultured using both MGIT 960system and L-J medium; and all pus were amplified using real-time PCR to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. KeyFindings: A total of 191 specimens were collected. Granuloma had better chance to produce positive outcomes by L-J mediumculture, while for sequestrum MGIT 960 culture had higher yield, but there was no significant difference in the recovery rates amongdifferent types of specimen either by L-J culture (Z2 = 0.638, P = 0.888) or by MGIT960 culture (Z2 = 1.399, P = 0.706). MGIT960culture had significantly higher recovery rate than L-J culture, With a combined culture and PCR-based test, the recovery rate of pusspecimen was significantly higher than that of either method alone (P 〈 0.05). Conclusion: MGIT 960 culture is superior to L-Jculture in BJTB diagnosis; pus, sequestrum, granuloma and caseous necrosis are usable specimen for mycobacterial culture;combination of culture and molecular techniques can provide a better diagnostic significance.

  19. Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic methods for direct identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bauerle, Elizabeth R; Fang, Ferric C; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    The identification of organisms from positive blood cultures generally takes several days. However, recently developed rapid diagnostic methods offer the potential for organism identification within only a few hours of blood culture positivity. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three commercial methods to rapidly identify organisms directly from positive blood cultures: QuickFISH (AdvanDx, Wolburn, MA), Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture (BC-GP; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with Sepsityper processing (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, MA). A total of 159 blood cultures (VersaTREK Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) positive for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeast were analyzed with QuickFISH and MALDI-TOF MS. In all, 102 blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. For monomicrobial cultures, we observed 98.0% concordance with routine methods for both QuickFISH (143/146) and the BC-GP assay (93/95). MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated 80.1% (117/146) and 87.7% (128/146) concordance with routine methods to the genus and species levels, respectively. None of the methods tested were capable of consistently identifying polymicrobial cultures in their entirety or reliably differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from viridans streptococci. Nevertheless, the methods evaluated in this study are convenient and accurate for the most commonly encountered pathogens and have the potential to dramatically reduce turnaround time for the provision of results to the treating physician.

  20. Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: emotional and cognitive evaluations of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro; Lucas, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB), people's emotional and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Personality dispositions such as extraversion, neuroticism, and self-esteem can markedly influence levels of SWB. Although personality can explain a significant amount of the variability in SWB, life circumstances also influence long-term levels. Cultural variables explain differences in mean levels of SWB and appear to be due to objective factors such as wealth, to norms dictating appropriate feelings and how important SWB is considered to be, and to the relative approach versus avoidance tendencies of societies. Culture can also moderate which variables most influence SWB. Although it is challenging to assess SWB across societies, the measures have some degree of cross-cultural validity. Although nations can be evaluated by their levels of SWB, there are still many open questions in this area.

  1. Can Cultural Competence Be Taught? Evaluating the Impact of the SOAP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin-Burque, Angie; Zugazaga, Carole B.; Davis-Maye, Denise

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the Self and Other Awareness Project (SOAP) cultural competence development model and presents the results of a study that evaluated its impact on the racial attitudes of 110 undergraduate students enrolled in an undergraduate interdisciplinary Minority Groups course at a mid-sized public university in the Southeastern…

  2. A sandwiched-culture technique for evaluation of heterologous protein production in a filamentous fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgeirsdottir, SA; Scholtmeijer, K; Wessels, JGH

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is known for its efficient excretion machinery. However, problems have often arisen in obtaining high amounts of heterologous proteins in the culture medium. Here we present a quick method using sandwiched colonies to evaluate transgenic strains for secretion of heterologous protei

  3. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  4. Evaluating the Male and Female Students' Welcome of the Cultural-Art Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghian, Masomeh; Saadatmand, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the welcome of culture-art plans in the high schools of Khomeyni Shahr City from perspectives of the educational coaches and students in the 2013. The present study is a descriptive-survey research. The statistical population of this study includes the educational coaches and students participating in the…

  5. ROLE OF CD95 AND DR3 RECEPTORS IN NA VE T-LYMPHOCYTES APOPTOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS DURING CONVALESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Filatova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is a widespread disease caused by certain members of Herpesviridae family. Acute infectious mononucleosis develops predominantly in children and is accompanied by an increase of the number of circulating naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The normalization of immunological parameters is achieved within 4–6 months after recovery and that is an indicator of a proper functioning of the immune system. CD95 and DR3 death receptors are involved in the initiation of apoptosis of naive T-lymphocytes in healthy people and in patients with infectious mononucleosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of CD95 and DR3 receptors to initiate apoptosis of naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in children with infectious mononucleosis during convalescence. The material for the study was the samples of the peripheral blood of children who previously had infectious mononucleosis. The blood sampling was carried out again after 4–6 months after the disease. At the time of the study, children did not display clinical and laboratory signs of infectious mononucleosis. Same children who were examined earlier in the period of the development of acute infectious mononucleosis, as well as relatively healthy children were used as the comparison groups. Isolation of naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes was performed by negative magnetic immunoseparation. For specific stimulation of CD95 and DR3 receptors monoclonal antibodies were used. The level of apoptosis and expression of death receptors were evaluated by flow cytometry. Freshly isolated cells were analyzed, as well as cells cultured with the addition of appropriate monoclonal antibodies. It was shown that the recovery period was accompanied by increased apoptosis of freshly isolated naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes compared with the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis. Thus in both populations of naive T-cells showed an increase of

  6. Evaluation of Patient Safety Culture and Organizational Culture as a Step in Patient Safety Improvement in a Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

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    Afrisya Iriviranty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishment of patient safety culture is the first step in the improvement of patient safety. As such, assessment of patient safety culture in hospitals is of paramount importance. Patient safety culture is an inherent component of organizational culture, so that the study of organizational culture is required in developing patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate patient safety culture among the clinical staff of a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia and identify organizational culture profile. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, qualitative study was conducted in a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2014. Sample population consisted of nurses, midwives, physicians, pediatricians, obstetrics and gynecology specialists, laboratory personnel, and pharmacy staff (n=152. Data were collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. Results: Teamwork within units” was the strongest dimension of patient safety culture (91.7%, while “staffing” and “non-punitive response to error” were the weakest dimensions (22.7%. Moreover, clan culture was the most dominant type of organizational culture in the studied hospital. This culture serves as a guide for the changes in the healthcare organization, especially in the development of patient safety culture. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, healthcare providers were positively inclined toward the patient safety culture within the organization. As such, the action plan was designed through consensus decision-making and deemed effective in articulating patient safety in the vision and mission of the organization.

  7. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  8. An intrinsic GABAergic system in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Leonardo; José De Rosa, María; Bouzat, Cecilia; Esandi, María Del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an ubiquitous neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also present in non-neuronal cells. In this study we investigated the presence of neuronal components of the GABAergic system in lymphocytes and its functional significance. By using RT-PCR we detected mRNA expression of different components of the GABAergic system in resting and mitogen-activated lymphocytes: i) GAD67, an isoform of the enzyme that synthetizes GABA; ii) VIAAT, the vesicular protein involved in GABA storage; iii) GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-2); iv) GABA-T, the enzyme that catabolizes GABA; and v) subunits that conform ionotropic GABA receptors. The presence of VIAAT protein in resting and activated cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. The functionality of GABA transporters was evaluated by measuring the uptake of radioactive GABA. The results show that [(3)H]GABA uptake is 5-fold higher in activated than in resting lymphocytes. To determine if GABA subunits assemble into functional channels, we performed whole-cell recordings in activated lymphocytes. GABA and muscimol, a specific agonist of ionotropic GABA receptors, elicit macroscopic currents in about 10-15% of the cells. Finally, by using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays, we determined that the presence of agonists of GABA receptor during activation inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. Our results reveal that lymphocytes have a functional GABAergic system, similar to the neuronal one, which may operate as a modulator of T-cell activation. Pharmacological modulation of this system may provide new approaches for regulation of T-cell response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Building relationships and facilitating immigrant community integration: An evaluation of a Cultural Navigator Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebecca L; Chiarelli-Helminiak, Christina M; Ferraj, Brunilda; Barrette, Kyle

    2016-04-01

    Despite the long history of immigration in the United States, communities around the country struggle to integrate newcomers into the economic, cultural, and political spheres of society. Utilizing results from the program evaluation of one public library's Cultural Navigator Program, the authors illustrate how communities and public institutions can promote integration and relationship-building between newly arrived immigrants and long-time residents. Existing social networks within receiving communities, conceptualized in this article as social capital, were leveraged to build capacity among newly arrived immigrants and foster inclusivity and integration at the community level. As a place of intervention, public libraries are suggested as a safe and shared space where community integration can be fostered. Insights derived from the evaluation inform a discussion on engaging approaches to immigrant integration. Lessons learned and recommendations for program evaluators and administrators are provided.

  10. Evaluation and mapping of cultural services in terraced landscapes. The case study of the Amalfi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Gravagnuolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscapes are a key resource for sustainable development. Among them, terraced landscapes are classified as “evolutive living” landscapes (UNESCO, 2012, an expression of the historical interrelationship between man and his territory. Currently many terraced landscapes are considered at risk because of the changed socio-economic conditions. The need for conservation and effective management of change of this exceptional heritage poses the question of identification of functions and complex values of the landscape, taking into account the needs, views and preferences of local communities. This study aims to identify the terraced landscape values and services based on the ecosystem services theory. It is addressed the issue of evaluation and mapping of cultural services in terraced landscape, with reference to the site of the Amalfi Coast in Campania. The categories of services have been evaluated with the involvement of the local community through a semi-structured questionnaire administered online. The integration of multi-criteria evaluation and spatial analysis in GIS (Geographic Information System has led to the construction of maps of cultural services, which allow displaying the complex relations that link communities to the landscape. The tools for collaborative mapping (Volunteered Geographic Information – VGI have been used for the construction of some of the maps of cultural services, integrating the results of the questionnaire with data related to the direct experience of the users.

  11. DHT and IGF-1 in peripheral blood lymphocytes: new markers for the biological passport of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, A; Imperlini, E; Alfieri, A; Spaziani, S; Martone, D; Parisi, A; Orru, S; Buono, P

    2013-01-01

    We performed a pilot study using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as a novel system to identify new biomarkers of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) abuse in sport. First, to obtain a gene signature, we treated cultures of lymphocytes from sedentary males with three doses of 0.237 microg/ml DHT, each of which is 80-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum, at days 0, 2 and 4, or with a single dose of 1.25 microg/ml IGF-1, which is 5-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum. We then used the Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarray to identify a gene signature related to DHT or IGF-1 administration. Gene expression was evaluated after 7 and 21 days of DHT treatment, and after 24 h, 72 h and 7 days of IGF-1 treatment. Microarray analysis yielded a list of genes whose expression was altered after DHT or IGF-1 treatment. Among these we selected the genes that are most representative of the pathways associated with skeletal and muscular disorders using the IPA bioinformatics tool. We identified six (IDO1, CXCL13, CCL1, GZMB, VDR and IL2RA) and two (FN1 and RAB31) genes that were up-regulated in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects after 7 days of DHT and IGF-1 treatment, respectively. The expression of these genes in lymphocytes from differently trained athletes was either down-regulated or similar to that in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects. This finding suggests that up-regulation was due to the drug and not to physical exercise. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PBL can be useful in anti-doping checks, and we describe new biomarkers of DHT and IGF-1 abuse which can be included in the Athlete's Biological Passport.

  12. Evaluation of the Hydroxynitrile Lyase Activity in Cell Cultures of Capulin (Prunus serotina)`

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Hernáindez; Héctor Luna; Arturo Navarro-Oca(n)a; Ma Teresa de Jesús Olivera-Flores; Ivon Ayala

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic preparations obtained from young plants and cell cultures of capulin were screened for hydroxynitrile lyaseactivity. The thrceweek old plants, grown under sterile conditions, were used to establish a solid cell culture. Crude preparationsobtained from this plant material were evaluated for the transformation of benzaldehyde to the corresponding eyanohydrin(mandelonitrile). The results show that the crude material from roots, stalks, and leaves of young plants and calli of roots, stalks,internodes and petioles biocatalyzed the addition of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to benzaidehyde with a modest to excellentenantioselectivity.

  13. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer in HIV-Infected Patients from a Resource-Limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Reddy, Raghuprakash; Reddy, Srinivasulu; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan

    2012-01-01

    Enumeration of CD4 lymphocytes is essential for the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, but it can be difficult to afford in developing countries. In this study we evaluated a reagent reduction strategy for reducing the cost of enumerating CD4 cell absolute count and percentage using the FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). We compared the protocol recommended by the manufacturer with a protocol that used half of the usual amount of CD3/CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody reagent in 100 samples from HIV-infected patients in a rural hospital in India. The concordance correlation coefficient between the two protocols was 0.976 for CD4 cell count and 0.984 for CD4 cell percentage. We did not find significant bias when performing Deming regression or Bland-Altman analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 98.5% for identifying patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/ μ L, 98.1% and 93.8% for identifying patients with less than 350 CD4 cells/ μ L, and 100% and 94.7% for identifying patients with less than 25% CD4 cells, respectively. This reagent reduction strategy can be used for reducing the cost of enumerating CD4 lymphocytes in high-volume laboratories from resource-limited settings.

  14. Evaluation of blood cultures in a children’s hospital located in Southeastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Reyhan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality despite antimicrobial therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment of these infections is crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a children’s hospital in the Southeastern Anatolia during an 18-month period. Material and Methods: 7 040 blood cultures which were sent from hospitalized patients in Gaziantep Children’s Hospital between 01.07.2010 and 01.01.2012 were evaluated. Results: A total of 7 040 blood cultures were evaluated in this study. Microbial growth was detected in 2075 (29.47%) blood cultures. The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci (%45.97) which were followed by Salmonella spp. (%7.8). 12.12% of enterococcal isolates were resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics. The most frequently isolated gram negative bacterium was Salmonella spp. 15.43% of Salmonella spp. showed decreased susceptibility against quinolones. The ESBL positivity rate of E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains was found to be 35.08% and 57.14%, respectively. The imipenem resistance rate of P. aeruginosa was found to be 33.33%. The most common nonfermentative bacterium was S. maltophilia. Conclusions: The distribution of bacteria isolated from blood cultures and antibiotic resistance rates differ among different regions of Turkey. Different results obtained in our study may be related with regional tendencies to infections and patient population. Distribution of infectious agents and antibiotic resistance rates should be evaluated at regular intervals. This will lead to establishment of proper antibiotic usage policies in our country. PMID:26265894

  15. Re-Evaluation of Binding Properties of Recombinant Lymphocyte Receptors NKR-P1A and CD69 to Chemically Synthesized Glycans and Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rozbeský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of monosaccharides and short peptides to lymphocyte receptors (human CD69 and rat NKR-P1A was first reported in 1994 and then in a number of subsequent publications. Based on this observation, numerous potentially high-affinity saccharide ligands have been synthesized over the last two decades in order to utilize their potential in antitumor therapy. Due to significant inconsistencies in their reported binding properties, we decided to re-examine the interaction between multiple ligands and CD69 or NKR-P1A. Using NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry we were unable to detect the binding of the tested ligands such as N-acetyl-d-hexosamines and oligopeptides to both receptors, which contradicts the previous observations published in more than twenty papers over the last fifteen years.

  16. Benzene metabolites induce apoptosis in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Velázquez, M; Maldonado, V; Ortega, A; Meléndez-Zajgla, J; Albores, A

    2006-08-01

    Benzene is an important environmental pollutant with important health implications. Exposure to this aromatic hydrocarbon is associated with hematotoxicity, and bone marrow carcinogenic effects. It has been shown that benzene induces oxidative stress, cell cycle alterations, and programmed cell death in cultured cells. Hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bone marrow toxicity. Nevertheless, there are no reports on the cellular effects of reactive intermediates derived from hepatic metabolism of benzene. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the cellular alterations of benzene metabolites produced by the cultured hepatic cell line HepG2. Supernatants collected from these cells were applied to a culture of freshly isolated lymphocytes. A higher decrease in cell viability was found in cells exposed to these supernatants than to unmetabolized benzene. This viability decrease was due to apoptosis, as determined by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. When supernatants were analyzed by HPLC, we found that not all the hydrocarbon was biotransformed, since a 28 microM concentration (37%) remained. The only metabolite found in the culture medium was muconic acid. The present results show that muconic acid derived from benzene metabolism is able to cooperate with the pollutant for the induction of apoptosis in rat lymphocytes.

  17. In vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic and antioxidant/oxidant effects of guaiazulene on human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Toğar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate for the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antioxidant/oxidant activity of GYZ on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Guaiazulene (GYZ was added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0-400 µg/mL-1. Cytotoxicity against the human lymphocytes cultures was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assay. The proliferative response was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Antioxidant/oxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels. Micronucleus (MN and chromosomal aberration (CA tests were used in genotoxicity studies. The results showed that GYZ caused cytotoxicity in the PBLs at high concentrations, but TOS level were not affected, while the level of TAC was significantly increased. GYZ also did not induce chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control group. Results this study clearly revealed that GYZ was not genotoxic and also increased the capacity of the antioxidant in the culture of human PBL cells. This report is first report on the impact of GYZ on human PBL cells.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a new clinical algorithm to interpret blood cultures growing coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, David; Lécuyer, Hervé; Geeraerts, Thomas; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Bille, Emmanuelle; Mercier, Frédéric J; Benhamou, Dan; Zahar, Jean-Ralph

    2013-07-01

    Evaluating the clinical significance of blood cultures positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is of critical importance since these microorganisms represent both the first contaminants of blood cultures and one of the leading causes of bloodstream infection (BSI). This prospective 2-centre study aimed to compare a previously reported algorithm to a clinical algorithm based on our experience. We identified 84 patients with CoNS-positive blood cultures. Twenty-seven (32%) were considered to have BSI according to our study algorithm. Thirty-seven (44%) patients were considered to have CoNS BSI according to the previously reported algorithm. The 2 algorithms isolated patients with similar rates of recurrences and hospital mortality. Our algorithm seemed to result in less diagnoses of CoNS BSI without harmful consequences compared to the previously reported algorithm. The impact on patient outcome and the inappropriate use of antibiotics deserves further investigation.

  19. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  20. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  1. Evaluation of new transport medium for detection of herpes simplex virus by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, J R; Hoffpauir, J T; Cole, E; Hood, K; Michael, D; Nguyen, T; Raden, S; Raju, B; Reisinger, V; Oefinger, P E

    1994-12-01

    The transport medium Multi-Microbe Media (M4) was evaluated prospectively by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus from 473 specimens. In addition, 377 specimens in Bartels Viral Transport Medium were evaluated. By using culture as a "gold standard," the ELISA sensitivity was approximately 85%, while the specificities exceeded 96% for both media.

  2. Using Cultural Modeling to Inform a NEDSS-Compatible System Functionality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Olympia; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Objective The culture by which public health professionals work defines their organizational objectives, expectations, policies, and values. These aspects of culture are often intangible and difficult to qualify. The introduction of an information system could further complicate the culture of a jurisdiction if the intangibles of a culture are not clearly understood. This report describes how cultural modeling can be used to capture intangible elements or factors that may affect NEDSS-compatible (NC) system functionalities within the culture of public health jurisdictions. Introduction The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) comprises many activities including collaborations, processes, standards, and systems which support gathering data from US states and territories. As part of NNDSS, the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) provides the standards, tools, and resources to support reporting public health jurisdictions (jurisdictions). The NEDSS Base System (NBS) is a CDC-developed, software application available to jurisdictions to collect, manage, analyze and report national notifiable disease (NND) data. An evaluation of NEDSS with the objective of identifying the functionalities of NC systems and the impact of these features on the user’s culture is underway. Methods We used cultural models to capture additional NC system functionality gaps within the culture of the user. Cultural modeling is a process of graphically depicting people and organizations referred to as influencers and the intangible factors that affect the user’s operations or work as influences. Influencers are denoted as bubbles while influences are depicted as arrows penetrating the bubbles. In the cultural model, influence can be seen by the size and proximity (or lack of) in the model. We restricted the models to secondary data sources and interviews of CDC programs (data users) and public health jurisdictions (data reporters). Results Three cultural

  3. Evaluation of Endotoxin in Culture Medium for Human in vitro Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei-jie ZHU; Wen-hong ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the commercial culture media utilized for human in vitro fertilization (IVF), and evaluate the difference in detecting endotoxin in culture medium between the human sperm motility assay and the 2-cell mouse embryo assay.Methods Thirty-six batches of culture media commonly used in IVF laboratories from 3 manufacturers were determined for the presence ofendotoxin before using the medium for the assisted reproductive programs (group A). After being used, 25 specimens among above media were also tested (group B). The chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test was used for quantification the content of endotoxin. In addition, the human sperm motility assay was compared with the 2-cell mouse embryo assay to evaluate the difference in detecting endotoxin in culture medium.Results Endotoxin was not detected in group A. However, 2 samples were positive in group B. Sperm did not show significant change in motility in group A during 24 h of incubation when compared with the control (P>0.05). However, in group A the 2-cell embryo development to blastocyst was suppressed in 3 batches of media.Conclusions Regular screening of each batch of culture medium should be performed if possible although there was no evidence of endotoxin contamination in commercially prepared pre-tested media. Culture environment should be stringently controlled in case the medium is polluted. The sensitivity of the sperm motility assay was lower than that of the mouse embryo assay for detecting low levels of endotoxin or toxic compounds in the medium.

  4. Effects of low dose oxymatrine on mouse lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by Con A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Luo-si; WU Bin; LI Jian-guo; XIE Hong-fu; ZHANG Yang-de; CONG Ling; SHI Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of low dose Oxymatrine (OMT) on mouse lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by Con A making use of fluorescence dyestuff CFDA-SE. Methods CFDA-SE staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the fluorescence intensity of lymphocytes after stimulated by polyclonal stimulators Con A and OMT. Then, related software was used to analyze the effects of OMT on mouse lymphocyte proliferation.Results After cultured for 48 h, CFSE fluorescence could be detected by cytometer, filial generation peaks did not appear in control group, which indicated that lymphocytes did not proliferate. Three peaks were obviously detected in Con A group which indicated that Lymphocytes divided after 48 h stimulated by Con A compared with the halving of the fluorescence intensity of control group. In groups with Con A and OMT treated, Primary generation peaks are all lower while filial generation peaks are significantly higher than groups with Con A treated only. This indicated OMT obviously promote lymphocyte proliferation. After cultured for 72 h, the fluorescence intensity changes between all groups are consistent with those of cultured for 48 h. Analyzed with CELLQuest software, it is shown that OMT could promote lymphocyte proliferation in 16, 8, 4 and 2μg/mL respectively. Conclusions 1) CFDA-SEdyeing and flow cytometer were both reliable tools to analyze lymphocyte proliferation; 2) lower dosage of OMTcould promote the proliferation of lymphocyte as a immunopotentiator.

  5. Evaluation of alginate hydrogel cytotoxicity on three-dimensional culture of type A spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayeri, Maryam; Pirnia, Afshin; Najafabad, Elaheh Poorazizi; Varzi, Ali Mohammad; Gholami, Mohammadreza

    2017-02-01

    The culture of spermatogonial cells for future transplantation, based on the specific biology of these cells is important and necessary. Recently, the use of scaffolds especially alginate for culturing stem cells has been the focus of many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of alginate hydrogels to cultures of type A spermatogonial stem cells. Spermatogonial stem cells of 6day-old immature mice were isolated by surgery; thereafter, the cells were purified by MACS using antibodies against thy-1 and C-kit and cultured on a layer of laminin. After purification, spermatogonial stem cells were encapsulated in alginate hydrogels. After one month of encapsulation and culture in DMEM culture medium containing 10ng/ml GDNF, cells were removed from hydrogel and were examined for viability, cell morphology and structure, cytotoxicity and expression of apoptosis genes Fas, P53, Bax, Bcl2, Caspase3 by staining with trypan blue, scanning electron microscopy, LDH test, and Real time PCR, respectively. The encapsulation did not change the morphology and viability of spermatogonial stem cells. Investigations showed that spermatogonial stem cells preserve by the high viability (74.08%) and cytotoxicity of alginate hydrogel was estimated to be 5%. Expression of Fas gene increased in main group compared with the control group, and expression of Bax and P53 was reduced in main group compared with the control group. Expression of Bcl2 and Caspase3 genes did not show any significant difference between the main group and the control group. Considering the lack of cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties of alginate hydrogel scaffold and high viability of cells, this three-dimensional scaffold is applicable for culturing and encapsulation of spermatogonial stem cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  7. Research, protection and evaluation of Sicilian and Mediterranean marine cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Tusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater archaeology in the Mediterranean should be based on a comprehensive, deep knowledge of a wide context of cultural environment. It is impossible to carry out an in-depth study of a specific wreck or site without having an overall cultural as well as historical perspective. It is, in fact, quite clear to everybody that even the most faraway shores of the Mediterranean were connected by means of a dense network of sea routes based on a rich trade throughout the centuries. But underwater archaeology also means the chance to understand the past environment due to the possibility of detecting ancient sea shores which nowadays are found below sea level. Today underwater archaeology also means deep sea research in extraterritorial waters. This aspect of underwater archaeological research is deeply connected with legal aspects that, in the framework of the recently approved UNESCO draft regarding the protection of underwater cultural heritage, should be planned according to international cooperation. 109 Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage Sicily has a great role in Mediterranean underwater archaeology because of its history and heritage, but also because Regional Government plays an important role in international debate in this field and because in Sicily a great impulse has been given to underwater archaeology research and cultural evaluation through the Soprintendenza del Mare

  8. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process.

  9. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  10. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS TO EVALUATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF INCLUSIVE CULTURE AT UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Tikhomirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of inclusive education at Russian universities that is widely regarded as the strategy of supporting and satisfying the needs of diverse  groups  of learners  and educators.  In  order  to introduce the idea of inclusion as a resource of individual development it is necessary to create an inclusive culture at every institution of higher education. In this paper the authors define the concept of «inclusive culture at university», describe its structure and explain its significance for the development of university’s image. The article presents the description of the research instrument enabling the evaluation of the existence and the level of inclusive culture. This research instrument includes two content parts that allow evaluating the creation of «inclusive community» and the establishment of «inclusive values». Besides, the authors describe the indicators for each of the content parts. The research has been conducted in the Vologda state university and the data received allowed the authors to test the questionnaires and to analyze the findings. The authors conclude that it might be possible to apply this method not only to assess the level of inclusive culture but also to reveal its «strengths» and «weaknesses» allowing university authorities to plan activities for their development and/or correction.

  11. [The effect of mixed cultivation of lymphocytes irradiated at a dose of 1 Gy and non-irradiated lymphocytes on the frequency of chromosomal aberration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, I S

    2012-01-01

    The mutual influence of irradiated (1 Gy) and non-irradiated cells was demonstrated on the model of the mixed culture oflymphocytes from opposite gender donors using chromosome aberrations (ChA) as an endpoint. The number of ChA in non-irradiated lymphocytes in mixed cultures with irradiated ones increased as compared to the corresponding monocultures. At the same time, the number of induced ChA decreased in the irradiated lymphocytes cultivated with non-irradiated ones.

  12. Leukoreduction system chambers are an efficient, valid, and economic source of functional monocyte-derived dendritic cells and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Isabell A; Zinser, Elisabeth; Strasser, Erwin; Stein, Marcello F; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Knippertz, Ilka

    2013-11-01

    The demand for human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), as well as for primary human B and T lymphocytes for immunological research purposes has been increased in recent years. Classically, these monocytes are isolated from blood, leukapheresis products or buffy coats of healthy donors by plastic adherence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), followed by stimulation with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, while lymphocytes are usually isolated from the non-adherent fraction (NAF) by magnetic cell sorting. However, donor-blood is a limited resource and not every blood bank offers leukapheresis products or buffy coats for laboratory use. Additionally, a leukapheresis is very expensive and also the generation/isolation of cells is time- and cost-intensive. To overcome some of these obstacles, we evaluated if low-cost leukoreduction system chambers (LRSCs), which arise after routine donor plateletpheresis procedures, and are usually discarded, would be an alternative and appropriate source of PBMCs to generate moDCs and to isolate lymphocytes. By analyzing the number and phenotype of immature and mature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as of B and T lymphocytes derived from LRSCs, we found all cells to be of high quantity and quality. Further investigations on DCs comprising transwell migration assays, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR), cytokine secretion assays, and cytotoxic T cell induction assays revealed high migratory, as well as stimulatory capacity of these cells. In addition, DCs and T cells were efficiently electroporated with mRNA and showed characteristic cytokine production after co-culture, demonstrating LRSCs as an efficient, valid, and economic source for generation of moDCs and lymphocytes for research purposes.

  13. Breast cancer education for Navajo women: a pilot study evaluating a culturally relevant video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Priscilla R; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Baldwin, Julie A; Sandoval, Nellie; Robinson, Frances

    2010-06-01

    This pilot study evaluated a culturally specific video designed to teach Navajo women about breast cancer treatment options. Fourteen Navajo women diagnosed with breast cancer and 26 healthcare providers participated in a mixed-method evaluation that documented their perceptions immediately and 6 months after viewing the video. After initial viewing, women reported reduced anxiety about treatment and interest in support groups. Six months later, women said the video prompted them to seek more information from printed sources and their provider. Younger Navajo women who were 44 to 51 years old were more likely to attend support groups than women who were 55-67 years. Providers corroborated the positive effects of the video. The providers believed the video encouraged patients to seek information about breast cancer and to ask questions about treatment plans and side effects. A culturally relevant video for Navajo women can be an effective teaching tool and can enhance patient-provider communication.

  14. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  15. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...... to host defense against invading pathogens and the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Lymphocyte function is critically dependent on their ability to traffic into the correct anatomic locations at the appropriate times. This process is highly regulated and requires that lymphocytes interact...

  16. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  17. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  18. A Sandwiched-Culture Technique for Evaluation of Heterologous Protein Production in a Filamentous Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Sigrídur A.; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Wessels, Joseph G. H.

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is known for its efficient excretion machinery. However, problems have often arisen in obtaining high amounts of heterologous proteins in the culture medium. Here we present a quick method using sandwiched colonies to evaluate transgenic strains for secretion of heterologous proteins. Expressing the ABH1 hydrophobin of Agaricus bisporus in A. niger, we showed that low production levels of the heterologous protein are probably due to extracellular proteolytic degradation of the protein. PMID:10224030

  19. The "Strengthening Nursing Culture Project" - an exploratory evaluation study of nursing students' placements within Aboriginal Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Bethne; Cavanagh, Miriam; Douglas, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Cultural awareness and cultural competence have been the focus of the transcultural nursing literature that has explored the roles and responsibilities of nurses in their care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Cultural immersion programs, upholding cultural safety and cultural humility, offer valuable guidance to the education of nursing students regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and cultures. This study seeks to explore nursing students' experiences of a cultural immersion program within Aboriginal Medical Services (AMSs) in New South Wales, Australia. Eight nursing students participated in a mixed methods design exploratory study of their clinical placement within AMSs. A survey gathered data regarding levels of preparation and confidence, learning barriers, placement stressors and personal reflections. Nursing students reported positive and transformative experiences of intercultural learning. Cultural immersion programs provide a valuable framework for the design and evaluation of clinical placement programs for nursing students within intercultural learning spaces.

  20. Metformin does not prevent DNA damage in lymphocytes despite its antioxidant properties against cumene hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Ilhan; Guven, Gulgun S; Ozdaş, Sule Beyhan; Kanigur, Gonul; Vehid, Suphi

    2006-12-10

    Metformin (1-(diaminomethylidene)-3,3-dimethyl-guanidine), which is the most commonly prescribed oral antihyperglycaemic drug in the world, was reported to have several antioxidant properties such as the inhibition of advanced glycation end-products. In addition to its use in the treatment of diabetes, it has been suggested that metformin may be a promising anti-aging agent. The present work was aimed at assessing the possible protective effects of metformin against DNA-damage induction by oxidative stress in vitro. The effects of metformin were compared with those of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For this purpose, peripheral blood lymphocytes from aged (n=10) and young (n=10) individuals were pre-incubated with various concentrations of metformin (10-50microM), followed by incubation with 15microM cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) for 48h, under conditions of low oxidant level, which do not induce cell death. Protection against oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by use of the Comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique. Changes in the levels of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxy-alkenals, an index of oxidative stress, were also measured in lymphocytes. At concentrations ranging from 10microM to 50microM, metformin did not protect the lymphocytes from DNA damage, while 50microM NAC possessed an effective protective effect against CumOOH-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, NAC, but not metformin, inhibited DNA fragmentation induced by CumOOH. In contrast to the lack of protection against oxidative damage in lymphocyte cultures, metformin significantly protected the cells from lipid peroxidation in both age groups, although not as effective as NAC in preventing the peroxidative damage at the highest doses. Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that pharmacological concentrations of metformin are unable to protect against DNA damage induced by a pro-oxidant stimulus in cultured human lymphocytes, despite its antioxidant properties.

  1. Idelalisib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jacqueline C

    2016-09-01

    Idelalisib is a first-in-class selective oral PI3Kδ inhibitor for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma, a predominantly elderly population with high comorbidity. The drug promotes apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo, independent of common prognostic markers and inhibits CLL cell homing, migration and adhesion to cells in the microenvironment. Idelalisib has shown efficacy with acceptable safety as monotherapy and combination therapy in relapsed/refractory CLL. Idelalisib has clinical activity in patients with CLL with del(17p). The development of other novel B-cell-targeted agents provides the opportunity to evaluate additional idelalisib treatment combinations for their potential to further improve outcomes in CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs' cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs' cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension's Cronbach's α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs' cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive assessment of HCPs' cultural competence, and has the

  3. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  4. Bioluminescent assay for human lymphocyte blast transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, E G; Budagyan, V M; Romanova, N A; Brovko LYu; Ugarova, N N

    1995-05-01

    One of the basic tests of in vitro evaluation of immune cell functional activity is a proliferative response of lymphocytes on the action of external stimuli such as mitogenic lectines, antigens, etc. We compared two methods used to assess the lymphocyte functional status. (1) [3H]thymidine incorporation and (2) bioluminescence for determination of intracellular ATP in blast cells. Comparison has been done for healthy donors and patients with proven low immunological status. The proposed bioluminescent method for evaluation of the proliferative response was shown to be sensitive enough for diagnostic purposes. This method allows one to process a large number of samples at the same time and correlates highly with the radionuclide test use hazardous radioactive materials.

  5. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  6. Activation of lymphocytes induced by bronchial epithelial cells with prolonged RSV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qin

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV preferentially infects airway epithelial cells,which might be responsible for susceptibility to asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study determined the activation of lymphocytes and drift of helper T (Th subsets induced by RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs in vitro. HBECs had prolonged infection with RSV, and lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood were co-cultured with RSV-infected HBECs. Four groups were established, as follows: lymphocytes (group L; lymphocytes infected with RSV (group RL; co-culture of lymphocytes with non-infected HBECs (group HL; and co-culture of lymphocytes with infected HBECs (group HRL. After co-culture with HBECs for 24 hours, lymphocytes were collected and the following were determined in the 4 groups: cell cycle status; apoptosis rate; and concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in the supernatants. Cell cycle analysis for lymphocytes showed a significant increase in S phase cells, a decrease in G1 phase cells, and a higher apoptosis rate in group HRL compared with the other three groups. In group HRL, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in supernatants were also higher than the other three groups. For further study, lymphocytes were individually treated with supernatants from non-infected and RSV-infected HBECs for 24 h. We showed that supernatants from RSV-infected HBECs induced the differentiation of Th2 and Th17 subsets, and suppressed the differentiation of Treg subsets. Our results showed that HBECs with prolonged RSV infection can induce lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and enhance the release of cytokines by lymphocytes. Moreover, subset drift might be caused by RSV-infected HBECs.

  7. A quality improvement evaluation case study: impact on public health outcomes and agency culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, William C; Sabbagh, Radwan; Spitzfaden, Steve; Hicks, Angela; Wells, Lucy; Puigdomenech, Suzannah; Kramer, Dale F; Butterfield, Ryan; Riley, William; Wood, David L

    2013-05-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to improve healthcare services and health outcomes, including reducing health disparities. However, there is a paucity of evidence documenting the value of QI to public health agencies and services. The purpose of this project was to support and assess the impact on the outcomes and organizational culture of a QI project to increase immunization rates among children aged 2 years (4:3:1:3:3:1 series) within a large public health agency with a major pediatric health mission. The intervention consisted of the use of a model-for-improvement approach to QI for the delivery of immunization services in public health clinics, utilizing plan-do-study-act cycles and multiple QI techniques. A mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) model of evaluation was used to collect and analyze data from June 2009 to July 2011 to support both summative and developmental evaluation. The Florida Immunization Registry (Florida SHOTS [State Health Online Tracking System]) was used to monitor and analyze changes in immunization rates from January 2009 to July 2012. An interrupted time-series application of covariance was used to assess significance of the change in immunization rates, and paired comparison using parametric and nonparametric statistics were used to assess significance of pre- and post-QI culture items. Up-to-date immunization rates increased from 75% to more than 90% for individual primary care clinics and the overall county health department. In addition, QI stakeholder scores on ten key items related to organizational culture increased from pre- to post-QI intervention. Statistical analysis confirmed significance of the changes. The application of QI combined with a summative and developmental evaluation supported refinement of the QI approach and documented the potential for QI to improve population health outcomes and improve public health agency culture. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of

  8. Evaluation of the culture of safety: survey of clinicians and managers in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, P J; Weast, B; Holzmueller, C G; Rosenstein, B J; Kidwell, R P; Haller, K B; Feroli, E R; Sexton, J B; Rubin, H R

    2003-12-01

    Despite the emphasis on patient safety in health care, few organizations have evaluated the extent to which safety is a strategic priority or their culture supports patient safety. In response to the Institute of Medicine's report and to an organizational commitment to patient safety, we conducted a systematic assessment of safety at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) and, from this, developed a strategic plan to improve safety. The specific aims of this study were to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at JHH and the extent to which safety is a strategic priority. During July and August 2001 we implemented two surveys in disparate populations to assess patient safety. The Safety Climate Scale (SCS) was administered to a sample of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other ICU staff. SCS assesses perceptions of a strong and proactive organizational commitment to patient safety. The second survey instrument, called Strategies for Leadership (SLS), evaluated the extent to which safety was a strategic priority for the organization. This survey was administered to clinical and administrative leaders. We received 395 completed SCS surveys from 82% of the departments and 86% of the nursing units. Staff perceived that supervisors had a greater commitment to safety than senior leaders. Nurses had higher scores than physicians for perceptions of safety. Twenty three completed SLS surveys were received from 77% of the JHH Patient Safety Committee members and 50% of the JHH Management Committee members. Management Committee responses were more positive than Patient Safety Committee, indicating that management perceived safety efforts to be further developed. Strategic planning received the lowest scores from both committees. We believe this is one of the first large scale efforts to measure institutional culture of safety and then design improvements in health care. The survey results suggest that strategic planning of patient safety needs

  9. In vitro evaluation of curcumin effects on breast adenocarcinoma 2D and 3D cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelba, Hussam; Cotrutz, Carmen Elena; Stoica, Bogdan Alexandru; Stoica, Laura; Olinici, DoiniŢa; Petreuş, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    Breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231, even if it expresses low levels of E-cadherin, still readily form multicellular aggregates of cells, namely spheroids. Curcumin is a diarylheptanoid antitumoral drug while it significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro and reduces tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. Curcumin photoactivation may enhance antiapoptotic role against cancer cells. To evaluate the effect of low curcumin concentrations, ranged from 1.9 to 15 μM, with and without photoactivation, using a manufactured 670 nm LED-matrix. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ideal method to produce easy-to-use tumor cell spheroids, comparing two low adherence plate supports. Breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 were cultured according to 2D monolayer and 3D spheroid models then submitted to normal and photoactivated curcumin in micromolar concentrations. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability following curcumin application on cells. On 2D cell cultures, curcumin inhibits cell tumor development and proliferation at concentrations of 15 μM, with a viability of 65.7% at 48 hours incubation time. A decreased viability up to 25% for a concentration of 15 μM was recorded following photoactivation and cytotoxic action on breast cancer tumor cell line continued at concentrations of 7.5 and 3.75 μM. Curcumin photoactivation increases pro-apoptotic effects in both 2D and 3D tumor cell culture models and also responsiveness to curcumin is slightly reduced in spheroid-like structures. Thus, 3D tumor cell culture systems appear to be the ideal environment for in vitro assays regarding anticancer drug effects on cell viability.

  10. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  11. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  12. Changing medical students’ perception of the evaluation culture: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorie M. Colbert-Getz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Student feedback is a critical component of the teacher-learner cycle. However, there is not a gold standard course or clerkship evaluation form and limited research on the impact of changing the evaluation process. Results from a focus group and pre-implementation feedback survey coupled with best practices in survey design were used to improve all course/clerkship evaluation for academic year 2013-2014. In spring 2014 we asked all subjected students in University of Utah School of Medicine, United States of America to complete the same feedback survey (post-implementation survey. We assessed the evaluation climate with 3 measures on the feedback survey: overall satisfaction with the evaluation process; time students gave effort to the process; and time students used shortcuts. Scores from these measures were compared between 2013 and 2014 with Mann-Whitney U-tests. Response rates were 79% (254 for 2013 and 52% (179 for 2014. Students’ overall satisfaction score were significantly higher (more positive post-implementation compared to pre-implementation (P<0.001. There was no change in the amount of time students gave effort to completing evaluations (P=0.981 and no change for the amount of time they used shortcuts to complete evaluations (P=0.956. We were able to change overall satisfaction with the medical school evaluation culture, but there was no change in the amount of time students gave effort to completing evaluations and times they used shortcuts to complete evaluations. To ensure accurate evaluation results we will need to focus our efforts on time needed to complete course evaluations across all four years.

  13. Changing medical students’ perception of the evaluation culture: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorie M. Colbert-Getz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Student feedback is a critical component of the teacher-learner cycle. However, there is not a gold standard course or clerkship evaluation form and limited research on the impact of changing the evaluation process. Results from a focus group and pre-implementation feedback survey coupled with best practices in survey design were used to improve all course/clerkship evaluation for academic year 2013-2014. In spring 2014 we asked all subjected students in University of Utah School of Medicine, United States of America to complete the same feedback survey (post-implementation survey. We assessed the evaluation climate with 3 measures on the feedback survey: overall satisfaction with the evaluation process; time students gave effort to the process; and time students used shortcuts. Scores from these measures were compared between 2013 and 2014 with Mann-Whitney U-tests. Response rates were 79% (254 for 2013 and 52% (179 for 2014. Students’ overall satisfaction score were significantly higher (more positive post-implementation compared to pre-implementation (P<0.001. There was no change in the amount of time students gave effort to completing evaluations (P=0.981 and no change for the amount of time they used shortcuts to complete evaluations (P=0.956. We were able to change overall satisfaction with the medical school evaluation culture, but there was no change in the amount of time students gave effort to completing evaluations and times they used shortcuts to complete evaluations. To ensure accurate evaluation results we will need to focus our efforts on time needed to complete course evaluations across all four years.

  14. Changing medical students' perception of the evaluation culture: Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Baumann, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Student feedback is a critical component of the teacher-learner cycle. However, there is not a gold standard course or clerkship evaluation form and limited research on the impact of changing the evaluation process. Results from a focus group and pre-implementation feedback survey coupled with best practices in survey design were used to improve all course/clerkship evaluation for academic year 2013-2014. In spring 2014 we asked all subjected students in University of Utah School of Medicine, United States of America to complete the same feedback survey (post-implementation survey). We assessed the evaluation climate with 3 measures on the feedback survey: overall satisfaction with the evaluation process; time students gave effort to the process; and time students used shortcuts. Scores from these measures were compared between 2013 and 2014 with Mann-Whitney U-tests. Response rates were 79% (254) for 2013 and 52% (179) for 2014. Students' overall satisfaction score were significantly higher (more positive) post-implementation compared to pre-implementation (Pstudents gave effort to completing evaluations (P=0.981) and no change for the amount of time they used shortcuts to complete evaluations (P=0.956). We were able to change overall satisfaction with the medical school evaluation culture, but there was no change in the amount of time students gave effort to completing evaluations and times they used shortcuts to complete evaluations. To ensure accurate evaluation results we will need to focus our efforts on time needed to complete course evaluations across all four years.

  15. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  16. Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Vilela, Danielle Marques; de Souza Cordeiro, Cecília; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    The coffee fermentation is characterized by the presence of different microorganisms belonging to the groups of bacteria, fungi and yeast. The objectives of this work were to select pectinolytic microorganisms isolated from coffee fermentations and evaluate their performance on coffee pulp culture medium. The yeasts and bacteria isolates were evaluated for their activity of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) and metabolites production. Among 127 yeasts isolates and 189 bacterial isolates, 15 were pre-selected based on their ability to produce PL and organic compounds. These isolates were strains identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia caribbica, Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultivated in Coffee peel and pulp media in single culture or two by two mixed inocula, different behavior concerning to PME, PL and PG were found. The two principal components PC1 and PC2 accounted for 45.27 and 32.02 % of the total variance. UFLA CN727 and UFLA CN731 strains were grouped in the positive part of PC1 being characterized by 1,2-propanediol, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, nonanoic acid and ethyl acetate. The UFLA CN448 and UFLA CN724 strains were grouped in the negative part of PC1 and were mainly characterized by guaiacol, butyric acid and citronellol. S. cerevisiae UFLACN727, P. guilliermondii UFLACN731 and C. parapsilosis UFLACN448 isolates are promising candidates to be tested in future studies as coffee starter cultures.

  17. A comparative evaluation of corneal epithelial cell cultures for assessing ocular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ulrich; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Schneider, Marc; Muys, Leon; Gross, Dorothea; Eschmann, Klaus; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential value of different epithelial cell culture systems as in vitro models for studying corneal permeability. Transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells and Statens Serum Institut rabbit corneal (SIRC) cells were cultured on permeable filters. SkinEthic human corneal epithelium (S-HCE) and Clonetics human corneal epithelium (C-HCE) were received as ready-to-use systems. Excised rabbit corneas (ERCs) and human corneas (EHCs) were mounted in Ussing chambers, and used as references. Barrier properties were assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance, and by determining the apparent permeability of markers with different physico-chemical properties, namely, fluorescein, sodium salt; propranolol hydrochloride; moxaverine hydrochloride; timolol hydrogenmaleate; and rhodamine 123. SIRC cells and the S-HCE failed to develop epithelial barrier properties, and hence were unable to distinguish between the permeation markers. Barrier function and the power to differentiate compound permeabilities were evident with HCE-T cells, and were even more pronounced in the case of C-HCE, corresponding very well with data from ERCs and EHCs. A net secretion of rhodamine 123 was not observed with any of the models, suggesting that P-glycoprotein or similar efflux systems have no significant effects on corneal permeability. Currently available corneal epithelial cell culture systems show differences in epithelial barrier function. Systems lacking functional cell-cell contacts are of limited value for assessing corneal permeability, and should be critically evaluated for other purposes.

  18. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  19. Improving Culturally Appropriate Care Using a Community-Based Participatory Research Approach: Evaluation of a Multicomponent Cultural Competency Training Program, Arkansas, 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Christopher R.; Rowland, Brett; Moore, Sarah; Wilmoth, Ralph; Ayers, Britni

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The United States continues to become more racially and ethnically diverse, and racial/ethnic minority communities encounter sociocultural barriers to quality health care, including implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care providers. In response, health care organizations are developing and implementing cultural competency curricula. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we developed and evaluated a cultural competency training program to improve the delivery of culturally appropriate care in Marshallese and Hispanic communities. Methods We used a mixed-methods evaluation approach based on the Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation. We collected quantitative evaluation data immediately after each training session (March 19, 2015–November 30, 2016) and qualitative data about implementation at 2 points: immediately after each session and 6 months after training. Individuals and organizational units provided qualitative data. Results We delivered 1,250 units of in-person training at 25 organizations. Participants reported high levels of changes in knowledge (91.2%), competence (86.6%), and performance (87.2%) as a result of the cultural competency training. Organizations reported making policy and environmental changes. Conclusion Initial outcomes demonstrate the value of developing and implementing cultural competency training programs using a CBPR approach. Additional research is needed to determine the effect on long-term patient outcomes. PMID:28771402

  20. Absolute Monocyte Count and Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Predict Outcome in Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma: Evaluation Based on Data From 1450 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Tamar; Bari, Alessia; Marcheselli, Luigi; Sacchi, Stefano; Aviv, Ariel; Baldini, Luca; Gobbi, Paolo G; Pozzi, Samantha; Ferri, Paola; Cox, Maria Christina; Cascavilla, Nicola; Iannitto, Emilio; Federico, Massimo; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    To verify whether absolute monocyte count (AMC) and lymphocyte- monocyte ratio (LMR) at diagnosis are valid prognostic parameters in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Data were collected from 1450 patients with cHL treated in Israel and Italy from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2007. The median age of the patients was 33 years (range, 17-72 years), and 70% (1017) of the patients had nodular sclerosis (NS); the median follow-up duration was 87 months. The best cutoff value for AMC was 750 cells/mm(3), and the best ratio for LMR was 2.1. The adverse prognostic impact of an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3) was confirmed for the entire cohort, and its clinical significance was particularly evident in patients with NS histology. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 10 years for an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3) was 65% (56%-72%), and the PFS at 10 years for an AMC of 750 cells/mm(3) or less was 81% (76%-84%; PHR], 1.54, P=.006, and HR, 1.50, P=.006) after adjusting for the international prognostic score, whereas the impact on OS was confirmed (HR, 1.56; P=.04) only in patients with NS and an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3). This study confirms that AMC has prognostic value in cHL that is particularly significant in patients with NS subtype histology. This finding links the known impact of macrophages and monocytes in Hodgkin lymphoma with routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunoproteomic analysis of antibody in lymphocyte supernatant in patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.

  2. Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Lymphocytes from Victims Exposed to Cobalt-60 Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Jun Fan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 (60Co radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China’s Henan province. Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation.

  3. In-vitro cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 to broiler lymphocytes of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEP Zimmermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the in-vitro cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on broiler lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Histopaque density and cultured in 96-wellplates containing the evaluated AFB1 concentrations in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 39°C. Thereafter, MTT, PicoGreen, and reactive oxygen species assays were performed. Cell viability decreased in the presence of 10 µg/mL AFB1 at 48 h (p < 0.05 and of 10 and 20 µg/mL AFB1 at 72 h (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to the control (0 µg/mL. However, a dose-dependent increase in the cell-free DNA at 24 h was observed at 1, 10 and 20 µg/mL (p < 0.001. ROS formation significantly increased at 24 h at all concentrations (p < 0.001. The in-vitro results demonstrate that AFB1 is cytotoxic and causes biomolecular oxidative damage in broiler lymphocytes.

  4. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia, E-mail: flavia.girolami@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.spalenza@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica, E-mail: monica.carletti@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola, E-mail: paola.sacchi@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rasero@unito.it [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.nebbia@unito.it [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  5. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  6. Evaluation of postmortem bacterial migration using culturing and real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J; Vuento, Risto; Aittoniemi, Janne; Pessi, Tanja

    2013-07-01

    Postmortem bacteriology can be a valuable tool for evaluating deaths due to bacterial infection or for researching the involvement of bacteria in various diseases. In this study, time-dependent postmortem bacterial migration into liver, mesenteric lymph node, pericardial fluid, portal, and peripheral vein was analyzed in 33 autopsy cases by bacterial culturing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). None suffered or died from bacterial infection. According to culturing, pericardial fluid and liver were the most sterile samples up to 5 days postmortem. In these samples, multigrowth and staphylococci were not or rarely detected. RT-qPCR was more sensitive and showed higher bacterial positivity in all samples. Relative amounts of intestinal bacterial DNA (bifidobacteria, bacteroides, enterobacter, clostridia) increased with time. Sterility of blood samples was low during the studied time periods (1-7 days). The best postmortem microbiological sampling sites were pericardial fluid and liver up to 5 days after death.

  7. A study of impact of school culture on the teaching and learning process in Serbia based on school evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Glušac Dragana; Tasić Ivan; Nikolić Milan; Terek Edit; Gligorović Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Legislation generally does not define the concept of school culture, rather it occurs as a term in scientific theory, but the term 'good school' is not related exclusively to scientific research. It is a generally accepted term for a school with a good organizational culture. This paper presents the results of research into the effects of school culture on the teaching and learning process in primary schools. Among the seven areas that are subject to self-evaluation and assessment, the Minist...

  8. Effects of cobalt and chromium ions on lymphocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskey, Stephen J; Lehoux, Eric A; Catelas, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    A T cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in some patients with CoCrMo-based implants. However, the role of cobalt and chromium ions in this reaction remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of Co(2+) and Cr(3+) in culture medium, as well as the effects of culture supernatants of macrophages exposed to Co(2+) or Cr(3+) , on the migration of lymphocytes. The release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages exposed to Co(2+) and Cr(3+) was also analyzed. The migration of murine lymphocytes was quantified using the Boyden chamber assay and flow cytometry, while cytokine/chemokine release by J774A.1 macrophages was measured by ELISA. Results showed an ion concentration-dependent increase in TNF-α and MIP-1α release and a decrease in MCP-1 and RANTES release. Migration analysis showed that the presence of Co(2+) (8 ppm) and Cr(3+) (100 ppm) in culture medium increased the migration of T lymphocytes, while it had little or no effect on the migration of B lymphocytes, suggesting that Co(2+) and Cr(3+) can stimulate the migration of T but not B lymphocytes. Levels of T lymphocyte migration in culture medium containing Co(2+) or Cr(3+) were not statistically different from those in culture supernatants of macrophages exposed to Co(2+) or Cr(3+) , suggesting that the effects of the ions and chemokines were not additive, possibly because of ion interference with the chemokines and/or their cognate receptors. Overall, results suggest that Co(2+) and Cr(3+) are capable of stimulating the migration of T (but not B) lymphocytes in the absence of cytokines/chemokines, and could thereby contribute to the accumulation of more T than B lymphocytes in periprosthetic tissues of some patients with CoCrMo-based implants. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:916-924, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of different cryoprotective agents in maintenance of viability of Helicobacter pylori in stock culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Davoudi Oskouei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four different cryoprotective supplemented stock media were evaluated for maintaining better survival and recovery of H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 at two different maintenance temperatures of -20°C and -80°C after one month preservation as frozen stocks. The spread plate colony count method was used to investigate the recovery rate of H. pylori from equally inoculated bacterial suspensions in differently prepared stock cultures. After the preservation of H. pylori for one month in different cryoprotectant-supplemented stock media, the recovery rates for -20°C obtained for stock cultures supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, polyethylene glycol (PEG, glycerol and glycerol+sucrose, as well as controls with and without human serum alone were 7.13, 6.97, 7.93, 7.99, 6.95 and 0.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maintenance of bacteria at -80°C gave statistically higher recovery rates compared to preservation at -20°C with the values of 8.55, 8.24, 8.59, 8.66, 8.01 and 0.0 log CFU/ml for these above mentioned stock cultures. The stock cultures supplemented with glycerol+sucrose and glycerol showed the highest recovery rates, 7.99 and 7.93 for -20°C vs. 8.66 and 8.59 for -80°C respectively, which were statistically different from the others. Our study revealed that H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 could be better preserved at -80°C than -20°C. The best stock media which supported viability or culturability of bacteria were brain heart infusion broth (BHI+glycerol+human serum and BHI+glycerol+sucrose+human serum, where the latter yielded the higher recovery rate.

  10. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  11. Activation of secretion and surface alteration of cytolytic T-lymphocytes interacting with target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaya, S N; Shevelev, A A; Kupriyanova, T A

    1988-01-01

    Cells obtained in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and memory cells adsorbed on the surface of target cells (TC) were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy depending on the time of interaction with TC. Three types of lymphocytes were revealed: type I - cells of spherical shape with a smooth surface or an insignificant amount of microvilli; predominantly small and medium-sized lymphocytes contacting TC with non significant involvement of their surface or by several microvilli; type II - oval or round-shaped lymphocytes evenly covered with microvilli with considerably enlarged region of contact; type III cells - predominantly large lymphocytes and lymphoblasts flattened (spread) on TC, with multiple microvilli, ridge-like projections, and ruffles on their surface. TEM revealed activation of the secretory apparatus in the cytoplasm of such lymphocytes. With increased time of interaction, type III cells increase in number (from 8.6% after 10 min to 90.2% after 60 min of incubation). Memory cells show no morphologic signs of secretion in correlation with the absence of lysis of TC on which they are adsorbed. The surface of the lymphocytes adsorbed on the substrate with poly-L-lysin is not noticeably altered. It is suggested that 3 morphological types of lymphocytes correspond to 3 stages of secretion activation. Lymphocyte contact with TC surface is evidently a specific stimulus for activating secretory apparatus of CTL. SEM can be used for quantitation of activated lymphocytes.

  12. Stimulation of rat B-lymphocyte proliferation by corticotropin-releasing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, J P; Park, A; Rubin-Fletter, P; Turck, C; Dallman, M F; Payan, D G

    1989-07-01

    The mitogenic effect of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on rat lymphocytes was investigated. When rat splenocytes were cultured for 48 hr with CFR, a dose-dependent increase in incorporation of 3H-thymidine (3H-Tdr) was observed, with a maximal response at 10 nM CRF. Comparison of the proliferative effect of CRF on enriched populations of B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or macrophages revealed that only B lymphocytes responded following treatment with CRF. When lymphocytes derived from different lymphoid tissues were compared, CRF had a greater proliferative effect on lymphocytes derived from gut-associated lymphoid tissue (mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) than on lymphocytes from spleen or inguinal lymph nodes; CRF had no effect on thymocytes. Synthetic fragments of CRF were used to determine which portions of the peptide are recognized by lymphocytes. The C-terminal fragments alpha-helical CRF9-41 and CRF21-41 were as potent as native CRF in stimulating B-lymphocyte proliferation, whereas CRF1-20 did not stimulate proliferation. The activity of these peptides suggests that CRF stimulates lymphocyte proliferation by cellular recognition of structural determinants in the C-terminal one-half of the peptide.

  13. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Calderón-Segura, M E; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1995-01-01

    Because the carbamate insecticide propoxur induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba but was ineffective in producing SCE in lymphocytes in culture, it was hardly suspected that plant metabolism was involved. Experiments were conducted in which metabolic activation was afforded by Vicia faba roots, and SCE in human lymphocytes in vitro was used to assess cytogenetic damage. Several concentrations of propoxur (250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm) were applied for 4 hr to the roots of Vicia faba. Extracts prepared from these treatments were added to the lymphocyte cultures and a significant increase of SCE frequencies with a concentration-response relationship could be detected. The lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and the proliferation rate index (PRI) were not affected (except in the highest concentration, of 2,000 ppm). This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur. With 2,000 ppm, cell necrosis was produced in Vicia; therefore, this extract did not induce SCE in lymphocytes. However, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics were delayed and PRI was significantly decreased. Ethanol, a promutagen activated by this plant, was applied directly to the lymphocyte cultures as a positive control, and the response was negative. On the other hand, the extracts of roots treated with ethanol increased the SCE to more than twice that of the negative control, but the lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and PRI were not affected.

  14. Evaluation for safety of cultured corneal fibroblasts with cotreatment of alcohol and mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-im; Tchah, Hungwon; Cho, Eun Hee; Kook, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol and mitomycin C (MMC) on cultured corneal fibroblast of the rabbit to determine the safety of this compound for clinical use. Corneal fibroblasts of New Zealand rabbits were cultured. Various concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60%) of ethanol were applied for 10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds to estimate dose- and time-dependent responses of cultured corneal fibroblasts. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Treated cells were additionally stained with Hoechst and annexin V for the identification of apoptosis. To investigate the coeffects of ethanol and MMC, dose and time dependency were evaluated after treatment with various concentrations of ethanol and MMC at different exposure times, and cell viability was established. To determine the latent effects of ethanol and MMC, cultured corneal fibroblasts were cotreated with various concentrations of ethanol and 0.02% MMC for various periods and washed out, and then one group was incubated for 24 hours and another group was not incubated. Cell viability was estimated, and Hoechst and annexin V staining were performed before and after incubation. To establish the pathway of cell death, caspase-3 activities were measured in cultured corneal fibroblasts treated with ethanol or MMC. Cell viability after ethanol treatment was dose and time dependent. After application of ethanol for 10 seconds, cell viability was significantly reduced with 20% ethanol (P = 0.001). At 20, 30, and 40 seconds of treatment with 10% ethanol, cell viability was significantly reduced (P corneal fibroblasts cotreated with 10% ethanol and 0.02% MMC were stained with Hoechst and annexin V. Results were similar to data obtained with ethanol-treated cells. However, after application of 20% alcohol and MMC, a significant number of cells were not viable and were detached from the well walls. Caspase-3 activity significantly increased after treatment with 30% ethanol only and 30% ethanol in conjunction

  15. Reduced lymphocyte activation in space - Role of cell-substratum interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmuender, F. K.; Kiess, M.; Lee, J.; Cogoli, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of substratum adhesiveness on lymphocyte responsiveness was investigated by reducing and blocking cell adhesion with poly-HEMA in a simple on ground system. Cells grown on medium thick and thick poly-HEMA films were rounded in shape and displayed no signs of spreading. By contrast, on tissue culture plastic and very thin poly-HEMA films, they showed clear signs of spreading. The mitogenic response of lymphocytes grown on thick poly-HEMA films was reduced by up to 68 percent of the control (tissue culture plastic). Interferon gamma production was virtually nil when the cells were grown on the least adhesive substratum. These results show that activated lymphocytes need to anchor and spread prior to achieving an optimal proliferation response. It is concluded that decreased lymphocyte adhesion could contribute to the depressed in vitro lymphocyte responsiveness found in the microgravity conditions of space flight.

  16. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masquerading as pituitary adenoma

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    Rajneesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary hypophysitis (PH is characterized by pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be autoimmune or secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Based on the histopathological findings PH is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous, necrotizing and Immunoglobulin- G4 (IgG4 plasmacytic types. Objective: To report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH. Case Report: A 15-year-old girl presented with history of headache, amenorrhea, and history of polyuria for past 4 months. Initial evaluation had suppressed follicular stimulating hormone (<0.01 mIU/ml, high prolactin levels (110.85 ng/ml and diabetes insipidus (DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella was suggestive of pituitary macroadenoma with partial compression over optic chiasma. Patient underwent surgical decompression. Yellowish firm tissue was evacuated and xanthochromic fluid was aspirated. Histopathology was suggestive of LH. She resumed her cycles postoperatively after 4 months, prolactin levels normalized, however, she continues to have DI and is on desmopressin spray. This case has been presented here for its rare presentation in an adolescent girl because it is mostly seen in young females and postpartum period and its unique presentation as an expanding pituitary mass with optic chiasma compression. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of LH is based on histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicion and clinical manifestations of LH.

  17. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth;

    2016-01-01

    , and for decision on treatment initiation as well as characteristics included in the CLL International Prognostic Index are collected. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: To ensure full coverage of Danish CLL patients in the registry, both continuous queries in case of missing data, and cross-referencing with the Danish National......, 3,082 patients have been registered. CONCLUSION: The Danish National CLL Registry is based within the Danish National Hematology Database. The registry covers a cohort of all patients diagnosed with CLL in Denmark since 2008. It forms the basis for quality assessment of CLL treatment in Denmark......AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  18. Evaluating the Role of Viral Proteins in HIV-Mediated Neurotoxicity Using Primary Human Neuronal Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vasudev R; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the inability of HIV-1 to infect neurons, over half of the HIV-1-infected population in the USA suffers from neurocognitive dysfunction. HIV-infected immune cells in the periphery enter the central nervous system by causing a breach in the blood-brain barrier. The damage to the neurons is mediated by viral and host toxic products released by activated and infected immune and glial cells. To evaluate the toxicity of any viral isolate, viral protein, or host inflammatory protein, we describe a protocol to assess the neuronal apoptosis and synaptic compromise in primary cultures of human neurons and astrocytes.

  19. Development and evaluation of a teaching and learning approach in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination in university nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Brown, Lucinda; Duff, Carmel; Nesbitt, Pat; Hepner, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination are vital to ethical effective health systems. Nurses require quality educational preparation in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination. Limited evidence-based research is available to guide teachers. To develop, implement and evaluate an evidence-based teaching and learning approach in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination for undergraduate nursing students. A quantitative design using pre- and post-survey measures was used to evaluate the teaching and learning approach. The Bachelor of Nursing program in an Australian university. Academics and second year undergraduate nursing students. A literature review and consultation with academics informed the development of the teaching and learning approach. Thirty-three students completed a survey at pre-measures and following participation in the teaching and learning approach at post-measures about their confidence to practice cross-cultural nursing (Transcultural Self-efficacy Tool) and about their discriminatory attitudes (Quick Discrimination Index). The literature review found that educational approaches that solely focus on culture might not be sufficient in addressing discrimination and racism. During consultation, academics emphasised the importance of situating cross-cultural nursing and antidiscrimination as social determinants of health. Therefore, cross-cultural nursing was contextualised within primary health care and emphasised care for culturally diverse communities. Survey findings supported the effectiveness of this strategy in promoting students' confidence regarding knowledge about cross-cultural nursing. There was no reported change in discriminatory attitudes. The teaching and learning approach was modified to include stronger experiential learning and role playing. Nursing education should emphasise cross-cultural nursing and antidiscrimination. The study describes an evaluated teaching and learning approach and demonstrates how evaluation

  20. Comparative evaluation of the hydrogen production by mixed consortium, synthetic co-culture and pure culture using distillery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preeti; Roy, Shantonu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater comprises of various carbon sources. So, the use of microbial consortium may improve the hydrogen production and organic reduction. The present study deals with biohydrogen production by acidogenic mixed consortia (AMC), synthetic co-culture (Klebsiella pneumoniae IIT-BT 08 and Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139) and pure culture using distillery effluent (DE). Higher hydrogen yield was observed in case of AMC (9.17 mol/kg CODreduced) as compared to the synthetic co-culture and pure culture. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the consortium was predominated by species closely affiliated to Clostridium sp. The average hydrogen production rate was 267 mL/Lh. The maximum hydrogen production rate (Rm), hydrogen production potential (P) and lag time (λ) by AMC using DE were 507.2 mL/Lh, 3729 m/L and 2.04 h, respectively. Maximum gaseous energy recovery by AMC was found to be higher by 21.9% and 45.4% than that of using co-culture and pure culture respectively.

  1. Development of an in situ evaluation system for neural cells using extracellular matrix-modeled gel culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Ikegami, Yasuhiro; Mizumachi, Hideyuki; Shirakigawa, Nana; Ijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional monolayer culture is the most popular cell culture method. However, the cells may not respond as they do in vivo because the culture conditions are different from in vivo conditions. However, hydrogel-embedding culture, which cultures cells in a biocompatible culture substrate, can produce in vivo-like cell responses, but in situ evaluation of cells in a gel is difficult. In this study, we realized an in vivo-like environment in vitro to produce cell responses similar to those in vivo and established an in situ evaluation system for hydrogel-embedded cell responses. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-modeled gel consisted of collagen and heparin (Hep-col) to mimic an in vivo-like environment. The Hep-col gel could immobilize growth factors, which is important for ECM functions. Neural stem/progenitor cells cultured in the Hep-col gel grew and differentiated more actively than in collagen, indicating an in vivo-like environment in the Hep-col gel. Second, a thin-layered gel culture system was developed to realize in situ evaluation of the gel-embedded cells. Cells in a 200-μm-thick gel could be evaluated clearly by a phase-contrast microscope and immunofluorescence staining through reduced optical and diffusional effects. Finally, we found that the neural cells cultured in this system had synaptic connections and neuronal action potentials by immunofluorescence staining and Ca(2+) imaging. In conclusion, this culture method may be a valuable evaluation system for neurotoxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao C. M. Barreira

    2015-06-01

    The results showed significant differences within the assessed botanical parts and also among the assayed concentrations. The performed investigation might be considered as representing a step further in the evaluation of the in vivo bioactive potential of this highly promising species. Furthermore, it has established some practical bases for the evaluation of additional natural matrices with high scoring in bioactivity screening studies.

  3. Evaluation of cultural heritage in Posavje region by tourists and employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Brcar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: This paper investigates tourism sustainability and examines the research problem of cultural and historical heritage sustainability in the Posavje region. The aim of this research paper is to evaluate the opinion of employees in tourist sector and tourists about tourism sustainability and their suggestions for improvement. The objective is to determine the level of sustainability of cultural and historical heritage. Method: Quantitative method with closed-ended questionnaire and qualitative method with open-ended questionnaire were used. Collected quantitative data were analyzed using frequency statistics, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Qualitative data were analyzed by three steps: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. Results: The results showed that maximizing benefits to cultural heritage and minimizing negative impact was rated more positively by tourists in comparison to employees in the tourist sector. The scores were rated between 2.72 and 4.05 on a scale from 1 (low level of sustainability to 5 (high level of sustainability. Society: We conclude that the level of tourism sustainability in Posavje region is not satisfactory and has to be improved. Limitations / further research: Respondents proposed a great number of ideas for improving tourism sustainability.

  4. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.

  5. Evaluation of Parameters in the Isolation of Viable Protoplasts from Cultured Tobacco Cells 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Murashige, Toshio

    1974-01-01

    A systematic evaluation disclosed the following conditions to be optimum for the isolation of viable protoplasts from cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum L. `Bright Yellow' grown in liquid suspensions: (a) the cell culture in the early phase of cell number increase, (b) an enzyme mixture of 1% cellulase “Onozuka” and 0.2% Macerozyme, (c) an enzyme solution pH of 4.7 or 5.7, (d) a 2- to 3-hr incubation period, (e) 5 ml of enzyme solution per 500 mg cells and contained in a 50-ml Delong flask, (f) agitation on a gyrotory shaker at 50 rpm, and (g) 0.3 to 0.8 m mannitol as osmoticum in the cell enzyme mixture. The incubation temperature may be varied from 22 to 37 C. The procedure enabled 30% of the tobacco cells to form protoplasts, 80% of which regenerated cell walls in 4 days and 40% resumed cell division activity when returned to cell culture medium. Images PMID:16659004

  6. Routine in vitro culture of P. falciparum gametocytes to evaluate novel transmission-blocking interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delves, Michael J; Straschil, Ursula; Ruecker, Andrea; Miguel-Blanco, Celia; Marques, Sara; Baum, Jake; Sinden, Robert E

    2016-09-01

    The prevention of parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito has been recognized as a vital tool for malaria eradication campaigns. However, transmission-blocking antimalarial drug and/or vaccine discovery and development is currently hampered by the expense and difficulty of producing mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in vitro-the parasite stage responsible for mosquito infection. Current protocols for P. falciparum gametocyte culture usually require complex parasite synchronization and addition of stimulating and/or inhibitory factors, and they may not have demonstrated the essential property of mosquito infectivity. This protocol details all the steps required for reliable P. falciparum gametocyte production and highlights common factors that influence culture success. The protocol can be completed in 15 d, and particular emphasis is placed upon operating a gametocyte culture facility on a continuous cycle. In addition, we show how functionally viable gametocytes can be used to evaluate transmission-blocking drugs both in a field setting and at high throughput (HTP) for drug discovery.

  7. Development and evaluation of an instrument to assess medical students' cultural attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, L S; Alexander, G L; Wolf, F M; Fantone, J C; Davis, W K

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of an instrument designed to assess medical students' comfort with a range of sociocultural issues and intercultural experiences. Each survey item obliged students to reflect on their own sociocultural identities and academic status in relation to others', and to judge how comfortable they would be interacting across perceived boundaries based on sociocultural identity and academic status. More than 90% of University of Michigan first-year medical students (n=153) completed the survey just before classes began. Principal components analysis of the survey's 26 items identified 7 interpretable factors or subscales; the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients for the 7 subscales and the total scale ranged from .73 to .92. T-tests were used to investigate differences in average ratings among student subgroups (based on gender and ethnicity). To assess the magnitude of the effect of the differences between groups, effect size was computed for each of the means comparisons. Psychometric analyses indicated that this survey was both reliable and valid for assessing students' cultural attitudes. Further, analyses by gender and ethnic subgroup identified meaningful ratings differences in men's and women's reported comfort levels. Our findings suggest that this instrument is useful for assessing students' openness to developing cultural awareness and competence. Educators at other medical schools may find this instrument useful as a needs assessment tool for planning educational programs designed to increase students' cultural competence.

  8. Photoelectrocatalytic disinfection of water and wastewater: performance evaluation by qPCR and culture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieri, Danae; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Politi, Eleonora; Sofianos, Spiridon S; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2013-03-01

    Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (PEC) was evaluated as a disinfection technique using water and secondary treated wastewater spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. PEC experiments were carried out using a TiO(2)/Ti-film anode and a zirconium cathode under simulated solar radiation. Bacterial inactivation was monitored by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Inactivation rates were enhanced when the duration of the treatment was prolonged and when the bacterial density and the complexity of the water matrix were decreased. E. coli cells were reduced by approximately 6 orders of magnitude after 15 min of PEC treatment in water at 2V of applied potential and an initial concentration of 10(7) CFU/mL; pure photocatalysis (PC) led to about 5 log reduction, while electrochemical oxidation alone resulted in negligible inactivation. The superiority of PEC relative to PC can be attributed to a more efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Regarding disinfection in mixed bacterial suspensions, E. coli was more susceptible than E. faecalis at a potential of 2V. The complex composition of wastewater affected disinfection efficiency, yielding lower inactivation rates compared to water treatment. qPCR yielded lower inactivation rates at longer treatment times than culture techniques, presumably due to the fact that the latter do not take into account the viable but not culturable state of microorganisms.

  9. Economic evaluation of the impact of cultural tourism in the city of Zacatecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina De Sicilia Muñoz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay has the purpose of evaluating the economic impact of cultural tourism in the city of Zacatecas, giving special emphasis to its historic downtown. Therefore this work examines briefly the change recorded in the shift of the economic activities in the city, before and after its historic downtown was declared Cultural Human Heritage by the UNESCO. Moreover, the evolution of the city of Zacatecas as a touristic destiny is described, as well as the changes that have taken place in the expansion of the touristic services such as hotels, number of rooms, number of tourists, economically active population and the incomes inside the context of the tourist activity in the city of Zacatecas. Furthermore, tourism in México is discussed, initially aimed at promoting places with tourist tradition inside the country with the idea of exploiting the existent cultural resources; continuing with the geographical and historical context of the city of Zacatecas; and its touristic evolution as an historic downtown.

  10. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  11. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  12. Evaluation of Probiotic L. rhamnosus GG as a Protective Culture in Sea Buckthorn-Based Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijita Sireswar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103 as a protective culture when present in a food system. A non-fermented sea buckthorn-based beverage was developed. To meet the required criteria for probiotic beverage (viable count of 8 log CFU mL−1, the acidic juice had to be supplemented with whey protein concentrate (WPC. The obtained beverage had a shelf life of two weeks. Furthermore, the inhibitory potential of Lactobacillus-fortified-WPC-supplemented juice matrix was evaluated against E. coli (ATCC 25922 which is a major agent responsible for food contamination and shelf spoilage. Results indicated that the fortification of beverage with L. rhamnosus GG appeared to create an effective hurdle for multiplication of E. coli in the sea buckthorn-WPC system.

  13. Evaluation of Biphasic Culture System for Mycobacterial Isolation from the Sputum of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Ghatole M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial diseases continue to cause high morbidity and mortality. Isolation, identification and sensitivity testing form the backbone of laboratory investigations. M. tuberculosis isolation needs 6-8 weeks on conventional egg containing media. For rapid isolation various methods have been evaluated. We evaluated biphasic system (Middlebrook 7H11 agar slant + Middlebrook 9H broth in comparison with Lowenstein - Jensen (LJ medium. In smear positive cases biphasic system showed the recovery rate of 97.05% as against 79.41% on LJ on incubation for 21± 4.44 and 28±3.76 days respectively. In smear negative and culture positive cases biphasic system and LJ showed isolation rates of 91.66% and 66.6% after 36±3.44 and 41± 4.09 days respectively. Biphasic system showed lower contamination rate (1.33%. Biphasic medium is superior to LJ medium in isolation of M. tuberculosis .

  14. Deletion of Cmu genes in mouse B lymphocytes upon stimulation with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, A; Sablitzky, F

    1983-01-01

    Mouse B lymphocytes can be activated polyclonally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to differentiate into plasmablasts. Within several days many cells perform immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching in vitro. We have purified LPS blasts expressing IgM or only IgG3 on the cell surface and analysed the DNA of these cells by Southern hybridisation blotting to detect rearrangement or deletion of CH genes. Quantitative evaluation of the Southern blots suggests that populations of surface IgG3+ (sIgG3+) cells from 6-day and sIgM+ cells from 8-day-old cultures contain only about half as many Cmu genes as spleen cells. Cmu deletion is nearly complete in populations of sIgG3+ cells from 9-day-old cultures. Therefore, upon stimulation with LPS, within a few days Cmu is deleted in most sIgG3+ cells from both chromosomes.

  15. Correlation between the pharmacological efficacy of cyclosporine and tacrolimus as evaluated by the lymphocyte immunosuppressant sensitivity test (LIST) and the MTT assay procedure in patients before and after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, K; Isogai, K; Toyama, A; Satoh, H; Saito, K; Nakagawa, Y; Tasaki, M; Takahashi, K; Hirano, T

    2011-02-01

    Cyclosporine and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitors that are used to prevent acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. The lymphocyte immunosuppressant sensitivity test (LIST) can predict the pharmacological efficacy of these immunosuppressive agents for renal transplant recipients. There is a correlation between cyclosporine and tacrolimus pharmacological efficacy as evaluated by LIST by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay procedure prior to renal transplantation. However, the LIST can also evaluate patients before and after the transplantation. The present study examined the relationship between cyclosporine and tacrolimus pharmacological efficacy by LIST using the MTT assay in 16 renal transplant recipients at 1, 3 and 12 months after transplantation, as well as before the operation. The relationship of cyclosporine and tacrolimus pharmacological efficacy gave a significant Kendall and Spearman's coefficient correlation in these transplant recipients by the LIST using the MTT assay procedure immediately prior to renal transplantation (rk = 0.711, rs = 0.877, p cyclosporine and tacrolimus IC50 values were also observed with a significant Kendall and Spearman's coefficient correlation at 1 and 12 months after transplantation (rk1month = 0.65, rs1month = 0.829, p transplantation (rk3month = 0.117, rs3month = 0.1, p > 0.05). Both cyclosporine and tacrolimus exhibit pharmacological efficacy by the inhibition of calcineurin. However, the correlation between cyclosporine and tacrolimus pharmacological efficacies may be altered, due to immunosuppressive therapy or clinical events at 3 months after renal transplantation.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  17. An evaluation of dark field microscopy, culture and commercial serological kits in the diagnosis of leptospirosis

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    M Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study was conducted to analyze the clinical utility of various leptospira diagnostic modalities. Aims: To evaluate the role of dark field microscopy (DFM, culture, immunochromatography (IgM Leptocheck, IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA, macroscopic slide agglutination test (MSAT and microscopic agglutination test (MAT in diagnosing leptospirosis in febrile patients. Settings and Design: Descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital from January 2011 to April 2012. Subjects and Methods: Blood, urine and paired sera from 100 patients with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis (study group were collected and subjected to DFM, culture, IgM Leptocheck, IgM ELISA and MSAT. Fifty randomly selected sera from febrile patients tested positive for infections other than leptospirosis (control sera were also subjected to the aforementioned serological assays. All the leptospira seropositive samples were subjected to MAT. Statistical Analysis Used: Positive predictive values (PPV and coefficient of agreement (kappa. Results: None of the clinical samples showed positivity by DFM. Leptospira inadai was isolated from a urine sample. The seropositivity of IgM Leptocheck, IgM ELISA and MSAT was 16%, 46% and 47%, respectively. The PPV of these assays was 14.3%, 8.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Poor agreement was obtained among these assays. Only four study group leptospira seropositive samples were confirmed by MAT with Australis being the predominant serovar. None of the leptospira-positive control sera were confirmed by MAT. Conclusions: DFM and culture have limited utility in diagnosing leptospirosis with serology being the mainstay. The present study shows discordant results with the commercially available serological kits. Further studies should be done to evaluate the various diagnostic modalities.

  18. Impact of organizational culture on preventability assessment of selected adverse events in the ICU: evaluation of morbidity and mortality conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelieu, Iris; Djadi-Prat, Juliette; Consoli, Silla M; Cariou, Alain; Guidet, Bertrand; You-Harada, Cécile; Paget, Virginie; Héraud, Guillaume; Lefur, Claire; Massin, Adeline; Hennequin, Marlène; Durieux, Pierre; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Faisy, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether organizational culture is associated with preventability assessment of reported adverse events (AE) in intensive care units (ICU). Blind review of time randomly distributed case notes written in the form of structured abstracts by the nurses who participated in recently implemented morbidity and mortality conferences from December 2006 to June 2010 in a 18-bed ICU in France. Ninety-five abstracts summarizing the discussions of 95 AE involving 95 patients were reviewed by two external blinded pairs (each comprised of one senior intensivist and one psychologist). A score for each organizational culture style was determined, with the highest scorer being considered the dominant style present in the abstract. Reliability of the classification and quantification of culture traits between pairs was very good or good for 13 dimensions and moderate for two others. The two pairs deemed 32/95 and 43/95 of AE preventable (κ = 0.59). Concordance was very good (κ = 0.85) between the external pairs for evaluation of the dominant culture style. The Cochran-Armitage trend test indicated an increasing trend for change of the dominant organizational culture style over time: the team-satisfaction-oriented culture took a leading role (p = 0.02), while the people-security-oriented culture decreased dramatically (p culture was significantly associated with a preventable judgment, while the people-security-oriented culture was significantly associated with an unpreventable judgment (p culture in the ICU.

  19. Evaluating Partnership, or how to Evaluate the Contribution of Cultural Institutions to an Integrated Curriculum for Culture Education in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heusden, Barend; Konings, Fianne

    2014-01-01

    Each year, many thousands of children and youngsters take part, with their school, in educational projects that have been designed and developed by cultural institutions, such as museums and theatres. Although the importance of these cultural educational programs is being stressed by governments and

  20. Autoradiographic detection of HPRT variants of human lymphocytes resistant to RNA synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, I.M.; Zetterberg, G.; Strout, C.L.; Carrano, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using RNA synthesis in freshly isolated, human peripheral blood lymphocytes to detect 6-thioguanine (TG)- and 8-azaguanine (AG)-resistant variants in an autoradiographic assay similar to that of Strauss and Albertini (1979) has been evaluated. In phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures RNA synthesis and HPRT activity began well in advance of DNA synthesis and increased in parallel during the first 44 h of culture. Introduction of TG or AG with PHA at the beginning of culture completely inhibited DNA synthesis during the first 44 h and reduced RNA synthesis to low levels within 24 h. When TG or AG was added after cells had been in culture for 38 h, DNA synthesis was reduced quickly while RNA synthesis was inhibited more slowly. An autoradiographic assay is described in which freshly isolated lymphocytes are cultured with PHA for 24 h, with or without TG or AG, then labeled with (/sup 3/H)uridine for 1 h. TG-resistant and AG-resistant variant frequencies for 2 normal individuals and a Lesch-Nyhan individual were determined with this assay. The variant frequencies for the normal individuals ranged from 0.46 to 10.6 x 10/sup -5/ depending upon the selective conditions used. All the Lesch-Nyhan cells were resistant to 0.2 ..mu..M-2 mM AG; some were sensitive to 0.2 mM TG and most were sensitive to 2.0 mM TG. 24 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

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    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  2. Genotoxic effects of bistratene A on human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Valverde, M; Vega, L; Salvador, A; Ramirez, P; Herrera, L A; Watters, D; Lavin, M F; Ostrosky-Wegman, P

    1996-03-01

    Bistratene A, a toxin isolated from the colonial ascidian Lissoclinum bistratum causes a decrease in mitotic index and retardation of lymphocyte proliferation kinetics when it is added at 48 h to 72-h human lymphocyte cultures. In the same cultures, the incidence of sister chromatid exchanges was not altered by this compound. We also observed an increase in the number of polyploid cells in the cultures, and alterations of the beta-tubulin organization by immunocytochemistry with an antibody against beta-tubulin. Bistratene A induces DNA damage in a dose-dependent fashion in leukocytes, as measured by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay. These results show that bistratene A interferes with microtubule assembly, is cytotoxic and cytostatic, and that it causes DNA damage.

  3. Ratios of CD64 expressed on neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes may be a novel method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dai-Hua; Fan, Cong-Hai; Li, Juan; An, Qi; Yao, Hong; Ji, Qiang; Niu, Gao

    2015-02-19

    Neutrophil CD64 expression has been demonstrated as an improved diagnostic marker of infection and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate neutrophil CD64 expression for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Eighty neonates with neonatal sepsis (21 culture positive, 59 negative) were enrolled in this prospective study along with 19 neonates with no symptoms or signs of infection as controls. Expressions of CD64 on monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils were evaluated with flow cytometry (FCM). Ratios were calculated with these levels of CD64 expression. Blood culture and other laboratory exams were done at the same time for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Results were compared between the neonatal sepsis and control groups. CD64 ratios showed significant difference between the groups (p neonatal sepsis identification. The novel CD64 evaluation method, CD64 ratio, can be used as a supplementary method for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  4. 中华鳖太湖种群淋巴细胞培养及染色体核型分析%The Lymphocytic Cell Culture and Chromosome Karyotype of Trionyx sinensis in Taihu Lake Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良伟; 王建国; 封琦; 黄爱军

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide the logical proofs for germplasm research and chromosomal manipulation of Trionyx sinensis. The karyotypes of the chromosomes of Trionyx sinensis in Taihu Lake were examined by lymphocytic cell cultivation-air drying-Giemsa staining method. The results showed that the chromosome karyotype of T. Sinensis in Taihu Lake population could be obtained through the lymphocytic cell cultivation method. There were 33 pairs chromosome including 6 pairs of large chromosome and 27 pairs of smaller chromosome.%为给中华鳖种质研究和染色体操作提供理论依据.以中华鳖太湖种群为材料,采用淋巴细胞培养、空气干燥法制片、Giemsa染色,对中华鳖染色体核型进行了分析.结果表明:通过淋巴细胞培养法可以得到良好的染色体制片;中华鳖太湖种群具有33对染色体,其中6对是大型染色体,27对是小型染色体.

  5. Normal lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population

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    Sâmia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellão Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population.METHODS: This study enrolled 35 over 60-year-old volunteers and a control group composed of 35 young adults. The study included elderly without diseases that might affect the functioning of the immune system. These individuals were consulted by doctors and after a physical examination, laboratory tests were performed using a Beckman Coulter (r flow cytometer. The GraphPad Prism computer program was employed for statistical analysis with the level of significance being set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: There is a statistically significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes (CD8 +, CD2 + and CD3 + cells in the elderly compared to young adults. These low rates are explained by changes attributed to aging and may be partly responsible for the reduction in the cellular immune response, lower proliferative activity and the low cytotoxicity of lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: These parameters showed greater impairment of adaptive immunity in the elderly population and can therefore explain the greater fragility of the aged body to developing diseases.

  6. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-04-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind with semiquantitative assessment of the following six parameters: (a) height of the follicular epithelium, (b) the amount of lymphocytes, (c) the presence of plasma cells, (d) hyperplastic follicular changes, (e) oxyphilic changes, and (f) fibrosis. The most striking result was the finding of extensive lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis, especially, is easily overlooked at autopsy as there are no macroscopic changes and often no prior symptoms or history of thyroid disease pointing towards this condition. Analyses of thyroid hormones are unreliable in predicting endocrine status in life. Routine microscopy of the thyroid gland is therefore advocated in cases of sudden unexpected death in order to diagnose thyroid disease, in particular silent (painless) thyroiditis.

  7. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways.

  8. In vitro cytotoxic activity of equine lymphocytes on equine herpesvirus-1 infected allogenic fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Edens, Lucy Marie

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a technique to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes from adult horses against equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) infected allogenic equine dermal fibroblasts (EDF); 2) evaluate the ability of a 72 hour in vitro incubation with interleukin-2 (I L-2) to enhance the lymphocytic cytolytic activity against EHV-1 infected EDF; 3) compare the cytotoxic activity among lymphocytes isolated from pregnant mares and non-pregnant...

  9. Evaluation of Big Five model in Serbian culture by FIBI questionnaire

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    Čolović Petar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate personality dimensions, proposed by Big Five model, in our culture, by the use of the questionnaire FIBI, developed on the basis of the psycho lexical study of personality descriptions in Serbian language (Smederevac, 2000. There were 627 subjects in the study (407 females and 220 males, aged 17 to 77, and the inventory UKL7 (Smederevac, 2000 and the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, Kentle, 1991; John, Srivastava, 1999 were applied. The FIBI inventory was created from UKL7 by exclusion of evaluative items, items of probable artificial factor Emotional control and items with poor psychometric properties were excluded. Final solution with 69 items demonstrated solid psychometric properties. The construct validity of the FIBI has been assessed by examination of its relationship to the Big Five Inventory and results showed that scales Conventionality and Extraversion in those two inventories differ in content. Subscale Conventionality in FIBI was highly related to subscale Consciousness in BFI and showed no significant correlation to Openness to Experience of the BFI. The content of the FIBI's Extraversion scale includes positive self-evaluation, assertiveness and activity. Indicators of sociability, usually considered as dominant (or at least very important markers of extraverted behavior, were omitted from the FIBI Extraversion scale. These content differences justify application of the emic approach in the personality psychology research. Although there are some other available instruments based on Big Five, FIBI represents product of our cultural background and seems to be worth of further examination and improvement.

  10. Carbon nanotubes enhance cytotoxicity mediated by human lymphocytes in vitro.

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    Zhao Sun

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT in biomedical fields, the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT have become issues of growing concern. Since the immune system often mediates tissue damage during pathogenesis, it is important to explore whether CNT can trigger cytotoxicity through affecting the immune functions. In the current study, we evaluated the influence of CNT on the cytotoxicity mediated by human lymphocytes in vitro. The results showed that while CNT at low concentrations (0.001 to 0.1 µg/ml did not cause obvious cell death or apoptosis directly, it enhanced lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against multiple human cell lines. In addition, CNT increased the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α by the lymphocytes. CNT also upregulated the NF-κB expression in lymphocytes, and the blockage of the NF-κB pathway reduced the lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity triggered by CNT. These results suggest that CNT at lower concentrations may prospectively initiate an indirect cytotoxicity through affecting the function of lymphocytes.

  11. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP.

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    Gerda Bernhard

    Full Text Available Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs' cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1 identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2 to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3 to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument.The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP, were derived from an expert survey (n = 23, interviews with HCPs (n = 12, and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP.Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs' cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension's Cronbach's α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups.The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs' cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive assessment of HCPs' cultural competence, and has

  13. T lymphocyte insensitivity to corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Kaur Manminder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increased numbers of activated lymphocytes in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. The clinical benefits of corticosteroids in COPD patients are limited. Our hypothesis is that lymphocytes play a role in this corticosteroid insensitivity. Objectives To investigate the effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone on lung lymphocyte cytokine production from patients with COPD compared to controls. Methods Cultured airway lymphocytes obtained by bronchoscopy from healthy non-smokers (HNS, smokers (S and COPD patients were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA & phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, +/- dexamethasone. Supernatants were assayed for interleukin (IL-2 and interferon (IFNγ. Immunofluoresence was used to analyse changes in CD8 glucocorticoid receptor (GRα and GRβ expression. Results The inhibition of PHA/PMA stimulated IFNγ production by dexamethasone was reduced in COPD patients compared to HNS (p p Conclusions IFNγ production from COPD airway lymphocytes is corticosteroid insensitive. This phenomenon may be important in the poor clinical response often observed with corticosteroids.

  14. Geno- and cytotoxicity of salinomycin in human nasal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzad, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Schramm, Carolin; Froelich, Katrin; Ginzkey, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    Salinomycin is usually applied in stock breading but has also been described as a promising agent against cancer stem cells (CSC). However, knowledge about the toxicity of this ionophor substance is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate cyto- and genotoxic effects of salinomycin in human non-malignant cells. Primary human nasal mucosa cells (monolayer and mini organ cultures) and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 individuals were used to study the cytotoxic effects of salinomycin (0.1-175 μM) by annexin-propidiumiodide- and MTT-test. The comet assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Additionally, the secretion of interleukin-8 was analyzed by ELISA. Flow cytometry and MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxic effects in nasal mucosa cells and lymphocytes at low salinomycin concentrations of 10-20 μM. No genotoxic effects could be observed. IL-8 secretion was elevated at 5 μM. Salinomycin-induced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects were seen at concentrations relevant for anti-cancer treatment. Concurrent to the evaluation of salinomycin application in experimental oncology, adverse effects in non-malignant cells need to be monitored and reduced as much as possible. Further studies are also warranted to evaluate the toxic effects in a variety of human cell systems, e.g., liver, kidney and muscle cells.

  15. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

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    Sivanandy P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palanisamy Sivanandy,1 Mari Kannan Maharajan,1 Kingston Rajiah,1 Tan Tyng Wei,2 Tan Wee Loon,2 Lim Chong Yee2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use.Objective: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.Methods: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.Results: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.Conclusion: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. Keywords

  17. Performance evaluation of CHO-K1 cell in culture medium supplemented with hemolymph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Raffoul

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of hemolymph utilization as a culture medium supplement to cultivate the animal cell CHO-K1. For this purpose 1% v/v of hemolymph was added to DMEM medium containing 10% v/v of FBS and 1 or 4.5 g/L of glucose. The culture was grown in spinner flasks incubated in a 10% v/v CO2 environment, at 37ºC, with the Cytodex 1 microcarrier. Comparing the results obtained from the culture with hemolymph against those without hemolymph, a positive influence of the hemolymph was observed, as the experiment with hemolymph presented a 52% higher cell concentration and a higher productivity of up to 40%.Desenvolvimento de meios de cultura isentos de soro fetal bovino (SFB é uma das grandes prioridades de pesquisa em desenvolvimento de processos com célula animal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma análise do potencial de uso da hemolinfa como suplemento do meio utilizado no cultivo da célula animal ancorante CHO-K1. Para isso, foi adicionado 1% v/v de extrato de hemolinfa ao meio DMEM contendo 10% v/v de SFB e 1,0 ou 4,5 g/L de glicose. O cultivo foi realizado em frascos tipo spinner em um ambiente de 10% v/v de CO2, a 37ºC, utilizando o microcarregador Cytodex 1. Comparando os resultados obtidos no ensaio com hemolinfa com um sem hemolinfa pode-se notar uma influência positiva da hemolinfa no cultivo, já que o ensaio com hemolinfa apresentou uma concentração máxima de células 52% maior e uma produtividade máxima de até 40% maior.

  18. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  19. Heterogeneity of chromosome damage in [beta]-thalassaemia traits. An evaluation of spontaneous and [gamma]-ray-induced micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in vitro after G[sub 0] and G[sub 2] phase irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaja, A.P.; Sharma, N.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Molecular Biology and Agriculture Div.)

    1994-07-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the chromosomal radiosensitivity of [beta]-thalassaemia traits compared with healthy individuals from the general population, necessitated by the fact that [beta]-thalassaemia trait is present in 1-17% of different population groups in India and the chances of encountering them in radiation and chemical related industries do exist. Spontaneous chromosome aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes from [beta]-thalassaemia traits were found to be in the normal range, whereas significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei (MN) were observed in thalassaemia traits. Based on MN frequency at 2 Gy, [beta]-thalassaemia traits fall into two distinct categories. A hypersensitive group with significant increase in radiation-induced MN over the control group, and a second group with MN frequency slightly above normal individuals. Even when compared with the fitted data at 2 Gy obtained from the pooled results of extensive dose-response investigations from 0.5-5 Gy [gamma]-rays with normal donors for MN, dicentrics and total aberrations, the difference between the means of MN frequencies in [beta]-thalassaemia traits and normals is significant. (author).

  20. Eliciting cytotoxic T lymphocytes against acute myeloid leukemia-derived antigens: evaluation of dendritic cell-leukemia cell hybrids and other antigen-loading strategies for dendritic cell-based vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea-Lauri, Joanna; Darling, David; Mufti, Ghulam; Harrison, Phillip; Farzaneh, Farzin

    2002-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been successfully used in clinical pilot studies to induce tumor-specific immunity as well as clinical response in selected patients. However, DC-based immunotherapy remains a challenge and several parameters need to be examined in order to optimize the induction of anti-tumor immune responses. This study focuses on DC vaccination for leukemia and evaluates the in vitro efficacy of three different strategies for generating antigen-loaded DC-based vaccines for the induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted anti-leukemia cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These included direct fusion of DC with leukemia cells to generate DC-leukemia cell hybrids, and DC pulsed with either apoptotic leukemia cell fragments or whole tumor cell lysates. Using either the U937 cell line or primary human acute myeloid leukemia blasts (AML), DC-leukemia cell hybrids were found to be the most potent in vitro inducers of CTL activity. DC pulsed with apoptotic tumor cell fragments were less efficient, but induced a more potent CTL response compared to tumor lysate-pulsed DC. The CTL responses were both MHC class I-restricted and antigen-specific, as shown by the inability of the CTL to lyse other control targets. The data presented here suggest that the method of antigen loading onto DC may be critical in the design of tumor vaccines.

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of root repair materials in human-cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voruganti Samyuktha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three root repair materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from healthy premolar extracted for orthodontic purpose. Cells in the third passage were used in the study. The cultured fibroblast cells were placed in contact with root repair materials: (a Biodentine, (b MTA, (c Endosequence, (d control. The effects of these three materials on the viability of Periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts were determined by trypan blue dye assay after 24 hours and 48-hour time period. Cell viability was determined using inverted phase contrast microscope. Statistical Analysis: Cell viability was compared for all the experimental groups with Wilcoxons matched pair test. Results: At the 24-hour examination period, all the materials showed increased cell viability. At 48-hour time period, there is slight decrease in cell viability. Mineral trioxide aggregate showed statistically significant increase in the cell viability when compared to other root repair materials. Conclusion: Mineral trioxide aggregate was shown to be less toxic to periodontal ligament fibroblasts than Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine.

  2. A novel tool for evaluating children’s musical abilities across age and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study introduces a novel tool for assessing musical abilities in children: The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA. The battery comprises tests of memory, scale, contour, interval, and rhythm, is administered to 245 children in Montreal and 91 in Beijing (Experiment 1, and an abbreviated version is administered to an additional 85 children in Montreal (in less than 20 min.; Experiment 2. All children are 6 to 8 years of age. Their performance indicates that both versions of the MBEMA are sensitive to individual differences and to musical training. The sensitivity of the tests extends to Mandarin-speaking children despite the fact that they show enhanced performance relative to French-speaking children. Because this Chinese advantage is not limited to musical pitch but extends to rhythm and memory, it is unlikely that it results from early exposure to a tonal language. In both cultures and versions of the tests, amount of musical practice predicts performance. Thus, the MBEMA can serve as an objective, short and up-to-date test of musical abilities in a variety of situations, from the identification of children with musical difficulties to the assessment of the effects of musical training in typically developing children of different cultures.

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of root repair materials in human-cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyuktha, Voruganti; Ravikumar, Pabbati; Nagesh, Bolla; Ranganathan, K.; Jayaprakash, Thumu; Sayesh, Vemuri

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three root repair materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from healthy premolar extracted for orthodontic purpose. Cells in the third passage were used in the study. The cultured fibroblast cells were placed in contact with root repair materials: (a) Biodentine, (b) MTA, (c) Endosequence, (d) control. The effects of these three materials on the viability of Periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were determined by trypan blue dye assay after 24 hours and 48-hour time period. Cell viability was determined using inverted phase contrast microscope. Statistical Analysis: Cell viability was compared for all the experimental groups with Wilcoxons matched pair test. Results: At the 24-hour examination period, all the materials showed increased cell viability. At 48-hour time period, there is slight decrease in cell viability. Mineral trioxide aggregate showed statistically significant increase in the cell viability when compared to other root repair materials. Conclusion: Mineral trioxide aggregate was shown to be less toxic to periodontal ligament fibroblasts than Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine. PMID:25298650

  4. A novel tool for evaluating children's musical abilities across age and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Gosselin, Nathalie; Nan, Yun; Caron-Caplette, Emilie; Trehub, Sandra E; Béland, Renée

    2013-01-01

    THE PRESENT STUDY INTRODUCES A NOVEL TOOL FOR ASSESSING MUSICAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN: The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA). The battery, which comprises tests of memory, scale, contour, interval, and rhythm, was administered to 245 children in Montreal and 91 in Beijing (Experiment 1), and an abbreviated version was administered to an additional 85 children in Montreal (in less than 20 min; Experiment 2). All children were 6-8 years of age. Their performance indicated that both versions of the MBEMA are sensitive to individual differences and to musical training. The sensitivity of the tests extends to Mandarin-speaking children despite the fact that they show enhanced performance relative to French-speaking children. Because this Chinese advantage is not limited to musical pitch but extends to rhythm and memory, it is unlikely that it results from early exposure to a tonal language. In both cultures and versions of the tests, amount of musical practice predicts performance. Thus, the MBEMA can serve as an objective, short and up-to-date test of musical abilities in a variety of situations, from the identification of children with musical difficulties to the assessment of the effects of musical training in typically developing children of different cultures.

  5. Antifungal Activity of Propolis Against Yeasts Isolated From Blood Culture: In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu Sariguzel, Fatma; Berk, Elife; Koc, Ayes Nedret; Sav, Hafize; Demir, Gonca

    2016-09-01

    Due to the failure of available antifungal agents in the treatment of candidemia and the toxic activities of these drugs, a lot of researches are being conducted to develop new nontoxic and effective antifungal agents for optimal control of fungal pathogens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis against yeasts isolated from the blood cultures of intensive care unit patients. Seventy-six strains were included in this study. The in vitro antifungal activity of propolis, fluconazole (FLU), and itraconazole (ITR) was investigated by the microdilution broth methods (CLSI guidelines M27-A3 for yeast). The propolis sample was collected from Kayseri, Turkey. Of the 76 isolates, 33 were identified as Candida albicans while 37 were C. parapsilosis, three were C. tropicalis, and three were identified as C. glabrata. The geometric mean range for MIC (μg/ml) with regard to all isolates was 0.077 to 3 μg/ml for FLU and ITR, and 0.375 to 0.70 μg/ml for propolis. It was shown that propolis had significant antifungal activity against all Candida strains and the MIC range of propolis was determined as 0185 to 3 μg/ml. This study demonstrated that propolis had significant antifungal activity against yeasts isolated from blood culture compared with FLU and ITR. The propolis MIC in azole-resistant strains such as C. glabrata was found lower than the FLU MIC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of the rat embryo culture system as a predictive test for human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, I; Buttar, H S; Smith, S; Varma, D R

    1994-01-01

    Ingestion of the anticonvulsant drug valproic acid and of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril during pregnancy has been associated with abnormal fetal outcome in humans. In contrast, the use of the antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen and the antihistamine diphenhydramine has not been documented to be embryotoxic in humans. We evaluated the rat embryo culture system as a predictive model of teratogenesis, using these four drugs as test agents. Valproic acid, ibuprofen, and diphenhydramine were embryotoxic, inducing concentration-dependent decreases in growth and a significant increase in anomalies. Valproic acid caused an increase in neural tube defects, ibuprofen increased the incidence of abnormal maxillary processes, and diphenhydramine increased the number of embryos with distorted body morphology. These abnormalities were induced at concentrations of valproic acid and diphenhydramine that are used clinically, but ibuprofen only induced toxicity at concentrations greatly exceeding the therapeutic range. Captopril was not embryotoxic up to 5 mM, the highest concentration tested. These results suggest that the rat embryo culture system produces both false positive and false negative data on the teratogenic potential of drugs. Although such an in vitro assay may be suitable to determine the mechanism of teratogenesis, it is not a sensitive indicator of potential human teratogens on its own. These data support the view that in vitro systems can only supplement clinical and epidemiological observations in humans, possibly as a method to determine mechanisms of actions of teratogens.

  7. Evaluation of the oxidative burst in suspension cell culture of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Kerstin; Schempp, Harald

    2004-01-01

    Plants respond to the attack of pathogens with the oxidative burst, a production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work a cell culture suspension of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to investigate the oxidative burst triggered by a conidia suspension of different races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. As a defence response of the cells a two-phase peak was observed with all used races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, varying only in the produced amounts of hydrogen peroxide. Findings with additives such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and catalase gave rise to the conclusion that more superoxide radicals were produced than be detectable with Amplex Red as hydrogen peroxide. It is assumed that the conversion of the superoxide radical is spontaneous and not driven via a cell-derived superoxide dismutase. The addition of low-molecular cell wall components (ergosterol, glucosamine, galactosamine) showed clearly that compounds like this act as elicitors and thus are involved in triggering the burst. Furthermore, an evaluation of the metabolizing capacities of hydrogen peroxide of the suspension culture cells revealed the enormous capacity of the cells to detoxify this ROS.

  8. Evaluation of Culture Media for Isolation of Mycobacterium Species from Human Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Rahul; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Material and Methods: BA with antibiotics was prepared and dispensed as slants in McCartney bottles. LJ was prepared and dispensed following the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) guidelines. A total of 500 suspected tuberculosis samples were inoculated on both media in duplicate, incubated at 370C, and observed daily until the appearance of growth. Results: Out of 500 inoculated samples, 99 showed growth on BA and 112 showed growth on LJ medium. Mean growth time on BA was less as compared to LJ medium. The contamination rate was found to be more on BA (7.2%) than on LJ (4.8%). Conclusions:  Mycobacterial growth time was less on BA as compared to LJ.  PMID:27733962

  9. Clinical evaluation of the FilmArray blood culture identification panel in identification of bacteria and yeasts from positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Osman; Almuhayawi, Mohammed; Ullberg, Måns; Ozenci, Volkan

    2013-12-01

    The FilmArray platform (FA; BioFire, Salt Lake City, UT) is a closed diagnostic system allowing high-order multiplex PCR analysis with automated readout of results directly from positive blood cultures in 1 h. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical performance of the FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel, which includes 19 bacteria, five yeasts, and three antibiotic resistance genes. In total, 206 blood culture bottles were included in the study. The FilmArray could identify microorganisms in 153/167 (91.6%) samples with monomicrobial growth. Thirteen of the 167 (7.8%) microorganisms were not covered by the FilmArray BCID panel. In 6/167 (3.6%) samples, the FilmArray detected an additional microorganism compared to blood culture. When polymicrobial growth was analyzed, the FilmArray could detect all target microorganisms in 17/24 (71%) samples. Twelve blood culture bottles that yielded a positive signal but showed no growth were also negative by FilmArray. In 3/206 (1.5%) bottles, the FilmArray results were invalid. The results of the FilmArray were reproducible, as demonstrated by the testing and retesting of five bottles in the same day and a longitudinal follow-up of five other blood cultures up to 4 weeks. The present study shows that the FilmArray is a rapid identification method with high performance in direct identification of bacteria and yeasts from positive blood culture bottles.

  10. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  11. Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture : response of two soybean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Barcelos Cardoso; Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini; Elsa Cristina de Mundstock; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos

    2007-01-01

    Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation was recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable mi...

  12. Electrochemical Evaluation of a Recycled Copolymer Coating for Cultural Heritage Conservation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hernández-Escampa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS is a well-known discard product from the industry. This copolymer can be dissolved in organic solvents, and thin films can be created by immersion. Two requirements for coatings used for cultural heritage conservation purposes are transparency and reversibility, both fulfilled by ABS films. The aim of this work was to characterize the copolymer and to evaluate the electrochemical properties of ABS coatings applied to copper. Such performance was compared to that of a commercial varnish commonly used in conservation. The results indicate high protection values of the ABS film, generating a potential application for this waste material. The electrochemical techniques included electrochemical noise, impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization.

  13. Cell culture-Taqman PCR assay for evaluation of Cryptosporidium parvum disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Alexandra R; Fanok, Stella; Monis, Paul T; Saint, Christopher P

    2003-05-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum represents a challenge to the water industry and a threat to public health. In this study, we developed a cell culture-quantitative PCR assay to evaluate the inactivation of C. parvum with disinfectants. The assay was validated by using a range of disinfectants in common use in the water industry, including low-pressure UV light (LP-UV), ozone, mixed oxidants (MIOX), and chlorine. The assay was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive, with a lower detection limit of a single infectious oocyst. Effective oocyst inactivation was achieved (>2 log(10) units) with LP-UV (20 mJ/cm(2)) or 2 mg of ozone/liter (for 10 min). MIOX and chlorine treatments of oocysts resulted in minimal effective disinfection, with disinfection systems for drinking water and recycled water.

  14. [Evaluation of culture media for detecting the starch hydrolysis reaction in pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, A M

    1991-01-01

    Sixty strains of different pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris have been tested for the evaluation of various starch agars and compounds of starch degradation on six media: soluble starch, potato insoluble starch, corn insoluble starch, potato amylopectin, corn amylopectin and potato amylose. The purpose of the present investigation was the selection of the most suitable medium for the visualization of the starch hydrolysis test, presenting this reaction as a distinct character between pathovars of the Xanthomonas campestris group. From 60 strains tested, 74% gave positive reactions. Pathovars holcicola, pelargonii, pruni and vitians were negative. Regarding X. campestris pv. vesicatoria cultures, results were variable. Potato and corn insoluble starch agars were the most suitable media for the visualization of the starch hydrolysis reaction and at the same time the most appropriate for direct isolation. Differentiation at species level could be practicable, but within the Xanthomonas campestris group, variation amongst pathovars suggest the unsuitability of the test in spite of the high percentage of positive reactions.

  15. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  16. Reliability of the total lymphocyte count as a parameter of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forse, R A; Rompre, C; Crosilla, P; O-Tuitt, D; Rhode, B; Shizgal, H M

    1985-05-01

    To evaluate the total lymphocyte count as a means of nutritional assessment, body composition studies (a proven method of nutritional assessment) and total lymphocyte determinations were performed simultaneously in 153 patients. The total lymphocyte count correlated poorly with both the body cell mass and the nutritional state measured by the Nae to Ke ratio. For diagnosing malnutrition, the total lymphocyte count had a false-positive rate of 34% and a false-negative rate of 50%. In a group of 78 patients who received total parenteral nutrition for 2 weeks, the total lymphocyte count did not accurately reflect the nutritional changes. Due to its poor sensitivity and specificity, the total lymphocyte count is of no value as a measure of the nutritional state.

  17. Isolation of Lymphocytes and Their Innate Immune Characterizations from Liver, Intestine, Lung and Uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhong Zhang; Zhongjun Dong; Rongbin Zhou; Deming Luo; Haiming Wei; Zhigang Tian

    2005-01-01

    In steady-state conditions, the number and distribution of lymphocyte populations are under homeostatic control.New lymphocytes are continuously produced in primary and secondary lymphoid organs and then achieve immune-competence within different tissues, and they must challenge with resident cells for survival. The first step in the study of tissue lymphoid cells is their isolation in intact and viable form appropriate for establishment of in vitro culture systems. For reasons of simplicity, cell purity, cell yields and various purposes, lymphocytes obtained from different tissues in different labs were subjected to diverse protocols. To fully elucidate the nature of the local immune system as well as to adequately study the innate role of lymphocytes in liver, intestine, lung and uterus, we briefly reviewed the characterization of resident lymphocytes, and additional information on those cells from non-lymphoid tissues by using the recommended operation procedure was also presented.

  18. Evaluation of Quantity and Hyperhydricity of Cocoa Somatic Embryo Obtained from Solid Culture, Liquid Culture, and Sequence Subculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  aimed  to  study  the  effect  of  solid  culture,  liquid  culture,  and sequence  subculture  on  quantity  and  hyperhydricity  of  somatic  embryo  wascarried  out  at  Laboratory  of  Biotechnology,  Indonesian  Coffee  and  Cocoa Research  Institute.  Materials  used  in  this  study  were  embryogenic  callitransferred  on  somatic  embryos  expression  both  in  solid  and  liquid  media with  the  same  media  composition,  namely  MS  medium  with  the  addition  ofAdenine  (0.025  mg/L.  Gelling  agent  used  in  solid  media  was  gelrite  (3  g/L. Clones used in this study was Sca 6. This research consisted of two trials, namely1  effect  of  medium  type  (solid  and  liquid,  and  2  sequence  subculture  (four subcultures.  This  results  showed  that  the  production  of  somatic  embryosin  liquid  medium  was  higher  than  in  the  solid  medium.  Regeneration  of somatic  embryos  on  solid  medium  culture  showed  the  highest  percentage  of abnormality  embryos  due  to  hyperhydricity  at  the  cotyledonary  phase  60%. Meanwhile,  the  regeneration  of  somatic  embryos  in  liquid  culture  showed the  highest  percentage  of  abnormality  embryos  due  to   hyperhydricity  at the  globular  and  cotyledonary  phase  37%.  Frequent  subculture  increased abnormal embryos  and  decreased  the  number of  somatic  embryos.Key words: Cacao, hyperhydricity,  somatic embryos,  solid  culture,  liquid  culture,  subculture,  in  vitro.

  19. Microscopic structures of Japanese lamprey peripheral blood cells and culture of lymphocyte-like cells in vitro%日本七鳃鳗外周血细胞显微结构及类淋巴细胞体外培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逢越; 李庆伟

    2012-01-01

    The mierostructure of Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica) peripheral blood cells and the cultivation methods of lymphocyte-like cells were explored. The peripheral blood cells of L. japonica were stained by Wright's and Giemsa's staining methods and five major cell types including erythrocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil granulocyte, monocyte and eosinophil granulocyte, but not basophil were recognized under light microscope. The lymphocyte-like cells were separated successfully with Ficoll-Paque centrifugation and flow cytometry and were cultured in L15 medium with 20% foetal bovine serum (FBS) including 5% L. japonica FBS and 0.46% NaCI. The optimal temperature of cells is 18 ℃ and the optimal pH of cells is 6.8-7.0. They can develop attachment as a sheet of cells after 1 hour. Cells have a good condition for nearly a month. The establishment of primary cell cultures of lymphocyte-like cells from L. japonica provides a useful tool for the longevity of the culture and the investigation in cellular biology.%以日本七鳃鳗(Lampetrajaponica)为研究对象,观察其外周血细胞显微结构和探讨类淋巴细胞原代培养条件。采用Wright氏和Giemsa氏染色法对日本七鳃鳗外周血液有形成分进行显微观察,可鉴别出红细胞、淋巴细胞、中性粒细胞、单核细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞:未发现嗜碱性粒细胞。通过Ficoll密度梯度离心法和流式细胞仪分选获得高纯度的七鳃鳗类淋巴细胞。经条件优化后确定最适培养液L15+20%FBS(5%七鳃鳗血清)+0.46%NaCl,在18℃,pH6.8~7.0的条件下对日本七鳃鳗类淋巴细胞进行体外培养,大多数类淋巴细胞半贴壁生长,细胞状态较好,最长可以存活近一个月。类淋巴细胞的原代培养为日本七鳃鳗细胞体外培养的深入研究提供了实验依据。

  20. Kinetic analysis of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and expression of IL-2 receptors by uraemic and normal lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, E; Hofmann, B; Ladefoged, J

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro immune response of lymphocytes from uraemic patients was studied by comparing the in vitro kinetics of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, the mitogen-induced proliferative response, and the expression of IL-2 receptors by T lymphocytes. The IL-2 production in 26 uraemic cell cultures...

  1. Expansion of activated lymphocytes obtained from renal cell carcinoma in an automated hollow fiber bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, G G; Wolf, M L; Montecillo, E; Younes, E; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P

    1994-01-01

    Immunotherapy using IL-2 alone or combined with activated lymphocytes has been promising for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be isolated from tumors, expanded in vitro with IL-2, and adoptively transferred back into the tumor-bearing host. These cells can also be transduced with the genes coding for cytokines for local delivery to tumor sites. A major drawback in adoptive immunotherapy is the cumbersome and expensive culture technology associated with the growth of large numbers of cells required for their therapeutic effect. To reduce the cost, resources, and manpower, we have developed the methodology for lymphocyte activation and expansion in the automated hollow fiber bioreactor IMMUNO*STAR Cell Expander (ACT BIOMEDICAL, INC). Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from human renal cell carcinoma tumor specimens were inoculated at a number of 10(8) cells in a small bioreactor of 30 ml extracapillary space volume. We have determined the medium flow rates and culture conditions to obtain a significant and repeated expansion of TIL at weekly intervals. The lymphocytes cultured in the bioreactor demonstrated the same phenotype and cytotoxic activity as those expanded in parallel in tissue culture plates. Lymphocyte expansion in the hollow fiber bioreactor required lower volumes of medium, human serum, IL-2 and minimal labor. This technology may facilitate the use of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of refractory malignancies.

  2. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first controlled laboratory clinical hand study to have compared traditional hand hygiene test methods with newer culture-independent characterization methods typically used by skin microbiologists. This study resulted in recommendations for hand hygiene product testing, development of methods, and future hand skin microbiome research. It also demonstrated the importance of inclusion of skin physiological metadata in skin

  3. Toxicity evaluation of new agricultural fungicides in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Olguín, Nair; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Suñol, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Fungicides are crucial for food protection as well as for the production of crops of suitable quality and quantity to provide a viable economic return. Like other pesticides, fungicides are widely sprayed on agricultural land, especially in wine-growing areas, from where they can move-off after application. Furthermore, residues of these agrochemicals can remain on crops after harvest and even after some food processing operations, being a major exposure pathway. Although a relatively low toxicity has been claimed for this kind of compounds, information about their neurotoxicity is still scarce. In the present study, nine fungicides recently approved for agricultural uses in the EU - ametoctradin, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone and pyraclostrobin - have been evaluated for their toxicity in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Exposure to 0.1-100µM for 7 days in vitro resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in the MTT cell viability assay. Strobilurin fungicides kresoxim-methyl (KR) and pyraclostrobin (PY) were the most neurotoxic compounds (lethal concentration 50 were in the low micromolar and nanomolar levels, respectively) causing a rapid raise in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and strong depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. KR- and PY-induced cell death was reversed by the calcium channels blockers MK-801 and verapamil, suggesting that calcium entry through NMDA receptors and voltage-operated calcium channels are involved in KR- and PY-induced neurotoxicity. These results highlight the need for further evaluation of their neurotoxic effects in vivo.

  4. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri E. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1 bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI- differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+ and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+ cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions.

  5. A theory-driven, longitudinal evaluation of the impact of team training on safety culture in 24 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine J; Skinner, Anne M; High, Robin; Reiter-Palmon, Roni

    2013-05-01

    Effective teamwork facilitates collective learning, which is integral to safety culture. There are no rigorous evaluations of the impact of team training on the four components of safety culture-reporting, just, flexible and learning cultures. We evaluated the impact of a year-long team training programme on safety culture in 24 hospitals using two theoretical frameworks. We used two quasi-experimental designs: a cross-sectional comparison of hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPS) results from an intervention group of 24 hospitals to a static group of 13 hospitals and a pre-post comparison of HSOPS results within intervention hospitals. Dependent variables were HSOPS items representing the four components of safety culture; independent variables were derived from items added to the HSOPS that measured the extent of team training, learning and transfer. We used a generalised linear mixed model approach to account for the correlated nature of the data. 59% of 2137 respondents from the intervention group reported receiving team training. Intervention group HSOPS scores were significantly higher than static group scores in three dimensions assessing the flexible and learning components of safety culture. The distribution of the adoption of team behaviours (transfer) varied in the intervention group from 2.8% to 31.0%. Adoption of team behaviours was significantly associated with odds of an individual reacting more positively at reassessment than baseline to nine items reflecting all four components of safety culture. Team training can result in transformational change in safety culture when the work environment supports the transfer of learning to new behaviour.

  6. Development of a high-value care culture survey: a modified Delphi process and psychometric evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, R.(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India); Moriates, C; Harrison, JD; Valencia, V; Ong, M; Clarke, R.; Steers, N; Hays, RD; Braddock, CH; De Wachter, R

    2016-01-01

    Organisational culture affects physician behaviours. Patient safety culture surveys have previously been used to drive care improvements, but no comparable survey of high-value care culture currently exists. We aimed to develop a High-Value Care Culture Survey (HVCCS) for use by healthcare leaders and training programmes to target future improvements in value-based care.We conducted a two-phase national modified Delphi process among 28 physicians and nurse experts with diverse backgrounds. We...

  7. Evaluating the use of blood cultures in the management of children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell J McCulloh

    Full Text Available Blood cultures are often recommended for the evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. However, institutions vary in their use of blood cultures, and blood cultures have unclear utility in CAP management in hospitalized children.To identify clinical factors associated with obtaining blood cultures in children hospitalized with CAP, and to estimate the association between blood culture obtainment and hospital length of stay (LOS.We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of children admitted with a diagnosis of CAP to any of four pediatric hospitals in the United States from January 1, 2011-December 31, 2012. Demographics, medical history, diagnostic testing, and clinical outcomes were abstracted via manual chart review. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated patient and clinical factors for associations with obtaining blood cultures. Propensity score-matched Kaplan-Meier analysis compared patients with and without blood cultures for hospital LOS.Six hundred fourteen charts met inclusion criteria; 390 children had blood cultures obtained. Of children with blood cultures, six (1.5% were positive for a pathogen and nine (2.3% grew a contaminant. Factors associated with blood culture obtainment included presenting with symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.10-2.89, receiving intravenous hydration (OR 3.94, 95% CI 3.22-4.83, receiving antibiotics before admission (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.17-1.89, hospital admission from the ED (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.60, and having health insurance (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.60. In propensity score-matched analysis, patients with blood cultures had median 0.8 days longer LOS (2.0 vs 1.2 days, P < .0001 without increased odds of readmission (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.45-1.97 or death (P = .25.Obtaining blood cultures in children hospitalized with CAP rarely identifies a causative pathogen and is associated with increased LOS. Our results highlight the need to refine the role of

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes Efeito imunomodulador de hipoglicemiantes orais em cultura de linfócitos de pacientes com diabetes tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Faccio Mello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA and oral hypoglycemic drugs. RESULTS: In both in vitro and ex vivo experiments, there was a reduction in cell proliferation after treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs. When both drugs were used in combination, a high level of cytotoxicity was observed, which made analysis of immunomodulatory effects unfeasible. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that diabetes itself may reduce cell proliferation significantly when stimulated by PHA, which may indicate that diabetic patients have difficulties in promoting an efficient inflammatory response. Moreover, the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs may aggravate this situation.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Tem sido sugerido que o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 é uma manifestação da resposta inflamatória. As principais drogas utilizadas no tratamento do DM2 são as sulfonilureias e as biguanidas. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar os efeitos moduladores na proliferação de linfócitos causada pelos hipoglicemiantes orais (clorpropamida e metformina, in vitro e ex vivo. MÉTODOS: Células mononucleares de sangue periférico foram isoladas de seres humanos por gradiente de centrifugação. Os linfócitos T foram estimulados com fito-hemaglutinina (PHA e hipoglicemiantes. RESULTADOS: Nos experimentos in vitro e ex vivo, mostramos a redução da proliferação celular quando do tratamento com drogas hipoglicemiantes orais. Quando as drogas foram utilizadas em combinação, foi

  9. Phytochemical screening of the dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of Eriosema campestre var. macrophylum roots and its antiproliferative effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelle G. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eriosema campestre var. macrophylum (Grear Fortunato, Fabaceae, is a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado and the decoction of its roots has been used by folk medicine for the therapy of inflammatory diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of the dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of E. campestre roots on the proliferative response of lymphocytes and to examine the profile of IL-2 production. The effect of dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of E. campestre on the proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes was evaluated by using flow cytometry and the cell supernatants were assayed for IL-2 concentrations by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phytochemical screening of E. campestre roots was performed to determine the main secondary metabolites through chromogenic and precipitation reactions and by using HPLC-PAD. In addition to the presence of subclasses of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in dichloromethane–ethanolic extract of E. campestre, we observed that the extract induced a concentration-dependent decrease in IL-2 levels on the supernatant of the cell cultures as well as an antiproliferative effect on T lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ cells. The anti-inflammatory effects attributed to E. campestre by folk medicine may partly be explained by its antiproliferative action on T lymphocytes.

  10. Risk evaluation focused on the valorization and management of cultural underground heritages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeraxhiu, Lydra; Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Around the present and old coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the outcropping of soft calcareous and arenaceous stones (calcareous tuffs, encroutement calcaires, etc.) favoured the establishment and development of rupestrian civilizations. In many areas, these settlements raise a particular significance under anthropological and artistic point of view, such as the Matera "Sassi", an Italian UNESCO World Heritage site. A number of cultural heritages remnants, consisting of rupestrian establishments which have artistic and cultural significance, are diffused on the Gravine and on the Lame (local name of major and minor canyons) of the Murgia flanks (Southern Italy). It is required to preserve these cultural assets, even having such an objective, a new use of them with exhibition purposes. The most common environment on which are found these settlements are the slopes of the Gravine, carved into calcarenites. Despite to its excellent characteristic (good resistance coupled with an excellent workability), calcarenite is subject to decay for the negative interaction with the water of capillary or hygroscopic absorption. The absorbed water by the rock interacts with each of its three phases, clastic or bioclastic granules of calcium carbonate, matrix and cement, but in particular with the carbonate cement which determine, in function of its concentration, dissolution or precipitation processes with synchronous effects on the technical properties of the rock. Therefore the structural weakening of the calcarenite leads to the possibility of brittle fracture of statically relevant parts of naturally or artificially carved mass, often in contexts where the actual geometry and the perception of risk cannot be properly evaluated. The fragility of the contexts, where the excavated continues with parts constructed with the same materials, leads to disastrous evolutions of the same in case of failure. Recent studies on the underground cavities have allowed an assessment of

  11. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cultural adaptation and validation of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Conrad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quality of life has been one of the main issues for patients with a chronic condition.OBJECTIVE: To translate, adapt and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ.METHODS: The questionnaire was translated into Portuguese, back translated into English, and cross-culturally adapted to the Brazilian Population. Sixty-five transtibial unilateral amputees were recruited. The sample comprised 45 men and 20 women with a mean age of 44 years, 47 with traumatic amputations, 14 with vascular dysfunction and 4 with other reasons for amputation, and all of them fitted with prostheses. Patients were interviewed twice, at baseline and again after 15 days. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SF-36 (a generic Quality of Life outcome measure and the FIM (a Functional Independence Measure were also administered.RESULTS: The internal consistency of the nine PEQ scales was tested by computing Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (0.65 - 0.89: high values. Student's t test coefficients were used for interobserver evaluation (0.35 to 084: reliable values with one exception- the Residual Limb Health scale, and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC, which ranged from 0.65 to 0.92: reliable values. Student's t test coefficients and ICCs were also used for intraobserver evaluation (0.42 to 0.83, except the Residual Limb Health scale and 0.80 to 0.94, respectively: reliable values. Correlations between PEQ, SF-36 and FIM were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients, which were not statistically significant (p > 0, 01.CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the PEQ has high internal consistency and is a reliable quality of life measure for use in amputee patients, but is not associated with the SF-36 or FIM.

  12. In vitro genotoxicity of pyridine in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelnsia, Aida D; Rather, Irfan A

    2016-05-01

    This work was carried out to study the genotoxicity of pyridine in vitro on human leucocyte culture. Cyclophosphamide, a well-known carcinogen was used as positive control. The four different concentrations of pyridine and cyclophosphamide showed breaks and pulverization of chromosomes in dose dependent manner. Higher number of pulverization was observed with higher concentration of pyridine (3.25μg/mL). Based on this data, our results confirm that both pyridine and its precursor showed genotoxicity against human lymphocytes.

  13. Genotoxicity of food preservative sodium sorbate in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamur, Sevcan; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Unal, Fatma; Aksoy, Hüseyin

    2012-10-01

    The genotoxic effects of antimicrobial food additive sodium sorbate (SS) was assessed by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) in cultured human lymphocytes and comet assay in isolated human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were treated with four concentrations (100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml) of SS as well as a negative (sterile distilled water) and a positive control (Mitomycin-C: MMC for cultured lymphocytes and H(2)O(2) for isolated lymphocytes). The result of this study indicated that SS increased the frequency of CAs at both 24 and 48 h period compared to control. When gaps were included, this increase was significant at 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml concentrations at 24 h and, at all concentrations at 48 h treatment time. When gaps were excluded, this increase was significant at only 800 μg/ml concentration at both 24 and 48 h treatments. In addition, SS increased SCEs/cell and MN frequency at 400 and 800 μg/ml concentrations at both 24 and 48 h compared to negative control. Furthermore, this additive caused DNA damage at all concentrations in isolated human lymphocytes after 1 h in vitro exposure. The present results show that SS is genotoxic to the human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro at the highest concentrations.

  14. Prognostic impact of lymphocytes in soft tissue sarcomas.

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    Sveinung W Sorbye

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of lymphocyte infiltration in soft tissue sarcomas (STS. Prognostic markers in potentially curable STS should guide therapy after surgical resection. The immune status at the time of resection may be important, but the prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is controversial as the immune system has conflicting roles during cancer development. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue microarrays from 249 patients with STS were constructed from duplicate cores of viable and representative neoplastic tumor areas. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD45+ lymphocytes in tumors. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, increased numbers of CD4+ (P = 0.008 and CD20+ (P = 0.006 lymphocytes in tumor correlated significantly with an improved disease-specific survival (DSS in patients with wide resection margins (n = 108. In patients with non-wide resection margins (n = 141 increased numbers of CD3+ (P = 0.028 lymphocytes in tumor correlated significantly with shorter DSS. In multivariate analyses, a high number of CD20+ lymphocytes (HR = 5.5, CI 95%  = 1.6-18.6, P = 0.006 in the tumor was an independent positive prognostic factor for DSS in patients with wide resections margins. CONCLUSIONS: High density of CD20+ lymphocytes in STS with wide resection margins is an independent positive prognostic indicator for these patients. Further research is needed to define if CD20+ cells can modify tumors in a way that reduces disease progression and metastatic potential.

  15. Evaluation of commercial boric acid containing vials for urine culture: low risk of contamination and cost effectiveness considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appannanavar, Suma B; Biswal, Manisha; Rajkumari, Nonika; Mohan, Balvinder; Taneja, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Urine culture is a gold standard in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Clean catch midstream urine collection and prompt transportation is essential for appropriate diagnosis. Improper collection and delay in transportation leads to diagnostic dilemma. In developing countries, higher ambient temperatures further complicate the scenario. Here, we have evaluated the role of boric acid as a preservative for urine samples prior to culture in female patients attending outpatient department at our center. Consecutive 104 urine samples were cultured simultaneously in plain uricol (Control-C) and boric acid containing tubes from Becton Dickinson urine culture kit (Boric acid group-BA). In the real-time evaluation, we found that in almost 57% (59/104) of the urine samples tested, it was more effective in maintaining the number of the organisms as compared to samples in the container without any preservative. Our in vitro study of simulated urine cultures revealed that urine samples could be kept up to 12 h before culture in the preservative without any inhibitory effect of boric acid. Though the use of boric acid kit may marginally increase the initial cost but has indirect effects like preventing delays in treatment and avoidance of false prescription of antibiotics. If the man-hours spent on repeat investigations are also taken into consideration, then the economic cost borne by the laboratory would also decrease manifold with the use of these containers.

  16. Evaluation of commercial boric acid containing vials for urine culture: Low risk of contamination and cost effectiveness considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma B Appannanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine culture is a gold standard in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Clean catch midstream urine collection and prompt transportation is essential for appropriate diagnosis. Improper collection and delay in transportation leads to diagnostic dilemma. In developing countries, higher ambient temperatures further complicate the scenario. Here, we have evaluated the role of boric acid as a preservative for urine samples prior to culture in female patients attending outpatient department at our center. Materials and Method: Consecutive 104 urine samples were cultured simultaneously in plain uricol (Control-C and boric acid containing tubes from Becton Dickinson urine culture kit (Boric acid group-BA. Results: In the real-time evaluation, we found that in almost 57% (59/104 of the urine samples tested, it was more effective in maintaining the number of the organisms as compared to samples in the container without any preservative. Our in vitro study of simulated urine cultures revealed that urine samples could be kept up to 12 h before culture in the preservative without any inhibitory effect of boric acid. Though the use of boric acid kit may marginally increase the initial cost but has indirect effects like preventing delays in treatment and avoidance of false prescription of antibiotics. If the man-hours spent on repeat investigations are also taken into consideration, then the economic cost borne by the laboratory would also decrease manifold with the use of these containers.

  17. Evaluation of cell culture flasks designed for experiment under altered gravity-vector conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyotoku, Jun-Ichiro; Nagase, Mutsumu; Ando, Noboru; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Takaoki, Muneo

    2003-10-01

    Cell culture flasks applicable for altered gravity conditions, such as centrifugation, clino-rotation or microgravity in space, were manufactured for trial. The flask has flat polystyrene surface for monolayer culture and gas-permeable film window on the opposite face. The space in-between consists the culture chamber to be filled with liquid medium. To reduce the water loss and bubble formation in the culture fluid, another gas permeable window was placed on top to form a space where distilled water may be filled. The double-decker culture flask can be used for both space and ground-based experiments in common.

  18. Documentation Protocols to Generate Risk Indicators Regarding Degradation Processes for Cultural Heritage Risk Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioussi, A.; Karoglou, M.; Bakolas, A.; Labropoulos, K.; Moropoulou, A.

    2013-07-01

    Sustainable maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage assets depends highly on its resilience to external or internal alterations and to various hazards. Risk assessment of a heritage asset's can be defined as the identification of all potential hazards affecting it and the evaluation of the asset's vulnerability (building materials and building structure conservation state).Potential hazards for cultural heritage are complex and varying. The risk of decay and damage associated with monuments is not limited to certain long term natural processes, sudden events and human impact (macroscale of the heritage asset) but is also a function of the degradation processes within materials and structural elements due to physical and chemical procedures. Obviously, these factors cover different scales of the problem. The deteriorating processes in materials may be triggered by external influences or caused because of internal chemical and/or physical variations of materials properties and characteristics. Therefore risk evaluation should be dealt in the direction of revealing the specific active decay and damage mechanism both in mesoscale [type of decay and damage] and microscale [decay phenomenon mechanism] level. A prerequisite for risk indicators identification and development is the existence of an organised source of comparable and interoperable data about heritage assets under observation. This unified source of information offers a knowledge based background of the asset's vulnerability through the diagnosis of building materials' and building structure's conservation state, through the identification of all potential hazards affecting these and through mapping of its possible alterations during its entire life-time. In this framework the identification and analysis of risks regarding degradation processes for the development of qualitative and quantitative indicators can be supported by documentation protocols. The data investigated by such protocols help

  19. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon c after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalova, Jana; Vojtísková, Jarmila; Quan, Lei; Krulova, Magdaléna; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, Alphons P; Demant, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Low infiltration of lymphocytes into cancers is associated with poor prognosis, but the reasons why some patients exhibit a low and others a high infiltration of tumors are unknown. Previously we mapped four loci (Lynf1–Lynf4) controlling lymphocyte infiltration of mouse lung tumors. These loci do not encode any of the molecules that are involved in traffic of lymphocytes. Here we report a genetic relationship between these loci and the control of production of IFNγ in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). We found that IFNγ production by lymphocytes of O20/A mice is lower than by lymphocytes of OcB-9/Dem mice (both H2pz) stimulated in MLC by irradiated splenocytes of C57BL/10SnPh (H2b) or BALB/ cHeA (H2d) mice, or by ConA. IFNγ production in MLCs of individual (O20 9 OcB-9)F2mice stimulated by irradiated C57BL/10 splenocytes and genotyped for microsatellite markers revealed four IFNγ-controlling loci (Cypr4-Cypr7), each of which is closely linked with one of the four Lynf loci and with a cluster of susceptibility genes for different tumors. This suggests that inherited differences in certain lymphocyte responses may modify their propensity to infiltrate tumors and their capacity to affect tumor growth.

  20. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2002-01-01

    bioassay with regards to specificity, sensitivity, detection limit, and reproducibility. We have found the optimal assay conditions to be 1 x 10 (4) CT.h4S cells/well deprived of IL-4 for 24 h and preincubated for 7 h followed by 18 h of incubation with tritiated methyl-thymidine. In this setting the CT.h4...... of IL-4 detection was not due to high amounts of soluble IL-4 receptor. With the use of 1x10(6) responder cells/well in HLA-mismatched MLC, we found limited IL-4 accumulation still increasing at day 12. We conclude that the CT.h4S bioassay is a reliable and specific method for quantification of IL-4......Limiting dilution analysis has been used in the context of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation to determine anti-recipient interleukin-2 (IL-2) producing helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies, which in several studies have been predictive of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently...

  1. Evaluation of Patient Safety Culture and Organizational Culture as a Step in Patient Safety Improvement in a Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afrisya Iriviranty; Dumilah Ayuningtyas; Misnaniarti Misnaniarti

    2016-01-01

    .... As such, assessment of patient safety culture in hospitals is of paramount importance. Patient safety culture is an inherent component of organizational culture, so that the study of organizational culture is required in developing patient safety...

  2. Reactivity of eleven anti-human leucocyte monoclonal antibodies with lymphocytes from several domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Larsen, Else Bang

    1988-01-01

    Nine commercially available monoclonal antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies from The American Type Culture Collection, raised against various human leucocyte surface antigens, were tested on lymphocytes from cow, sheep, goat, swine, horse, cat, dog, mink, and rabbit as well as man. Four...... antibodies bound to lymphocytes from some of the animals. These were the antibodies against CD8 and CD4 antigen, the antibody to C3b-receptor, and the antibody to the HLA-DR antigen. The CD8 antigen-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink, cat, dog, and sheep, while the CD4 antigen...

  3. CD8+ Lymphocytes Can Control HIV Infection in vitro by Suppressing Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M.; Moody, Dewey J.; Stites, Daniel P.; Levy, Jay A.

    1986-12-01

    Lymphocytes bearing the CD8 marker were shown to suppress replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The effect was dose-dependent and most apparent with autologous lymphocytes; it did not appear to be mediated by a cytotoxic response. This suppression of HIV replication could be demonstrated by the addition of CD8+ cells at the initiation of virus production as well as after several weeks of virus replication by cultured cells. The observations suggest a potential approach to therapy in which autologous CD8 lymphocytes could be administered to individuals to inhibit HIV replication and perhaps progression of disease.

  4. Morphologic studies of lymphocyte nuclei in follicular and diffuse mixed small- and large-cell (lymphocytic-histiocytic) lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, I; Caldwell, D R; Moher, D; Jabi, M

    1988-08-01

    Twelve examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma (eight follicular, one follicular and diffuse, and three diffuse) were investigated morphometrically using plastic-embedded tissue in order to study nuclear characteristics of lymphocyte populations in this form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to test morphologic bases for current NHL classification systems. This study illustrates that there are many inaccuracies, illusions, and misconceptions in the morphologic criteria currently used to classify mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma. A principal finding was that lymphocyte nuclear profiles in mixed-cell lymphomas tend to be smaller in size (P less than .005) and more irregular in shape (P = .0001) than the morphologically similar counterparts in germinal centers of lymph nodes with reactive hyperplasia. Intercase comparison of mixed small- and large-cell lymphomas revealed a considerable range of mean nuclear area values, some of which were within the size range of normal, small lymphocytes. At the magnifications used for morphometric assessment, a high proportion of lymphocyte nuclear profiles had shallow invaginations, but only a limited number of profiles (4% to 14%) had deep (cleaved) indentations. Contrary to current definitions for this subtype of NHL, lymphocytes with "small" nuclei had the same proportion of the nuclear diameter occupied by nuclear invaginations as lymphocytes with "large" nuclei and, in fact, mean nuclear invagination depth was shallower in "small" nuclei than in "large" nuclei. Furthermore, regardless of whether it is nuclear area or shape that is evaluated, lymphocytes in mixed-cell lymphoma do not separate into two populations of small-cleaved and large noncleaved cells. Morphometry reveals that only four of the 12 examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma had a proportion of the lymphocytes in the size range of fully transformed germinal center lymphocytes that exceeded 25%, and none of the cases approached 50% even

  5. The Implementation and Evaluation of Health Promotion Services and Programs to Improve Cultural Competency: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Crystal Sky; McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne Gwendalyn

    2017-01-01

    Cultural competency is a multifaceted intervention approach, which needs to be implemented at various levels of health-care systems to improve quality of care for culturally and ethnically diverse populations. One level of health care where cultural competency is required is in the provision of health promotion services and programs targeted to diverse patient groups who experience health-care and health inequalities. To inform the implementation and evaluation of health promotion programs and services to improve cultural competency, research must assess both intervention strategies and intervention outcomes. This scoping review was completed as part of a larger systematic literature search conducted on evaluations of cultural competence interventions in health care in Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. Seventeen peer-reviewed databases, 13 websites and clearinghouses, and 11 literature reviews were searched. Overall, 64 studies on cultural competency interventions were found, with 22 being health promotion programs and services. A process of thematic analysis was utilized to identify key intervention strategies and outcomes reported in the literature. The review identified three overarching strategies utilized in health promotion services and programs to improve cultural competency: community-focused strategies, culturally focused strategies, and language-focused strategies. Studies took different approaches to delivering culturally competent health interventions, with the majority incorporating multiple strategies from each overarching category. There were various intermediate health-care and health outcomes reported across the included studies. Most commonly reported were positive reports of patient satisfaction, patient/participant service access, and program/study retention rates. The health outcome results indicate positive potential of health promotion services and programs to improve cultural competency to impact cardiovascular disease

  6. Evaluation of Real-time PCR and Pyrosequencing for Screening Incubating Blood Culture Bottles from Adults with Suspected Bloodstream Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Chase D.; Moore, Miranda S.; May, Larissa S.; McCarroll, Matthew; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2015-01-01

    Several molecular platforms can identify bacteria associated with bloodstream infections, but require positive culture bottles as starting material. Here we describe results of screening 1140 blood cultures at 8 hours post-inoculation, from 918 eligible adults being evaluated for bloodstream infection. DNA was extracted and analyzed by 16S and/or 23S rRNA real-time PCR/Pyrosequencing. Compared to culture, PCR/Pyrosequencing displayed 90.9% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity, 95.7% PPV, and 99.1% NPV. Overall concordance rate was 98.9% (1127/1140). In four cases with molecular-positive/culture-negative results, medical chart reviews provided evidence of identical bacteria from subsequent blood or concomitant urine/sputum cultures. Nine culture-positive/molecular-negative cases were associated with either polymicrobial growth, grew only in the anaerobic bottle of the clinical pair, and/or were detected by PCR/Pyrosequencing after 8 hours. In summary, this approach accurately detected and identified bacteria in ~91% of culture-confirmed cases significantly sooner than the phenotypic identification was available, having the potential to improve antibiotic stewardship. PMID:25534615

  7. Evaluation of BioFM liquid medium for culture of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, R S; Ramteke, S S; Gaherwar, H M; Deshpande, P S; Purohit, H J; Taori, G M; Daginawala, H

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of liquid culture medium (BioFM broth) for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF samples from 200 patients (TBM group = 150 and non-TBM group = 50) were tested for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BioFM liquid culture medium. Out of 150 TBM cases, 120 were found to be culture positive, indicating a sensitivity of 80% in BioFM broth within 2-3 weeks of inoculation. Positive cultures were also observed for CSF from 32 (64%) out of 50 non-TBM patients in BioFM liquid culture medium within 4 days of sample inoculation. Therefore, according to our study, BioFM broth system yielded 80% sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI): 67-93%] and 36% specificity (95% CI: 57-98%) for TBM diagnosis. Our results indicate that although BioFM broth allows the detection of positive cultures within a shorter time, it has a high potential for contamination or for the coexistence of M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous meningitis (NTM). This coexistence may go undetected or potentially lead to erroneous reporting of results.

  8. Evaluation of BioFM liquid medium for culture of cerebrospinal fluid in tuberculous meningitis to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of liquid culture medium (BioFM broth for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF samples from 200 patients (TBM group = 150 and non-TBM group = 50 were tested for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BioFM liquid culture medium. Out of 150 TBM cases, 120 were found to be culture positive, indicating a sensitivity of 80% in BioFM broth within 2-3 weeks of inoculation. Positive cultures were also observed for CSF from 32 (64% out of 50 non-TBM patients in BioFM liquid culture medium within 4 days of sample inoculation. Therefore, according to our study, BioFM broth system yielded 80% sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI: 67-93%] and 36% specificity (95% CI: 57-98% for TBM diagnosis. Our results indicate that although BioFM broth allows the detection of positive cultures within a shorter time, it has a high potential for contamination or for the coexistence of M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous meningitis (NTM. This coexistence may go undetected or potentially lead to erroneous reporting of results.

  9. Evaluation of real-time PCR and pyrosequencing for screening incubating blood culture bottles from adults with suspected bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Chase D; Moore, Miranda S; May, Larissa S; McCarroll, Matthew G; Jordan, Jeanne A

    2015-03-01

    Several molecular platforms can identify bacteria associated with bloodstream infections but require positive culture bottles as starting material. Here, we describe results of screening 1140 blood cultures at 8h postinoculation, from 918 eligible adults being evaluated for bloodstream infection. DNA was extracted and analyzed by 16S and/or 23S rRNA real-time PCR/pyrosequencing. Compared to culture, PCR/pyrosequencing displayed 90.9% sensitivity, 99.6% specificity, 95.7% positive predictive value, and 99.1% negative predictive value. Overall concordance rate was 98.9% (1127/1140). In 4 cases with molecular-positive/culture-negative results, medical chart reviews provided evidence of identical bacteria from subsequent blood or concomitant urine/sputum cultures. Nine culture-positive/molecular-negative cases were associated with either polymicrobial growth, grew only in the anaerobic bottle of the clinical pair, and/or were detected by PCR/pyrosequencing after 8h. In summary, this approach accurately detected and identified bacteria in ~91% of culture-confirmed cases significantly sooner than the phenotypic identification was available, having the potential to improve antibiotic stewardship.

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Chios mastic water by the in vitro micronucleus test on human lymphocytes and the in vivo wing somatic test on Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Drosopoulou, Elena; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Chartomatsidou, Tatiana; Pandelidou, Christina; Astyrakaki, Melina; Chalatsi, Eleftheria; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Chios mastic gum, a plant-derived product obtained by the Mediterranean bush Pistacia lentiscus (L.) var. chia (Duham), has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Its aqueous extract, called Chios mastic water (CMW), contains the authentic mastic scent and all the water soluble components of mastic. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMW, as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC), was evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART). In the former assay, lymphocytes were treated with 1, 2 and 5% (v/v) of CMW with or without MMC at concentrations 0.05 and 0.50 µg/ml. No significant micronucleus induction was observed by CMW, while co-treatment with MMC led to a decrease of the MMC-induced micronuclei, which ranged between 22.8 and 44.7%. For SMART, larvae were treated with 50 and 100% (v/v) CMW with or without MMC at concentrations 1.00, 2.50 and 5.00 µg/ml. It was shown that CMW alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of spots indicating lack of genotoxic activity. Τhe simultaneous administration of MMC with 100% CMW led to considerable alterations of the frequencies of MMC-induced wing spots with the total mutant clones showing reduction between 53.5 and 74.4%. Our data clearly show a protective role of CMW against the MMC-induced genotoxicity and further research on the beneficial properties of this product is suggested.

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Chios mastic water by the in vitro micronucleus test on human lymphocytes and the in vivo wing somatic test on Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Vlastos

    Full Text Available Chios mastic gum, a plant-derived product obtained by the Mediterranean bush Pistacia lentiscus (L. var. chia (Duham, has generated considerable interest because of its antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Its aqueous extract, called Chios mastic water (CMW, contains the authentic mastic scent and all the water soluble components of mastic. In the present study, the potential genotoxic activity of CMW, as well as its antigenotoxic properties against the mutagenic agent mitomycin-C (MMC, was evaluated by employing the in vitro Cytokinesis Block MicroNucleus (CBMN assay and the in vivo Somatic Mutation And Recombination Test (SMART. In the former assay, lymphocytes were treated with 1, 2 and 5% (v/v of CMW with or without MMC at concentrations 0.05 and 0.50 µg/ml. No significant micronucleus induction was observed by CMW, while co-treatment with MMC led to a decrease of the MMC-induced micronuclei, which ranged between 22.8 and 44.7%. For SMART, larvae were treated with 50 and 100% (v/v CMW with or without MMC at concentrations 1.00, 2.50 and 5.00 µg/ml. It was shown that CMW alone did not modify the spontaneous frequencies of spots indicating lack of genotoxic activity. Τhe simultaneous administration of MMC with 100% CMW led to considerable alterations of the frequencies of MMC-induced wing spots with the total mutant clones showing reduction between 53.5 and 74.4%. Our data clearly show a protective role of CMW against the MMC-induced genotoxicity and further research on the beneficial properties of this product is suggested.

  12. Application of primary cell cultures of laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry in the evaluation of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kupisz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsatisfactory effects of treatment of laryngeal carcinoma patients stimulate the clinicians as well as researchers to develop new more effective treatment models and to find new reliable prognostic factors. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the use of primary cell cultures of the laryngeal carcinoma and laser scanning cytometry (LSC in the assessment of tumor reactivity to cisplatinum. Nineteen primary cultures of laryngeal carcinoma cells established from fragments of laryngeal carcinoma infiltrations were cultured with or without cisplatin, stained with monoclonal antibodies against P53 and BCL-2 proteins and analyzed by LSC. Cisplatin added to the culture medium leads to the significant increase of P53 expression and decrease of BCL-2 expression. Moreover, changes of P53 and BCL-2 expressions were significantly correlated. Our findings of apoptosis regulatory mechanisms could be useful in patient qualification for the chemotherapeutic follow-up treatment.

  13. Lymphocytes accelerate epithelial tight junction assembly: role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiao Tang

    Full Text Available The tight junctions (TJs, characteristically located at the apicolateral borders of adjacent epithelial cells, are required for the proper formation of epithelial cell polarity as well as for sustaining the mucosal barrier to the external environment. The observation that lymphocytes are recruited by epithelial cells to the sites of infection [1] suggests that they may play a role in the modulation of epithelial barrier function and thus contribute to host defense. To test the ability of lymphocytes to modulate tight junction assembly in epithelial cells, we set up a lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-culture system, in which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells, a well-established model cell line for studying epithelial TJ assembly [2], were co-cultured with mouse lymphocytes to mimic an infection state. In a typical calcium switch experiment, the TJ assembly in co-culture was found to be accelerated compared to that in MDCK cells alone. This accelaration was found to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK activation was independent of changes in cellular ATP levels but it was found to be activated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Forced suppression of AMPK, either with a chemical inhibitor or by knockdown, abrogated the accelerating effect of lymphocytes on TJ formation. Similar results were also observed in a co-culture with lymphocytes and Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the activation of AMPK may be a general mechanism underlying lymphocyte-accelerated TJ assembly in different epithelia. These results suggest that signals from lymphocytes, such as cytokines, facilitate TJ assembly in epithelial cells via the activation of AMPK.

  14. Studies on rabbit lymphocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Anti-allotypic sera that have no known allotypic determinants other than those also present in the genotype of the lymphocyte donor are as able to induce lymphocyte `blast' transformation in vitro as are anti-allotypic sera that do have allotypic determinants that are not present in the lymphocyte donor. Therefore, anti-allotypic sera do not appear to function in the stimulation of blast transformation by providing access for any of the known allotypic determinants into lymphocytes. PMID:5769980

  15. Rapid exacerbation of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibue, Kimitaka; Fujii, Toshihito; Goto, Hisanori; Yamashita, Yui; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Tanji, Masahiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a relatively rare autoimmune disease defined by lymphocytic infiltration to the pituitary. Its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations make clarification of the pathology difficult. Here, we describe a case we examined from the primary diagnosis to final discharge, showing the serial progression of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH) to panhypopituitarism with extrapituitary inflammatory invasion in a short period, and responding favorably to high-dose glucocorticoid treatment. Patient concerns: Polyuria, General fatigue and Nausea/Vomiting. Diagnoses: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH). Interventions: Desmopressin acetate, High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Outcomes: He was prescribed desmopressin acetate and subsequently discharged. A month later, he revisited our hospital with general fatigue and nausea/vomiting. A screening test disclosed hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency. MRI revealed expanded contrast enhancement to the peripheral extrapituitary lesion. He received high-dose GC treatment and the affected lesion exhibited marked improvement on MRI, along with the recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Lessons: This case demonstrates the potential for classical LINH to develop into panhypopituitarsim. We consider this is the first documentation of approaching the cause of atypical LINH with progressive clinical course from the pathological viewpoint. PMID:28248860

  16. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  17. The Concept of Culture of Brand Origin (COBO: A New Paradigm in the Evaluation of Origin Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Harun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While much of the origin effect is evaluated on the basis of Country of Origin (COO, this paper argues that the COO evaluation has becoming irrelevant in today’s marketing context due to the globalization effect. Thus, this paper proposes a new alternative tool to appraise the origin effect with much concentration on the cultural factors namely the Culture of Brand Origin (COBO. This new concept reflects the cultural characteristics appended to a brand which are the language of the brand name and its linguistics uniqueness. These two core dimensions for COBO function as indicator of the brand’s origin and are postulated to have an influence on consumers’ attitudes and behavior. Therefore, this paper discusses the components of COBO which includes identification of COBO on the basis of language and perception of brand name linguistics. The highlighted components of brand name linguistics consist of phonetic, morphology and semantics.

  18. Application of culture culture-independent molecular biology based methods to evaluate acetic acid bacteria diversity during vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilabaca, Carolina; Navarrete, Paola; Mardones, Pamela; Romero, Jaime; Mas, Albert

    2008-08-15

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are considered fastidious microorganisms because they are difficult to isolate and cultivate. Different molecular approaches were taken to detect AAB diversity, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media. Those methods were tested in samples that originated during traditional vinegar production. Bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of 16S rRNA gene, obtained by PCR amplifications of DNA extracted directly from the acetification container. Bacterial composition was analyzed by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA gene, Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) separation of amplicons containing region V3-V5 of 16S rRNA gene and cloning of those amplicons. TTGE bands and clones were grouped based on their electrophoretic pattern similarity and sequenced to be compared with reference strains. The main microorganism identified in vinegar was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which at the end of the acetification process was considered to be the only microorganism present. The diversity was the highest at 2% acetic acid, where indefinite species of Gluconacetobacter xylinus/europaeus/intermedius were also present.

  19. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  20. Evaluation of guar gum derivatives as gelling agents for microbial culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangotri, Waikhom; Jain-Raina, Ruchi; Babbar, Shashi B

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum, a galactomannan, has been reported to be an inexpensive substitute of agar for microbial culture media. However, its use is restricted probably because of (1) its highly viscous nature even at high temperatures, making dispensing of the media to Petri plates difficult and (2) lesser clarity of the guar gum gelled media than agar media due to impurities present in guar gum. To overcome these problems, three guar gum derivatives, carboxymethyl guar, carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar and hydroxypropyl guar, were tested as gelling agents for microbial growth and differentiation. These were also evaluated for their suitability for other routine microbiological methods, such as, enumeration, use of selective and differential media, and antibiotic sensitivity test. For evaluation purpose, growth and differentiation of eight fungi and eight bacteria grown on the media gelled with agar (1.5%), guar gum (4%) or one of the guar gum derivatives (4%), were compared. All fungi and bacteria exhibited normal growth and differentiation on all these media. Generally, growth of most of the fungi was better on guar gum derivatives gelled medium than on agar medium. The enumeration carried out for Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by serial dilution and pour plate method yielded similar counts in all the treatments. Likewise, the selective succinate medium, specific for P. aeruginosa, did not allow growth of co-inoculated Bacillus sp. even if gelled with guar gum derivatives. The differential medium, Congo red mannitol agar could not differentiate between Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti on color basis, if gelled with guar gum or any of its derivatives However, for antibiotic sensitivity tests for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, guar gum and its derivatives were as effective as agar.

  1. Cross cultural adaptation of the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score with reliability, validity and responsiveness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmont, Michael R; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina; Mei-Dan, Omer; Karlsson, Jon; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) was developed because of the need for a reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to evaluate symptoms and their effects on physical activity in patients following either conservative or surgical management of an Achilles tendon rupture. Prior to using the score in larger randomized trial in an English-speaking population, we decided to perform reliability, validity and responsiveness evaluations of the English version of the ATRS. Even though the score was published in English, the actual English version has not be validated and compared to the results of the Swedish version. From 2009 to 2010, all patients who received treatment for Achilles tendon rupture were followed up using the English version of the ATRS. Patients were asked to complete the score at 3, 6 and 12 months following treatment for Achilles tendon rupture. The ATRS was completed on arrival in the outpatient clinic and again following consultation. The outcomes of 49 (13 female and 36 male) patients were assessed. The mean (SD) age was 49 (12) years, and 27 patients had treatment for a left-sided rupture, 22 the right. All patients received treatment for ruptured Achilles tendons: 38 acute percutaneous repair, 1 open repair, 5 an Achilles tendon reconstruction using a Peroneus Brevis tendon transfer for delayed presentation, 1 gracilis augmented repair for re-rupture and 4 non-operative treatment for mid-portion rupture. The English version of ATRS was shown to have overall excellent reliability (ICC = 0.986). There was no significant difference between the results with the English version and the Swedish version when compared at the 6-month- or 12-month (n.s.) follow-up appointments. The effect size was 0.93. The minimal detectable change was 6.75 points. The ATRS was culturally adapted to English and shown to be a reliable, valid and responsive method of testing functional outcome following an Achilles tendon rupture.

  2. Evaluation of Iron Bioavailability in Caco-2 cell Culture Model: Modification of the Original Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Nikooyeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the original in vitro method for evaluation of iron bioavailability using caco-2 cell model, ferritin formation by cells is considered as a functional indicator of both absorption and utilization of iron. However, as iron is measured in the tested material and then ferritin concentration is measured in caco-2 cell lysate, it is almost impossible to have a concrete measure of iron bioavailability because the percent of absorbable iron cannot be calculated by the concentration of iron in caco-2 cell lysate. To overcome this problem, the original method was modified by using ferrous sulfate tablet as a standard and also including blank well in the cell culture plate to subtract the baseline ferritin concentration from the ferritin concentration of other wells. Materials and Methods: To evaluate iron bioavailability in this model, one kind of Iranian traditional breads (Sangak was used. Standard curve was plotted using iron concentration and ferritin/protein ratio in the X and Y axes, respectively. Results: The standard curve showed a linear equation: Ferritin (ng/protein (mg = (5.96 × bread Fe+ 11.55, R2=0.989. Using this equation, the bioavailability of iron from the tested bread was 79.76 ± 11.5% of ferrous sulfate. Considering that the reported iron bioavailability from ferrous sulfate is about 10%, bioavailability of iron from the bread could be regarded 8%. Conclusions: This data can be potentially usable to adjust the amount of absorbable iron in the target population for fortification programs. Keywords: Iron, Bioavailability, Caco-2 cell

  3. D-ribose inhibits DNA repair synthesis in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunica, G.; Marini, M.; Brunelli, M.A.; Chiricolo, M.; Franceschi, C.

    1986-07-31

    D-ribose is cytotoxic for quiescent human lymphocytes and severely inhibits their PHA-induced proliferation at concentrations (25-50 mM) at which other simple sugars are ineffective. In order to explain these effects, DNA repair synthesis was evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes treated with hydroxyurea and irradiated. D-ribose, in contrast to other reducing sugars, did not induce repair synthesis and therefore did not apparently damage DNA in a direct way, although it markedly inhibited gamma ray-induced repair. Taking into account that lymphocytes must rejoin physiologically-formed DNA strand breaks in order to enter the cell cycle, we suggest that D-ribose exerts its cytotoxic activity by interfering with metabolic pathways critical for the repair of DNA breaks.

  4. Kinetics of circulating B lymphocytes in human myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccadoro, M.; Gavarotti, P.; Fossati, G.; Massaia, M.; Pileri, A.; Durie, B.G.

    1983-04-01

    The tritiated thymidine labeling index (LI%) of peripheral B lymphocytes was studied in eight myeloma patients using simultaneous immunofluorescence and autoradiography. The LI% values were low (0.3%-5.1%), but significantly increased as compared to normal controls. In addition, there was excellent correlation between the LI% values and myeloma disease activity: lowest LI% values were observed in remission patients and the highest at the time of relapse. Simultaneous LI% evaluation of bone marrow myeloma cells in five patients gave concordant results, indicating the same kinetic behavior in both these compartments, particularly in the relapse phase. These data indicate both that circulating B lymphocytes include the neoplastic clone and that these B lymphocytes and bone marrow myeloma cells have similar kinetics.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Culturally Tailored Educational Video: Changing Breast Cancer-Related Behaviors in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Judy H.; Liang, Wenchi; Schwartz, Marc D.; Lee, Marion M.; Kreling, Barbara; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2008-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a culturally tailored video guided by the health belief model to improve Chinese women's low rate of mammography use. Focus-group discussions and an advisory board meeting guided the video development. A 17-min video, including a soap opera and physician-recommendation segment, was made in Chinese languages. A…

  6. Evaluating journalism through popular culture : HBO's The Newsroom and public reflections on the state of the news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Chris

    While HBO's The Newsroom presents itself as fictional television, its narrative is driven by critiquing American cable news culture and contemporary journalism ethics. This article analyses popular reflections on the programme to identify what these discourses reveal about public evaluations of the

  7. Culturally Appropriate Photonovel Development and Process Evaluation for Hepatitis B Prevention in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyeyeon; Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing…

  8. Design of a Basic System of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluating Spanish Cooperation's Culture and Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Carrasco-Arroyo, Salvador; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Vila-Lladosa, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the process implemented in order to define and build up a Basic Monitoring and Evaluation System for Spanish Cooperation's Culture and Development Strategy (CD-S). Research Design: Delphi techniques were used to assess a wide catalogue of indicators for each of the strategic areas included in the CD-S. Afterward,…

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Culturally Tailored Educational Video: Changing Breast Cancer-Related Behaviors in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Judy H.; Liang, Wenchi; Schwartz, Marc D.; Lee, Marion M.; Kreling, Barbara; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2008-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a culturally tailored video guided by the health belief model to improve Chinese women's low rate of mammography use. Focus-group discussions and an advisory board meeting guided the video development. A 17-min video, including a soap opera and physician-recommendation segment, was made in Chinese languages. A…

  10. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  11. Evaluating journalism through popular culture : HBO's The Newsroom and public reflections on the state of the news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While HBO's The Newsroom presents itself as fictional television, its narrative is driven by critiquing American cable news culture and contemporary journalism ethics. This article analyses popular reflections on the programme to identify what these discourses reveal about public evaluations of the

  12. Evaluating journalism through popular culture : HBO’s The Newsroom and public reflections on the state of the news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    While HBO’s The Newsroom presents itself as fictional television, its narrative is driven by critiquing American cable news culture and contemporary journalism ethics. This article analyses popular reflections on the programme to identify what these discourses reveal about public evaluations of the

  13. Evaluation of procedures for the conservation and culture of gastrointestinal parasites from free ranging primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nassar Montoya

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining good quality fecal samples from freeranging New World Primates is normally a slow and expensive task. So, it is necessary to ensure good sample handling for the optimisation of preservation and diagnosis. During some parasitological studies carried out by the Centro Araguatos, we obtained larvae from coprocultures and fecal samples preserved in a preservative (MIF. These procedures allowed us to study deeper the parasites of free-ranging monkeys. However, we have found problems: like the rapid desiccation of fecal samples in the coprocultures and some limitations on the implementation of the quantitative diagnostic procedures. This study evaluated the effect, use and limitations of using coprocultures and conserving the parasite eggs and cysts in MIF for the study of parasites in free-ranging New World Primates. The results show that it is possible to implement an efficient methodology for the conservation and parasitological analysis of fecal samples of New World Primates using both coprocultures and eggs conserved in MIF. This enhances the capacity of studies and improves diagnostic possibility. The larvae in the fecal samples show better growth in a proportion of fecal sample: substrate (sawdust of 1:1, in culturing periods ranging from 7 to 15 days. A good dilution of feces: MIF for the conservation of eggs and quists is 1:10.

  14. Antimalarial Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents of Hairy Root Culture of Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug–resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.

  15. Antimalarial evaluation of the chemical constituents of hairy root culture of Bixa orellana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bo; Clark, Julie; Ling, Taotao; Connelly, Michele; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-01-08

    Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug-resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.

  16. Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Jia, Shi-ru; Sun, Ying; Tan, Zhi-lei; Zhong, Cheng; Dai, Yu-jie; Tan, Ning; Shen, Shi-gang

    2014-09-01

    The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state.

  17. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Therapy of Blood Culture Positive Healthcare-Associated Infections in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Laine

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the quality of antimicrobial therapy (AMT used for invasive healthcare-associated infections (HAIs in paediatrics is scarce. Influence of the final information about the isolated pathogen on the subsequent targeted AMT was investigated in our study.Data on 149 children (0-17 years with blood culture positive HAIs were collected. The causative microbes under investigation were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococci, Gram negative rods, and mixed infections were likewise included. For adjusting the antimicrobial regimen, an expert panel evaluated the quality of the targeted AMT and the delay of 72 hours after final microbiology results. AMT was regarded as inappropriate if the pathogen was totally resistant to the used antimicrobials (i or if the chosen therapy was of not optimal efficacy against the pathogen (ii.17% of the patients received inappropriate AMT. Half of these infections 13/26 (50% were treated with an antimicrobial to which the isolate was resistant. Three (3/13, 23% of these patients received antimicrobials which were totally ineffective according to in vitro data. Suboptimal or too broad spectrum AMT was administered to 13/26 (50% patients. The most common causes of inappropriate use were the use of beta-lactams in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infections and vancomycin given in oxacillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections.Approximately 17% of the selected cohort received inappropriate AMT. More attention should be paid to the appropriate use of antimicrobials, and training of prescribers should be urgently provided.

  18. Cross-Cultural adaptation of an instrument to computer accessibility evaluation for students with cerebral palsy

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    Gerusa Ferreira Lourenço

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The specific literature indicates that the successful education of children with cerebral palsy may require the implementation of appropriate assistive technology resources, allowing students to improve their performance and complete everyday tasks more efficiently and independently. To this end, these resources must be selected properly, emphasizing the importance of an appropriate initial assessment of the child and the possibilities of the resources available. The present study aimed to translate and adapt theoretically an American instrument that evaluates computer accessibility for people with cerebral palsy, in order to contextualize it for applicability to Brazilian students with cerebral palsy. The methodology involved the steps of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of this instrument, as well as the construction of a supplementary script for additional use of that instrument in the educational context. Translation procedures, theoretical and technical adaptation of the American instrument and theoretical analysis (content and semantics were carried out with the participation of professional experts of the special education area as adjudicators. The results pointed to the relevance of the proposal of the translated instrument in conjunction with the script built to the reality of professionals involved with the education of children with cerebral palsy, such as occupational therapists and special educators.

  19. Evaluating U.S. and Chinese Cyber Security Strategies Within a Cultural Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    and strategic levels. Common themes, however, are that culture is shared, transmitted, malleable, and internalized by a common group of people or a...founded on both the short-term orientation of national culture , as well as the political ideology of the US; liberal, free- market , and educated...Five Personality Traits: Patterns and Profiles of Human Self- Description Across 56 Nations.” Journal of Cross - Cultural Psychology 38, no. 2 (March

  20. THE EFFECT OF ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ON THE INTERLEUKIN-5 IN THE SUPERNATANTS OF SPLEEN CELL CULTURES OF ASTHMATIC MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美琴; 白春学; 钮善福; 方晓惠; 陈常庆; 陈波

    2001-01-01

    To explore the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on the production of IL-5 by mouse spleen T lymphocytes.Methods Based on the IL-5 cDNA sequence of mouse, a segment of antisense oligonucleotide was designed and synthesized. 5’-labeling of antisense oligonucleotide was signed by T4 PNK in order that the efficiency of stearylamine liposome in transfecting antisense oligonucleotide can be evaluated. Asthma model was duplicated with ovalbumin(OVA) absorbed to aluminum hydroxide. T lymphocytes of mice were separated by nylon fiber method, then T lymphocytes transfected with different concentration of antisense oligonucleotide with cation stearylamine liposme were incubated respectively in order to observe the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on Il-5 production by T lymphocytes. IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were determined by ELISA.Results Stearylamine liposome could markedly increase the efficiency of antisense oligonucleotide transfection. The transfection efficiency of antisense oligouncleotide increased approximately 12 times at a ratio of 1: 15m/m (antisense oligonucleotide to SA liposome). In healthy and asthma Balb/c mice, IL-5 was not detectable in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures without stimulated with OVA; however, IL-5 was increased markedly in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures stimulated with OVA. After transfection with different concentrations of antisense oligonucleotide, IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were significantly lower than those in control cultured without antisense oligonucleotide transfection. IL-5 levels decreased from 44.60±6.23 pg/ml to 30.70±7.362 pg/ml, 17.20±6.181 pg/ml and 8.16±2.34 pg/ml respectively. And IL-5 synthesis was inhibited by 31.17%, 61.43% and 81.7% respectively.Conclusion IL-5 synthesis could be obviously inhibited by antisense oligonucleotide and showed a markedly correlation between dose and effectiveness. It suggests the production

  1. Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. (Kennedy Inst. of Rheumatology, London (UK). Div. of Experimental Pathology); Cramp, W.A.; Edwards, J.C.; George, A.M.; Sabovljev, S.A.; Hart, L.; Hughes, G.R.V. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Denman, A.M. (Northwich Park Hospital, Harrow (UK)); Yatvin, M.B. (Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center, Madison (USA))

    1985-06-01

    The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultured with Con A, can be inhibited by ionizing radiation. Lymphocytes from patients with conditions associated with autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and polymyositis, are more radiosensitive than those from healthy volunteers or patients with conditions not associated with autoimmunity. Nuclear material isolated from the lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune diseases is, on average, lighter in density than the nuclear material from most healthy controls. This difference in density is not related to increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation but the degree of post-irradiation change in density (lightening) is proportional to the initial density, i.e. more dense nuclear material always shows a greater upward shift after radiation. The recovery of pre-irradiation density of nuclear material, 1 h after radiation exposure, taken as an indication of DNA repair, correlates with the radiosensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation (Con A response); failure to return to pre-irradiation density being associated with increased sensitivity of proliferative response. These results require extension but, taken with previously reported studied of the effects of DNA methylating agents, support the idea that DNA damage and its defective repair could be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  2. MAJOR AND LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES AND THEIR REFERENCE VALUES, AS ASSAYED BY MULTI-COLOUR CYTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaidukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations and their phenotypes is an important diagnostic feature, in order to elucidate some disturbances connected with immune system functioning. However, insufficient data are obtained when analyzing only major populations of peripheral lymphocytes. In order to perform clinical diagnostics, the data about minor lymphocytic populations and activated cellular pools seem to be more pertinent.Studies of peripheral blood cell subpopulations of healthy donors performed in different Russian regions allowed to assess quantitative distribution intervals for both major and minor immune cell subpopulations in humans. The results obtained, as compared with data from literature, provide an evidence for similar reference intervals for main immune cell subpopulations in healthy donors, independent on their habitation area.Present work has resulted into development of algorithms for cytometric studies and generation of certain panels of monoclonal antibodies enabling evaluation of all main lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as their minor subsets participating in emerging immune response. The distribution intervals have been estimated for such minor subpopulations, as B1- and B2-lymphocytes, memory B-cells, γδ- and αβT-cells, regulatory and naїve T-cells, cytotoxic and secretory NK-cell polupations.The results of present study, while been performed with peripheral blood of healthy donors, may provide a basis of reference values when studying subpopulation profile of immune cells.

  3. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  4. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  5. Revise and Re-evaluate Cross Cultural Understanding Curriculum at Akademi Bahasa Asing Balikpapan (Foriegn Language Academy of Balikpapan

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    Rachmi Sari Baso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is about the project to revise and re-evaluate the unit of Cross Cultural Understanding curriculum which is taught in the Akademi Bahasa Asing Ballikpapan. The unit is for fifth semester students. The project aimed to provide students' perspectives of cross cultural differences in the workplace with the materials and knowledge that suitable for workplace demands. The information was gained by distributing questionnaires to 2 teachers and 2 employers of multinational companies in Balikpapan. The investigations for teachers were focused on the content, learning activities and materials of the current curriculum. The investigations for the employers were focused on their perspectives on the cross cultural understanding taught in the higher education. The project used Nicholls' cycle model that will be a useful tool to regularly evaluate curriculum based on the situational analysis. As the result, there were some of materials of American business cultural encounter should be revised to meet the companies demands and additional table manners in cultural perspectives should be included in the curriculum. Therefore, the new curriculum will be applied by these materials as the demands of the workplace.

  6. Serotonin transporter in lymphocytes of rats exposed to physical restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martel, Matilde; Urbina, Mary; Fazzino, Fili; Lima, Lucimey

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids and stress cause transcriptional and functional changes on the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the central nervous system. Stress can produce specific modifications of SERT in lymphocytes, which could be associated with alterations in immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physical restraint stress protocol on (1) rat lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and (2) SERT kinetic parameters, i.e. binding capacity (Bmax), affinity (Kd) and Hill coefficient (nH). Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in Plexiglass boxes (5 h daily for 5 days), and blood was obtained by cardiac puncture on day 6. Serum corticosterone was quantitated by an immunoenzymatic assay. Lymphocytes were isolated by density gradients and adhesion to plastic, of which there was sufficient material for further experiments, then cultured with or without the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A, 2 μg/ml) and fluoxetine (1-50 μM). Cell proliferation was measured with tetrazolium salts, and [(3)H]paroxetine was used as a SERT-specific ligand for binding assays. Restraint produced a significant increase in serum corticosterone of stressed rats. The proliferative response to Con A was similar in the controls and stressed animals. Fluoxetine reduced cell proliferation with and without Con A. Restraint diminished the inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on proliferation. Restraint also increased Bmax and Kd, but decreased nH. Treatment of rats with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor, reduced Bmax in stressed animals. Restraint stress modulated the effect of fluoxetine on cell proliferation, probably through the modification of the presence and the function of SERT. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Desensitization oft lymphocyte function by CXCR3 ligands in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Liu; Ronnie T. Poon; Jeremy Hughes; Qin-Yu Li; Wan-Ching Yu; Sheung-Tat Fan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Despite the presence of lymphocyte infiltration, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is typically a rapidly progressive disease. The mechanism of regulation of lymphocyte migration is poorly understood. In this study,we investigated various factors regulating T cell migration in HCC patients. We examined serum CXC chemokine levels in HCC patients and demonstrated the production of CXC chemokines by HCC cell lines. We determined the effect of both HCC patient serum and tumor cell conditioned supernatant upon lymphocyte expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3 as well as lymphocyte migration. Lastly,we examined the chemotactic responses of lymphocytes derived from HCC patients.METHODS: The serum chemokines IP-10 (CXCL10) and Mig (CXCL9) levels were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) and the tumor tissue IP-10 concentration was measured by ELISA. The surface expression of CXCR3 on lymphocytes was determined by flow cytometry. The migratory function of lymphocytes to the corresponding chemokines was assessed using an in vitro chemotactic assay. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was determined by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Increased levels of IP-10 and Mig were detected in HCC patient serum and culture supernatants of HCC cell lines. The IP-10 concentration in the tumor was significantly higher than that in the non-involved adjacent liver tissues.HCC cell lines secreted functional chemokines that induced a CXCR3-specific chemotactic response of lymphocytes.Furthermore, tumor-cell-derived chemokines induced initial rapid phosphorylation of lymphocyte ERK followed by later inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. The culture of normal lymphocytes with HCC cell line supernatants or medium containing serum from HCC patients resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of lymphocytes exhibiting surface expression of CXCR3. The reduction in T cell expression of CXCR3 resulted in reduced migration toward the ligand IP-10, and both

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of culturally specific web-based intervention for parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Kim, S; Ko, H; Kim, Y; Park, C G

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Problematic parent-child relationships have been identified as one of the main predictors of adolescents' mental health problems, but there are few existing interventions that address this issue. The format and delivery method of existing interventions for parents are relatively inaccessible for parents with full-time jobs and families living in rural areas. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The newly developed 'Stepping Stone' culturally specific web-based intervention, which is intended to help Korean parents of adolescents to acquire both knowledge and communication and conflict management skills, was found to be feasible and well-accepted by parents. This study enabled us to identify areas for improvement in the content and format of the intervention and strategies. This will potentially increase effect sizes for the outcom