WorldWideScience

Sample records for lymphocyte cultures evaluation

  1. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  2. The genotoxicity of sodium arsenite in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhabit, O.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and in combination with x-irradiation on whole blood culture and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 hr whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocytes culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with SA. The results suggest that SA also is mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect any suspected mutagen. Using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  3. The Genotoxicity of Sodium Arsenite in Human Lymphocyte Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Habit Ola, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of chromosome aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 h. Whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocyte culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in their first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with S A. The results suggest that S A is also mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect of any suspected mustagen using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  4. Genotoxic effects of borax on cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-03-01

    The effect of borax on human chromosomes was analyzed in this study. Venous blood from 30 male students at Thammasat University, Thailand (age 18-25 years) was collected for lymphocyte cell cultures. This experiment was divided into two groups: the first group was the control group and the second group was the experimental group. The lymphocyte cells in the control group were cultured without borax. The experimental group was divided into four subgroups. The lymphocyte cells in each experimental subgroup were cultured with different concentrations of borax (0.1 mg/ml, 0.15 mg/ml, 0.2 mg/ml and 0.3 mg/ml). Human chromosomes were studied for abnormalities through Giemsa-staining and G-banding. The results show that the numbers of metaphase plates (the metaphase plate which contained 46 chromosomes; 46, XY) and metaphase chromosomes were reduced when lymphocyte cells were cultured with 0.15 mg/ml (57.2%), 0.2 mg/ml (50.8%) and 0.3 mg/ml (42.3%) concentrations of borax. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and experimental subgroups (p borax concentration experimental subgroup. This shows that borax (at 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/ml concentrations) affects the cell and human chromosomes (both numerical and structural abnormalities). Borax may cause human chromosome abnormalities and lead to genetic defects.

  5. Evaluation of spontaneous and radiation-induced micronucleus frequency in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes depending on age and sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H. J.; Kang, C. M.; Chung, H. C. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-12-15

    The goal of this study was to provide data on the dose-dependent production of MicroNucleus (MN) in human lymphocytes irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays and 50MeV neutron, and to evaluate predictive markers of intrinsic radiosensitivity in individuals for monitoring occupational or environmental radiation exposure. For the dose-response study, heparinized whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers was irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays employing of 0.25-8Gy. The MNs were observed all doses, and the numerical changes according to doses. In dose-response curves fit linear-quadratic form (alpha =0.31{+-}0.049, beta =0.0022{+-}0.0022) for {gamma}-rays, but (alpha=0.99{+-}0.528, beta =0.0093{+-}0.0047) for neutron. Neutrons were than {gamma}-rays effective in producing MN with dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN varies with dose. The RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) for micronuclei was 2.370.17. Further studies were carried out to provide evidence for the existence of individual variations in age-dependent responses to radiation. Spontaneous and radiation-induced MN varies greatly among individuals, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this variability. It was shown that the increased level of spontaneous cell with MN was observed with increasing age. The relationship between radiosensitivity and the increased spontaneous level of MN may be in inverse proportion. These studies indicated that the MN assay have a high potential as a rapid, sensitive and accurate method which can be used to monitor a large population exposed to radiation for rapid triage in the case of a large-scale accident.

  6. In vitro interactions of lymphocytes and cultured cells from beagles with plutonium-induced bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, M.E.; Lund, J.E.; Busch, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cell cultures have been prepared from lung and bone tumors arising in beagle dogs following exposure to inhaled plutonium. Evaluation of the cultured cells by commonly applied criteria (i.e., cell morphology, lack of contact inhibitory mechanisms, cloning efficiency, growth in soft agar, and tumor production in vivo) indicated that tumor cells were being grown in culture. Blood leukocytes and peripheral lymphocytes from beagle dogs were tested for cytotoxic effects against several cell cultures. Lymphocytes from normal dogs or dogs with unrelated tumors would not kill the bone tumor cells unless monocytes (macrophage) were present, in which case the leukocyte preparation was capable of mounting de novo cytotoxic immune reactions after 3 to 5 days in culture. In contrast, the dogs with plutonium-induced bone tumors had circulating lymphocytes that appeared to have undergone presensitization to bone-tumor-distinctive antigens in vivo. Consequently these lymphocytes interacted with cultured cells promptly after encounter in vitro

  7. Cell proliferation and radiosensitivity of cow lymphocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modave, C.; Fabry, L.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining technique has been used to study, after PHA-stimulation, the cell proliferation of cow lymphocytes in culture and to assess the radiosensitivity in first mitosis cells. At the 48 h fixation time, only 34% of the cells are in first mitosis whereas 55% are already in second and 11% in third mitosis. The exposure of cow lymphocytes to 200 rad X-rays result in the production of 16% dicentric chromosomes in first mitosis cells [fr

  8. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  9. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  10. Investigation of cytogenetic activity of radioprotectors in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egiazaryan, S.V.; Arutyunyan, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studied are the effects of the F-11 and F-37 indene preparations on chromosome aberrations induced in lymphocyte culture of peripheral human blood by thioTEP. Investigation into the action of the substance in euqimolar concentrations has not shown their protective effect. Indene preparations did not change the spectrum of chromosome aberrations induced by thioTEP as well as did not increase the level of chromosome aberrations in lumphocyte culture of human peripheral human blood

  11. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-12-06

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37°C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes.

  12. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied...... by a decrease in the number of activated T cells expressing Ia antigens. On the other hand, IFN MLRs contained greater numbers of cells expressing the T10 differentiation antigen. In experiments with purified T-cell subsets the IFN effect was exerted directly on the T4 cells and not mediated by either T8...

  13. Culture of normal human blood cells in a diffusion chamber system II. Lymphocyte and plasma cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkappa, G.; Carsten, A.L.; Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Normal human blood leukocytes were cultured in Millipore diffusion chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. The evaluation of survival and proliferation kinetics of cells in lymphyocytic series suggested that the lymphoid cells are formed from transition of small and/or large lymphocytes, and the lymphoblasts from the lymphoid cells. There was also evidence indicating that some of the cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. The evaluation of plasmacytic series suggested that the plasma cells are formed from plasmacytoid-lymphocytes by transition, and the latter from the transition of lymphocytes. In addition, relatively a small fraction of cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. mature plasma cells do not and immature plasma cells do proliferate. Estimation of magnitude of plasma cells formed in the cultures at day 18 indicated that at least one plasma cell is formed for every 6 normal human blood lymphocytes introduced into the culture

  14. Light microscope observation of circulating human lymphocytes cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Francis Paulo de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the isolation and a light microscopy technique for cultured lymphocytes. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture with an anticoagulant added and centrifuged in a Percoll density gradient to separate the leukocytes. Lymphocytes were placed in 25 cm ³ tissue culture flasks at 37ºC. After culturing, they were fixed and stained with the methods used for blood smears. Results showed that not all fixing solutions and stains were an equally good choice for cultured lymphocytes.Os linfócitos são células importantes do sistema imune e têm sido largamente utilizados em estudos morfológicos. Entretanto, a literatura sobre técnicas de preparação dessas células é escassa e antiga, especialmente para linfócitos cultivados in vitro. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi relatar com detalhes as técnicas de isolamento e microscopia de luz de linfócitos mantidos em cultura. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas por punção venosa e centrifugadas em gradiente de densidade de Percoll, para separar os leucócitos. Os linfócitos foram mantidos em frascos de cultura de 25 cm³ a 37ºC. Após a cultura, as células foram fixadas e coradas de acordo com a metodologia utilizada para esfregaços sanguíneos. Nossos resultados mostraram que nem todos os fixadores e corantes utilizados para esfregaços sanguíneos são uma boa escolha para linfócitos cultivados in vitro.

  15. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Shama; Shetty, Sukanya; Suchetha Kumari; Madhu, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of terbinafine in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeotti, Danielle; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves; de Sant'Anna, Juliane Rocha; Martins, Ana Beatriz Tozzo; Della-Rosa, Valter Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antimycotic drug usually used against several superficial fungal infections and with a potential application in the treatment of human cancers. Since to date there are few data on the genotoxic effects of terbinafine in mammalian cells, current study evaluated the potential genotoxic of such antifungal agent in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Terbinafine was used at the peak plasma concentration (1.0 μg/ml) and in four additional concentrations higher than the human plasmatic peak (5.0 μg/ml, 25.0 μg/ml, 50.0 μg/ml and 100.0 μg/ml). Chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NP) and nuclear buds (NB) were scored as genetic endpoints. In all analysis no significant differences (α = 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) were observed. Complementary criterion adopted to obtain the final response in cytogenetic agreed with statistical results. Therefore, results of this study showed that terbinafine neither induced CA, SCE, MN, NP and NB nor affected significantly mitotic, replication and cytokinesis-block proliferation indices in any of the tested concentrations. It may be assumed that terbinafine was not genotoxic or cytotoxic to cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in our experimental conditions.

  17. In Vitro Genotoxic Effects of Four Helichrysum Species in Human Lymphocytes Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Erolu, Erhan H; Hamzaolu, Ergin; Aksoy, Ahmet; Budak, Ümit; Özkul, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    Helichrysum sanguineum, Helichrysum pamphylicum, Helichrysum orientale, Helichrysum noeanum (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants. For centuries, they have been used as tea in Turkey because of their medicinal properties. So far no scientifc evidence has been found in a literature survey regarding the genotoxic effects of these plants. This work evaluated the genotoxic effects on human lymphocyte cultures induced by methanol extracts of these plants, assayed in different concentrations (0.01, 0.0...

  18. A rapid radioassay for human IgG produced in lymphocyte in vitro culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, D.R.; Shale, D.J.; Tomlinson, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Protein A bearing Staphylococcus aureus was used to develop a solid-phase radioassay for IgG immunoglobulins. The assay was specifically optimised for use in vitro human lymphocyte culture work. Compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for IgG produced in lymphocyte culture, this assay had a similar performance profile and the advantages of rapidity and technical ease. (Auth.)

  19. Differential Micronuclei Induction in Human Lymphocyte Cultures by Imidacloprid in the Presence of Potassium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Stivaktakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to pesticides as a consequence of their application in farming or their persistence in a variety of media, including food, water, air, soil, plants, animals, and smoke. The interaction of pesticides with environmental factors may result in the alteration of their physicochemical properties. Square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry (SW-CSV, a technique that simulates electrodynamically the cellular membrane, is used to investigate whether the presence of potassium nitrate (KNO3 in the culture medium interferes with the genotoxic behavior of imidacloprid. The cytokinesis block micronuclei (CBMN method is used to evaluate imidacloprid's genotoxicity in the absence or presence of KNO3 in the culture medium and, as a consequence, its adsorption by lymphocytes. Comparing micronuclei (MN frequencies in control and imidacloprid-treated blood cell cultures, statistically significant differences were not detected. KNO3 did not induce MN frequencies compared to control. Statistically significant differences in MN frequencies were observed when blood cell cultures were treated with imidacloprid in the presence of increasing concentrations of KNO3. SW-CSV revealed that by increasing KNO3 molarity, imidacloprid's concentration in the culture medium decreased in parallel. This finding indicates that imidacloprid is adsorbed by cellular membranes. The present study suggests a novel role of a harmless environmental factor, such as KNO3, on the genotoxic behavior of a pesticide, such as imidacloprid. KNO3 rendered imidacloprid permeable to lymphocytes, resulting in elevated MN frequencies.

  20. Post-thaw non-cultured and post-thaw cultured equine cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells equally suppress lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn B Williams

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are receiving increased attention for their non-progenitor immunomodulatory potential. Cryopreservation is commonly used for long-term storage of MSC. Post-thaw MSC proliferation is associated with a lag-phase in vitro. How this lag-phase affect MSC immunomodulatory properties is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro there is no difference in lymphocyte suppression potential between quick-thawed cryopreserved equine cord blood (CB MSC immediately included in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and same MSC allowed post-thaw culture time prior to inclusion in MLR. Cryopreserved CB-MSC from five unrelated foals were compared using two-way MLR. For each of the five unrelated MSC cultures, paired MLR assays of MSC allowed five days of post-thaw culture and MSC included in MLR assay immediately post-thawing were evaluated. We report no difference in the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by CB-MSC that had undergone post-thaw culture and MSC not cultured post-thaw (p<0.0001. Also, there was no inter-donor variability between the lymphocyte suppressive properties of MSC harvested from the five different donors (p = 0.13. These findings suggest that cryopreserved CB-MSC may have clinical utility immediately upon thawing. One implication hereof is the possibility of using cryopreserved CB-MSC at third party locations without the need for cell culture equipment or competencies.

  1. Co-Culturing of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Autological and Allogenic Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, N M; Davydova, Yu O; Gal'tseva, I V; Petinati, N A; Bakshinskaitė, M V; Drize, N I; Kuz'mina, L A; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G

    2018-03-01

    We studied the effect of autologous and allogeneic lymphocytes on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in co-culture. It is shown that changes in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and in lymphocytes did not depend on the source of lymphocytes. Contact with lymphocytes triggers expression of HLA-DR molecules on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and these cells lose their immune privilege. In multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, the relative level of expression of factors involved in immunomodulation (IDO1, PTGES, and IL-6) and expression of adhesion molecule ICAM1 increased, while expression of genes involved in the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells remained unchanged. Priming of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells with IFN did not affect these changes. In turn, lymphocytes underwent activation, expression of HLA-DR increased, subpopulation composition of lymphocytes changed towards the increase in the content of naïve T cells. These findings are important for cell therapy.

  2. Growth of human T lymphocyte colonies from whole blood: culture requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Wilson, F.D.; Greenberg, B.R.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Growth of human lymphocyte colonies from whole blood following stimulation with PHA, Con A, or PPD is described. Individual colony cells were identified as T lymphocytes on the basis of surface marker and enzyme cytochemical characterizations. Colony formation increased as a power function over a wide range of cell concentrations above a critical minimal concentration. The whole blood culture system eliminates possible selective effects of lymphocyte colony techniques utilizing gradient-enriched lymphocyte fractions and more closely approximates the in vivo milieu. The whole blood colony method is more sensitive for the detection of low-level radiation effects on lymphocytes than widely used tests that measure 3 H-thymidine incorporation. In preliminary studies, researchers used the whole blood method to determine the relative radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from humans with various hematopoietic disorders, and observed abnormalities in mitogen responsiveness and colony formation in some of the patient groups. This method has wide application for studies in cellular and clinical immunology

  3. Cytogenetic evaluation of Fansidar on human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Nuzhat; Saifi, Muheet Alam; Shadab, G G H A

    2011-01-01

    Fansidar is a fixed combination of two antimalarial agents a diaminopyrimidine (Pyrimethamine) and a sulphonamide (Sulphadoxine) in the ratio 1:20- that have been used extensively worldwide for the treatment of Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, toxoplasmosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This study examined the effect of Fansidar on chromosomes in human lymphocyte culture. Fansidar was added to peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures in vitro at four different concentrations: 5,15, 25 and 50 microl in the ratio 1:20, 3:60, 5:100 and 10:200 microg ml(-1). Result shows that this drug induces moderate increase in the frequency of gaps, breaks and rearrangements. Therefore it can be concluded that Fansidar has moderate clastogenic effect on human chromosomes in vitro.

  4. Proteolytically modified human beta 2-microglobulin augments the specific cytotoxic activity in murine mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claësson, M H

    1987-01-01

    the endogenous production of interleukin 2 in the MLC culture; monoclonal antibody which reacts with both the native beta 2-m and M-beta 2-m molecule blocks the augmentation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte production induced by M-beta 2-m; murine as well as human MLC responder cells can proteolytically modify native......A proteolytically modified form of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) present in the serum of patients suffering from autoimmune, immunodeficient diseases and cancer has been reported in the literature. In the present study we show that human beta 2-m as well as the proteolytically modified human form...... (M-beta 2-m) bind to murine lymphocytes expressing H-2 class I antigens; M-beta 2-m, when added at day 0 and 1 of culture in nanomolar concentrations to a one-way murine allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) augments the generation of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes; M-beta 2-m increases...

  5. Addition of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte culture for selecting related donors for bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mixed lymphocyte culturing has led to conflicting opinions regarding the selection of donors for bone marrow transplantation. The association between a positive mixed lymphocyte culture and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is unclear. The use of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte cultures could be an alternative for increasing the sensitivity of culture tests. OBJECTIVE: To increase the sensitivity of mixed lymphocyte cultures between donor and recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA identical siblings, using exogenous cytokines, in order to predict post-transplantation GVHD and/or rejection. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen patients with hematological malignancies and their respective donors selected for bone marrow transplantation procedures. PROCEDURES: Standard and modified mixed lymphocyte culturing by cytokine supplementation was carried out using donor and recipient cells typed for HLA. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Autologous and allogenic responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures after the addition of IL-4 or IL-2. RESULTS: In comparison with the standard method, average responses in the modified mixed lymphocyte cultures increased by a factor of 2.0 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 6.4 using IL-2 (p < 0.001, for autologous donor culture responses. For donor-versus-recipient culture responses, the increase was by a factor of 1.9 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 4.1 using IL-2 (p < 0.001. For donor-versus-unrelated culture responses, no significant increase was observed using IL-4, and a mean response inhibition of 20% was observed using IL-2 (p < 0.001. Neither of the cytokines produced a significant difference in the unrelated control versus recipient cell responses. CONCLUSION: IL-4 supplementation was the best for increasing the mixed lymphocyte culture sensitivity. However, IL-4 also increased autologous responses, albeit less

  6. Immunoglobulin production in human mixed lymphocyte cultures: implications for co-cultures of cells from patients and healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruemke, H.C.; Terpstra, F.G.; Huis, B.; Out, T.A.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    When human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are cultured in the presence of irradiated allogeneic lymphocytes, the resulting mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) leads to the secretion into the supernatant of substantial amounts of IgM and IgG, derived from nonirradiated responder B lymphocytes. Our data indicate that stimulation to Ig production by responder B cells may result from different types of of interactions. First, B cells and monocytes among the irradiated stimulator cells activate T responder B cells to produce Ig; second, ''responder'' B cells activate irradiated ''stimulator'' T cells, leading to a ''helper'' signal, back to the responder B cells and leading to Ig production. The latter system is radiosensitive, because allogeneic T cells, irradiated at a dose of 4000 rad or more, failed to induce Ig production by responder B cells. In some combinations of human allogeneic lymphocytes, the co-culture of the cells leads to inhibition of Ig production, both in the presence and in the absence of PWM. Thus, co-culture of allogeneic cells may cause ''positive'' as well as ''negative'' allogeneic effects. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of co-cultures that are aimed at establishing defects in lymphocytes from patients with, for example, immunodeficiencies, who fail to produce Ig in the presence of PWM are discussed

  7. Manifestation of radiaton injury of human lymphocytes using PHA mitogenic stimulation in different culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horky, J.

    1986-01-01

    The proliferative response of human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin in vitro is affected by X-irradiation. Dose-related changes in mitogenic stimulation of irradiated lymphocytes were compared for two culture systems - the cultivation of separated lymphocytes and the cultivation of whole blood. In the whole blood cultures, the proliferative activity of stimulated lyphocytes was markedly and reproducibly depressed by irradiation. An exponential curve could be fitted to the values of mitogenic response within a dose range from 0 to 2.5 Gy with high correlation. In a modified test where the mitogenic stimulus was given after a 24 h delay, depression in the response was even more pronounced. Radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes as determined by means of mitogenic stimulation in the whole blood cultures appears to be a characteristic individual feature. The mean D 37 value of the radiation-induced depression in mitogenic response in a group of 20 healthy donors was 2.5 Gy in the standard test and 2.0 Gy in the test with a delayed mitogenic stimulus. In contrast, the data obtained from separated lymphocyte cultures were characterized by a high degree of test-to-test variability and by much lower radiosensitivity. The possible mechanisms of these distinctive manifestations of the same primary radiation injury are discussed. (author) 3 tabs., 2 figs., 12 refs

  8. In Vitro Genotoxic Effects of Four Helichrysum Species in Human Lymphocytes Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan H Erolu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helichrysum sanguineum, Helichrysum pamphylicum, Helichrysum orientale, Helichrysum noeanum (Asteraceae are medicinal plants. For centuries, they have been used as tea in Turkey because of their medicinal properties. So far no scientifc evidence has been found in a literature survey regarding the genotoxic effects of these plants. This work evaluated the genotoxic effects on human lymphocyte cultures induced by methanol extracts of these plants, assayed in different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL. According to the results, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum pamphylicum and Helichrysum sanguineum induced the formation of micronuclei and decreased the mitotic and replication indexes. Helichrysum orientale did not affect these parameters, whereas Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum pamphylicum and Helichrysum sanguineum were clearly genotoxic. They should therefore not be used freely in alternative medicine, although their antiproliferative activity may suggest antimitotic and anticarcinogenic properties. Helichrysum orientale could be used in alternative medicine.

  9. In vitro genotoxic effects of four Helichrysum species in human lymphocytes cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erolu, Erhan H; Hamzaolu, Ergin; Aksoy, Ahmet; Budak, Ümit; Özkul, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    Helichrysum sanguineum, Helichrysum pamphylicum, Helichrysum orientale, Helichrysum noeanum (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants. For centuries, they have been used as tea in Turkey because of their medicinal properties. So far no scientific evidence has been found in a literature survey regarding the genotoxic effects of these plants. This work evaluated the genotoxic effects on human lymphocyte cultures induced by methanol extracts of these plants, assayed in different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL). According to the results, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum pamphylicum and Helichrysum sanguineum induced the formation of micronuclei and decreased the mitotic and replication indexes. Helichrysum orientale did not affect these parameters, whereas Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum pamphylicum and Helichrysum sanguineum were clearly genotoxic. They should therefore not be used freely in alternative medicine, although their antiproliferative activity may suggest antimitotic and anticarcinogenic properties. Helichrysum orientale could be used in alternative medicine.

  10. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Decreases Cell Proliferation and TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 Cytokines Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Costa, Lucas; Henrique Fernandes Ottoni, Marcelo; Dos Santos, Michaelle Geralda; Meireles, Agnes Batista; Gomes de Almeida, Valéria; de Fátima Pereira, Wagner; Alves de Avelar-Freitas, Bethânia; Eustáquio Alvim Brito-Melo, Gustavo

    2017-11-10

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule composed of a polar domain characterized by the sulfinyl and two nonpolar methyl groups, for this reason it is able to solubilize polar and nonpolar substances and transpose hydrophobic barriers. DMSO is widely used to solubilize drugs of therapeutic applications and studies indicated that 10% v/v concentration did not modify culture viability when used to treat human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, some DMSO concentrations could influence lymphocyte activation and present anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of DMSO on lymphocyte activation parameters. Cell viability analysis, proliferation, and cytokine production were performed on PBMC from six healthy subjects by flow cytometry. The results indicated that 2.5% v/v DMSO concentrations did not modify lymphocytes viability. DMSO at 1% and 2% v/v concentrations reduced the relative proliferation index of lymphocytes and at 5% and 10% v/v concentrations reduced the percentage of total lymphocytes, cluster of differentiation 4⁺ (CD4⁺) T lymphocytes and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) producers. Thus, it was concluded that DMSO has an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect by reducing lymphocyte activation demonstrated with proliferation reduction and the decrease of cytokine production.

  11. Assessment of in vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen on human cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan Basri; Dordu, Tuba; Husunet, Mehmet Tahir; Tazehkand, Mostafa Norizadeh; Valipour, Ebrahim; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is commonly used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the study was to explore the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of flurbiprofen in human cultured lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration, and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus tests. 10, 20, 30, and 40 μg/mL concentrations of flurbiprofen (solvent is DMSO) were used to treatment of human cultured lymphocytes at two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Flurbiprofen had no significant genotoxic effect in any of these tests. But exposing to flurbiprofen for 24 and 48 h led to significant decrease on proliferation index, mitotic index, and nuclear division index (NDI). Also, all decreases were concentration-dependent (except NDI at 24 h treatment period). Consequently, the findings of this research showed that flurbiprofen had cytotoxic effects in human blood lymphocytes.

  12. Effects of cyclophosphamide on in vitro human lymphocyte culture and mitogenic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) has been reported to be inactive in vitro under certain conditions. In the present study, CY was tested for its ability to inhibit human lymphocyte proliferation and to modulate lymphocyte response to mitogens in vitro. The inhibition of or the increase in 3 H-thymidine incorporation in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes by CY was used as a measure of CY activity in vitro. The results demonstrate that lymphocytes from 10 different persons had a mean decrease of 74% in 3 H-thymidine incorporation in the presence of CY (P less than 0.005). The effect was maximal at a concentration of 160 micrograms/ml. A mean inhibition of 35 and 55% was caused by 10 and 40 micrograms/ml concentrations of CY, respectively. CY also was able to reduce the number of viable cells during 5 days in culture and had a profound effect on mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes. In all cases, CY modulated the stimulation of lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) either by augmenting or suppressing the responses. At low concentrations (10 micrograms/ml) it augmented mitogenic stimulation by 46 to 281%. At higher concentrations (20 to 160 micrograms/ml), CY had a suppressive effect with a maximum suppression of 99%. The CY-induced immunomodulation is perhaps caused by its action on the regulatory T cells. When tested in vitro, CY had inhibitory activity on T cells

  13. Descriptive evaluation of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes due to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina III, F.S.; Gregorio, J.S.; Vinoya, P.C.; Panlaque, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    To induce and evaluate the effect of radiation among Filipinos, frequencies and types of ν-ray induced chromosome aberrations were studied with peripheral lymphocytes from 19 donors. Peripheral blood samples were irradiated at 0 Gray, 500 mGy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 3 Gy and 4 Gy. Irradiated blood samples were cultured by the same standard technique as that commonly used for human blood lymphocytes. Our observations showed that irradiation causes chromosomal aberration similar to effects observed in Caucasians. Our study confirm that irradiation causes an increase of the chromosome aberrations types normally found in the control (gaps, chromatid breaks and chromosome fragments) and can induce aberrations which are rarely observed in non-exposed individual (deletions, translocations, polycentrics, rings, and despiralizations). (author)

  14. Activation of NK Cells in Mixed Cultures of Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirshchevskaya, E V; Poltavtsev, A M; Os'mak, G Zh; Poltavtseva, R A

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells possess immunosuppressive properties that might be used for the therapy of inflammatory diseases of various geneses. The effects of mesenchymal stromal cells depend on their lifetime in the recipient tissues. During heterologous transplantation, mesenchymal stromal cells are eliminated by NK cells. We studied NK cell formation in mixed cultures of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from an autologous donor. Lymphocytes were activated by a mitogen or IL-2. The lifetime of mesenchymal stromal cells was estimated by MTT test. Cytotoxic activity and phenotype of NK cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. It was found that activation of NK cells depended on IL-2 and was registered on day 2 of incubation with IL-2. In cultures with mitogen-activated lymphocytes, cytotoxicity was observed after 5-6 days. Cytotoxicity of NK correlated with significant decrease in CD16+ and increase in CD56+ NK and with reduction of mesenchymal stromal cell viability. Thus, the main mechanism of elimination of mesenchymal stromal cells is cytotoxicity of NK cells that depended on IL-2 production.

  15. Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion with pleural biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Jaffery, A.H.; Khar, Hamama-tul-Bushra; Malik, M.F.; Javed, S.; Burki, U.F.; Khan, B.A.; Ali, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion by histopathological examination of pleural biopsy in patients with suspected tuberculous or malignant pleural effusion. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Pulmonology Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi for two years 1999-2000. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 patients with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4 biopsy specimens were obtained in each patient which were examined histopathologically. Patients in whom a definite diagnosis was not possible were further investigated with repeat pleural biopsy, sputum examinations, bronchoscopy etc. Results definite histopathological diagnosis with pleural biopsy was possible in 59 (49.16% patients, including 13 diagnosed on repeat pleural biopsy. Two commonest diagnoses made were tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma, 64.40% and 13.55% respectively. Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation of pleural biopsy specimens can lead to diagnosis in 49.16% patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. (author)

  16. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aranha, Clara; Natraj, Usha; Iyer, K. S.; Shahani, Savitri

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  17. Influence of exogenous leptin on redox homeostasis in neutrophils and lymphocytes cultured in synovial fluid isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gajewski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Leptin is an adipose cells derived hormone that regulates energy homeostasis within the body. Energy metabolism of immune cells influences their activity within numerous pathological states, but the effect of leptin on these cells in unclear. On the one hand, it was observed that leptin induces neutrophils chemotaxis and modulates phagocytosis. On the other hand, neutrophils exposed to leptin did not display detectable Ca 2+ ions mobilization or β 2 -integrin upregulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on the redox homeostasis in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Material and methods : Neutrophils and lymphocytes were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation of blood from healthy volunteers. Cells were cultured with or without leptin (100 ng/ml for lymphocytes and 500 ng/ml for neutrophils or with or without synovial fluid (85% for 0–72 h. Culture media were not changed during incubation. Cells were homogenized and homogenate was frozen until laboratory measurements. Redox homeostasis was assessed by the reduced glutathione (GSH vs. oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio and membrane lipid peroxidation evaluation. Results : Lymphocytes cultured with leptin and synovial fluid showed a significant increase of the GSSG level. The GSSG/GSH ratio increased by 184 ±37%. In neutrophils incubated in a similar environment, the GSSG/GSH ratio increased by just 21 ±7%, and the effect was observed irrespectively of whether they were exposed to leptin or synovial fluid or both together. Neither leptin nor synovial fluid influenced lipid peroxidation in neutrophils, but in lymphocytes leptin intensified lipid peroxidation. Conclusions : Leptin altered the lymphocytes, but not neutrophils redox state. Because firstly neutrophils are anaerobic cells and have just a few mitochondria and secondly lymphocytes have typical aerobic metabolism, the divergence of our data supports the hypothesis that leptin induces oxidative stress by

  18. [Effects of oil-refining microbes (genus Acinetobacter) on cytogenetical structures of human lymphocytes in cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess ability of oil-refining bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and A. valentis to induce karyopathological abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocyte cultures. It was found that the cultures infected with A. calcoaceticus showed significantly high frequencies of cytogenetical effects and chromosomal aberrant cells as compared to the intact cultures and cultures infected with A. valentis. The most of chromosomal aberrations, mainly chromatid aberrations, were located in 1 and 2 chromosomes. Moreover, the aberrations were detected in some specific chromosome areas. Abnormalities of mitotic cell division and nucleus morphology were determined in lymphocyte cultures infected with A. calcoaceticus. There were found significantly high frequencies of cells with micronuclei, nucleus protrusions, anaphase or metaphase chromosome and chromosomal fragments lagging as well as multipolar and C-mitoses. Thus, the oil-refining bacteria A. calcoaceticus in contrast to A. valentis demonstrated strong genotoxic effects in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro.

  19. Evaluation of cytogenetic and DNA damage in human lymphocytes treated with adrenaline in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelić, Ninoslav; Radaković, Milena; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana; Zivković, Lada; Bajić, Vladan; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-02-01

    Catechol groups can be involved in redox cycling accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may lead to oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules including DNA. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate possible genotoxic effects of a natural catecholamine adrenaline in cultured human lymphocytes using cytogenetic (sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei) and the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. In cytogenetic tests, six experimental concentrations of adrenaline were used in a range from 0.01-500 μM. There were no indications of genotoxic effects of adrenaline in sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests. However, at four highest concentrations of adrenaline (5 μM, 50 μM, 150 μM and 300 μM) we observed a decreased mitotic index and cell-cycle delay. In addition, in the Comet assay we used adrenaline in a range from 0.0005-500 μM, at two treatment times: 15 min or 60 min. In contrast to cytogenetic analysis, there was a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage detected in the Comet assay. These effects were significantly reduced by concomitant treatment with quercetin or catalase. Therefore, the obtained results indicate that adrenaline may exhibit genotoxic effects in cultured human lymphocytes, most likely due to production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  1. Oxcarbazepine-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lymphocyte cultures with or without metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı Şekeroğlu, Zülal; Kefelioğlu, Haluk; Kontaş Yedier, Seval; Şekeroğlu, Vedat; Delmecioğlu, Berrin

    2017-03-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relationship between epilepsy and cancer. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is used for treating certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. There have been no detailed investigations about genotoxicity of OXC and its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of OXC and its metabolites on cultured human lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of OXC on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Cultures were treated with 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml of OXC in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (24 h and 48 h treatment) of a metabolic activator (S9 mix). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent control. OXC showed cytotoxic activities due to significant decreases in mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI) and nuclear division index (NDI) in the absence of S9 mix when compared with solvent control. Metabolites of OXC also significantly reduced MI and PI in cultures with S9 mix. OXC significantly increased the CAs, aberrant cells, SCE and MN values in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Our results indicated that both OXC and its metabolites have cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures under the experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects, and to make a possible risk assessment in patients receiving therapy with this drug.

  2. Biological Dosimetry of In Vitro Irradiation with Radionuclides : Comparison of Whole Blood, Lymphocyte and Buffy Coat Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Lee, Dong Soo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Chong Soon; Kim, Hee Geun; Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish mononuclear cell cultures such as lymphocytes or buffy coat for the biological dosimetry of in vitro irradiation of the radionuclide Tc-99m in order to exclude the effect of residual doses seen in the cultures of whole blood. Biological dosimetry of Tc-99m on cultured mononuclear cells at doses ranging from 0.05 to 6.00 Gy, by scoring unstable chromosomal aberrations(Ydr) observed in cultured lymphocytes, were performed using peripheral venous blood of healthy normal person. The results showed that; (1) In vitro irradiation of radioisotope in separated lymphocyte or buffy coat showed trace amount af residual doses of isotope after washing. Residual doses of isotopes are increased in proportion tn exposed time and irradiated dose without difference between I-131 anct Tc-99m. (2) We obtained these linear-quadratic dose response equations in lymphocyte and buffy coat culture after in vitro irradiation of Tc-99m, respectively (Ydr = 0,001949 D 2 +0,006279D+ 0.000185; Ydr= 0.002531 D 2 -0.003274 D+0.003488). In conclusion, the linear quadrstic dose response equation from in vitro irradiation of Tc-99m with lymphocyte and buffy coat culture was thought to be useful for assessing Tc-99m indueed biological effects. And mononuclear cell cultures seem to be the most appropriate experimental model for the assessment of biological dosimetry of internal irradiation of radionuclides.

  3. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (Pcarotenoids when compared with the positive controls (Pcarotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

  4. Chromosome dosimetry: the influence of culture media on the proliferation of irradiated and unirradiated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purrott, R.J.; Lloyd, D.C.; Vulpis, N.

    1981-01-01

    The proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin stimulated human lymphocytes in four types of synthetic culture medium has been studied using the fluorescence plus Giemsa staining technique to determine cell cycle status. 48 hour cultures of unirradiated cells containing Ham's F10 or RPMI 1640 media yielded significant numbers of second cycle metaphases. Cultures containing Eagle's MEM or TC 199 media, however, required longer incubation times to produce appreciable numbers of second division cells. Intrinsic differences between donors in the rate of proliferation had little effect on the relative ranking of the media. Radiation induced mitotic delay of about 1 hour per Gray was observed for each medium. The relevance of these results to the accuracy of radiation dose estimation by chromosome aberration analysis is discussed. (author)

  5. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of different types of dental cement on normal cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, A; Mourelatos, D; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Giassin, N P; Mioglou, E; Garefis, P

    2009-01-31

    In this study we have investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of eluates derived from different types of commercially available dental cements, including glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Ketac Cem/3M ESPE and GC Fuji I/GC Corp), resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) (RelyX Luting/3M ESPE and Vitrebond/3M ESPE) and dual-cure resin cements (RCs) (Variolink II/ Ivoclar-Vivadent and Panavia F 2.0/Kuraray) on normal cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocyte primary cultures obtained from blood samples of three healthy donors were exposed to serial dilutions of eluates derived from specimens of each material tested. Metaphases were induced with phytohaemagglutinin, collected after 72h treatment by use of colchicine and stained according to the fluorescence plus giemsa (FPG) procedure. Preparations were scored for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), while the proliferation rate index (PRI) was also calculated. Our results show that eluates derived from the RM-GICs and RCs caused severe genotoxic effects by significantly increasing the frequencies of SCEs and CAs in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes and by decreasing the relevant PRI values in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the two GICs caused only minor cytogenetic effects. Eluates of the two RM-GICs (Vitrebond and RelyX) were also very cytotoxic, as the first serial dilutions of both materials caused a complete mitotic arrest in lymphocyte cultures. Overall, the degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by dental cements decreased as follows: Viterbond>Rely X>Panavia F 2.0>Variolink II>Ketac Cem=GC Fuji I. These results indicate that different types of dental cement differ extensively in their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical situation, the potential occurrence of adverse effects caused by the

  6. [Application of a modified culturing method for lymphocytes in cytogenetic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chaoxian; Hui, Changye; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yan; Li, Limei; Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Yang, Xinyue; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-08-01

    To establish a modified method for microculturing whole human blood for cytogenetic analysis. A novel tube rack was designed to overcome the drawbacks of directly culturing the cells within centrifuge tubes. The fractions of human plasma, human serum and two commercial fetal bovine sera were analyzed with 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The influence of adding 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% autologous plasma to the culture on lymphocyte transformation rate and mitotic index (MI) was examined. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed a significant difference between commercial fetal bovine sera, and that the components of human plasma were similar to those of fetal bovine serum. The value of MI in lymphocyte was evidently increased along with addition of autologous plasma. However, this has exerted no significant effect on the transformation rate. With the addition of 10% autologous plasma, the MI value has become much higher than the conventional method. A modified method was established by application of a novel tube inclined rack and optimization of whole blood inoculation. This method is easier and cheaper, and is suitable for application in clinical practice.

  7. Evaluation of the Antibody in Lymphocyte Supernatant Assay to Detect Active Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Sariko

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS assay as a biomarker to diagnose tuberculosis among adults from Tanzania with and without HIV.Adults admitted with suspicion for tuberculosis had sputa obtained for GeneXpert MTB/RIF, acid-fast bacilli smear and mycobacterial culture; blood was obtained prior to treatment initiation and after 4 weeks. Adults hospitalized with non-infectious conditions served as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured unstimulated for 72 hours. Anti-mycobacterial antibodies were measured from culture supernatants by ELISA, using BCG vaccine as the coating antigen. Median ALS responses were compared between cases and controls at baseline and between cases over time.Of 97 TB cases, 85 were microbiologically confirmed and 12 were clinically diagnosed. Median ALS responses from TB cases (0.366 OD from confirmed cases and 0.285 from clinical cases were higher compared to controls (0.085, p<0.001. ALS responses did not differ based on HIV status, CD4 count or sputum smear status. Over time, the median ALS values declined significantly (0.357 at baseline; 0.198 after 4-weeks, p<0.001.Robust ALS responses were mounted by patients with TB regardless of HIV status, CD4 count, or low sputum bacillary burden, potentially conferring a unique niche for this immunologic biomarker for TB.

  8. Effects of 3-dimensional culture conditions (collagen-chitosan nano-scaffolds) on maturation of dendritic cells and their capacity to interact with T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Dibazar, Shaghayegh Pishkhan; Fateh, Shirin

    2016-01-01

    In the body, there is a natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which immune cells, including dendritic cells (DC), play their functions. This study evaluated the impact of using collagen-chitosan 3D nano-scaffolds in comparisons to routine 2D culture plates on DC phenotype and functions. Bone marrow-derived DC were cultured on scaffolds and plates and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or chitosan-based nanoparticles (NP) for 24 h. Thereafter, DC viability, expression of maturation markers and levels of cytokines secretion were evaluated. In another set of studies, the DC were co-cultured with allogenic T-lymphocytes in both the 2D and 3D systems and effects on DC-induction of T-lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine release were analyzed. The results indicated that CD40, CD86 and MHC II marker expression and interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by DC were enhanced in 3D cultures in comparison to by cells maintained in the 2D states. The data also showed that DNA/chitosan NP activated DC more than LPS in the 3D system. T-Lymphocyte proliferation was induced to a greater extent by DNA/NP-treated DC when both cell types were maintained on the scaffolds. Interestingly, while DC induction of T-lymphocyte interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4 release was enhanced in the 3D system (relative to controls), there was a suppression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production; effects on IL-10 secretion were variable. The results here suggested that collagen-chitosan scaffolds could provide a pro-inflammatory and activator environment to perform studies to analyze effects of exogenous agents on the induction of DC maturation, NP uptake and/or cytokines release, as well as for the ability of these cells to potentially interact with other immune system cells in vitro.

  9. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  10. Age- and dose-related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Zhou, Ou-Liang; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kohno, Nobuoki; Akiba, Suminori; Delongchamp, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was remarkable in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T-cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that, in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function has started to involute allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who have adequate processing T-cell activity. (author)

  11. Nonrandom distribuion of chromosome breaks in cultured lymphocytes of normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayme, S.; Mattei, J.F.; Mattei, M.G.; Aurran, Y.; Giraud, F.

    1976-02-29

    Breakpoint distribution was studied from cultured lymphocytes on 7653 metaphases from 524 subjects whose karyotypes were normal. The mean break rate was 5% in both sexes. The frequency increased significantly after 40 years and varied during the year. The location of the breaks was very different from the expected random distribution. The break frequency for each chromosome was different according to the type of break (chromatid, simple chromosomal and chromosomal involving rearrangements). The location of the breaks was also studied according to the type of band and with respect to the centromere. A comparison between spontaneous breaks, x-ray induced breaks, breaks in Fanconi's anemia and in congenital rearrangements, show very significant differences.

  12. Nonspecific suppressor T cells cause decreased mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M.; Ueda, M.; Nakao, S.; Kondo, K.; Odaka, K.; Shiobara, S.; Matsue, K.; Mori, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1986-01-01

    Decreased reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was observed in patients within 1 yr after allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Suppressor activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from transplant patients was studied by adding these cells as modulator cells to a bidirectional MLC with cells from normal individuals. PBMC from transplant patients markedly suppressed MLC reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppressor activity was present in cells forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. Treatment of modulator cells with monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens (OKT8, OKIa1) and complement completely abolished suppression of MLC. Suppressor activity was unaffected by 30 Gy irradiation. Suppressor activity declined gradually after transplantation and was inversely correlated with MLC reactivity of each patient at a significant level (p less than 0.01). These observations suggest that OKT8+ Ia+ radioresistant suppressor T cells play a role in the development of decreased MLC reactivity observed during the early post-transplant period

  13. A new gaseous imaging detector for the assay of lymphocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Joyce, A.; Knight, S.C.; Bedford, P.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium-labelled cell cultures used in studies of lymphocyte proliferation at the Clinical Research Centre are blotted in arrays of 10x6 spots spaced at 6 mm. An imaging detector based on the differential induction signals produced at a central amplifying electrode has been developed for the imaging and assay of these blots. A spatial resolution ≅ 2.5 mm FWHM attained over the aperture of 60 mmx36mm enables the individual spots to be reliably counted. Data is captured in a PC/AT at rates which permit an assay to be completed in typically 30-60 min. The simplicity of both the detector and the readout electronics leads to a low cost system. Images and assay results are presented. (orig.)

  14. Protective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in cultured human lymphocytes and isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in an imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in the cells, which is suggested to culminate in cell death. The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced toxicity in cultured human lymphocytes and rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay, cytokinesis blocked micro nucleus assay, dicentric aberrations and translocation frequency. Cell cycle distribution and measurement of the percentage of apoptotic cells were performed by flow cytometry analysis. To investigate whether the dietary agents like curcumin and its analog have a role on cell cycle regulation, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle profiles by using fluorescence activated cell sorter. The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) of γ-radiation in cultured lymphocytes and hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in γ-irradiated hepatocytes and lymphocytes. On pretreatment with curcumin and its analog (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly along with the levels of GSH. The maximum protection of hepatocytes and lymphocytes was observed at 10 μg/ml curcumin and 5 μg/ml curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin and its analog helps in protecting the normal hepatocytes and lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced cellular

  15. Radioprotective effect of sesamol on γ-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in cultured human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N. Rajendra; Menon, Venugopal P.; Vasudev, V.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    Sesamol pretreated (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation, i.e., 1, 2 and 4 Gray (Gy) and the cellular changes were estimated by using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Radiation significantly increased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and decreased GSH and antioxidant enzyme levels in a dose dependent manner. The highest damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and increased GSH levels and SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a concentration dependent manner. At 1 Gy irradiation all concentrations of sesamol (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) significantly protects the lymphocytes from radiation damage. At 2 Gy irradiation 5 and 10 μg/ml of sesamol shows significant radioprotection. Since the highest damage was observed at 4 Gy irradiation both 1 and 5 μg/ml of sesamol pretreatment were not sufficient to protect the lymphocytes from radiation damage but 10 μg/ml of sesamol significantly (p < 0.05) protects the lymphocytes from radiation effect. Thus, sesamol pretreatment gives significant protection to cultured human lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced cellular damage. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective influence of sesamol is discussed

  16. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  17. The Effect Of SEA On Long Tail Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Lymphocyte Culture Gamma Ray-Irradiated In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa'id, Abdul; Lusiyanti, Yanti

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococus enteroxine (SEA) is one of toxins produced by the bacterium Staphylococus aureus. In the culture, SEA has proven as a potent stimulator of lymphocytes in man event at fg/ml concentrations. This research studied the effect of SEA compared to Phytohaemagglutinine (PHA) on the peripheral blood lymphocytes culture of the long-tail monkeys. About 5 ml blood was collected from 5 monkeys and irradiated using Gamma Cell-220 P3TIR with doses of 0 (control); 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 Gy. The blood samples were cultured in the appropriate growth medium based on standard procedure and added with 1.0 ml (0.5 mug/ml) SEA or 0.15 ml PHA. The cultures were then incubated for 96 hours and prepared the slides. The results showed that on the unirradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes of long-tail monkeys the mitotic indices obtained using PHA and SEA are relatively similar. On the irradiated lymphocytes with doses of 1-3 Gy, the mitotic indices using SEA are relatively higher than that of PHA. Dose responses of dicentric, ring and acentric fragment of both PHA and SEA are relatively the same

  18. Sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes from patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome to ultraviolet light and phytohemagglutinin stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, P.; Celotti, L.; Furlan, D.; Pattarello, I.; Peserico, A.

    1990-01-01

    DNA repair and replication after in vitro UV irradiation were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from 6 patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and from a group of control donors. DNA repair synthesis (UDS) was measured in unstimulated lymphocytes by incubation with 3H-TdR in the presence of hydroxyurea for 3 and 6 h after UV irradiation (6-48 J/m2). DNA replication was measured in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, UV-irradiated or mock-irradiated, by incubation with 3H-TdR for 24 h. The effect of the mitogen was followed during 5 days after stimulation by determining the incorporation of 3H-TdR, the increase of cell number, and the mitotic index. NBCCS and control lymphocytes showed equal sensitivity to UV light in terms of UDS and reduced response to PHA. On the contrary, the mitotic index and the number of cells in stimulated cultures were significantly lower in the affected subjects. These data suggest an altered progression along the cell cycle, which could be characteristic of stimulated NBCCS lymphocytes

  19. In-Vitro Radio protective Role of Ferulic Acid in Cultured Lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Al Fateh, N.M.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), C 10 H 10 O 4 is the most abundant, ubiquitous hydroxycinnamic acid derived from photochemical phenolic compounds. It is a major constituent of fruits and vegetables such as orange, tomato, carrot, sweet corn and rice bran. Gamma rays generate hydroxyl radicals in cells and cellular DNA damage which leads to genotoxicity and chromosome aberrations. To establish most effective protective support, we used two different concentrations of FA (5 and 10 μg/ ml) and 2 Gy dose of gamma-radiation. Cytogenetic analysis was evaluated using the analysis of structural chromosome aberration (CA) and cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). The level of lipid peroxidation analyzed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione (GSH), the enzyme activities of lymphocytes defence mechanism: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. The result obtained by all endpoints indicates acceptable toxicity profiles of FA in-vitro when compared with normal lymphocytes; irradiation at 2 Gy increased the MN and CA frequencies. Treatment with FA for 30 min before radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline both of MN and CA yields as FA concentration increased. The levels of TBARS and GSH were altered significantly whereas the levels of the enzymatic antioxidants were decreased in gamma-irradiated lymphocytes. Pretreatment with 10 μg/ ml of FA has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation more than FA (5 μg/ ml) by reduction in the TBARS level, restoration GSH contents and prevented the decreases in the radiation-induced SOD, CAT and GPx activities. These results lead us to the conclusion that FA has antimutagenic effect and benefit as a radio protector against oxidative stress involved by gamma-rays exposure

  20. Lycopene: An antioxidant and radioprotector against γ-radiation-induced cellular damages in cultured human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Devipriya, N.; Kalpana, K.B.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid on γ-radiation-induced toxicity. The cellular changes were estimated by using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides (HP), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN), dicentric aberration (DC) and translocation frequency. The γ-radiation at different doses (1, 2 and 4 Gy) resulted in a significant increase in the number of micronuclei (MN), DC, translocation frequency, TBARS and HP level, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased when compared with normal control. The maximum damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. Lycopene pretreatment (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) significantly decreased the frequency of MN, DC and translocation when compared with γ-radiation control. The levels of TBARS, HP were also decreased and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly increased along with GSH levels when compared with γ-radiation control. The dose of 5 μg/ml of lycopene was found to be more effective than the other two doses. Thus, our result shows that pretreatment with lycopene offers protection to normal lymphocytes against γ-radiation-induced cellular damage.

  1. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  2. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences’ helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users’ cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  3. Measurement of T-lymphocyte responses in whole-blood cultures using newly synthesized DNA and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottong, P R; Rosebrock, J A; Britz, J A; Kramer, T R

    2000-03-01

    The proliferative response is most frequently determined by estimating the amount of [(3)H]thymidine incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. The [(3)H]thymidine procedure requires the use of radioisotopes as well as lengthy periods of incubation (>72 h). An alternative method of assessing T-lymphocyte activation in whole-blood cultures involves the measurement of the nucleotide ATP instead of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. In addition, the Luminetics assay of T-cell activation measures specific T-lymphocyte subset responses through the use of paramagnetic particles coated with monoclonal antibodies against CD antigens. This assay permits rapid (24 h) analysis of lymphocyte subset activation responses to mitogens and recall antigens in small amounts of blood.

  4. Segregation of B lymphocytes into stationary apoptotic and migratory proliferating subpopulations in agglomerate cultures with ileal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, N; McClure, S; McCullagh, P

    2001-09-01

    The B lymphocyte-epithelial cell interactions that define the microenvironment of the ileal Peyer's patch, the primary B lymphocyte organ of the fetal lamb, have been replicated in tissue culture. Mixed suspensions of ileal epithelial cells, lymphocytes and fibroblasts from fetuses of 63-103 days of gestation organized into macroscopically visible agglomerates within 72 h. These agglomerates contained translucent spherical cavities and were enclosed within a marginal cell layer and surrounded by an expanding corona of emigrating cells. The lining of the cavities and the marginal layer consisted of well-differentiated, polarized columnar ileal epithelial cells. One population of B lymphocytes in the initial mixed suspension differentiated into two discrete populations reproducing the characteristics of intact fetal ileal Peyer's patches. B cells apposed to follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) within agglomerates underwent apoptosis. The other population of emigrant B cells proliferated and expressed the BAQ44A differentiation marker. Differentiation of ileal epithelial cells into FAE, typical of Peyer's patches, was markedly accelerated. The mutually inductive influences of intestinal epithelial cells and B lymphocytes in these agglomerates replicate normal mid-gestational fetal development of the mucosal immune system and afford new opportunities for its further investigation.

  5. Evaluation of radioinduced damage and repair capacity in blood lymphocytes of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Nascimento

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic damage caused by ionizing radiation and repair capacity of blood lymphocytes from 3 breast cancer patients and 3 healthy donors were investigated using the comet assay. The comets were analyzed by two parameters: comet tail length and visual classification. Blood samples from the donors were irradiated in vitro with a 60Co source at a dose rate of 0.722 Gy/min, with a dose range of 0.2 to 4.0 Gy and analyzed immediately after the procedure and 3 and 24 h later. The basal level of damage and the radioinduced damage were higher in lymphocytes from breast cancer patients than in lymphocytes from healthy donors. The radioinduced damage showed that the two groups had a similar response when analyzed immediately after the irradiations. Therefore, while the healthy donors presented a considerable reduction of damage after 3 h, the patients had a higher residual damage even 24 h after exposure. The repair capacity of blood lymphocytes from the patients was slower than that of lymphocytes from healthy donors. The possible influence of age, disease stage and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are discussed. Both parameters adopted proved to be sensitive and reproducible: the dose-response curves for DNA migration can be used not only for the analysis of cellular response but also for monitoring therapeutic interventions. Lymphocytes from the breast cancer patients presented an initial radiosensitivity similar to that of healthy subjects but a deficient repair mechanism made them more vulnerable to the genotoxic action of ionizing radiation. However, since lymphocytes from only 3 patients and 3 normal subjects were analyzed in the present paper, additional donors will be necessary for a more accurate evaluation.

  6. Proliferation of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Wharton's Jelly in Mixed and Membrane-Separated Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavtsev, A M; Poltavtseva, R A; Yushina, M N; Pavlovich, S V; Svirshchevskaya, E V

    2017-08-01

    We studied the effect of mesenchymal stromal cells on proliferation of CFSE-stained T cells in mixed and membrane-separated (Transwell) cultures and in 3D culture of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly. The interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells with mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from an allogeneic donor was followed by suppression of T-cell proliferation in a wide range of cell proportions. Culturing in the Transwell system showed the absence of suppression assessed by the fraction of proliferating cells and by the cell cycle analysis. In 3D cultures, contact interaction of mesenchymal stromal cells and lymphocytes was demonstrated that led to accumulation of G2/M phase lymphocytes and G0/G1 phase mesenchymal stromal cells. The suppressive effect of mesenchymal stromal cells from Wharton's jelly is mediated by two mechanisms. The effects are realized within 6 days, which suggests that the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells persist until their complete elimination from the body.

  7. Detection of chromosomal changes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using classical cytogenetic methods and FISH: application of rich mitogen mixtures for lymphocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczkodaj, Dorota; Popek, Sylwia; Zmorzyński, Szymon; Wąsik-Szczepanek, Ewa; Filip, Agata A

    2016-04-01

    One of the research methods of prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is cytogenetic analysis. This method requires the presence of appropriate B-cell mitogens in cultures in order to obtain a high mitotic index. The aim of our research was to determine the most effective methods of in vitro B-cell stimulation to maximize the number of metaphases from peripheral blood cells of patients with CLL for classical cytogenetic examination, and then to correlate the results with those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The study group involved 50 consecutive patients with CLL. Cell cultures were maintained with the basic composition of culture medium and addition of respective stimulators. We used the following stimulators: Pokeweed Mitogen (PWM), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), ionophore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30. We received the highest mitotic index when using the mixture of PWM+TPA+I+DSP30. With classical cytogenetic tests using banding techniques, numerical and structural aberrations of chromosomes were detected in 46 patients, and no change was found in only four patients. Test results clearly confirmed the legitimacy of using cell cultures enriched with the mixture of cell stimulators and combining classical cytogenetic techniques with the FISH technique in later patient diagnosing. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  8. Specific proliferative response of human lymphocytes to purified soluble antigens from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro cultures and to antigens from malaria patients' sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G

    1985-01-01

    Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, in supernatants of in vitro cultures of the parasite were affinity purified on columns prepared with the IgG fraction of the serum of an immune individual. The purified antigens induced proliferation of lymphocytes from persons who had recently had malaria....... The responses were strongest with lymphocytes from individuals infected with falciparum and ovale malaria; vivax malaria infections induced a lower level of response and lymphocytes of unsensitized individuals were little affected. Lymphocytes from unsensitized individuals did not respond to the affinity...

  9. In vivo synergistic cytogenetic effects of aminophylline on lymphocyte cultures from patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylonaki, Effie; Manika, Katerina; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Domvri, Kalliopi; Voutsas, Vasilis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas; Mourelatos, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► SCEs in vivo, a possible predictor of tumor chemoresponse. ► In vivo exposure to combined treatment, applying the SCE assay. ► Aminophylline enhances DNA instability induced by chemotherapy in vivo. ► In vivo synergistic effect of Aminophylline with the chemotherapeutic agents. - Abstract: Background: The anti-cancer and cytogenetic effects of aminophylline (AM) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo cytogenetic effects of AM in newly diagnosed patients with small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), receiving chemotherapy for the first time. Methods: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from six patients with SCLC and six patients with NSCLC after the in vitro addition of AM and after the in vivo administration of AM in patients receiving chemotherapy. Results: The in vitro addition of AM significantly increased SCEs only in SCLC patients (p 0.05). Conclusions: These observations suggest that AM enhances the results of concurrently administered chemotherapy by synergistically increasing its cytogenetic effects in patients with lung cancer

  10. microRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  11. Gene expression profiling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  12. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; Lund, Marianne; Mogensen, Søren C

    2005-01-01

    We, in this study, describe how T lymphocytes in a skin biopsy can proliferate in vitro for up to 3 months by using T-cell growth factors - interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 yielding approximately 100-160 million T lymphocytes within 1 month. We established cell lines from three tuberculin skin tests......, four positive patch tests, 15 of 16 biopsies from atopic dermatitis (AD), 15 of 19 biopsies from mycosis fungoides (MF), 12 of 24 biopsies from psoriasis vulgaris, which was significantly less than AD (P lymphocytes (P ... to immediate halt of proliferation. Blood mononuclear cells from patients and biopsies from healthy persons never gave cell lines. All cells were T lymphocytes expressing CD45RO+, HLA-DR+ and CD150. The CD7 expression was significantly increased in cell lines from AD (P

  13. Induction and persistence of multicentric chromosomes in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes following high-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Akiyama, Miho; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tominaga, Takako; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Yuki, Masanori; Nakayama, Fumiaki

    2012-01-01

    Among radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, multicentric chromosomes, as represented by dicentric chromosomes (dicentrics), are regarded as sensitive and specific biomarkers for assessing radiation dose in the 0 to 5 Gy range. The objective of this study was to characterize chromosome aberrations induced in vitro by a higher dose of radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were exposed to 15 Gy gamma rays at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min and harvested at 48, 50, 52, 54, 56 and 72 h. The first mitotic peak appeared at 52-54 h, showing about a 6 h mitotic delay as compared with nonirradiated control cultures. Cell-cycle analysis of parallel and simultaneous cultures by sister-chromatid differentiation staining suggests that metaphase cells examined in 48-56 h cultures were in the first mitosis after culture initiation. The mean dicentric equivalent counts ranged from 9.0 to 9.3 in consecutively harvested cultures with no significant differences among them. At 72 h, about 20% of dividing cells were tetraploid, persisting with faithfully replicated unstable chromosome aberrations. The non-random distribution of replicated chromosome pairs, deduced from multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, led us to surmise that the predominant mechanism underlying the induction of tetraploid cells is endoreduplication. These findings suggest that a high-dose in vitro irradiation applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes may affect on the replication process, in addition to structural chromosome damage. (author)

  14. DEPTOR-mTOR Signaling Is Critical for Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation Homeostasis of Lymphocytes in Human PBMC Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-bing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues causes autoimmune diseases, such as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Irregular lipid metabolism and inflammation may be a significant cause of autoimmune diseases. Although much progress has been made, mechanisms of initiation and proceeding of metabolic and inflammatory regulation in autoimmune disease have not been well-defined. And novel markers for the detection and therapy of autoimmune disease are urgent. mTOR signaling is a central regulator of extracellular metabolic and inflammatory processes, while DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR is a natural inhibitor of mTOR. Here, we report that overexpression of DEPTOR reduces mTORC1 activity in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Combination of DEPTOR overexpression and mTORC2/AKT inhibitors effectively inhibits lipogenesis and inflammation in lymphocytes of PBMC culture. Moreover, DEPTOR knockdown activates mTORC1 and increases lipogenesis and inflammations. Our findings provide a deep insight into the relationship between lipid metabolism and inflammations via DEPTOR-mTOR pathway and imply that DEPTOR-mTOR in lymphocytes of PBMC culture has the potential to be as biomarkers for the detection and therapies of autoimmune diseases.

  15. Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: effect of phenotype on sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes to 6-mercaptopurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, J.; Weinshilboum, R.

    1986-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.67, TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). TPMT activity in human lymphocytes and other tissues is controlled by a common genetic polymorphism. These experiments were designed to study the relationship between TPMT phenotype and the effect of 6-MP on 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation into phytohemaglutinin (PHA) stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were obtained from the blood of nine subjects, three subjects with each TPMT phenotype. 6-MP dose response curves were performed at optimal (10 μg/ml) and suboptimal (1 μg/ml) concentrations of PHA. ED50 values for 6-MP with lymphocytes from subjects who genetically lacked TPMT activity were higher than ED50 values for lymphocytes from subjects with genetically intermediate or high TPMT activity. However, ED50 values decreased as level of stimulation increased. Therefore, the effects of 6-MP were studied at a series of PHA concentrations that ranged from 0.1 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml. Lymphocytes from subjects who lacked TPMT activity had significantly higher K/sub ii/ values (1.37 +/- 0.340 μM; mean +/- SEM) for inhibition of 3 H-TdR incorporation by 6-MP than did lymphocytes from subjects with intermediate or high TPMT activity (0.529 +/- 0.068 μM and 0.327 +/- 0.064 μM, respectively, P < .05 for both comparisons)

  16. Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: effect of phenotype on sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes to 6-mercaptopurine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Loon, J.; Weinshilboum, R.

    1986-03-05

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.67, TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). TPMT activity in human lymphocytes and other tissues is controlled by a common genetic polymorphism. These experiments were designed to study the relationship between TPMT phenotype and the effect of 6-MP on /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) incorporation into phytohemaglutinin (PHA) stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were obtained from the blood of nine subjects, three subjects with each TPMT phenotype. 6-MP dose response curves were performed at optimal (10 ..mu..g/ml) and suboptimal (1 ..mu..g/ml) concentrations of PHA. ED50 values for 6-MP with lymphocytes from subjects who genetically lacked TPMT activity were higher than ED50 values for lymphocytes from subjects with genetically intermediate or high TPMT activity. However, ED50 values decreased as level of stimulation increased. Therefore, the effects of 6-MP were studied at a series of PHA concentrations that ranged from 0.1 ..mu..g/ml to 10 ..mu..g/ml. Lymphocytes from subjects who lacked TPMT activity had significantly higher K/sub ii/ values (1.37 +/- 0.340 ..mu..M; mean +/- SEM) for inhibition of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation by 6-MP than did lymphocytes from subjects with intermediate or high TPMT activity (0.529 +/- 0.068 ..mu..M and 0.327 +/- 0.064 ..mu..M, respectively, P < .05 for both comparisons).

  17. [Cytogenetic effect of cyclophosphamide in a culture of human lymphocytes following its activation in the bodies of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, A N; Telegin, L I; Derzhavets, E M

    1976-01-01

    Cytogenetic effect of cyclophosphamide in cultured human lymphocytes after its activation in C57BL/6 mice in vivo was investigated. Cyclophosphamide was injected intraperitoneally in mice for 30 min. at doses of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg. Blood serum with activated metabolites of cyclophosphamide was added to human lymphocyte culture. The dependence of the part of aberrant metaphases on the concentration of cyclophosphamide after the activation can be presented as equation rho==1-e-(KC+alpha)2 and the total number of breaks as X=e(KC+alpha)2-1, where rho is a part of aberrant metaphases, X is a number of breaks of chromosomes per cell, C is the concentration, K and alpha are coefficients. The part of chromatid breaks from the total number of chromosome damages is constant for all concentrations and the comprises on the average 79,11%. Only the chromatid type of exchanges are observed. Distribution of chromosome breaks in cells corresponds to geometrical, but not to Poisson's distribution. Cyclophosphamide belongs to the group of one-sited mutagens in its cytogenetic chatacteristics. The alkylating activity of cyclophosphamide metabolites, estimated by means of NBP test, increases up to the dose 400 mg/kg and then remains constant for the strain of mice studied, cytogenetic activity increasing. Cyclophosphamide does not produce cytogenetic activity without activation. To test chemical substances for mutagenic activity, it is suggested to activate them in the mouse organism with the following administrating blood serum of these animals with the metabolites of tested (or with primary) substances in the study of their mutagenic activity on human lymphocyte culture.

  18. In vivo synergistic cytogenetic effects of aminophylline on lymphocyte cultures from patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonaki, Effie; Manika, Katerina [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Zarogoulidis, Paul, E-mail: pzarog@hotmail.com [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Domvri, Kalliopi; Voutsas, Vasilis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Mourelatos, Dionysios [Biology and Genetics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► SCEs in vivo, a possible predictor of tumor chemoresponse. ► In vivo exposure to combined treatment, applying the SCE assay. ► Aminophylline enhances DNA instability induced by chemotherapy in vivo. ► In vivo synergistic effect of Aminophylline with the chemotherapeutic agents. - Abstract: Background: The anti-cancer and cytogenetic effects of aminophylline (AM) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo cytogenetic effects of AM in newly diagnosed patients with small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), receiving chemotherapy for the first time. Methods: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from six patients with SCLC and six patients with NSCLC after the in vitro addition of AM and after the in vivo administration of AM in patients receiving chemotherapy. Results: The in vitro addition of AM significantly increased SCEs only in SCLC patients (p < 0.001). The in vivo administration of AM after chemotherapy increased SCEs in both cancer types (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.003) and this increase was synergistic, the rates of SCEs in the presence of AM were higher than the expected SCE values if the increases above background for chemotherapy and AM were independent and additive (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.008). Although in both groups of patients cell division delays were observed after the combined chemotherapy plus in vivo AM treatment, the correlation between the magnitude of the SCE response and the PRI depression was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These observations suggest that AM enhances the results of concurrently administered chemotherapy by synergistically increasing its cytogenetic effects in patients with lung cancer.

  19. Impairment of lymphocyte adhesion to cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piela-Smith, T.H.; Aneiro, L.; Nuveen, E.; Korn, J.H.; Aune, T.

    1992-01-01

    A critical component of immune responsiveness is the localization of effector cells at sites of inflammatory lesions. Adhesive molecules that may play a role in this process have been described on the surfaces of both lymphocytes and connective tissue cells. Adhesive interactions of T lymphocytes with fibroblasts or endothelial cells can be inhibited by preincubation of the fibroblasts or endothelial cells with antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) or by preincubation of the T cells with antibody to lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 (CD11a/CD18), molecules shown to be important in several other cell-cell adhesion interactions. Here the authors show that γ-irradiation of human T lymphocytes impaired their ability to adhere to both fibroblasts and endothelial cells. This impairment was not associated with a loss of cell viability or of cell surface lymphocyte function-associated Ag 1 expression. γ-Irradiation of T cells is known to result in the activation of ADP-ribosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in DNA strand-break repair, causing subsequent depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pools by increasing NAD consumption for poly(ADP-ribose) formation. Preincubation of T cells with either nicotinamide or 3-aminobenzamide, both known inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferase, completely reversed the suppressive effects of γ-irradiation on T cell adhesion. The maintenance of adhesion was accompanied by inhibition of irradiation-induced depletion of cellular NAD. These experiments suggest that the impairment of cellular immune function after irradiation in vivo may be caused, in part, by defective T cell emigration and localization at inflammatory sites. 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocyte cultures of human peripheral blood after the combined effect of γ-radiation and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, V.Yu.; Pyatkin, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    Keeping of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, irradiated in vitro with 60 Co-γ-quanta at a dose of 3 Gy at G 0 phase, with caffeine of 16 and 160 μg/ml during cultivation with PHA had no appreciable influence on the fraquency of sister chromatid exchanges. A minor increase in the number of sister chromatid exchanges was only noted when nonirradiated and irradiated lymphocytes were cultured with 160 μg/ml caffeine

  1. Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-γ and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Kao-Chang; Lu, Wan-Jung; Thomas, Philip-Aloysius; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant carotenoid, plays a major role in modulating the immune response. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of astaxanthin on cytokine production in primary cultured lymphocytes both in vitro and ex vivo. Direct administration of astaxanthin (70–300 nM) did not produce cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/ mL)- or concanavalin A (Con A, 10 µg/ mL)-activated lymphocytes, whereas astaxanthin alone at 300 nM induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes (p < 0.05) in vitro. Although astaxanthin, alone or with Con A, had no apparent effect on interferon (INF-γ) and interleukin (IL-2) production in primary cultured lymphocytes, it enhanced LPS-induced INF-γ production. In an ex vivo experiment, oral administration of astaxanthin (0.28, 1.4 and 7 mg/kg/day) for 14 days did not cause alterations in the body or spleen weights of mice and also was not toxic to lymphocyte cells derived from the mice. Moreover, treatment with astaxanthin significantly increased LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo but not Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation ex vivo. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that administration of astaxanthin significantly enhanced INF-γ production in response to both LPS and Con A stimulation, whereas IL-2 production increased only in response to Con A stimulation. Also, astaxanthin treatment alone significantly increased IL-2 production in lymphocytes derived from mice, but did not significantly change production of INF-γ. These findings suggest that astaxanthin modulates lymphocytic immune responses in vitro, and that it partly exerts its ex vivo immunomodulatory effects by increasing INF-γ and IL-2 production without inducing cytotoxicity. PMID:26729100

  2. Induction and prevention of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to the light of halogen tungsten lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, F; Caimo, A; De Filippi, S; De Flora, S

    1999-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the light emitted by halogen tungsten lamps contains UV radiation in the UV-A, UV-B and UV-C regions, induces mutations and irreparable DNA damage in bacteria, enhances the frequency of micronuclei in cultured human lymphocytes and is potently carcinogenic to the skin of hairless mice. The present study showed that the light emitted by an uncovered, traditional halogen lamp induces a significant, dose-related and time-related increase not only in micronuclei but also in chromosome-type aberrations, such as breaks, and even more in chromatid-type aberrations, such as isochromatid breaks, exchanges and isochromatid/chromatid interchanges, all including gaps or not, in cultured human lymphocytes. All these genotoxic effects were completely prevented by shielding the same lamp with a silica glass cover, blocking UV radiation. A new model of halogen lamp, having the quartz bulb treated in order to reduce the output of UV radiation, was considerably less genotoxic than the uncovered halogen lamp, yet induction of chromosomal alterations was observed at high illuminance levels.

  3. Evaluation of an Immunomodulator Drug as a Radioprotectant on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sattarpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: IMOD™, a selenium enriched extract of the plants Tanacetum vulgare, Urtica dioica, and Rosa canina, has an excellent effect on oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of this immunomodulatory drug on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: Peripheral blood samples obtained from venipuncture of the brachial vein were treated with IMOD™ (5, 10, 15, 20 μl for 30 min and Cobalt 60 γ-rays (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 Gy as the test groups and cultured with the control. We used the micronuclei assay, cell death detection, and cell toxicity assay to analyze the treatment effects. Results: The frequency of micronuclei were 1.66 (0 Gy, 5.33 (0.25 Gy, 9.67 (0.5 Gy, 17.67 (1 Gy, and 23.67 (2 Gy in the irradiated lymphocytes (P<0.001. The percentage of micronuclei frequency reduced to 20%, 26.83%, 37.68%, 16%, and 20.47% with IMOD™. Apoptosis and necrosis decreased significantly in the IMOD™ treated groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: IMOD™ may protect these cells against ionizing radiation.

  4. An alternative approach to studying the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in cultured human lymphocytes: combining electrochemistry and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branica, Gina; Mladinić, Marin; Omanović, Dario; Želježić, Davor

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle use has increased radically raising concern about possible adverse effects in humans. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most common nanomaterials in consumer and medical products. Several studies indicate problems with their safe use. The aim of our study was to see at which levels ZnO NPs start to produce adverse cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as an early attempt toward establishing safety limits for ZnO NP exposure in humans. We assessed the genotoxic effects of low ZnO NP concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μg mL-1) in lymphocyte cultures over 14 days of exposure. We also tested whether low and high-density lymphocytes differed in their ability to accumulate ZnO NPs in these experimental conditions. Primary DNA damage (measured with the alkaline comet assay) increased with nanoparticle concentration in unseparated and high density lymphocytes. The same happened with the fragmentation of TP53 (measured with the comet-FISH). Nanoparticle accumulation was significant only with the two highest concentrations, regardless of lymphocyte density. High-density lymphocytes had significantly more intracellular Zn2+ than light-density ones. Our results suggest that exposure to ZnO NPs in concentrations above 5 μg mL-1 increases cytogenetic damage and intracellular Zn2+ levels in lymphocytes.

  5. Increased susceptibility to in vitro ultraviolet B radiation in fibroblasts and lymphocytes cultured from systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golan, T.D.; Foltyn, V.; Roueff, A.

    1991-01-01

    Sunlight is known to induce exacerbations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but its mechanism remains unclear. We have previously reported that ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure induces an increase in total DNA synthesis (DS) in vitro but a decrease in unscheduled DNA repair synthesis (UDRS) of splenocytes of murine SLE strains. In order to investigate whether similar observations are characteristic of human SLE, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and dermal fibroblast (DF) cultures of 20 patients and 15 matched controls were exposed in vitro to UVA or UVB at different doses. Thirteen (65%) SLE DF cultures exposed to UVB light (12-24 J/m2) showed an increase in DS compared to paired unirradiated cultures. In contrast, UVB-irradiated DF from normal individuals had no significant increase in DS following UVB irradiation. When SLE DF were exposed to higher doses of UVB (48-96 J/m2), 90% of cultures showed a decrease in DS compared to only 20% in the control group. All of the SLE DF cultures showed a decrease of their unscheduled DNA repair capacity following UVB (24-48 J/m2) irradiation whereas no UDRS was apparent in 74% of controls under the same conditions. Similar findings regarding UDRS were observed in SLE PBL cultures and were also confirmed by autoradiography. UVA exposure (0-3840 J/m2) had no effect on DS nor on UDRS in DF or PBL cultured from SLE and controls. The relevance of these in vitro findings to the in vivo pathogenesis of the disease is discussed

  6. Genotoxic, radioprotective and radiosensitizing effect of curcumin and trans-resveratrol in vitro cultures of human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, V.A.; Tirsa Muñoz, B.; Sebastià, N.; Gómez-Cabrero, L.; La Parra, V.; Hervás, D.; Rodrigo, R.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Soriano, J.M.; Montoro, A.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are natural polyphenol compounds. Curcumin is obtained from the rhizomes of the Curcumin plant (Curcuma longa), while trans-resveratrol is found in grapes, blackberries and other types of berry. These compounds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant and anticarcinogenic properties among others. In addition, they are also known for their radiomodulating properties since they are capable of providing radioprotection or radiosensitization for normal or tumours cells depending on different factors. This dual action may be the result of their properties, such as free radicals scavenging, as well as their influence on cell cycle checkpoints or control mechanisms. These are activated in response to the genetic damage induced by radiation. Despite the many beneficial properties attributed to these polyphenol compounds, some studies suggest that they are able to be genotoxic agents for some cellular lines. The results obtained indicate that both compounds possess a radioprotective effect on the lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the quiescent phase of the cellular cycle (G0). Nevertheless, they are capable of induce radiosensitivity on these type of cells in the growth phase (G2), and in addition, a different genotoxic effect can be seen according to the concentration of each compound. This study suggests, therefore, that curcumin and trans-resveratrol are able to exert a triple effect, genotoxic, radioprotective and radiosensitizing on in vitro cultures of human lymphocytes depending on the study parameters. [es

  7. Gene expression and inducibility of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent pathway in cultured bovine blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Perona, Giovanni; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2011-10-10

    The exposure to dioxin-like (DL) compounds, an important class of persistent environmental pollutants, results in the altered expression of target genes. This occurs through the binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the subsequent dimerization with the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), and the binding of the complex to DNA responsive elements. A number of genes are up-regulated, including, among others, the AhR repressor (AHRR) and several biotransformation enzymes, such as the members of CYP1 family and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NOQ1). The expression and the inducibility of the above genes were investigated in mitogen-stimulated cultured blood lymphocytes from cattle, which represent a notable source of DL-compound human exposure through dairy products and meat. As assessed by real-time PCR, all the examined genes except CYP1A2 and NQO1 were detected under basal conditions. Cell exposure to the DL-compounds PCB126 or PCB77 in the 10(-6)-10(-9)M concentration range resulted in a 2-4-fold induction of CYPIA1 and CYP1B1, which was antagonized by α-naphthoflavone or PCB153. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence and inducibility of the AhR pathway in easily accessible cells like bovine peripheral lymphocytes and prompts further investigations to verify whether similar changes could occur under in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimally cultured or selected autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after a lympho-depleting chemotherapy regimen in metastatic melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Michal J; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Treves, Avraham J; Zippel, Dov; Itzhaki, Orit; Schallmach, Ester; Kubi, Adva; Shalmon, Bruria; Hardan, Izhar; Catane, Raphael; Segal, Eran; Markel, Gal; Apter, Sara; Nun, Alon Ben; Kuchuk, Iryna; Shimoni, Avichai; Nagler, Arnon; Schachter, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2), after nonmyeloablative chemotherapy, has been shown to result in tumor regression in half of refractory metastatic melanoma patients. In the present study, we describe 2 separate clinical protocols. Twelve patients were treated with "Selected"-TIL, as previously reported and 8 patients with the modified version of "Young"-TIL. Selected-TIL protocol required the establishment of multiple T-cell cultures from 1 patient and in vitro selection of cultures secreting interferon-gamma upon antigenic stimulation. In contrast, Young-TIL are minimally cultured T cells with superior in vitro features that do not require further selection. Two of 12 Selected-TIL patients experienced objective clinical responses (1 complete response, 1 partial response). Out of 8 treated Young-TIL patients, 1 experienced complete response, 2 partial response, and 4 patients had disease stabilization. Twenty-one of 33 enrolled Selected-TIL patients were excluded from the protocol, mainly as cultures failed the interferon-gamma selection criteria or due to clinical deterioration, compared with only 3 Young-TIL patients. Expected bone marrow suppression and high-dose IL-2 toxicity were transient. There was no treatment-related mortality. This study vindicates the feasibility and effectiveness of TIL technology and calls for further efforts to implement and enhance this modality. The use of minimally cultured, unselected Young-TIL enables the treatment of most enrolled patients. Although the cohort of Young-TIL patients treated so far is rather small and the follow-up short, the response rate is encouraging.

  10. Insulin receptor degradation is accelerated in cultured lymphocytes from patients with genetic syndromes of extreme insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElduff, A.; Hedo, J.A.; Taylor, S.I.; Roth, J.; Gorden, P.

    1984-01-01

    The insulin receptor degradation rate was examined in B lymphocytes that were obtained from peripheral blood of normal subjects and patients with several syndromes of extreme insulin resistance. The insulin receptors were surface labeled using Na 125 I/lactoperoxidase and the cells were returned to incubate in growth media. After varying periods of incubation, aliquots of cells were solubilized and the cell content of labeled receptor subunits were measured by immunoprecipitation with anti-receptor antibodies and NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In cell lines from four patients in whom the number of insulin receptors was reduced by greater than 90%, the rate of receptor loss was greater than normal (t1/2 equals 3.8 +/- 0.9 h vs. 6.5 +/- 1.2 h; mean +/- SD, P less than 0.01). However, a similar acceleration in receptor degradation was seen in cells from five patients with extreme insulin resistance but low-normal insulin receptor concentration (t1/2 equals 4.4 +/- 0.9 h). Thus, all the patients with genetic syndromes of insulin resistance had accelerated receptor degradation, regardless of their receptor concentration. By contrast, insulin receptors on cultured lymphocytes that were obtained from patients with extreme insulin resistance secondary to autoantibodies to the insulin receptor had normal receptor degradation (t1/2 equals 6.1 +/- 1.9 h). We conclude that (a) accelerated insulin receptor degradation is an additional feature of cells from patients with genetic forms of insulin resistance; (b) that accelerated insulin receptor degradation may explain the low-normal receptor concentrations that were seen in some patients with extreme insulin resistance; and (c) that accelerated degradation does not explain the decreased receptor concentration in patients with very low insulin receptor binding and, therefore, by inference, a defect in receptor synthesis must be present in this subgroup

  11. Evaluation of Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet–Lymphocyte Ratio and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width–Platelet Ratio for Diagnosis of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Ilhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether systemic inflammatory markers (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR and red blood cell distribution width (RDW to platelet ratio (RPR can be used as reliable markers for the diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI and to determine if there is a relationship between these markers and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH levels.Materials and methods: Written and electronic medical records were reviewed using searches for diagnoses with the terms of 'premature ovarian failure', 'premature ovarian insufficiency'. Patients younger than the age of 40 were diagnosed to have premature ovarian insufficiency based on their menstrual history and sonographic examination and they were compared with healthy females. Complete blood counts, day-3 hormone profiles, AMH levels of all subjects were analyzed.Results: NLR was statistically higher in POI group compared with controls (p < 0.05. NLR had a positive correlation between FSH (r = 0.23, p = 0.045 and a negative association with AMH (r = - 0.27, p = 0.018. The area under ROC curve for NLR in POI was 0.66, with a threshold value 1.5 and sensitivity = 75.7 % and specificity = 46.0 %.Conclusion: NLR can be a marker for the diagnosis of POI. There is a close relationship between NLR and ovarian reserve markers such as FSH and AMH.

  12. Inhibitory effect of mycoplasma-released arginase. Activity in mixed-lymphocyte and tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Tscherning, T; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1990-01-01

    inhibition can be reversed by addition of excess arginine to the culture medium. Antisera raised against non-fermenting, but not against fermenting, mycoplasma species block the inhibitory effect of MAE. SDS-PAGE separation of MAE disclosed a broad band at 60 kDa which contained arginase activity when...... assayed in MLC and cell proliferation culture. SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting and reaction with antisera raised against non-fermenting mycoplasma species demonstrated a band at 43 kDa common for these micro-organisms....

  13. The dependence of the magnitude of induced adaptive responseon on the dose of pre-irradiation of cultured human lymphocytes under the optimum irradiation time scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mozdarani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Human lymphocytes exposed to low doses of X-rays, become less susceptible to the induction of chromosome aberrations by subsequent exposure to high doses of X-rays. This has been termed the radioadaptive response. One of the most important questions in the adaptive response studies was that of the possible existence of an optimum adapting dose. Early experiments indicated that this response could be induced by low doses of X-rays from 1 cGy to 20 cGy. Recently, it has been interestingly shown that the time scheme of exposure to adapting and challenge doses plays an important role in determination of the magnitude of the induced adaptive response. In this study, using the optimum irradiation time scheme (24-48), we have monitored the cytogenetic endpoint of chromosome aberrations to assess the magnitude of adaptation to ionizing radiation in the cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were pre-exposed to an adapting dose of 1-20 cGy at 24 hours, before an acute challenge dose of 1 or 2 Gy at 48 hours. Cells were fixed at 54 hours. Lymphocytes, which were pretreated with 5 as well as 10 cGy adapting doses, had significantly fewer chromosome aberrations. In spite of the fact that lymphocytes of some of our blood donors which were pre-treated with 1 or 20 cGy adapting doses, showed an adaptive response, the pooled data (all donors) indicated that such an induction of adaptive response can not be observed in these lymphocytes. The overall pattern of the induced adaptive response, indicated that in human lymphocyte (at least under the above mentioned irradiation scheme), 5 cGy and 10 cGy adapting doses are the optimum doses. (author)

  14. Selective inhibition of B lymphocytes in TBTC-treated human bone marrow long-term culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M.; Bowe, G.; Pieters, R.; Gribaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC) is well known for its immunotoxic effect, in particular towards immature thymocytes. TBTC is also known to induce adipocyte differentiation in primary human bone marrow cultures, which is reflected in the decrease in a number of adipocyte-derived cytokines, chemokines and

  15. Live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not an inactivated rabies virus cell culture vaccine, protect B-lymphocyte-deficient A/WySnJ mice against rabies: considerations of recombinant defective poxviruses for rabies immunization of immunocompromised individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, Donald L; Esposito, Joseph J; Ewalt, Larry C

    2004-09-03

    Presently, commercially available cell culture rabies vaccines for humans and animals consist of the five inactivated rabies virus proteins. The vaccines elicit a CD4+ helper T-cell response and a humoral B-cell response against the viral glycoprotein (G) resulting in the production of virus neutralizing antibody. Antibody against the viral nucleoprotein (N) is also present, but the mechanism(s) of its protection is unclear. HIV-infected individuals with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and individuals undergoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs have an impaired neutralizing antibody response after pre- and post-exposure immunization with rabies cell culture vaccines. Here we show the efficacy of live vaccinia-rabies virus recombinants, but not a cell culture vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus, to elicit elevated levels of neutralizing antibody in B-lymphocyte deficient A/WySnJ mice. The cell culture vaccine also failed to protect the mice, whereas a single immunization of a vaccinia recombinant expressing the rabies virus G or co-expressing G and N equally protected the mice up to 18 months after vaccination. The data suggest that recombinant poxviruses expressing the rabies virus G, in particular replication defective poxviruses such as canarypox or MVA vaccinia virus that undergo abortive replication in non-avian cells, or the attenuated vaccinia virus NYVAC, should be evaluated as rabies vaccines in immunocompromised individuals.

  16. Evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by BAC-based microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Lisa D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a highly variable disease with life expectancies ranging from months to decades. Cytogenetic findings play an integral role in defining the prognostic significance and treatment for individual patients. Results We have evaluated 25 clinical cases from a tertiary cancer center that have an established diagnosis of CLL and for which there was prior cytogenetic and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH data. We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based microarray designed for the detection of known constitutional genetic syndromes. In 15 of the 25 cases, aCGH detected all copy number imbalances identified by prior cytogenetic and/or FISH studies. For the majority of those not detected, the aberrations were present at low levels of mosaicism. Furthermore, for 15 of the 25 cases, additional abnormalities were detected. Four of those cases had deletions that mapped to intervals implicated in inherited predisposition to CLL. For most cases, aCGH was able to detect abnormalities present in as few as 10% of cells. Although changes in ploidy are not easily discernable by aCGH, results for two cases illustrate the detection of additional copy gains and losses present within a mosaic tetraploid cell population. Conclusions Our results illustrate the successful evaluation of CLL using a microarray optimized for the interrogation of inherited disorders and the identification of alterations with possible relevance to CLL susceptibility.

  17. Evaluation of early recognition of viral infections in man. [using specific gravity of lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, A. A.; Lawton, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    The potential of Lymphocyte Specific Gravity Distribution (LSGD) as a non-specific procedure for early diagnosis of viral disease in astronauts is considered. Results of experiments and a literature search show that several virus diseases result in distinctive changes in the specific gravity distribution of peripheral blood lymphocytes as a result of disease process and associated immune response. A tentative model is proposed which relates the shape of LSGD to the identity of subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes in a preclinical viral disease situation.

  18. Biodistribution of radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.S.; Kuromoto, N.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that might affect the biodistribution and clinical utility of radiolabeled lymphocytes were evaluated in experimental animals. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, lymph node, or spleen were found in significant amounts in the lymphoid tissues of Lewis rats as early as 3 hours after infusion. A progressive increase in nodal activity with concomitant fall of activity in other organs followed, indicating active recirculation of the lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation of the In-111 labeled lymphocytes resulted in no detectable lymphocyte recirculation and/or reduced localization in lymphoid tissue. Splenectomized animals and those sensitized to an organ allograft before cell infusion showed increased activity in their bone marrow. These results suggest that the source of the injected cells, cell irradiation dose level and host sensitization should be considered when radiolabeled lymphocytes are being prepared for use in clinical diagnosis and therapy

  19. Prognostic evaluation of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chong; Gao, Peng; Yang, Yuchong; Chen, Xiaowan; Wang, Longyi; Yu, Dehao; Song, Yongxi; Xu, Qingzhou; Wang, Zhenning

    2017-10-17

    Growing evidence indicates that inflammation plays an important role in cancer progression and prognosis; however, the prognostic role of platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. A cohort of 1845 CRC patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at The First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO) was retrospectively analyzed. Harrell's concordance index (c-index) was used to determine the optimal cut-off value of PLR and evaluate its predictive ability. Our results from CMU-SO indicated that the overall survival (OS) rate was significantly lower in the high-PLR group compared with the low-PLR group ( P = 0.001). A similar result was observed for the cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate between these two groups ( P = 0.001). The multivariate analysis indicated that high PLR was an independent prognostic indicator of poor OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.356, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.117-1.647, P = 0.002) and CSS (HR = 1.364, 95% CI = 1.111-1.675, P = 0.003). In addition, the c-indexes of TNM staging combined with PLR were greater than those of TNM staging alone (OS: 0.768 vs. 0.732; CSS: 0.785 vs. 0.746). In conclusion, elevated PLR is a negative prognostic indicator of CRC and may serve as an additional index of the current TNM staging system for predicting CRC.

  20. In vitro evaluation of genotoxicity of avocado (Persea americana) fruit and leaf extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Paresh; Paul, Rajkumar; Ganesh, N

    2010-07-01

    Persea americana is much sought after both for the nutritional value of its fruit and the medicinal values of its various plant parts. A chromosomal aberration assay was undertaken to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of crude extracts from avocado fruits and leaves. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes exposed to separately increasing concentrations of 50% methanolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves. The groups exposed to leaf and fruit extracts, respectively, showed a concentration-dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations as compared to that in a control group. The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of leaf extract were found respectively to be 58 ± 7.05, 72 ± 6.41, and 78 ± 5.98, which were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 each) than that in the control group (6 ± 3.39). The mean percentage total aberrant metaphases at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg concentrations of fruit extract were found to be 18 ± 5.49, 40 ± 10.00, and 52 ± 10.20, respectively, which were significantly higher (p = 0.033, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively) than that for control (6 ± 3.39). Acrocentric associations and premature centromeric separation were the two most common abnormalities observed in both the exposed groups. The group exposed to leaf extracts also showed a significant number of a variety of other structural aberrations, including breaks, fragments, dicentrics, terminal deletion, minutes, and Robertsonian translocations. The group exposed to leaf extract showed higher frequency of all types of aberrations at equal concentrations as compared to the group exposed to fruit extract.

  1. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  2. Evaluation of the prognostic value of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchen; Attar, Bashar M; Fuentes, Harry E; Jaiswal, Palashkumar; Tafur, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly common, potentially fatal cancer type globally. Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as a biomarker for systemic inflammation has recently been recognized as a valuable prognostic marker in multiple cancer types. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of PLR in HCC patients and determine the optimal cut-off value for risk stratification. We retrospectively analyzed patients with diagnosis of HCC (screened by ICD-9 code, confirmed with radiographic examination and/or biopsy) at a large public hospital during 15 years (Jan 2000 through July 2015). PLR, among other serology laboratory values were collected at diagnosis of HCC. Its association with overall survival was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard model. Among 270 patients with HCC, 57 (21.1%) patients died within an average follow-up of 11.9 months. PLR at diagnosis was significantly different between survivors and deceased (128.9 vs. 186.7; P=0.003). In multivariate analysis, aspartate transaminase (AST) (HR 2.022, P<0.001) and PLR (HR 1.768, P=0.004) independently predicted mortality. The optimal cut-off value for PLR was determined to be 220 by receiver-operating characteristics curve, and high PLR group had significantly higher mortality (HR 3.42, P<0.001). Our results indicated that elevated PLR at diagnosis above 220 predicted poor prognosis in HCC patients. PLR is a low-cost and convenient tool, which may serve as a useful prognostic marker for HCC.

  3. Proliferative kinetics and chromosome damage in trisomy 21 lymphocyte cultures exposed to gamma-rays and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, K.; Kaneko, T.; Iijima, K.; Koizumi, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocytes from patients with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) have been investigated for cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation delays, and chromosomal aberrations after exposure to gamma-rays or bleomycin. Analysis by sister chromatid differential staining revealed that trisomy 21 lymphocytes started cell cycling about 5 hr earlier than did normal diploid lymphocytes after phytohemagglutinin stimulation as a whole, but that cycling trisomic and normal cells had the same mean cell cycle times. When exposed to gamma-rays or bleomycin in G0, trisomy 21 lymphocytes showed a 30% or, on average, 50% longer duration of cell turnover times, respectively, than normal cells; only bleomycin-treated trisomic cells had a biphasic dose-response. Frequencies of dicentrics and rings in first-division cells after gamma-ray or bleomycin exposure were twice as high in trisomic cells as in normal cells. The frequency of aberrations decreased by 50% (gamma-ray-exposed) or 65 to 85% (bleomycin-treated) through successive divisions; trisomic cells showed a more marked decline in aberration yields compared to normal cells after bleomycin treatment. These data support the idea that circulating lymphocytes in trisomy 21 patients have a shorter average life span or a younger average age

  4. Evaluation of genotoxicity after application of Listerine(R) on human lymphocytes by micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkez, Hasan; Togar, Basak; Arabaci, Taner

    2012-04-01

    Listerine (LN) is one of the most commonly used mouth rinses worldwide although very limited information is available concerning its genotoxicity. In another view, the biological safety profile of oral care products is frequently assumed on the basis of simplistic test models. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vitro genotoxic potential of LN using micronucleus and single cell gel electrophoresis tests as genetic endpoints. Different concentrations of LN (0-100% of ml/culture, v/v) were applied to whole human blood cultures (n = 5). The result of the present study showed that there were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the control group and the groups treated with LN alone in both analysed endpoints. In conclusion, our result first demonstrated the absence of genotoxicity of LN on human lymphocytes.

  5. DNA Damage Induction and Repair Evaluated in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated with X-Rays an Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiedz, W.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    2000-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetic of the DNA damage induction and their subsequent repair in human lymphocytes exposed to various types of radiation. PBLs cells were isolated from the whole blood of two young healthy male subjects and one skin cancer patient, and than exposed to various doses of low LET X-rays and high LET neutrons from 252 Cf source. To evaluate the DNA damage we have applied the single cell get electrophoresis technique (SCGE) also known as the comet assay. In order to estimate the repair efficiency, cells, which had been irradiated with a certain dose, were incubated at 37 o C for various periods of time (0 to 60 min). The kinetic of DNA damage recovery was investigated by an estimation of residual DNA damage persisted at cells after various times of post-irradiation incubation (5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min). We observed an increase of the DNA damage (reported as a Tail DNA and Tail moment parameters) in linear and linear-quadratic manner, with increasing doses of X-rays and 252 Cf neutrons, respectively. Moreover, for skin cancer patient (Code 3) at whole studied dose ranges the higher level of the DNA damage was observed comparing to health subjects (Code 1 and 2), however statistically insignificant (for Tail DNA p=0.056; for Tail moment p=0.065). In case of the efficiency of the DNA damage repair it was observed that after 1 h of post-irradiation incubation the DNA damage induced with both, neutrons and X-rays had been significantly reduced (from 65% to 100 %). Furthermore, in case of skin cancer patient we observed lover repair efficiency of X-rays induced DNA damage. After irradiation with neutrons within first 30 min, the Tail DNA and Tail moment decreased of about 50%. One hour after irradiation, almost 70% of residual and new formed DNA damage was still observed. In this case, the level of unrepaired DNA damage may represent the fraction of the double strand breaks as well as more complex DNA damage (i.e.-DNA or DNA

  6. EVALUATING THE CULTURE-LED REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo Francesca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a new approach to urban planning, evaluating the culture-led regeneration processes. In the last few years, the cultural turn in urban planning played a central role in the urban studies. In this way we try to elaborate a more robust perspective interpreting the complex phenomenology emerging from the culture-led regeneration processes. Within the concept of complexity we discuss about the metabolic process that are the processes necessary to transform energy, material and information in goods and service functional to the complex urban system life. The approach that will be employed is the MuSIASEM that is based on several novel concept and an innovative methods never applied in this research field.

  7. Elimination of radiation-induced chromosome damages in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. 2. The frequency of aberrations in the first-fifth post-irradiation mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatkin, E.K.; Pokrovskaya, V.N.; Nugis, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    The number of chromosome aberrations in 1.-5. mitoses cultivated from lymphocyte PHA of peripheric man blood after gamma irradiation in vitro in 1e5; 3 and 6 Gy has been determined. For all the doses, as the cells passed 1. and successive postradiation divisiops, observed was the decrease in the number of aberrant metaphases and all the aberrations of the chromosomal typee at that their elimination rate increases with the dose increase. No considerable differences in the frequency of pair fragments in 1.-4. mitosis after irradiation in 1,5 Gy dose, in 1.-3. mitoses after irradiation in 3 Gy dose and in 1.-2. mitoses after irradiation in 6 Gy dose were found. In lymphocyte cultures irradiated in 3 and 6 Gy doses the number of dicentries in 2. mitosis was approximately 2 times smaller than in 1. mitosis and in 3. mitosis two times smaller than in 2. mitosis. In 1. mitosis almost all the dicentrics have accompanying pair fragments in 2. and 3. mitoses a share of the dicentrics without fragments constituted about 30-70 %, and in 4.-5. mitoses amounted to 95-100 %. The reduction of the number of irregular chromosomes in the process of cell passing of 1. and successive postradiation mitosis was noted only during lymphocyte investigation irradiated in 6 Gy. At 1,5 and 3 Gy doses these aberration frequency in 1.-5. and 1.-4. mitoses were nearly the same

  8. Safety culture management and quantitative indicator evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discuses a relationship between safety culture and evaluation of quantitative indicators. It shows how a systematic use of generally shared operational safety indicators may contribute to formation and reinforcement of safety culture characteristics in routine plant operation. The report also briefly describes the system of operational safety indicators used at the Dukovany plant. It is a PC database application enabling an effective work with the indicators and providing all users with an efficient tool for making synoptic overviews of indicator values in their links and hierarchical structure. Using color coding, the system allows quick indicator evaluation against predefined limits considering indicator value trends. The system, which has resulted from several-year development, was completely established at the plant during the years 2001 and 2002. (author)

  9. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  10. Detection of clonal aberrations by cytogenetic analysis after different culture methods and by FISH in 129 patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenderny, Jutta; Goldmann, Claudia; Thede, Rebekka; Ebrecht, Monika; Korioth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    There are only a few cytogenetic analysis (CA) studies that directly compare the novel cultivation technique using immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30/interleukin-2 (DSP30/IL2) with other culture methods. Therefore, parallel cultures of peripheral blood of 129 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients were set up in unstimulated cultures, in the presence of pokeweed medium (PWM), and with DSP30/IL2. Furthermore, CA results were compared with data obtained by FISH. Clonal aberrations were observed by CA in 6% of the cases in unstimulated cultures, in 27% of the cases with PWM, and in 40% of the cases with DSP30/IL2. Some clonal aberrations were detected by CA only with one culture method. Using 3 different culture methods, clonal aberrations were detected in 41% of the cases by CA and in 71% of the cases by FISH. Altogether, 78% of the cases exhibited clonal aberrations discovered by CA and FISH. Also, CA detected clonal aberrations not targeted by FISH in 7% of the cases, and FISH identified clonal aberrations not detected by CA in 36% of the cases. Our study demonstrates that the combined use of CA with different culture methods together with FISH increases our knowledge of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity in CLL pathogenesis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Two Globalization Projects on College Students' Cultural Competence and Cultural Intelligence (CQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural competence and CQ involve awareness of cultural similarities and differences, knowledge of differences in cultural values, and intercultural encounters. To assess college students' cultural competence and cultural intelligence gains, this experimental study evaluated the impact of two globalization projects on these two constructs. The…

  12. A mouse model of cytogenetic analysis to evaluate caesium137 radiation dose exposure and contamination level in lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Martin-Bodiot, Cecile; Gregoire, Eric; Roy, Laurence [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique (PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB), Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Desbree, Aurelie [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI, Laboratoire d' Evaluation de la Dose Interne, Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Barquinero, Joan Francesc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique (PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB), Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In case of external overexposure to ionizing radiation, an estimation of its genotoxic effects on exposed individuals can be made retrospectively by the measurement of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations on circulating lymphocytes. Compared with external irradiation, intakes of radionuclides may, however, lead to specific features influencing dose distribution at the scale of body, of tissue or even of cell. Therefore, in case of internal contamination by radionuclides, experimental studies, particularly using animal models, are required to better understand mechanisms of their genotoxic effects and to better estimate the absorbed dose. The present study was designed to evaluate a cytogenetic method in mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes that would allow determination of yields and complexities of chromosome aberrations after low-dose rate exposure to {sup 137}Cs delivered in vitro either by irradiation or by contamination. By using M-FISH analysis, we compared the low-dose rate responses observed in mouse to the high-dose rate responses observed both in mouse and in human. Promising similarities between the two species in the relative biological effect evaluation show that our cytogenetic model established in mouse might be useful to evaluate various radiation exposures, particularly relevant in case of intakes of radionuclides. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of the effects of Ramadan fasting on lymphocyte subpopulations in a two‐year follow‐up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siadat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intractions of the immune system of the immune system, nutrition, and nervous system are one of the main research areas of interest in immunology and disease treatment. Due to changes in the mood, behavior, and diet of an individual during fasting period, the body's internal homeostasis is affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on lymphocyte subgroups, which are the main specific immune cells in the body. For this purpose, in years 1999 and 2000, thirty‐eight healthy Muslims (9 females and 29 males, within the age range of 17 to 51 years (mean age=35.4 years, were assessed before the start and one day before the end of Ramadan. The pre‐Lymphocytic subpopulations analysis was conducted using flow cytometery. The results showed that the percentage of total lymphocytes was 25.82% and 26.23% in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; the observed difference was insignificant. However, the absolute lymphocyte counts were 2.3×103 and 2.1×103 mm3 before and late Ramadan, respectively, and the difference was considered significant (P‐value=0.06. The percentage of CD3+ cells (T cells was 70.12% before Ramadan and 70.25% late Ramadan, and the absolute lymphocyte counts were 1.6×103 and 1.5×103 mm3, respectively; therefore, the differences were not significant. Regarding the subgroups of CD4+cells (TH, the percentage ratios of the cells were 53.46% and 52.8% in the pre‐ and late Ramadan periods, and the absolute counts were 0.087×103 and 0.081×103 mm3, respectively; however, the differences were not significant in this cell subgroup. The percentage of CD8+ (TC cells was 37.7% before Ramadan and 37.8% late Ramadan, and the absolute counts were 0.6×103 and 0.54×103 mm3 in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; therefore, the differences were considered insignificant. In addition, the percentage ratios of Blymphocytes cells were 14.56 % and 14.74% in the pre

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Lymphocyte subpopulations in a Two‐year Follow‐up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siadat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intractions of the immune system of the immune system, nutrition, and nervous system are one of the main research areas of interest in immunology and disease treatment. Due to changes in the mood, behavior, and diet of an individual during fasting period, the body's internal homeostasis is affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on lymphocyte subgroups, which are the main specific immune cells in the body. For this purpose, in years 1999 and 2000, thirty‐eight healthy Muslims (9 females and 29 males, within the age range of 17 to 51 years (mean age=35.4 years, were assessed before the start and one day before the end of Ramadan. The pre‐Lymphocytic subpopulations analysis was conducted using flow cytometery. The results showed that the percentage of total lymphocytes was 25.82% and 26.23% in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; the observed difference was insignificant. However, the absolute lymphocyte counts were 2.3×103 and 2.1×103 mm3 before and late Ramadan, respectively, and the difference was considered significant (P‐value=0.06. The percentage of CD3+ cells (T cells was 70.12% before Ramadan and 70.25% late Ramadan, and the absolute lymphocyte counts were 1.6×103 and 1.5×103 mm3, respectively; therefore, the differences were not significant. Regarding the subgroups of CD4+cells (TH, the percentage ratios of the cells were 53.46% and 52.8% in the pre‐ and late Ramadan periods, and the absolute counts were 0.087×103 and 0.081×103 mm3, respectively; however, the differences were not significant in this cell subgroup. The percentage of CD8+ (TC cells was 37.7% before Ramadan and 37.8% late Ramadan, and the absolute counts were 0.6×103 and 0.54×103 mm3 in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; therefore, the differences were considered insignificant. In addition, the percentage ratios of Blymphocytes cells were 14.56 % and 14.74% in the pre

  15. PERSPECTIVE OF IN VITRO LYMPHOCYTES ANTIGENICITY EVALUATION FOR THE DIAGNOSTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kostyuchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brucellosis remains to one of the most urgent dangerous infections in regions with developed livestock production. An exclusive polymorphism of symptoms, variety of forms of a disease, small informational content of results of routine laboratory all-clinical inspection, quite often leads to diagnostic mistakes at a pre-hospital stage. Improvement of a complex of laboratory diagnosis of a brucellous infection demands development of the modern padding methods of verification based on cell-like factors of immunity as leaders in an immunogenesis and a pathogenesis of a brucellosis. Considering the leading role of cell-like immunity in formation of protection against the majority of bacteriemic especially dangerous infections, studying of cell-like reaction in response to antigenic stimulation, it is necessary to consider the most informative (marker and objective at assessment of immunologic reorganization of an organism at a disease or vaccination. The following markers (receptors of activation of lymphocytes can act as perspective indexes of a specific cell-like antigenreactivity: CD25 — a high-affine receptor of interleukin 2 (IL-2Ra, a marker of early activation of Tlymphocytes; HLA-DR — an antigen of the main complex of a histocompatibility of a class II, an expression of a marker is associated not only with late, but also long-lived activation of lymphocytes; CD95 (Fas, APO-1 — a receptor of an induction of an apoptosis (“cell death”, a marker of “late” activation (CD4+ lymphocytes is presented mainly and Fas L (CD178 — a receptor of an induction of an apoptosis, expresses generally on CD8+ cages. The work purpose — to estimate an opportunity and prospects of use of technology of a flowing cytofluorometry and the in vitro cell tests for diagnosis of a acute brucellosis. 35 people with the diagnosis “Acute brucellosis” and 12 people — not the patients who did not have a brucellosis, are not vaccinated

  16. Evaluation of the nuclear security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The security culture of an organization resides in its workers and it is expressed by the way the personnel that works in a particular organization practice daily its activities. The security culture can be practice in a high or in a low level, but it always exists and it can always be improved. It is based on the security condition and procedures that have been established in the planning phase and in the implementation of a project. After its implantation, in order to avoid deterioration, basically it is necessary to maintain and to bring updated those conditions and procedures through strategies of follow up and control. This process establishes the basis of a program of maintenance and improvement of the Security Culture. Many self-evaluations that have been accomplished at nuclear organizations based on workers perception concerning working conditions and management environment, have permitted objectively determine if the security doctrine, which the organization assure to follow rigorously into its dally activities, is really so (LS)

  17. Active caspase-3 detection to evaluate apoptosis induced by Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Verbena officinalis L., Verbenaceae, commonly known as vervain, is a plant widely used in medicine. Despite of its widespread use in different traditional practices, the mechanisms of pharmacological actions of the plant and its volatile oil are still unclear. We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of V. officinalis essential oil and of its main component, citral, on lymphocytes collected from ten patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, a disease in which a faulty apoptotic mechanism is still retained one of the primary pathogenic events, by adding to treated mononuclear cells, annexin-V, propidium iodide, and CD19. Apoptosis was also evaluated using anti-active-caspase-3 monoclonal antibody after permeabilization of the cells. Both V. officinalis essential oil and citral were found able to induce apoptosis in CLL cells and to activate caspase-3, which is considered the way by means they active apoptosis in B neoplastic cells. This data further support evidences that indicate natural compounds as possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents for CLL.

  18. Active caspase-3 detection to evaluate apoptosis induced by Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Verbena officinalis L., Verbenaceae, commonly known as vervain, is a plant widely used in medicine. Despite of its widespread use in different traditional practices, the mechanisms of pharmacological actions of the plant and its volatile oil are still unclear. We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of V. officinalis essential oil and of its main component, citral, on lymphocytes collected from ten patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, a disease in which a faulty apoptotic mechanism is still retained one of the primary pathogenic events, by adding to treated mononuclear cells, annexin-V, propidium iodide, and CD19. Apoptosis was also evaluated using anti-active-caspase-3 monoclonal antibody after permeabilization of the cells. Both V. officinalis essential oil and citral were found able to induce apoptosis in CLL cells and to activate caspase-3, which is considered the way by means they active apoptosis in B neoplastic cells. This data further support evidences that indicate natural compounds as possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents for CLL.

  19. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Nuclear safety culture evaluation model based on SSE-CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Peng Guojian

    2012-01-01

    Safety culture, which is of great significance to establish safety objectives, characterizes level of enterprise safety production and development. Traditional safety culture evaluation models emphasis on thinking and behavior of individual and organization, and pay attention to evaluation results while ignore process. Moreover, determining evaluation indicators lacks objective evidence. A novel multidimensional safety culture evaluation model, which has scientific and completeness, is addressed by building an preliminary mapping between safety culture and SSE-CMM's (Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model) process area and generic practice. The model focuses on enterprise system security engineering process evaluation and provides new ideas and scientific evidences for the study of safety culture. (authors)

  1. Inhibitory effects of telmisartan on culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. Methods: CD4+ T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-17 in the blood of the healthy control and case control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes were first activated and proliferated in vitro and then incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h under various treatment conditions. Thereafter, changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytic proliferation were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscope photography. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. Results: The IL-6 and IL-17 expression levels were significantly higher in the blood of the hypertensive Kazakh patients than in the healthy Kazakh people. Telmisartan inhibited T-lymphocytic proliferation, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and the inhibitory effects were time-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed after 48 h and significantly weaker inhibition observed after 24 h of treatment. Conclusions: Telmisartan may potentially regulate hypertensive inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-lymphocytic proliferation and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  2. Evaluation of platelet lymphocyte ratio and 90-day mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praneel; Law, Stephanie; Sriram, Krishna B

    2017-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have high mortality and health care costs. The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a marker of inflammation and has been reported to be elevated in patients with AECOPD compared to stable state. In this study, we sought to evaluate the association of the PLR in patients with AECOPD with 90-day mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our institution with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD between January 2014 and July 2014. Blood test results on admission were recorded. The primary outcomes were 90-day mortality. One hundred and eighty-one AECOPD patients were considered for the study. Death had occurred in 16 (9%) patients within 90 days of hospital discharge. Univariable analysis identified age, haemoglobin, neutrophil count, and urea level, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and PLR as being associated with increased 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis variables demonstrated that only PLR (P=0.03) was significantly associated with death at 90 days. Receiver operator characteristic analysis identified PLR ≥235 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 74% in predicting 90-day mortality. PLR was ≥235 was also associated with worse survival (days) [mean ± standard deviation (SD): PLR ≥235 vs. PLR <235: 512±358 vs. 626±346, P=0.004]. A PLR ≥235 was significantly associated with 90-day mortality, which may provide prognostic guidance to clinicians.

  3. Evaluation of blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width as inflammatory markers in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktürk, Semra; Büyükavcı, Raikan

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by chronic widespread pain and systemic symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are not yet fully understood. Blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammatory response. Platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are the determinants of platelet activation and studied as markers in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate levels of NLR,PDW and MPV in patients with fibromyalgia. A total of 197 FMS patients and 53 healthy controls are included in the study. Demographic characteristics, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume levels were recorded. In the patient group, the blood NLR and MPV were significantly higher and the PDW was significantly lower compared to the control group. In the roc curve analysis, blood PDW ≥had 90.4% sensitivity and 90% specificity in predicting fibromyalgia. The results of this study suggest NLR and PDW as promising inflammatory markers indicating fibromyalgia and may be beneficial in facilitating the diagnosis of FMS patients.

  4. Evaluation of T-lymphocyte populations in humans exposed to action of beryllium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakova, N G

    1977-10-01

    Earlier studies in vitro on beryllosis and cellular immunity, and knowledge of the role of T-cells in development of cellular immunity suggested usefulness of a quantitative determination of T-cell populations in beryllosis. Assay was based on the test for spontaneous rosette formation in beryllosis patients and in healthy workers who come in contact with Be compounds (Jondal, modified by M. A. Stenina) and on the leucocyte migration inhibition reaction (Soborg and Bendixen). A large range of changes were revealed in population size and in adhesion qualities of T-lymphocytes in the patients and in those exposed to Be. The test for spontaneous rosette formation was found to be sufficiently indicative for use in study of beryllosis pathogenesis and to correlate with the state of activity of the disease.

  5. Effect on canine lymphocyte function of 144Ce inhaled in fused clay particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Ferris, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to 144 Ce in fused clay particles develop a persistent lymphopenia and the remaining peripheral lymphocytes in these dogs show a depressed in vitro response to plant mitogens. These studies were designed to evaluate the cellular basis for this defect. The survival and growth of lymphocytes from irradiated and control dogs were evaluated through 96 hours of culture. Many irradiated lymphocytes that were viable in vivo died within 24 hours in vitro. The remaining lymphocytes appeared to grow normally indicating that the early in vitro death was responsible for at least a portion of the difference between irradiated and control lymphocyte cultures. A second experiment was designed to determine if any humoral factors in plasma of irradiated dogs were responsible for the poor response of the lymphocytes. Lymphocytes from irradiated and control dogs were grown with plasma from both types of animals. Heterologous plasma had no apparent effect on lymphocyte growth, indicating that humoral factors were not involved. (U.S.)

  6. Evaluation of hemocomponents irradiators in the Banco de Sangre of the Hospital Mexico by means of rate determination of the hemolysis and of the proliferation lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros Barrantes, S.; Rodriguez Amador, F.

    2003-01-01

    The graft disease versus inn-keeper associated to transfusion (EIVH AT) happens with the transfusion of viable lymphocytes to a allogeneic recipient, which is unable to produce an immune effective response against the graft. The irradiation range of the hemocomponents, to dose of 2500 cGy, eliminates the proliferative capacity of the lymphocyte. In Costa Rica, the irradiated transfusional component has been assumed as an assurance for the patient, though the process unactivation lymphocyte by irradiation has never been evaluated. This research tries to evaluate the efficiency of the process of irradiation of hemocomponents of the Banco de Sangre del Hospital Mexico, with preventive purposes of EIVH AT, and also, to determine if this process alters in an immediate way the erythrocyte component. (Author) [es

  7. Antigenotoxic Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against Parathion Induced DNA Damage in Cultured Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Its Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of organophosphorus pesticides has been extensively increased and these compounds signify a major class of agricultural pesticides today. We studied antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol against the parathion induced DNA damage in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes using sister chromatid exchanges as a biomarker of genotoxicity. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with 2.5 μg/mL concentration of parathion in presence of curcumin and carvacrol in order to observe the antigenotoxic potential of both curcumin and carvacrol. Significant reduction (P0.05 of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of parathion and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol.

  8. T-cell activation. VI. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Röpke, C; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1993-01-01

    Murine T splenocytes stimulated in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were incubated with soluble anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies induced inhibition in the cytotoxicity of the responding population and this inhibition...... was not dependent on the domain on class I molecules recognized by the antibodies. Cross-reactivity of the antibodies between the responder and stimulating cell population caused a marked reduction in the inhibitory effect compared to systems where no such cross-reactivity was present. Saturating levels...... of the antibodies caused a reduction in generation of T-cell cytotoxicity, whereas low concentrations stimulated the same response. These results demonstrate that the MHC class I molecules of T cells are of significant importance in antigen-induced signal transduction....

  9. Avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill) exhibits chemo-protective potentiality against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajkumar; Kulkarni, Paresh; Ganesh, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with reduced risks for many types of cancers. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a widely consumed fruit containing many cancer preventing nutrients, vitamins and phytochemicals. Studies have shown that phytochemicals extracted from the avocado fruit selectively induce cell cycle arrest, inhibit growth, and induce apoptosis in precancerous and cancer cell lines. Our recent studies indicate that phytochemicals extracted with 50% Methanol from avocado fruits help in proliferation of human lymphocyte cells and decrease chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide. Among three concentrations (100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg per Kg Body Weight), the most effective conc. of extract was 200 mg/Kg Body Wt. It decreased significant level of numerical and structural aberrations (breaks, premature centromeric division etc. up to 88%, p avocado fruit can be utilized for making active chemoprotective ingredient for lowering the side effect of chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide in cancer therapy.

  10. Economic evaluation of therapeutic sequences in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and coexisting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cuneo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic evaluation of therapeutic sequences in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and coexisting conditionsIntroductionChronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a chronic lymphoproliferative syndrome and it is the most common hematological malignancy in Western countries. It has a tendency to develop subsequent relapses, so affected patients are likely to undergo more than one line of treatment.MethodsRather than evaluating the cost-effectiveness of individual therapeutic agents, it becomes therefore recommendable for decision-makers to identify an optimal sequencing of such agents. A four-year cost-consequence analysis was conducted, comparing three alternative strategies for the first-line treatment of patients with previously untreated CLL and coexisting conditions: i obinutuzumab with chlorambucil (Obi-Clb, ii rituximab with chlorambucil (Rtx-Clb, and iii ofatumumab with chlorambucil (Ofa-Clb. Only drug costs were considered in the analysis.ResultsIn two trials, median time to next treatment (TTNT was longer in Obi-Clb (51.1 months as compared to Rtx-Clb (38.2 months or to Ofa-Clb (39.8 months. Therefore, during a 48-month time horizon, patients treated with Obi-Clb would maintain on average the first line treatment; on the contrary, patients treated with Rtx-Clb or with Ofa-Clb would receive on average a second line treatment consisting in the majority of cases of ibrutinib monotherapy, or rituximab with idelalisib or rituximab with bendamustine. The sequence using Obi-Clb regimen in first line showed the lower mean cost of treatment: €22,958 over the 48-month time horizon. Sensitivity analyses on a couple of scenarios provided similar conclusions in terms of overall costs.ConclusionObi-Clb as first-line treatment appears a recommendable strategy in terms of drug costs in the treatment of patients with previously untreated CLL and coexisting conditions.

  11. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E

    2000-01-01

    -associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...

  12. Short-term effects of regional irradiation on lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazarin, C.; Roche, H.; Bugat, R.; Pris, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer patients treated only by regional irradiation were studied. Radiotherapy was delivered to the pelvis in 14 patients and to the mediastinum in 9. T lymphocytes were evaluated with the Jondal technique. Before treatment, lymphocyte counts were identical in patients and control. Decreases in total lymphocytes and T lymphocytes became significant in both groups after 40 Gy. Significant rises in eosinophil counts were found only after abdominal irradiation and seemed unrelated to variations in lymphocyte counts [fr

  13. Cross-Informant Evaluations of Preschoolers' Adjustment in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and agreed upon evaluation of preschoolers' behavior is crucial for young children's positive development. This study explores possible cultural differences in cross-informants' evaluations. The premise is that informants who are from different cultures tend to give different evaluations of preschoolers' adjustment and/or that the…

  14. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each

  15. The Use of Culture Portfolio Project in a Korean Culture Classroom: Evaluating Stereotypes and Enhancing Cross-Cultural Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a case of designing, implementing, and evaluating a semester-long culture portfolio project in a Korean culture class in an American university setting. The paper addresses the following four issues: (1) How does the project help the students gain insights into a particular aspect of Korean culture and encourage them to…

  16. Evaluation of four methods for separation of lymphocytes from normal individuals and patients with cancer and tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, C C; Graber, C D; Loadholt, C B

    1976-01-01

    An optimal technique was sought for lymphocyte recovery from normal and chronic diseased individuals. Lymphocytes were separated by four techniques: Plasmagel, Ficoll--Hypaque, a commercial semiautomatic method, and simple centrifugation using blood drawn from ten normal individuals, ten cancer patients, and ten tuberculosis patients. The lymphocyte mixture obtained after using each method was analyzed for percent recovery, amount if contamination by erythrocytes and neutrophils, and percent viability. The results show that the semiautomatic method yielded the best percent recovery of lymphocytes for normal individuals, while the simple centrifugation method contributed the highest percent recovery for cancer and tuberculosis patients. The Ficoll-Hypaque method gave the lowest erythrocyte contamination for all three types of individuals tested, while the Plasmagel method gave the lowest neutrophil contamination for all three types of individuals. The simple centrifugation method yielded all viable lymphocytes and thus gave the highest percent viability.

  17. T-lymphocyte dependency of B-lymphocyte blastogenic response to phytomitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Dadey, B.

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes were separated by a method based on the stable rosette formation of T lymphocytes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes, followed by centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Monocytes were isolated from the T-depleted B lymphocyte preparation by allowing the monocytes to ingest iron particles and by subsequent centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. The T lymphocytes responded extremely well to PHA and very well to PWM, while the B lymphocytes were unresponsive to either PHA or PWM. However, when the B lymphocytes were cultured together with irradiated autologous or allogeneic T lymphocytes (1 : 1,1:2 or 1 : 4 ratio), both PHA and PWM became mitogenic to B lymphocytes. Irradiated T lymphocytes alone did not respond to either PHA or PWM, indicating that the 3 H-thymidine incorporation seen in the mixed-cell culture was due to the activation of unirradiated B lymphocytes. The B lymphocytes failed to respond to these phytomitogens in the presence of lower concentrations of irradiated T lymphocytes. The monocytes were found to be incapable of helping the B lymphocytes to respond to PHA or PWM. (author)

  18. A new assay for cytotoxic lymphocytes, based on a radioautographic readout of 111In release, suitable for rapid, semi-automated assessment of limit-dilution cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortman, K.; Wilson, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new assay for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is described, of general application, but particularly suitable for rapid, semi-automated assessment of multiple microculture tests. Target cells are labelled with high efficiency and to high specific activity with the oxine chelate of 111 indium. After a 3-4 h incubation of test cells with 5 X 10 3 labelled target cells in V wells of microtitre trays, samples of the supernatant are spotted on paper (5 μl) or transferred to soft-plastic U wells (25-50 μl) and the 111 In release assessed by radioautography. Overnight exposure of X-ray film with intensifying screens at -70 0 C gives an image which is an intense dark spot for maximum release, a barely visible darkening with the low spontaneous release, and a definite positive with 10% specific lysis. The degree of film darkening, which can be quantitated by microdensitometry, shows a linear relationship with cytotoxic T lymphocyte dose up to the 40% lysis level. The labelling intensity and sensitivity can be adjusted over a wide range, allowing a single batch of the short half-life isotope to serve for 2 weeks. The 96 assays from a single tray are developed simultaneously on a single small sheet of film. Many trays can be processed together, and handling is rapid if 96-channel automatic pipettors are used. The method allows rapid visual scanning for positive and negative limit dilution cultures in cytotoxic T cell precursor frequency and specificity studies. In addition, in conjunction with an automated densitometer designed to scan microtitre trays, the method provides an efficient alternative to isotope counting in routine cytotoxic assays. (Auth.)

  19. As to the clastogenic-, sister-chromatid exchange inducing-and cytotoxic activity of inosine triphosphate in cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormittag, W; Brannath, W

    2001-05-09

    The influence of commercial inosine triphosphate (ITP) on the chromosome aberration rate, the mitotic rate, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency, and the proportion of first (X1), second (X2) and third (X3) division metaphases was investigated in 72h cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. The blood donors had mild inactive arthrosis and a normal health check-up. All cultures of each volunteer were set-up simultaneously. In contrast to a previous report [Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 278 (1990) 238-244], it was demonstrated in two preliminary studies (number of subjects, n=5 each) that ITP at a final concentration of 100 microM does not induce chromosomal aberrations and, furthermore, that not ITP concentrations higher than 100 microM but ITP doses higher than 3.8mM prohibit culture growth. Based on these results, cultures with a final ITP concentration of 3.6mM (max.) and 1.8mM (max./2) were compared with control cultures (number of subjects n=10; three males and seven females, mean age x=57.6 years). Whereas no increase in the chromosomal breakage rate was observed in cultures with an ITP concentration of 1.8mM and only a marginally significant one (P=0.048) for 3.6mM ITP cultures, a highly significant induction of SCEs, not only at an ITP concentration of 3.6mM (Prate from 0 to 1.8mM as well as from 1.8 to 3.6mM in the aberration studies (all P values are equal to smallest possible one for a sample size of 10, namely, 0.002), and in the SCE studies there is a significant decrease in the X3 frequency when ITP is increased (0-1.8mM: P=0.0061 and 1.8-3.6mM: Pchanges significantly only at the second dose step (0-1.8mM ITP: P=0.22 and 1.8-3.6mM ITP: P<0.0001). The results are discussed.

  20. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP

  1. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP.

  2. DNA repair in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1984-01-01

    Damage an repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks were measured by alkaline lysis and hydroxyapatite chromatography. PHA stimulated human lymphocytes show that the rejoining process is complete within the first 50 min., afterwords secondary DNA damage and chromatid aberration. DNA repair, in synchronized culture, allows to evaluate individual repair capacity and this in turn can contribute to the discovery of individual who, although they do not demonstrate apparent clinical signs, are carriers of DNA repair deficiency. Being evident that a correlation exists between DNA repair capacity and carcinogenesis, the possibility of evaluating the existent relationship between DNA repair and survival in tumor cells comes therefore into discussion

  3. Evaluation of organisational culture and nurse burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jenny; Robertson, Noelle; Winter, Rachel; Leeson, David

    2013-10-01

    A survey of nurses working with older adults across three NHS trusts was conducted to explore how perceptions of the workplace affect nurse wellbeing. Standardised validated measures were used to assess burnout, perceived organisational support and organisational culture. Significant associations were found between innovative organisational culture and nurses' sense of personal accomplishment, which reduce the likelihood of burnout. Multiple regression showed experience of burnout to be predicted by the nature of organisational culture. It seems therefore that nurses' wellbeing may be affected by their perceptions of the working environment. Applications of this knowledge and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in actinic keratosis, in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravodimou, Aristea; Tzelepi, Vassiliki; Papadaki, Helen; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Georgiou, Sophia; Melachrinou, Maria; Kourea, Eleni P

    2018-05-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represent important regulators of carcinogenesis. Cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinoma (inSCC) develops through precursor lesions, namely in situ squamous cell carcinoma (isSCC) and actinic keratosis (AK), representing a natural model of carcinogenesis. The study evaluates TIL subpopulations in inSCC and its precursors by comparing 2 semiquantitative scoring systems, and assesses the presence of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in these lesions. Paraffin sections from 33 cases of AK, 19 isSCCs and 34 inSCCs with adjacent precursor lesions or normal skin (NS) were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8 and Foxp3. TIL subgroups were evaluated by the semiquantitative Klintrup-Mäkinen (K-M) score, and by a more detailed modification of this system. Treg counts were assessed by image analysis quantification. An increase of all TIL subpolulations from precursor lesions toward inSCC was shown by both scoring systems. Treg counts progressively increased from NS to AK and isSCC, but decreased in inSCC. Tregs were more numerous in pT2 and around indolent inSCCs compared to T1 and aggressive subtypes. T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells progressively increase in cutaneous squamous cell carcinogenesis, while Treg counts diminish in inSCC. The K-M score is an appropriate, easily applicable TIL scoring system in cutaneous inSCC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Guide for understanding and evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report was the guide of understanding and evaluation of safety culture. Operator's activities for enhancement of safety culture in nuclear installations became an object of safety regulation in the management system. Evaluation of operator's activities (including top management's involvement) to prevent degradation of safety culture and organization climate in daily works needed understanding of safety culture and diversity of operator's activities. This guide was prepared to check indications of degradation of safety culture and organization climate in operator's activities in daily works and encourage operator's activities to enhance safety culture improvement and good practice. Comprehensive evaluation of operator's activities to prevent degradation of safety culture and organization climate would be performed from the standpoints of 14 safety culture elements such as top management commitment, clear plan and implementation of upper manager, measures to avoid wrong decision making, questioning attitude, reporting culture, good communications, accountability and openness, compliance, learning system, activities to prevent accidents or incidents beforehand, self-assessment or third party evaluation, work management, change management and attitudes/motivation. Element-wise examples and targets for evaluation were attached with evaluation check tables. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  7. Evaluation of Safety Culture Implementation and Socialization Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of safety culture implementation and socialization results has been perform. Evaluation is carried out with specifying safety culture indicators, namely: Meeting between management and employee, system for incidents analysis, training activities related to improving safety, meeting with regulator, contractors, surveys on behavioural attitudes, and resources allocated to promote safety culture. Evaluation is based on observation and visiting the facilities to show the compliance indicator in term of good practices in the frame of safety culture implementation. For three facilities of research reactors, Kartini Yogyakarta, TRIGA Mark II Bandung and MPR-GAS Serpong, implementation of safety culture is considered good enough and progressive. Furthermore some indicator should be considered more intensive, for example the allocated resources, self assesment based on own questionnaire in the frame of improving the safety culture implementation. (author)

  8. Effects of inhibitors of DNA repair on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by x-rays or alkylating agents in cultured human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlman, B.A.; Andersson, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the first part of this presentation the authors give examples of the synergistic enhancements that are obtained with various inhibitor combinations in G/sub 2/. The second part of the presentation deals with the effects of two agents, also well known for their capacity to potentiate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by physical and chemical agents, but with a different mechanism of action. These agents are caffeine and 3-aminobenzamide (3AB). Caffeine has for decades been used as an inhibitor of DNA repair although its mechanism of action has not been fully understood. 3AB has more recently come into focus as an efficient inhibitor of the synthesis of poly-(ADP-ribose), a substance believed to be of importance in connection with the repair of certain types of DNA damage. The results presented do not quite fit in with the general idea about the mode of action of these agents. All experiments were carried out with whole-blood cultures of human lymphocytes. When inhibitors were used as post-treatments, chromosomal aberrations were induced by X-rays or by the alkylating agents thiotepa (TT) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). X-rays were generated by a Siemens Stabilipan 200 apparatus, at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min. The tube (TR 200f) was operated at 180 kV, 10 mA and the radiation filtered through 4 mm Al

  9. T-cell receptor v-alpha and v-Beta gene usage in interleukin-2-cultured tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E; Scholler, J; Straten, P

    1994-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are often found in malignant breast tumors, and have been claimed to be of prognostic value. It has been proposed that TIL may represent an enriched population of tumor-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes, reacting with antigenic determinants on the tumor cell...

  10. Building evaluative culture in community services: Caring for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, John

    2017-05-25

    An organization with a strong evaluative culture engages in self-reflection, evidence-based learning and experimentation. It sees evidence as essential for managing well, but building such a culture is challenging. Community service organizations seek to provide effective services for their clients. To build an evaluative culture, they need to acquire basic monitoring and evaluation capabilities, be provided with opportunities for using these capabilities and be adequately motivated to care about evidence as a means to improve services to their clients. Leadership along with a phased in approach are key in bringing about these behaviour changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Immunoregulatory effects of human dental pulp-derived stem cells on T cells: comparison of transwell co-culture and mixed lymphocyte reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Pinar Cetinalp; Sariboyaci, Ayla Eker; Unal, Zehra Seda; Gacar, Gulcin; Subasi, Cansu; Karaoz, Erdal

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS. Studies performed using human and animal models have indicated the immunoregulatory capability of mesenchymal stromal cells in several lineages. We investigated whether human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDP-SC) have regulatory effects on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated CD3(+) T cells. We aimed to define the regulatory mechanisms associated with hDP-SC that occur in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and transwell systems with PHA-CD3(+) T cells and hDP-SC at a ratio of 1:1. METHODS. Proliferation, apoptosis and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of PHA-CD3(+)T cells, the expression of Regulatory T cells (Treg) markers and some regulatory factors related to hDP-SC, were studied in Both transwell and MLR are co-cultures systems. RESULTS. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of hDP-SC were determined in co-culture systems. Elevated expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-β1, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hDP-SC were detected in the co-culture systems. We observed decreased expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-6 receptor (R), IL-12, Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and increased expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine [inducible protein (IP)-10] from PHA-CD3(+) T cells in the transwell system. Expression of Treg (CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) markers was significantly induced by hDP-SC in both co-culture systems. We observed apoptosis of PHA-CD3(+) T cells with 24 h using time-lapse camera photographs and active caspase labeling; it is likely that paracrine soluble factors and molecular signals secreted by hDP-SC led this apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS. We suggest that hDP-SC have potent immunoregulatory functions because of their soluble factors and cytokines via paracrine

  12. Deepening om Safety culture Auto evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Churruca, I.; Buedo Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of safety culture used in nuclear forums refers to the series of actions aimed at guaranteeing that safety issues in nuclear power plants are adequately addressed. The activities to which this concept refers have been gradually extended over the years so that, today, they encompass the whole organizations structure. In other words, the safety culture implies that all positions in the organizational structure perform their tasks with a level of attention such that all their senses are focused on them. And this performance is what leads us to excellence in plant operation. In addition, the implementation of a self-assessment system in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant of its activities and processes has resulted in the identification of expectations on the basis of which we can identify strengths and weaknesses, enabling us to leverage the former and correct the latter. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed In Vitro to Neonicotinoid Insecticides News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Calderón-Segura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calypso (thiacloprid, Poncho (clothianidin, Gaucho (imidacloprid, and Jade (imidacloprid are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated using two genotoxicity parameters: tail length and comet frequency. Exposure to 9.5×10-6 to 5.7×10-5 M Jade; 2.8×10-4 to 1.7×10-3 M Gaucho; 0.6×10-1 to 1.4×10-1 M Calypso; 1.2×10-1 to 9.5×10-1 M Poncho for 2 h induced a significant increase DNA damage with a concentration-dependent relationship. Jade was the most genotoxic of the four insecticides studied. Cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to 18×10-3 M Jade, 2.0×10-3 M Gaucho, 2.0×10-1 M Calypso, 1.07 M Poncho, and cell death occurred at 30×10-3 M Jade, 3.3×10-3 M Gaucho, 2.8×10-1 M Calypso, and 1.42 M Poncho. This study provides the first report of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in PBL following in vitro exposure to commercial neonicotinoid insecticides.

  14. [Evaluation of percentage of lymphocytes B with expression of co-receptors CD 40, CD22 and CD72 in hypertrophied adenoid at children with otitis media with effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Jolanta; Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Ratomski, Karol; Skotnicka, Bozena; Hassmann-Poznańska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    In hypertrophied adenoid lymphocytes B make up about 60% all lymphocytes. When the lymphocytes B come in interaction with antigens this membranes signal be passed through their receptor (BCR) to interior of cell. This signal affect modulation on gene expression, activation from which depends activation, anergy or apoptosis of lymphocyte B. Accompany BCR co-receptors regulate his functions influence stimulate or inhibitive. To the most important co-receptors stepping out on lymphocyte B belong: CD40, CD22, CD72. The aim of study was evaluation of lymphocytes B (CD19) with co-expression with CD72 and CD40 receptors in hypertrophied adenoid with at children with otitis media with effusion. An investigation was executed in hypertrophied adenoids with or without otitis media with effusion. By flow cytometry percentage of lymphocytes B with co-receptors CD 40, CD22 and CD72 in was analyzed. The percentages of CD19+CD72+ lymphocytes in the group of children with adenoid hypertrophy and exudative otitis media were lower as compared to the reference group. However, the percentages of CD19+CD22+, CD19+CD40+ in the study group was approximate to the reference group. The lower percentage of lymphocytes B CD72 + near approximate percentages of lymphocytes B CD40+ and BCD22+ at children with otitis media with effusion can be the cause of incorrect humoral response in hypertrophied adenoid at children. Maybe it is cause reduced spontaneous production IgA and IgG through lymphocyte at children with otitis media with effusion.

  15. Evaluation of spontaneous and radiation-induced micronucleus frequency in cultrued human peripheral blood lymphocytes depending on age and sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H. J.; Kang, C. M.; Chung, H. C. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this study was to provide data on the dose-dependent production of micronucleus (MN) in human lymphocytes irradiated with {sub 60} Co {gamma} -rays and 50MeV neutron, and to evaluate predictive markers of intrinsic radiosensitivity in individuals for monitoring occupational or environmental radiation exposure. For the dose-response study, heparinized whole blood of 10 healthy volunteers was irradiated with {sub 60} Co {gamma} -rays employing of 0.25-8Gy. The MNs were observed all doses, and the numerical changes according to doses. In dose-response curves fit linear- quadratic form (alpha =0.31{+-}0.049, beta =0.0022{+-}0.0022) for {gamma} -rays, but (alpha =0.99{+-}0.528, beta =0.0093{+-}0.0047) for neutron. Neutrons were than {gamma} -rays effective in producing MN with dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN varies with dose. The RBE for micronuclei was 2.37{+-}0.17. Further studied are carried out to provide evidence for the existence of individual variations in age-dependent responses to radiation. Spontaneous and radiation-induced MN varies greatly between individuals, and little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this variability. It was shown that the increased level of spontaneous cell with MN was observed with increasing age. The relationship between radiosensitivity and the increased spontaneous level of MN may be in inverse proportion. These studies indicates that the MN assay have a high potential as a rapid, sensitive and accurate method which can be used to monitor a large population exposed to radiation for rapid triage in the case of a large-scale accident.

  16. Lymphocyte antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test for evaluation of clinical role of monoclonal anti-D-antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, N I; Belkina, E V; Nikolaeva, T L; Miterev, G Yu; Chertkov, I L

    2006-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to D antigen were studied in the reaction of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity for evaluation of the possibility of using these antibodies for preventing rhesus sensitization. High hemolytic activity of four anti-D-monoclonal antibodies in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test, mediated by their interaction with FcgammaRI, and the capacity to accelerate elimination of D+ erythrocytes from circulation did not provide the immunosuppressive effect. It was hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies for prevention of rhesus sensitization should interact with FcgammaRIII on lymphocytes. These monoclonal antibodies are extremely rare: only 4 of 125 studied antibodies mediated hemolysis in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity test with lymphocytes, while all polyclonal anti-D-preparations exhibited this activity.

  17. Evaluation of blood neutrophil to lymphocyte and platelet to lymphocyte ratios according to plasma glucose status and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçler, R; Aslan, M; Atmaca, M; Alay, M; Ademoğlu, E N; Gülşen, I

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular, respiratory, and cerebrovascular diseases and malignancies are responsible for morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. Also these diseases are associated with chronic inflammation. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are currently gaining interest as new markers of inflammation. Moreover, increased morbidity and mortality are positively correlated with the presence of diabetes and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in acromegaly. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between these markers and acromegaly according to plasma glucose status and serum IGF-1 levels. We retrospectively analyzed data from 61 acromegaly patients who were in a newly diagnosed period (35 male, 26 female; mean age 38.13 ± 13.98). Patients with normal plasma glucose (n = 27), impaired fasting glucose (n = 18), and diabetes mellitus (n = 16) were categorized into three different groups. NLR and PLR were compared between the study groups and were evaluated according to IGF-1 levels. There were no statistically significant differences in NLR and PLR measurements among the study groups (p > 0.05). However, there were significant positive correlations between NLR and IGF-1 levels and between PLR and IGF-1 levels when all patients were evaluated (r = 0.334, p = 0.011 and r = 0.277, p = 0.035, respectively). This is the first report studying the relationship of NLR and PLR with glucose status and IGF-1 levels in acromegaly patients. Our study results suggest that subclinical inflammation may play a role in increased incidence of mortality and morbidity, which depends on uncontrolled IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. REACTIVITY OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Khasanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proliferative and IL-2-producing activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes wasperformed, using cultural methods, in patients with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. The cell testing was performed at basal level and following in vitro stimulation with recombinant IL-2 and M. tuberculosis antigens. It was established that clinical course of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, independently on drug sensitivity/resistance of the infectious pathogen, is accompanied by suppression of spontaneous lymphoproliferation. The levels of induced IL-2 production in drug-sensitive tuberculosis proved to be increased, whereas a reserve of IL-2-secreting reactivity of blood lymphocytes was lower than in drugresistant infection. Also, it was revealed that the level of lymphoproliferative response induced by IL-2, does not depend on clinical variant of tuberculosis, whereas stimulation of IL-2 production in blood lymphocytes is attained only in cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis variant.

  19. Effect of interleukin-2 and methylprednisolone on in vitro transformation of uremic lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, E; Ladefoged, J; Ødum, Niels

    1986-01-01

    The functional relationship in vitro between mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation, lymphocyte response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and steroid, and production of IL-2 was examined in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis (HD) or on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD......). The lymphocyte responses to optimal stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen were depressed in lymphocyte cultures from HD patients, while CAPD lymphocyte cultures responded normally. However, at suboptimal phytohemagglutinin stimulation both CAPD lymphocyte and HD lymphocyte...... responses were subnormal. Uremic lymphocyte cultures were more sensitive to the immunosuppressive effect of methylprednisolone. Addition of IL-2 normalized the phytohemagglutinin responses of suboptimally stimulated CAPD lymphocyte cultures and clearly improved the mitogen responses of the HD lymphocyte...

  20. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  1. Regulation of primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses generated during mixed leukocyte culture with H-2d identical Qa-1-disparate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, D.P.; Tavana, G.; Rich, R.R.; Gressens, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) responses are not usually generated during primary mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) with H-2 identical cells. Thus NZB mice are unusual in that their spleen cells do mount CTL responses during primary MLC with H-2d identical stimulator cells; the predominant target antigen for these NZB responses is Qa-1b. Considering the numerous immunoregulatory defects in NZB mice, we postulated that these NZB anti-Qa-1 primary CTL responses were due to an abnormality in T suppressor cell activity. Cellular interactions capable of suppressing NZB anti-Qa-1 primary CTL responses were investigated by using one-way and two-way MLC with spleen cells from NZB mice and other H-2d strains. Although H-2d identical one-way MLC with the use of NZB responders resulted in substantial CTL responses, only minimal CTL responses were detected from two-way MLC with the use of NZB spleen cells plus nonirradiated spleen cells from other H-2d mice. Thus the presence of non-NZB spleen cells in the two-way H-2d identical MLC prevented the generation of NZB CTL. Noncytotoxic mechanisms were implicated in the suppression of the NZB CTL responses during two-way MLC, because only minimal CTL activity was generated when NZB spleen cells were cultured with semiallogeneic, H-2d identical (e.g., NZB X BALB) F1 spleen cells. The observed suppression could be abrogated with as little as 100 rad gamma-irradiation to the non-NZB spleen cells. The phenotype of these highly radiosensitive spleen cells was Thy-1+, Lyt-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+. The functional presence of these cells in the spleens of semiallogeneic, H-2d identical F1 mice indicated that their deficiency in NZB mice was a recessive trait. These data suggest that NZB mice lack an L3T4+ cell present in the spleens of normal mice that is capable of suppressing primary anti-Qa-1 CTL responses

  2. Evaluation of radio-induced DNA damage and their repair in human lymphocytes by comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Patricia A. do; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Okazaki, Kayo

    1997-01-01

    The comet assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis technique, permits to evaluate quantitatively DNA breakage induced by chemical and physical agents at the level of the single cell. The present paper refers to the construction of dose-response curves to DNA damage and repair studies in human peripheral lymphocytes, utilizing the comet assay for the radiosensitivity analysis. So, the blood samples were obtained from healthy donors (40-50 year old), irradiated in a 60 Co source (GAMMACEL 220) with doses of 0.17, 0.25, 0.57, 1.10, 2.12 and 4.22 Gy (0.59 Gy/min.) and processed 1 and 24 hours after the exposition. Results obtained showed a increase in the total lenght of comet (DNA migration) as a function of radiation dose in samples processed 1 and 24 hours after the treatment. The DNA lesion in irradiated lymphocytes with 4.22 Gy (means value of 101.4 μm) were 3.4 times higher than in the untreated lymphocytes (mean value of 30 μm) instead of 24 hours after the irradiation were 1.5 times higher (mean value of 46.3 μm). This reduction on DNA repair occurred in these cells. It was also possible visualized the presence of subpopulations of the cells with different sensitivity and repair capacity to ionizing radiation in these donors. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  3. Nonexpert Evaluations on Architectural Design Creativity across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Wan; Lee, Jae Seung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural differences and the nonexpert evaluations of architectural design creativity. In study I, Caucasian Americans (N = 126) and East Asians (N = 137), who did not major in architecture and urban design, evaluated the novelty and appropriateness of 5 unusual architectural shapes, selected by 5…

  4. Cultural bases for self-evaluation: seeing oneself positively in different cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Bond, Michael Harris; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Aldhafri, Said; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Paz Cadena, Maria; Lay, Siugmin; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Özgen, Emre; Güner, Ülkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil; Silveira Lemos, Flávia Cristina; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Cristina Ferreira, M; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Harb, Charles; Chybicka, Aneta; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Martin, Mariana; Nizharadze, George; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Valk, Aune; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-05-01

    Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values.

  5. Evaluation of culture and antibiogram results in burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Balcı, Yasemin I.; Çilengir, Mehmet; Övet, Gültekin; Cebelli, Sami

    2010-01-01

    Infections are most common cause of morbidity and mortality in burned patients due to destruction of skin barrier. In this study, we aimed to determine most common microorganisms and their antibiotic susceptibility detected in wound cultures of these patients. Sixty six positive wound cultures were detected in patients admitted to burn clinic of Denizli State hospital between November, 2008 and November, 2009 and were evaluated in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by d...

  6. A paradigm shift in organisational safety culture evaluation and training

    OpenAIRE

    Cram, Robert; Sime, Julie-Ann

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is to explore the issues surrounding traditional approaches towards understanding the safety culture of an organisation operating in a high risk environment and to identify an effective technique to educate corporate management in how to measure and evaluate the underlying safety culture of their own organisations. The results of the first part of the research highlight the concerns being expressed by both academic and industrial communities that current safety cult...

  7. Evaluation of MODS Culture in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Aminzadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Culture of M. tuberculosis is the golden standard for the diagnosis of TB which is a much more sensitive test than Smear examination. There is a strong need to use the new assays in order to speed up diagnostic methods. The aim of this research was to determine the evaluation of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility culture in pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison with Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Lowenstein-Jensen culture of sputum.

     

    Methods

    The research method was a Cross-sectional (diagnostic test and the technique was observational-interview type. If the patient's history revealed clinical criteria compatible with TB and the infectious specialist’s judgment was that of "TB suspected case, the patient was considered a pulmonary TB suspect. Then, in addition to sputum Ziehl-Neelsen stain and culture for Lowenstein-Jensen, we carried out MODS culture as well.

     

    Results

    100 patients (48 male, 52 female with mean age of 52.9 ± 21.83 were evaluated. During sputum examination, 40% were Ziehl-Neelsen stain positive while 30% had positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Lowenstein-Jensen and 47% had positive MODS culture. In comparison with sputum smear and Lowenstein-Jensen culture, MODS had a sensitivity of 82.5% and 86%, specificity of 77% and 70%, positive predictive value of 70% and 55%, negative predictive value of 86% and 92%, respectively.

     

    Conclusion

    MODS culture demonstrated faster recovery and higher negative predictive value than by Lowenstein-Jensen method; it could be a simple and rapid method in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  8. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards the Development of Objective, Universal Criteria of Cultural Evaluation: The Challenges Posed by Anti-Foundationalism, Culturalism and Romanticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of the last century, it has become increasingly unfashionable in the social sciences to make cross-cultural evaluations. The advance of cultural relativism has ensured that criticisms of other cultures are regarded as subjective and ethnocentric. There remain, however, cultural beliefs, practices and traditions which appear, "prima…

  10. Evaluation of conidia production and mycelial growth in solid culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to know the ability of native strains to carry out the process of sporulation and growth in different conditions and to determine their possible potential as biological control of pests of agricultural importance, mainly in citrus areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate five different solid culture media for the ...

  11. Evaluation of micronuclear frequencies in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid contact reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhanoğlu, A; Ergun, S; Kaya, M; Warnakulasuriya, S; Erbağcı, M; Öztürk, Ş; Deniz, E; Özel, S; Çefle, K; Palanduz, Ş; Tanyeri, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCRs) or with oral lichen planus (OLP) and compare their MN scores with those of healthy controls (HCs). The study group included 21 patients (mean age 51.3 ± 12.4; 6 males, 15 females) with OLCRs and 22 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 14.4; 4 males, 18 females) with OLP who were clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed according to WHO diagnostic criteria (WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Precancerous Lesions, 1978). All patients with OLCR demonstrated contact allergy to tested dental materials when evaluated by skin patch testing according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG), while all OLP patients tested negative to patch testing. Seventeen individuals with no oral mucosal disorders (mean age 51.7 ± 11.3; 8 males, 9 females) were recruited to constitute the healthy control group. [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: the term, 'mean age' has been added to the text in parenthesis throughout the Material and Methods section.] Clinical features including type of OLP, location, disease severity, presence of skin lesions, presence of systemic disease including any allergies and dental (periodontal) status were recorded. MN analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes and on smears of buccal epithelial cells of all three study groups. Most OLP and OLCR lesions were of reticular type (83%), and OLP lesions were distributed bilaterally on the buccal mucosa (90.5%). The medians of MN frequencies in buccal epithelial cells in OLP and OLCR groups were significantly higher when compared with HC group (P < 0.001). [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: in the results, 2nd sentence, the word 'lymphocytes' has been removed.] There was no significant difference between OLP group (14

  12. Evaluation through comet assay of DNA damage induced in human lymphocytes by alpha particles. Comparison with protons and Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Kreiner, A. J.; Schuff, J. A.; Vallerga, M. B.; Taja, M. R.; Lopez, F. O.; Alvarez, D. E.; Saint Martin, G.; Burton, A.; Debray, M. E.; Kesque, J. M.; Somacal, H.; Stoliar, P.; Valda, A.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Ozafran, M. J.; Vazquez, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Several techniques with different sensitivity to single-strand breaks and/or double strand breaks were applied to detect DNA breaks generated by high LET particles. Tests that assess DNA damage in single cells might be the appropriate tool to estimate damage induced by particles, facilitating the assessment of heterogeneity of damage in a cell population. The microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay is a sensitive method for measuring DNA damage in single cells. The objective of this work was to evaluate the proficiency of comet assay to assess the effect of high LET radiation on peripheral blood lymphocytes, compared to protons and Co-60 gamma rays. Materials and methods: Irradiations of blood samples were performed at TANDAR laboratory (Argentina). Thin samples of human peripheral blood were irradiated with different doses (0-2.5 Gy) of 20.2 MeV helium-4 particles in the track segment mode, at nearly constant LET. Data obtained were compared with the effect induced by a MeV protons and Co-60 gamma rays. Alkaline comet assay was applied. Comets were quantified by the Olive tail moment. Distribution of the helium-4 particle and protons were evaluated considering Poisson distribution in lymphocyte nuclei. The mean dose per nucleus per particle result 0.053 Gy for protons and 0.178 Gy for helium-4 particles. When cells are exposed to a dose of 0.1 Gy, the hit probability model predicts that 43% of the nuclei should have experienced and alpha traversal while with protons, 85% of the nuclei should be hit. The experimental results show a biphasic response for helium-4 particles (0.1 Gy), indicating the existence of two subpopulations: unhit and hit. Distributions of tail moment as a function of fluence and experimental dose for comets induced by helium-4 particles, protons and Co-60 gamma rays were analyzed. With helium-4 irradiations, lymphocyte nuclei show an Olive tail moment distribution flattened to higher tail moments a dose increase. However, for irradiations with

  13. Evaluation of 230 patients with relapsed/refractory deletion 17p chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with ibrutinib from 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey; Mato, Anthony; Coutre, Steven; Byrd, John C; Furman, Richard R; Hillmen, Peter; Osterborg, Anders; Tam, Constantine; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Wierda, William G; Heerema, Nyla A; Eckert, Karl; Clow, Fong; Zhou, Cathy; Chu, Alvina D; James, Danelle F; O'Brien, Susan M

    2018-06-05

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) with deletion 17p [del(17p)] have poor outcomes with chemoimmunotherapy. Ibrutinib is indicated for the treatment of CLL/SLL, including del(17p) CLL/SLL, and allows for treatment without chemotherapy. This integrated analysis was performed to evaluate outcomes in 230 patients with relapsed/refractory del(17p) CLL/SLL from three ibrutinib studies. With a median of 2 prior therapies (range, 1-12), 18% and 79% of evaluable patients had del(11q) or unmutated IGHV, respectively. With a median follow-up of 28 months, overall response rate was 85% and estimated 30-month progression-free and overall survival rates were 57% [95% confidence interval (CI) 50-64] and 69% (95% CI 61-75), respectively. Patients with normal lactate dehydrogenase or no bulky disease had the most favourable survival outcomes. Sustained haematological improvements in haemoglobin, platelet count and absolute neutrophil count occurred in 61%, 67% and 70% of patients with baseline cytopenias, respectively. New onset severe cytopenias and infections decreased in frequency over time. Progression-free and overall survival with ibrutinib surpass those of other therapies for patients with del(17p) CLL/SLL. These results provide further evidence of the robust clinical activity of ibrutinib in difficult-to-treat CLL/SLL populations. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  15. Evaluation of the prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchen; Fuentes, Harry E; Attar, Bashar M; Jaiswal, Palash; Demetria, Melchor

    Recent studies attribute promising prognostic values to various inflammatory biomarkers in acute pancreatitis, including the following: the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and red cell distribution width (RDW). We aimed to determine the performance of these biomarkers for detecting disease severity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP). We retrospectively reviewed 110 patients with HTG-AP and compared the NLR, PLR, and RDW in different severity groups. We performed receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify the optimal cut-off value for NLR to predict severe AP. NLR was significantly higher in patients with severe AP than mild and moderately severe AP (14.6 vs. 6.9, p analysis (Odds ratio 6.71, p = 0.019). NLR represents an inexpensive, readily available test with a promising value to predict disease severity in HTG-AP. Among the three inflammatory biomarkers, NLR has the highest discriminatory capacity for severe HTG-AP, with an optimal cut-off value of 10. Copyright © 2017 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The evaluation of protective effect of lycopene against genotoxic influence of X-irradiation in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzynska, Malgorzata M.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies suggest that exogenous antioxidants may protect cells against DNA damage caused with ionizing radiation. One of the most powerful antioxidants is lycopene (LYC), a carotenoid derived from tomatoes. The aim of this study was to investigate, using the comet assay, whether LYC can act as protectors/modifiers and prevent DNA damage induced in human blood lymphocytes, as well as to mitigate the effects of radiation exposure. In this project, LYC, dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 10, 20 or 40 μM/ml of cell suspension, was added to the isolated lymphocytes from human blood at appropriate intervals before or after the X-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. Cell viability in all groups was maintained at above 70%. The results showed the decrease of DNA damage in cells treated with various concentrations of LYC directly and 1 h before exposure to X-rays compared to the control group exposed to irradiation alone. Contrary results were observed in cells exposed to LYC immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. The studies confirmed the protective effect of LYC against DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, but after irradiation the carotenoid did not stimulate of DNA repair and cannot act as modifier. However, supplementation with LYC, especially at lower doses, may be useful in protection from radiation-induced oxidative damage. (orig.)

  17. The evaluation of protective effect of lycopene against genotoxic influence of X-irradiation in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajowik, Aneta; Dobrzynska, Malgorzata M. [National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Department of Radiation Protection and Radiobiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Many studies suggest that exogenous antioxidants may protect cells against DNA damage caused with ionizing radiation. One of the most powerful antioxidants is lycopene (LYC), a carotenoid derived from tomatoes. The aim of this study was to investigate, using the comet assay, whether LYC can act as protectors/modifiers and prevent DNA damage induced in human blood lymphocytes, as well as to mitigate the effects of radiation exposure. In this project, LYC, dissolved in DMSO at a concentration of 10, 20 or 40 μM/ml of cell suspension, was added to the isolated lymphocytes from human blood at appropriate intervals before or after the X-irradiation at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. Cell viability in all groups was maintained at above 70%. The results showed the decrease of DNA damage in cells treated with various concentrations of LYC directly and 1 h before exposure to X-rays compared to the control group exposed to irradiation alone. Contrary results were observed in cells exposed to LYC immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. The studies confirmed the protective effect of LYC against DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation, but after irradiation the carotenoid did not stimulate of DNA repair and cannot act as modifier. However, supplementation with LYC, especially at lower doses, may be useful in protection from radiation-induced oxidative damage. (orig.)

  18. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  19. Cultural heritage evaluation: a reappraisal of some critical concepts involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IACOB

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to build a synoptic picture of the facets of the economic category called “value”, with practicality in the tangible cultural heritage field, from the point of view of a traditionally economists-specific approach: concern for the financial sustainability of any decision. Moreover, the methods from the economics literature regarding the valences of the “cultural value” concept prove the obsoleteness of the common opinion according to which the economic approach is primarily interested in financial metrics. In as much as the ultimate goal of the scientific process is to identify the most effective cultural heritage preservation and evaluation methods, the study also reflects the public-private interference in this area.

  20. A new method for evaluating tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in colorectal cancer using hematoxylin and eosin (H-E)-stained tumor sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Matsutani, Shinji; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2018-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a prognostic factor in various cancers and that they must be good biomarkers. However, the methods of evaluating TILs differ in each study; thus, there is not yet a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) using the new method proposed by the International TILs Working Group in breast cancer and to standardize the method of evaluating TILs in CRC. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 160 patients with Stage II or III CRC. The density of TILs was assessed by measuring the area occupied by mononuclear cells over the stromal area on hematoxylin and eosin (H-E)-stained sections. We set 42% as the cut-off percentage of the area occupied by TILs according to the receiver operating characteristic curve, and we classified patients into the high-TILs and the low-TILs groups. The rates of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in the high-TILs group were significantly higher than those in the low-TILs group. A multivariate analysis showed that the density of TILs was independently associated with RFS and OS. Moreover, the density of TILs assessed by an observer was significantly associated with the density of TILs assessed by the automated imaging software program. The new method for evaluating TILs, which was recommended by the International TILs Working Group in breast cancer, might be a useful predictive factor in colorectal cancer patients.

  1. Using Social Scientific Criteria to Evaluate Cultural Theories: Encoding/Decoding Evaluated

    OpenAIRE

    Evan L. Kropp

    2015-01-01

    This article transcends the issue of conflicting theoretical schools of thought to formulate a method of social scientific style theory evaluation for cultural studies. It is suggested that positivist social scientific models of theory critique can be used to assess cultural models of communication to determine if they should be classified as theories. A set of evaluation criteria is formulated as a guide and applied to Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding to determine if it is a theory. Conclusio...

  2. Quantification of cell-free DNA in blood plasma and DNA damage degree in lymphocytes to evaluate dysregulation of apoptosis in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, E S; Jestkova, E M; Chestkov, I V; Porokhovnik, L N; Izevskaya, V L; Kutsev, S I; Veiko, N N; Shmarina, G; Dolgikh, O; Kostyuk, S V

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative DNA damage has been proposed as one of the causes of schizophrenia (SZ), and post mortem data indicate a dysregulation of apoptosis in SZ patients. To evaluate apoptosis in vivo we quantified the concentration of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA index, determined using fluorescence), the levels of 8-oxodG in cfDNA (immunoassay) and lymphocytes (FL1-8-oxodG index, flow cytometry) of male patients with acute psychotic disorders: paranoid SZ (total N = 58), schizophreniform (N = 11) and alcohol-induced (N = 14) psychotic disorder, and 30 healthy males. CfDNA in SZ (N = 58) does not change compared with controls. In SZ patients. Elevated levels of 8-oxodG were found in cfDNA (N = 58) and lymphocytes (n = 45). The main sources of cfDNA are dying cells with oxidized DNA. Thus, the cfDNA/FL1-8-oxodG ratio shows the level of apoptosis in damaged cells. Two subgroups were identified among the SZ patients (n = 45). For SZ-1 (31%) and SZ-2 (69%) median values of cfDNA/FL1-8-oxodG index are related as 1:6 (p DNA in the patient's body tissues and may be a contributing cause of acute psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of chromosome aberration and micronucleus frequencies in blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; Maffei, Francesca; Carrieri, Mariella; D'Errico, Maria N; Drago, Ignazio; Hrelia, Patrizia; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Soleo, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) was investigated in the peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to low or very low concentrations of benzene. The study included 43 exposed workers (all males), namely 19 fuel-tanker drivers and 24 filling-station attendants, and 31 male subjects with no occupational exposure to the toxicant (controls). Benzene exposure was verified by means of environmental monitoring with passive personal samplers (Radiello(®)), and through biological monitoring, i.e. by measurement of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and benzene. The frequency of CA and MN in peripheral lymphocytes was determined according to standard procedures. Exposure to benzene was found to be significantly higher for fuel-tanker drivers (median 246.6 μg/m(3)) than for filling-station attendants (median 19.9 μg/m(3)). Both groups had significantly higher exposure than controls (median 4.3 μg/m(3)). No increased frequency of CA and MN was observed in either fuel-tanker drivers or filling-station attendants compared with controls. In all subjects examined as a single group, the frequency of MN was significantly dependent on age. Only in the fuel-tanker drivers was the frequency of MN found to depend not only on age, but also on exposure to benzene. In conclusion, the frequency of MN, but not of CA, could be influenced by exposure to benzene concentrations of up to one order of magnitude lower than the threshold limit value (time-weighted average). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase on the mitogen response of T lymphocytes. I. Enhancement of macrophage T-lymphocyte cooperation in concanavalin-A-induced lymphocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, J

    1980-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) enhances the immune response of lymphocytes in various systems, such as antigen- and mitogen-induced blastogenesis, mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and tumor-cell response. We used macrophage-depleted and reconstituted murine lymph-node T-cells to investigate the effect of VCN on macrophage-T-lymphocyte co-operation in Con-A-induced lymphocyte activation. In unfractionated lymph-node cells VCN enhanced the Con-A-induced lymphocyte activation as measured by 3H-thymidine (3H-dThd) incorporation. Removing macrophages from the cells resulted in a significantly diminished response. In addition the enhancing effect of VCN was greatly reduced. Reconstitution of the lymphocyte cultures with macrophages in increasing numbers and from various sources rstored the lymphocyte response and the enhancing effect of VCN. VCN proved to be most efficient in cultures reconstituted with normal peritoneal macrophages. Some effect was also observed using bone-marrow-derived (BM) macrophages. However, higher numbers of normal PE macrophages in the presence of VCN inhibited lymphocyte activation, and inhibition by thioglycollate-broth-induced macrophages was considerably increased by VCN. These results suggest that VCN acts by increasing the efficiency of macrophage-T lymphocyte interaction.

  5. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  6. THE STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: METHODOLOGY FOR QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To Thu Trang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept: methodof evaluation organizational culture, qualitative and quantitative assessment methodology and lists the basic methodologyfor assessing organizational culture. Fullydescribe professor Denison’s methodology for assessing organizational culture.

  7. GENERATION OF CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES IN MIXED LYMPHOCYTE REACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, James; Möller, Göran

    1973-01-01

    Generation of cytotoxic effector cells by a unidirectional mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the mouse H-2 system was studied using labeled YAC (H-2a) leukemia cells as targets. The responding effector cell displayed a specific cytotoxic effect against target cells of the same H-2 genotype as the stimulating cell population. Killing of syngeneic H-2 cells was not observed, even when the labeled target cells were "innocent bystanders" in cultures where specific target cells were reintroduced. Similar results were found with spleen cells taken from mice sensitized in vivo 7 days earlier. The effector cell was not an adherent cell and was not activated by supernatants from MLR. The supernatants were not cytotoxic by themselves. When concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin was added to the cytotoxic test system, target and effector cells were agglutinated. Under these conditions, killing of H-2a target cells was observed in mixed cultures where H-2a lymphocytes were also the effector cells. These findings indicate that specifically activated, probably thymus-derived lymphocytes, can kill nonspecifically once they have been activated and providing there is close contact between effector and target cells. Thus, specificity of T cell killing appears to be restricted to recognition and subsequent binding to the targets, the actual effector phase being nonspecific. PMID:4269560

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Cultural Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Stagl, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural competency, and the underlying communication and affective skills required to develop such expertise, is becoming increasingly important for a wide variety of domains. To address this need, we developed a blended learning platform which combines virtual role-play with tutorials, assessment and feedback. A Middle-Eastern Curriculum (MEC) exemplar for cross-cultural training U.S. military personnel was developed to guide the refinement of an existing game-based training platform. To complement this curriculum, we developed scenario authoring tools to enable end-users to define training objectives, link performance measures and feedback/remediation to these objectives, and deploy experiential scenarios within a game-based virtual environment (VE). Lessons learned from the design and development of this exemplar cross-cultural competency curriculum, as well as formative evaluation results, are discussed. Initial findings suggest that the underlying training technology promotes deep levels of semantic processing of the key information of relevant cultural and communication skills.

  9. A Guidebook for Evaluating Organizations in the Nuclear Industry - an example of safety culture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, Pia; Pietikaeinen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu

    2011-06-01

    Organizations in the nuclear industry need to maintain an overview on their vulnerabilities and strengths with respect to safety. Systematic periodical self assessments are necessary to achieve this overview. This guidebook provides suggestions and examples to assist power companies but also external evaluators and regulators in carrying out organizational evaluations. Organizational evaluation process is divided into five main steps. These are: 1) planning the evaluation framework and the practicalities of the evaluation process, 2) selecting data collection methods and conducting the data acquisition, 3) structuring and analysing the data, 4) interpreting the findings and 5) reporting the evaluation results with possible recommendations. The guidebook emphasises the importance of a solid background framework when dealing with multifaceted phenomena like organisational activities and system safety. The validity and credibility of the evaluation stem largely from the evaluation team's ability to crystallize what they mean by organization and safety when they conduct organisational safety evaluations - and thus, what are the criteria for the evaluation. Another important and often under-considered phase in organizational evaluation is interpretation of the findings. In this guidebook a safety culture evaluation in a Nordic nuclear power plant is presented as an example of organizational evaluation. With the help of the example, challenges of each step in the organizational evaluation process are described. Suggestions for dealing with them are presented. In the case example, the DISC (Design for Integrated Safety culture) model is used as the evaluation framework. The DISC model describes the criteria for a good safety culture and the organizational functions necessary to develop a good safety culture in the organization

  10. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in newly diagnosed patients receiving borte- zomib-based therapy for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Jing; Xia, Jun; Cheng, Feng; Mao, Jingjue; Zhu, Jianwei; Guo, Hongfeng

    2018-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at diagnosis has been identified as an independent prognostic marker in several malignancies. Recently, a few studies have reported that an elevated pretreatment NLR is associated with poor survival among multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, the role of NLR at diagnosis in patients with MM treated with regimens containing bortezomib has been less explored. We aimed to investigate the relationships between NLR and overall survival (OS) in newly diagnosed patients receiving bortezomib-based therapy for MM. A total of 76 newly diagnosed patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimes were analyzed retrospectively. NLR was calculated from whole blood counts prior to therapy and subsequently correlated with OS. Complete remission (CR) was seen in 39.2% of patients with NLR analysis, only elevated LDH and IgA MM were factors predicting inferior OS. Elevated NLR was associated with poor OS in MM patients receiving induction therapy with bortezomib-based regimens, but it was not an independent prognostic factor in this patient cohort.

  11. Evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral blood lymphocytes of bone metastasis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Miriam Fussae

    2003-01-01

    In this study the cellular damage in peripheral lymphocytes after exposure to 153 Sm-EDTMP (Samarium-153 ethylene-diamine-tetramietylene-phosphonate) was determined using the technique of micronuclei analysis and differential coloration. 153 Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used for pain relief in patients with bone metastases. The analysis of the frequency of micronuclei in patient blood samples obtained one hour after endovenous administration of radiopharmaceutical (41 MBq/kg) showed no statistical difference in relation to basal values in binucleated cells. However the analysis of damage distribution in mononucleated cells, showed that the patients without previous radiotherapy treatment presented a significant increase in the frequency of cells with one micronucleus and in those who had taken previous radiotherapy treatment, in cells with two or more micronuclei. The in vitro experiments conducted with the exposition of total blood to three radiation concentrations of 153 Sm-EDTMP (0.370, 0.555 and 1.110 MBq/mL) during one hour showed an increase in the frequency of micronuclei and necrotic and apoptotic cells with increasing radiation dose. Dose-response curves for healthy donors and patients with bone metastasis without previous radiotherapy treatment were constructed. The comparison of the curves showed that patients presented higher radiosensitivity, either micronuclei or dead cell (necrotic or apoptotic) percentages, than healthy donors. (author)

  12. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Ruwali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD in chicken lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m, gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME. Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 107 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A (Con A, respectively. Results: Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 μg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05 upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS and a significant (p<0.05 increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A, as compared to the control. Conclusion: The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  13. Investigation of micronuclei induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to EMF RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiets, Irina A.; Triapitsina, Galina A.; Polevik, Nikolai D.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The widespread application of cellular phones is of great concern in view possible consequences for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of electromagnetic fields (EMF) RF with frequency 925 MHz and modulation 217 Hz to induce genotoxic effects as evaluated by the in vitro micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The flasks of peripheral blood samples collected from healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) were placed just on the oscillator of emitting antenna. The signals were produced by the laboratory research plant and were evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs) - 0; 0.29; 1.2; 8.1 W/kg. SARs were determined by the calorimetric method. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes were exposed three times for 10 minutes in the G o (the first 30 minutes after the beginning of cultivation), S (24 hours later), G 2 -M (after 48 hours from the beginning of cultivation) stages of the cell cycle. 72-hours cultures of lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of micronuclei. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance for comparison. The data indicated a significant increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to EMF RF (6.5 ± 0.51 0/00; 7.1 ± 0.66 0/00; 7.0 ± 0.50 0/00) in comparison with sham-exposed lymphocytes (3.0 ± 0.60 0/00). There was not revealed a dose-dependent increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. It was suggested that the increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes is explicated by a particularity of EMF RF just near the oscillator of emitting antenna. (author)

  14. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwali, Pushpa; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Gautam, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells) proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD) in chicken lymphocytes. Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae) specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m), gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME). Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 10 7 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A), respectively. Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD) was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 µg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05) upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS) and a significant (p<0.05) increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A), as compared to the control. The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  15. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  16. Elimination of radiation-induced chromosomal damages in numan peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. 1. The frequency of aberrations in the first and second mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatkin, E.K.; Nugis, V.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative analysis of chromosomal aberrations in the first and second mitosis of cultivated human peripheral blood lymphocytes after gamma irradiation in vitro at 1-5 Gy doses has been made. Irradiated blood lymphocytes were incubated for 58 to 66 h at 37 deg with PGA and BDU (20 μg /ml). The first, second and third postradiation mitosises were identified using the distinguishing staining of sister chromatids. The share of the cells in the first mitosis fluctuated from 32 to 77 %, in the second - from 23 to 68 %, and the third - from 0 to 9 %. At all radiation doses significant differences in the frequency of the aberration cells passing the first and second mitosises were revealed as well as in the total number of chromosomal aberrations in all the cells. The frequency of pair fragments and dicentrics chromosomes in the first mitosis was on the average 1.6 and 2 times as high as in the second one, respectively. In the first mitosis almost all dicentric chromosomes occurred with accompanying pair fragments, and in the second mitosis the share of dicentric chromosomes without accompanying fragments was 25 to 50 %. The distribution of the dicentric chromosomes in the cells in the first and second mitosis did not differ from Poison distribution for the 2 to 5 Gy dose range

  17. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in cultured lymphocytes and tumor cells by extracts of betel nut, tobacco, and miang leaf, plant substances associated with cancer of the ororespiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J A; Huber, S A; Lucas, Z J

    1979-12-01

    The high incidence of oropharyngeal, esophageal, and laryngeal cancers in certain parts of the world has been ascribed to conjugated tannins found in certain folk medicinal herbs. We extracted miang leaf and betel nut with phosphate-buffered saline (0.14 M NaCl, 0.15 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and found that the extracts inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes and by rat mammary tumor and mouse L-cells in logarithmic growth. Pretreating the lymphocytes for 1 or 4 hr with the extracts inhibited phytohemagglutinin-induced thymidine incorporation 72 hr later. At concentrations of 2.5 volumes % or lower, miang and betel nut extracts inhibited thymidine incorporation by 40 to 98% without any apparent signs of toxicity as demonstrated by the 66Rb equilibrium assay. In addition, neither extract inhibited cytotoxicity of rat mammary tumor cells by immune syngeneic spleen cells. The molecular weights of the inhibitory factors were between 1,000 and 10,000 daltons as determined by ultrafiltration and were unaffected by boiling for 3 min or by treatment with alcohol and, therefore, are probably not proteins. This in vitro demonstration of inhibition of DNA synthesis by these plant extracts presumably enriched for conjugated tannins may relate to inhibition of growth of rats and chicks fed conjugated tanin-contaminated sorghum feed. The carcinogenic potential of either these extracts or conjugated tannins is not yet established.

  18. Comparison of carbon monoxide poisonings originated from coal stove and natural gas and the evaluation of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to present the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and prognosis differences between the coal stove origin poisoning and natural gas leakages. We also aimed to investigate relationship between the severity of clinical picture, prognosis, complications develop in CO poisoning with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR at the initial admission. Methods: All the acute carbon monoxide cases who applied to Ankara Training and Research Hospital Emergency Medicine Clinic between October 2009 and April 2010 were included to this prospective study. CO poisoning diagnosis was made by the history of CO poisoning with carboxyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration is over 10%. 100 patients were included to our study. Results: Of the patients, 55(55% were poisoned from the coal-stove and 45(45% from natural gas leakage. The mean COHb level of the natural gas group was significantly high (p=0.01. The mean value of GCS of the natural gas group was significantly lower (p=0.018. The number of patients with indication for HBO therapy were 17 and 6 in the natural gas group and coal-stove group, respectively, being significantly higher in the natural gas group(p=0.001. There was no statistically significant relationship between the value of NLR and values of COHb, troponin, and GCS (p=0.872, p=0.470, and p=0.896, respectively. Conclusions: Carbon monoxide poisoning from natural gas leakage is more toxic than that from the coal-stove. There is no relationship between NLR at the time of presentation and the severity of clinical findings, prognosis and complications.

  19. 76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Sports Envoys Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of... Evaluation, Sports Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection. Originating Office...: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Kennedy Center (KC) Cultural Visitors Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type...

  20. Using Social Scientific Criteria to Evaluate Cultural Theories: Encoding/Decoding Evaluated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Kropp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article transcends the issue of conflicting theoretical schools of thought to formulate a method of social scientific style theory evaluation for cultural studies. It is suggested that positivist social scientific models of theory critique can be used to assess cultural models of communication to determine if they should be classified as theories. A set of evaluation criteria is formulated as a guide and applied to Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding to determine if it is a theory. Conclusions find the sharing of criteria between schools of thought is judicious, Encoding/Decoding fits the established criteria, and Encoding/Decoding should be referred to as a theory.

  1. Research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Zeng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to build enterprise project culture evaluation model and search for the best evaluation method for Chinese enterprise project culture on the basis of studying and drawing lessons from enterprise culture evaluation theory and method at home and abroad. Design/methodology/approach: Referring to the Denison enterprise culture evaluation model, this paper optimizes it according to the difference of enterprise project culture, designs the enterprise project culture evaluation model and proves the practicability of the model through empirical. Finding: This paper finds that it`s more applicable to use the Denison model for enterprise project culture evaluation through the comparative analysis of domestic and foreign enterprise culture evaluation theory and method, the systematic project culture management framework of Chinese enterprises has not yet formed through empirical research, and four factors in enterprise project culture have important influence on project operation performance improvement. Research limitations/implications: The research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model is a preliminary attempt, the design of evaluation index system, evaluation model and scale structure also need to be improved, but the thinking of this paper in this field provides a valuable reference for future research. Practical Implications: This paper provides the support of theory and practice for evaluating the present situation of enterprise project culture construction and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of project culture, which contributes to the "dialectical therapy" of enterprise project management, enterprise management and enterprise project culture construction. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of Denison enterprise culture model. Combining with the actual situation of enterprises, this paper also builds the evaluation model for

  2. Standardized evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer: results of the ring studies of the international immuno-oncology biomarker working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkert, Carsten; Wienert, Stephan; Poterie, Audrey; Loibl, Sibylle; Budczies, Jan; Badve, Sunil; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Bane, Anita; Bedri, Shahinaz; Brock, Jane; Chmielik, Ewa; Christgen, Matthias; Colpaert, Cecile; Demaria, Sandra; Van den Eynden, Gert; Floris, Giuseppe; Fox, Stephen B; Gao, Dongxia; Ingold Heppner, Barbara; Kim, S Rim; Kos, Zuzana; Kreipe, Hans H; Lakhani, Sunil R; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Rimm, David L; Schnitt, Stuart J; Sinn, Bruno V; Sinn, Peter; Sirtaine, Nicolas; O'Toole, Sandra A; Viale, Giuseppe; Van de Vijver, Koen; de Wind, Roland; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Klauschen, Frederick; Untch, Michael; Fasching, Peter A; Reimer, Toralf; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Michiels, Stefan; Loi, Sherene; Salgado, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Multiple independent studies have shown that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are prognostic in breast cancer with potential relevance for response to immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Although many groups are currently evaluating TIL, there is no standardized system for diagnostic applications. This study reports the results of two ring studies investigating TIL conducted by the International Working Group on Immuno-oncology Biomarkers. The study aim was to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for evaluation of TIL by different pathologists. A total of 120 slides were evaluated by a large group of pathologists with a web-based system in ring study 1 and a more advanced software-system in ring study 2 that included an integrated feedback with standardized reference images. The predefined aim for successful ring studies 1 and 2 was an ICC above 0.7 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI)). In ring study 1 the prespecified endpoint was not reached (ICC: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.62-0.78). On the basis of an analysis of sources of variation, we developed a more advanced digital image evaluation system for ring study 2, which improved the ICC to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92). The Fleiss' kappa value for international standardization project shows that reproducible evaluation of TIL is feasible in breast cancer. This opens the way for standardized reporting of tumor immunological parameters in clinical studies and diagnostic practice. The software-guided image evaluation approach used in ring study 2 may be of value as a tool for evaluation of TIL in clinical trials and diagnostic practice. The experience gained from this approach might be applicable to the standardization of other diagnostic parameters in histopathology.

  3. The emergence of non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a possible role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, K; Harada, M; Ito, O; Takenoyama, M; Mori, T; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1996-12-01

    The mechanism by which murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) decreased their anti-tumour activity during an in vitro culture with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was investigated. A phenotype analysis revealed that the TIL cultured for 7 days (TIL-d7) were exclusively NKI.1- CD4- CD8+ CD3+ cells and that this population was replaced by natural killer (NK)1.1+ CD4- CD8 CD3+ cells by day 27 (TIL-d27) during the culture of TIL. The TIL-d7 cells showed a cytolytic activity against B16 melanoma, whereas the TIL-d27 cells had lost this activity, suggesting that the decrease in the anti tumour effect of TIL during the culture with IL-2 was due to their populational change. Analysis on the characteristics of the TIL-d27 cells revealed that they expressed skewed T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta 5 and increased mRNA expression of V alpha 14. In addition, they expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA. Interestingly, TGF-beta augmented the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells under the presence of IL-2, but suppressed that of TIL-d7 cells. Moreover, the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells was suppressed by anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these results suggest that, in contrast to its suppressive effect on anti-tumour effector T cells. TGF-beta could be an autocrine growth factor for NKL1.1+ T cells and thereby induce non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of TIL.

  4. Levers supporting program evaluation culture and capacity in Romanian public administration: The role of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mora; Raluca Antonie

    2012-01-01

    Program evaluation culture and capacity is at the very beginning of its development in Romania. In this article we highlight one of the fundamental, but not always obvious, connections that support sustainable evaluation culture and capacity building and development: the link between leadership and program evaluation. If properly used, program evaluation results can be a strong instrument in leadership, just as leadership can fundamentally encourage the development of evaluation culture and c...

  5. "WHERE SOULS ARE FORGOTTEN" : Cultural Competencies, Forensic Evaluations, and International Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlin, Michael L.; McClain, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competency is critical in criminal forensic evaluations. Cultural competency eschews reliance on stereotypes, precluding the mistake of assuming that cultural dictates apply with equal force to all who share a cultural background, thus allowing the forensic examiner to provide a

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in 19q13.3 genes associated with alteration of repair capacity to BPDE-DNA adducts in primary cultured lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingyang; Xiao, Sha; Straaten, Tahar van der; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Guopei; Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Qianye; Cai, Yuan; Jin, Cuihong; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; Zhu, Guolian; Lu, Xiaobo

    2016-12-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P), and its ultimate metabolite Benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE), are classic DNA damaging carcinogens. DNA damage in cells caused by BPDE is normally repaired by Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) and Base Excision Repair (BER). Genetic variations in NER and BER can change individual DNA repair capacity to DNA damage induced by BPDE. In the present study we determined the number of in vitro induced BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes, to reflect individual susceptibility to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-induced carcinogenesis. The BPDE-DNA adduct level in lymphocytes were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 281 randomly selected participants. We genotyped for 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in NER (XPB rs4150441, XPC rs2228001, rs2279017 and XPF rs4781560), BER (XRCC1 rs25487, rs25489 and rs1799782) and genes located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 (PPP1R13L rs1005165 and CAST rs967591). We found that 3 polymorphisms in chromosome 19q13.2-3 were associated with lower levels of BPDE-DNA adducts (MinorT allele in XRCC1 rs1799782, minor T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 and minor A allele in CAST rs967571). In addition, a modified comet assay was performed to further confirm the above conclusions. We found both minor T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 and minor A allele in CAST rs967571 were associated with the lower levels of BPDE-adducts. Our data suggested that the variant genotypes of genes in chromosome 19q13.2-3 are associated with the alteration of repair efficiency to DNA damage caused by Benzo[a]pyrene, and may contribute to enhance predictive value for individual's DNA repair capacity in response to environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of the PET/CT with F.D.G. to evaluate the tri therapy and the lymphocyte reconstitution in patients infected by HIV; Apport de la TEP/TDM au FDG pour l'evaluation de la tritherapie et de la reconstitution lymphocytaire chez les patients infectes par le VIH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, F.; Yeddes, I.; El Bez, I.; Evangelista, E.; Meignan, M.; Itti, E. [CHU Henri-Mondor, Service de medecine nucleaire, 94 - Creteil (France); Lelievre, J.D.; Levy, Y. [CHU Henri-Mondor, service immunologie clinique, 94 - Creteil (France); Cheynier, R. [Institut Pasteur, service de virologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: HIV infection is accompanied by impairment of lymphoid organs that can be detected by PET / CT with F.D.G.. The purpose of this study was to correlate lymphocyte reconstitution with the metabolic activity of lymphoid organs. Conclusions: PET / CT with F.D.G. is an appropriate assessment tool to evaluate the effect of antiviral treatment in lymphoid organs. In addition, she is helping to understand the mechanisms of lymphocyte reconstitution under triple therapy. (N.C.)

  8. Evaluation of soymilk fermentation with a lactic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Quicazán

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk, the protein slurry extracted in water from soybeans, obtained by means of a process tested previously at ICTA (the National University of Colombia's Institute of Food Science and Technology, was fermented by using a thermophyllic lactic culture consisting of L delbrueckii ss. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii ss. lactis and S. salivarius ss. thermophilus. The soymilk composition was standardised (before fermentation, regarding solids and protein contení, by means of Brix0 as process variable. Soymilk was fermented by applying those same basic operations followed in cow milk fermentation. Acidification was assessed by evaluating pH, titrable acidity and organic acid production during the process by HPLC in an ionic exclusion column. Reologyc property modification was studied and compared with that for cow milk. It was proved that, despite the absence of lactose as substrate, soymilk acidification during this process can be explained by lactic acid production and that soymilk solid content influences acid production and changes in viscosity.

  9. Five years of simulator evaluation - a contribution to safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.J.; Spindler, B.; Kruip, J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulator training has been an important component in education and advanced training at a high level of nuclear power plant personnel for more than 25 years. From the beginning of simulator training, checking on the objectives of learning and feedback have been part and parcel of the effort. In the course of the revision of the 1990 Directive on Expertise of Licensed Personnel in Nuclear Power Plants composed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU), the type and organization of evaluations and the inclusion of qualified simulator trainers were expressed in even more concrete terms. Simulator evaluation serves the purpose of assessing, on the basis of the goals of practical exercises and courses established jointly with nuclear power plant operators, the performance and the behavior of individual participants so as to obtain information and guidance for further work. In addition, both simulator trainers, the Simulator Center, and the operators are to receive feedback with respect to the courses held and for checking against plans. First experience since the introduction of simulator evaluation has shown a basically positive assessment by all participants, i.e. attendees, operators, and the Simulator Center, expressing important aspects in support of training. As new simulators were commissioned in the mid-nineties, this met one of the major requests by course participants for a realistic model of their working environment. The experience accumulated also helps optimum training by means of simulators and thus ultimately also contributes to the safety culture in German nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  10. Study of the radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams Nascimento de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used in various fields of study, as medicine, industry, energy production, surgical materials sterilization, preservation and sterilization of foods, among others. These radiations may be responsible for adverse effects at molecular level in living organisms, where most important damage occurs in deoxyribonucleic acid molecule, DNA. These harmful effects caused by radiation highlights the importance of acquiring knowledge about radioprotector substances because they can act as protector of living tissue of those effects. In this research was investigated the possible radioprotective effect 'in vitro' of the flavonoid quercetin in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. At first, test was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of quercetin by capturing DPPH free radical molecules. Then, it was collected peripheral blood of volunteers donors. Then the samples were irradiated from linear accelerator (Siemens Primus - energy of 6 MeV and dose rate of 200 cGy/min from IMIP-PE). After samples irradiation, lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and then the culture was carried out to obtain lymphocyte in metaphases and subsequent, analysis of chromosomal abnormalities were done at optical microscope. Statistical analysis was used Student 't' test. The results showed that quercetin at a concentration of 37.5 μM presented radioprotective against damage from gamma radiation on human lymphocytes in vitro. Have been also observed that the irradiated lymphocytes showed morphologically unchanged after undergoing the presence of the flavonoid quercetin. (author)

  11. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening

  12. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  13. Role of oxidative stress and intracellular calcium in nickel carbonate hydroxide-induced sister-chromatid exchange, and alterations in replication index and mitotic index in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Human peripheral lymphocytes from whole blood cultures were exposed to either soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-60 {mu}M), or of nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (0-120 {mu}M), or of nickel oxide (NiO) (0-120 {mu}M), or nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) (0-120 {mu}M) for a short duration of 2 h. The treatments occurred 46 h after the beginning of the cultures. The cultures were harvested after a total incubation of 72 h, and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), replication index (RI), and mitotic index (MI) were measured for each nickel compound. The soluble form of NiCH at 30 {mu}M but those of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and NiO at 120 {mu}M produced significant increase in the SCE per cell compared to the control value, whereas NiSO{sub 4} failed to produce any such significant increase. Except NiSO{sub 4}, the soluble forms of NiCH, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and NiO produced significant cell-cycle delay (as measured by the inhibition of RI) as well as significant inhibition of the MI at respective similar concentrations as mentioned above. Pretreatment of human blood lymphocytes with catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or superoxide dismutase (superoxide anion scavenger), or dimethylthiourea (hydroxyl radical scavenger), or deferoxamine (iron chelator), or N-acetylcysteine (general antioxidant) inhibited NiCH-induced SCE, and changes in RI and MI. This suggests the participation of oxidative stress involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical, and iron in the NiCH-induced genotoxic responses. Cotreatment of NiCH with either verapamil (inhibitor of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) movement through plasma membranes), or dantrolene (inhibitor of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum), or BAPTA (Ca{sup 2+} chelator) also inhibited the NiCH-induced responses. These results suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is also implicated in the genotoxicity of NiCH. Overall these data indicate that various types

  14. Vincristine-induced bystander effect in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testi, Serena; Azzarà, Alessia; Giovannini, Caterina; Lombardi, Sara [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Piaggi, Simona [Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Pisa University, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Facioni, Maria Sole [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Scarpato, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scarpato@unipi.it [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Research Center of Nutraceuticals and Food for Health, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We studied whether or not vincristine induced a bystander response in human lymphocytes. • Vincristine significantly increased MN frequencies in mononucleated recipient cells. • ROS or soluble proteins (IL-32 and TGF-β) may account for the observed response. - Abstract: Bystander effect is a known radiobiological effect, widely described using ionizing radiations and which, more recently, has also been related to chemical mutagens. In this study, we aimed to assess whether or not a bystander response can be induced in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes by vincristine, a chemotherapeutic mutagen acting as spindle poison, and by mitomycin-C, an alkylating agent already known to induce this response in human lymphoblastoid cells. Designing a modified ad hoc protocol for the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay, we detected the presence of a dose-dependent bystander response in untreated cultures receiving the conditioned medium (CM) from mitomycin-C (MMC) or vincristine (VCR) treated cultures. In the case of MMC, MN frequencies, expressed as micronucleated binucleates, were: 13.5 ± 1.41 at 6 μM, 22 ± 2.12 at 12 μM or 28.25 ± 5.13 at 15 μM vs. a control value of 4.75 ± 1.59. MN levels for VCR, expressed as micronucleated mononucleates were: 2.75 ± 0.88 at 0.0 μM, 27.25 ± 2.30 at 0.4 μM, 46.25 ± 1.94 at 0.8 μM, 98.25 ± 7.25 at 1.6 μM. To verify that no mutagen residual was transferred to recipient cultures together with the CM, we evaluated MN levels in cultures receiving the medium immediately after three washings following the chemical treatment (unconditioned medium). We further confirmed these results using a cell-mixing approach where untreated lymphocytes were co-cultured with donor cells treated with an effect-inducing dose of MMC or VCR. A distinct production pattern of both reactive oxygen species and soluble mediator proteins by treated cells may account for the differences observed in the manifestation of the

  15. Vincristine-induced bystander effect in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testi, Serena; Azzarà, Alessia; Giovannini, Caterina; Lombardi, Sara; Piaggi, Simona; Facioni, Maria Sole; Scarpato, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied whether or not vincristine induced a bystander response in human lymphocytes. • Vincristine significantly increased MN frequencies in mononucleated recipient cells. • ROS or soluble proteins (IL-32 and TGF-β) may account for the observed response. - Abstract: Bystander effect is a known radiobiological effect, widely described using ionizing radiations and which, more recently, has also been related to chemical mutagens. In this study, we aimed to assess whether or not a bystander response can be induced in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes by vincristine, a chemotherapeutic mutagen acting as spindle poison, and by mitomycin-C, an alkylating agent already known to induce this response in human lymphoblastoid cells. Designing a modified ad hoc protocol for the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay, we detected the presence of a dose-dependent bystander response in untreated cultures receiving the conditioned medium (CM) from mitomycin-C (MMC) or vincristine (VCR) treated cultures. In the case of MMC, MN frequencies, expressed as micronucleated binucleates, were: 13.5 ± 1.41 at 6 μM, 22 ± 2.12 at 12 μM or 28.25 ± 5.13 at 15 μM vs. a control value of 4.75 ± 1.59. MN levels for VCR, expressed as micronucleated mononucleates were: 2.75 ± 0.88 at 0.0 μM, 27.25 ± 2.30 at 0.4 μM, 46.25 ± 1.94 at 0.8 μM, 98.25 ± 7.25 at 1.6 μM. To verify that no mutagen residual was transferred to recipient cultures together with the CM, we evaluated MN levels in cultures receiving the medium immediately after three washings following the chemical treatment (unconditioned medium). We further confirmed these results using a cell-mixing approach where untreated lymphocytes were co-cultured with donor cells treated with an effect-inducing dose of MMC or VCR. A distinct production pattern of both reactive oxygen species and soluble mediator proteins by treated cells may account for the differences observed in the manifestation of the

  16. Allograft immunity in vitro. I. Cultivation conditions and mixed lymphocyte interaction of mouse peripheral lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, P.; Defendi, V.

    1970-01-01

    We have adapted mouse peripheral lymphocytes to culture as a preliminary step in designing a model for the study of allograft immunity in vitro. The isolation of peripheral leucocytes is facilitated by using Plasmagel® as an erythrocyte-agglutinating agent. The yield of leucocytes can be considerably increased by intravenous injection of the donor animals with supernatant fluid from Bordetella pertussis cultures and the lymphocytes thus mobilized react both to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and allogeneic stimulus, as do lymphocytes from untreated animals. Preparations which contain more than 25–50 RBC/WBC are refractory in the mixed lymphocyte interaction (MLI). The optimum cell density for the proliferative response is approximately 1–3 × 106 lymphocytes/ml. Various nutritive milieu were tested and found to have little influence on the MLI; both normal and suspension media behaved in a similar manner. PHA causes a vigorous proliferative response in mouse peripheral lymphocytes, the 3H–TdR incorporation values in PHA-containing cultures at peak point of stimulation (3rd day) being up to 1000 times those observed for control cultures. The allogeneic response in the MLI takes place later (6th to 7th day) and is weaker, about one-tenth the PHA response, when strains differing at the H-2 locus are used as cell donors. Because the specific proliferative response to allogeneic stimulus in mixed culture, regardless of the way it is measured, is indistinguishable from the response produced by other non-specific factors, these other factors must be critically excluded. It appears that supplementing the culture medium with low concentrations of certain lots of foetal calf or agamma-newborn-calf serum permits the study of the specific response at an optimum sensitivity. PMID:4315207

  17. Quantification of newly produced B and T lymphocytes in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimi Luigi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune defects occurring in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are responsible for the frequent occurrence of infections and autoimmune phenomena, and may be involved in the initiation and maintenance of the malignant clone. Here, we evaluated the quantitative defects of newly produced B and T lymphocytes. Methods The output of B and T lymphocytes from the production and maturation sites was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and healthy controls by quantifying kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs and T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs by a Real-Time PCR assay that simultaneously detects both targets. T-lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by six-color flow cytometric analysis. Data comparison was performed by two-sided Mann-Whitney test. Results KRECs level was reduced in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients studied at the very early stage of the disease, whereas the release of TRECs+ cells was preserved. Furthermore, the observed increase of CD4+ lymphocytes could be ascribed to the accumulation of CD4+ cells with effector memory phenotype. Conclusions The decreased number of newly produced B lymphocytes in these patients is likely related to a homeostatic mechanism by which the immune system balances the abnormal B-cell expansion. This feature may precede the profound defect of humoral immunity characterizing the later stages of the disease.

  18. Evaluation of conidia production and mycelial growth in solid culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FATIMAYALBERTO

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... liquid culture media of different species of ..... Jackson MA, McGuire MR, Lacey LA, Wraight SP (1997). Liquid culture ... fermentation and the substrate in the production of Trichoderma ... Conidiation induction in Penicillium.

  19. Latent central nervous disorders observed in the acute lymphocytic leukemia children after treatment. Comparison between the evaluation of electroencephalogram and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itokazu, Naoya; Kiue, Kouichiro; Inoue, Shinobu; Ohba, Kenichi; Sonoda, Tohru; Sugimoto, Tohru

    1996-01-01

    For 8 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) which finished the treatment, the existence of the latent central nervous disorders was examined and was compared of MRI and brain wave. In the MRI, the T2-weighted image showed the large number of nodule abnormal high signal lesions in the cerebral white matter in 2 of 8 patients, and one of these patients was accompanied by the slight cerebrum atrophy. There was the diffuse high signal tendency of periventricular white matter and the slight expansion of ventriculus cerebri in one patient. In the brain wave, there was the abnormality of the basic pattern in 3 of 8 patients, and there was the slowing tendency in 2. There was no case which showed the paroxysm extraordinary wave. The patient who showed the abnormality by the MRI was all accompanied by the brain wave abnormality. The frequency of the latent central nervous disorders incidence in ALL treatment was high (3/8 on the brain wave, 5/8 on the MRI). The brain wave was supersensitively able to detect the failure than the MRI, if the finding of the basic pattern is evaluated in detail. (A.N.)

  20. Evaluation of a Cultural Competence Assessment for Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Skidmore, Susan T.; Nelson, Judith A.; Jones, Brandolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, public schools enroll culturally and linguistically diverse student populations and teacher preparation programs must assess the cultural competence of preservice teachers. Yet, few adequately tested measures of teacher cultural competence are available. In this research study, a sample of 396 preservice teachers were surveyed to…

  1. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  2. A Critical Evaluation of Quantitative Measures of the Quality of Arts and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed and meas......Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed...

  3. Manufacturing porcine islets: culture at 22 °C has no advantage above culture at 37 °C: a gene expression evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kate R; Martins, Kyra V; Murtaugh, Michael P; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing process of islets includes a culture step which was originally introduced to ease the logistics of procedures in preparing the graft and transplant recipient. It has been suggested that culture at room temperature has an advantage over culture at 37 °C, in part by reducing immunogenicity via preferential elimination of contaminating cells (such as passenger leukocytes) within islets. We investigated this using islets isolated from pancreata of adult pigs. Porcine islets were isolated from three donors and cultured at 37 °C for 1 day, and then under three different conditions: 37 °C for 6 days (condition A); 22 °C for 6 days (condition B); or 22 °C for 5 days followed by 37 °C for 1 day (condition C). Recovery was assessed by DNA measurement, viability by oxygen consumption rate normalized for DNA (OCR/DNA), and gene expression by RT-PCR for a series of 9 lymphocyte markers, 11 lymphokines and chemokines, and 14 apoptotic and stress markers. Post-culture islet recoveries were similar for the three culture conditions. Average OCR/DNA values were 129-159 nmol/min·mgDNA before culture, and 259-291, 204-212, and 207-228 nmol/min·mgDNA, respectively, for culture under conditions A, B, and C, respectively. Irrespective of culture condition, examined gene expression in all three series of lymphocyte markers, lymphokines and chemokines, and apoptotic and stress markers manifested a statistically significant decrease upon culture for 7 days. This decrease was most dramatic for condition A: in particular, most of lymphocyte markers showed a >10-fold reduction and also six markers in the lymphokine and chemokine series; these reductions are consistent with the elimination of immune cells present within islets during culture. The reduction was less for apoptotic and stress markers. For culture under condition B, the reduction in gene expression was less, and culture under condition C resulted in gene expression levels similar to those

  4. Evaluation of safety of Hammada salicornica in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hosseini Hamedani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A pharmaceutical products that is planned to be used in clinic, should not only have beneficial effects but also be safe too. Preclinical studies in animals are costly and need considering ethical issues. Cell culture can be used before animal tests. Considering useful effects of these methods, we have evaluated safety of total methanol extract of Hammada salicornica and its aqueous and petroleum ether fractions in cell culture.Methods: Total methanol extract was prepared with the standard method of maceration. Different fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation and the extracts were then dried with rotary evaporator. After determination of bactericidal concentration of the extracts, 400 ug/mL, the cytotoxicity was tested at various concentrations regarding the minimum antibacterial concentration by MTT test. Hep-2c and VERO cell lines were used in MTT test. A range of concentrations (10-500 ug/mL of the extracts were prepared and were added to about 70% confluent 96 well plates. After exposure for 48 h, MTT solution was added to the wells, and 4 h later formazan crystals were solubilized and optical densities were read at 570 nm. Results: Cytotoxicity Index was calculated and significance test was performed using t-test comparing the Index of the test and control group at each concentration. No significant difference was observed. Conclusion: Various fractions of H. salicornica were not cytotoxic at concentrations above bactericidal concentrations (up to 500 ug/mL. The results need to be confirmed in animal studies before using in human subjects.

  5. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  6. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology

  7. Evaluation of staff cultural awareness before and after attending cultural awareness training in an Australian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rose; Martin, Catherine; Smith, Tammy

    2014-10-01

    Cultural awareness of emergency department staff is important to ensure delivery of appropriate health care to people from all ethnic groups. Cultural awareness training has been found to increase knowledge about other cultures and is widely used as a means of educating staff, however, debate continues as to the effectiveness of these programs. To determine if an accredited cultural awareness training program affected emergency department staff knowledge, familiarity, attitude of and perception towards Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. One group pre-test and post-test intervention study compared the cultural awareness of 44 emergency department staff towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people before and after training. The cultural awareness training was delivered in six hours over three sessions and was taught by an accredited cultural awareness trainer. The cultural awareness training changed perception but did not affect attitude towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in this group. Future strategies to improve staff cultural awareness need to be investigated, developed, implemented and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lymphocyte interactions with the extracellular matrix of malignant cells in vítro: A morphological and immunocytochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1993-01-01

    The interactions of lymphocytes with the glycosaminoglycans-protease-membrane extracellular matrix, produced by mixed cell cultures of normal with malignant cell clones, were examined. Pre-activated and activated heterologous peripheral lymphocytes were used. Co-cultures of activated lymphocytes with al1 cell types used, formed identical cell nodules. Histology of cell nodules showed that activated lymphocytes were cytolytic to pure normal or malignant cell clo...

  9. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Shiota

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives were to compare the numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from asthmatic patients and from healthy subjects, and to determine the effect of inhaled anti-asthmatic steroid therapy on these cell numbers. Hypertonic saline inhalation was used to non-invasively induce sputum samples in 34 patients with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy subjects. The sputum samples were reduced with dithioerythritol and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. To assess the effect of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP on induced sputum, numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in sputum also were evaluated after 4 weeks of BDP inhalation treatment in seven asthmatic patients. An adequate sample was obtained in 85.3% of patients with asthma and in 79.2% of the healthy subjects. Induced sputum from patients with asthma had increased numbers of lymphocytes (P = 0.009; CD4+ cells (P = 0.044; CD4+ cells-bearing interleukin-2 receptor (CD25; P = 0.016; and CD4+ cells bearing human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR (P = 0.033. CD8+ cells were not increased in asthmatic patients. In patients treated with inhaled steroids, numbers of lymphocytes, CD4+ cells, CD25-bearing CD4+ cells and HLA-DR-bearing CD4+ cells in sputum decreased from pretreatment numbers (P = 0.016, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Analysis of lymphocytes in induced sputum by flow cytometry is useful in assessing bronchial inflammation, and activated CD4+ lymphocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.

  10. Evaluation of chemical, botanical and cultural managements of termites control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufera, Jiregna Tasisa; Fufa, Tena Gobena

    2014-01-15

    The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area.

  11. Cell-cycle research with synchronous cultures: an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, C. E.; Thornton, M.; Grover, N. B.

    2001-01-01

    The baby-machine system, which produces new-born Escherichia coli cells from cultures immobilized on a membrane, was developed many years ago in an attempt to attain optimal synchrony with minimal disturbance of steady-state growth. In the present article, we put forward a model to describe the behaviour of cells produced by this method, and provide quantitative evaluation of the parameters involved, at each of four different growth rates. Considering the high level of selection achievable with this technique and the natural dispersion in interdivision times, we believe that the output of the baby machine is probably close to optimal in terms of both quality and persistence of synchrony. We show that considerable information on events in the cell cycle can be obtained from populations with age distributions very much broader than those achieved with the baby machine and differing only modestly from steady state. The data presented here, together with the long and fruitful history of findings employing the baby-machine technique, suggest that minimisation of stress on cells is the single most important factor for successful cell-cycle analysis.

  12. An Evaluation of Sisters of Nia: A Cultural Program for African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Butler, Deborah S.; Allison, Kevin W.; Davis, Trina

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a cultural intervention for increasing cultural values and beliefs. Fifty-nine African American girls in early adolescence participated in a 15-session cultural program or in an activity comparison group. Measures of ethnic identity, gender roles, and relational aggression were administered…

  13. A guideline for comprehensive evaluation of a licensee's effort to cultivate safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Ishii, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Japan had held excellent performance in safety in the world during 90's. However recent events stem from organizational factors and defects of safety culture are pointed out in their contexts. In order to reduce accidents caused by organizational factors, the Japanese Regulatory body NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) decided to evaluate a licensee's effort for the cultivation of safety culture, and to order all licensses to add the provision of cultivating safety culture to their safety preservation rules. The inspection for the new safety preservation rules started in December, 2007. For a measure of evaluation by resident inspectors, NISA and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) prepared a guideline for the prevention of degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. In this guideline, 14 items were defined as the components of the safety culture or as the viewpoints to evaluate the effort made to prevent any degradation of safety culture and organizational climate in the daily safety preservation activities. The 14 items are also used to establish the method to comprehensively evaluate the effort to prevent degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. This method consists of 10 steps: two steps to taken prior to start of the evaluation, two steps to be taken during the evaluation period, 5 steps to be taken during a comprehensive evaluation period and a final step to be taken for comprehensive findings for safety culture. This paper mainly describes the viewpoints to evaluate comprehensively a licensee's effort for cultivation of safety culture. (author)

  14. Evaluation of chemokine receptors (CCRs expression on peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kishore Tiwari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Mortality and morbidity from the complication of aortic aneurysm remain very high. Aortic size index, which classify thoracic aortic aneurysm patients in three risk groups for aortic rupture prediction. Recent data support that aortic wall remodeling is a dynamic process with active involvement of the chronic inflammation and immunological system. Aim of our study is to evaluate expression level of chemokine receptors known to be involved in the T-cells migration and to correlate them with aortic size index. Materials & Methods: Total 20 patients undergoing surgery for ascending aortic aneurysm and/or aortic valve surgery were enrolled. Aortic size index was calculated. Preoperatively blood samples collected. By flowcytometry and dual parameter dot plot technology percentage of positivity of CCR5 on these T-cell subsets were quantified. Results: Mean age of the patients was 67±5.93 years. Majority of patients had hypertension. Mean ascending aortic diameter was 42.1±8.14 mm. Mean Aortic size Index was 22.21±3.38 mm/m2. A statistical significance has observed between aortic size index and the expression of CCR5 on total CD4 positive T-cells (p-0.0949, and between aortic size index and CCR5 expression on the total CD3 positive T-cells (p-0.0293. Significant correlation observed between ASI and CCR5 expression on the CD8+/CD3+ T-cell subset (p-0.0183. Similarly, strong positive relationship between ASI and the expression of CCR5 on the cytotoxic CD28-/CD4+ T-cell subset (p-0.0055. Activated state of cytotoxic CD28-/CD4+ cell also correlated with aortic size index (p-0.0668.Conclusion: We conclude that T-cell mediated cytotoxic mechanism driven by CCR5 play an important role in the pathophysiology of the thoracic aortic aneurysm.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:23-27.

  15. Evaluation of empirical treatment for blood culture-negative endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, Estelle; Gouriet, Frédérique; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Vecten, Maude; Saby, Ludivine; Hubert, Sandrine; Salaun, Erwan; Theron, Alexis; Grisoli, Dominique; Lavoute, Cécile; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the main causes of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE). Few studies concerning BCNE treatment (due to previous antibiotics used or fastidious pathogens) are available. We performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of our therapeutic protocol in BCNE, based on compliance with the protocol, outcome and 1 year mortality. We collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively cases of BCNE between 2002 and 2014, using a simplified and standardized protocol developed by our multidisciplinary team. We apply two kinds of protocols to treat BCNE, which include only four intravenous antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin and amphotericin B. We had 177 patients with definite BCNE. There were 154 (87.0%) patients treated with both appropriate antimicrobial agents and appropriate duration of treatment. We analysed the causes of inappropriate treatment in 13 (7.3%) cases and inappropriate duration in 10 (5.6%) cases. The treatment changes were justified in all cases except one of discharge against medical advice. The fatality rate was 5.1% (nine cases) and all deaths occurred in the group of patients who were treated with appropriate treatment; however, four deaths were not attributable to empirical treatment failure. Concerning the other deaths, the lack of surgical management, in association with empirical treatment, could explain our protocol's failure, such as poorly tolerated surgery. Our protocol is efficient and our mortality rate was low, compared with the literature review. This may result from a strategy that uses a sampling procedure and a standardized protocol at the same time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Evaluation of the organizational cultural competence of a community health center: a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Rebecca; Olavarria, Marcela; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim; Marchant, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Cultural competence is an important component of client-centered care in health promotion and community health services, especially considering the changing demographics of North America. Although a number of tools for evaluating cultural competence have been developed, few studies have reported on the results of organizational cultural competence evaluations in health care or social services settings. This article aims to fill this gap by providing a description of a cultural competence evaluation of a community health center serving a diverse population. Data collection included reviewing documents, and surveying staff, management, and the Board of Directors. The organization fully met 28 of 53 standards of cultural competence, partially met 21 standards, and did not meet 2 standards, and 2 standards could not be assessed due to missing information. The advantages and lessons learned from this organizational cultural competence evaluation are discussed. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Robot system for preparing lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Furukawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Koki; Tabuchi, Hiroyoshi; Okabe, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Towards the automatization of the scoring of chromosome aberrations in radiation dosimetry with the emphasis on the improvement of biological preparations, the conventional culture and harvesting method was modified. Based on this modified method, a culture and harvest robotic system (CHROSY) for preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the following. 1) Starting culture with purified lymphocytes in a fixed cell number. 2) Avoiding the loss of cells in changing the liquids following centrifugalization. 3) Keeping the quantity of the liquids to be applied to the treatments of cells fixed. 4) Building a system even a beginner can handle. System features are as follows. 1) Operation system: Handling robot having 5 degrees of freedom; a rotator incubator with an automatic sliding door; units for setting and removing pipette tips; a centrifuge equipped with a position adjuster and an automatic sliding door; two aluminium block baths; two nozzles as pipettes and aspirators connected to air pumps; a capping unit with a nozzle for CO 2 gas; a compressor; and an air manipulated syringe. 2) Control system; NEC PC-9801RX21 with CRT; and program written in Basic and Assembly languages on MS-DOS. It took this system 2 hours and 25 minutes to harvest 2 cultures. A fairly good chromosome slide was made from the sample harvested by CHROSY automatically. (author)

  18. An evaluation of safety culture initiatives at BNSF Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Major safety culture (SC) initiatives initiated in the FRA Office of Research, Technology and Development (RT&D), such as Clear Signal for Action (CSA), the Investigation of Safety Related Occurrences Protocol (ISROP), the Participative Safety Rules ...

  19. Evaluating the European capital of culture that never was : The case of BrabantStad 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Major events such as the European capital of culture (ECOC) are becoming more important as tools for economic, social and cultural regeneration, and therefore it also becomes more important to monitor and evaluate their effects. This article analyses the development of the evaluation process for the

  20. Identifying the Evaluative Impulse in Local Culture: Insights from West African Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Attention to cultural competence has significantly increased in the human services over the last two decades. Evaluators have long had similar concerns and have made a more concentrated effort in recent years to adapt evaluation methodology to varying cultural contexts. Little of this literature, however, has focused on the extent to which local…

  1. Evaluation of an mRNA lipofection procedure for human dendritic cells and induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against enhanced green fluorescence protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kozue; Fukui, Mikiko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Hamanaka, Yuichiro; Imai, Kohzoh; Hinoda, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    We utilized an mRNA lipofection procedure in human dendritic cells (DCs) and attempted to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). EGFP mRNA was transfected into phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes or adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived DCs using a liposomal reagent. Lipofection efficiency was measured by flow cytometry. In PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, increasing concentrations of liposome or mRNA increased EGFP expression levels by up to 64.4%, but caused a decrease in cell viability. A similar trend was also observed in DCs. For 70% DC viability, the concentration of liposomes was 24 microl/ml, and the mRNA concentration was 6 microg/ml. Under these conditions, ELISPOT and (51)Cr release assays were performed on CD8+ T cells stimulated twice with EGFP mRNA-transfected DCs. The number of interferon-gamma-producing cells was increased when the CD8+ T cells were cocultured for 24 h with PHA-stimulated lymphocytes transfected with EGFP mRNA. The level of specific lysis of EGFP mRNA-transfected DCs also increased to approximately 80%, with an effector to target ratio of 40:1. These data suggest that EGFP is immunogenic for human T cells, confirming that our lipofection procedure may be of use for inducing specific CTLs. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  3. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of Permacol as a cultured skin equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, T M; Cambrey, A; Williams, G; Sanders, R; Green, C J

    2008-12-01

    Skin loss following severe burn requires prompt wound closure to avoid such complications as fluid and electrolyte imbalance, infection, immune suppression, and pain. In clinical situations in which insufficient donor skin is available, the development of cultured skin equivalents (dermal matrices seeded with keratinocytes and fibroblasts) may provide a useful alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a porcine-derived dermal collagen matrix (Permacol) to function as a cultured skin equivalent in supporting the growth of keratinocytes in vitro and providing cover to full thickness wounds in the BALB C/nude mouse model. A histological comparison was against Glycerol treated-Ethylene Oxide Sterilised Porcine Dermis (Gly-EO Dermis) which has successfully been used as a cultured skin equivalent in previous studies. Both Gly-EO Dermis and to a lesser extent Permacol were able to support the growth of cultured keratinocytes following a 16-day period of cell culture, however, this study was only able to demonstrate the presence of an epidermal layer on Gly-EO dermis 2 weeks after grafting onto full-thickness wounds in the BALB C/nude mouse model.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of 3 H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  7. Evaluation of radio-induced DNA damage and their repair in human lymphocytes by comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis; Avaliacao do dano radioinduzido no DNA e reparo em linfocitos humanos pelo metodo do cometa (single cell gel electrophoresis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Patricia A. do; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The comet assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis technique, permits to evaluate quantitatively DNA breakage induced by chemical and physical agents at the level of the single cell. The present paper refers to the construction of dose-response curves to DNA damage and repair studies in human peripheral lymphocytes, utilizing the comet assay for the radiosensitivity analysis. So, the blood samples were obtained from healthy donors (40-50 year old), irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source (GAMMACEL 220) with doses of 0.17, 0.25, 0.57, 1.10, 2.12 and 4.22 Gy (0.59 Gy/min.) and processed 1 and 24 hours after the exposition. Results obtained showed a increase in the total lenght of comet (DNA migration) as a function of radiation dose in samples processed 1 and 24 hours after the treatment. The DNA lesion in irradiated lymphocytes with 4.22 Gy (means value of 101.4 {mu}m) were 3.4 times higher than in the untreated lymphocytes (mean value of 30 {mu}m) instead of 24 hours after the irradiation were 1.5 times higher (mean value of 46.3 {mu}m). This reduction on DNA repair occurred in these cells. It was also possible visualized the presence of subpopulations of the cells with different sensitivity and repair capacity to ionizing radiation in these donors. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Stimulation of allogeneic lymphocytes by skin epidermal cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of skin epidermal cells to induce allogeneic lymphocytes into proliferation was examined in mixed skin cell-lymphocyte culture reaction (MSLR). The stimulatng capacity of skin cells was reduced significantly by trypsin digestion, although the damage was repaired by incubation at 37 C for 3 hr. The optimal concentration of mitomycin C for treatment of stimulating cells in the MSLR differed from that in mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR). Irradiation rendered them three to four times more stimulatory than did mitomycin C. Removal of adherent cells from responding cells by passage through a nylon-wool column gave a substantial elevation of the MSLR. The lymphocytes cocultured with skin cells in the primary MSLR incorporated 3 H-thymidine, with the peak at the 6th day of culture. If the lymphocytes primed in the MSLR were restimulated with skin cells from the same stimulating strain, the primed lymphocytes responded promptly and in great magnitude

  9. Toward Defining, Measuring, and Evaluating LGBT Cultural Competence for Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S.; Andres Bedoya, C.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    A central part of providing evidence-based practice is appropriate cultural competence to facilitate psychological assessment and intervention with diverse clients. At a minimum, cultural competence with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people involves adequate scientific and supervised practical training, with increasing depth and complexity across training levels. In order to further this goal, we offer 28 recommendations of minimum standards moving toward ideal training for LGBT-specific cultural competence. We review and synthesize the relevant literature to achieve and assess competence across the various levels of training (doctoral, internship, post-doctoral, and beyond) in order to guide the field towards best practices. These recommendations are aligned with educational and practice guidelines set forth by the field and informed by other allied professions in order to provide a roadmap for programs, faculty, and trainees in improving the training of psychologists to work with LGBT individuals. PMID:26279609

  10. Radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Lee, Tae Bum; Nam, Taek Keun; Kee, Keun Hong; Choi, Cheol Hee

    2003-01-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry, and investigated the possibility of using this method, with a small amount of blood, and the time and dose dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from the heparinized venous blood of 11 healthy volunteers, 8 men and 3 women, with each 10 ml of blood being divided into 15 samples. The blood lymphocytes were irradiated using a linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2.4 Gy/min, to deliver doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy. The control samples, and irradiated cells, were maintained in culture medium for 24, 48 and 72 hours following the irradiation. The number of apoptotic cells after the in vitro X-irradiation was measured by flow cytometry after incubation periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours. We also observed the apoptotic cells using a DNA fragmentation assay and electron microscopy. The rate of spontaneous apoptosis increased in relation to the time interval following irradiation (1.761±0.161, 3.563±0.564, 11.098±2.849, at 24, 48, and 72 hours). The apoptotic cells also increased in the samples irradiated with 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy, in a radiation dose and time interval after irradiation manner, with the apoptosis being too great at 72 hours after irradiation. The dose-response curves were characterized by an initial steep increase in the number of apoptotic cells for irradiation doses below 2 Gy, with a flattening of the curves as the dose approached towards 5 Gy. The flow cytometric assay technique yielded adequate data, and required less than 1 mL of blood. The time and dose dependence of the radiation-induced apoptosis, was also shown. It is suggested that the adequate time interval required for the evaluation of apoptosis would be 24 to 48 hours after blood sampling

  11. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved

  12. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved.

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Hospital Culture of Transitions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Mark; Bena, James; Albert, Nancy M; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-10-01

    Ineffective or inefficient transitions threaten patient safety, hinder communication, and worsen patient outcomes. The Hospital Culture of Transitions (H-CulT) survey was designed to assess a hospital's organizational culture related to within-hospital transitions in care involving patient movement. In this article, psychometric properties of the H-CulT survey were examined to assess and refine the hospital culture of transitions. A cross-sectional, multicenter, multidisciplinary correlational design and survey methods were used to examine the psychometric properties of the H-CulT survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to quantify the accuracy of the previously identified structure. Specifically, the analysis involved the principal axis factor method with an oblique rotation, based on a polychoric correlation matrix. A sample of 492 respondents from 13 diverse hospitals participated. Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was 0.88, indicating strong internal consistency. Seven subscales emerged and were labeled: Hospital Leadership, Unit Leadership, My Unit's Culture, Other Units' Culture, Busy Workload, Priority of Patient Care, and Use of Data. Correlations between subscales ranged from 0.07 to 0.52, providing evidence that the subscales did not measure the same construct. Subscale correlations with the total score were near or above 0.50 (p <0.001). Use of a factor-loading cutoff of 0.40 resulted in the elimination of 12 items because of weak associations with the topic. The H-CulT is a psychometrically sound and practical survey for assessing hospital culture related to patient flow during transitions in care. Survey results may prompt quality improvement interventions that enhance in-hospital transitions and improve staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. "A Completely New Approach" to Indigenous Cultural Heritage: Evaluating the Queensland Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. O'Neill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003 challenged the hegemony that Western, archaeological methodologies has held over Indigenous cultural heritage in Australia. By choosing to relinquish state control and authority over cultural heritage in favour of the expertise of Indigenous people, the Act created a unique and innovative heritage policy. Over the 10 years the Act has been in force, it has seen a variety of approaches adopted as part of myriad projects. This has created a mature field of practice for investigation and analysis. This article examines and critiques the Act to determine its successes and weaknesses. In doing so, it offers opportunities for other policy-makers to consider as part of policy review.

  15. Kinetics of human lymphocyte division and chromosomal radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, N O; Bianchi, M S; Larramendy, M [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular, La Plata (Argentinia)

    1979-12-01

    Human blood from normal donors was irradiated with 200 R during the G/sub 0/ phase, and the X-ray sensitivity of early and late dividing lymphocytes in culture was expressed as percentage of induced dicentrics. Cells in first or subsequent divisions were individualized by BrdU-Giemsa techniques. Lymphocytes in the first division at 40, 44 and 72 h after the start of culture had a lower sensitivity to radiation than lymphocytes making their first division at 48, 52 and 56 h. It was observed that: (a) the combination of radiation followed by BrdU did not increase the clastoyenic action of X-rays, (b)X-rays in the dose and duration used in our cultures did not increase the frequency of SCEs, and (c) minor changes in culture conditions probably influenced the frequency of SCEs.

  16. Regional and systemic distribution of anti-tumor x anti-CD3 heteroaggregate antibodies and cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in a human colon cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.; Ramsey, P.S.; Kerr, L.A.; McKean, D.J.; Donohue, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibody (317G5) covalently coupled to an anti-CD3 antibody (OKT3) produces a heteroaggregate (HA) antibody that can target PBL to lyse tumor cells expressing the appropriate tumor Ag. The i.v. and i.p. distribution of radiolabeled HA antibody 317G5 x OKT3 and of radiolabeled cultured human PBL were studied in athymic nude mice bearing solid intraperitoneal tumor established from the human colon tumor line, LS174T. Mice were injected with 125I-labeled HA antibody, 125I-labeled anti-tumor mAb, or 111In-labeled PBL, and at designated timepoints tissues were harvested and measured for radioactivity. 125I-317G5 x OKT3 localized specifically to tumor sites. Tumor radioactivity levels (percent injected dose/gram) were lower with 125I-317G5 x OKT3 HA antibody than with 125I-317G5 anti-tumor mAb, but were similar to levels reported for other anti-tumor mAb. The major difference in radioactivity levels observed between i.v. and i.p. administration of 125I-317G5 x OKT3 was an increase in hepatic radioactivity after i.v. HA antibody administration. HA antibodies produced from F(ab')2 fragments, which exhibit decreased m. w. and decreased Fc receptor-mediated binding, demonstrated improved tumor:tissue ratios as compared to intact antibody HA. 125I-317G5 F(ab')2 x OKT3 F(ab')2 antibody levels were equivalent to intact HA antibody levels in tumor, but were lower than intact HA antibody levels in the blood, bowel, and liver. Tumor:bowel ratios (20:1 at 48 h) were highest when 317G5 F(ab')2 x OKT3 F(ab')2 was injected i.p. Autoradiography confirmed that anti-tumor x anti-CD3 HA antibodies localized specifically to intraperitoneal tumor; that i.p. administered HA antibodies penetrated tumor directly; and that i.v. administered HA antibodies distributed along tumor vasculature

  17. Developing a cultural context for conducting a neuropsychological evaluation with a culturally diverse client: the ECLECTIC framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Daryl E M

    2018-02-20

    With the increasing diversification of the American population, the discipline of neuropsychology is challenged to develop appropriate tools and conceptual models to meet its evolving client base. Thus far, the focus has been on developing appropriate tests and norms to obtain accurate testing data. By contrast, far less attention has been paid to the contextual impact of culture on an evaluation. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming. This manuscript introduces the ECLECTIC framework for conceptualizing different facets of culture pertinent for understanding a culturally diverse client when conducting a neuropsychological evaluation. Individual components of the framework (E: education and literacy; C: culture and acculturation; L: language; E: economics; C: communication; T: testing situation: comfort and motivation; I: intelligence conceptualization; and C: context of immigration) are introduced and potential biases to fairness in testing are described. In this manner, the framework specifies how individual facets of culture can impact neuropsychological test performance. Clinical implementation of the framework will be illustrated with a case sample. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed as well as recommendations for implementation.

  18. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  19. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans

  20. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S

    2002-12-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans.

  1. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kamada, Nanao; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Gusev, B.I.; Sakerbaev, A.K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238, 239, 400 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to γ-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years. (author)

  2. Evaluation of culture media for growth and sporulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colocasia esculenta) in Cameroon and no information is yet available on its culture on common media. Six artificial media, V6 juice agar, V8 juice agar, V8m juice agar, potato dextrose agar, onion agar and taro leaf agar were assessed in vitro to ...

  3. A Systemic Approach to Culturally Responsive Assessment Practices and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, June

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier paper, Slee and Keenan demonstrated that it was possible for tertiary education institutions to design culturally responsive assessment procedures that complied with standardised assessment policy. The authors' paper described "Growing Our Own," an initiative between Charles Darwin University and Northern Territory Catholic…

  4. Unruly grandmothers, ghosts and ancestors: Chinese elders and the importance of culture in dementia evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kathryn S; Di Minno, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the cultural clashes that occurred when Chinese patients at an Alzheimer's center in California were evaluated for dementia. Lack of familiarity with Chinese culture made the culturally mainstream American clinicians at this center more likely to misinterpret the behavior of elderly Chinese-speaking patients and their families and, thereby, more likely to misdiagnose such patients and suggest culturally inappropriate recommendations. This tendency was reduced when relevant cultural knowledge was incorporated into the clinical evaluation. The evaluation process at this clinic and two patient examples are discussed to illustrate that familiarity with a patient's cultural background is essential for accurate diagnosis and referral. This ethnographic case study places the evaluation process in one particular clinic in cultural context and is suggestive in the way that exploratory qualitative research is meant to be, rather than broadly representative of dementia clinics or clinicians as a whole. However, problems created by cultural clashes at this clinic do suggest that what may be happening at other dementia clinics as they encounter increasingly more patients from diverse cultural backgrounds is an important empirical question worthy of further research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

  5. Safety Culture Evaluation at Research Reactors of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.A.; Saeed, A.; Shah, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of safety culture was presented by IAEA in document INSAG-4 (1991), delineated as “assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establish that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance”. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of safety culture at research reactors of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Evaluating the safety culture of a particular organization poses some challenges which can be resolved by using safety culture evaluation models like those of Sachein (1992) and Harber-Barrier(1998). In PAEC, safety culture is the integral part of management system which not only promotes safety culture throughout the organization but also enhances its significance. To strengthen the safety culture, PAEC is also participating in a number of international and regional meetings of IAEA regarding safety culture. PAEC and the national regulator Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) are also arranging workshops, peer reviews, sharing operational experiences and interacting with IAEA missions to enhance its capabilities in the field of safety culture. The Directorate General of Safety (DOS) is a corporate office of PAEC for safety and regulatory matters. DOS is in the process of implementing a program to evaluate safety culture at nuclear installations of PAEC to ensure that safety culture is included as a vital segment of the Integral Management System of the establishment. In this regard, training sessions and lectures on safety culture evaluation are normally conducted in PAEC for awareness and enhancement of the safety culture program. Safety culture is also addressed in PNRA Regulations like PAK-909 and PAK-913. In this paper we will focus on the safety culture evaluation in our research reactors, i.e., PARR-1 and PARR-2. The evaluation results will be based on observations, interviews of employees, group discussions

  6. Does Teacher Evaluation Mediate the Effect of Cultural Capital on Educational Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asta Breinholt; Jæger, Mads Meier

    This study analyzes whether teachers' evaluations of children's academic skills mediate the effect of cultural capital on educational performance. We use ECLS-K data with repeated measures on children in 1st, 3rd and 5th grade and apply fixed effects models, that control for unobserved time...... invariant child and family characteristics. The analysis shows that teacher evaluations have positive effect on educational performance, but that cultural capital has no effect on teacher evaluations. Instead cultural capital has a direct positive effect on educational performance....

  7. Cross-cultural evaluations of avatar facial expressions designed by Western and Japanese Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study is to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological study in human facial expression recognition. Our previous study using Japanese designed avatars showed there are cultural differences in interpreting avatar facial...... expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions. This paper summarizes the early results of the successive experiment that uses western designed avatars. We observed tendencies of cultural...

  8. Cultural analysis: The missing factor in root-cause evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a model that can focus attention on appropriate cultural targets of inquiry, provide a completion criterion for root-cause completeness, and illustrate results. The illustration provided is as follows: Discover the root causes(s) related to issues of a nuclear reactor operator sleeping, inattention to duties, failure to adhere to procedures, and management inaction or adequate action

  9. The educational evaluation in Brazil: from the transfer cultural to emancipatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ignacio Calderón

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the historical trajectory of educational assessment in the Brazilian academic scenario, pointing out the influence of American literature on the Brazilian scientific production, its models break as well as the efforts in order to construct a theory and a practical assessment applied to the Brazilian reality. It supports the hypothesis that educational evaluation is still an area of knowledge that is in process of setting up and strengthening in the country, the last two decades enabled them to overcome the named «cultural transfer» in the field of scientific production, allowing the constitution and hegemony of an approach grounded on a emancipatory political-pedagogical character in the scientific community

  10. Cultural competency assessment tool for hospitals: evaluating hospitals' adherence to the culturally and linguistically appropriate services standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Brown, Julie; Pradhan, Rohit; Rubin, Kelly L; Schiller, Cameron; Hays, Ron D

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. national standards for culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health care provide guidelines on policies and practices aimed at developing culturally competent systems of care. The Cultural Competency Assessment Tool for Hospitals (CCATH) was developed as an organizational tool to assess adherence to the CLAS standards. First, we describe the development of the CCATH and estimate the reliability and validity of the CCATH measures. Second, we discuss the managerial implications of the CCATH as an organizational tool to assess cultural competency. We pilot tested an initial draft of the CCATH, revised it based on a focus group and cognitive interviews, and then administered it in a field test with a sample of California hospitals. The reliability and validity of the CCATH were evaluated using factor analysis, analysis of variance, and Cronbach's alphas. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 12 CCATH composites: leadership and strategic planning, data collection on inpatient population, data collection on service area, performance management systems and quality improvement, human resources practices, diversity training, community representation, availability of interpreter services, interpreter services policies, quality of interpreter services, translation of written materials, and clinical cultural competency practices. All the CCATH scales had internal consistency reliability of .65 or above, and the reliability was .70 or above for 9 of the 12 scales. Analysis of variance results showed that not-for-profit hospitals have higher CCATH scores than for-profit hospitals in five CCATH scales and higher CCATH scores than government hospitals in two CCATH scales. The CCATH showed adequate psychometric properties. Managers and policy makers can use the CCATH as a tool to evaluate hospital performance in cultural competency and identify and target improvements in hospital policies and practices that undergird the provision

  11. Evaluation of two modified culture media for Leishmania infantum cultivation versus different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Germano; Galante, Antonella; Lo Verde, Vincenza; Migliazzo, Antonella; Reale, Stefano; Lupo, Tiziana; Piazza, Maria; Vitale, Fabrizio; Bruno, Federica

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the cultivation of Leishmania promastigotes without the use of common, semisolid culture media such as Evans' modified Tobie's medium (EMTM), liquid RPMI 1640, and Peptone-yeast extract medium (P-Y). Although EMTM medium permits the growth of a high number of parasites, it is technically difficult to prepare as it requires the use of fresh rabbit blood from animals bred on farms, while RPMI 1640 and P-Y show lower growth rates than the EMTM. There is, therefore, a need to develop new blood-free and time-saving culture systems. The aim of this paper is to propose new modified microbiological media, named RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, to isolate Leishmania and cultivate parasites for research and diagnostic purposes. This study compares classic culture media to the new media, RPMI-PY and Tobie-PY, and demonstrates that the new media have superior performance in terms of time and parasitic load. The growth rate of the parasite was significantly higher at 24, 48, and 72 hr cultivation, based on counts using Bürker's chambers, when compared to classic media. This study was carried out at the National References Centre for Leishmaniasis (C.Re.Na.L.) where the isolation procedures are conducted daily from a number of different biological matrices.

  12. Does lean management improve patient safety culture? An extensive evaluation of safety culture in a radiotherapy institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Houben, Ruud; Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    The importance of a safety culture to maximize safety is no longer questioned. However, achieving sustainable culture improvements are less evident. Evidence is growing for a multifaceted approach, where multiple safety interventions are combined. Lean management is such an integral approach to improve safety, quality and efficiency and therefore, could be expected to improve the safety culture. This paper presents the effects of lean management activities on the patient safety culture in a radiotherapy institute. Patient safety culture was evaluated over a three year period using triangulation of methodologies. Two surveys were distributed three times, workshops were performed twice, data from an incident reporting system (IRS) was monitored and results were explored using structured interviews with professionals. Averages, chi-square, logistical and multi-level regression were used for analysis. The workshops showed no changes in safety culture, whereas the surveys showed improvements on six out of twelve dimensions of safety climate. The intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased in accordance with the decreasing number of reports in the IRS. However, the intention to take action in order to prevent future incidents improved (factorial survey presented β: 1.19 with p: 0.01). Due to increased problem solving and improvements in equipment, the number of incidents decreased. Although the intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased, employees experienced sustained safety awareness and an increased intention to structurally improve. The patient safety culture improved due to the lean activities combined with an organizational restructure, and actual patient safety outcomes might have improved as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Evaluation in the Arts and Cultural Sector: A Story of Accounting at Its Margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I present a review of financial and management accounting literature on the arts and cultural sector. My objective is to understand to what extent this literature is able to offer a critical perspective on the study of performance evaluation practices in arts and cultural

  14. Cultural cognition in the thinking-aloud method for usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  15. Genotoxic, radioprotective and radiosensitizing effect of curcumin and trans-resveratrol in vitro cultures of human lymphocytes; Efecto genotóxico, radioprotector y radiosensibilizante de la curcumina y el trans-resveratrol en cultivos in vitro de linfocitos humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, V.A.; Tirsa Muñoz, B.; Sebastià, N.; Gómez-Cabrero, L.; La Parra, V.; Hervás, D.; Rodrigo, R.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Soriano, J.M.; Montoro, A.

    2015-07-01

    Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are natural polyphenol compounds. Curcumin is obtained from the rhizomes of the Curcumin plant (Curcuma longa), while trans-resveratrol is found in grapes, blackberries and other types of berry. These compounds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant and anticarcinogenic properties among others. In addition, they are also known for their radiomodulating properties since they are capable of providing radioprotection or radiosensitization for normal or tumours cells depending on different factors. This dual action may be the result of their properties, such as free radicals scavenging, as well as their influence on cell cycle checkpoints or control mechanisms. These are activated in response to the genetic damage induced by radiation. Despite the many beneficial properties attributed to these polyphenol compounds, some studies suggest that they are able to be genotoxic agents for some cellular lines. The results obtained indicate that both compounds possess a radioprotective effect on the lymphocytes of peripheral blood in the quiescent phase of the cellular cycle (G0). Nevertheless, they are capable of induce radiosensitivity on these type of cells in the growth phase (G2), and in addition, a different genotoxic effect can be seen according to the concentration of each compound. This study suggests, therefore, that curcumin and trans-resveratrol are able to exert a triple effect, genotoxic, radioprotective and radiosensitizing on in vitro cultures of human lymphocytes depending on the study parameters. [Spanish] La curcumina y el trans-resveratrol son compuestos polifenólicos de origen natural. La curcumina es obtenida a partir de los rizomas de la planta de la cúrcuma (Curcuma longa), mientras que el trans-resveratrol se encuentra en uvas, moras y otras bayas. Estos compuestos presentan propiedades antioxidantes, antiinflamatorias, inmunoestimulantes y anticancerígenas, entre otras. Además, también se les conoce por

  16. ROLE OF CD95 AND DR3 RECEPTORS IN NA VE T-LYMPHOCYTES APOPTOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS DURING CONVALESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Filatova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is a widespread disease caused by certain members of Herpesviridae family. Acute infectious mononucleosis develops predominantly in children and is accompanied by an increase of the number of circulating naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The normalization of immunological parameters is achieved within 4–6 months after recovery and that is an indicator of a proper functioning of the immune system. CD95 and DR3 death receptors are involved in the initiation of apoptosis of naive T-lymphocytes in healthy people and in patients with infectious mononucleosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of CD95 and DR3 receptors to initiate apoptosis of naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in children with infectious mononucleosis during convalescence. The material for the study was the samples of the peripheral blood of children who previously had infectious mononucleosis. The blood sampling was carried out again after 4–6 months after the disease. At the time of the study, children did not display clinical and laboratory signs of infectious mononucleosis. Same children who were examined earlier in the period of the development of acute infectious mononucleosis, as well as relatively healthy children were used as the comparison groups. Isolation of naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes was performed by negative magnetic immunoseparation. For specific stimulation of CD95 and DR3 receptors monoclonal antibodies were used. The level of apoptosis and expression of death receptors were evaluated by flow cytometry. Freshly isolated cells were analyzed, as well as cells cultured with the addition of appropriate monoclonal antibodies. It was shown that the recovery period was accompanied by increased apoptosis of freshly isolated naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes compared with the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis. Thus in both populations of naive T-cells showed an increase of

  17. The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Wei, Meifen; Zhao, Ran; Chuang, Chih-Chun; Li, Feihan

    2015-03-01

    The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Growth evaluation of Lentinula edodes in solid medium cultures for mycelium production as inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas E Valeska; Pérez Ana Milena; Arredondo Clara

    2007-01-01

    Shitake (Lentinula edodes) Pegler jumbo strain growth was evaluated in different solid mediums and growth substrates for spawn production. Mycelium growth was tested in three culture mediums (MYA, OMYA, PDYA) at two pHs (5, 5.5), using two eucalyptus sawdust percentages (0.3%, 0.2%). Analysing variance revealed significant differences in culture medium (P0.05). The liquid inoculation technique was used for evaluating mushroom spawn production using five different combinations of eucalyptus sa...

  19. The Influence of Organisational Culture on Mainstreaming Monitoring and Evaluation in Public Entities Revenue Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sebedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research informs us that most of the problems confronting governments can be traced to their inability and failure to appropriately analyze and evaluate organizational culture. This article argues that there is a direct link between organizational culture, organizational performance, as well as monitoring and evaluation. Understanding the effect that organizational culture has, is a significant factor of good governance. The importance of a strong organizational culture together with effective monitoring and evaluation processes contribute appreciably towards efficient performance and effective service delivery. Yet mainstreaming monitoring and evaluation in government departments and entities is often met with varying challenges. Such challenges can be better understood and addressed through aligning the entities’ organizational culture to government’s monitoring and evaluation initiatives. The focus of the article is on responding to the pertinent question: what are the current challenges relative to implementation and how should they be addressed? The article will thus highlight some of the key challenges that are associated with organizational culture, which have direct impact on the mainstreaming of monitoring and evaluation.

  20. Cross-cultural medical education: conceptual approaches and frameworks for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2003-06-01

    Given that understanding the sociocultural dimensions underlying a patient's health values, beliefs, and behaviors is critical to a successful clinical encounter, cross-cultural curricula have been incorporated into undergraduate medical education. The goal of these curricula is to prepare students to care for patients from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and to recognize and appropriately address racial, cultural, and gender biases in health care delivery. Despite progress in the field of cross-cultural medical education, several challenges exist. Foremost among these is the need to develop strategies to evaluate the impact of these curricular interventions. This article provides conceptual approaches for cross-cultural medical education, and describes a framework for student evaluation that focuses on strategies to assess attitudes, knowledge, and skills, and the impact of curricular interventions on health outcomes.

  1. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied

  3. DHT and IGF-1 in peripheral blood lymphocytes: new markers for the biological passport of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, A; Imperlini, E; Alfieri, A; Spaziani, S; Martone, D; Parisi, A; Orru, S; Buono, P

    2013-01-01

    We performed a pilot study using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as a novel system to identify new biomarkers of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) abuse in sport. First, to obtain a gene signature, we treated cultures of lymphocytes from sedentary males with three doses of 0.237 microg/ml DHT, each of which is 80-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum, at days 0, 2 and 4, or with a single dose of 1.25 microg/ml IGF-1, which is 5-fold the physiological concentration in young adult male serum. We then used the Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarray to identify a gene signature related to DHT or IGF-1 administration. Gene expression was evaluated after 7 and 21 days of DHT treatment, and after 24 h, 72 h and 7 days of IGF-1 treatment. Microarray analysis yielded a list of genes whose expression was altered after DHT or IGF-1 treatment. Among these we selected the genes that are most representative of the pathways associated with skeletal and muscular disorders using the IPA bioinformatics tool. We identified six (IDO1, CXCL13, CCL1, GZMB, VDR and IL2RA) and two (FN1 and RAB31) genes that were up-regulated in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects after 7 days of DHT and IGF-1 treatment, respectively. The expression of these genes in lymphocytes from differently trained athletes was either down-regulated or similar to that in lymphocytes from sedentary subjects. This finding suggests that up-regulation was due to the drug and not to physical exercise. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PBL can be useful in anti-doping checks, and we describe new biomarkers of DHT and IGF-1 abuse which can be included in the Athlete's Biological Passport.

  4. A new approach to the autoradiographic study of proliferating lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweiman, B.; Lisak, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An adaptation of a cell filtration method for the autoradiographic study of cultured lymphocytes has been developed. The percentages of labelled cells are very similar in the filtered cell population to those obtained from replicate cultures processed by centrifugation. The filter method permitted a higher recovery of cells from small numbers in culture with better cytological detail than seen when cells were washed by repeated centrifugation, then suspended and smeared. (author)

  5. Cytogenetic analysis of the combined action of pesticides and radiation on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Fesenko, Eh.V.; Antoshchina, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of the combined action of pesticides and irradiation at the G 0 stage was studied in cultured human lymphocytes. Carbophos (malathion) increased the yield of chromosome and chromatid fragments in irradiated lymphocytes. Herbicide 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) raised lymphocyte radiosensitivity by increasing the yield of chromosome type aberrations, the radiosensitizing effect of the herbicide decreased as its concentration increased. 4 refs

  6. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-26

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  7. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol in Balb/c mice I. Effect on antibody forming cell, mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, splenic subset, and natural killer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Byun, Jung A.; Park, Seung Hee; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Jae Hyun; Eom, Juno H.; Oh, Hye Young

    2004-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (MCPD) is a well-known by-product of acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce during its manufacturing process. MCPD has been reported genotoxic in vitro, and reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity in rats. However, no previous studies have investigated MCPD-induced alterations in the immune system. In the present study, MCPD was administered by gavage for 14 days at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day to female Balb/c mice. The antibody-mediated immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed using the antibody-forming cell (AFC) assay, and splenic cell phenotypes were quantified by flow cytometry. Hematological and histopathological changes were assessed. Mitogen-stimulated spleen lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activity were evaluated. The T-lymphocyte blastogenesis by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 and B-lymphocyte blastogenesis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were not significantly changed. There were no significant changes in the hematological and histopathological findings of MCPD-treated mice. However, the significant decrease in thymus weight was observed in 100 mg dose group, even though that did not change body weight gain. The cellularities of spleen and thymus were significantly reduced in high-dose group. Exposure to high dose of MCPD decreased the AFC response to SRBC in mice. There was a significant decrease in NK cell activity of mice treated with high dose of MCPD. These results indicate that MCPD could modulate the immune function in Balb/c mice

  8. Language, culture and traversing the scholarly evaluation landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann

    2018-01-01

    The chapter takes an external view of the Italian evaluation experience in SSH, as described in various chapters of this volume. It compares the choices made by the Italian Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca (ANVUR) to those of other countries, in light...

  9. Language, culture and traversing the scholarly evaluation landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann

    2018-01-01

    The chapter takes an external view of the Italian evaluation experience in SSH, as described in various chapters of this volume. It compares the choices made by the Italian Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca (ANVUR) to those of other countries, in light of ......-country differences rooted in language and history....

  10. Evaluation of various pesticides-degrading pure bacterial cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IASA

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of various ..... Uso de plaguicidas en dos zonas agrícolas de México and evaluación de la Contaminación de agua and sedimentos. ... Degradacion del clorotalonilo por un consorcio ...

  11. An Evaluation Method for Team Competencies to Enhance Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, S. M.; Seong, P. H.; Kim, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture has received attention in safety-critical industries, including nuclear power plants (NPPs), due to various prominent accidents such as concealment of a Station Blackout (SBO) of Kori NPP unit 1 in 2012, the Sewol ferry accident in 2014, and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Analysis reports have pointed out that one of the major contributors to the cause of the accidents is ‘the lack of safety culture’. The term, nuclear safety culture, was firstly defined after the Chernobyl accident by the IAEA in INSAG report no. 4, as follows “Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted their significance.” Afterwards, a wide consensus grew among researchers and nuclear-related organizations, that safety culture should be evaluated and managed in a certain manner. Consequently, each nuclear-related organization defined and developed their own safety culture definitions and assessment methods. However, none of these methods provides a way for an individual or a team to enhance the safety culture of an organization. Especially for a team, which is the smallest working unit in NPPs, team members easily overlook their required practices to improve nuclear safety culture. Therefore in this study, we suggested a method to estimate nuclear safety culture of a team, by approaching with the ‘competency’ point of view. The competency is commonly focused on individuals, and defined as, “underlying characteristics of an individual that are causally related to effective or superior performance in a job.” Similar to safety culture, the definition of competency focuses on characteristics and attitudes of individuals. Thus, we defined ‘safety culture competency’ as “underlying characteristics and outward attitudes of individuals that are causally related to a healthy and strong nuclear safety

  12. Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios as independent predictors of cervical stromal involvement in surgically treated endometrioid adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dan Wang, Jia-Xin Yang, Dong-Yan Cao, Xi-Run Wan, Feng-Zhi Feng, Hui-Fang Huang, Keng Shen, Yang Xiang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative inflammatory markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio and cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Methods: We studied 318 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma who underwent comprehensive surgical staging. We used univariate and multivariate analyses of cervical stromal involvement and receiver-operating curves to calculate optimal cutoff values for neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios to predict cervical stromal involvement. Results: The presence of cervical stromal involvement was associated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.009 and P = 0.031, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that higher neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios independently predicted cervical stromal involvement (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.10–8.76, P = 0.032, and odds ratio 5.27, 95% confidence interval 1.94–14.35, P = 0.001, respectively. At a threshold of 2.01, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was 71.0% sensitive and 63.8% specific for stromal involvement; at a 172.24 threshold, the platelet-lymphocyte ratio was 48.4% sensitive and 88.9% specific. Conclusion: Preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios can help identify the risk of cervical stromal involvement in patients with endometrial cancer. Evaluating these ratios may help select patients who should be particularly watched and tested for cervical stromal involvement. Keywords: neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, endometrioid adenocarcinoma

  13. Translation and evaluation of the Cultural Awareness Scale for Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Lee, Jung-ah; Schepp, Karen G

    2015-02-20

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a curriculum for achieving high levels of cultural competence, we need to be able to assess education intended to enhance cultural competency skills. We therefore translated the Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS) into Korean (CAS-K). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural applicability and psychometric properties of the CAS-K, specifically its reliability and validity. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to conduct the evaluation. A convenience sample of 495 nursing students was recruited from four levels of nursing education within four universities in the city of Daejeon, South Korea. This study provided beginning evidence of the validity and reliability of the CAS-K and the cross-cultural applicability of the concepts underlying this instrument. Cronbach's alpha ranged between 0.59 and 0.86 (overall 0.89) in the tests of internal consistency. Cultural competency score prediction of the experience of travel abroad (r=0.084) and the perceived need for cultural education (r=0.223) suggested reasonable criterion validity. Five factors with eigenvalues >1.0 were extracted, accounting for 55.58% of the variance; two retained the same items previously identified for the CAS. The CAS-K demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability in measuring cultural awareness in this sample of Korean nursing students. The revised CAS-K should be tested for its usability in curriculum evaluation and its applicability as a guide for teaching cultural awareness among groups of Korean nursing students.

  14. Radiosensitivities of sensitized lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Kazuto

    1979-01-01

    Immunization of mice with cell antigens such as allogeneic tumor cells or xenogeneic erythrocytes raises a variety of immune reactions mediated by T lymphocytes: i.e. delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), cytotoxicity, and antibody production. The radiosensitivities of these reactions were examined in mice exposed to 600 R x-irradiation a few hours before or after immunization. 1) DTH to xenogeneic erythrocytes, as demonstrated by footpad reaction, was not suppressed by irradiation 3 h before or after immunization. DTH to allogeneic tumor cells, as demonstrated by a migration inhibition test, hardly developed in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It may have belonged to distinct types of delayed reactions which were mediated by distinct subpopulations of T lymphocytes. 2) Cytotoxicity against allogeneic cells and xenogeneic erythrocytes showed almost the same radiosensitivity. It was scarcely detected in mice that had been irradiated before immunization. However, a low but definite degree of cytotoxicity was detected in mice that had been irradiated only a few hours after immunization. Solubilized allogeneic cells instead of native cells were used as immunizing antigens. It was also possible for precursor cells with cytotoxicity to acquire a radioresistant nature by immunization of solubilized antigens, but native cells were required as stimulation for radioresistant precursor cells to differentiated into nature cytotoxic effector cells. 3) Antibody production against xenogeneic erythrocytes or allogeneic cells was almost completely depleted in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It is possible that antibody production essentially requires cell division and clonal expansion of B lymphocytes. (Bell, E.)

  15. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; De Lorenzo, Elisa; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tofacitinib (Tofa) is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  16. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Piscianz

    Full Text Available Tofacitinib (Tofa is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  17. Frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of women with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza Jeria, Marcela; Castro Acuna, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This study proposes to obtain information about the behavior of the frequency and distribution of radiation induced lymphocyte dicentric chromosome aberrations with therapeutic doses in women with breast cancer treated only with radiotherapy, about which there are no existing works in Chile. Blood samples were taken from 6 women volunteers included in the study, with their informed consent, treated in the Fundacion Arturo Lopez Perez, aged 24 to 65 years old, without prior or parallel chemotherapy, nor prior radiotherapy. Three peripheral blood samples were taken from each patient in 0, 16.2 and 43.2 Gy doses. The lymphocytes obtained from each sample were cultivated using the micro-culture technique following the protocol in IAEA Technical Report No. 405, 2001. The samples were evaluated under a microscope and the unstable chromosome aberrations for lymphocytes were counted. A total of 500 cells per sample was evaluated in most cases, which were distributed depending on the number of aberrations that they had. The results were analyzed by treatment dose for each of the study patients, using the Papworth u test, Dolphin's 'Contaminated Poisson' method and Sasaki's 'QDR'. Great variations were observed in the frequency distribution of aberrations among the patients studied, which could be due to the influence of factors related to the patients' partial irradiations (C.Wood)

  18. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  19. In vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic and antioxidant/oxidant effects of guaiazulene on human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Toğar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate for the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antioxidant/oxidant activity of GYZ on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Guaiazulene (GYZ was added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0-400 µg/mL-1. Cytotoxicity against the human lymphocytes cultures was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assay. The proliferative response was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Antioxidant/oxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels. Micronucleus (MN and chromosomal aberration (CA tests were used in genotoxicity studies. The results showed that GYZ caused cytotoxicity in the PBLs at high concentrations, but TOS level were not affected, while the level of TAC was significantly increased. GYZ also did not induce chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control group. Results this study clearly revealed that GYZ was not genotoxic and also increased the capacity of the antioxidant in the culture of human PBL cells. This report is first report on the impact of GYZ on human PBL cells.

  20. Quantification of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of patients exposed to gamma radiation for dose absorbed assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Isvania Maria Serafim da Silva

    2003-02-01

    Dose assessment in an important step to evaluate biological effects as a result of individual exposure to ionizing radiation. The use of cytogenetic dosimetry based on the quantification of micronuclei in lymphocytes is very important to complement physical dosimetry, since the measurement of absorbed dose cannot be always performed. In this research, the quantification of micronuclei was carried out in order to evaluate absorbed dose as a result of radiotherapy with 60 Co, using peripheral blood samples from 5 patients with cervical uterine cancer. For this purpose, an aliquot of whole blood from the individual patients was added in culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with fetal calf serum and phytohaemagglutinin. The culture was incubated for 44 hours. Henceforth, cytochalasin B was added to block the dividing lymphocytes in cytokinesis. The culture was returned to the incubator for further of 28 hours. Thus, cells were harvested, processed and analyzed. Values obtained considering micronuclei frequency after pelvis irradiation with absorption of 0,08 Gy and 1,8 Gy were, respectively, 0,0021 and 0,052. These results are in agreement with some recent researches that provided some standard values related to micronuclei frequency induced by gamma radiation exposure in different exposed areas for the human body. The results presented in this report emphasizes biological dosimetry as an important tool for dose assessment of either total or partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation, mainly in retrospective dose investigation. (author)

  1. The induction of micronuclei in X-irradiated Beagle dog lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rithidech, K.; Lozano, D.; Brooks, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method using the micronucleus assay in dog blood lymphocytes for detecting genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Micronuclei (MM) are expressed in cells that have undergone 1 cell division. Thus, it was important to determine the optimum culture condition and sampling time to obtain a maximum number of such cells. To identify cells that have divided, cytochalasin B was added to block cytokinesis. Cells were harvested at 72, 76, or 94 h after incubation with different concentrations of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) 15 or 16. After optimizing the culture time and PHA concentration, the system was calibrated by evaluating the dose response for the induction of MN by X rays. Blood samples were drawn, X-irradiated (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 Gy), grown in optimum culture medium, harvested at 94 h after incubation, and the frequency of MN analyzed in binucleated cells. The dose-response relationship was fit by a quadratic model; micronuclei/binucleated cell = 0.017 + 0.046D + 0.0093D 2 , where D = dose. The MN assay in dog blood lymphocytes provides a sensitive and reliable technique for measuring genotoxic damage in a large animal model. The MN assay will be very useful for evaluating genotoxic effects of hazardous agents after both chronic and acute exposures and for estimating radiation dose. (author)

  2. In vitro X-ray irradiation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes enhances suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of in vitro X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied with regard to their suppressor activity related to the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor system. To generate suppressor T lymphocytes, purified human T lymphocytes were incubated for 3 days in the first culture, with or without Con A. These lymphocytes were irradiated with various doses of X-ray before, mid or after the culture. After doing a second culture for 6 days, the suppressive influence of these cells on T lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with allogeneic mononuclear cells, and B lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with pokeweed mitogen was measured. Irradiation of cultures to which Con A had not been added induced much the same level of suppressor activity as seen in the cultures with Con A. The suppressor activity gradually increased with time from the irradiation to the suppressor cell assay. Suppressor T lymphocytes were resistant to X-ray irradiation and independent of DNA synthesis. However, irradiation-induced enhancement was minimal in cultures incubated with con A, regardless of the irradiation time. (author)

  3. Non-destructive evaluation studies for cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, T.; Babu Rao, C.; Kumar, Anish; Rajkumar, K.V.; Sharma, G.K.; Raj, Baldev

    2009-01-01

    The results of the nondestructive evaluation studies carried out on the Delhi iron pillar and the musical pillars of the Vithala temple at Hampi, Karnataka are discussed. While studies on Delhi iron pillar were carried out with a primary aim to understand the methodology of fabrication of this pillar, the studies on the musical pillars were carried out to finger print/petroligically characterize the stones used in the construction of the musical pillars and to understand the origin of various sounds generated on tapping of the musical pillars by carrying out various acoustic studies. (author)

  4. Assessment of in vitro radiosensitivity of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.J.; Shifrine, M.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferative capacity of sensitive lymphocyte progenitor cells, from thirty-one clinically normal adults, was evaluated following in vitro x-irradiation (0-400R). Radiation effects were studied using both whole blood and lymphocyte-enriched mononuclear cell fractions in the lymphocyte stimulation test and colony formation assay with 6 different mitogens and antigens. Radiation dose-response survival curves were determined for the different test groups. The sensitivity of the different assay systems is compared and normative values are presented that may be used for comparison purposes to determine the relative radiosensitivity of atypical individuals and groups of individuals

  5. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  6. Evaluation of Influence Factors within Implementing of Nuclear Safety Culture in Embarking Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the implementation nuclear safety culture at BATAN has been performed. BATAN is Indonesia’s national nuclear energy agency. Nowadays, BATAN is planning to develop an experimental power reactor. To implement the nuclear safety culture BATAN has issued BATAN chairman regulation (Perka BATAN 200). Perka BATAN is the reference for individuals and organizations to implement nuclear safety culture which includes basic principles, mechanisms, assessment, as well as the implementation of the application of safety culture. It covers the establishment of safety policies, program development, program implementation, development and measurement of safety culture. Each facilities within BATAN is expected to well implement a safety culture. The implementation of safety culture is developed by considering the characteristics, attributes and indicators. The characteristics, attributes and indicators referenced are elaborated from the IAEA. The activities to strengthen safety culture are monthly workshop with participants is head of every facilities, safety leadership training and workshop for safety division manager in every facilities. It is also issued a handbook of safety that is distributed to all employees BATAN.

  7. Evidence for the replication of bovine leukemia virus in the B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.S.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.; Handwerger, B.S.; Soper, F.F.; Sorensen, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes from a cow with persistent lymphocytosis were separated on nylon wool columns into nylon-adherent and nonadherent populations. Nylon-adherent cells were highly enriched for surface immunoglobulin (SIg) bearing B lymphocytes (95.5%) and nonadherent cells for SIg negative non-B cells, presumably T lymphocytes (96.3%). The B lymphocytes were found to be the major producers for bovine leukemia virus. A total of 39% of the B-enriched cells, surviving after 72 hours in culture, produced bovine leukemia virus as compared with 0.5% of the non-B cells

  8. Food allergens inducing a lymphocyte-mediated immunological reaction in canine atopic-like dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    SUTO, Akemi; SUTO, Yukinori; ONOHARA, Nozomi; TOMIZAWA, Yu; YAMAMOTO-SUGAWARA, Yukiko; OKAYAMA, Taro; MASUDA, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Canine atopic-like dermatitis (ALD) is suspected to be associated with food allergies, particularly those mediated by lymphocytes. In this study, 54 cases were included as ALD dogs, based on the negative IgE test results. In the dogs, the percentage of activated cells in helper-T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry using cultured peripheral lymphocytes under food allergen stimulation. We observed that 49 of the 54 ALD dogs (90.7%) had positive lymphocyte reactions against one or more f...

  9. Radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes and thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, D.K.; Norman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The in vitro survival of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes was measured 4 days following graded doses of γ radiation. Results indicate considerable heterogeneity among lymphocyte subpopulations with respect to radiosensitivity. Total T lymphocytes were characterized by rosette formation with neuraminidase-treated sheep red blood cells (nSRBC); early T (T/sub E/) cells, by early rosettes; and B cells, by their inability to form nSRBC rosettes. Late T (T/sub L/) cells were defined as T -- T/sub E/. Survival curves of T, T/sub E/, and B cells are biphasic. The radiosensitive and radioresistant components of T, T/sub E/, and B cells all have a D 0 of about 50 and 550 rad, respectively. B cells appeared to be slightly more radiosensitive than T cells. T/sub L/ cells and thymocytes, however, appeared to be homogeneous with respect to radiosensitivity, both having D 0 values of about 135 rad. The survival of T cells in mixed T and B cell cultures resembled that of separated T cells, suggesting that ionizing radiation has no significant effect on rosette formation. It also indicates that interactions of T and B cells do not significantly affect their radiation responses

  10. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  11. An fMRI investigation of the effects of culture on evaluations of stigmatized individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krendl, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Certain groups (e.g., women, older adults, and the economically disadvantaged) are universally stigmatized. Numerous studies, however, have identified cross-cultural differences in the attitudes expressed toward stigmatized groups. These differences may potentially be due to existing cross-cultural dissimilarities in social status for some groups. The current study used fMRI to examine whether Chinese and Caucasian-American participants engage the same cognitive and affective mechanisms when perceiving stigmatized individuals with similarly low social status in both cultures (homeless individuals), but different cognitive and/or affective processes when evaluating stigmatized individuals whose status differs across cultures (older adults). Using a social neuroscience approach can provide unique insight into this question because the neural regions involved in cognitive and affective evaluations of stigmatized individuals have been well characterized. Results revealed that Chinese participants and Caucasian-American participants engaged similar patterns of negative affective processing associated with disgust (left anterior insula) when evaluating homeless individuals. Moreover, self-reported negative explicit attitudes toward homeless individuals were associated with increased activity in the insula. However, Chinese participants and Caucasian-American participants engaged increased activity in neural regions associated with status (ventral striatum) when they evaluated older adults. Moreover, self-reported attitudes toward older adults and ventral striatal activity were correlated with the extent to which participants reported being affiliated with their respective cultural traditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Revisiting tuberculous pleurisy: pleural fluid characteristics and diagnostic yield of mycobacterial culture in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chien, Jung-Yien; Huang, Chun-Ta; Kuo, Yao-Wen; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen J

    2012-09-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is traditionally indicated by extreme lymphocytosis in pleural fluid and low yield of effusion culture. However, there is considerable inconsistency among previous study results. In addition, these data should be updated due to early effusion studies and advances in culture methods. From January 2004 to June 2009, patients with tuberculous pleurisy were retrospectively identified from the mycobacteriology laboratories and the pathology and tuberculosis registration databases of two hospitals in Taiwan where tuberculosis is endemic. Pleural fluid characteristics and yields of mycobacterial cultures using liquid media were evaluated. A total of 382 patients with tuberculous pleurisy were identified. The median lymphocyte percentage of total cells in pleural fluids was 84% (IQR 64-95%) and 17% of cases had a lymphocyte percentage of pleural biopsy specimens. The degree of lymphocyte predominance in tuberculous pleurisy was lower than was previously thought. The lymphocyte percentage in pleural fluid was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture. With the implementation of a liquid culture method, the sensitivity of effusion culture was much higher than has been previously reported, and the combination of effusion and sputum cultures provided a good diagnostic yield.

  13. Bare lymphocyte syndrome: imaging findings in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vandevenne, J.E.; De Schepper, A.M.; Lambert, J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a rare primary immune disorder characterized by defective expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on lymphocytes, often resulting in extensive and recurrent multi-organ infections. We describe a previously undiagnosed case of an adult woman who presented with radiological findings of severe bronchiectases, near-total granulomatous destruction of facial bones, and osteomyelitis. Diagnosis of BLS should be considered when evaluating children with unexplained bronchiectases or adults with long history of chronic multi-organ infections. (orig.)

  14. Reactivity of eleven anti-human leucocyte monoclonal antibodies with lymphocytes from several domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Larsen, Else Bang

    1988-01-01

    Nine commercially available monoclonal antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies from The American Type Culture Collection, raised against various human leucocyte surface antigens, were tested on lymphocytes from cow, sheep, goat, swine, horse, cat, dog, mink, and rabbit as well as man. Four...... antibodies bound to lymphocytes from some of the animals. These were the antibodies against CD8 and CD4 antigen, the antibody to C3b-receptor, and the antibody to the HLA-DR antigen. The CD8 antigen-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink, cat, dog, and sheep, while the CD4 antigen......-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink. The anti-C3b-R antibody reacted with lymphocytes from horse, swine, dog, and cat, and the anti-HLA-DR reacted with lymphocytes from cow, goat, sheep, horse, dog, cat, and mink....

  15. Growth evaluation of Lentinula edodes in solid medium cultures for mycelium production as inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Villegas E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Shitake (Lentinula edodes Pegler jumbo strain growth was evaluated in different solid mediums and growth substrates for spawn production. Mycelium growth was tested in three culture mediums (MYA, OMYA, PDYA at two pHs (5, 5.5, using two eucalyptus sawdust percentages (0.3%, 0.2%. Analysing variance revealed significant differences in culture medium (P0.05. The liquid inoculation technique was used for evaluating mushroom spawn production using five different combinations of eucalyptus sawdust and wheat grain, finding significant differences between treatments, the best combination for shiitake growth being 80% wheat grain and 20% eucalyptus sawdust.

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of [DOTA,Tyr3]octreotate labeled with 131I and 177Lu in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro by micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzauki, Miriam Fussae; Silva, Marcia Augusta da; Caldeira Filho, Jose de Souza; Colturato, Maria Tereza; Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo

    2005-01-01

    The radiolabeled receptor-binding peptides have being used for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The octreotate, a somatostatin analogue peptide, bound to various tumors expressing sst receptors (thyroid, pancreas, prostrate, melanoma and lymphomas). The amount and the type of receptors for somatostatin influence the tissue uptake. The [DOTA, Tyr 3 ]octreotate has been used because of its high affinity to somatostatin subtype receptors sstr 2 and sstr 5 . The pharmacokinetic study showed that the blood clearance is rapid and only 9% of the intravenous injected activity remains in human blood after one hour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytogenetic effect of radiolabeled [DOTA, Tyr 3 ]octreotate in blood cells in vitro, using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay. This technique allows evaluating the mutagenic effects of both endogenous and exogenous agents at chromosome level. Blood samples of healthy donors were collected in heparinized syringes and exposed to different activities of [DOTA, Tyr 3 ]octreotate labeled with with 131 I (n=3) and 177 Lu (n=3), where radioactive concentration ranged from 600 to 5600 kBq/mL, corresponding to an injected activity of 3.1 to 28.9 GBq in a reference man of 70 kg weight. 131 I and 177 Lu are beta- and gamma-emitters. After one-hour exposition to radiopharmaceuticals at 37 deg C, the cells were washed with culture medium for removing the non internalised octreotate and cultivated for 72 hours, according to criteria adopted by the IAEA. The results showed a positive correlation between radioactive concentrations (X) and the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei (Y) (P 131 I-DOTA, Tyr 3 ]octreotate was Y = (1.634 ± 0.236) + (0.912 ± 0.137) 10 -3 X and for [ 177 Lu-DOTA, Tyr 3 ]octreotate was Y = (1.715 ± 0.342) + (0.743 ± 0.135) 10 -3 X. The non labeled molecule, [DOTA, Tyr 3 ]octreotate, has no influence in the induction of cytogenetic damage. The micronucleus assay with rat pancreatic tumor cells

  17. Kinetics of small lymphocytes in normal and nude mice after splenectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Hansen, F; Jensen, E K

    1977-01-01

    Autoradiography and various quantitations on lymphoid tissues have been used to evaluate the kinetics of small lymphocytes in normal (+/nu or +/+) and congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) NMRI mice 1 month after splenectomy or sham-splenectomy. The results indicate that splenectomy causes depressed...... thymic activity and diminished numbers of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The total number of cells in these tissues as well as the blast cell activity, were within normal limits. Bone marrow lymphocyte numbers and kinetics as well as blood lymphocyte levels in splenectomized and sham......-splenectomized normal animals were comparable. Blood lymphocyte numbers were at normal levels in splenectomized nude mice, in spite of reduced numbers of bone marrow and thoracic duct lymphocytes. It is suggested that increased number of newly-formed lymphocytes, found in lymph nodes and blood of splenectomized mice...

  18. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  19. MRI of lymphocytic hypophysitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Feng; Li Mingli; Li Xiaozhen; Meng Chunling; Jin zhengyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MR findings in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH), and to discuss MR diagnostic value and limit in this disease entity and its differentiation with pituitary adenoma. Methods: Five pathologically proven cases of LyH were recruited in this study. The main complaints of the patients were polydipsia, polyuria, and headache. The preoperative MR images and clinical manifestations were analyzed retrospectively. Results: MR findings of the 5 patients with LyH included enlargement of pituitary gland, stalk thickening, disappearance of high signal of neurohypophysis on T 1 WI, and marked Gadolinium enhancement of the lesions. Homogeneous enhancement was found in 2 cases, while heterogeneous enhancement was in 3 cases. Involvement of the cavernous sinus and dura mater on dorsum sella and clivus were found in 2 patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis of LyH should be suggested when the enlarged pituitary gland is associated with central diabetes insipidus, and with/without dysfunction of adenohypophysis. (authors)

  20. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring

  1. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  2. Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of various species of mammals and the influence of coffeine during the G-2 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.

    1983-01-01

    The cellular kinetics and the G0-radiation sensitivity of human, chimpanzee, swine and rabbit lymphocytes were investigated using the lymphocytes test system (Ham's F-10 Medium, PHA). Due to the integration of BrdU in the DNA (S-phase), the author was able to distinguish between first, second and third mitoses (M1, M2, M3) in accordance with the differential colouring of the metaphase chromosomes which took place according to the labelling pattern. When checking the G0-radiation sensitivity of the lymphocytes, the rates of chromosomal aberrations in the metaphases of the first and second mitoses were evaluated separately. The different radiation sensitivities are thought to be due to interspecies differences in the repair capacity of the lymphocytes. In the metaphases of second mitoses, the rate of dicentric chromosomes is approximately half of that in M1-metaphases. Ring chromosomes were nearly as frequent in M2-metaphases as in M1-metaphases. In the second experimental phase, the effects of coffein on the aberration rates after radiation exposure of the lymphocytes in the G2 phase was investigated. Achromatic lesions, open chromatide breaks, and translocations were evaluated. Aberration rates were found to increase with the radiation dose and to decrease with the cultivation time after radiation exposure. There was no marked effect of coffein on the aberration rates. The progress of the G2 phase was measured in terms of the rate of radioactively labelled metaphases, which increased with the cultivation time. This labelling index was lower in the exposed cultures than in the control cultures, suggesting a radiation-induced delay of the G2 phase. The labelling indexes of all cultures were enhanced after coffein treatment, suggesting a coffein-induced acceleration of the G2 phase. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Lessons Learned from a Five-year Evaluation of the Belgian Safety Culture Oversight Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Belgian Regulatory Body has implemented a Safety Culture oversight process since 2010. In a nutshell, this process is based on field observations provided by inspectors or safety analysts during any contact with a licencee (inspections, meetings, phone calls, etc). These observations are recorded within an observation (excel) sheet—aiming at describing factual and contextual issues — and are linked to IAEA Safety Culture attributes. It should be stressed that the purpose of the process is not to give a comprehensive view of a licencee safety culture but to address findings that require attention or action on the part of a licencee. In other words, gathering safety culture observations aims at identifying cultural, organizational or behavioural issues in order to feed a regulatory response to potential problems. Safety Culture Observations (SCO) are then fully integrated in routine inspection activities and must be seen as an input of the overall oversight process. As a result, the assessment of the SCO is inserted within the yearly safety evaluation report performed by Bel V and transmitted to the licencee. However, observing safety culture is not a natural approach for engineers. Guidance, training and coaching must be provided in order to open up safety dimensions to be captured. In other words, a SCO process requires a continuous support in order to promote a holistic and systemic view of safety.

  4. Perception of Cultural Concept “Wine” in French Evaluational World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Полина Гарриевна Логинова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysis of idiomatic expressions such as proverbs and sayings in French language within two semantic groups such as «man’s spiritual reality» and «wine as interpretation of folk wisdom». Their semantic features are discussed as well as their role in french evaluational world view. The author attempts to illustrate the peculiarities of cultural mentality and national character of French people within their attitude to wine as a cultural value. The author also focuses on intricacies of language and touches the difficulties of translation and interpretation of phraseological units that occur in the present study due to the absence of similar connotations in Russian culture. The language units that are exposed in the paper and cited as examples were taken for analysis from up-to-date dictionaries, foreign research scientific works and were also kindly provided by native speakers. Idiomatic expressions that include cultural concept «wine» in French language represent the interpretation of outworld fixed in collective consciousness that incarnates historical and cultural values. Wine culture in France is very ancient that is why language units related to concept «wine» represent profound linguistic material that is worth of being analyzed within the frame of language and culture as well as within the scope of intercultural communication.

  5. Immunoproteomic analysis of antibody in lymphocyte supernatant in patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.

  6. Influence of X-ray on the P53 gene in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wenwei; Cai Ting

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and safety of varying X-ray dosage. Methods: peripheral lymphocytes of five healthy volunteers were processed by varying X-rays, then detect the P53 gene mutation in 5-9 exons by PCR-SSCP silver staining, investigate the 249 th codon's mutation by PCR-RFLP, through immunohistochemistry staining monitor the abnormal expression of P53 and screen the apoptosis employing the Bio-dUTP terminal labelling technology included by DNA terminal transferase. Results: The frequency of apoptosis represents transparent dose-dependent manner with X-ray. When exposed to X-ray > 50 cGy after 48 h, the apoptosis group has evident difference compared with the control (P 0.05). After treating peripheral lymphocytes with 5-200 cGy X-ray and culturing 96 h, utilizing PCR-SSCP to determine the mutation in 5-9 exons, there was no single strand DNA abnormal migration. PCR-RFLP result indicates no mutation in the hotspot site-249 codon, and there was no obviously abnormal expression of P53 in immunohistochemistry staining. Conclusions: The apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes is sensitive to the X-ray, and this can be a guideline or model reflecting the body state when exposing to the radiation

  7. National and Organizational Culture, Performance Evaluation and Trust: Evidence from Multinational Company Subsidiary in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unggul Purwohedi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of national and organizational culture on the relationship between accounting and trust in a subsidiary of a Western Multi-National Company (MNC in Indonesia. This study use a qualitative field study of one French MNC subsidiary and interview four expatriate directors, nine Indonesian managers and 10 Indonesian employees. Key themes were identified with the assistance of NVivo software. In this study, accounting, through formal performance evaluation, contributes to trust building between supervisors and their subordinates. Formal performance evaluation through transparent and objective evaluation increases trust in the supervisor. On the other hand, informal performance evaluation tends to decrease trustful behaviour due to secrecy in the evaluation process.  It appears that Indonesian national culture does influence organizational culture preference in the local staff. Individuals share national culture as a result of values developed from family, religion, education, and experience.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.4733 

  8. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  9. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-01-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of [3H]thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay

  10. The role of the regulator in promoting and evaluating safety culture. Operating experience feedback programme approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture (S.C.) in Operating Organizations must be one of the main Nuclear Regulator goals to achieve. This can be possible only if each and every one of the regulatory activities inherently involves S.C. It can be seen throughout attitudes, values, uses and practices in both individuals and the whole regulatory organization. One among all the regulatory tools commonly used by regulators to promote and evaluate the commitment of the licensees with safety culture as a whole involves organizational factors and particular attention is directed to the operating organization. This entailed a wide range of activities, including all those related with management of safety performance. Operating Experience Feedback Programme as a tool to enhance safety operation is particularly useful for regulators in the evaluation of the role of S.C. in operating organization. Safety Culture is recognized as a subset of the wider Organizational Culture. Practices that improve organizational effectiveness can also contribute to enhance safety. An effective event investigation methodology is a specific practice, which contributes to a healthy Safety Culture. (author)

  11. Toward an integrated system concept for monitoring and evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Sakaue, Takeharu

    2004-01-01

    The concept of ''nuclear safety culture'' has been advocated and has been much discussed internationally by INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) under IAEA (the International Atomic Energy Agency) and other institutions since Chernobyl accident. On the safety front, Japan had maintained an excellent track record in nuclear power operations throughout the 1990s. However, there have been a series of new type of problems strongly implying degradation of safety culture, e.g., Monju accident, fire and explosion accident at an Asphalt Solidification Process Facility at Tokai, falsification of annealing data at nuclear power plants (NPP), another data falsification for transport cask of spent fuel and JCO criticality accident. Then the TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) issue was revealed in 2002. Triggered by this issue, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has been implementing a variety of improvements, one of which was the establishment of a study group in 2003, which invited experts from other fields as well as from nuclear-related industries, to study on how to implement safety culture sufficiently and possible recommendations. Subjects such as the followings piled in the study report will indicate leading keys in case it is going to realize such efforts: ''Foundation of safety culture is a quality management'' and ''Realistic and scientific technique is necessary for the evaluation of safety culture''. In order to respond to these requests, JNES have been advancing the development toward an Integrated System Concept for Monitoring and Evaluation of Safety Culture. This paper describes the outline of the study results reported by the study group and then introduces one of subsystems, SCEST, structuring the integrated system concept for Monitoring and Evaluation of Safety Culture. (author)

  12. Development of Nuclear Safety Culture evaluation method for an operation team based on the probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Lee, Seung Min; Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •We proposed a Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method. •Positive relationship between the ‘success’ states of NSC and performance was shown. •The state probability profile showed a unique ratio regardless of the scenarios. •Cutset analysis provided not only root causes but also the latent causes of failures. •Pro-SCHEMe was found to be applicable to Korea NPPs. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a new quantitative evaluation method for Nuclear Safety Culture (NSC) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation teams based on the probabilistic approach. Various NSC evaluation methods have been developed, and the Korea NPP utility company has conducted the NSC assessment according to international practice. However, most of methods are conducted by interviews, observations, and the self-assessment. Consequently, the results are often qualitative, subjective, and mainly dependent on evaluator’s judgement, so the assessment results can be interpreted from different perspectives. To resolve limitations of present evaluation methods, the concept of Safety Culture Healthiness was suggested to produce quantitative results and provide faster evaluation process. This paper presents Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method (Pro-SCHEMe) to generate quantitative inputs for Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Evaluation items which correspond to a basic event in PSA are derived in the first part of the paper through the literature survey; mostly from nuclear-related organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC), and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Event trees (ETs) and fault trees (FTs) are devised to apply evaluation items to PSA based on the relationships among such items. The Modeling Guidelines are also suggested to classify and calculate NSC characteristics of

  13. Evaluation of Patient Safety Culture and Organizational Culture as a Step in Patient Safety Improvement in a Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrisya Iriviranty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishment of patient safety culture is the first step in the improvement of patient safety. As such, assessment of patient safety culture in hospitals is of paramount importance. Patient safety culture is an inherent component of organizational culture, so that the study of organizational culture is required in developing patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate patient safety culture among the clinical staff of a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia and identify organizational culture profile. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, qualitative study was conducted in a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2014. Sample population consisted of nurses, midwives, physicians, pediatricians, obstetrics and gynecology specialists, laboratory personnel, and pharmacy staff (n=152. Data were collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. Results: Teamwork within units” was the strongest dimension of patient safety culture (91.7%, while “staffing” and “non-punitive response to error” were the weakest dimensions (22.7%. Moreover, clan culture was the most dominant type of organizational culture in the studied hospital. This culture serves as a guide for the changes in the healthcare organization, especially in the development of patient safety culture. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, healthcare providers were positively inclined toward the patient safety culture within the organization. As such, the action plan was designed through consensus decision-making and deemed effective in articulating patient safety in the vision and mission of the organization.

  14. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masquerading as pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary hypophysitis (PH is characterized by pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be autoimmune or secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Based on the histopathological findings PH is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous, necrotizing and Immunoglobulin- G4 (IgG4 plasmacytic types. Objective: To report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH. Case Report: A 15-year-old girl presented with history of headache, amenorrhea, and history of polyuria for past 4 months. Initial evaluation had suppressed follicular stimulating hormone (<0.01 mIU/ml, high prolactin levels (110.85 ng/ml and diabetes insipidus (DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella was suggestive of pituitary macroadenoma with partial compression over optic chiasma. Patient underwent surgical decompression. Yellowish firm tissue was evacuated and xanthochromic fluid was aspirated. Histopathology was suggestive of LH. She resumed her cycles postoperatively after 4 months, prolactin levels normalized, however, she continues to have DI and is on desmopressin spray. This case has been presented here for its rare presentation in an adolescent girl because it is mostly seen in young females and postpartum period and its unique presentation as an expanding pituitary mass with optic chiasma compression. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of LH is based on histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicion and clinical manifestations of LH.

  15. Biological Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Vroblová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent leukemic disease of adults in the Western world. It is remarkable by an extraordinary heterogeneity of clinical course with overall survival ranging from several months to more than 15 years. Classical staging sytems by Rai and Binet, while readily available and useful for initial assessment of prognosis, are not able to determine individual patient’s ongoing clinical course of CLL at the time of diagnosis, especially in early stages. Therefore, newer biological prognostic parameters are currently being clinically evaluated. Mutational status of variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgVH, cytogenetic aberrations, and both intracellular ZAP- 70 and surface CD38 expression are recognized as parameters with established prognostic value. Molecules regulating the process of angiogenesis are also considered as promising markers. The purpose of this review is to summarize in detail the specific role of these prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  16. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation-induced impairment of human T-lymphocytes was studied after in vitro exposure to 25.8 - 825.6 mC/kg (100 - 3200 R) of 60 Co γ-radiation by ascertaining the change in lymphocyte response to phytohaemagglutin stimulation. Following methods were used: (1) measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake, (2) E-rosette test, and (3) morphological examination of transformed T-cells. The results revealed a dose-dependent decline in T-cell number which was still somewhat more marked with lymphocytes purified over Ficoll-Isopaque prior to irradiation. (author)

  17. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  18. The Planning, Implementation and Evaluation of a Character-Based School Culture Project in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the planning, implementation and evaluation of a character-based school culture (CBSC) project in Taiwan. The project integrated the principles of justice, caring and developmental discipline and was influenced by several well-known American models of character education programmes. The CBSC project was conducted in a…

  19. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  20. Development of Children's Moral Evaluations of Modesty and Self-Promotion in Diverse Cultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lau, Cindy; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    This cross-cultural study of the moral judgements of Mainland Han-Chinese, Chinese-Canadian, and Euro-Canadian children aged seven to 11 examined the evaluations of narrative protagonists' modest lies and self-promoting truthful statements in situations where they had done a good deed. The story characters had thus either lied or told the truth…

  1. Evaluation of the Cultural Elements in the Textbook "Genki I: an Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Onur

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the textbook "Genki I: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese" in terms of cultural elements. The data of this qualitative research were collected by means of the document review method. Content analysis, one of the qualitative analysis techniques, was used in the evaluation of the research data. A second…

  2. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  3. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy L; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Cultural competency education is an important and required part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an online cross-cultural communication module could increase student use of cross-cultural communication questions that assess the patient's definition of the problem, the way the problem affects their life, their concerns about the problem, and what the treatment should be (PACT). We used multi-method assessment of students assigned to family medicine clerkship blocks that were randomized to receive online cultural competency and PACT training added to their standard curriculum or to a control group receiving the standard curriculum only. Outcomes included comparison, via analysis of variance, of number of PACT questions used during an observed Standardized Patient Exercise, end-of-year OSCE scores, and qualitative analysis of student narratives. Students (n=119) who participated in the online module (n=60) demonstrated increased use of cross-cultural communication PACT questions compared to the control group (n=59) and generally had positive themes emerge from their reflective writing. The module had the biggest impact on students who later went on to match in high communication specialties. Online teaching of cross-cultural communication skills can be effective at changing medical student behavior.

  4. Cross-cultural differences in information disclosure evaluated through the EORTC questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Greimel, Eva; Chie, Wei-Chu; Sezer, Orhan; Bergenmar, Mia; Costantini, Anna; Young, Teresa; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic; Velikova, Galina

    2013-02-01

    Informational needs among cancer patients are similar, but the degree of information disclosure in different cultural areas varies. In this paper, we present the results of a cross-cultural study on information received. The EORTC information questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-INFO25, was administered during the treatment process. This questionnaire evaluates the information that patients report they have received. Cross-cultural differences in information have been evaluated using statistical tests such as Kruskall-Wallis and multivariate models with covariates to account for differences in clinical and demographic characteristics across areas. Four hundred and fifty-one patients from three cultural areas, North-Middle Europe, South Europe, and Taiwan, were included in the study. Significant differences among the three cultural areas appeared in eight QLQ-INFO25 dimensions: information about the disease; medical tests; places of care; written information; information on CD/tape/video; satisfaction; wish for more information; and information helpfulness. North-Middle Europe patients received more written information (mean = 67.2 (North) and 33.8 (South)) and South Europe patients received more information on different places of care (mean = 24.7 (North) and 35.0 (South)). Patients from North-Middle Europe and South Europe received more information than patients from Taiwan about the disease (mean = 57.9, 60.6, and 47.1, respectively) and medical tests (70.9, 70.4, and 54.5), showed more satisfaction (64.8, 70.2, and 35.0), and considered the information more helpful (71.9, 73.9, and 50.4). These results were confirmed when adjusting for age, education, and disease stage. There are cross-cultural differences in information received. Some of these differences are based on the characteristics of each culture. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of the radiosensitivity of acute myeloblastic leukaemia progenitor cells by culture methods exploring self-renewal. Evaluation de la radiosensibilite des progeniteurs de leucemie aigue myeloblastique par des methodes de culture explorant ou non l'autorenouvellement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, D; Richaud, P; Landriau, S; Lagarde, P; Gualde, N [Fondation Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Boiron, J M [Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33 - Pessac (France); Mahon, F X; Belloc, F [Hopital Regional, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Reiffers, J [Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33 - Pessac (France) Hopital Regional, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    1993-01-01

    The progenitor cells of acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) are usually cultured in methylcellulose which selects for terminal dividing cells. Suspension cultures have been developed because they reflect self-renewal: the exponential growth of the progenitors of AML cultured in suspension is due to self-renewal. We have compared the radiosensitivity of the progenitors of AML grown either in methylcellulose alone or first in suspension for 7 days before being plated in methylcellulose. Cells were harvested from leukaemic bone marrows at the moment of diagnosis. The myeloblastic lineage of the colonies was assessed by morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypic analysis and by the use of growth factors which do not stimulate T-lymphocytes. The cell-cycle distribution of leukaemic blasts was comparable for all the samples. This method enabled aggressive leukaemias to be selected. The radiosensitivity showed wide variations from one patient to another (Do ranging from 0.35 to 2.6 Gy) whichever culture method used. The progenitor cells capable of self-renewal were more radiosensitive (Mean Do 0.9[+-]0.4 Gy) than terminal dividing cells (Mean Do = 1.35[+-]0.5 Gy). In two cases, a shoulder was found in the initial part of the cell-survival curves of cells capable of self-renewal. The shape of the curves was better fitted by the linear quadratic model with very low values of [alpha]/[beta], suggesting a reduced antileukaemic effect in case of fractionation.

  6. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  7. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  8. Evaluation of the hydroxynitrile lyase activity in cell cultures of capulin (Prunus serotina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Liliana; Luna, Héctor; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Olivera-Flores, Ma Teresa de Jesús; Ayala, Ivon

    2008-07-01

    Enzymatic preparations obtained from young plants and cell cultures of capulin were screened for hydroxynitrile lyase activity. The three week old plants, grown under sterile conditions, were used to establish a solid cell culture. Crude preparations obtained from this plant material were evaluated for the transformation of benzaldehyde to the corresponding cyanohydrin (mandelonitrile). The results show that the crude material from roots, stalks, and leaves of young plants and calli of roots, stalks, internodes and petioles biocatalyzed the addition of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to benzaldehyde with a modest to excellent enantioselectivity.

  9. [The comparative evaluation of level of security culture in medical organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, G E; Kondratova, N V; Galanina, E V

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out on the basis of clinic “Medicine” in 2014-2015 concerning security culture. The sampling included 465 filled HSPSC questionnaires. The comparative analysis of received was implemented. The “Zubovskaia district hospital” Having no accreditation according security standards and group of clinics from USA functioning for many years in the system of patient security support were selected as objects for comparison. The evaluation was implemented concerning dynamics of security culture in organization at implementation of strategies of security of patients during 5 years and comparison of obtained results with USA clinics was made. The study results demonstrated that in conditions of absence of implemented standards of security in medical organization total evaluation of security remains extremely low. The study of security culture using HSPSC questionnaire is an effective tool for evaluating implementation of various strategies of security ofpatient. The functioning in the system of international standards of quality, primarily JCI standards, permits during several years to achieve high indices of security culture.

  10. Evaluation of Qatari and Canadian Pharmacy Students Learning Together about Cultural Competency using Videoconference Educational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jorgenson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists are under pressure to provide patient centered care within increasingly culturally diverse settings. Pharmacy schools play an important role in educating learners regarding culture and its impact on patient care. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if a novel cultural competency learning activity, which involved students from two culturally and ethnically different pharmacy schools learning together using videoconference education activities, improved: (1 student knowledge and confidence pertaining to cultural competency concepts, (2 attitudes and perceptions towards being a culturally competent pharmacist, and (3 academic performance related to cultural competency case studies. Methods: Pharmacy students from Qatar University in Doha, Qatar (n=25 and the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada (n=85 participated in a cultural competency activity comprised of small group work on a patient case study, followed by tutorial discussions. Some Canadian students (n=31/85 worked collaboratively (via video conference with the students from Qatar. The evaluation used a convergent mixed methods design comprised of: (1 a pre and post session survey measuring student knowledge and confidence; (2 pre and post session student self-reflections; and, (3 student academic performance on care plans and an observed structured clinical exam (OSCE. Results: The survey identified small but statistically significant (p<0.05 improvements in knowledge and confidence with respect to 11 of the 12 questionnaire items in the students from Canada and 2 of the 12 items in the students from Qatar. The self-reflections found that 44.4% (n=36/81 of students who completed the pre and post reflective questions reported a change in knowledge and attitudes regarding cultural competency, but a reason for the change was not evident. Student grades on the cultural competency care plans and the OSCE were not different between the

  11. Lymphocyte colony forming units and its application to the study of radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiangrui; Wang Tao; Wang Hongyun

    1991-07-01

    Kinetics and radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes were studied by the techniques of monolayer agar culture and liquid culture in vitro. In the experiments of lymphocyte kinetics, PHA was designated as a motogen for T lymphocyte. LPS, MEBC and BSA were chosen as mitogens for B lymphocyte. The data from thses experiments showed that under the alone or combination stimulation of LPS, MRBC and BSA, B lymphocytes developed to form colonies in agar culture (0.3%) with the same manner. The stimulation of LPS to B lymphocytes was most significant. By the day 6 after seeding, the numbers of colonies in agar culture were maximal. Whereas the numbers decreased significantly by the day 8. The number of T lymphocyte colonies increased with culture time within 12 days. The peak of 3 H-TdR incorporation into T lymphocytes in liquid culture occured at 5th day after seeding. The data above-mentioned demonstrated that the kinetics of lymphocytes cultured in two kinds of environments were different. The studies of the radiosensitivity of T lymphocytes showed that the decreasing in the number of colonies and rate of 3 H-TdR incorporation varied in different dose ranges. In the range of 0∼1.0 Gy, r = -0.96, D 0 value was 1.71 Gy for TL-CFC in agar culture, r = -.96, D 0 value was 4.34 Gy for the proliferation T lymphocytes in liquid culture. In the range of 1.0∼6.0 Gy, r were -0.99 and -0.98, the D 0 were 5.88 and 7.36 Gy respectively. The declining tendency in colonies formed by BL-CFC was the same as that of TL-CFC, r = -0.97, for the range of 0∼1.0 Gy, r = -0.97, for the range of 1.0∼3.0, the D 0 values were 1.35 and 4.36 Gy respectively. The results from these experiments shown that the colony technique was a good method for the study in radiosensitivity

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  13. Normal lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellão Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population.METHODS: This study enrolled 35 over 60-year-old volunteers and a control group composed of 35 young adults. The study included elderly without diseases that might affect the functioning of the immune system. These individuals were consulted by doctors and after a physical examination, laboratory tests were performed using a Beckman Coulter (r flow cytometer. The GraphPad Prism computer program was employed for statistical analysis with the level of significance being set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: There is a statistically significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes (CD8 +, CD2 + and CD3 + cells in the elderly compared to young adults. These low rates are explained by changes attributed to aging and may be partly responsible for the reduction in the cellular immune response, lower proliferative activity and the low cytotoxicity of lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: These parameters showed greater impairment of adaptive immunity in the elderly population and can therefore explain the greater fragility of the aged body to developing diseases.

  14. Alteration of lymphocyte functions by 8-methoxypsoralen and longwave ultraviolet radiation. I. Suppressive effects of PUVA on T-lymphocyte migration in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, H.; Takigawa, M.; Horio, T.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the influence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus long-wave ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) on lymphocyte migration in vitro. Nylon wool-purified, mouse splenic T lymphocytes showed locomotive responses to casein, normal mouse serum (NMS), and zymosan-activated mouse serum (ZAS). Migratory responses to casein and NMS, and to ZAS were remarkably suppressed in lymphocytes exposed to 0.5 J/cm2 UVA plus 0.1 micrograms/ml 8-MOP and to 0.8 J/cm2 UVA plus 8-MOP, respectively. The PUVA treatment used in the present study had no effect on random movement and lymphocyte viability. T lymphocytes cultured in the absence of mitogenic agent for 24 h demonstrated a greater increase in their migration activity than noncultured cells, while lymphocytes cultured after 1.0 J/cm2 PUVA pretreatment remained low. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of PUVA on inflammatory skin disorders may be due in part to the suppression of lymphocyte migration

  15. Laboratory-based performance evaluation of PIMA CD4+ T-lymphocyte count point-of-care by lay-counselors in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Clement; Rose, Charles E; Inzaule, Seth; Desai, Mitesh A; Otieno, Fredrick; Humwa, Felix; Akoth, Benta; Omolo, Paul; Chen, Robert T; Kebede, Yenew; Samandari, Taraz

    2017-09-01

    CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians. In Phase II we compared POC performance by lay-counselors versus laboratory technicians using 147 paired capillary and venous specimens, and compared these to FACSCalibur™. Statistical analyses included Bland-Altman analyses, concordance correlation coefficient, sensitivity, and specificity at treatment eligibility thresholds of 200, 350, and 500cells/μl. Phase I: POC sensitivity and specificity were 93.0% and 84.1% at 500cells/μl, respectively. Phase II: Good agreement was observed for venous POC results from both lay-counselors (concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.873, bias -86.4cells/μl) and laboratory technicians (CCC=0.920, bias -65.7cells/μl). Capillary POC had good correlation: lay-counselors (CCC=0.902, bias -71.2cells/μl), laboratory technicians (CCC=0.918, bias -63.0cells/μl). Misclassification at the 500 cells/μl threshold for venous blood was 13.6% and 10.2% for lay-counselors and laboratory technicians and 12.2% for capillary blood in both groups. POC tended to under-classify the CD4 values with increasingly negative bias at higher CD4 values. Pima™ results were comparable to FACSCalibur™ for both venous and capillary specimens when operated by lay-counselors. POC CD4 testing has the potential to improve linkage to HIV care without burdening laboratory technicians in resource-limited settings. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Using Cultural Modeling to Inform a NEDSS-Compatible System Functionality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Olympia; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Objective The culture by which public health professionals work defines their organizational objectives, expectations, policies, and values. These aspects of culture are often intangible and difficult to qualify. The introduction of an information system could further complicate the culture of a jurisdiction if the intangibles of a culture are not clearly understood. This report describes how cultural modeling can be used to capture intangible elements or factors that may affect NEDSS-compatible (NC) system functionalities within the culture of public health jurisdictions. Introduction The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) comprises many activities including collaborations, processes, standards, and systems which support gathering data from US states and territories. As part of NNDSS, the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) provides the standards, tools, and resources to support reporting public health jurisdictions (jurisdictions). The NEDSS Base System (NBS) is a CDC-developed, software application available to jurisdictions to collect, manage, analyze and report national notifiable disease (NND) data. An evaluation of NEDSS with the objective of identifying the functionalities of NC systems and the impact of these features on the user’s culture is underway. Methods We used cultural models to capture additional NC system functionality gaps within the culture of the user. Cultural modeling is a process of graphically depicting people and organizations referred to as influencers and the intangible factors that affect the user’s operations or work as influences. Influencers are denoted as bubbles while influences are depicted as arrows penetrating the bubbles. In the cultural model, influence can be seen by the size and proximity (or lack of) in the model. We restricted the models to secondary data sources and interviews of CDC programs (data users) and public health jurisdictions (data reporters). Results Three cultural

  17. Evaluation of the osteogenic differentiation of gingiva-derived stem cells grown on culture plates or in stem cell spheroids: Comparison of two- and three-dimensional cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Il; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture systems provide a convenient in vitro model for the study of complex cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in the absence of exogenous substrates. The current study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation potential of gingiva-derived stem cells cultured in two-dimensional or three-dimensional systems. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to compare the growth of gingiva-derived stem cells in monolayer culture to a three-dimensional culture system with microwells. For three-dimensional culture, gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated and seeded into polydimethylsiloxane-based concave micromolds. Alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red S staining assays were then performed to evaluate osteogenesis and the degree of mineralization, respectively. Stem cell spheroids had a significantly increased level of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization compared with cells from the two-dimensional culture. In addition, an increase in mineralized deposits was observed with an increase in the loading cell number. The results of present study indicate that gingiva-derived stem cell spheroids exhibit an increased osteogenic potential compared with stem cells from two-dimensional culture. This highlights the potential of three-dimensional culture systems using gingiva-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine applications requiring stem cells with osteogenic potential.

  18. Induction of mitotic micronuclei by X-ray contrast media in human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Kormano, M.; Satokari, K.; Eklund, R.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo cytogenetic effects of X-ray contrast media (CM) were determined by scoring micronuclei (MN) in 72-h cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. Both ionic (sodium meglumine diatrizoate, methylglucamine diatrizoate, and sodium meglumine ioxaglate and nonionic CM (iosimide, iopromide, iohexol and iotrolan) were able to induce MN in lymphocytes. Based upon their calculated percent probabilities for MN induction, these agents could be ranked in their decreasing order of probability, as iosimide > sodium meglumine ioxaglate > iohexol > sodium meglumine diatrizoate > iopromide > methylglucamine diatrizoate > iotrolan. Stepwise logistic regression analysis of the data indicated that the frequency of MN in CM-exposed lymphocyte cultures was significantly higher than the frequency of MN in control cultures (P < 0.001). In clinical studies where 14 patients were injected with an ionic CM methylglucamine diatrizoate, lymphocyte cultures from 10 patients showed higher frequencies of MN. The differences between pre- and post-CM counts of MN were significant in a Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). The effect of X-irradiation on MN formation in lymphocytes was separately determined and was found to be insignificant. These results indicate that irrespective of ionic and osmolality differences, X-ray contrast agents are capable of producing chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes. Further studies are required to establish molecular mechanisms in the observed cytogenetic effects of CM in cell cultures. (Auth.)

  19. Radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Williams N.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Lima, Maíra V.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2017-01-01

    Several substances of synthetic and natural origin have been studied in relation to their ability to protect the body from damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among these substances, quercetin has been shown to be a molecule of natural origin with high radioprotective potential due to its antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine, in vitro, the radioprotective effect of quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation. Blood was irradiated at the 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 Gy doses and then lymphocyte culture with quercetin at preselected concentrations of 37.5 and 75 μM. Subsequently, slides were prepared for analysis and quantification of the metaphases present in lymphocyte cells. The results demonstrated that irradiated lymphocytes and later exposed to quercetin presented a lower number of chromosomal alterations compared to the control group which was irradiated and not exposed to quercetin. Therefore, the results suggest a radioprotective effect of flavonoid quercetin on human lymphocytes exposed, in vitro, to ionizing radiation

  20. Application of a new ultra-microculture system. II. Stimulation of human B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, A J; Gruber, M; Flad, H D

    1988-07-22

    An ultra-microtechnique for culturing human B-lymphocytes in glass capillary tubes using a volume of 2 microliter is described. The advantage of this ultra-microculture system is that only a small number of lymphocytes and minute amounts of culture medium (or test factors) are required. Optimal culture conditions for the formation of Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells (PFC) after stimulation of mononuclear cells with pokeweed mitogen are given. Furthermore it is shown that immunoglobulin secreted into culture supernatants by purified B cells in the presence of T cell subsets can be measured in a microELISA.

  1. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  2. Evaluating Safety Culture Under the Socio-Technical Complex Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F. L. de

    2016-01-01

    Since the term “safety culture” was coined, it has gained more and more attention as an effort to achieve higher levels of system safety. A good deal of effort has been done in order to better define, evaluate and implement safety culture programs in organizations throughout all industries, and especially in the Nuclear Industry. Unfortunately, despite all those efforts, we continue to witness accidents that are, in great part, attributed to flaws in the safety culture of the organization. Fukushima nuclear accident is one example of a serious accident in which flaws in the safety culture has been pointed to as one of the main contributors. In general, the definitions of safety culture emphasise the social aspect of the system. While the definitions also include the relations with the technical aspects, it does so in a general sense. For example, the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) defines safety culture as: “The assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receives the attention warranted by their significance.” By the way safety culture is defined we can infer that it represents a property of a social system, or a property of the social aspect of the system. In this sense, the social system is a component of the whole system. Where, “system” is understood to be comprised of a social (humans) and technical (equipment) aspects, as a Nuclear Power Plant, for example. Therefore, treating safety culture as an identity on its own right, finding and fixing flaws in the safety culture may not be enough to improve safety of the system. We also needed to evaluate all the interactions between the components that comprise all the aspects of the system. In some cases a flaw in the safety culture can easily be detected, such as an employee not wearing appropriate individual protection equipment, e.g., dosimeter, or when basic safety

  3. Research, protection and evaluation of Sicilian and Mediterranean marine cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Tusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater archaeology in the Mediterranean should be based on a comprehensive, deep knowledge of a wide context of cultural environment. It is impossible to carry out an in-depth study of a specific wreck or site without having an overall cultural as well as historical perspective. It is, in fact, quite clear to everybody that even the most faraway shores of the Mediterranean were connected by means of a dense network of sea routes based on a rich trade throughout the centuries. But underwater archaeology also means the chance to understand the past environment due to the possibility of detecting ancient sea shores which nowadays are found below sea level. Today underwater archaeology also means deep sea research in extraterritorial waters. This aspect of underwater archaeological research is deeply connected with legal aspects that, in the framework of the recently approved UNESCO draft regarding the protection of underwater cultural heritage, should be planned according to international cooperation. 109 Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage Sicily has a great role in Mediterranean underwater archaeology because of its history and heritage, but also because Regional Government plays an important role in international debate in this field and because in Sicily a great impulse has been given to underwater archaeology research and cultural evaluation through the Soprintendenza del Mare

  4. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  5. Evaluating the Clinical Learning Environment: Resident and Fellow Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Gregory M; Calabria, Jaclyn; Gosman, Gabriella; Eckart, Catherine; Metro, David G; Jasti, Harish; McCausland, Julie B; Itri, Jason N; Patel, Rita M; Buchert, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has begun to evaluate teaching institutions' learning environments with Clinical Learning Environment Review visits, including trainee involvement in institutions' patient safety and quality improvement efforts. We sought to address the dearth of metrics that assess trainee patient safety perceptions of the clinical environment. Using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC), we measured resident and fellow perceptions of patient safety culture in 50 graduate medical education programs at 10 hospitals within an integrated health system. As institution-specific physician scores were not available, resident and fellow scores on the HSOPSC were compared with national data from 29 162 practicing providers at 543 hospitals. Of the 1337 residents and fellows surveyed, 955 (71.4%) responded. Compared with national practicing providers, trainees had lower perceptions of patient safety culture in 6 of 12 domains, including teamwork within units, organizational learning, management support for patient safety, overall perceptions of patient safety, feedback and communication about error, and communication openness. Higher perceptions were observed for manager/supervisor actions promoting patient safety and for staffing. Perceptions equaled national norms in 4 domains. Perceptions of patient safety culture did not improve with advancing postgraduate year. Trainees in a large integrated health system have variable perceptions of patient safety culture, as compared with national norms for some practicing providers. Administration of the HSOPSC was feasible and acceptable to trainees, and may be used to track perceptions over time.

  6. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539

  7. Evaluation of autochthonous micrococcus strains as starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z; Huang, S; Ai, Z W; Zhang, M; Zhai, S; Chen, X

    2016-03-01

    The technological properties of 22 micrococcus strains from traditional fermented Kedong sufu were evaluated in order to develop autochthonous starter cultures. The proteolytic, autolytic and lipolytic activity, salt tolerance, production and degradation of the biogenic amines of six Micrococcus luteus, nine Kocuria kristinae and seven Kocuria rosea were evaluated. The results indicated that these micrococcus strains exhibited a certain technological diversity, and the results also indicated the best properties to be used in mixed starter cultures. Based on the above findings, two sets of autochthonous starters were formulated. Considering the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sufu, the maturation period of sufu was shortened by 30 days. The profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured using autochthonous mixed starters. Compared to back-slopping fermentation, sufu manufactured with selected autochthonous starter cultures exhibited lower levels of total biogenic amines. The selected strains could be used as starter to avoid the accumulation of high concentrations of biogenic amines while also maintaining typical sensory characteristics and preserving the autochthonous strains of the traditional Kedong sufu. The maturation times of Kedong sufu were shortened by 30 days with application of the autochthonous starter. Autochthonous mixed starters can reduce the generation of biogenic amines, speed up the sufu maturation process and preserve typical sensory quality. Furthermore, the rotation of two sets of mixed starter cultures can effectively resist phage attack during the production of sufu. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  9. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J.; Barquinero, J.; Barrios, L.; Verdu, G.; Perez, J.

    2006-01-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy γ rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  10. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  11. VH repertoire in progeny of long term lymphoid-cultured cells used to reconstitute immunodeficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, K.A.; Timson, L.K.; Witte, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    VH gene utilization in the progeny of long term lymphoid-cultured cells used for reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient mice under varying conditions was determined. Hybridomas made from the spleens of these animals were evaluated for clonality and donor origin and a panel of 146 independent hybridomas were subsequently examined for VH expression. Hybridomas derived from the spleens of SCID mice reconstituted with fresh cells, used as a control, utilized VH families in proportion to their numerical representation in the genome. However, hybridomas from the spleens of mice reconstituted with long term cultured cells utilized a predominance of the two VH gene families most proximal to JH, characteristic of cells early in B lymphocyte development. Coinjection of thymocytes with cultured fetal liver cells, to provide good levels of T lymphocytes, did not alter this pattern of VH utilization. Irradiation (3 Gy) of the mice before cultured cell injection, which leads to more complete reconstitution of the B cell compartment, was effective in removing this bias in the VH repertoire. Hybridomas derived from these mice expressed their VH genes more in proportion to family size, characteristic of cells later in B lymphocyte development. In this manner, long term lymphoid-cultured cells can be used to study the transitions that occur in VH repertoire expression which appear to be mediated by either B lymphocyte developmental microenvironment or population size

  12. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao C. M. Barreira

    2015-06-01

    The results showed significant differences within the assessed botanical parts and also among the assayed concentrations. The performed investigation might be considered as representing a step further in the evaluation of the in vivo bioactive potential of this highly promising species. Furthermore, it has established some practical bases for the evaluation of additional natural matrices with high scoring in bioactivity screening studies.

  13. Lymphocyte as a biological dosimeter : a different approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.

    1974-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency as a measure of radiation exposure in human blood lymphocytes following a short term culture is well known and the technique is in use at several laboratories in the world to determine accidental exposures. Results of an entirely different approach to arrive at the exposure is presented. Time course of interphase death of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was followed for 6 days after exposure to cobalt-60 gamma radiation. Trypan blue dye exclusion method was used for scoring viable cells. Survival curves at 5 days post irradiation were exponential and had two components: an initial sensitive component representing a major sub-population of lymphocytes with a mean lethal dose (DO) of 75 rads and the other an apparently more resistant population with a Do of about 300 rads. The initial part of the survival curve which spans to about 100 rads reaching a survival level of 15 percent, can be used to read off the extent of exposure in accident cases. Although 60 percent of the initial lymphocytes survive in the unexposed control cultures, the method is sensitive to exposures of the order of 20 rads and reproducible results have been obtained. The response is independent of dose-rate from 65 rads/min to 65 rads/hour. Other aspects of the dosimetry system such as the neutron response, in vitro and in vivo correlation are discussed. (author)

  14. Effects of noise exposure on catalase activity of growing lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Nawaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress due to noise was estimated at cell level using model of growing lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were isolated and cultured using conventional methodology. Cell culture of each group was exposed to sound of frequency 1 KHz during incubation. Three groups were defined on the basis of exposure of sound with specific range of intensity and duration of exposure. Group A and Group B were exposed to sound with intensity 110 dBA for four hours per day and for eight hours per day respectively. Control group was exposed to sound less than 85 dBA. Viable cell count was performed using trypan blue. Catalase activity of each group was estimated using ELISA kit.Viable cell count of Group A and Group B was almost same but significantly less than that of control group. Catalase activity of lymphocytes in Group B was significantly low as compared to Group A and controls (p=0.003,p< 0.05. There was no significant difference between catalase activity of Group A and control group.Exposure of sound with frequency 1 KHz and intensity 110 dBA for 4 hours and eight hours per day may induce oxidative stress in growing lymphocytes causing the difference in viable cell count. However the catalase activity depends on duration of exposure. In case of noise exposure of 8 hours per day, it declines significantly as compared to noise exposure of 4 hours per day.

  15. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs' cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs' cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension's Cronbach's α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs' cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive assessment of HCPs' cultural competence, and has the

  16. Cytogenetic investigations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Catherine; Moriarty, Helen; Marsden, Katherine; Tegg, Elizabeth

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to determine which culture method would yield the highest culture success rate, mitotic index, banding resolution, and abnormality rate in investigation of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A range of culture techniques for conventional cytogenetic (CC) analyses was compared: 24-hour unstimulated, 72 hours incubation with additional fetal calf serum, 72 hours stimulation with interleukin 4, 72 hours stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 72 hours stimulation with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate), and 72 hours stimulation with CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 + Interleukin-2 (IL-2). CC abnormality rates were also compared to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results using probes for CLL (LSI D13S319/13q34/CEP 12: LSI ATM/p53). Forty-five samples from 24 patients (consisting of 11 newly diagnosed and 13 previously diagnosed patients) were included. For CC, a 100.0% culture success rate was achieved (n = 45) by means of an EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) peripheral blood sample with an associated 62.5% CC abnormality rate (n = 24). FISH detected an abnormality rate of 75.0% (n = 24). The combined CC and FISH abnormality rate was 87.5% (n = 24). This study demonstrates that CC that uses TPA and DSP30 + IL-2 on EDTA peripheral blood is effective in the investigation of CLL and may be used as a supplement to FISH studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of low dose x-irradiation on alloantigen sensitized and unsensitized lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohi, Kiyohiko; Yahata, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuhiko; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ono, Eiji; Ezaki, Haruo

    1984-12-01

    The effect of local graft irradiation on immune response in allograft in which acute rejection occurs was studied using an in vitro model. Unidirectional mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was used as the in vitro model of acute rejection. 150 and 300 rad x-irradiation suppressed mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) but did not cell-mediated-lympholysis (CML) of unsensitized lymphocytes. X-irradiated alloantigen sensitized cells (ASC) generated in 6-day MLC suppressed MLR and CML of unsensitized lymphocytes. Suppressive effects of x-irradiated ASC were of the same degree by x-irradiation doses of 150-500 rad. Suppressive effect of x-irradiation was maintained for only a short period after x-irradiation. Potential function of suppressor precursor cells among unsensitized lymphocytes was abolished by x-irradiation of 300 rad. (author).

  18. [Evaluation of professional knowledge and attitudes on dementia patient care: a trans-cultural adaptation of an evaluation instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gislaine Desani da; Souza, Rosely Almeida; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Pinheiro, Juliane Cibelle Ferreira; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2015-04-01

    To describe the trans-cultural adaptation of the evaluation instrument entitled Atenció Sanitària de Les Demències: la visió de L' Atenció Primarià from Catalan into versions in Portuguese for doctors and nurses. This study evaluates the knowledge and perspectives of these professionals in their treatment of patients diagnosed with dementia in cases of primary care. The adaptation followed internationally accepted rules, which include the following steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, revision by a committee of specialists, and a test run with 35 practicing doctors and 35 practicing nurses in Brazil's Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família, or ESF in Portuguese). The translation, synthesis, and back-translation steps were performed satisfactorily; only small adjustments were required. The committee of specialists verified the face validity in the version translated into Portuguese, and all of the items that received an agreement score lower than 80% during the initial evaluation were revised. In the test run, the difficulties presented by the health care professionals did not reach 15% of the sample, and therefore, no changes were made. The Portuguese translation of the instrument can be considered semantically, idiomatically, culturally, and conceptually equivalent to the original Catalan version and is, therefore, appropriate for use in Brazil.

  19. Evaluation of professional knowledge and attitudes on dementia patient care: a trans-cultural adaptation of an evaluation instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Desani da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe the trans-cultural adaptation of the evaluation instrument entitled Atenció Sanitària de Les Demències: la visió de L' Atenció Primarià from Catalan into versions in Portuguese for doctors and nurses. This study evaluates the knowledge and perspectives of these professionals in their treatment of patients diagnosed with dementia in cases of primary care. Method The adaptation followed internationally accepted rules, which include the following steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, revision by a committee of specialists, and a test run with 35 practicing doctors and 35 practicing nurses in Brazil's Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família, or ESF in Portuguese. Results The translation, synthesis, and back-translation steps were performed satisfactorily; only small adjustments were required. The committee of specialists verified the face validity in the version translated into Portuguese, and all of the items that received an agreement score lower than 80% during the initial evaluation were revised. In the test run, the difficulties presented by the health care professionals did not reach 15% of the sample, and therefore, no changes were made. Conclusion The Portuguese translation of the instrument can be considered semantically, idiomatically, culturally, and conceptually equivalent to the original Catalan version and is, therefore, appropriate for use in Brazil.

  20. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  1. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea

  2. Evaluation of a culture-based pathogen identification kit for bacterial causes of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viora, L; Graham, E M; Mellor, D J; Reynolds, K; Simoes, P B A; Geraghty, T E

    2014-07-26

    Accurate identification of mastitis-causing bacteria supports effective management and can be used to implement selective use of antimicrobials for treatment. The objectives of this study were to compare the results from a culture-based mastitis pathogen detection test kit ('VetoRapid', Vétoquinol) with standard laboratory culture and to evaluate the potential suitability of the test kit to inform a selective treatment programme. Overall 231 quarter milk samples from five UK dairy farms were collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the test kit for the identification of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus spp. ranged from 17 per cent to 84 per cent and 92 per cent to 98 per cent, respectively. In total, 23 of 68 clinical samples were assigned as meeting the requirement for antimicrobial treatment (Gram-positive organism cultured) according to standard culture results, with the test kit results having sensitivity and specificity of 91 per cent and 78 per cent, respectively. Several occurrences of misidentification are reported, including S. aureus being misidentified as coagulase-negative staphylococci and vice versa. The test kit provides rapid preliminary identification of five common causes of bovine mastitis under UK field conditions and is likely to be suitable for informing selective treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Gram-positive organisms. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  4. In-vitro responses of T lymphocytes to poly(butylene succinate) based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Montree; Patntirapong, Somying; Janvikul, Wanida; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai

    2017-04-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBSu) and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composites are biocompatible and good candidates as bone graft materials. However, little is known about the responses of T lymphocytes to these biomaterials, which play an important role in the success of bone grafting. Activated T lymphocytes were cultured onto 32 mm diameter films (PBSu/TCP films), that had previously been placed in 6-well culture plates, for 8, 24 and 72 hours. A plastic-well culture plate was used as a control surface. The effects of PBSu-based biomaterials on T lymphocytes were examined by the using flow cytometry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These biomaterials were non-toxic to T lymphocytes, allowing their normal DNA synthesis and activation. All materials induced only transient activation of T lymphocytes, which existed no longer than 72 hours. Proportions of four main CD4/CD8 T lymphocyte subpopulations were not affected by these biomaterials. Moreover, PBSu and PBSu/TCP significantly suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 genes by 15-35% and 21-26%, respectively. In contrast, a PBSu/TCP composite (at PBSu:TCP=60:40) significantly stimulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-13 genes by 17% and 19%, respectively. PBSu and PBSu/TCP composites were non-toxic to T lymphocytes and did not induce unfavorable responses of T lymphocytes. The tested biomaterials down-regulated key proinflammatory cytokine genes and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in T lymphocytes. These suggest that the biomaterials studied are good candidates as bone graft materials.

  5. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  6. Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma: UV sensitivity in lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Hughes, D.J. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia))

    1982-05-01

    Increased sensitivity to UV light has been demonstrated in Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes from normal and tumour-bearing Hereford cattle when compared to lymphocytes from other breeds. Trypan blue exclusion and inhibition of DNA synthesis were used to determine cell viability. The results obtained from time course and radiation dose experiments demonstrate biphasic survival kinetics. This is indicative of at least two separate cell populations, exhibiting differential sensitivity to UV. The increased sensitivity to UV observed in Herefords may reflect a general sensitivity to UV or alternatively a different cellular constitution in the mitogen stimulated cultures. DNA repair synthesis, measured in the presence of hydroxyurea, was of similar levels in cell cultures from Herefords and one of the control breeds.

  7. Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma: UV sensitivity in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Hughes, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to UV light has been demonstrated in Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes from normal and tumour-bearing Hereford cattle when compared to lymphocytes from other breeds. Trypan blue exclusion and inhibition of DNA synthesis were used to determine cell viability. The results obtained from time course and radiation dose experiments demonstrate biphasic survival kinetics. This is indicative of at least two separate cell populations, exhibiting differential sensitivity to UV. The increased sensitivity to UV observed in Herefords may reflect a general sensitivity to UV or alternatively a different cellular constitution in the mitogen stimulated cultures. DNA repair synthesis, measured in the presence of hydroxyurea, was of similar levels in cell cultures from Herefords and one of the control breeds. (author)

  8. Evaluation on the Effects of Culture Medium on Regeneration of Oil Palm Plantlets from Immature Embryos (IE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nur Syuhada, W.S.; Rasid, O.A.; Parveez, G.K.A

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) tissue culture is slow, inefficient and genotype dependent. Therefore, efforts to improve the regeneration system are essential and thereby on-going. Immature embryos (IE) have been reported to be more responsive to in vitro culture as compared to other explant types. The objective of this study is to evaluate the most efficient culture media for the regeneration of whole plants from IE. IE were cultured on three media, namely N6, MY3 and MS +Y3. Initial observation showed that calli were induced as early as two weeks after culture. They started to produce friable calli around three to four months later. IE were shown to respond differently to the tested culture media. This initial result will be useful to identify the most responsive culture media for IE as explant. (author)

  9. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konecna, H; Kalina, I; Ondrussekova, A

    1988-08-01

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the G/sub o/ stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs.

  10. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecna, H.; Kalina, I.; Ondrussekova, A.

    1988-01-01

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the G o stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs

  11. Association Between Fear and Beauty Evaluation of Snakes: Cross-Cultural Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Bakhshaliyeva, Natavan; Janovcová, Markéta; Peléšková, Šárka; Suleymanova, Mesma; Polák, Jakub; Guliev, Akif; Frynta, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    According to the fear module theory, humans are evolutionarily predisposed to perceive snakes as prioritized stimuli and exhibit a fast emotional and behavioral response toward them. In Europe, highly dangerous snake species are distributed almost exclusively in the Mediterranean and Caspian areas. While the risk of a snakebite is relatively low in Central Europe, Azerbaijan, on the other hand, has a high occurrence of the deadly venomous Levant viper (Macrovipera lebetina). We hypothesize that co-habitation with this dangerous snake has shaped the way in which humans evaluate snake species resembling it. For that purpose, we asked respondents from the Czech Republic and Azerbaijan to rank photographs depicting 36 snake species according to perceived fear and beauty. The results revealed a high cross-cultural agreement in both evaluations (fear r2 = 0.683, p < 0.0001; beauty: r2 = 0.816, p < 0.0001). Snakes species eliciting higher fear tend to be also perceived as more beautiful, yet people are able to clearly distinguish between these two dimensions. Deadly venomous snakes representing a serious risk are perceived as highly fearful. This is especially true for the vipers and allies (pit vipers) possessing a characteristic body shape with a distinct triangular head and thick body, which was found as the most fear evoking by respondents from both countries. Although the attitude toward snakes is more negative among the respondents from Azerbaijan, their fear evaluation is similar to the Czechs. For instance, despite co-habitation with the Levant viper, it was not rated by the Azerbaijanis as more fearful than other dangerous snakes. In conclusion, agreement in the evaluation of snake fear and beauty is cross-culturally high and relative fear attributed to selected snake species is not directly explainable by the current environmental and cultural differences. This may provide some support for the evolutionary hypothesis of preparedness to fear snakes. PMID:29615942

  12. Evaluating the Aboriginal child's mind: assimilation and cross-cultural psychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David

    2018-06-01

    This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes. Ultimately, the resolution of this ambiguity in favour of notions of Aboriginal 'cultural deprivation' reflected the broader political context of debates over Aboriginal self-governance during this period.

  13. Evaluation of substrates for radiometric detection of bacteria in blood cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopp, H.; Ellner, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Various 14 C-labeled substrates were evaluated for their potential use in blood culture media. These uniformly labeled compounds were added to hypertonic and anaerobic formulations of modified Columbia broth and compared with analogous BACTEC media with the BACTEC 460. Different bacterial species gave significant growth indices when 2.0 microCi of labeled glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, or formate was used alone or in combinations in the experimental media. The combination of glucose, glutamic acid, and sodium formate was selected, and simulated blood cultures with representative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria and a yeast were compared with BACTEC vials. Under these conditions, the experimental media often became positive several hours earlier than the BACTEC vials and usually produced higher growth indices

  14. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  15. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  16. Evaluation of different cryoprotective agents in maintenance of viability of Helicobacter pylori in stock culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Davoudi Oskouei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four different cryoprotective supplemented stock media were evaluated for maintaining better survival and recovery of H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 at two different maintenance temperatures of -20°C and -80°C after one month preservation as frozen stocks. The spread plate colony count method was used to investigate the recovery rate of H. pylori from equally inoculated bacterial suspensions in differently prepared stock cultures. After the preservation of H. pylori for one month in different cryoprotectant-supplemented stock media, the recovery rates for -20°C obtained for stock cultures supplemented with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, polyethylene glycol (PEG, glycerol and glycerol+sucrose, as well as controls with and without human serum alone were 7.13, 6.97, 7.93, 7.99, 6.95 and 0.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. Maintenance of bacteria at -80°C gave statistically higher recovery rates compared to preservation at -20°C with the values of 8.55, 8.24, 8.59, 8.66, 8.01 and 0.0 log CFU/ml for these above mentioned stock cultures. The stock cultures supplemented with glycerol+sucrose and glycerol showed the highest recovery rates, 7.99 and 7.93 for -20°C vs. 8.66 and 8.59 for -80°C respectively, which were statistically different from the others. Our study revealed that H. pylori type strain NCTC 11637 could be better preserved at -80°C than -20°C. The best stock media which supported viability or culturability of bacteria were brain heart infusion broth (BHI+glycerol+human serum and BHI+glycerol+sucrose+human serum, where the latter yielded the higher recovery rate.

  17. [The lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K; Braun-Falco, O

    1976-03-01

    At first, immunologie and methodic basies of the lymphocyte transformation test are discussed. Then the results gained by this test in several dermatologic diseases are summarized. Finally, practice of the lymphocyte transformation test is critically reviewed.

  18. Relations between the stimulation of mixed lymphocyte populations and the staging system according Rai in patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, E.; Venne, U.

    1979-01-01

    By means of the incorporation rate of 3 H thymidine into the lymphocytes of patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia the possibility of stimulating them by using different mitogens was checked and compared with normal persons. The examination covered 11 patients treated with extracorporeal irradiation of the blood (ECIB), 5 patients treated with a chlorambucil therapy, and 10 untreated patients who where classified according to the staging system proposed by Rai. The lymphocytes of the peripheral blood were stimulated as mixed and isolated T and B-lymphocytes in the microculture by using the mitogens PHA, PWM, ConA, and LPS. In all CLL patients there was a diminished stimulation rate of a mixed lymphocyte population. A relation existed between the seriousness of the stage and the deminution of the incorporation rate of 3 H thymidine. A corresponding correlation could not be identified in untreated CLL patients. Isolated T-lymphocytes revealed better results of stimulation than the total population. As to their function B-lymphocytes showed a dependence on the kind of therapy. In the mixed lymphocyte culture of normal persons the best findings could be observed after stimulation with PHA, that is also valid for CLL patients. PHA, PWA, ConA, and LPS were suitable as substances stimulating B-lymphocytes with different efficacy in normal persons and CLL patients. Both collectives showed the best results in the T-lymphocyte culture after stimulation with LPS. (author)

  19. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  20. Post-irradiation treatment of human lymphocytes with spermidine reduced frequency of chromatid breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocian, E.; Rosiek, O.; Ziemba-Zoltowska, B.

    1978-01-01

    Human lymphocyte cultures were X-irradiated with a single dose of 100 or 200 rad 46 h after phytohemagglutinin stimulation. In dose-fractionation experiments, 2h later the second dose was applied. All the cultures were harvested at 54 h after their initiation. In lymphocytes irradiated with a single dose of 200 rad, 2h post-irradiation contact with 10 -5 M exogeneous spermidine resulted in reduction of chromatid breaks by 34 %. Introduction of spermidine into culture medium for fractionation interval between the 2 doses of 100 rad reduced the frequency of chromatid breaks by 42 %. (author)

  1. Soluble lymphocytic mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of a number of drugs on the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by antigen-stimulated sensitized guinea-pig lymph node cells was studied. The drugs were present during the entire culture period and eliminated from supernatants by dialysis. It was found that MIF secretion is inhibited by exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP and by theophylline and chlorphenesin, two agents raising the endogenous level of cyclic AMP. On the other hand, isoproterenol, which stimulates cyclic AMP generation in several tissues, did not block MIF production. The formation of the mediator was also suppressed by the microfilament-affecting drug, cytochalasin B. The microtubular disruptive agents, colchicine and vinblastine sulphate, did not influence MIF production. It is concluded that: (a) endogenous cyclic AMP may act as a regulator of MIF production; (b) the activity of contractile microfilaments is probably required for MIF formation; and (c) microtubules are not involved in the secretory process. PMID:4369184

  2. Lymphocytes accelerate epithelial tight junction assembly: role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiao Tang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tight junctions (TJs, characteristically located at the apicolateral borders of adjacent epithelial cells, are required for the proper formation of epithelial cell polarity as well as for sustaining the mucosal barrier to the external environment. The observation that lymphocytes are recruited by epithelial cells to the sites of infection [1] suggests that they may play a role in the modulation of epithelial barrier function and thus contribute to host defense. To test the ability of lymphocytes to modulate tight junction assembly in epithelial cells, we set up a lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-culture system, in which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells, a well-established model cell line for studying epithelial TJ assembly [2], were co-cultured with mouse lymphocytes to mimic an infection state. In a typical calcium switch experiment, the TJ assembly in co-culture was found to be accelerated compared to that in MDCK cells alone. This accelaration was found to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. AMPK activation was independent of changes in cellular ATP levels but it was found to be activated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Forced suppression of AMPK, either with a chemical inhibitor or by knockdown, abrogated the accelerating effect of lymphocytes on TJ formation. Similar results were also observed in a co-culture with lymphocytes and Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the activation of AMPK may be a general mechanism underlying lymphocyte-accelerated TJ assembly in different epithelia. These results suggest that signals from lymphocytes, such as cytokines, facilitate TJ assembly in epithelial cells via the activation of AMPK.

  3. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  4. Autoreactive lymphocytes in thyroid disorders. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Hoeier-Madsen, M.; Larsen, F.; Husby, S.

    1986-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from 9 randomly selected patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator. The secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) was assayed by means of haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays, radioimmune assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total Ig and TgAb production was maximal using MNC cultured at 1.0 x 10 6 /ml as estimated by PFC, RIA and ELISA. The Ig and TgAb production as measured by RIA and ELISA was 1.5 - 3 times higher after 12 days' culture compared to 6 days' culture. Ig and TgAb production measured by PFC-assays at day 6 correlated positively to the results obtained by RIA and ELISA at day 12. PWM-induced TgAb secretion correlated positively to TgAb titres in serum. As judged by PFC, TgAb production was found in 8/9 patients; about 5% (range 0 - 7.9%) of the total PWM-stimulated IgG-secreting cells were involved in TgAb secretion. TgAb production as measured by ELISA and RIA was found in 6/9 patients. By reference to an affinity-purified human TgAb preparation, the TgAb secretion was about 0.7% (range 0 - 21.3%) of the total PWM-induced IgG secretion. (author)

  5. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S.; Gregorio, J.S.; Aguilar, C.P.; Poblete, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report is about the studies on the radiosensitivity of Filipino lymphocytes to radiation that can elucidate on the potential of blood chromosomes as biological dosimeters. The objective of this study is to determine the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos and to establish the radiation-induced chromosome anomaly standard curve in lymphocytes for radiological dosimetry. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Subpopulation of human helper and suppressor T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, M.; Levin, R.D.; Westerman, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Mitogen driven differentiation of normal human mononuclear cells is a well-established model for the study of antibody synthesis in man. In certain rare individuals who are clinically normal, unfractionated mononuclear cells or a mixture of purified B plus T lymphocytes differentiate into immunoglobulin producing cells in response to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) but not in response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). To evaluate this observation we have irradiated T cells from such individuals to eliminate naturally occurring suppressor T cell activity and then added the irradiated T cells back to autologous B cells before culture. The B cells then responded to PWM. The original PPD responses of cells from these individuals were now significantly reduced. Although, there was no difference between PWM nonresponders and responders in the number of OKT-8 positive cells, elimination of OKT-8 positive cells in the PWM nonresponders with OKT-8 monoclonal antibody and complement resulted in a significantly increased response to PWM. This study indicates that there are suppressor T cells which specifically inhibit B cell response to PWM without affecting the PPD response. These results also show that the helper T cells involved in the PWM response are radioresistant and those involved in the PPD response are radiosensitive

  7. Evaluation of mechanical and morphologic features of PLLA membranes as supports for perfusion cells culture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesanto, S., E-mail: salvatore.montesanto1985@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Brucato, V. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy); La Carrubba, V. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST), Via Michele Miraglia, 20, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Porous biodegradable PLLA membranes, which can be used as supports for perfusion cell culture systems were designed, developed and characterized. PLLA membranes were prepared via diffusion induced phase separation (DIPS). A glass slab was coated with a binary PLLA–dioxane solution (8 wt.% PLLA) via dip coating, then pool immersed in two subsequent coagulation baths, and finally dried in a humidity-controlled environment. Surface and mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring pore size, porosity via scanning electron microscopy, storage modulus, loss modulus and loss angle by using a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Cell adhesion assays on different membrane surfaces were also performed by using a standard count method. Results provide new insights into the foaming methods for producing polymeric membranes and supply indications on how to optimise the fabrication parameters to design membranes for tissue cultures and regeneration. - Highlights: • Design, development and characterization of porous biodegradable PLLA membranes via DIPS technology. • Easy-to-tune processing parameters in terms of surface and volumetric properties and cell adhesion. • Evaluation of the impact of the interconnection degree on membrane's mechanical properties. • Evaluation of cell adhesion on different membrane surface textures.

  8. Evaluation of mechanical and morphologic features of PLLA membranes as supports for perfusion cells culture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesanto, S.; Brucato, V.; La Carrubba, V.

    2016-01-01

    Porous biodegradable PLLA membranes, which can be used as supports for perfusion cell culture systems were designed, developed and characterized. PLLA membranes were prepared via diffusion induced phase separation (DIPS). A glass slab was coated with a binary PLLA–dioxane solution (8 wt.% PLLA) via dip coating, then pool immersed in two subsequent coagulation baths, and finally dried in a humidity-controlled environment. Surface and mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring pore size, porosity via scanning electron microscopy, storage modulus, loss modulus and loss angle by using a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Cell adhesion assays on different membrane surfaces were also performed by using a standard count method. Results provide new insights into the foaming methods for producing polymeric membranes and supply indications on how to optimise the fabrication parameters to design membranes for tissue cultures and regeneration. - Highlights: • Design, development and characterization of porous biodegradable PLLA membranes via DIPS technology. • Easy-to-tune processing parameters in terms of surface and volumetric properties and cell adhesion. • Evaluation of the impact of the interconnection degree on membrane's mechanical properties. • Evaluation of cell adhesion on different membrane surface textures.

  9. Effect of met-enkephalin on chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakanović-Todić, Maida; Burnazović-Ristić, Lejla; Ibrulj, Slavka; Mulbegović, Nedžad

    2014-05-01

    Endogenious opiod met-enkephalin throughout previous research manifested cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Previous research suggests that met-enkephalin has cytogenetic effects. Reducement in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations as well as a suppressive effect on lymphocyte cell cycle is found. It also reduces apoptosis in the blood samples of the patients with immune-mediated diseases. Met-enkephalin exerts immunomodulatory properties and induces stabilization of the clinical condition in patients with multiple Sclerosis (MS). The goal of the present research was to evaluate met-enkephalin in vitro effects on the number and type of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with MS. Our research detected disappearance of ring chromosomes and chromosome fragmentations in the cultures of the peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with met-enkephalin (1.2 μg/mL). However, this research did not detect any significant effects of met-enkephalin on the reduction of structural chromosome aberrations and disappearance of dicentric chromosomes. Chromosomes with the greatest percent of inclusion in chromosome aberrations were noted as: chromosome 1, chromosome 2 and chromosome 9. Additionally, we confirmed chromosome 14 as the most frequently included in translocations. Furthermore, met-enkephalin effects on the increase of the numerical aberrations in both concentrations applied were detected. Those findings should be interpreted cautiously and more research in this field should be conducted.

  10. Effect of met-enkephalin on chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Rakanović-Todić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Endogenious opiod met-enkephalin throughout previous research manifested cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Previous research suggests that met-enkephalin has cytogenetic effects. Reducement in the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations as well as a suppressive effect on lymphocyte cell cycle is found. It also reduces apoptosis in the blood samples of the patients with immune-mediated diseases. Met-enkephalin exerts immunomodulatory properties and induces stabilization of the clinical condition in patients with multiple Sclerosis (MS. The goal of the present research was to evaluate met-enkephalin in vitro effects on the number and type of chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with MS. Our research detected disappearance of ring chromosomes and chromosome fragmentations in the cultures of the peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with met-enkephalin (1.2 μg/mL. However, this research did not detect any significant effects of met-enkephalin on the reduction of structural chromosome aberrations and disappearance of dicentric chromosomes. Chromosomes with the greatest percent of inclusion in chromosome aberrations were noted as: chromosome 1, chromosome 2 and chromosome 9. Additionally, we confirmed chromosome 14 as the most frequently included in translocations. Furthermore, met-enkephalin effects on the increase of the numerical aberrations in both concentrations applied were detected. Those findings should be interpreted cautiously and more research in this field should be conducted. 

  11. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in humans and domestic animals. The underlying mechanisms that cause prolonged illness are complex and not fully understood. Immune responses may have an important role in the chronicity of infection. Here, we evaluated the lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with chronic and acute brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 22 patients with acute brucellosis, 21 patients with chronic brucellosis and 21 healthy people with the similar age, sex and genetic background as control group. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll and the cellular proliferation was quantified in presence of antigen and phytohemaglutinin-A by MTT method. Results: The brucella antigen-specific stimulation index in patients with chronic brucellosis was significantly lower than the acute brucellosis patients (p=0.001. Also, stimulating the lymphocytes with phytohemaglutinin-A has shown that proliferative response in patients with chronic brucellosis was lower than the other groups (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results indicated that chronic brucellosis inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the induction of anergy.

  12. Development and evaluation of a teaching and learning approach in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination in university nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Brown, Lucinda; Duff, Carmel; Nesbitt, Pat; Hepner, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination are vital to ethical effective health systems. Nurses require quality educational preparation in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination. Limited evidence-based research is available to guide teachers. To develop, implement and evaluate an evidence-based teaching and learning approach in cross-cultural care and antidiscrimination for undergraduate nursing students. A quantitative design using pre- and post-survey measures was used to evaluate the teaching and learning approach. The Bachelor of Nursing program in an Australian university. Academics and second year undergraduate nursing students. A literature review and consultation with academics informed the development of the teaching and learning approach. Thirty-three students completed a survey at pre-measures and following participation in the teaching and learning approach at post-measures about their confidence to practice cross-cultural nursing (Transcultural Self-efficacy Tool) and about their discriminatory attitudes (Quick Discrimination Index). The literature review found that educational approaches that solely focus on culture might not be sufficient in addressing discrimination and racism. During consultation, academics emphasised the importance of situating cross-cultural nursing and antidiscrimination as social determinants of health. Therefore, cross-cultural nursing was contextualised within primary health care and emphasised care for culturally diverse communities. Survey findings supported the effectiveness of this strategy in promoting students' confidence regarding knowledge about cross-cultural nursing. There was no reported change in discriminatory attitudes. The teaching and learning approach was modified to include stronger experiential learning and role playing. Nursing education should emphasise cross-cultural nursing and antidiscrimination. The study describes an evaluated teaching and learning approach and demonstrates how evaluation

  13. Development of an in situ evaluation system for neural cells using extracellular matrix-modeled gel culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Ikegami, Yasuhiro; Mizumachi, Hideyuki; Shirakigawa, Nana; Ijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional monolayer culture is the most popular cell culture method. However, the cells may not respond as they do in vivo because the culture conditions are different from in vivo conditions. However, hydrogel-embedding culture, which cultures cells in a biocompatible culture substrate, can produce in vivo-like cell responses, but in situ evaluation of cells in a gel is difficult. In this study, we realized an in vivo-like environment in vitro to produce cell responses similar to those in vivo and established an in situ evaluation system for hydrogel-embedded cell responses. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-modeled gel consisted of collagen and heparin (Hep-col) to mimic an in vivo-like environment. The Hep-col gel could immobilize growth factors, which is important for ECM functions. Neural stem/progenitor cells cultured in the Hep-col gel grew and differentiated more actively than in collagen, indicating an in vivo-like environment in the Hep-col gel. Second, a thin-layered gel culture system was developed to realize in situ evaluation of the gel-embedded cells. Cells in a 200-μm-thick gel could be evaluated clearly by a phase-contrast microscope and immunofluorescence staining through reduced optical and diffusional effects. Finally, we found that the neural cells cultured in this system had synaptic connections and neuronal action potentials by immunofluorescence staining and Ca 2+ imaging. In conclusion, this culture method may be a valuable evaluation system for neurotoxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictive radiosensitivity tests in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Sardi, M.; Busto, E.; Mairal, L.; Roth, B.; Menendez, P.; Bonomi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an abnormally increased reaction to ionising radiation of both the whole body and cells derived from body tissues. Human population is not uniform in its radiation sensitivity. Radiosensitive sub-groups exist, which would suffer an increased incidence of both deterministic and stochastic effects. Clinical studies have suggested that a large part of the spectrum of normal tissue reaction may be due to differences in individual radiosensitivity. The identification of such sub-groups should be relevant for radiation therapy and radiation protection purposes. It is suggested that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be a suitable approache to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. The aims of this study were: 1) To assess the in vitro radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from two groups of cancer patients (prospectively and retrospectively studied), using MN and comet assays, in comparison with the clinical radiation reaction and 2) To test the predictive potential of both techniques for the identification of radiosensitivity sub-groups. 38 cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were enrolled in this study. 19 patients were evaluated prior, mid-way and on completion of treatment (prospective group) and 19 patients were evaluated about 6-18 month after radiotherapy (retrospective group). Cytogenetic data from the prospective group were analysed using a mathematical model to evaluate the attenuation of the cytogenetic effect as a function of the time between a single exposure and blood sampling, estimating a cytogenetic recovery factor k. In the retrospective group, blood samples were irradiated in vitro with 0 (control) or 2 Gy and evaluated using MN test. Cytogenetic data were analysed

  15. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.

  16. Evaluation of cultural heritage in Posavje region by tourists and employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Brcar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: This paper investigates tourism sustainability and examines the research problem of cultural and historical heritage sustainability in the Posavje region. The aim of this research paper is to evaluate the opinion of employees in tourist sector and tourists about tourism sustainability and their suggestions for improvement. The objective is to determine the level of sustainability of cultural and historical heritage. Method: Quantitative method with closed-ended questionnaire and qualitative method with open-ended questionnaire were used. Collected quantitative data were analyzed using frequency statistics, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Qualitative data were analyzed by three steps: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. Results: The results showed that maximizing benefits to cultural heritage and minimizing negative impact was rated more positively by tourists in comparison to employees in the tourist sector. The scores were rated between 2.72 and 4.05 on a scale from 1 (low level of sustainability to 5 (high level of sustainability. Society: We conclude that the level of tourism sustainability in Posavje region is not satisfactory and has to be improved. Limitations / further research: Respondents proposed a great number of ideas for improving tourism sustainability.

  17. Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraei, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

  18. Evaluation of castor oil-based polyurethane membranes in rat bone-marrow cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerejo, Sofia de Amorim; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Lima Neto, João Ferreira de; Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz Landim e

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate three methods to isolate rats MSCs and to analyze the potential of a castor oil polyurethane base membrane as a scaffold for MSCs. Four male Wistar rats, aged 20-30 days were used. Bone marrow aspirates from femur and tibia were harvested using DMEM high glucose and heparin. The cell culture was performed in three different ways: direct culture and two types of density gradients. After 15 days, was made the 1st passage and analyzed cell viability with markers Hoerscht 33342 and propidium iodide. The MSCs were characterized by surface markers with the aid of flow cytometry. After this, three types of castor oil polyurethane membranes associated with the MSCs were kept on the 6-well plate for 5 days and were analyzed by optical microscopy to confirm cell aggregation and growth. Separation procedures 1 and 2 allowed adequate isolation of MSCs and favored cell growth with the passage being carried out at 70% confluence after 15 days in culture. The cells could not be isolated using procedure 3. When the 3 castor oil polyurethane membrane types were compared it was possible to observe that the growth of MSCs was around 80% in membrane type 3, 20% in type 2, and 10% in type 1. Both Ficoll-Hypaque densities allow isolation of rat MSCs, and especially castor oil-based membrane type 3 may be used as a scaffold for MSCs.

  19. Enumeration of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes by single-platform, HLA tetramer-based flow cytometry: a European multicenter evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Ingmar A F M; Barnett, David; Arroz, Maria J; Barry, Simon M; Bonneville, Marc; Brando, Bruno; D'hautcourt, Jean-Luc; Kern, Florian; Tötterman, Thomas H; Marijt, Erik W A; Bossy, David; Preijers, Frank W M B; Rothe, Gregor; Gratama, Jan W

    2004-11-01

    HLA class I peptide tetramers represent powerful diagnostic tools for detection and monitoring of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. The impetus for the current multicenter study is the critical need to standardize tetramer flow cytometry if it is to be implemented as a routine diagnostic assay. Hence, the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis set out to develop and evaluate a single-platform tetramer-based method that used cytomegalovirus (CMV) as the antigenic model. Absolute numbers of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells were obtained by combining the percentage of tetramer-binding cells with the absolute CD8(+) T-cell count. Six send-outs of stabilized blood from healthy individuals or CMV-carrying donors with CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell counts of 3 to 10 cells/microl were distributed to 7 to 16 clinical sites. These sites were requested to enumerate CD8(+) T cells and, in the case of CMV-positive donors, CMV-specific subsets on three separate occasions using the standard method. Between-site coefficients of variation of less than 10% (absolute CD8(+) T-cell counts) and approximately 30% (percentage and absolute numbers of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells) were achieved. Within-site coefficients of variation were approximately 5% (absolute CD8(+) T-cell counts), approximately 9% (percentage CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells), and approximately 17% (absolute CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell counts). The degree of variation tended to correlate inversely with the proportion of CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell subsets. The single-platform MHC tetramer-based method for antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell counting has been evaluated by a European group of laboratories and can be considered a reproducible assay for routine enumeration of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Production of C-reactive protein by human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuta, A.E.; Baum, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase serum protein in humans; it is detectable at very high concentrations during infection and tissue trauma. This protein is a pentame composed of five identical, 21,500 MW subunits. CRP is detectable on the surface of approximately 4% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CRP binds its physiological ligands in a Ca ++ dependent manner; removal of Ca ++ does not alter the expression of CRP on the lymphocyte surface. Recently, investigators in this laboratory reported substantial inhibition of natural killer cell (NK) activity with anti-CRP antibodies. The following studies were undertaken to determine the origin of surface-CRP (S-CRP) found on normal PBL. Cells were incubated in methionine-free DMEM supplemented with 35 S-methionine. Cells were lysed and subjected to immunoprecipitation with anti-CRP and Staphylococcus aureus; immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Data presented here suggested that lymphocytes, in particular, LGL produce small amounts of CRP and express it on their surface. Lymphocytes do not appear to secrete CRP since no CRP could be detected in culture supernatants. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that peripheral blood monocytes produce no detectable CRP. Present studies utilizing Northern blot analysis are underway in order to detect CRP-mRNA

  1. Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G [Kennedy Inst. of Rheumatology, London (UK). Div. of Experimental Pathology; Cramp, W A; Edwards, J C; George, A M; Sabovljev, S A; Hart, L; Hughes, G R.V. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK); Denman, A M [Northwich Park Hospital, Harrow (UK); Yatvin, M B [Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center, Madison (USA)

    1985-06-01

    The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultured with Con A, can be inhibited by ionizing radiation. Lymphocytes from patients with conditions associated with autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and polymyositis, are more radiosensitive than those from healthy volunteers or patients with conditions not associated with autoimmunity. Nuclear material isolated from the lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune diseases is, on average, lighter in density than the nuclear material from most healthy controls. This difference in density is not related to increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation but the degree of post-irradiation change in density (lightening) is proportional to the initial density, i.e. more dense nuclear material always shows a greater upward shift after radiation. The recovery of pre-irradiation density of nuclear material, 1 h after radiation exposure, taken as an indication of DNA repair, correlates with the radiosensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation (Con A response); failure to return to pre-irradiation density being associated with increased sensitivity of proliferative response. These results require extension but, taken with previously reported studied of the effects of DNA methylating agents, support the idea that DNA damage and its defective repair could be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  2. Survival of human lymphocytes after exposure to densely ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Raju, M.R.; Kelly, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Interphase death of human blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro was studied after exposure to 60 Co gamma rays and to accelerated ions of 1 H, 4 He, 7 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, and π - meson beam under aerobic conditions. Exposures were also conducted under hypoxic conditions with 60 Co gamma rays, 4 He, 7 Li, and 12 C ion beams. Time course of interphase death was followed for 6 days after irradiation. Percent survivals were determined by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Survival curves at 5 days postirradiation were exponential for all radiations studied. These observations indicate that the production of interphase death of lymphocytes by densely ionizing radiations follows a pattern similar to that observed with colony-forming mammalian cells. However, the reproductive capacity of the latter cells is impaired with maximum effectiveness at energy densities associated with 220 keV/μm for the beam conditions used in this investigation. The much lower energy densities required to kill a lymphocyte suggest that a sensitive structure other than DNA may be responsible for the production of lymphocyte death, perhaps the membranes. The calculated inactivation cross sections for high-LET radiations above 650 keV/μm yielded values larger than the actual cell dimensions. It appears that contributions from delta rays become appreciable in this system at these LET's

  3. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds induced in human lymphocytes by the fungicide signum and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çayır, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Coskun, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the Signum fungicide and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear bud (NBUDs) formations, and the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) were evaluated in treated lymphocytes in Go (cells were treated and then kept in culture without stimulation for 24 h) and proliferation phases (cells were treated after 44 h culture in medium containing phytohemagglutinin). MN formation in lymphocytes treated in G0 statistically increased at doses of 2, 6, and 25 μg/mL signum; 0.5 and 2 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.5, 1.5, and 2 μg/mL pyraclostrobin; while NPB formation increased at a dose of 0.25 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. All concentrations of each fungicide did not statistically increase NBUD formation, while the cytotoxicity increased the dependent on concentration in lymphocytes treated in G0 . Doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 μg/mL signum; 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin statistically increased the MN formation in proliferating lymphocytes. NPB formation increased in proliferating lymphocytes at doses of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/mL signum and at a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. In addition, a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin increased NBUD frequencies. Cytotoxicity increased with increasing concentrations of each fungicide. It is concluded that signum, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin may be genotoxic and cytotoxic in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in consideration of each of the two protocols. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 723-732, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  4. In vitro culture of various species of microsporidia causing keratitis: Evaluation of three immortalized cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Being intracellular parasites, microsporidia can only be propagated in cell culture systems. This study evaluated three cell lines to determine the most suitable host-parasite In vitro system. Confluent monolayers of vero, SIRC, and HeLa cell lines, grown in 24-well tissue culture plates, were inoculated with varying concentrations (1 x 10 4 to 1 x 10 8 spores/mL of Vittaforma corneae, Encephalitozoon hellem, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores. Growth was compared quantitatively at weekly intervals. Encephalitozoon species showed the highest amount of growth when cultured in vero cell line, while there was no significant difference in their growth in SIRC and HeLa cell lines. In comparison, V. corneae showed the highest growth in SIRC cells, followed by vero cells. The analytical sensitivity was found to be 1 x 10 4 spores/mL for vero cell line compared to 1 x 10 5 spores/mL for SIRC cell line and 1 x 10 7 spores/mL for HeLa cell line. HeLa cells also showed rapid disruption of cells, and the spores could not be easily distinguished from cell debris. This is the first report of the comparison of vero, SIRC, and HeLa for the propagation of microsporidial spores. Vero cell line was found to be more sensitive than SIRC and HeLa cells, and we believe that the inclusion of vero cell line in the routine culture protocols of ocular parasitology laboratories would result in a significant increase in the diagnostic yield.

  5. Development and evaluation of the quick anaero-system-a new disposable anaerobic culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nam Woong; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Gwang Ju; Jang, Sook Jin

    2010-04-01

    We developed a new disposable anaerobic culture system, namely, the Quick anaero-system, for easy culturing of obligate anaerobes. Our system consists of 3 components: 1) new disposable anaerobic gas pack, 2) disposable culture-envelope and sealer, and 3) reusable stainless plate rack with mesh containing 10 g of palladium catalyst pellets. To evaluate the efficiency of our system, we used 12 anaerobic bacteria. We prepared 2 sets of ten-fold serial dilutions of the 12 anaerobes, and inoculated these samples on Luria-Bertani (LB) broth and LB blood agar plate (LB-BAP) (BD Diagnostic Systems, USA). Each set was incubated in the Quick anaero-system (DAS Tech, Korea) and BBL GasPak jar with BD GasPak EZ Anaerobe Container System (BD Diagnostic Systems) at 35-37 degrees C for 48 hr. The minimal inoculum size showing visible growth of 12 anaerobes when incubated in both the systems was compared. The minimal inoculum size showing visible growth for 2 out of the 12 anaerobes in the LB broth and 9 out of the 12 anaerobes on LB-BAP was lower for the Quick anaero-system than in the BD GasPak EZ Anaerobe Container System. The mean time (+/-SD) required to achieve absolute anaerobic conditions of the Quick anaero-system was 17 min and 56 sec (+/-3 min and 25 sec). The Quick anaero-system is a simple and effective method of culturing obligate anaerobes, and its performance is superior to that of the BD GasPak EZ Anaerobe Container System.

  6. Human neuron-astrocyte 3D co-culture-based assay for evaluation of neuroprotective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasso, Ana Paula; Silva, Ana Carina; Filipe, Augusto; Pedroso, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Alves, Paula Marques; Brito, Catarina

    Central nervous system drug development has registered high attrition rates, mainly due to the lack of efficacy of drug candidates, highlighting the low reliability of the models used in early-stage drug development and the need for new in vitro human cell-based models and assays to accurately identify and validate drug candidates. 3D human cell models can include different tissue cell types and represent the spatiotemporal context of the original tissue (co-cultures), allowing the establishment of biologically-relevant cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Nevertheless, exploitation of these 3D models for neuroprotection assessment has been limited due to the lack of data to validate such 3D co-culture approaches. In this work we combined a 3D human neuron-astrocyte co-culture with a cell viability endpoint for the implementation of a novel in vitro neuroprotection assay, over an oxidative insult. Neuroprotection assay robustness and specificity, and the applicability of Presto Blue, MTT and CytoTox-Glo viability assays to the 3D co-culture were evaluated. Presto Blue was the adequate endpoint as it is non-destructive and is a simpler and reliable assay. Semi-automation of the cell viability endpoint was performed, indicating that the assay setup is amenable to be transferred to automated screening platforms. Finally, the neuroprotection assay setup was applied to a series of 36 test compounds and several candidates with higher neuroprotective effect than the positive control, Idebenone, were identified. The robustness and simplicity of the implemented neuroprotection assay with the cell viability endpoint enables the use of more complex and reliable 3D in vitro cell models to identify and validate drug candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MAJOR AND LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES AND THEIR REFERENCE VALUES, AS ASSAYED BY MULTI-COLOUR CYTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaidukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations and their phenotypes is an important diagnostic feature, in order to elucidate some disturbances connected with immune system functioning. However, insufficient data are obtained when analyzing only major populations of peripheral lymphocytes. In order to perform clinical diagnostics, the data about minor lymphocytic populations and activated cellular pools seem to be more pertinent.Studies of peripheral blood cell subpopulations of healthy donors performed in different Russian regions allowed to assess quantitative distribution intervals for both major and minor immune cell subpopulations in humans. The results obtained, as compared with data from literature, provide an evidence for similar reference intervals for main immune cell subpopulations in healthy donors, independent on their habitation area.Present work has resulted into development of algorithms for cytometric studies and generation of certain panels of monoclonal antibodies enabling evaluation of all main lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as their minor subsets participating in emerging immune response. The distribution intervals have been estimated for such minor subpopulations, as B1- and B2-lymphocytes, memory B-cells, γδ- and αβT-cells, regulatory and naїve T-cells, cytotoxic and secretory NK-cell polupations.The results of present study, while been performed with peripheral blood of healthy donors, may provide a basis of reference values when studying subpopulation profile of immune cells.

  8. Association Between Fear and Beauty Evaluation of Snakes: Cross-Cultural Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Bakhshaliyeva, Natavan; Janovcová, Markéta; Peléšková, Šárka; Suleymanova, Mesma; Polák, Jakub; Guliev, Akif; Frynta, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    According to the fear module theory, humans are evolutionarily predisposed to perceive snakes as prioritized stimuli and exhibit a fast emotional and behavioral response toward them. In Europe, highly dangerous snake species are distributed almost exclusively in the Mediterranean and Caspian areas. While the risk of a snakebite is relatively low in Central Europe, Azerbaijan, on the other hand, has a high occurrence of the deadly venomous Levant viper ( Macrovipera lebetina ). We hypothesize that co-habitation with this dangerous snake has shaped the way in which humans evaluate snake species resembling it. For that purpose, we asked respondents from the Czech Republic and Azerbaijan to rank photographs depicting 36 snake species according to perceived fear and beauty. The results revealed a high cross-cultural agreement in both evaluations (fear r 2 = 0.683, p differences. This may provide some support for the evolutionary hypothesis of preparedness to fear snakes.

  9. Automated applications of sandwich-cultured hepatocytes in the evaluation of hepatic drug transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cassandra H; Smith, William R; St Claire, Robert L; Brouwer, Kenneth R

    2011-04-01

    Predictions of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of compounds in pharmaceutical development are essential aspects of the drug discovery process. B-CLEAR is an in vitro system that uses sandwich-cultured hepatocytes to evaluate and predict in vivo hepatobiliary disposition (hepatic uptake, biliary excretion, and biliary clearance), transporter-based hepatic drug-drug interactions, and potential drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Automation of predictive technologies is an advantageous and preferred format in drug discovery. In this study, manual and automated studies are investigated and equivalence is demonstrated. In addition, automated applications using model probe substrates and inhibitors to assess the cholestatic potential of drugs and evaluate hepatic drug transport are examined. The successful automation of this technology provides a more reproducible and less labor-intensive approach, reducing potential operator error in complex studies and facilitating technology transfer.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of whey protein-based biofilms as substrates for in vitro cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Vanessa; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Wang, Hongxum; Arnould, Anne-Lise; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel

    2005-12-01

    Whey proteins-based biofilms were prepared using different plasticizers in order to obtain a biomaterial for the human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in vitro culture. The film properties were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique and mechanical tests. A relationship was found between the decrease of intermolecular hydrogen bond strength and film mechanical behavior changes, expressed by a breaking stress and Young modulus values diminishing. These results allow stating that the film molecular configuration could induce dissimilarities in its mechanical properties. The films toxicity was assessed by evaluating the cutaneous cells adherence, growth, proliferation and structural stratification. Microscopic observation demonstrated that both keratinocytes and fibroblasts adhered to the biofilms. The trypan blue exclusion test showed that keratinocytes grew at a significantly high rate on all the biofilms. Structural analysis demonstrated that keratinocytes stratified when cultured on the whey protein-based biofilms and gave rise to multi-layered epidermal structures. The most organized epidermis was obtained with whey protein isolate/DEG biofilm. This structure had a well-organized basal layer under supra-basal and corneous layers. This study demonstrated that whey proteins, an inexpensive renewable resource which can be obtained readily, were non-toxic to cutaneous cells and thus they could be useful substrates for a variety of biomedical applications, including tissue engineering.

  11. Development of a Chinese version of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W W; Wang, W; Xu, W D

    2016-08-15

    The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with meniscal pathology. Our study aims to culturally adapt and validate the WOMET into a Chinese version. We translated the WOMET into Chinese. Then, a total of 121 patients with meniscal pathology were invited to participate in this study. To assess the test-retest reliability, the Chinese version WOMET was completed twice at 7-day intervals by the participants. The construct validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient or Spearman's correlation to test for correlations among the Chinese version WOMET and the eight domains of Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Responsiveness was tested by comparison of the preoperative and postoperative scores of the Chinese version WOMET. The test-retest reliability of the overall scale and different domains were all found to be excellent. The Cronbach's α was 0.90. The Chinese version WOMET correlated well with other questionnaires which suggested good construct validity. We observed no ceiling and floor effects of the Chinese version WOMET. We also found good responsiveness for the effect size, and the standardized response mean values were 0.86 and 1.11. The Chinese version of the WOMET appears to be reliable and valid in evaluating patients with meniscal pathology.

  12. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.G.; Fidler, J.M.; Weigle, W.O.

    1978-01-01

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  13. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  14. Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Claire

    2011-02-01

    The WHO classification recognises three distinct disorders of large granular lymphocytes: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia (T-LGL), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells (CLPD-NK) and agressive NK-cell leukaemia. Despite the different cell of origin, there is considerable overlap between T-LGL and CLPD-NK in terms of clinical presentation and therapy. Many patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. Therapy, with immunosuppressant agents such as low dose methotrexate or ciclosporin, is usually indicated to correct cytopenias. In contrast, aggressive NK-cell leukaemia and the rare CD56(+) aggressive T-LGL leukaemia follow a fulminant clinical course, affect younger individuals and require more intensive combination chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplant in eligible patients. The relative rarity of these disorders means that there have been few clinical trials to inform management. However, there is now considerable interest in the pathogenesis of the chronic LGL leukaemias and this has stimulated early trials to evaluate novel agents which target the dysregulated apoptotic pathways characteristic of this disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. ZAP-70 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evaluation by external (isotypic) or internal (T/NK cells) controls and correlation with IgV(H) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetto, Antonella; Bomben, Riccardo; Bo, Michele Dal; Nanni, Paola; Bulian, Pietro; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Santini, Simone; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Degan, Massimo; Gattei, Valter

    2006-07-15

    Expression of T cell specific zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) by B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells, as investigated by flow cytometry, has both prognostic relevance and predictive power as surrogate for immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgV(H)) mutations, although a standardization of the cytometric protocol is still lacking. Flow cytometric analyses for ZAP-70 were performed in peripheral blood samples from 145 B-CLL (124 with IgV(H) mutations) by a standard three-color protocol. Identification of ZAP-70(+) cell population was based on an external negative control, i.e., the isotypic control (ISO method) or an internal positive control, i.e., the population of residual normal T/NK cells (TNK method). A comparison between these two approaches was performed. While 86/145 cases were concordant as for ZAP-70 expression according to the two methods (ISO(+)TNK(+) or ISO(-)TNK(-)), 59/145 cases had discordant ZAP-70 expression, mainly (56/59) showing a ISO(+)TNK(-) profile. These latter cases express higher levels of ZAP-70 in their normal T cell component. Moreover, discordant ISO(+)TNK(-) cases had a IgV(H) gene mutation profile similar to that of concordantly positive cases and different from ZAP-70 concordantly negative B-CLL. Analysis of ZAP-70 expression by B-CLL cells by using the ISO method allows to overcome the variability in the expression of ZAP-70 by residual T cells and yields a better correlation with IgV(H) gene mutations. A receiver operating characteristic analysis suggests to employ a higher cut-off than the commonly used 20%. A parallel evaluation of the prognostic value of ZAP-70 expression, as determined according to the ISO and TNK methods, is still needed. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  16. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  17. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nDiet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01 Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro.

  18. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P

  19. Structural Chromosomal Alterations Induced by Dietary Bioflavonoids in Fanconi Anemia Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guevara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive diseasecharacterized by a variety of congenital abnormalities,progressive bone marrow failure,increased chromosomal instability and higherrisk to acute myeloid leukemia, solid tumors. Thisentity can be considered an appropriate biologicalmodel to analyze natural substances with possiblegenotoxic effect. The aims of this study wereto describe and quantify structural chromosomalaberrations induced by 5 flavones, 2 isoflavonesand a topoisomerase II chemotherapeutic inhibitorin Fanconi anemia lymphocytes in order todetermine chromosomal numbers changes and/or type of chromosomal damage.Materials and methodsChromosomes stimulated by phytohaemagglutininM, from Fanconi anemia lymphocytes,were analysed by conventional cytogenetic culture.For each chemical substance and controls,one hundred metaphases were evaluated. Chromosomalalterations were documented by photographyand imaging analyzer. To statisticalanalysis was used chi square test to identify significantdifferences between frequencies of chromosomaldamage of basal and exposed cellcultured a P value less than 0.05.ResultsThere were 431 chromosomal alterations in1000 metaphases analysed; genistein was themore genotoxic bioflavonoid, followed in descendentorder by genistin, fisetin, kaempferol,quercetin, baicalein and miricetin. Chromosomalaberrations observed were: chromatidbreaks, chromosomal breaks, cromatid andchromosomal gaps, quadriratials exchanges,dicentrics chromosome and complex rearrangements.ConclusionBioflavonoids as genistein, genistin and fisetin,which are commonly present in the human diet,showed statistical significance in the number ofchromosomal aberrations in Fanconi anemialymphocytes, regarding the basal damage.

  20. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1 1 / 2 years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2 1 / 2 years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1 1 / 2 years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied

  1. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation. [X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-03-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2/sup 1///sub 2/ years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied.

  2. Distribution of X-ray-induced chromosome breakpoints in Down syndrome lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, H.M.; Au, W.W.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) individuals are known to be predisposed to develop leukemia and their lymphocytes are highly sensitive to the induction of chromosome aberrations by X-rays. A study was conducted to identify the chromosome breakpoints and to evaluate whether site specificity for chromosome breakage and rearrangement may exist which may explain the predisposition phenomenon. DS lymphocytes at the G1 phase of the cell cycle were irradiated with 300, 450, and 600 rad of X-rays. Cells were harvested after 3 days in culture and 193 G-banded karyotypes were analyzed to identify the induced chromosome abnormalities. Out of 273 breakpoints identified, 122 were involved in the formation of stable chromosome rearrangements and 151 in the formation of unstable abnormalities. The Poisson analysis of these breakpoints demonstrated that 16 chromosome bands located in chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 12, 17, 19 and X were preferentially involved in breakage and rearrangement (P less than 0.05). These 16 bands are also found to be locations of cancer breakpoints, oncogenes, or fragile sites. Many abnormal cells were observed to carry stable chromosome rearrangements only. Therefore, these cells are presumed to be compatible with survival and to be initiated in the transformation process. We propose that similar stable and site-specific chromosome rearrangements may exist in proliferating cells in DS individuals after exposure to clastogens and that this abnormality predisposes them to develop leukemia

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of an Instrument to Assess Cross-Cultural Competence of Healthcare Professionals (CCCHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Gerda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; von Wolff, Alessa; Dingoyan, Demet; Schulz, Holger; Mösko, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Cultural competence of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is recognized as a strategy to reduce cultural disparities in healthcare. However, standardised, valid and reliable instruments to assess HCPs’ cultural competence are notably lacking. The present study aims to 1) identify the core components of cultural competence from a healthcare perspective, 2) to develop a self-report instrument to assess cultural competence of HCPs and 3) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Methods The conceptual model and initial item pool, which were applied to the cross-cultural competence instrument for the healthcare profession (CCCHP), were derived from an expert survey (n = 23), interviews with HCPs (n = 12), and a broad narrative review on assessment instruments and conceptual models of cultural competence. The item pool was reduced systematically, which resulted in a 59-item instrument. A sample of 336 psychologists, in advanced psychotherapeutic training, and 409 medical students participated, in order to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the CCCHP. Results Construct validity was supported by principal component analysis, which led to a 32-item six-component solution with 50% of the total variance explained. The different dimensions of HCPs’ cultural competence are: Cross-Cultural Motivation/Curiosity, Cross-Cultural Attitudes, Cross-Cultural Skills, Cross-Cultural Knowledge/Awareness and Cross-Cultural Emotions/Empathy. For the total instrument, the internal consistency reliability was .87 and the dimension’s Cronbach’s α ranged from .54 to .84. The discriminating power of the CCCHP was indicated by statistically significant mean differences in CCCHP subscale scores between predefined groups. Conclusions The 32-item CCCHP exhibits acceptable psychometric properties, particularly content and construct validity to examine HCPs’ cultural competence. The CCCHP with its five dimensions offers a comprehensive

  4. Is there a genetic instability in A-bomb survivors' lymphocytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio

    1997-01-01

    Based on the reports that the genetic instability can be induced even by low LET radiation and that the instability can be essentially the cause of radiation carcinogenicity, data accumulated hitherto on the chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors were re-evaluated since it can be conceivable that there is still remaining a genetic instability in them. For a measure of biological radiation dose, translocation frequency was used and for genetic instability, dicentrics frequency. The relationship between those frequencies was analyzed in about 2500 survivors and showed either a saturable or linear one. For clear conclusion, additional studies on dicentrics frequency occurring in cultured lymphocytes from subjects who received various radiation doses would be necessary. (K.H.)

  5. Evaluation of Big Five model in Serbian culture by FIBI questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to evaluate personality dimensions, proposed by Big Five model, in our culture, by the use of the questionnaire FIBI, developed on the basis of the psycho lexical study of personality descriptions in Serbian language (Smederevac, 2000. There were 627 subjects in the study (407 females and 220 males, aged 17 to 77, and the inventory UKL7 (Smederevac, 2000 and the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, Kentle, 1991; John, Srivastava, 1999 were applied. The FIBI inventory was created from UKL7 by exclusion of evaluative items, items of probable artificial factor Emotional control and items with poor psychometric properties were excluded. Final solution with 69 items demonstrated solid psychometric properties. The construct validity of the FIBI has been assessed by examination of its relationship to the Big Five Inventory and results showed that scales Conventionality and Extraversion in those two inventories differ in content. Subscale Conventionality in FIBI was highly related to subscale Consciousness in BFI and showed no significant correlation to Openness to Experience of the BFI. The content of the FIBI's Extraversion scale includes positive self-evaluation, assertiveness and activity. Indicators of sociability, usually considered as dominant (or at least very important markers of extraverted behavior, were omitted from the FIBI Extraversion scale. These content differences justify application of the emic approach in the personality psychology research. Although there are some other available instruments based on Big Five, FIBI represents product of our cultural background and seems to be worth of further examination and improvement.

  6. Survival and PHA-stimulation of #betta#-irradiated human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Darr, D.C.; Daulden, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations were identified and isolated on the basis of their ability to bind IgG (T-G), IgM (T-M), or neither immunoglobulin class (T-null). Lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 Gy of 60 Co #betta#-rays either as a T-cell suspension or as separated T cell subsets. Survival curves, determined 5 days after irradiation, revealed that each subset has radiosensitive and radioresistant portions, and that the T-G cell is the most sensitive subset. Mitotic indices of 48-h cultures showed that the response of unirradiated T lymphocytes to PHA varied greatly among the subsets, the highest indices being obtained for the T-M and the lowest for the T-G cells. With the possible exception of the T-G cells, the subsets are realtively resistant to mitotic effects of #betta#-rays. T-G cells suppress the PHA-induced mitotic response of the other T lymphocyte subsets, and this suppressor effect is radiosensitive, being abolished by 1.0 Gy. It is concluded that lymphocytes exposed to >= 1 Gy of #betta#-rays will have very few dividing B lymphocytes or T-G cells. This together with radiation-induced loss of T-G suppressor action means that the predominant lymphocyte types in mitosis after >=1 Gy are the radioresistant T-M and T-null cells. (orig.)

  7. Cultural contact over the Strait of Gibraltar during the Middle Palaeolithic? Evaluating the visibility of cultural exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne TAFELMAIER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible contacts between hunter-gatherers of Northern Africa and Europe via the Strait of Gibraltar during the Pleistocene are still object to discussions. In the absence of significant fossil remains, debates are mainly based on similarities and differences of singular aspects of material culture. However, a theoretical framework for these discussions was lacking. The first aim of this study thus has been the development of a theoretical base. We therein included Maslow´s pyramid of basic needs. The idea of our approach is that the presence or absence of so-called cultural tracers identify either contact or disparity. A large database on archaeological sites of Morocco and Southern Iberia dating between 160 ka and 40 ka years ago has been compiled, containing information about lithic technology and typology, lithic raw material acquisition, subsistence patterns and symbolic behaviour. We formulated three potential contact scenarios between the two regions. The presence and/or absence of so-called cultural tracers within the data set, that covered all levels of Maslow´s pyramid, led us to conclude that – based on the present archaeological and anthropological data - no contact took place between Iberian and North African populations across the Strait of Gibraltar in the given time frame.

  8. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. Objective To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Methods A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. Results The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. Conclusion The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. PMID:27524887

  9. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanandy P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palanisamy Sivanandy,1 Mari Kannan Maharajan,1 Kingston Rajiah,1 Tan Tyng Wei,2 Tan Wee Loon,2 Lim Chong Yee2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use.Objective: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.Methods: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.Results: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.Conclusion: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. Keywords

  10. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  12. Low in vitro response to PPD and PHA in lymphocytes from BCG-induced pleurisy in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widstroem, O.; Nilsson, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    In order to study any correlation between functional properties of lymphocytes in BCG-induced pleural exudation and the development of the pleurisy a previously described experimental model was used. This model with a duration of effusion of more than 17 days has characteristic stages. From the third day and onwards there are lymphocytes in sufficient amount for in vitro cultures. Proliferation of lymphocytes from the fluid was measured as uptake of 14 C-thymidine. The response of the lymphocytes to PPD tuberculin and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was studied, and their spontaneous activity was measured. Comparisons were made with lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes. Pleural lymphocytes sampled on the third post-induction day did not respond to PPD or PHA stimulation. In later stages, pleural lymphocytes were stimulated by PPD to approximately the same degree as the lymph node lymphocytes. The response to PHA was weak at all stages of pleurisy, though in later stages there were some cases with high values. Variations in activation ability, related to disease staging, were demonstrated. However, low activities, and variability of the responces, without concomitant variations in disease, speak against a connection between the course of disease and functional status of the lymphocytes as measured in this study. (authors)

  13. Optimisation of the CT h4S bioassay for detection of human interleukin-4 secreted by mononuclear cells stimulated by phytohaemaglutinin or by human leukocyte antigen mismatched mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Lykke; Russell, Charlotte Astrid; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    S bioassay detects 5 pg/ml of human recombinant IL-4 with no detection of IL-2 in concentrations below 500 pg/ml. We have found 72 h of culture optimal for detection of IL-2 and IL-4 produced by human mononuclear cells (MNC) in response to stimulation with phytohaemaglutinin and for detection of IL......-2 in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched mixed leukocyte culture (MLC). An interindividual variation in cytokine accumulation was demonstrated for IL-4 but not for IL-2. With the use of 5x10(4) responder cells/well no IL-4 could be detected in HLA-mismatched MLC between days 1 and 16. The lack...

  14. Decreased circulating T regulatory lymphocytes in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Trapletti, Valentina; Piantoni, Silvia; Airò, Paolo; Tincani, Angela; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Rossini, Claudia; Mittempergher, Francesco; Titi, Amin; Portolani, Nazario; Caletti, Stefano; Coschignano, Maria Antonietta; Porteri, Enzo; Tiberio, Guido A M; Pileri, Paola; Solaini, Leonardo; Kumar, Rajesh; Ministrini, Silvia; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2018-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that T lymphocytes may be involved in the development of hypertension and microvascular remodeling, and that circulating T effector lymphocytes may be increased in hypertension. In particular, Th1 and Th 17 lymphocytes may contribute to the progression of hypertension and microvascular damage while T-regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes seem to be protective in this regard. However, no data is available about patients with severe obesity, in which pronounced microvascular alterations were observed. We have investigated 32 severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, as well as 24 normotensive lean subjects and 12 hypertensive lean subjects undergoing an elective surgical intervention. A peripheral blood sample was obtained before surgery for assessment of CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte phenotype was evaluated by flow cytometry in order to assess T-effector and Treg lymphocytes. A marked reduction of several Treg subpopulations was observed in obese patients compared with controls, together with an increased in CD4+ effector memory T-effector cells. In severely obese patients, Treg lymphocytes are clearly reduced and CD4+ effector memory cells are increased. It may be hypothesized that they might contribute to the development of marked microvascular alterations previously observed in these patients.

  15. Lessons learned using a values-engaged approach to attend to culture, diversity, and equity in a STEM program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ayesha S

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation must attend meaningfully and respectfully to issues of culture, race, diversity, power, and equity. This attention is especially critical within the evaluation of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational programming, which has an explicit agenda of broadening participation. The purpose of this article is to report lessons learned from the implementation of a values-engaged, educative (Greene et al., 2006) evaluation within a multi-year STEM education program setting. This meta-evaluation employed a case study design using data from evaluator weekly systematic reflections, review of evaluation and program artifacts, stakeholder interviews, and peer review and assessment. The main findings from this study are (a) explicit attention to culture, diversity, and equity was initially challenged by organizational culture and under-developed evaluator-stakeholder professional relationship and (b) evidence of successful engagement of culture, diversity, and equity emerged in formal evaluation criteria and documents, and informal dialogue and discussion with stakeholders. The paper concludes with lessons learned and implications for practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel tool for evaluating children's musical abilities across age and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Gosselin, Nathalie; Nan, Yun; Caron-Caplette, Emilie; Trehub, Sandra E; Béland, Renée

    2013-01-01

    THE PRESENT STUDY INTRODUCES A NOVEL TOOL FOR ASSESSING MUSICAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN: The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA). The battery, which comprises tests of memory, scale, contour, interval, and rhythm, was administered to 245 children in Montreal and 91 in Beijing (Experiment 1), and an abbreviated version was administered to an additional 85 children in Montreal (in less than 20 min; Experiment 2). All children were 6-8 years of age. Their performance indicated that both versions of the MBEMA are sensitive to individual differences and to musical training. The sensitivity of the tests extends to Mandarin-speaking children despite the fact that they show enhanced performance relative to French-speaking children. Because this Chinese advantage is not limited to musical pitch but extends to rhythm and memory, it is unlikely that it results from early exposure to a tonal language. In both cultures and versions of the tests, amount of musical practice predicts performance. Thus, the MBEMA can serve as an objective, short and up-to-date test of musical abilities in a variety of situations, from the identification of children with musical difficulties to the assessment of the effects of musical training in typically developing children of different cultures.

  17. A novel tool for evaluating children’s musical abilities across age and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study introduces a novel tool for assessing musical abilities in children: The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA. The battery comprises tests of memory, scale, contour, interval, and rhythm, is administered to 245 children in Montreal and 91 in Beijing (Experiment 1, and an abbreviated version is administered to an additional 85 children in Montreal (in less than 20 min.; Experiment 2. All children are 6 to 8 years of age. Their performance indicates that both versions of the MBEMA are sensitive to individual differences and to musical training. The sensitivity of the tests extends to Mandarin-speaking children despite the fact that they show enhanced performance relative to French-speaking children. Because this Chinese advantage is not limited to musical pitch but extends to rhythm and memory, it is unlikely that it results from early exposure to a tonal language. In both cultures and versions of the tests, amount of musical practice predicts performance. Thus, the MBEMA can serve as an objective, short and up-to-date test of musical abilities in a variety of situations, from the identification of children with musical difficulties to the assessment of the effects of musical training in typically developing children of different cultures.

  18. Glioma tissue obtained by modern ultrasonic aspiration with a simple sterile suction trap for primary cell culture and pathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeteler, Juliane; Reeker, Ralf; Suero Molina, Eric; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Holling, Markus; Grauer, Oliver M; Senner, Volker; Stummer, Walter; Ewelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic aspiration is widely used in the resection of brain tumors. Nevertheless, tumor tissue fragments obtained by ultrasonic aspiration are usually discarded. In this study, we demonstrate that these fragments are possible sources of material for histopathological study and tissue culture and compare their microscopic features and viability in tissue culture of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator tissue fragments. Brain tumor tissue collected by ultrasonic aspiration (CUSA EXcel®; Integra Radionics Inc.) in a simple sterile suction trap during resection was processed for primary cell culture. Cell viability and immunohistological markers were measured by the WST-1 test, microscopy and immunofluorescent evaluation. Six gliomas are presented to demonstrate that these tissue fragments show good preservation of histological detail and tissue viability in culture. Utilization of this material may facilitate pathological interpretation by providing a more representative sample of tumor histology as well as an adequate and sterile biosource of material for tissue culture studies.

  19. Food allergens inducing a lymphocyte-mediated immunological reaction in canine atopic-like dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Akemi; Suto, Yukinori; Onohara, Nozomi; Tomizawa, Yu; Yamamoto-Sugawara, Yukiko; Okayama, Taro; Masuda, Kenichi

    2015-02-01

    Canine atopic-like dermatitis (ALD) is suspected to be associated with food allergies, particularly those mediated by lymphocytes. In this study, 54 cases were included as ALD dogs, based on the negative IgE test results. In the dogs, the percentage of activated cells in helper-T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry using cultured peripheral lymphocytes under food allergen stimulation. We observed that 49 of the 54 ALD dogs (90.7%) had positive lymphocyte reactions against one or more food allergens. The most common food allergen was soybean, showing positive results in 21 dogs (42.9%), while the allergen to cause the lowest number of reactions was catfish (only 5 dogs, 10.2%). These results may be useful in considering elimination diets for ALD dogs.

  20. [Performance evaluation of Rapid™ Yeast Plus (Remel) system from two different culture media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Ana M; Snitman, Gabriela V; Marucco, Andrea P; Ponce, Graciela Del V; Cataldi, Silvana P; Guelfand, Liliana I; Arechavala, Alicia

    Within the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from clinical samples. Due to the emergence of other species which can show a higher index of antifungal resistance, a fast identification of these species is necessary. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the RapID Yeast Plus system from two different subculture media formulations: Sabouraud dextrose agar adjusted by Emmons (the medium is indicated in the equipment insert) and Sabouraud glucose agar, which is the most frequently used in Buenos Aires City laboratories. One hundred and sixty-six clinical sample strains coming from different hospitals belonging to the Mycology Network of Buenos Aires City were studied. From the obtained results, we conclude that the conditions and culture medium indicated by the manufacturer should be followed. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Culture Conditions for Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger GH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra- and intracellular tannase production by Aspergillus niger GH1 has been evaluated using submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentation (SSF at different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C. Effects of initial substrate (tannic acid concentration, incubation time and temperature on tannase production in SSF have been studied. A. niger GH1 produced the highest tannase level (2291 U/L in SSF at 30 °C during the first 20 h of culture at tannic acid concentration of 50 g/L, and under these conditions enzyme production was entirely extracellular. The decline in tannase activity after 20 h of incubation was associated with a concomitant increase in protease activity.

  2. Evaluating the integration of cultural competence skills into health and physical assessment tools: a survey of Canadian schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chircop, Andrea; Edgecombe, Nancy; Hayward, Kathryn; Ducey-Gilbert, Cherie; Sheppard-Lemoine, Debbie

    2013-04-01

    Currently used audiovisual (AV) teaching tools to teach health and physical assessment reflect a Eurocentric bias using the biomedical model. The purpose of our study was to (a) identify commonly used AV teaching tools of Canadian schools of nursing and (b) evaluate the identified tools. A two-part descriptive quantitative method design was used. First, we surveyed schools of nursing across Canada. Second, the identified AV teaching tools were evaluated for content and modeling of cultural competence. The majority of the schools (67%) used publisher-produced videos associated with a physical assessment textbook. Major findings included minimal demonstration of negotiation with a client around cultural aspects of the interview including the need for an interpreter, modesty, and inclusion of support persons. Identification of culturally specific examples given during the videos was superficial and did not provide students with a comprehensive understanding of necessary culturally competent skills.

  3. [Activation of peripheral T lymphocytes in children with epilepsy and production of cytokines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Chongkang; Jiang, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Objective To study the state of peripheral T lymphocytes and cytokine levels in children with epilepsy. Methods Twenty children with epilepsy and 20 healthy age-matched children were recruited and their peripheral blood was collected. The activation of T lymphocytes was evaluated by detecting the expressions of CD25, CD69 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-assicated antigen 4 (CTLA4). The function of T lymphocytes was evaluated by detecting the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-17A and IL-6. The activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was evaluated by detecting the expression of IL-10. Results Children with epilepsy had higher expressions of CD25, CD69 and CTLA-4 in T lymphocytes than the controls did. The expressions of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 in T lymphocytes of children with epilepsy were higher than those of the controls. Frequency of Tregs producing IL-10 was higher in children with epilepsy as compared with the controls. Conclusion Peripheral T lymphocytes of children with epilepsy are activated and produce cytokines.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluations of the Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Umay, Ebru; Cakci, Aytul

    2018-06-07

    The objectives of the present study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale into Turkish, to evaluate its psychometric properties, and to compare them with that of other language versions. A total of 144 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease were included in the study. The Turkish version of Parkinson Fatigue Scale was evaluated for data quality, scaling assumptions, acceptability, reliability, and validity. The questionnaire response rate was 100% for both test and retest. The percentage of missing data was zero for items, and the percentage of computable scores was full. Floor and ceiling effects were absent. The Parkinson Fatigue Scale provides an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.974 for 1st test and 0.964 for a retest, and corrected item-to-total correlations were ranged from 0.715 to 0.906) and test-retest reliability (Cohen's kappa coefficients were ranged from 0.632 to 0.786 for individuals items, and intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.887 for the overall Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score). An exploratory factor analysis of the items revealed a single factor explaining 71.7% of variance. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the one-factorial confirmatory factor analysis were Tucker Lewis index = 0.961, comparative fit index = 0.971 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.077 for a single factor. The average Parkinson Fatigue Scale Score was correlated significantly with sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics and scores of rating scales. The Turkish version of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale seems to be culturally well adapted and have good psychometric properties. The scale can be used in further studies to assess the fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  5. Optics in the preservation of cultural heritage. Micro topographic and rugometric evaluation of wood artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2009-01-01

    Optics and optical techniques and instruments are long time being successfully employed in the preservation of cultural heritage: both in cleaning and reconstruction but especially in inspection and noninvasive diagnosis. Humankind cultural heritage includes a vast number and variety of wood objects and artefacts. The inspection and characterization of the surface of wood artefacts and structures is very important for registering its status and in evaluating how it evolves when subjected to a certain kind of environmental constraint, or in the defining the suitability of a certain kind of material for a specific application. Both 2D and microtopographic inspection should be performed extensively and in a oninvasive way. For several years we have developed a series of active optical triangulation based microtopographers, the MICROTOP' family, improved and adapted according to particular inspection needs. Currently five system are available: the main system the MICROTOP.03.MFC intended for general use on the inspection of rough surfaces (both 2D and 3D) ; the PL system is a simplified version used on the inspection of polymer pieces and materials; a version to be used on the automotive industry for real time detection of fracture conditions in structural pieces; a simple hand held version; and the version .06 adapted by incorporation of an angle resolved scattering structure with height resolution measuring capabilities down to the nanometer range is the latest and more versatile version. The inspection of wood surfaces is successfully performed using the MICROTOP systems even when painted wood or 'talha dourada' gold engraved wood is involved. The three-dimensional evaluation is complemented by 2D image acquisition and processing, and by rugometric characterization making available all available ISO parameters and a reduced set of statistical parameters and function more meaningful on this kind of application. Also this set is adjusted to the particular

  6. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haowen; Lu, Wenping; Li, Bingmin; Li, Chonghui; Xu, Yinzhe; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-30

    Inflammation was considered to perform crucial roles in the development and metastasis of malignancies. A heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio has been described to be associated with detrimental survivals in different malignancies. Debate remains over the impact of heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio on survivals in biliary tract cancer. The review evaluated the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancer. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched for relevant articles. Associations between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and long-term outcomes were expressed as the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio was utilized to assess the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and clinicopathological parameters. Fourteen studies consisting of 3217 patients were analyzed: 1278 (39.73%) in the high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group and 1939 (60.27%) in the low pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio one. The results proved that heightened pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with detrimental overall survival and relapse free survival for biliary tract cancer patients. In addition, elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was positively correlated with higher carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, advanced TNM staging and greater lymph node involvement. This meta-analysis marked that an increased pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly linked with detrimental long-term outcomes and clinicopathological parameters for patients with biliary tract cancer.

  7. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T.; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) w...

  8. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  9. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  10. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis...

  12. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples ( P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first controlled laboratory clinical hand study to have compared traditional hand hygiene test methods with newer culture-independent characterization methods typically used by skin microbiologists. This study resulted in recommendations for hand hygiene product testing, development of methods, and future hand skin microbiome research. It also demonstrated the importance of inclusion of skin physiological metadata in

  13. Damage of lymphocytes by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Moldenhauer, H.; Kehrberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    After a short review, how lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are influenced by radiotherapy, the damage of lymphocytes by whole-body irradiation is pointed out in animal experiments and after in vitro irradiation. The special sensibility of B-cells and their homogeneity in fields of radiobiology are opposed to the heterogeneity of T-cells. The radiosensibility of cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressor cells, and helper cells are discussed. It appears, that within these functional criteria, there is a different radiosensibility, too. (author)

  14. A Website Supporting Sensitive Religious and Cultural Advance Care Planning (ACPTalk): Formative and Summative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Patrick; O'Callaghan, Clare; Boyd, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Background Advance care planning (ACP) promotes conversations about future health care needs, enacted if a person is incapable of making decisions at end-of-life that may be communicated through written documentation such as advance care directives. To meet the needs of multicultural and multifaith populations in Australia, an advance care planning website, ACPTalk, was funded to support health professionals in conducting conversations within diverse religious and cultural populations. ACPTalk aimed to provide religion-specific advance care planning content and complement existing resources. Objective The purpose of this paper was to utilize the context, input, process, and product (CIPP) framework to conduct a formative and summative evaluation of ACPTalk. Methods The CIPP framework was used, which revolves around 4 aspects of evaluation: context, input, process, and product. Context: health professionals’ solutions for the website were determined through thematic analysis of exploratory key stakeholder interviews. Included religions were determined through an environmental scan, Australian population statistics, and documentary analysis of project steering committee meeting minutes. Input: Project implementation and challenges were examined through documentary analysis of project protocols and meeting minutes. Process: To ensure religion-specific content was accurate and appropriate, a website prototype was built with content review and functionality testing by representatives from religious and cultural organizations and other interested health care organizations who completed a Web-based survey. Product: Website analytics were used to report utilization, and stakeholder perceptions were captured through interviews and a website survey. Results Context: A total of 16 key stakeholder health professional (7 general practitioners, 2 primary health nurses, and 7 palliative care nurses) interviews were analyzed. Website solutions included religious and cultural