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  1. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

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    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  2. Reliability of the total lymphocyte count as a parameter of nutrition.

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    Forse, R A; Rompre, C; Crosilla, P; O-Tuitt, D; Rhode, B; Shizgal, H M

    1985-05-01

    To evaluate the total lymphocyte count as a means of nutritional assessment, body composition studies (a proven method of nutritional assessment) and total lymphocyte determinations were performed simultaneously in 153 patients. The total lymphocyte count correlated poorly with both the body cell mass and the nutritional state measured by the Nae to Ke ratio. For diagnosing malnutrition, the total lymphocyte count had a false-positive rate of 34% and a false-negative rate of 50%. In a group of 78 patients who received total parenteral nutrition for 2 weeks, the total lymphocyte count did not accurately reflect the nutritional changes. Due to its poor sensitivity and specificity, the total lymphocyte count is of no value as a measure of the nutritional state.

  3. Is total lymphocyte count related to nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults?

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    Vânia Aparecida LEANDRO-MERHI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Older patients are commonly malnourished during hospital stay, and a high prevalence of malnutrition is found in hospitalized patients aged more than 65 years. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether total lymphocyte count is related to other nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults. METHODS Hospitalized older adults (N=131 were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Their nutritional status was assessed by the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, anthropometry, and total lymphocyte count. The statistical analyses included the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test. Spearman's linear correlation coefficient determined whether total lymphocyte count was correlated with the nutritional markers. Multiple linear regression determined the parameters associated with lymphocyte count. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS According to the NRS, 41.2% of the patients were at nutritional risk, and 36% had mild or moderate depletion according to total lymphocyte count. Total lymphocyte count was weakly correlated with mid-upper arm circumference (r=0.20507; triceps skinfold thickness (r=0.29036, and length of hospital stay (r= -0.21518. Total lymphocyte count in different NRS categories differed significantly: older adults who were not at nutritional risk had higher mean and median total lymphocyte count ( P =0.0245. Multiple regression analysis showed that higher lymphocyte counts were associated with higher triceps skinfold thicknesses and no nutritional risk according to the NRS. CONCLUSION Total lymphocyte count was correlated with mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and nutritional risk according to the NRS. In multiple regression the combined factors that remained associated with lymphocyte count were NRS and triceps skinfold thickness. Therefore, total lymphocyte count may be considered a nutritional marker. Other studies should confirm these findings.

  4. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  5. The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV

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    Mokarami F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CD4 T-Lymphocyte counts have proven to be a standard laboratory marker of disease progression and severity of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV is used to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, its application may not be feasible for its expensive equipments and reagent in resource-limited setting. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource-demanding. In April 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended that, when CD4 cell count is not available, a TLC of 1200cell/mm3 or less in individuals with stage 2 or 3 of the disease may be used as an indication to initiate ART."n"nMethods: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected adults. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subject characteristics were patients who had positive serologic HIV test results, confirmed via western blot. Analysis unit was the results of CBC and CD4 measurements on the same blood sample each time. Data of 100 patients were collected. In this study, TLC accounts for the main predictor of CD4 count. The amounts of TLC which can predict CD4 less than 200cell/mm3 were

  6. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

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    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (PHIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  7. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  8. The Association of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and Total Lymphocytes Count with Mortality in Korean Hemodialysis Patients

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    Kiryong Park, M.D.

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the GNRI may be a significant predictor of mortality in Korean hemodialysis patients. However, the use of TLC might improve the evaluation of nutritional risk and the identification of patients at risk of malnutrition.Figure 1. Total lymphocytes count and 120-month survival of hemodialysis patients. In both groups, survival rate during the follow-up period was similar. (life table analysis, P = 0.500.fx1

  9. Total lymphocyte count is a reliable surrogate marker for CD4 cell counts after the first year of antiretroviral therapy: data from an Indonesian cohort study.

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    de Jong, Marrigje A; Wisaksana, Rudi; Meijerink, Hinta; Indrati, Agnes; van de Ven, Andre J A M; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have evaluated the total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a cheap surrogate marker for CD4 cells in HIV-infected patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed whether TLC can replace CD4 cell counts in evaluating the immunological response to ART. In a cohort of patients in Indonesia TLC, if measured after at least 1-year ART, correctly identified patients with <200 CD4 cells, and reliably excluded immunological failure, obviating the need for CD4 cell measurement in 43% of patients.

  10. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

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    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  11. The Predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/ Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and Complications after STEMI

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    Samad Ghaffari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leukocytosis, predominantly neutrophilia, has previously been described following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. The exact contribution of this phenomenon to the clinical outcome of STEMI is yet to be shown. We examined cellular inflammatory response to STEMI in the blood and its association with in-hospital mortality and/or adverse clinical events.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 404 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of acute STEMI at Madani Heart Hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 were studied. The complete blood cell count (CBC was obtained from all patientswithin12-24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Total leukocytes were counted and differential count was obtained for neutrophils, lymphocytes and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR were evaluated. Association of cellular response with the incidence of post-MI mortality/complications was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: In-hospital mortality and post-STEMI complication rate were 3.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Higher age (P=0.04, female gender (0.002, lower ejection fraction (P<0.001 and absolute neutrophil count (P=0.04 were predictors of mortality. Pump failure in the form of acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock occurred in 35 (8.9% of patients. Higher leukocyte (P<0.03 and neutrophil counts (P<0.03 and higher NLR (P=0.01 were predictors of failure. The frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF at the first day was associated with higher neutrophil count (P<0.001 and higher NLR level (P<0.001. In multivariate analysis neutrophil count was an independent predictor of mortality (OR=2.94; 1.1-8.4, P=0.04, and neutrophil count [OR=1.1, CI (1.01-1.20, P=0.02], female gender [OR=2.34, CI (1.02-4.88, P=0.04] and diabetes [OR=2.52, CI (1.21-5.2, P=0.003] were independent predictors of heart failure.Conclusion: A single CBC analysis may help to identify STEMI patients at risk for mortality and heart failure, and total

  12. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older.

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    Robinson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission. Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge. Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9%) and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68). 219 patients (13%) were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58%) patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68%) patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42%) of patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p malnutrition.

  13. A PROFILE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS IN YENEPOYA MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL WITH SPECIAL REFERANCE TO CORRELATION BETWEEN CD4 COUNT AND TOTAL LYMPHOCYTE COUNT

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    Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : To study the clinical presentation , spectrum of systemic involvement , opportunistic infections and the correlation between CD4 + cell count and TLC for monitoring disease progression in HIV patients. Previous studies have shown that TLC is an inexpensive and useful tool for monitoring HIV progression. METHODS: This was a 2 year prospective study in which ca ses were examined and according to theproforma , TLC and CD4+ counts were assessed in 50 HIV positive patients who attended Yenepoya Medical College Hospital , Mangalore between October 2005 and September 2007. Sensitivity and specificity of various TLC cut - off were computed for CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 and statistical indices computed. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation between CD4+ count and TLC at baseline. RESULTS: 45 male and 5 female patients , having mean age of 38.08± 9.01 years (range 20 – 60 years were studied. 70% were in 20 - 40 years age group. 34% were related to transport services. Heterosexual mode of transmission was seen in 64% , commonest presenting symptoms were fever and weight loss , oral candidiasis was present in 26% and lymphadenopathy in 46% of subjects. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection seen in 68% of subjects. One patient had AIDS dementia complex , one had HIV nephropathy and in 1 and a presumptive diagnosi s of Kaposi's sarcoma was made . Tubercular meningitis was the most common neurological manifestation. The mean baseline CD4+ count in study group was 175 cells/mm3. The mean baseline TLC was 1338 cells/mm3 . The scatter diagram shows , as the CD4 T cells ris es , the TLC level also rises. The sensitivity and specificity of TLC < 1200 and CD4 count <200 was 91% and 53% respectively with a positive predictive value of 70% (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Occupation was the important risk factor for HIV transmission and h eterosexual contact is the commonest mode of spread

  14. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

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    Robert Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge.Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9% and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68. 219 patients (13% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58% patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68% patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42% of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001 predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001 and TLC (p = 0.018 show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63] and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38] to be significant

  15. Correlation between total lymphocyte count and CD4+ T lymphocyte count in patients with HIV infection%HIV感染者外周血淋巴细胞总数与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂波; 秦恩强; 黄磊; 王利; 赵敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC)and CD4+ T lymphocyte count in patients with HIV infection, and investigate the feasibility of using TLC instead of CD4+ T lymphocyte to estimate the status of HIV infection. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the correlation between TLC and CD4+ T lymphocyte count in 54 patients with HIV infection treated in our hospital. The corresponding critical value and accuracy of TLC were estimated when CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were less than l00×l06 /L, 200×l06 /L and 350×l06 /L, and the sensitivity and specificity of each critical value were calculated. Results Ninety-six pairs of TLC and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were positively correlated (r=0.642, P<0.001). TLC of 955×l06 /L, 1010×IO6 /L and 1570×l06 /L could serve as critical values to estimate CD4+ T lymphocyte counts less than l00× 106 /L, 200×l06 /L, and 350×l06 /L with a great accuracy. Conclusion TLC can estimate the status of HIV infection instead of CD4+ T lymphocyte count.%目的 分析HIV感染者外周血淋巴细胞总数(total lymphocyte count,TLC)与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数相关性,探讨将外周TLC作为监测HIV感染者病情变化指标的可行性.方法 回顾性分析我院54例HIV感染者TLC与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数相关性,判断CD4+T淋巴细胞计数分别<100× 106/L、<200×106/L和<350×106/L时TLC的临界值及准确度,计算各临界值的灵敏度和特异度.结果 TLC和CD4+T淋巴细胞计数呈正相关(r=0.642,P< 0.001).将TLC分别为955×106/L、1010×106/L和1570×106/L作为估计CD4+T淋巴细胞计数<100× 106/L、<200×106/L和<350×106/L的诊断界值有较高准确度,Youden指数分别为0.724、0.613和0.535.结论 本研究为将TLC作为替代CD4+T淋巴细胞计数监测HIV感染情况的指标提供了依据.

  16. The effect of N-acetylcysteine supplementation upon viral load, CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte count and hematocrit in individuals undergoing antiretroviral treatment.

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    Spada, Celso; Treitinger, Arício; Reis, Marcellus; Masokawa, Ivete Y; Verdi, Júlio C; Luiz, Magali C; Silveira, Mariete V S; Michelon, Cleonice M; Avila-Junior, Silvio; Gil, lone D O; Ostrowskyl, Stephanie

    2002-05-01

    Individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) present with decreased CD4, a progressive increase in viral load, compromised cell immune defense, and hematologic alterations. The aim of this study was to assess the serum viral load, CD4, CD8, lymphocyte count and hematocrit at the beginning of antiretroviral therapy in individuals who were supplemented with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Twenty volunteers participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled 180-day study. Ten participants received 600 mg of NAC per day (NAC group) and the other ten serving as a control group received placebo. The above mentioned parameters were determined before treatment, and after 60, 120 and 180 days. In NAC-treated patients hematocrit remained stable and an increase in CD4 cell count took place earlier than that in the control group.

  17. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...... of cobalt ions in particular on T-cells with 2-year whole-blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of -0.10 (95% CI: -0.16 to -0.04) × 10(9) cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of -0.06 (-0.09 to -0.03) × 10(9) cells/ppb, and for CD3(+)CD8(+) of -0.02 (-0.03 to -0.00) × 10(9) cells/ppb...

  18. Absolute lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count in monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, Northwest Ethiopia: retrospective evaluation

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    Aschalew Gelaw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the use of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count among HIV infected patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy laboratory from December 2011 to May 2012. Data on CD4+ cell count, total lymphocyte count, sex, and age were collected from 2964 HIV infected patients and analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software. Results: Total lymphocyte count was significantly correlated with CD4+ cell count (P<0.001; r 2 =0.434. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of total lymphocyte count<1 200 cells/mm3 to predict CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3 was 57.8%, 86.4%%, 34.1%, 86.39%, respectively. A total lymphocyte count<1 000cells/mm3 was found to have suboptimal sensitivity (69.0%, and specificity (85.0% for predicting a CD4+ cell count <200 cells/ mm 3 . Conclusions: Total lymphocyte count and CD4+ cell count was positively correlated. Hence, lymphocyte count less than or equal to 1 000/mm3 can be used as a cutoff value in place where there is no CD4+ cell counting machine.

  19. Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.

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    Benson Ogunjimi

    Full Text Available Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins and proximal (antecubital veins sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

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    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-11-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases.

  1. Changes in count and function of splenic lymphocytes from patients with portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Fang Li; Shu Zhang; Gao-Bo Lv; Ying Huang; Wei Zhang; Song Ren; Jun Yang; Shuang-Suo Dang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in numbers and proliferative function of splenic lymphocytes in patients with hypersplenism due to portal hypertension (PH), to provide evidence for further study of immune status of the spleen during PH.METHODS: Twelve spleens from patients with hypersplenism due to PH served as the PH group, and four spleens from cases of traumatic spleen rupture were regarded as the control group. After weighing the spleen, lymphocytes were separated and counted using a cell counting plate to calculate the lymphocyte count per gram of spleen tissue (relative quantity) and total lymphocyte count in whole spleen (absolute quantity). The immunohistochemical SP method was used to observe the density and distribution of lymphocytes in the spleen. The MTT method was used to observe changes in lymphocyte proliferative function.RESULTS: As compared to the control group, the splenic lymphocytes in the PH group showed that: (1) There was no difference in distribution but a significant decrease in density; (2) the number of lymphocytes per gram of spleen (relative quantity) decreased significantly [(0.822±0.157) × 108 vs (1.174±0.254) × 108, P < 0.01];(3) with the significant increase in the weight of the PH spleen (832.6±278.2 g vs 211.7±85.6 g, P < 0.01),the total quantity of lymphocytes (absolute quantity)increased significantly [(0.685±0.072) × 1011 vs (0.366±0.057) × 1011, P < 0.01]; and (4) the proliferative function of lymphocytes was enhanced: T lymphocytes,(0.022±0.005 vs 0.015±0.003, P < 0.05), and B lymphocytes (0.034±0.006 vs 0.023±0.001, P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Although lymphocyte density in the spleen decreased in patients with PH, the total quantity of lymphoytes increased because spleen weight increased greatly, along with the proliferating function. With respect to changes in lymphocytes, PH spleens may still have immune function, although it may be disordered. However,complete evaluation of the immune function of the spleenin PH

  2. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

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    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  3. Lymphocyte count and mortality risk in older persons. The Leiden 85-Plus Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, GJ; Remarque, EJ; Becker, SV; Westendorp, RGJ

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a low peripheral blood lymphocyte count is associated with increased mortality risk in older persons and to determine whether this association could be ascribed to ill health. DESIGN: A cohort study with a total follow-up period of 1,602 person years. SETTING: Leid

  4. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  5. HIV/AIDS患者CD4+T淋巴细胞数的变化与外周血淋巴细胞总数的变量的关系研究%Study on the correlation between the change of CD4 + T cell counts and the variance of total lymphocyte counts in HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希平; 夏德全; 赵利

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between the change of CD4 + T lymphocyte count (△CD4 +T) and the variance of peripheral blood total lymphocyte count(△TLC) and evaluate the effect of △TLC to substitute for CD4 +T count to predict HIV progression monitoring and the curative effect on clinical HAART treatment in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods Study the correlation between TLC and CD4 + T count and the correlation between △TLC and △CD4 + T count in 91 patients with HIV/AIDS. Study the date of ROC are-a, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for CD4 + T 200/μl, 350/μl to find the extent of TLC. Study the date of ROC area, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for △CD4 +T 50/μl、100/μl、200/μl、300/μl to find the extent of △TLC. Results The sig-nificant correlation (r value) between TLC and CD4 + T count was 0.716(P<0.01) in the patients. The re-markable dynamical correlations between△TLC and △CD4 + T were found comparing to that between TLC and CD4 + T count r value was 0.809(P<0.01). It was significant value in prediction CD4 + T count 200/μl and 350/μl with TLC cut-off 1300/μl and 1700/μl. Moreover,as more significant market to predict optimal △CD4 +T for 50/μl,100/μl,200/μl,for300/μl, △TLC were 170/μl,330/μl,630/μl,910/μl respectively. Conclu-sion There is straight line correlation between the change of CD4 + T cell counts and the variance of total lym-phocyte counts in HIV/AIDS patients. TLC especially △TLC for prediction of △CD4 + T can be available as a substitute method to estimate HIV disease progression and clinical HAART in some resource-constrained area of China.%目的 研究人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者和艾滋病(AIDS)患者CD4+T淋巴细胞数的变化(△CD4+T)和外周血淋巴细胞总数的变量(△TLC)的相关性,探讨用△TLC预测CD4+T在监测HIV疾病进展和高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART)疗

  6. The absolute lymphocyte count accurately estimates CD4 counts in HIV-infected adults with virologic suppression and immune reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of −6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24

  7. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8(+) T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4(+) and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  9. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  10. Leucocyte and lymphocyte count in cases of bird flu infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-03-01

    Bird flu or avian flu is a new emerging Infectious disease. The H5N1 virus has not only affected the fowls but also the human beings. Severe disease with high mortality in humans in Vietnam and Thailand are reported. This mini-study was undertaken in order to document the Impact of bird flu infection on leucocyte and lymphocyte counts among patients of Thailand. This study was designed as a descriptive retrospective study. A literature review on the papers concerning human bird flu in Thailand was performed. According to this study, there are 6 cases covering 12 Thai patients with confirmed diagnosis of bird flu. However, the complete data were available on only 6 patients. The reported leucocyte count ranges from 1,200 cells/cmm to 5,680 cells/cmm and the lymphocyte count ranges from 454 cells/ cmm to 1,440 cells/cmm. The average leucocyte and lymphocyte counts equalled to 3,230.0 +/- 1,552.7 cells/cmm and 748.7 +/- 348.5 cells/cmm, respectively. According to this study, low lymphocyte count is common. This can support the previous observation for the lymphocyte suppression effect of H5N1 virus.

  11. Computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive pulmonary tuberculosis and their relationship with CD4+T-lymphocyte count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhong; LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WU Hao; BAO Dong-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Factors of cell-mediated immunity and allergy together play their roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and the relationship between its pathogenesis and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.Methods The documented CT images of a total of 44 patients with HIV seropositive PTB, definitely diagnosed by etiological or pathological examinations, their clinical data and their CD4+ T-lymphocyte count were retrospectively reviewed.Results There were 15 cases of miliary tuberculosis, accounting for 34.1% of the total cases; 15 cases of nodular tuberculosis, 34.1%; 6 cases of ground-glass opacity, 13.6%; 5 cases of cord-liked fiber shadows, 11.4%; 16 cases of flaky and flocculating shadows, 36.4%; 5 cases of cavitation, 11.4%; 5 cases of tumor shadows, 11.4%; 2 cases of pleural thickening, 4.5% and 11 cases of pleural effusion, 25.0%; 1 case of calcification, 2.3%; 16 cases of lymphadenectasis,36.4%. The foci were located around the pulmonary hilum, anterior segment of superior lobe, basal segment of inferior lobe, medial lobe and lingual lobe. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was closely related to the imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB.Conclusions CT scanning can demonstrate various signs of PTB. CD4+ T-lymphocyte level determines the variety of imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and its prognosis.

  12. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  13. Lymphocyte count as a sign of immunoparalysis and its correlation with nutritional status in pediatric intensive care patients with sepsis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Freitas Manzoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Developing malnutrition during hospitalization is well recognized worldwide, and children are at a relatively higher risk for malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition can lead to immune dysfunction, which is associated with a higher mortality rate due to sepsis, the most frequent cause of death in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether malnourished patients are more likely to have relative or absolute lymphopenia and, consequently, worse prognoses. METHODS: We enrolled 14 consecutive patients with sepsis whose legal representatives provided written informed consent. Patients were classified as normal or malnourished based on anthropometric measurements. As an additional evaluation of nutritional status, serum albumin and zinc were measured on the 1st and 7th days of hospitalization. Lymphocyte count was also measured on the 1st and 7th days. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02698683. RESULTS: Malnutrition prevalence rates were 33.3% and 42.8% based on weight and height, respectively. Laboratory analyses revealed a reduction of serum albumin in 100% of patients and reduction of zinc in 93.3% of patients. A total of 35% of patients had fewer than 500 lymphocytes/mm3 on their first day in the PICU. Lymphocyte counts and zinc concentrations significantly increased during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional evaluations, including anthropometric measurements, were not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Lymphocyte counts concomitantly increased with zinc levels, suggesting that micronutrient supplementation benefits patients with sepsis.

  14. Lymphocyte count as a sign of immunoparalysis and its correlation with nutritional status in pediatric intensive care patients with sepsis: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Talita Freitas; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo; Troster, Eduardo Juan; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Antunes, Ana Caroline Barreto; Marques, Desirée Mayara; Zamberlan, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Developing malnutrition during hospitalization is well recognized worldwide, and children are at a relatively higher risk for malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition can lead to immune dysfunction, which is associated with a higher mortality rate due to sepsis, the most frequent cause of death in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether malnourished patients are more likely to have relative or absolute lymphopenia and, consequently, worse prognoses. METHODS: We enrolled 14 consecutive patients with sepsis whose legal representatives provided written informed consent. Patients were classified as normal or malnourished based on anthropometric measurements. As an additional evaluation of nutritional status, serum albumin and zinc were measured on the 1st and 7th days of hospitalization. Lymphocyte count was also measured on the 1st and 7th days. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02698683. RESULTS: Malnutrition prevalence rates were 33.3% and 42.8% based on weight and height, respectively. Laboratory analyses revealed a reduction of serum albumin in 100% of patients and reduction of zinc in 93.3% of patients. A total of 35% of patients had fewer than 500 lymphocytes/mm3 on their first day in the PICU. Lymphocyte counts and zinc concentrations significantly increased during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional evaluations, including anthropometric measurements, were not correlated with lymphocyte counts. Lymphocyte counts concomitantly increased with zinc levels, suggesting that micronutrient supplementation benefits patients with sepsis. PMID:27982165

  15. CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Toyin Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. Results: The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/μL vs 920 ± 364cells/μL. Conclusion: It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

  16. Significance of preoperative neutrophil–lymphocyte count ratio on predicting postoperative sepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Sen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the usefulness of preoperative neutrophil–lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR in predicting postoperative sepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. In total, 487 patients who underwent PCNL for renal stones were included in the present retrospective study. The stone burden, number of tracts and location, operation time, fluoroscopy time, presence of residual stones, and blood transfusion rates were postoperatively recorded in all patients. All patients were followed up for signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and sepsis. The association of sepsis/SIRS with the risk factors of infectious complications, including NLCR, was evaluated. SIRS was detected in 91 (18.7% patients, 25 (5.1% of whom were diagnosed with sepsis. Stone burden, operation time, irrigation rate, previous surgery, nephrostomy time, access number, blood transfusion, residual stone, postoperative urinary culture, renal pelvis urinary culture, and stone culture were found to be predictive factors for SIRS and sepsis development. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an NLCR cutoff of 2.50 for predicting the occurrence of SIRS/sepsis. We found that the incidence of sepsis was significantly higher in patients with NLCR ≥ 2.50 than in patients with NLCR < 2.50 (p = 0.006. Preoperative and postoperative urine culture positivity were associated with high NLCR (p = 0.039 and p = 0.003, respectively. We believe that preoperative NLCR may be a promising additive predictor of bacteremia and postoperative sepsis in patients who undergo PCNL for renal stones. This marker is simple, easily measured, and easy to use in daily practice without extra costs.

  17. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  18. CD4 T-Lymphocytes cell counts in adults with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... human immunodeficiency virus infection at the medical department of a ... cell counts evaluated within their first week of presentation. The total mean age of the ... good correlation with development of various complications in ...

  19. The relative prognostic value of plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts in advanced HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Katzenstein, T L; Ullum, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the plasma HIV RNA level is a better predictor of AIDS and death than the CD4 lymphocyte count. We assessed whether the prognostic value of plasma virus levels was different according to the CD4 count. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients...

  20. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  1. The Effect of Low CD4+ Lymphocyte Count on the Radiographic Patterns of HIV Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affusim, Christopher; Abah, Vivien; Kesieme, Emeka B; Anyanwu, Kester; Salami, Taofik A T; Eifediyi, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the radiographic features in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and the association with CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear. Method. A prospective study was carried out on 89 HIV positive patients with PTB. The demographics, smoking history, sputum smear result, chest radiographic findings and CD4 lymphocyte count were documented. Results. Out of the 89 patients recruited in the study, 41 were males and 48 were females. Eighteen (18) patients had typical radiographic features, 60 patients had atypical radiographic features while only 11 of them had normal radiographic films. Sixty eight (68) patients had CD4 count HIV) complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis.

  2. Association of the Preoperative Neutrophil-to-ymphocyte Count Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Count Ratio with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral inflammatory biomarkers, especially a high preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte count ratio (PLR, are known to be indicator of poor prognosis in several cancers. However, very few studies have evaluated the significance of the NLR and PLR in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC. We evaluated the association of the preoperative NLR and PLR with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with PTC.MethodsThis study included 1,066 female patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were stratified into 4 quartiles by preoperative NLR and PLR. And the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained value of tertile as follows: patients with both an elevated PLR and an elevated NLR were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing one or neither were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively.ResultsThe preoperative NLR and PLR were significantly lower in patients aged ≥45 years and in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The PLR was significantly higher in patients with tumor size >1 cm (P=0.021.When the patients were categorized into the aforementioned four groups, the group with the higher preoperative PLR was found to have a significantly increased incidence of lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM (P=0.018. However, there are no significant association between the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR and prognostic factors in PTC patients.ConclusionThese results suggest that a preoperative high PLR were significant associated with lateral LNM in female patients with PTC.

  3. EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.K,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due to the stimulation of bone marrow more number of white blood cells (WBC produced from marginal pool and released into circulation. Materials & Methods: Thirty subjects both male and female were randomly selected as control and study groups. Control group sample was collected after taking rest for 1 hour and study group sample was collected immediately after grade III exercise. Conclusion: After exercise total leukocyte count (TLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.0001 and differential leukocyte count(DLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.01.

  4. 老年髋部骨折患者术前血清白蛋白及淋巴细胞总数改变对其预后的影响%Effect of pre-operative serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on outcomes of elderly patients with hip fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 龙安华; 张里程; 唐佩福

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of pre-operative serum albumin (ALB) level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) on the prognosis of hip fracture in the elderly patients. Methods Clinical data of 640 elderly patients (over 60 years old) with hip fracture undergoing surgical treatment in our department from July 2006 to December 2010 were collected and retrospectively analyzed in this study. Their serum ALB level and TLC were recorded at admission. Their hospitalization time, in-hospital complications, and mortality at hospital and at 3 and 12 months after surgery were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was carried out on these data. The clinical significance of serum ALB level and TLC was evaluated in the prediction of prognosis. Results Among the 640 patients, those with lower serum ALB level accounted for 44.2%(283), and those with lower TLC accounted for 68.0%(435). The patients with lower albumin and lower TLC had higher incidence of postoperative complications (13.3%), and higher mortalities at hospital (4.3%), 3-month (6.7%) and 12-month (16.7%) post-operatively compared to the patients who had normal values of the 2 laboratory parameters (all P<0.05). Cox regression analysis indicated that serum ALB and TLC were predictive factors for mortality risk in the elderly with hip fracture. Conclusion Malnutrition at admission indicates poor clinical outcome after surgical treatment in the elderly patients with hip fracture. Lower serum ALB level and TLC are regarded as predictive factors for malnutrition and poor prognosis in these patients.%目的:探讨术前血清白蛋白(ALB)及淋巴细胞总数(TLC)改变对老年髋部骨折预后的影响。方法回顾性地分析2006年7月至2010年12月在解放军总医院行手术治疗老年髋部骨折的640例患者的临床资料。分别于入院时检测ALB和TLC。临床随访指标包括患者住院时间、住院并发症、住院死亡率、术后3个月死亡率、术后12个月死亡率。将所得资

  5. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P;

    1996-01-01

    ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037). HIV-2-infected...... percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8...

  6. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  7. Complete blood count and acetylcholinesterase activity of lymphocytes of demyelinated and ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Danieli B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli; Pagnoncelli, Marcielen; Maciel, Roberto M; Schmatz, Roberta; Oliveira, Lizielle; Morsch, Vera; Facco, Grasiela; Visentini, Diandra; Mann, Thais; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2012-12-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen that has many beneficial actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on the complete blood count (CBC) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of lymphocytes of ovariectomized rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide (EB). Forty adult female Wistar rats (60 days, 200-220 g) were divided randomly into five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the demyelination phase and five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the remyelination phase. In each phase, the groups consisted of sham rats-G1; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated only with vehicle (ethanol 25%)-G2; demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated only with vehicle-G3; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated with resveratrol-G4; and demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol-G5. Only during the remyelination phase, CBC showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of monocytes between G2 and G5 groups. In the demyelination phase, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the AChE activity in the G4 group, while the G5 group was statistically similar to the G1, G2 and G4 groups. In the remyelination phase, there were no significant differences in the AChE activity among the groups. The treatment for 7 days with resveratrol with or without the experimental demyelization with EB appears to influence the AChE activity of lymphocytes, without changing the number of these cells in the circulation. However, in the remyelination phase, there seems to be stabilization in its effect on the lymphocyte AChE activity.

  8. The association between total leukocyte count and longevity: Evidence from longitudinal and cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Piotr Paweł; Borysławski, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Strzelec, Bartłomiej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between age-dependent changes in total leukocyte count (TLC) and certain selected differential counts expressed as frequencies (granulocytes, band cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) and longevity in physically healthy men and women aged 45+. Longitudinal data on cell counts from 142 subjects (68 men and 74 women; all aged 45-70 and examined for 25 years) were compared with cross-sectional data from 225 subjects (113 men and 112 women; this group was divided into four categories of average lifespan; i.e.: 53, 63, 68, and 76+ years of age). ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. Secular changes in leukocyte count were controlled. Men had continuously higher TLC compared with women. Moreover, sex differences in patterns of changes with age were found. The longitudinal assessment revealed a U-shaped pattern of changes in TLC in men (y=0.0026x(2)-0.2866x+14.4374; R(2)=0.852) and women (y=0.0048x(2)-0.5386x+20.922; R(2)=0.938), whereas the cross-sectional comparison showed an inverted U-shaped pattern in men (y=-0.0021x(2)+0.2421x; R(2)=0.417) and women (y=-0.0017x(2)+0.2061x; R(2)=0.888). In general, the comparison of longitudinal and cross-sectional data on changes with age in TLC indicates that longevity favors individuals with lower yet normal TLC and this correlation is more pronounced in men. In conclusion, our findings are in line with previous longitudinal studies of aging and suggest that lower TLC within the normal range (4.0-10.0 × 10(3)μL(-1)) can be a useful predictor of longevity in physically healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of total IgE, CRP and blood count parameters in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feti Tülübaş

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to research retrospectivelywhether asthma and allergic rhinitis are related to totalIgE, C-reactive protein (CRP and complete blood countparameters.Materials and methods: Files of 443 children who appliedto pediatric outpatient clinics of our hospital,aged2-18 were retrospectively investigated. Patients weregrouped into three as asthma (n=179, allergic rhinitis (n=171 and control group (n= 93. Patients’ ages, genders,total IgE, CRP and hemogram values were recorded.Results: While eosinophil count, MCHC and total IgElevels were significantly higher in asthma group, MCVlevels were significantly lower. Lymphocyte count, CRPand total IgE levels were significantly higher in allergicrhinitis group compared with control group whereas neutrophilcount were significantly lower and eosinophil countdid not change significantly. Total IgE levels were higherin asthma and allergic rhinitis compared with controls.However, CRP levels were higher only in allergic rhinitisgroup. MCV levels were significantly lower in asthmagroup compared with controls. MCHC levels were significantlyhigher in asthma group compared with allergicrhinitis and control groups. Neutrophil count decreasedwhile lymphocyte count increased significantly. Eosinophilcount significantly increased compared with controlgroup whereas a significant difference was not observedbetween allergic rhinitis and controls.Conclusions: Our findings suggest factors effective inasthma pathogenesis might be effective also in erythrocytemorphology. There are remarkable changes in bloodeosinophil levels in asthma and in neuthrophil and lymphocytelevels in allergic rhinitis. Serum total IgE level increasesin asthma group whereas it decreases in allergicrhinitis group.Key words: Asthma, allergic rhinitis, total IgE, CRP, MCV

  10. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.P.C.; van Wijk, P.T.I.; Mathoera, R.B.; de Jongh-Leuvenink, J.; van der Poll, T.; Wever, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Absolute lymphocytopenia has been reported as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. Likewise, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been shown a simple promising method to evaluate systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. Methods: We retrospectively eval

  11. The Effect of Low CD4+ Lymphocyte Count on the Radiographic Patterns of HIV Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Affusim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the radiographic features in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, and the association with CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear. Method. A prospective study was carried out on 89 HIV positive patients with PTB. The demographics, smoking history, sputum smear result, chest radiographic findings and CD4 lymphocyte count were documented. Results. Out of the 89 patients recruited in the study, 41 were males and 48 were females. Eighteen (18 patients had typical radiographic features, 60 patients had atypical radiographic features while only 11 of them had normal radiographic films. Sixty eight (68 patients had CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, 19 patients had CD4 count between 200–499 cells/mm3, while only 2 patients had CD4 count from 500 cells/mm3 upwards. The association between low CD4 count and radiographic finding was statistically significant, ( value . Sixty (60 patients had negative sputum smear for Acid and Alcohol Fast Bacilli (AAFB, while the remaining 29 patients had positive smear. The association between low CD4 count and negative smear was statistically significant ( value . Conclusion. The radiographic pattern and the result of the sputum smear for AAFB has a significant relationship and association with the immune status of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis.

  12. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  13. Evaluation of the Alere Pima™ for CD4+ T lymphocytes counts in HIV-positive outpatients in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathunde, L; Kussen, G M B; Beltrame, M P; Dalla Costa, L M; Raboni, S M

    2014-11-01

    CD4 + lymphocyte counts are routinely ordered during the early phases of antiretroviral therapy and for prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients. Flow cytometry is the standard methodology for CD4 counts in Brazilian reference laboratories. However, these laboratories are located in large cities, frequently distant from patients, thus limiting patient access and delaying results. We compared a point-of-care test with flow cytometry determination of CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts in HIV patients. We analysed 107 consecutive samples by both methods. Overall, the point-of-care test performed well, with excellent agreement between it and the standard method. Test results were concordant for patients with CD4(+) T lymphocyte values above and below 200 cells/mm (3). The performance characteristics obtained were sensitivity 94% (95% CI 89.5-98.5%), specificity 93% (95% CI 88.2-97.8%), positive predictive value 86% (95% CI 79.4-92.6%), and negative predictive value 97% (95% CI 94-100%). The high sensitivity and specificity of the point-of-care test methodology suggest its utility as an alternative method for rapid measurement of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with limited access to reference laboratories, enabling prompt therapeutic intervention for patients at risk of progression to AIDS.

  14. Effect of premilking teat disinfection on mastitis incidence, total bacterial count, cell count and milk yield in three dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowey, R W; Collis, K

    1992-02-29

    An iodophor teat disinfectant was applied before milking by dip or spray to 50 cows and 50 cows were left untreated in each of three commercial herds. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis was reduced by 57 per cent, the total bacterial count by 70 per cent and the count of thermoduric organisms by 32 per cent. These results were not statistically significant, except that one herd showed a significant decrease in total bacterial count. There was no effect on somatic cell count, milk production or milk iodine residues. Atmospheric iodine concentrations increased in the two herds which applied the treatment as a spray, but the levels attained were not likely to be detrimental to human health.

  15. Prognostic Impact of Absolute Lymphocyte Counts at the End of Remission Induction in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Campbell, Patrick; Zhou, Yinmei; Sandlund, John T.; Jeha, Sima; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Inaba, Hiroto; Bhojwani, Deepa; Relling, Mary V.; Howard, Scott C.; Campana, Dario; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Background Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) during treatment have been associated with outcome in children and adults with hematologic malignancies. However, the impact of ALC relative to that of other prognostic factors on the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in recent trials is unknown. Methods Outcomes of 399 patients ≤ 18 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled in the Total Therapy XV study at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital were analyzed according to ALC at the end of remission induction therapy. Results ALC ≥ 500 cell/μL was significantly more prevalent among patients with B-lineage ALL, favorable presenting features and in those who achieved minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity on day 43 of treatment. Both overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were superior among patients with higher ALC, but only the association with OS was statistically significant in a univariate analysis. In multivariable analyses, ALC was not a significant predictor of outcome after controlling for age, leukocyte count, lineage, risk group, and MRD at the end of induction (p > 0.1 for all comparisons). However, among MRD-negative patients, those with low ALC had a 5-year OS of 84.2% ± 8.9% versus 97.3 ± 1.0 for patients with higher ALC (P = .036). Conclusion ALC at the end of induction is related to favorable presenting features and good initial treatment response but does not independently predict outcome in the context of contemporary, MRD-guided, therapy. PMID:23456849

  16. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  17. Declining total leucoyte count, an indication of transient abnormal myelopoisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates with Down syndrome have an increased predisposition to transient abnormal myelopoisis, a haematological abnormality which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of myeloblasts. The unique ability of this disorder to spontaneously enter in to a state of remission led to the creation of a new class in 2008 World Health Organization (W.H.O. classification of haemopoitic and lymphoid tumours. It has now been classified as transient abnormal myelopoisis (TAM. The cause of remission is still not clear although it is possibly linked to the abnormal expression of GATA-1 transcription factor and to a switch from hepatic haematopoesis to medullary haematopoesis. Simple laboratory monitoring by serial complete blood count and peripheral smear can give indication of this rare disorder. As very few cases of this disorder exist we share our experience and report a case of transient myeloproliferative disorder in a male newborn having Down syndrome.

  18. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  19. Short communication: bulk tank total bacterial count in dairy sheep: factors of variation and relationship with somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Beneitez, E; Juárez, M T; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

    2006-02-01

    A total of 9,353 records for bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 1 yr from 315 dairy ewe flocks belonging to the Sheep Improvement Consortium (CPO) in Castilla-León (Spain). Analysis of variance showed significant effects of flock, breed, month within flock, dry therapy, milking type and installation, and logSCC on logTBC. Flock and month within flock were important variation factors as they accounted for 22.0 and 22.1% of the variance, respectively. Considerable repeatability values were obtained for both random factors. Hand milking and bucket-milking machines elicited highest logTBC (5.31), whereas parlor systems with looped milkline (5.01) elicited the lowest logTBC. The implementation of dry therapy practice (5.12) showed significantly lower logTBC than when not used (5.25). Variability in logTBC among breeds ranged from 5.24 (Awassi) to 5.07 (Churra). However, clinical outbreaks of contagious agalactia did not increase TBC significantly. A statistically significant relationship was found between logTBC and logSCC, the correlation coefficient between the variables being r = 0.23. Programs for improving milk hygiene should be implemented for both total bacterial count and somatic cell count variables at the same time.

  20. Total count of microorganisms contaminating water supply system of Ismailia City, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewedar, A; Abdel Monem, M H; Hussein, M E; Mansour, S

    1990-12-01

    The efficiency of water purification in the French and the British systems of Ismailia city was evaluated concerning the contaminating microorganisms. Counting of microbial contaminants was based on the phenotypic characters of the colony type. Colony-types of eubacteria, eumycetes, Micromonospores and Streptomyces enumerated in the crude water and the different steps of purification. Total counts of microflora in both systems were higher than the counts in canal water. Meanwhile, microbial isolates were higher in the French system than that of the British one. The increased counts in tap water, compared with canal water, were recorded in winter for bacteria and in spring for fungi. These data showed variations in the microbial total counts according to: plant system, steps of purification, chlorination season and type of microbes.

  1. Prognostic value of single measurements of beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin A in HIV disease after controlling for CD4 lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV RNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Lepri, A Cozzi; Katzenstein, T L

    2000-01-01

    The interrelationships between the CD4 lymphocyte count, plasma viral load [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA], beta-2-microglobulin (beta2-M) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the mortality risk was explored in 234 HIV-infected individuals (median CD4 count 230 cells/mm3, range 1-1,247). Produ...

  2. predictors of cd4+ lymphocyte count among hiv-seropositive and hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... psycho-social impact of HIV-seropositivity among women ... CD4+ lymphocyte measurements, we collected duplicate blood ... Laboratory methods: Blood for HIV testing and T- ..... stronger associations in patients with advanced disease(4). .... Standardization, quality control, and normal values in the ...

  3. Canine cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell counts and cytology associations with the prevalence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo TB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timothy B Hugo, Kathryn L Heading, Robert H Labuc Melbourne Veterinary Specialist Centre, Glen Waverley, Vic, Australia Introduction: The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are often used to investigate intracranial disease in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if the total nucleated cell count (TNCC or cytology findings in abnormal CSF are associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. Materials and methods: For each case, the TNCC was categorized into one of three groups: A (<25×106/L; B (25–100×106/L; and C (>100×106/L. Cytology findings were categorized by the predominant cell type as lymphocytic, monocytoid, neutrophilic, or eosinopilic. MRI descriptions were classified as either normal or abnormal, and abnormal studies were further evaluated for the presence of specific characteristics (multifocal or diffuse disease versus focal disease, positive T2-weighted hyperintensity, positive FLAIR hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, mass effect, and the presence of poorly or well-defined lesion margins. Results: Forty-five dogs met the inclusion criteria and MRI abnormalities were found in 29/45 (64% dogs. TNCCs were not associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities or specific characteristics. Cytology categories were significantly associated with the prevalence of MRI abnormalities (P<0.001. Specifically, monocytoid cytology was 22.8 times more likely to have an abnormal MRI than lymphocytic cytology. CSF cytology was not significantly associated with specific abnormal MRI characteristics. Conclusion: There are minimal associations between CSF abnormalities and the prevalence of MRI abnormalities. These results support the continued importance of utilizing both tests when investigating intracranial disease. When CSF analysis must be performed initially, this study has demonstrated that an abnormal CSF with a monocytoid cytology supports the value of

  4. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-22

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Platelet count and total and cause-specific mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Verma, Amit K; Manson, JoAnn E; Lin, Juan; Lessin, Lawrence; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-04-01

    We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association of platelet count with total mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, cancer mortality, and non-CHD/noncancer mortality. Platelet count was measured at baseline in 159,746 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 75,339 participants. Participants were followed for a median of 15.9 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline platelet count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 platelet count. Low and high deciles of both baseline and mean platelet count were positively associated with total mortality, CHD mortality, cancer mortality, and non-CHD/noncancer mortality. The association was robust and was not affected by adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, exclusion of women with comorbidity, or allowance for reverse causality. Low- and high-platelet counts were associated with all four outcomes in never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. In this large study of postmenopausal women, both low- and high-platelet counts were associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal trends in bulk tank somatic cell count and total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; O'Brien, B; O'Callaghan, E J; Sullivan, K O; Meaney, W J

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to document temporal trends in bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial counts (TBC) in Irish dairy herds during the years 1994 to 2004. Three milk processors participated in the study, providing data on 2,754,270 individual bulk tank SCC and 2,056,992 individual bulk tank TBC records from 9,113 herds. Somatic cell counts decreased during the years 1994 to 2000, followed by an annual increase thereafter of more than 2,000 cells/mL. A tendency existed for TBC to decrease over time. Across all years, bulk tank SCC were the lowest in April and highest in November; TBC were the lowest in May and highest in December. The significant seasonal pattern observed in herd SCC and TBC was an artifact of seasonal calving in Ireland. In general, herds selling more milk had lower bulk tank SCC and TBC. Herds having the highest SCC (i.e., > 450,000 cells/mL) and the lowest SCC (i.e., < or = 150,000 cells/mL) both contributed substantially to the mean SCC of the milk pool collected by the milk processors. Derived transition matrices showed that between adjacent years, herds had the greatest probability of remaining in the same annual mean SCC or TBC category.

  7. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Sikora

    2004-01-01

    The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the r...

  8. Diphtheria Antibodies and T lymphocyte Counts in Patients Infected with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. B. Speranza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the IgG levels anti-diphtheria (D-Ab and T cell counts (CD4+ and CD8+ in HIV-1 infected subjects undergoing or not highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Approximately 70% of all HIV-1 patients were unprotected against diphtheria. There were no differences in D-Ab according to CD4 counts. Untreated patients had higher D-Ab (geometric mean of 0.62 IU/ml than HAART-patients (geometric mean of 0.39 IU/ml. The data indicated the necessity of keeping all HIV-1 patients up-to-date with their vaccination.

  9. Monoclonal B lymphocytes with the characteristics of "indolent" chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in 3.5% of adults with normal blood counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstron, Andy C; Green, Michael J; Kuzmicki, Anita; Kennedy, Ben; Fenton, James A L; Evans, Paul A S; O'Connor, Sheila J M; Richards, Stephen J; Morgan, Gareth J; Jack, Andrew S; Hillmen, Peter

    2002-07-15

    Molecular and cellular markers associated with malignant disease are frequently identified in healthy individuals. The relationship between these markers and clinical disease is not clear, except where a neoplastic cell population can be identified as in myeloma/monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS). We have used the distinctive phenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells to determine whether low levels of these cells can be identified in individuals with normal complete blood counts. CLL cells were identified by 4-color flow cytometric analysis of CD19/CD5/CD79b/CD20 expression in 910 outpatients over 40 years old. These outpatients were age- and sex-matched to the general population with normal hematologic parameters and no evident history of malignant disease. CLL phenotype cells were detectable in 3.5% of individuals at low level (median, 0.013; range, 0.002- 1.458 x 10(9) cells/L), and represented a minority of B lymphocytes (median, 11%; range, 3%-95%). Monoclonality was demonstrated by immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in all cases with CLL phenotype cells present and confirmed in a subset of cases by consensus-primer IgH-polymerase chain reaction. As in clinical disease, CLL phenotype cells were detected with a higher frequency in men (male-to-female ratio, 1.9:1) and elderly individuals (2.1% of 40- to 59-year-olds versus 5.0% of 60- to 89-year-olds, P =.01). The neoplastic cells were identical to good-prognosis CLL, being CD5+23+20(wk)79b(wk)11a(-)22(wk)sIg(wk)CD38-, and where assessed had a high degree (4.8%-6.6%) of IgH somatic hypermutation. The monoclonal CLL phenotype cells present in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a very early stage of indolent CLL and should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of leukemogenesis.

  10. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-18

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  11. Th1 type lymphocyte reactivity to metals in patients with total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnegan Alison

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All prostheses with metallic components release metal debris that can potentially activate the immune system. However, implant-related metal hyper-reactivity has not been well characterized. In this study, we hypothesized that adaptive immunity reaction(s, particularly T-helper type 1 (Th1 responses, will be dominant in any metal-reactivity responses of patients with total joint replacements (TJAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating lymphocyte reactivity to metal "ions" in subjects with and without total hip replacements, using proliferation assays and cytokine analysis. Methods Lymphocytes from young healthy individuals without an implant or a history of metal allergy (Group 1: n = 8 were used to assess lymphocyte responses to metal challenge agents. In addition, individuals (Group 2: n = 15 with well functioning total hip arthroplasties (average Harris Hip Score = 91, average time in-situ 158 months were studied. Age matched controls with no implants were also used for comparison (Group 3, n = 8, 4 male, 4 female average age 70, range 49–80. Group 1 subjects' lymphocyte proliferation response to Aluminum+3, Cobalt+2, Chromium+3, Copper+2, Iron+3, Molybdenum+5, Manganeese+2, Nickel+2, Vanadium+3 and Sodium+2 chloride solutions at a variety of concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mM was studied to establish toxicity thresholds. Mononuclear cells from Group 2 and 3 subjects were challenged with 0.1 mM CrCl3, 0.1 mM NiCl2, 0.1 mM CoCl2 and approx. 0.001 mM titanium and the reactions measured with proliferation assays and cytokine analysis to determine T-cell subtype prominence. Results Primary lymphocytes from patients with well functioning total hip replacements demonstrated a higher incidence and greater magnitude of reactivity to chromium than young healthy controls (p 2 fold stimulation index response, p 10 mM. The differential secretion of signature T-cell subsets' cytokines (Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

  12. Prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following thermal ablation: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Zhiyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Yu, Jie; Yu, Xiaoling; Liang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC) following thermal ablation. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) calculation, Kaplan-Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and α-fetoprotein level. ALC ≥1.64×10(9)/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, Pthermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes.

  13. Prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following thermal ablation: a retrospective analysis

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    Li X

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin Li, Zhiyu Han, Zhigang Cheng, Jie Yu, Xiaoling Yu, Ping Liang Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC following thermal ablation. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and α-fetoprotein level. ALC ≥1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001. Patients with ALC ≥1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001. Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001. The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001. Conclusion: Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. Keywords: absolute lymphocyte count, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, thermal ablation, recurrence  

  14. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response

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    Rubin, P.I. (Univ. of Rochester Cancer Center, NY); Bennett, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should combine TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  15. Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk

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    Nataša Mikulec

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

  16. The Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte, Neutrophil, and Monocyte Counts in Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma Treated with Radiation

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    Sareena Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine the prognostic significance of pretreatment levels of circulating lymphocyte (CLC, neutrophil (CNC, and monocyte (CMC counts in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (CC treated with definitive radiation. Methods. A retrospective, dual-institution review of patients with Stage IB2-IVA CC from 2005 to 2015. Progression-free (PFS and Overall Survival (OS were determined for high and low CLC, CNC, and CMC groups. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm prognostic value of baseline leukocyte counts. Results. 181 patients were included. Median follow-up time was 26 (3–89 months. CNC had no effect on PFS or OS. PFS was similar between CMC groups; however, OS was significantly improved for patients with low CMC (62.5 versus 45.3 months, p=0.016. High CLC was associated with improved PFS (48.5 versus 27.8 months, p=0.048 and OS (58.4 versus 34.9 months, p=0.048. On multivariate analysis, high CNC was associated with increased relapse risk (HR 1.12, p=0.006 and low CLC was associated with increased mortality risk (HR 0.67, p=0.027. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that leukocyte values can provide prognostic information in CC. These hypothesis-generating findings warrant further prospective investigations.

  17. The Prognostic Value of Baseline Lymphocyte, Neutrophil, and Monocyte Counts in Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma Treated with Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Justin; Nagel, Christa I.; Resnick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Background. To determine the prognostic significance of pretreatment levels of circulating lymphocyte (CLC), neutrophil (CNC), and monocyte (CMC) counts in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (CC) treated with definitive radiation. Methods. A retrospective, dual-institution review of patients with Stage IB2-IVA CC from 2005 to 2015. Progression-free (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were determined for high and low CLC, CNC, and CMC groups. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm prognostic value of baseline leukocyte counts. Results. 181 patients were included. Median follow-up time was 26 (3–89) months. CNC had no effect on PFS or OS. PFS was similar between CMC groups; however, OS was significantly improved for patients with low CMC (62.5 versus 45.3 months, p = 0.016). High CLC was associated with improved PFS (48.5 versus 27.8 months, p = 0.048) and OS (58.4 versus 34.9 months, p = 0.048). On multivariate analysis, high CNC was associated with increased relapse risk (HR 1.12, p = 0.006) and low CLC was associated with increased mortality risk (HR 0.67, p = 0.027). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that leukocyte values can provide prognostic information in CC. These hypothesis-generating findings warrant further prospective investigations. PMID:28239396

  18. Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-04-01

    To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

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    Ji Fuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD, are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Results Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048. Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. Conclusions mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  20. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  1. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce.

  2. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  3. Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolny, E; Swift, S; Vanholsbeeck, F

    2013-07-21

    Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations.

  4. A new medium for determining the total plate count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Townsend, D E

    1999-12-01

    SimPlate for Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, Me.) is a new medium that incorporates the redox dye resazurin to detect and quantify bacteria in food. Enumeration is achieved by the most probable number method using a SimPlate device. Viable bacteria are detected in each well of the SimPlate device by the biochemical reduction of resazurin, which is blue, to the pink resorufin or the clear dihydroresorufin indicators. Results after 24 h of incubation for TPC-CI are highly correlated with standard plate count agar after 48 h of incubation. Correlation coefficients from studies conducted at five laboratories ranged from 0.94 to 0.98 in side-by-side comparisons against standard plate count agar. Four additional test sites, using alternative methods for determining the aerobic plate count in food, reported similar results in comparison studies (r = 0.91 to 0.97). The slopes from linear regression analysis at all sites ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, with y intercepts ranging from 0.11 to 0.84. Samples used for the validation of TPC-CI included raw food products (i.e., liver and grains), which may contain natural enzymes that interfere with enzyme-based detection methods. No interference was seen from the foods tested. These results suggest that TPC-CI is a suitable alternative to existing plate count methods and has reduced incubation time.

  5. [Relationship between CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count and the prognosis (including the healing of the incision wound) of HIV/AIDS patients who had undergone surgical operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Zhao, Hongxin; Gao, Guiju; Wei, Kai; Zhang, Li; Han, Ning; Xiao, Jiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Fang; Liang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Liang

    2014-12-01

    To explore the relationship between CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count and prognosis as well as healing of the surgical incision in HIV/AIDS patients who had received operation. Data were collected and analysed retrospectively from 234 HIV/AIDS patients hospitalized at the Beijing Ditan hospital who underwent operation between January 2008 and December 2012. Following factors were taken into consideration that including:age, gender, time and where that anti-HIV(+) was diagnosed, CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell count at the time of operation, part of the body that being operated, typology of incision, different levels of healing on the surgical incision, infection at the incision site, post-operative complications and the prognosis, etc. Wilcoxon rank sum test, χ(2) test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman rank correlation were used for statistical analysis to compare the different levels on healing of the incision in relation to the different CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell counts. Rates of level A healing under different CD4(+)T cell counts were also compared. 1) Among the 234 patients including 125 males and 109 females, the average age was 36.17±11.56 years old. Time after discovery of anti-HIV(+)was between 0 and 204 months. The medium CD4(+)T cell count was 388.5 cell/µl; 23.93% of the patients having CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell counts as different organs affected at the time of operation, due to 48 different kinds of illness. 21.37% of the operations belonged to class I incision, 49.57% was class II incision and 29.06% was class III incision. 86.32% of the incisions resulted in level A healing, 12.51% resulted in level B and 1.71% in level C. 4.27% of the patients developed post-operative complications. Differences between level A healing and level B or C healing in terms of CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell count were not significant (P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference on the CD4(+) T lymphocyte count in patients with or without postoperative complications

  6. Effect of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on CD4 T lymphocyte count and the spectrum of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS in Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, Yengkokpam; Urgen, Sherpa; Dayananda, Ingudam; Brajachand, Singh Ng

    2009-03-01

    Reports of variable response to antiretroviral therapy as indicated by CD4 count has been of concern as facilities for viral load estimation/drug resistance testing is not available everywhere. Hence the present study. was done to assess the magnitude of problem in high prevalence state of Manipur as evidenced by the CD4 T lymphocyte count. It was also prudent to study various OIs as extensive awareness campaigns about HIV and related morbidity with support system has been undertaken since the last decade. The study revealed that HAART must be used judiciously as 17.3% showed no improvement in CD4 T lymphocyte count. Among opportunistic infections, fungal infections predominatd in HIV/AIDS.

  7. Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae

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    J. E. B. SILVA

    Full Text Available The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of A. obliqua. Difference in the total number of hemocytes was observed between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at the end of the third instar, but not at the beginning.

  8. Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Michelle S; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253 cells/mm(3). A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with CD4 T cell count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted.

  9. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD.

  10. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

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    Dubravka Samaržija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

  11. Prediction of total quarter milk somatic cell counts based on foremilk sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellnitz, Olga; Doherr, Marcus G; Woloszyn, Marta; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2009-08-01

    Determination of somatic cell count (SCC) is used worldwide in dairy practice to describe the hygienic status of the milk and the udder health of cows. When SCC is tested on a quarter level to detect single quarters with high SCC levels of cows for practical reasons, mostly foremilk samples after prestimulation (i.e. cleaning of the udder) are used. However, SCC is usually different in different milk fractions. Therefore, the goal of this study was the investigation of the use of foremilk samples for the estimation of total quarter SCC. A total of 378 milkings in 19 dairy cows were performed with a special milking device to drain quarter milk separately. Foremilk samples were taken after udder stimulation and before cluster attachment. SCC was measured in foremilk samples and in total quarter milk. Total quarter milk SCC could not be predicted precisely from foremilk SCC measurements. At relatively high foremilk SCC levels (>300 x 10(3) cells/ml) foremilk SCC were higher than total quarter milk. At around (50-300) x 10(3) cells/ml foremilk and total quarter SCC did not differ considerably. Most interestingly, if foremilk SCC was lower than 50 x 10(3) cells/ml the total quarter SCC was higher than foremilk SCC. In addition, individual cows showed dramatic variations in foremilk SCC that were not very well related to total quarter milk SCC. In conclusion, foremilk samples are useful to detect high quarter milk SCC to recognize possibly infected quarters, only if precise cell counts are not required. However, foremilk samples can be deceptive if very low cell numbers are to be detected.

  12. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (ptesticular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  13. Precision of helicopter-based total-area counts of large ungulates in bushveld

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    B.K. Reilly

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision in helicopter total-area counts in bushveld for a range of common species are evaluated. Counts were conducted on properties ranging in size from 250 ha to 10 000 ha as part of experiments on precision and power. Counts were conducted in three vegetation types: mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld and arid bushveld. Scant regard is given to precision as a factor in large herbivore monitoring, with more effort often devoted to accuracy. Coefficients of variation varied from 3.2 % to 70.9 %. Median values are generally acceptable for the establishment of trends for long-term monitoring, but might be inadequate for annual population size monitoring and evaluation. A regression of all species and vegetation types by the standard error showed a significant correlation. Similar regressions were also developed for impala, kudu, warthog, and zebra. Regressions by vegetation type for mopane veld, sourish mixed bushveld, and northwest arid bushveld were also significant. However, the high correlation for some vegetation types might be an artifact of the small sample sizes.

  14. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, Alexander W; Almeida, Julia; Nieto, Wendy G; Teodosio, Cristina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Romero, Alfonso; López, Antonio; Fernandez-Navarro, Paulino; Vega, Tomas; Perez-Andres, Martin; Valent, Peter; Jäger, Ulrich; Orfao, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) with normal lymphocyte counts is associated with decreased numbers of normal circulating B-cell subsets.Little is known about the distribution of normal lymphoid cells and their subsets in the peripheral blood (PB) of subjects with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). In our study, we compared the absolute number of PB lymphoid cells and their subpopulations in 95 MBL cases with normal lymphocyte counts vs. 617 age-/sex-matched non-MBL healthy subjects (controls), using highly sensitive flow cytometry. MBL cases showed significantly reduced numbers of normal circulating B-cells, at the expense of immature and naive B-cells; in addition, CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells and CD8+ T-cells were significantly lower and higher vs. controls, respectively. Moreover, most normal B-cell subsets were significantly decreased in PB at >1% MBL-counts, vs. "low-count" MBL cases, and lower amounts of immature/naive B-cells were detected in biclonal (particularly in cases with coexisting CLL-like- and non-CLL-like B-cell clones) vs. monoclonal MBL subjects. In summary, our results show imbalanced (reduced) absolute numbers of recently produced normal circulating B-cells (e.g., immature and naıve B-cells) in MBL, which becomes more pronounced as the MBL cell count increases.

  15. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4% samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.

  16. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Saeed; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz; Sheikhbahaei, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG) to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA) technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4%) samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.

  17. Relationship between total and differential leukocyte counts and isolated coronary artery ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Taçoy, Gülten; Sahinarslan, Asife; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-08-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a clinical entity characterized by localized or diffuse dilatation of more than or equal to 1.5 times that of the normal adjacent segments of vessels. Although the etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood, some studies have shown that CAE may be a form of atherosclerosis and has more potent inflammatory properties. Leukocytes have a crucial role in the development of inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate a possible relationship between leukocytes and the coronary ectatic process without coronary artery disease (CAD) and to compare it with the inflammatory atherosclerotic process related to leukocytes. The study population consisted of 371 patients. We divided the patients into three groups: 42 patients with isolated CAE as group I, 279 patients with CAD as group II, and 50 control participants with normal coronary arteries (NCA) as group III. The counts of total leukocytes (7348+/-1898, 7569+/-1619, and 6770+/-1748 cells/mm, P=0.002), neutrophils (4260+/-2169, 4529+/-1380, and 4040+/-1649 cells/mm, P=0.037) and monocytes (630+/-216, 583+/-198, and 480+/-140 cells/mm, P<0.001) were significantly different among the CAE, CAD, and NCA groups, respectively. The CAE group also had significantly higher leukocyte and subtype counts than the nonobstructive CAD subgroup and NCA group. This study demonstrates that total and differential leukocyte counts, which play an important role in inflammation, are increased in patients with isolated CAE. In conclusion, this study's findings show that leukocytes may play an important role in the development of CAE independently of the atherosclerotic process.

  18. Changes in cardiopulmonary variables and platelet count during anesthesia for total hip replacement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, K; Matis, U

    1994-01-01

    Changes in cardiopulmonary function and platelet count were determined in 22 dogs of various breeds that underwent total hip replacement with cemented femoral prostheses. In 11 dogs (group I) polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was inserted without venting the reamed and lavaged femoral canal. In a second group of 11 dogs (group II) a urethral catheter (ID: approximately 2.7 mm) was placed into the medullary cavity before the insertion of PMMA. The application of PMMA resulted in a decrease in end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) until 5 minutes after insertion of bone cement. Increases in arterial to end-tidal pCO2 gradient [P(a-ET)CO2] and physiological dead space (VD/VT) were recorded between 2 minutes before and 5 minutes after insertion of PMMA in 12 dogs. A significant decrease in platelet count occurred in both groups of dogs. Decreases in arterial pO2 (PaO2), arterial/alveolar oxygen tension ratio (PaO2/PAO2), and percent O2 saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood (SaO2) were not statistically significant. No significant differences could be detected between data obtained from both groups of dogs. An increase in femoral intramedullary pressure caused by the insertion of PMMA and subsequent pulmonary microembolism by medullary contents has been considered the most likely cause for changes in pulmonary function. The lack of statistically significant differences in cardiopulmonary variables and platelet count between the two groups of dogs could have been related to inefficient pressure reduction by the method used.

  19. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of effects of dexamethasone and prednisolone in combination with endogenous cortisol on lymphocyte counts and systemic markers of bone turn over and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E.F.L.; Derks, M.G.; Schweitzer, D.H.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Boxtel, C.J. van

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare potency and efficacy of dexamethasone (DEXA) and prednisolone (PRED) in assumed equipotent doses in combination with endogenous cortisol, using lymphocyte counts, plasma osteocalcin (OC), and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) as effect variables and to evaluate potential diff

  20. Interleukin-2 dose, blood monocyte and CD25+ lymphocyte counts as predictors of clinical response to interleukin-2 therapy in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H;

    1991-01-01

    schedule with continuous intravenous IL-2 infusion (3 x 10(6) units m-2 day-1) administered from days 1 to 5 and days 12 to 16. The white blood cell count and the absolute and relative number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes were recorded six times in peripheral blood during...... the treatment. Also the blood counts of T cell and NK cell subsets and cells expressing the T cell activation markers IL-2R alpha and VLA-1 were measured. The lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity was measured either with or without additional in vitro stimulation by IL-2. Multivariate statistical...... analysis showed that the clinical responses were related to the administered dose of IL-2, to a low number of blood cells expressing IL-2 receptors and to a reduction in the blood monocyte count (P less than 0.05)....

  1. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L

    1997-04-29

    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  2. Total electron count variability and stratospheric ozone effects on solar backscatter and LWIR emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John S.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2017-05-01

    The development of an accurate ionospheric Total Electron Count (TEC) model is of critical importance to high frequency (HF) radio propagation and satellite communications. However, the TEC is highly variable and is continually influenced by geomagnetic storms, extreme UV radiation, and planetary waves. Being able to capture this variability is essential to improve current TEC models. The growing body of data involving ionospheric fluctuations and stratospheric variations has revealed a correlation. In particular, there is a marked and persistent association between increases in stratospheric ozone and variability of the TEC. The spectral properties of ozone show that it is a greenhouse gas that alters long wave emissions from Earth and interacts with the UV spectrum coming from the sun. This study uses the Laser Environment Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) radiative transfer and atmospheric characterization code to model the effects of changes in stratospheric ozone on solar backscatter and longwave (LWIR) terrestrial emissions and infer TEC and TEC variability.

  3. Pregnancy and treatment interruption enhances progression of HIV-infection if initial CD4+ T-lymphocyte count is less than 700 cells/mm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pronin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To determine velocity of immunological and virological progression of HIV-infection in respect to pregnancy and short-termed HAART. Methods: Comparative retrospective study. Retrospective period - 4 years. All women had initial CD4+ cell count in the range from 500 to 700 cells/mm3 and viral load less then 5 log10 copies/ml. The study group - women having had pregnancy and short termed HAART (16 cases. The control group - women not having had pregnancy and episodes of HAART. 3 endpoints were determined: (i average year CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss (cells/mm3; (ii average year% CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss; (iii average year viral load elevation (log10 copies/ml. Endpoints were calculated by the least square regression. Summary of results: Women in the study group showed higher progression rates of HIV infection, as shown in table 1 and figure 1The difference in average year CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss was 2,9 fold, average year% CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss was 2,8 fold, average year viral load elevation - 4,5 fold. All differences were statistically significant.Figure 1.95% confidence intervals showing significant influence of pregnancy and HAART termination on HIV-disease progression.There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the age of women and initial viral load. If the initial CD4+ counts were more the 700 cells/mm3, pregnancy and HAART termination does not have significant effect on immunological progression, difference in viral load dynamics being still present (data not shown. The study does not allow to differentiate effects of pregnancy itself or of HAART termination. According to literature effect of pregnancy on HIV disease progression is not clear [1], that is why the most reliable hypothesis is the unfavourable influence of HAART termination on the course of HIV-infection. This provides a reliable evidence not to stop HAART after delivery if initial CD4+ count is less then 700 cells/ml. Conclusions: 1

  4. [Total knee replacement induces peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis and it is not prevented by regional anesthesia - a randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosel, Juliusz; Rusak, Małgorzata; Gołembiewski, Łukasz; Dąbrowska, Milena; Siemiątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Among the many changes caused by a surgical insult one of the least studied is postoperative immunosuppression. This phenomenon is an important cause of infectious complications of surgery such as surgical site infection or hospital acquired pneumonia. One of the mechanisms leading to postoperative immunosuppression is the apoptosis of immunological cells. Anesthesia during surgery is intended to minimize harmful changes and maintain perioperative homeostasis. The aim of the study was evaluation the effect of the anesthetic technique used for total knee replacement on postoperative peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis. 34 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to two regional anesthetic protocols: spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 11 patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia served as control group. Before surgery, immediately after surgery, during first postoperative day and seven days after the surgery venous blood samples were taken and the immunological status of the patient was assessed with the use of flow cysts 87 m, along with lymphocyte apoptosis using fluorescent microscopy. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis was seen immediately in the postoperative period and was accompanied by a decrease of the number of T cells and B cells. There were no significant differences in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes according to the anesthetic protocol. Changes in the number of T CD3/8 cells and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were seen on the seventh day after surgery. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis is an early event in the postoperative period lasts up to seven days and is not affected by the choice of the anesthetic technique. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Total knee replacement induces peripheral blood lymphocytes apoptosis and it is not prevented by regional anesthesia - a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosel, Juliusz; Rusak, Małgorzata; Gołembiewski, Łukasz; Dąbrowska, Milena; Siemiątkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Among the many changes caused by a surgical insult one of the least studied is postoperative immunosuppression. This phenomenon is an important cause of infectious complications of surgery such as surgical site infection or hospital acquired pneumonia. One of the mechanisms leading to postoperative immunosuppression is the apoptosis of immunological cells. Anesthesia during surgery is intended to minimize harmful changes and maintain perioperative homeostasis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of the anesthetic technique used for total knee replacement on postoperative peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis. 34 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to two regional anesthetic protocols: spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 11 patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia served as control group. Before surgery, immediately after surgery, during first postoperative day and seven days after the surgery venous blood samples were taken and the immunological status of the patient was assessed with the use of flow cytometry, along with lymphocyte apoptosis using fluorescent microscopy. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis was seen immediately in the postoperative period and was accompanied by a decrease of the number of T cells and B cells. There were no significant differences in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes according to the anesthetic protocol. Changes in the number of T CD3/8 cells and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were seen on the seventh day after surgery. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis is an early event in the postoperative period that lasts up to seven days and is not affected by the choice of the anesthetic technique. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. An 84-month observational study of the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 HIV/AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Liang, Biyan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Liran; Deng, Xin; Li, Xiuhui; Fang, Lu; Tan, Xinghua; Mao, Yuxiang; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Yuguang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by observing the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated continuously with TCM for 84 months. Information of 110 HIV/AIDS patients from 19 provinces and cities treated with TCM from 2004 to 2013 was collected. Changes in the indexes of CD4 counts ( ≤ 200, 201-350, 351-500 and > 500 cells/mm(3)) at five time points (0, 12, 36, 60 and 84 months) and different treatments [TCM and TCM plus antiretroviral therapy (ART)] were compared. Repeated measures test indicated no interaction between group and time (P > 0.05). Degrees of increasing and decreasing CD4 count of the two groups at four different frames were statistically significant compared with the baseline. The CD4 count between the two groups was not statistically significant. For CD4 count of ≤ 200 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were 21 and 28 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 201-350 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were 6 and 25 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 351-500 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were -13 and -7 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of > 500 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were -34 and -17 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. Long-term use of TCM could maintain or slow the pace of declining CD4 counts in patients with HIV/AIDS, and may achieve lasting effectiveness.

  7. Relationship among specific bacterial counts and total bacterial and somatic cell counts and factors influencing their variation in ovine bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garnica, M L; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; De La Fuente, L F; García-Jimeno, M C; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the relationship among the counts of different organisms and total bacterial count (BTTBC) and somatic cell count (BTSCC) as determined in dairy laboratories in ovine bulk tank milk, 751 bulk tank milk samples from 205 dairy sheep flocks belonging to Consortium for Ovine Promotion (CPO) were collected between January and December 2011. Four samplings were carried out in each flock, once per season, throughout 1 yr. Variables analyzed were bulk tank counts of thermoduric, psychrotrophic, coliform, and gram-positive catalase-negative cocci (GPCNC) bacterial groups. Thermoduric, psychrotrophic, and coliform species were significantly related to BTTBC, whereas GPCNC were correlated with both BTTBC and BTSCC variables. Highest counts were for psychrotroph and coliform groups, and a moderate to high correlation (r=0.51) was found between both variables, indicating that poor cleaning practices in the flocks tend to select for less-resistant organisms, such as gram-negative rods. In addition, BTTBC correlated with BTSCC (r=0.42). Some variation factors for specific bacterial counts, such as breed, season, milking type, dry therapy, and milk yield, were also analyzed. Flock information was collected from flock books, annual audits, and the CPO traceability system. Psychrotrophs and coliforms had elevated counts in winter, whereas GPCNC were higher in summer and in hand-milked flocks. Dry therapy contributed to the reduction in psychrotrophic bacteria; therefore, some strains of mammary pathogens could also be psychrotrophic bacteria. Results of this study would be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality problems and developing premium payment systems in dairy sheep.

  8. Platelet indices and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio predict coronary chronic total occlusion in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadadi Laszlo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO is caused by organized thrombi or atherosclerotic plaque progression. The presence of a CTO is an independent predictor of mortality in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Platelets have a crucial role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate platelet indices as predictors of CTO in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI. A total number of 334 patients admitted for STEMI between January 2011 and December 2013 were included and divided in two groups based on the presence of CTO (48 patients in CTO+ group, 286 patients in CTO-group. Platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR, lymphocyte and neutrophil count determined on admission were analyzed. MPV was larger in patients with CTO compared with patients without CTO (p=0.02, as were PDW (p=0.03 and P-LCR (p=0.01. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLT/LYM was lower in patients with CTO: 105.2 (75.86-159.1 compared to 137 (97-188.1, p<0.01. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified an area under the curve of 0.61 (95%CI=0.57-0.67, p< 0.01 for PLT/LYM in predicting the presence of a CTO, with a cut-off value at 97.73. Lower values than this were independent predictors of a CTO in multivariate logistic regression analysis, with an Odds Ratio of 2.2 (95%CI=1.15-4.20, p=0.02. Our results support the use of platelet indices and PLT/LYM as predictors of CTO in patients presenting with STEMI.

  9. Improving prediction of total viable counts in pork based on hyperspectral scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feifei; Peng, Yankun; Song, Yulin; Guo, Hui; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    A hyperspectral scattering technique was investigated for predicting the total viable counts (TVC) of pork in the article. Fresh pork was purchased from a local market and stored at 4°C for 1-15 days. Totally 35 samples were used in the experiment and 2-4 samples were taken out randomly each day for collecting hyperspectral images and reference microbiological tests. Gompertz function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork and Teflon, and the fitting results were pretty good in the spectral range of 470-1010 nm. Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the multi-linear regression models for predicting pork TVC, and the results indicated that individual Gompertz parameter α was superior to other individual parameters, while the integrated parameters can perform better. The best result for predicting pork TVC was achieved by the form of (α, β, ɛ), with the RCV of 0.963. The study demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with Gompertz function was potential for rapid determination of pork TVC, and would be a valid tool for monitoring the quality and safety attributes of meat in the future.

  10. Interleukin-2 dose, blood monocyte and CD25+ lymphocyte counts as predictors of clinical response to interleukin-2 therapy in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine immunological parameters in the peripheral blood that correlate with the clinical effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. A group of 26 patients with metastatic renal cell cancer underwent IL-2 treatment using a 36-day...... schedule with continuous intravenous IL-2 infusion (3 x 10(6) units m-2 day-1) administered from days 1 to 5 and days 12 to 16. The white blood cell count and the absolute and relative number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes were recorded six times in peripheral blood during...

  11. Evaluation of a Novel Dry Sheet Culture Method for Rapid Enumeration of Total Aerobic Count in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Hajime; Iwasaki, Mihoko; Ushiyama, Masashi; Ogihara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    A novel dry sheet culture method (Sanita-kun ACplus; SkACp) for rapid enumeration of total viable count has been developed. This rehydrated plate system comprises an adhesive sheet, nonwoven fabric coated with nutrients, and two types of water absorption polymers. In addition, SkACp facilitates methods for both rapid count (rapid mode: 24-h incubation) and accurate enumeration (standard mode: 48-h incubation) because it not only contains conventional 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride but also contains two kinds of new tetrazolium salts for rapid and accurate enumeration of total aerobic count. When SkACp was assessed with 91 microorganisms, 87 strains (95.6%), excluding lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria, formed red-colored colonies within 24 h, whereas all microorganisms tested formed colonies within 48 h. The SkACp method, with both 24 and 48 h of incubation, was compared with plate count agar (PCA) and 3M Petrifilm AC (PAC) by using 107 naturally contaminated foods. For all foods tested (n = 107), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.75, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.77 and 0.96, respectively. For foods tested, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages ( n = 101), the linear correlation coefficients of 48-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, while the 24-h counts on SkACp compared with PCA and PAC were 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. These results demonstrated that SkACp (48 h) is a useful alternative for the enumeration of the total aerobic count for all foods, whereas SkACp (24 h) was also an effective method for rapid enumeration in foods, excluding yogurt and lactic beverages.

  12. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  13. Effect of dexamethasone on differential white blood cell counts and heterophil / lymphocyte ratio in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Chinrasri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Laying Japanese quails (n = 60, 30 weeks of age reared at the experimental laboratory unit of the Faculty of Technology, Maha Sarakham University, Maha Sarakham province, Thailand. Birds were in cages with wire floors. Randomized Complete Block was the design of the experiment. During the first 4 days of experimental period, quails were fed on a standard commercial diet with four treatments: supplemented with dexamethasone at 4 levels namely 0 (control group, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 mg/kg diet. On days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experimental period, percentage of heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio values of laying quails were examined. The results revealed that percentage of heterophil of laying quail with added dexamethasone at 1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg in diets were significantly higher than others (P0.05. After discontinuing dexamethasone administration on day 4 of the experimental period, percentage of heterophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil, monocyte, and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio, of quails recovered to normal within 10 days.

  14. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  15. Detection of microbial antigenic components of circulating immune complexes in HIV patients:Involvement in CD4+ T lymphocyte count depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezeani Michael Chukwudi; Okafor UU; Onyenekwe CC; Wachukwu CK; Anyiam DCD; Meludu SC; Ukibe RN; Ifeanyichukwu M; Onochie A; Anahalu I

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of microbial antigenic components of circulating immune complexes amongst grades ofCD4 T lymphocyte counts inHIV sero positive and sero-negative participants.Methods: Polyethelene glycol(PEG-600) and buffering methods of precipitation and dissociation of immune complexes was used to generate immune solution from sera of100 HIV sero-positive and100 HIV sero-negative participants. These were categorized into 3 grades based onCD4 count:> 500 cell/mm3,200-499 cell/mm3 and<200 cell/mm3. The immune solutions were assayed using membrane based immunoassay and antibody titration, along side its unprocessed serum for detection of various microbial antigens and or antibodies. CD4 T cell counts were estimated using Patec Cyflow SL-3Germany.Results: Antigenic component of immune complexes of various infectious agents was detected in99 and70 HIV sero-positive andHIV sero-negative participants, respectively. In group A, there were10 HIV positive participants, including4 (40.0%)had circulating immune complexes(CICs) due toSalmonella species only;1(10.0%) due toSalmonella-Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum),Salmonella-P. falciparum-HCV andP. falciparum antigens, respectively. In group B,45(45.4%) HIVsero-positive participants withCICs hadCD4 T lymphocyte count between200-499 cells/mm3. Out of these,20(44.4%) hadCICs due to Salmonella species only; 9(20%) due toSalmonella-P. falciparum. In groupC, there were44(44.4%) HIVsero-positive participants, including3(6.8%) due toSalmonella species only;24(54.4%) due toSalmonella-P. falciparum;2(4.5%) due toP. falciparum only.Conclusions:InHIV sero-positive participants, presence of heterogeneity of Salmonella species-P. falciparum antigens was highly incriminated inCD4 count depletion but not homogeneity of malaria parasites antigens. Malaria parasites antigens only were incriminated inCD4+ count depletion amongstHIV sero-negative participants. Before taking any decision on the management ofHIV-1

  16. Impact of pharmaceutical care interventions on the CD4+ lymphocytes counts (therapeutic outcome of patients on antiretroviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeudo Ewuziem Nwaozuzu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CD4 count and viral load determine the progression of HIV infection. HIV actively infects and destroys CD4 cells. High viral load results in higher transmission risk and is also a sign of more severe disease. Measurements of CD4 counts can be used as an indirect means of estimating HIV viral load and as such determine disease progression and/or therapeutic outcome of antiretroviral therapy. Pharmaceutical care (PC has been shown to improve the outcome of drug therapy in many disease conditions. HIV/AIDS is one of the disease conditions that are fraught with many problems that can benefit from this new emphasis of pharmacy practice also known as ‘pharmacists care’. This study is designed to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care activities on the CD4 cell counts of HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral drugs. The components of the American society of health-system pharmacists (ASHP guidelines on ‘standardized method for pharmaceutical care’ was used as a data collection instrument to evaluate, document and intervene and re-evaluate the antiretroviral therapy of about one thousand four hundred and seventy three (1,473 patients. The results showed that that 55.2% of the patients recorded significant increases in their CD4 cells count, 14.1% of them maintained their pre - intervention CD4 cells count while 10.3% of them recorded decreases in their CD4 cell count. However, in 20.4% of the patients the CD4 cell counts could not be determined. The study showed that pharmacists’ interventions in antiretroviral drug therapy through Pharmaceutical care can significantly improve the CD4 cells counts of patients receiving antiretroviral drugs hence therapeutic outcome of antiretroviral drug therapy.

  17. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  18. Total motile sperm count: a better indicator for the severity of male factor infertility than the WHO sperm classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cissen, M.; Brandes, M.; Smeenk, J.M.; Bruin, J.P. de; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the prewash total motile sperm count (TMSC) have a better predictive value for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy (SOP) than the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system? SUMMARY ANSWER: The prewash TMSC shows a better correlation with the spontaneous ongoing pregnancy r

  19. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-ye

  20. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  1. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted.

  2. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, P. (Univ. of Rochester, NY); Bennent, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets, or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should continue TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  3. Enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods by SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator methods and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip T; Leung, Stephanie C; Lienau, Andrew H; Mui, Linda A; Townsend, David E

    2003-01-01

    The relative efficacy of the SimPlate Total Plate Count-Color Indicator (TPC-CI) method (SimPlate 35 degrees C) was compared with the AOAC Official Method 966.23 (AOAC 35 degrees C) for enumeration of total aerobic microorganisms in foods. The SimPlate TPC-CI method, incubated at 30 degrees C (SimPlate 30 degrees C), was also compared with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833 method (ISO 30 degrees C). Six food types were analyzed: ground black pepper, flour, nut meats, frozen hamburger patties, frozen fruits, and fresh vegetables. All foods tested were naturally contaminated. Nineteen laboratories throughout North America and Europe participated in the study. Three method comparisons were conducted. In general, there was count difference in recovery among the SimPlate methods and their corresponding reference methods. Mean log counts between the 2 reference methods were also very similar. Repeatability (Sr) and reproducibility (SR) standard deviations were similar among the 3 method comparisons. The SimPlate method (35 degrees C) and the AOAC method were comparable for enumerating total aerobic microorganisms in foods. Similarly, the SimPlate method (30 degrees C) was comparable to the ISO method when samples were prepared and incubated according to the ISO method.

  4. A prenatal prediction model for total nucleated cell count increases the efficacy of umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manegold-Brauer, Gwendolin; Borner, Barbara; Bucher, Christoph; Hoesli, Irène; Passweg, Jakob; Girsberger, Sabine; Schoetzau, Andreas; Gisin, Simona; Visca, Eva

    2014-11-01

    The most important factor for the selection of an umbilical cord blood unit (CBU) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the total nucleated cell (TNC) count as a surrogate marker for stem cell content in the CBU. At present, about one in five donors can provide a CBU with a sufficient TNC count for umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking. It is labor-intensive to obtain consent of all eligible donors and optimization of the selection is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate prenatal clinical predictors for TNC count that would help to identify successful UCB donors already on admission to the delivery unit. This study was a retrospective analysis of 758 cryopreserved CBUs, collected from 2002 to 2006. Maternal and fetal factors analyzed were maternal age, gravidity, parity, weight, height, diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, gestational age, fetal sex, and birthweight. The impact on a high TNC count (banking rates from 22.7% to 31.9% while decreasing the number of banked CBUs from 149 to 79. Our prenatal prediction model increases the efficacy of obtaining informed consent for UCB banking while still allowing relevant numbers of CBUs to be banked. © 2014 AABB.

  5. There is No Effect of Total Sperm Count on Pregnancy Rates in ICSI Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Bakay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amac: Total sperm sayisinin gebelik oranlarina etkisinin arastirilmasi. Gerec ve Yontem: Bu retrospektif kohort calisma, Ocak 2010 ve Aralik 2012 tarihleri arasinda toplamda 661 ICSI siklusunu iceren iki farkli yardimci ureme teknikleri merkezinin verilerinden elde edilmis olup, bu sikluslarda total sperm sayisin ile gebelik elde etme oranlarini karsilastirmistir. Bulgular: Gruplar arasinda gebelik oranlarinda fark bulunmasina ragmen bu fark istatistiksel olarak anlamli bulunmamistir. Tartisma: Calismamizda ICSI sikluslarinda total sperm sayisinin gebelik oranlarina etkisi olmadigi gosterilmistir.\

  6. Correlation between differential blood count and T-lymphocyte subset count in the early period after liver transplantation%肝移植术后早期白细胞分类计数与T淋巴细胞亚群计数的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹游; 张磊; 李瑞东; 郭闻渊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肝移植术后早期白细胞分类计数与T淋巴细胞亚群计数的相关性.方法 收集84例行经典原位肝移植术受者术后第7天在不应用糖皮质激素情况下的血样本,分析T淋巴细胞亚群计数与白细胞计数、中性粒细胞计数、淋巴细胞计数及单核细胞计数的相关性.结果 Pearson分析显示,CD4+和CD8+T淋巴细胞计数与白细胞计数、中性粒细胞计数及单核细胞计数间均不相关(P值均>0.05),与淋巴细胞计数间均呈正相关(R值分别为0.778、0.651,P值均<0.001).Spearman分析显示,CD4+和CD8+T淋巴细胞计数与白细胞计数、中性粒细胞计数及单核细胞计数间均不相关(P值均>0.05),与淋巴细胞计数间均呈正相关(R值分别为0.748、0.702,P值均<0.001).非感染组的淋巴细胞计数、CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、CD8+T淋巴细胞计数均显著高于感染组(P值均<0.05).结论 肝移植术后早期淋巴细胞计数与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数具有较好的正相关性,可间接反应CD4+T淋巴细胞计数水平.%Objective To explore the correlation between differential blood count and T-lymphocyte subset count so as to provide a method to quickly identify cellular immune function in the early period after liver transplantation. Methods Blood samples were taken from 84 recipients (without application of glucocorticoid) on day 7 after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The correlation between T-lymphocyte subset count and differential blood count including leucocyte count, granulocyte count and monocyte count was analyzed. Results Pearson analysis showed that the counts of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were not correlated with the count of leucocyte, granulocyte and monocyte (all P>0.05), but were positively related to lymphocyte count (R =0.778, 0.651; both P0.05), and were positively related to lymphocyte count (R =0.748, 0.702; both P<0.001). The counts of lymphocyte, CD4+ T lymphocyte and CD8+ T lymphocyte in the

  7. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gomes Paixão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%, 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041 and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041. It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  8. Feasibility of measuring total body carbon by counting neutron inelastic scatter gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyere, K.; Oldroyd, B.; Oxby, C.B.; Burkinshaw, L.; Ellis, R.E.; Hill, G.L. (Leeds Univ. (UK))

    1982-06-01

    A technique is examined for measuring the mass of carbon of both ambulatory and non-ambulatory subjects. The method is based upon the detection of the 4.43 MeV gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei when the body is irradiated with fast neutrons. The supine subject is irradiated laterally by a horizontal collimated beam of 14 MeV neutrons and the emitted gamma rays are counted by a shielded NaI(Tl) detector placed underneath the subject. The method has been calibrated for all sizes of subjects from 30 to 90 kg and there appears to be no significant interference from the other bulk elements of the body. Body carbon has been measured in six normal volunteers; body nitrogen was also determined by measuring the /sup 13/N induced in each subject in a second irradiation. Body fat was estimated from the measured carbon and nitrogen, and the values compared with those derived from skinfold thicknesses. The technique is proposed as a method of estimating long-term energy expenditure.

  9. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

  10. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  11. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum TERHADAP TOTAL PLATE COUNT DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK BAKSO DAGING SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Pustikayanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui alternatif pengganti boraks pada bahan pangan yang dapat diaplikasikan produsen bakso. Penelitian eksperimen dengan populasi 4 bakso berbagai perlakuan dan 10 panelis menggunakan instrumen alat uji mikrobiologi dan formulir penilaian sifat organoleptik. Analisis data dilakukan secara univariat dan bivariat (Repeated Anova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bakso paling disukai adalah bakso tambahan karagenan yang direndam ekstrak bawang putih 30%. Nilai Total Plate Count bakso jam ke-24 yang dibawah 1×105 adalah bakso menggunakan tambahan karagenan dan bakso menggunakan boraks. Ada pengaruh perendaman ekstrak bawang putih terhadap tekstur (0,013, warna (0,022, aroma (0,001. Saran bagi pemerintah hendaknya mensosialisasikan penggunaan bahan tambahan pangan yang lebih aman. BPOM bekerjasama dengan instansi lainnya menyelenggarakan program produk pangan bebas boraks di Indonesia dan mengharuskan produsen bakso mengirimkan sampel bakso ke Laboratorium pengujian makanan untuk diuji keamanan pangannya. Bagi peneliti selanjutnya disarankan meneliti perbedaan nilai Total Plate Count dan sifat organoleptik bakso pada suhu ruang, suhu dingin, dan suhu beku. Serta menambahkan perlakuan bakso dengan penambahan Sodium Tri Poly Phospat (STPP

  12. Characteristics of natural changes in CD4+lymphocyte counts among untreated HIV-infected patients in central districts of Shanghai%无抗病毒治疗史HIV感染者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数自然变化特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪澜; 黄文鸳; 庄鸣华; 何纳

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨上海市2个区未接受抗病毒治疗的艾滋病病毒( HIV)感染者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的自然变化特征及其影响因素。[方法]对1987-2013年5月期间上海市2个城区报告的未接受抗病毒治疗,或抗病毒治疗前至少有2次CD4+T淋巴细胞计数结果的HIV感染者开展回顾性研究,描述CD4+T淋巴细胞计数自然变化特征,并分析其显著下降的影响因素。[结果]共纳入调查对象365例,CD4+T淋巴细胞计数月均自然变化速率的中位数M=-4.4(IQR:-11.1~0.2)个/μL,其中263例(72.1%)HIV感染者末次CD4+T淋巴细胞计数结果低于首次,显著下降(≥30%)率为39.2%(143/365)。 Logistic多因素回归分析结果显示:HIV感染者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数显著下降率与年龄、首次CD4+T淋巴细胞计数水平及首末次CD4+T淋巴细胞计数检测间隔时间存在统计学关联。[结论] HIV感染者治疗前CD4+T淋巴细胞计数自然变化总体平缓,部分感染者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数快速下降与多种因素相关。应定期监测CD4+T淋巴细胞计数水平和变化速率,及时评估病情进展,开展有针对性的行为干预和临床干预。%Objective Objective To explore the characteristics and determinants of natural chan-ges in CD4+lymphocyte counts among HIV -infected patients without previous antiviral therapy in two dis-tricts of Shanghai . [ Methods] A retrospective study was conducted on HIV -infected patients reported from 1987 through May 2013 in two districts of Shanghai , who had received at least twice CD 4+lymphocyte counting tests before antiretroviral treatment ( ART) .The characteristics of natural changes in CD 4+lympho-cyte count and the determinants of significant decrease in count were described . [ Results] A total of 365 patients were included in the study .The monthly rate of CD 4+lymphocyte count changes between the first and the last

  13. Prognostic Significance of Combination of Preoperative Platelet Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (COP-NLR in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the combination of the preoperative platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR for predicting postoperative survival of patients undergoing complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.The preoperative COP-NLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained.Patients with both an increased platelet count (>30.0 × 104 mm(-3 and an elevated NLR (>2.3 were assigned a score of 2, and patients with one or neither were assigned as a score of 1 or 0, respectively.A total of 1238 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this analysis. Multivariate analysis using the 15 clinicolaboratory variables selected by univariate analyses demonstrated that the preoperative COP-NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 1.834, 95%CI: 1.536 to 2.200, P<0.001 and OS (HR: 1.810, 95%CI: 1.587 to 2.056, P<0.001. In sub-analyses by tumor stage (I, II, IIIA, a significant association was found between DFS and OS and level of COP-NLR in each subgroup (P<0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001 for DFS, respectively; P<0.001, P=0.001, P<0.001 for OS. When the subgroup of patients with high-risk COP-NLR (score of 2 was analyzed, no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy could be found (P=0.237 for DFS and P=0.165 for OS.The preoperative COP-NLR is able to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC and divide these patients into three independent groups before surgery. Our results also demonstrate that high-risk patients based on the COP-NLR do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Independent validation of our findings is warranted.

  14. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  15. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Van der Mark, E J; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R (2) = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP.

  16. Absolute Monocyte Count and Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Predict Outcome in Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma: Evaluation Based on Data From 1450 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Tamar; Bari, Alessia; Marcheselli, Luigi; Sacchi, Stefano; Aviv, Ariel; Baldini, Luca; Gobbi, Paolo G; Pozzi, Samantha; Ferri, Paola; Cox, Maria Christina; Cascavilla, Nicola; Iannitto, Emilio; Federico, Massimo; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    To verify whether absolute monocyte count (AMC) and lymphocyte- monocyte ratio (LMR) at diagnosis are valid prognostic parameters in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Data were collected from 1450 patients with cHL treated in Israel and Italy from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2007. The median age of the patients was 33 years (range, 17-72 years), and 70% (1017) of the patients had nodular sclerosis (NS); the median follow-up duration was 87 months. The best cutoff value for AMC was 750 cells/mm(3), and the best ratio for LMR was 2.1. The adverse prognostic impact of an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3) was confirmed for the entire cohort, and its clinical significance was particularly evident in patients with NS histology. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 10 years for an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3) was 65% (56%-72%), and the PFS at 10 years for an AMC of 750 cells/mm(3) or less was 81% (76%-84%; PHR], 1.54, P=.006, and HR, 1.50, P=.006) after adjusting for the international prognostic score, whereas the impact on OS was confirmed (HR, 1.56; P=.04) only in patients with NS and an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3). This study confirms that AMC has prognostic value in cHL that is particularly significant in patients with NS subtype histology. This finding links the known impact of macrophages and monocytes in Hodgkin lymphoma with routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on the Forecast Model of Total Viable Count on Bacon Based on Hyper spectral Imaging Technique

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    Zhao Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The total viable count (TVC in bacon overweight can cause serious damage to human health. In order to find a rapid and nondestructive method of TVC, hyper spectral imaging technique was applied to quantitatively analysis of TVC on bacon. Comprehensively comparing the pretreatment method of multiple scattering, derivative method and so on finally the multiple scattering for pretreatment was used. And the interval optimization method of least squares model was set up to predict, and get a good prediction results. The correlation coefficient of the calibration and predictions respectively was 0.808 and 0.808, interactive authentication root mean square error was 0.115 and 0.198 respectively. Therefore, hyper spectral imaging technique combining iPLS can be used for the rapid detection of TVC on bacon.

  18. THE EFFECT OF DONOR LYMPHOCYTES-T AND TOTAL-BODY IRRADIATION ON HEMATOPOIETIC ENGRAFTMENT AND PULMONARY TOXICITY FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOWN, JD; MAUCH, P; WARHOL, M; NEBEN, S; FERRARA, JLM

    1992-01-01

    To study the effects of donor T lymphocytes on engraftment and graft-versus-host disease in relation to recipient total-body irradiation, we have returned small numbers of T cells to T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplanted across a minor histocompatibility barrier in mice (B10.BR --> CBA). T-cell-d

  19. Does total body irradiation conditioning improve outcomes of myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantations for chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabloff, Mitchell; Sobecks, Ronald M; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; de Lima, Marcos; Brown, Jennifer R; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Holland, H Kent; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Laughlin, Mary J; Kamble, Rammurti T; Hsu, Jack W; Wirk, Baldeep M; Seftel, Matthew; Lewis, Ian D; Arora, Mukta; Alyea, Edwin P; Kalaycio, Matt E; Cortes, Jorge; Maziarz, Richard T; Gale, Robert Peter; Saber, Wael

    2014-03-01

    An allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-identical donor after high-dose (myeloablative) pretransplantation conditioning is an effective therapy for some people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because CLL is a highly radiosensitive cancer, we hypothesized that total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens may be associated with better outcomes than those without TBI. To answer this, we analyzed data from 180 subjects with CLL receiving myeloablative doses of TBI (n = 126) or not (n = 54), who received transplants from an HLA-identical sibling donor between 1995 and 2007 and reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research. At 5 years, treatment-related mortality was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39% to 57%) versus 50% (95% CI, 36% to 64%); P = NS. Relapse rates were 17% (95% CI, 11% to 25%) versus 22% (95% CI, 11% to 35%); P = NS. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 34% (95% CI, 26% to 43%) versus 28% (95% CI, 15% to 42%); P = NS and 42% (95% CI, 33% to 51%) versus 33% (95% CI, 19% to 48%); P = NS, respectively. The single most common cause of death in both cohorts was recurrent/progressive CLL. No variable tested in the multivariate analysis was found to significantly affect these outcomes, including having failed fludarabine. Within the limitations of this study, we found no difference in HLA-identical sibling transplantation outcomes between myeloablative TBI and chemotherapy pretransplantation conditioning in persons with CLL.

  20. Combining Immature and Total Neutrophil Counts to Predict Early Onset Sepsis in Term and Late Preterm Newborns: Use of the I/T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B.; Draper, David; Puopolo, Karen M.; Wi, Soora; Escobar, Gabriel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The absolute neutrophil count and the immature/total neutrophil ratio (I/T) provide information about the risk of early-onset sepsis in newborns. However, it is not clear how to combine their potentially overlapping information into a single likelihood ratio. Methods We obtained electronic records of blood cultures and of complete blood counts with manual differentials drawn 4 hours of age and when the pretest probability of infection is close to the treatment threshold. PMID:24503598

  1. Effect of different salt concentration on total Bacterial count and heavy metal Composition of the Fish Hydrocynus spp.

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    H.H. ABBAS BAKHIET

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This piece of work was done in an attempt to evaluate the issue of the traditional fish salting practice in the Sudan. Fassiekh was selected as one of the widely consumed salted fish product, of great preference among Sudanese consumers. The study was directed towards the study of the heavy metal concentration and the microbiological analysis of fresh fish and fassiekh to compare the effect of the different salt concentrations. One kind of fish species preferable by Sudanese consumers in fasseikh making was selected for this study namely hydrocynus spp (kass. Samples were taken from Elmawrada fish market, and subjected to three salt concentration levels (15%, 20%and 25% by weight to achieve the goals of the study. Fresh fish were carefully handled throughout the preparation process; they were eviscerated and cleaned up and divided in to two groups then three sup groups to be treated with different salt concentration. After the fermentation process sample were taken to do the heavy metal concentration analysis and microbiological analysis. It was observed that the heavy metal (Arsenic, Cadmium and lead concentration were not significant. But the microbiological analysis result showed significant decrease in total bacterial count in all concentrations.

  2. A Nondestructive Real-Time Detection Method of Total Viable Count in Pork by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

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    Xiaochun Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A nondestructive method was developed for assessing total viable count (TVC in pork during refrigerated storage by using hyperspectral imaging technique in this study. The hyperspectral images in the visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR region of 400–1100 nm were acquired for fifty pork samples, and their VIS/NIR diffuse reflectance spectra were extracted from the images. The reference values of TVC in pork samples were determined by classical microbiological plating method. Both partial least square regression (PLSR model and support vector machine regression model (SVR of TVC were built for comparative analysis to achieve better results. Different transformation methods and filtering methods were applied to improve the models. The results show that both the optimized PLSR model and SVR model can predict the TVC very well, while the SVR model based on second derivation was better, which achieved with RP (correlation coefficient of prediction set = 0.94 and SEP (standard error of prediction set = 0.4570 log CFU/g in the prediction set. An image processing algorithm was then developed to transfer the prediction model to every pixel of the image of the entire sample; the visualizing map of TVC would be displayed in real-time during the detection process due to the simplicity of the model. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is a potential reliable approach for non-destructive and real-time prediction of TVC in pork.

  3. [Study on modeling method of total viable count of fresh pork meat based on hyperspectral imaging system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Yan-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li

    2010-02-01

    Once the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in fresh pork meat exceeds a certain number, it will become pathogenic bacteria. The present paper is to explore the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging technology combined with relevant modeling method for the prediction of TVC in fresh pork meat. For the certain kind of problem that has remarkable nonlinear characteristic and contains few samples, as well as the problem that has large amount of data used to express the information of spectrum and space dimension, it is crucial to choose a logical modeling method in order to achieve good prediction result. Based on the comparative result of partial least-squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM), the authors found that the PLSR method was helpless for nonlinear regression problem, and the ANNs method couldn't get approving prediction result for few samples problem, however the prediction models based on LS-SVM can give attention to the little training error and the favorable generalization ability as soon as possible, and can make them well synchronously. Therefore LS-SVM was adopted as the modeling method to predict the TVC of pork meat. Then the TVC prediction model was constructed using all the 512 wavelength data acquired by the hyperspectral imaging system. The determination coefficient between the TVC obtained with the standard plate count for bacterial colonies method and the LS-SVM prediction result was 0.987 2 and 0.942 6 for the samples of calibration set and prediction set respectively, also the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.207 1 and 0.217 6 individually, and the result was considerably better than that of MLR, PLSR and ANNs method. This research demonstrates that using the hyperspectral imaging system coupled with the LS-SVM modeling method is a valid means for quick and nondestructive determination of TVC of pork

  4. Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water

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    F. Hammes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. This method has been used for more than 100 years and is recommended in drinking water guidelines. However, the HPC method is handicapped because it is time-consuming and restricted to culturable bacteria. Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM to determine the total cell concentration (TCC. It is necessary and important for drinking water quality control to understand the relationships among the conventional and new methods. In the current study, all three methods were applied to 200 drinking water samples obtained from two local buildings connected to the same distribution system. Samples were taken both on normal working days and weekends, and the correlations between the different microbiological parameters were determined. TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37–5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA and low (LNA nucleic acid bacterial groups, were clearly distinguished. The results showed that the rapid determination methods (i.e., FCM and ATP correlated well (R2=0.69, but only a weak correlation (R2=0.31 was observed between the rapid methods and conventional HPC data. With respect to drinking water monitoring, both FCM and ATP measurements were confirmed to be useful and complimentary parameters for rapid assessing of drinking water microbial quality.

  5. 人免疫缺陷病毒感染者/艾滋病患者浅表淋巴结肿大与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的相关性%Clinicopathologic correlation between CD4-positive T lymphocyte counts and superficial lymphadenopathy in HIV-positive/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祥婵; 邓建宁; 黄爱春; 李雪琴; 牟敏红; 欧汝志; 黄磊; 赵敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinicopathological correlation between CD4+ T lymphocyte count and superficial lymphadenopathy HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A total of 1066 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study. The incidence of superficial lymphadenopathy, peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and histological features of superficial lymphadenopathy were analyzed. Results Among 1066 patients, 126 cases (11.8%) presented with superficial lymphadenopathy. Of the 126 cases, there were 69 cases with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts < 100/μl and clinical diagnoses including tuberculosis (37 cases), reactive hyperplasia (8 cases), AIDS-related lymphadenopathy (18 cases), penicillium diseases (12 cases), fungal infection (5 cases) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (1 case).Twenty-six cases had CD4 + T lymphocyte counts between 100/μl to 200/μl and clinical diagnosis including tuberculosis ( 12 cases ), reactive hyperplasia ( 8 cases ), AIDS-related lymphadenopathy ( 6 cases ),penicillium disease (2 cases) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma ( 1 case ). Twenty-nine cases had CD4 + T lymphocyte counts > 200/μl and clinical diagnoses including tuberculosis ( 11 cases), reactive hyperplasia ( 12 cases), AIDS-related lymphadenopathy ( 3 cases), Penicillium diseases ( 1 case) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4 cases). The CD4 + T lymphocyte counts among patients with tuberculosis, AIDS-related lymphadenopathy and Penicillium diseases were significantly different (x2 =8. 861, P =0. 012 ). A significant correlation between the incidence of superficial lymphadenopathy and CD4 + T lymphocyte counts was found (x2 =375.41, P =0.000 ). ConclusionsThe most common cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in HIV/AIDS patients is tuberculosis, followed by lymph node reactive hyperplasia, AIDSrelated lymphadenopathy and Penicillium disease. Low CI4 + T lymphocyte count correlates with an increased incidence of superficial lymphadenopathy and the risk of opportunity infection. Therefore

  6. Evaluation of white cell count and differential in synovial fluid for diagnosing infections after total hip or knee arthroplasty.

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    Xinhua Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF white cell count (WCC and polymorphonuclear (PMN cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI at the total hip arthroplasty (THA or total knee arthroplasty (TKA site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, positive likelihood ratios (PLR, negative likelihood ratios (NLR, and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81-0.93 and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93 and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92 for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20% post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable

  7. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than ...

  8. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer in HIV-Infected Patients from a Resource-Limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Reddy, Raghuprakash; Reddy, Srinivasulu; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan

    2012-01-01

    Enumeration of CD4 lymphocytes is essential for the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, but it can be difficult to afford in developing countries. In this study we evaluated a reagent reduction strategy for reducing the cost of enumerating CD4 cell absolute count and percentage using the FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). We compared the protocol recommended by the manufacturer with a protocol that used half of the usual amount of CD3/CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody reagent in 100 samples from HIV-infected patients in a rural hospital in India. The concordance correlation coefficient between the two protocols was 0.976 for CD4 cell count and 0.984 for CD4 cell percentage. We did not find significant bias when performing Deming regression or Bland-Altman analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 98.5% for identifying patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/ μ L, 98.1% and 93.8% for identifying patients with less than 350 CD4 cells/ μ L, and 100% and 94.7% for identifying patients with less than 25% CD4 cells, respectively. This reagent reduction strategy can be used for reducing the cost of enumerating CD4 lymphocytes in high-volume laboratories from resource-limited settings.

  9. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than 0....... In conclusion, the CD4 cell counts and the presence of p24 antigen in serum had a very limited predictive value for the presence of OI in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  10. The relationship between CD4+ T lymphocyte count and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients%人类免疫缺陷病毒感染者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数与结核分枝杆菌共感染的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张馨赟; 王辉; 蒋卫民; 朱小珍; 姚惠洁; 邵凌云; 高岩; 胡越凯; 沈冰; 顾凯侃

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between CD4+ T lymphocyte count and results of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) coinfected patients.Methods A total of 193 HIV-infected individuals in Yunnan Province and Shanghai were enrolled.T-SPOT.TB assay was employed to detect M.tb specific T lymphocyte in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).CD4+ T lymphocyte in PBMC from the enrolled subjects was detected by flow cytometry.Data were analyzed using t test.Results The incidence of latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals was 30.6%.The CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis were 190×106/L,which were significantly lower than those in HIV-infected individuals with latent tuberculosis (484×106/L; t=6.665,P<0.01).The HIV-infected individuals were stratified according to CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of >500×106/L,200×106-500×106/L,and <200×106/L and the constituent ratios of active tuberculosis/latent tuberculosis were 1∶16.2,1∶1.3 and 5.6∶1,respectively.Among 79 subjects with positive T-SPOT.TB results,20 were coinfected with active tuberculosis,in which 14 had CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of <200 ×106/L,5 had 200×105-500×106/L and 1 had >500×106/L.Fifty-two in 59 HIV/latent tuberculosis patients individuals had CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of >200×106/L.Conclusions The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals is high in China.Cellular immunity in HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis is severely impaired.With the decrease of CD4 ′ T lymphocyte counts,patients with latent tuberculosis are prone to develop active tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals.The negative predictive value of T-SPOT.TB is significantly diminished in patient with low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts,especially less than 200×106/L.%目的 探讨HIV合并结核分枝杆菌感染患者外周血CD4+T淋巴细胞的变化及

  11. Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p≤0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p≤0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p≤0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients.

  12. Identification of a major Leu 7/OKT 8 positive T-lymphocyte subpopulation in renal transplant patients pre-treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waer, M.; Ceuppens, J.L.; Vanrenterghem, Y.; Schueren, E. van der; Michielsen, P.; Vandeputte, M.

    1986-01-01

    When pretreated with total lymphoid irradiation, renal allograft recipients have an increased percentage of OKT 8 positive (cytotoxic/suppressor) T cells among their peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBL) (56 +- 21%) and also of Leu 7 PBL (47 +- 18%). In contrast, transplant patients treated with azathioprine or cyclosporine A have percentages of OKT 8 and Leu 7 positive PBL, similar to control persons (respectively 29 +- 13, 33 +- 10, 30 +- 10 for the OKT 8+ cells and 8 +- 7, 11 +- 6 and 15 +- 9 for the Leu 7+ cells). After purification, about two thirds (70%) of the OKT 8 positive, OKT 3 positive, T lymphocytes of TLI patients were shown to co-express the Leu 7 antigen. It is concluded that after TLI, an increase of OKT 3+, OKT 8+ and Leu 7 + lymphocytes takes place, a subset previously described to be present in low numbers in control persons and whose function is still unclear. This expansion after TLI should allow functional identification of this subset and might contribute to the understanding of the immunosuppressive effects of TLI.

  13. [Extension of reporting AIDS cases in Catalonia: study based on requests for CD4 lymphocyte count and prescription of antiretroviral drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Olalla Rizo, P; Vall Mayans, M; Miret Mases, M; Clos Guix, R; Casabona Barbarà, J; Caylà Buqueras, J A

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain the degree to which AIDS is officially reported in Catalunya. The request for T CD4+ white blood cell counts and the prescribing of antiretroviral drugs in seven university hospitals in Catalunya from January 1, 1994 to June 31, 1994 were used as data-comparison sources. A case was considered to not have been reported when the clinical history showed a diagnosis of AIDS (according to the Europe 93 definition) and the case in question did not show up on the AIDS Registry for Catalunya. Of the 1,370 cases studied, 50 unreported AIDS cases were found. In all, 98.6% of all cases were found to have been reported, for a 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 98.2-99.0. Most of the unreported cases were males (72%) averaging 37.3 years of age (HCA: 11.8), 52% of whom were injected drug users (IDU's), extrapulmonary tuberculosis being the disease most often diagnosed (16%), 81.4% having been found to have a T CD4+ white blood cell count of 200 WBC/mm3 or below. 92% of these cases were detected based on T CD4+ white blood cell counts. The degree of completeness found is considered to be adequate. It is recommended that the white blood cell count records being used for this type of studies.

  14. An increased total resected lymph node count benefits survival following pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms resection: an analysis using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result registry database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS and overall survival (OS rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery. STUDY DESIGN: The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize confounding variables between groups. RESULTS: In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result. CONCLUSION: Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement.

  15. Population-referenced percentiles for waist-worn accelerometer-derived total activity counts in U.S. youth: 2003 - 2006 NHANES.

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    Dana L Wolff-Hughes

    Full Text Available The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual's total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6 - 19 y.Data from the 2003 - 2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6 - 19 years with at least 4 d of ≥ 10 hours of accelerometer wear time (N = 3698. MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ≥4 metabolic equivalents (METs for youth 6 - 17 y or minutes with ≥2020 counts for youth 18 - 19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days.For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA.Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents.

  16. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O.; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M.

    2017-01-01

    severe forms of impaired spermatogenesis were relatively well understood; causes were assigned: for aspermia in 46/46 cases (100%), for azoospermia in 321/388 cases (82.7%), and for cryptozoospermia in 54/130 cases (41.5%). In contrast, 75% of oligozoospermia cases remained unexplained. The main cause of aspermia was severe sexual dysfunction (71.7% of aspermia patients). Azoospermia patients accounted for 86.4% of all cases diagnosed with secondary hypogonadism and 97.1% of patients with seminal tract obstruction. Of patients with a known genetic factor, 87.4% had extreme infertility (azoo-, crypto- or aspermia). The prevalence of congenital anomalies in the uro-genital tract was not clearly correlated with the severity of impaired sperm production. Previously defined ‘potential contributing factors’ varicocele and leukocytospermia were excluded as the primary causes of male infertility. However, their incidence was >2-fold higher (31.0 vs 13.5% and 16.1 vs 7.4%; P < 0.001) in the idiopathic infertility group compared to controls. In addition, the proportions of overweight (or obese) patients and patients suffering from a chronic disease were significantly increased in almost all of the patient subgroups. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION The study included only subjects with reduced total spermatozoa counts. Thus, these findings cannot be automatically applied to all male factor infertility cases. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The novel insights and improved clarity achieved in the comprehensive analysis regarding the absolute, causative and plausible factors behind male infertility, as well as the ‘potential contributing factors’, will be valuable tools in updating the current clinical guidelines. The study highlights knowledge gaps and reiterates an urgent need to uncover the causes and mechanisms behind, and potential treatments of, oligozoospermic cases, representing the majority of idiopathic infertility patients (86.3%). STUDY FUNDING

  17. Métodos de conservação de amostras de leite para determinação da contagem bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo Milk sample conservation methods to determine the total bacteria count by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2010-02-01

    adicionadas de azidiol.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51. Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 ºC - frozen: 7 ºC - refrigerated, and 24 ºC - room temperature, three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days. For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC, the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 ºC with the addition of azidiol.

  18. 儿童再生障碍性贫血淋巴细胞亚群及与血常规相关性的研究%Lymphocyte subsets and its correlation with blood count in children with aplastic anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹萍; 蒋莎义; 谢晓恬; 周妮娜; 李福兴; 覃大卫

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and its correlation with complete blood count in children with aplastic anemia. Methods The lymphocyte subsets CD3+ , CD3 + CD4+ , CD3 + CD8 + , CD3+ CD4 VCD3 + CD8 + , CD3 + CD45RA+, CD3 + CD45RO+ , CD(16 +56) + ,CD19 +from 42 aplastic anemia children and 27 controls were examined by flow cytometry; its correlations with complete blood count were analyzed. Results CD3 + CD4+ and CD3 + CD4 VCD3 + CD8+ decreased while CD3 + CD8+ increased in aplastic anemia patients. CD3 + CD8+ was positively correlated with peripheral HB, WBC counts. CD3+ CD4VCD3+ CD8+ was negatively correlated with peripheral HB, WBC and N counts. Conclusion There are abnormal distributions of lymphocyte subsets in aplastic anemia patients, which may be involved in pathogenesisof the disease.%目的 研究再生障碍性贫血患儿外周血淋巴细胞亚群分布,及其与同期外周血血常规的相关性.方法 采用流式细胞技术对我院42例AA患儿和27例正常儿童外周血淋巴细胞亚群CD3+,CD3+ CD4+,CD3+CD8+,CD3+ CD4+/CD3+ CD8+,CD3+ CD45 RA+,CD3+ CD45RO+,CD( 16 +56)+,CD19+的表达进行检测,同时检测血常规.结果 再障组CD3+ CD4+,CD3+ CD8+,CD3+ CD4+/CD3+ CD8+的平均值分别为(26.94±11.93)%,(33.33±10.3)%,0.918±0.53,对照组分别为(33.53±9.97)%,(27.08±9.23)%,1.44±0.80,差异有显著性(P<0.05);CD3+ CD8+与HB,WBC呈一定程度的正相关,CD3+ CD4+/CD3+ CD8+比值与HB,WBC,N呈一定程度的负相关.结论 再障患儿存在淋巴细胞亚群的失调,其中由T淋巴细胞介导的免疫异常对造血功能的抑制在再障的发生中起重要作用,再障患儿Th格局向Th1偏移.

  19. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  20. Design and development of novel insect growth regulators: synthesis, characterization and effect of benzoyl thymyl thioureas and ureas on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Chetan M; Pete, Umesh D; Patil, Smita S; Bhosale, Jitendra D; Hadole, Chakradhar D; Kadam, Meghraj S; Bendre, Ratnamala S

    2012-01-01

    Insect-growth regulators (IGRs) have been receiving foremost attention as potential means of selective insect control. Benzoyl phenyl urea (BPU) is a well-known IGR having chitin synthesis inhibitor activity. Mimics of BPU have been synthesized by suitable derivatization of a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol) to form a = series of substituted benzoyl thymyl thioureas (BTTUs) [IVa-f] and benzoyl thymyl ureas (BTUs) [Va-f]. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. These derivatives have been screened for their effect on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii. It has been observed that the introduction of substituted benzoyl thiourea and urea linkage into a thymol ring via an amino group results in higher activity than the parent compound thymol and a comparable pattern of results with the standard insect-growth regulators, Penfluron. Urea [Va-f] compounds exhibited greater effect on Total Haemocyte Count (THC) than thiourea [IVa-f]. Fluoro substitution enhanced the effect on THC more than chloro substituted compounds, while ortho-substitution resulted in a better effect than para-substitution. The results described in this paper are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as insect growth regulators.

  1. Lymphocyte subpopulations in Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Araslı, Mehmet; Yazıcı, Zihni Acar; Armutçu, Ferah; Tekin, Ishak Özel

    2013-06-01

    The role of autoimmunity in the development of Sheehan's syndrome is obscure. There are a limited number of studies investigating the immunological alterations accompanying Sheehan's Syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional clinical study. Cytofluorometry was used for the immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with Sheehan's syndrome followed up in the endocrine clinic during 2005-2009. Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 61.6 ± 11.3, range 34-75 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 56.7 ± 10.6, range 34-80 years) were included. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age. The percentages of CD19(+), CD16(+)/56(+), CD8(+)28(-), γδTCR(+), CD8(+); the total lymphocyte counts; and the ratio of CD8(+)28(-)/CD8(+)28(+) were similar (p > 0.05) between patients and controls. Whereas the leucocyte counts (p = 0.003), the percentage of CD3 (+) DR (+) (p Sheehan's syndrome compared to healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between the duration of illness and the percentage of CD3(+)DR(+) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) expression. Some peripheral lymphocyte cell subsets show marked variation in patients with Sheehan's syndrome in comparison to matched healthy subjects, which may have implications for altered immune regulation in these patients. High CD3 (+) DR (+) expression that correlates with the duration of illness in Sheehan's patients is suggestive of an ongoing inflammation accompanying the slow progression of pituitary dysfunction in Sheehan's syndrome. It is not clear if these cellular alterations contribute to the cause or consequence of pituitary deficiency in Sheehan's syndrome.

  2. Analysis of relationship between bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles, somatic cell count and milk traits in Iranian Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmi, M; Qanbari, S; Ghorashi, S A; Sharifi, A R; Simianer, H

    2009-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a gene complex closely linked to the vertebrate immune system due to its importance in antigen recognition and immune response to pathogens. To improve our understanding of the MHC and disease resistance in dairy cattle, we gathered 5119 test day records of somatic cell count (SCC) and performance traits of 262 Holstein dairy cows to determine whether the DRB region of the MHC contains alleles that are associated with elevated SCC, milk yield, protein and fat percent of milk. To this purpose, genotyping of animals for DRB3 gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A two-step PCR was carried out so as to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of exon 2 of the target gene. Second PCR products were treated with three restriction endonuclease enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Twenty-eight BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified including one novel allele (*40). The results in general are in good accordance with allele frequencies of Holstein cattle populations reported by previous studies. Analyses of associations were modeled based on repeated measurement anova and generalized logistic linear methods for production traits and SCC data, respectively. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between the elevated SCC reflecting an increased probability of occurrence to subclinical mastitis and DRB3.2 allele *8 (p < 0.03). The results also revealed significant positive relationships of alleles*22 (p < 0.01) and allele*11 (p < 0.05) with milk fat percent as well as of alleles*24 (p < 0.03) and *22 (p < 0.05) with protein percent. The present study failed to find any association between milk yield and tested alleles. Because of the lack of consistency among results of similar studies, we suggest further investigations to determine the precise nature of these associations with the high polymorphic bovine MHC region to be performed based on haplotypes.

  3. Short communication: effect of storage and preservation on total bacterial counts determined by automated flow cytometry in bulk tank goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Morales, C T; Gonzalo, C

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different storage conditions on total bacterial count (TBC) determinations made in goat bulk tank milk using an automated flow cytometry method. The storage conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration at 4 and 10 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C), the use of a preservative (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR), and the age of the milk samples for each analytical condition (storage times at 4 degrees C: from 0 h to 5 d for NP; and from 0 h to 22 d for AZ and BR; storage times at 10 degrees C: from 24 h to 2 d for NP and from 24 h to 22 for AZ and BR; storage times at -20 degrees C: from 24 h to 22 d for NP, AZ, and BR). Significant effects on individual bacterial count (IBC) variation were shown by the bulk tank milk sample, preservative, storage temperature, interaction preservative x storage temperature, and milk age within the interaction preservative x storage temperature. In preserved samples, the highest IBC were obtained for AZ and the lowest counts were obtained in samples preserved with BR. Because of the variation in IBC recorded in BR-preserved samples, we recommend that BR should not be used for TBC determinations using the automated flow cytometry method. The NP samples stored at 4 and 10 degrees C showed significantly higher IBC at 24 h postcollection, also invalidating these analytical conditions for TBC analyses. The practical implications of our findings are that goat milk samples preserved with AZ and stored at 10 or 4 degrees C are appropriate for TBC by the BactoScan flow cytometry method for up to 24 h and 11 d postcollection, respectively.

  4. Relationship between T lymphocytes counts and peripheral blood components in HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者T淋巴细胞计数与外周血组份间关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海英; 陈莉霞; 马慧霞; 米吉提.买买提

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between peripheral T lymphocyte count and blood test results among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods Anticoagulant were collected from 78 cases of HIV/AIDS (HIV/AIDS group) and 55 cases of healthy volunteers (healthy control group), CD4+T and CD8+T lymphocytes in peripheral blood by flow cytometry were detected , while detected blood cells routine testing were by automatic hematology analyzer.Results 71.79% (56/78) in 78 patients CD4+ T lymphocyte count were <200 cells /μl, 98.72% patients CD47CD8Vere<0.8,among which 75.64% (59/78) patients CD4/CD8 between 0.1~0.5. Those six projects CD4+,CD8+, CD3+,CD4/CD8,WBC and LYMPH both had statistics significance when HIV/ AIDS group compared with control group. While those three projects NEUT,% NEUT and % LYMPH had no statistics significance. Conclusion It is closely related to CD4+,CD8+, CD3+, CD4+CD8+ and LYMPH in the disease process of HIV/ AIDS patients. CD4+,CD8+, blood cells routine testing are detected early to understand the progression of the disease and antiviral therapy time.%目的 分析HIV/AIDS患者外周血T淋巴细胞计数和血常规检测结果.方法 收集78例HIV/AIDS患者(HIV/AIDS组)、55例健康体检人员(健康对照组)的抗凝血,用流式细胞仪技术检测外周血CD4+T及CD8+T淋巴细胞,全自动血细胞分析仪检测血常规.结果 78例患者中有71.79%(56/78) CD4+T淋巴细胞数<200个/μl,98.72%的HIV/AIDS患者CD4+/CD8+比值<0.8,其中75.64% (59/78)患者4/8介于0.1~0.5之间.CD4+、CD8+、CD3+、CD4/CD8、WBC、LYMPH六个项目HIV/AIDS组与健康对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),NEUT、%NEUT及%LYMPH三个项目两组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 HIV/AIDS患者在发病过程中与CD4+、CD8+、CD3+、CD4+/CD8+及LYMPH密切相关,建议HIV感染者尽早进行医学咨询并做CD4+、CD8+和血常规的检测,以了解病情的进展及进行抗病毒治疗.

  5. Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

  6. 湖北地区新发现HIV-Ab阳性者CD4+T淋巴细胞检测%Testing of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts among newly discovered and positive infectors with HIV-Ab in Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严亚军; 桂希恩; 荣玉萍; 杨蓉蓉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解湖北地区新发现HIV-Ab阳性者的免疫状况. 方法 应用流式细胞仪检测224例新发现HIV-Ab阳性者CD4+T淋巴细胞,并对不同性别、年龄HIV-Ab阳性者CD4+T淋巴细胞数进行比较. 结果 新发现HIV-Ab阳性者CD4+T淋巴细胞均值为239.52个/μ1,其中CD4+T淋巴细胞>350个/μ1者占22.8%,200~350个/μ1者占32.6%,<200个/μl者占44.6%;不同性别HIV-Ab阳性者CD4+T淋巴细胞数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);≤17岁与≥18岁的各年龄组HIV-Ab阳性者CD4+T淋巴细胞数差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 湖北地区新发现HIV-Ab阳性者存在细胞免疫损伤,需要及时给予抗病毒药物治疗,预防机会性感染发生.%Objective To investigate the immunological status of infectors with HIV who were recently identified in Hubei. Methods CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were measured through flow cytometry with whole blood specimens from 224 infectors with HIV, and the CD4+T lymphocyte counts of infectors with HIV were compared by gender and age. Results The mean value of CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of infectors with HIV was 239. 52 cells/pi; 22. 8% had CD4+ T lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/fzl, 32. 6% had counts between 200 cells/μl and 350 cells/pi, and 44. 6% had counts below 200 cells/μl. There were no statistical differences in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts among both genders of infectors with HIV (P>0. 05). There were statistical differences between individuals age 17 and under and individuals age 18 and over (P<0. 05). Conclusion Infectors with HIV in Hubei were found to have compromised cellular immunity. They need timely antiviral treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reither

    Full Text Available Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1 formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults.HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5:1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay.47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.015. Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-α and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells.H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR PACTR201105000289276.

  8. Total mesophilic counts underestimate in many cases the contamination levels of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in chilled-stored food products at the end of their shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Devlieghere, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spoilage-associated phenomena at the end of the shelf-life of 86 various packaged (air, vacuum, modified-atmosphere) chilled-stored retail food products. The current microbiological standards, which are largely based on the total viable mesophilic counts lack discriminatory capacity to detect psychrotrophic LAB. A comparison between the total viable counts on plates incubated at 30 °C (representing the mesophiles) and at 22 °C (indicating the psychrotrophs) for 86 food samples covering a wide range - ready-to-eat vegetable salads, fresh raw meat, cooked meat products and composite food - showed that a consistent underestimation of the microbial load occurs when the total aerobic mesophilic counts are used as a shelf-life parameter. In 38% of the samples, the psychrotrophic counts had significantly higher values (+0.5-3 log CFU/g) than the corresponding total aerobic mesophilic counts. A total of 154 lactic acid bacteria, which were unable to proliferate at 30 °C were isolated. In addition, a further 43 with a poor recovery at this temperature were also isolated. This study highlights the potential fallacy of the total aerobic mesophilic count as a reference shelf-life parameter for chilled food products as it can often underestimate the contamination levels at the end of the shelf-life.

  9. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2011-11-05

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  10. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-06-21

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects.

  11. Lymphocyte subset reference intervals in blood donors from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX J.L. TORRES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reference intervals for leukocytes and lymphocytes currently used by most clinical laboratories present limitations as they are primarily derived from individuals of North American and European origin. The objective this study was to determine reference values for peripheral blood B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, naïve, memory, regulatory, TCRαβ and TCRγδ+ and NK cells from blood donors in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. Results: The proportion of included male subjects was 73.7% and the median ages of males (34 and females (35 were found to be similar. Absolute counts total lymphocytes subsets to both gender was 1,956 (1,060-4,186 cells and relative values 34%. The T CD4+ and T CD8+ lymphocytes relative values was 51% (20-62 and 24% (9-28, respectively. The most statistically significant finding observed was a higher percentage of B lymphocytes (p=0.03 in females. Commonly cited subset reference intervals were found to be consistent with values in several populations from different geographic areas.

  12. Rituximab, fludarabine, and total body irradiation as conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallet, Mauricette; Socié, Gerard; Mohty, Mohamad; Sobh, Mohamad; Bay, Jacques-O; Morisset, Stéphane; Labussière-Wallet, Hélène; Tabrizi, Reza; Milpied, Noel; Bordigoni, Pierre; El-Cheikh, Jean; Blaise, Didier

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) combining fludarabine, low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) and rituximab before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from human leucocyte antigen (HLA) identical siblings, we conducted a prospective study in patients ≤65 years old with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) stage B or C in response after a salvage treatment. Conditioning included rituximab (375 mg/m² on day 5), fludarabine (30 mg/m² from day 4 to day 2), TBI (2 Gy on day 0), and rituximab (500 mg/m² on days 1 and 8). Forty patients were included, 34 (85%) were male with a median age of 54 years (range, 35-65 years), 38 (95%) were in B stage, and 2 were in stage C; only 7 patients (17%) were in complete response. Seven (17%) patients did not receive rituximab. Thirty-nine (98%) patients engrafted, 17 patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade ≥II with a cumulative incidence at 3 months of 44% (36-52) with a significant protective effect of rituximab (p = 0.02). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 29% (21-36) at 12 months for both limited and extensive forms. The median overall survival was not reached with 5-years probability of 55% (41-74). The multivariate analysis showed a positive effect of rituximab on overall survival and event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.1 [0-0.6], p = 0.02; and HR = 0.1 [0-0.4], p = 0.035, respectively). The association of fludarabine, TBI, and rituximab is feasible, well tolerated, and allows better outcomes in advanced CLL.

  13. HIV/AIDS患者外周血B细胞数量以及TLR9 mRNA表达水平的研究%B lymphocyte counts and Toil-like receptor 9 mRNA expression on cell from HIV-1 infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏; 姜拥军; 尚红; 耿文清; 崔华露; 赵敏; 韩晓旭; 张子宁; 刘静; 代娣; 王亚男

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV-1感染后外周血B细胞数量的变化,以及B细胞TLR9 mRNA表达水平与HIV-1感染疾病进展的关系.方法 采集HIV/AIDS患者EDTA抗凝静脉血,荧光抗体染色后用流式细胞仪检测HIV/AIDS患者B细胞数量.密度梯度离心法分离外周血单个核细胞,应用MACS磁珠分选系统分选CD19+B细胞,并采用荧光定量实时PCR技术检测B细胞TLR9 mRNA水平.结果 HIV/AIDS患者B细胞数量显著低于健康对照组(P<0.01),与CD4+T细胞数量呈正相关(r=0.534,P=0.006).HIV/AIDS患者外周血B细胞TIR9 mRNA的表达明显低于健康对照组(P=0.023),与CD4+T细胞数量呈正相关(r=0.390,P=0.040).结论 HIV感染可降低HIV/AIDS患者外周血B细胞数量以及B细胞TLR9 mRNA的表达量,B细胞数量和B细胞TLR9 mRNA的表达量均可能与疾病进展相关.%Objective To study the B lymphocytes counts and the expression of TLR9 mRNA on B lymphocytes in peripheral blood from Chinese HIV-infected patients.Methods The cells from peripheral blood were stained with antibodies labeled with fluorescence and B lymphocytes were counted with flow cytometry.Using the method of magnetic activated cell sorting and real-time PCR,the expression of TLR9 mRNA was measured.Results The B lymphocytes counts in HIV/AIDS patients was significantly lower than that of healthy controls(P <0.01).The B lymphocytes counts in HIV/AIDS patients positively correlated with the CD4 +T cells counts(r =0.534,P = 0.006).The expression of TLR9 mRNA on B lymphocytes in HIV/AIDS patients was significantly lower than that of healthy controls(P =0.023),and positively correlated with the CD4 + T cells counts(r = 0.390,P = 0.040).Conclusion The B lymphocytes counts and the expression of TLR9 mRNA on B lymphocytes in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients were decreased due to HIV infection,which may correlate with disease progression.

  14. Relationship between incidence of multiple human herpesviruses in saliva and CD4 lymphocyte count from HIV type-infected persons%HIV感染者唾液人类疱疹病毒感染与CD4淋巴细胞的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承文; 史会萍; 祁燕伟; 李榕; 夏志刚; 白劲松; 段开文

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨HIV感染者唾液常见人类疱疹病毒感染情况及其与CD4淋巴细胞计数的关系.方法 利用PCR方法对245例HIV感染者唾液疱疹病毒1~4型即HSV-1、HSV-2、VZV和EBV DNA的存在情况进行检测,并分析检出率与CD4细胞的关系.结果 HIV感染者唾液HSV-1、HSV-2、VZV和EBV检出率分别为29%、3.3%、4.1%和82%.CD4淋巴细胞计数小于200个/μl时患者的唾液中更容易检测到HSV-1、VZV和EBV.CD4淋巴细胞计数与HSV-1和EBV同时存在明显相关(P=0.0001).CD4淋巴细胞计数低于200个/μl的患者比CD4淋巴细胞计数大于400个/μl的患者唾液中同时检测到HSV-1和EBV的几率高,即CD4淋巴细胞计数越低,多种疱疹病毒同时检出几率越高.结论 HIV感染者唾液中人类疱疹病毒1型和4型检出率高,与免疫指标CD4有关.%OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and EBV in the saliva of human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV) -infected persons, and their correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count. METHODS Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or nested PCR was used to investigate the presence of salivary HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and EBV from 245 HIV-seropositive individuals from The Third Affiliated Hospital, Kunming Medical University. CD4 lymphocyte count were also collected. Relationship between incidences of these human herpesviruses and CD4 count was analyzed. RESULTS In the HIV-seropositive person, the most prevalent viral DNA was EBV 82.0% (201/245) , followed by HSV-1 29.0% (71/245), VZV 4.1% (10/245), and HSV-2 3.3% (8/245). When CD4 lymphocyte count less than 200/μl, the saliva of patients more easily detected HSV-1, VZV and EBV. CD4 lymphocyte count and HSV-1 and EBV presence had significantly negative correlated (P = 0.000 1). The detection rate of HSV-1 and EBV in saliva in the group of CD4 lymphocyte count below 200/μl simultaneously was higher than CD4 lymphocyte count over 400/μl. CD4 lymphocyte count

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  16. Flow cytometry of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytes: alterations of blood/CSF ratios of lymphocyte subsets in inflammation disorders of human central nervous system (CNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, T O; Albrecht, J; Zöfel, P

    1999-03-01

    Flow cytometry was adapted to measure lymphocytes in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method was sufficiently precise, reproducible and accurate despite low cell counts. In lumbar CSF of controls with 500 to 3500 (10(3)/l) leukocytes, lymphocyte counts correlated with those in corresponding venous blood: blood/CSF ratios of approximately 2000 : 1 were found for total T cells (CD3+) and CD3+ HLA-DR-, CD3+4+, CD3+8+ subsets, ratios were increased for the lymphocyte subsets CD3+ HLA-DR+ blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers) to blood lymphocyte subsets which favor the transfer of T subsets. Correlation of the subset ratios to the CD3+ ratio indicates distinct barrier properties which changed differently with acute and subacute inflammations and neuroimmunological diseases of central nervous system (CNS) in lumbar or ventricular CSF, but not with simple protein barrier disturbance. HLA DR+ T ratios were higher than HLA DR- T ratios only with controls and some neuroimmunological diseases. Lymphocyte barrier characteristics were related to protein leakage situated at the same barriers, indicating for the lymphocyte subsets selective transfer routes in control subjects and non-selective routes in patients with CNS inflammation where altered ratios revealed a mixture of both routes.

  17. HIV阳性的牙周炎患者CD4+ T淋巴细胞计数和龈沟液前列腺素E2与牙周临床指标的相关性分析%Association of CD4+ T lymphocyte count and gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 with periodontal parameters in HIV-positive periodontitis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪诚; 王璇; 华文浩; 李晓光; 侯雯; 付茜

    2014-01-01

    individuals were divided into three groups,group A (CD4+ T lymphocyte count <200 cell/mm3),group B (200 cell/mm3 ≤CD4+ T lymphocyte count≤500 cell/mm3) and group C (CD4+ T lymphocyte count > 500 cell/mm3).Periodontal indexes,including plaque index (PLI),bleeding index(BI),attachment level(AL) and probing depth(PD) were recorded.GCF samples were taken from 120 index teeth by means of sterile paper strips.GCF PGE2 levels were determined by radioimmunoassays.MannWhitney was used to compare the periodontal indexes and PGE2 levels among the three groups.Partial correlations and Spearman correlations were applied to analyze the correlation of CD4+ T lymphocytes count and PGE2 in gingival crevicular fluid with periodontal status.Results BI value,PGE2 concentration and total PGE2 were 3.00 (2.00),90.75 (30.60) μg,/L,447.58 (243.08) pg in group B,which were higher than those in group A[2.00(1.25),79.75(30.50) μg/L and 339.52(200.97) pg respectively] and group C [2.00(1.00),73.38 (14.83) μg/L and 299.18 (108.33) pg respectively] (P < 0.0167).But the differences of PD and AL among the three groups were not significantly different (P > 0.0167).The correlations were observed between CD4+ T lymphocyte count and BI for the subpopulations with CD4+ T lymphocyte count < 200 cells/mm3 (r =0.657,P < 0.05) and between 200-500 cells/mm3 (r =-0.369,P < O.05).PGE2 concentration was negatively correlated with BI,PD and AL(P < 0.05),and total PGE2 was positively correlated with PD and AL (P < 0.05).Conclusions There was an association between the periodontal status and CD4+ T lymphocyte count in HIV + patients.GCF PGE2 level was related to periodontal parameters including BI,PD and AL.

  18. Cut-off value for absolute lymphocytes as an alternative for the immunophenotypic analysis of CD3+ T cells in the monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy with thymoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Furlanetto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Immunosuppression of T lymphocytes is required for preventing acute rejection after transplantation and for the treatment of chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The laboratory monitoring for this therapy is the measurement of T cells by immunophenotyping, aiming the target value of less than 20 cells per µL. Objective: To establish a cut-off point for the total number of lymphocytes in the automated blood cell count that reflects less than twenty T cells µL by immunophenotyping. Methods: We studied and evaluated 242 kidney transplant patients that had results of automated blood cell count and quantification of T cells by immunophenotyping technique. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the T lymphocyte immunophenotyping rates established by lower and higher than 20 cells per µL. After, we evaluated the cut-off point for lymphocytes in the blood cell count with a specificity of 100% to exclude patients with high levels of T lymphocytes. Results: We found that the cut-off point of 70 lymphocytes per µL obtained by automated blood cell count showed 100% of specificity to exclude patients with T-cell counts higher than 20 cells per µL by immunophenotyping. Conclusion: The results found in this study may be helpful to monitor the immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant patients in places where a flow cytometer is not available, or when this equipment is not present in the full routine.

  19. Lymphocyte Phospho-Ser-9-GSK-3β/Total GSK-3β Protein Levels Ratio Is Not Affected by Chronic Lithium or Valproate Treatment in Euthymic Patients With Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Abed N; Vainer, Ella; Agam, Galila; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2017-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibition by lithium has been well established in vitro, but proof that this biochemical effect mediates lithium's beneficial action in patients with bipolar disorder is lacking. We studied whether lymphocyte GSK-3β activity measured indirectly in lithium- or valproate (VPA)-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder is different from controls. Lymphocyte total and Ser-9-phospho-GSK-3β (inactive) levels were measured by Western blotting. Forty-seven patients with bipolar disorder and 32 age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. No significant differences were found between lithium- and VPA-treated patients and controls in phospho-GSK-3β, total GSK-3β, or their ratio. The data do not support the concept that in vivo, during chronic treatment of bipolar illness, GSK-3β is inhibited either by lithium or by VPA.

  20. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  1. ABV方案化疗对艾滋病相关晚期卡波氏肉瘤外周血CD4淋巴细胞的影响%The effect of ABV regimen on CD4 lymphocyte count in patients with advanced HIV related Kaposi's sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lin; Datta Dharmadhikari; Alexander yon Paleske

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and chemotherapy with ABV regimen (doxorubicin, bleomycin and vincristine) is a promising approach for the treatment of advanced HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Here we analyzed the relationship between the CD4 lymphocyte cell count and the clinical response to chemotherapy.Methods: The 176 HIV infected patients with advanced KS who failed to respond to prior HAART were selected. All these patients were then preceded to chemotherapy with ABV regimen which was administered at 3 weekly intervals for 6 cycles.For each patient CD4 cell count was done before starting chemotherapy and after finishing 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The difference of CD4 cell counts pre chemotherapy and post chemotherapy was compared with the clinical progress of the patients after 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Results: The overall clinical remission was shown in 93.7% patients. Progressive disease (PD) and no change in clinical condition (NC) was shown in 6.3% patients. The increase in CD4 cell count post chemotherapy was found in 89.8% patients and the decrease in CD4 cell count was seen in 10.2% patients. The difference of the mean CD4 cell counts for patients in group CR + PR (complete relief + partial relief) before and after chemotherapy was highly significant.The difference of the mean CD4 cell counts for patients in group NC + PD before and after chemotherapy was not significant.The difference in CD4 cell counts in CR + PR and NC + PD groups before and after chemotherapy was highly significant.Conclusion: The HIV related KS patients on HAART benefit from the chemotherapy as it increases the CD4 cell count and it has positive impact on clinical remission of KS.

  2. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  3. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  4. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  5. Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  6. A Simple in-vitro Test for Assessing the Sensitivity of Lymphocytes to Chlorambucil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sylvia D.; Lele, Kusum P.; Pentycross, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    The sensitivity of lymphocytes to chlorambucil has been assessed by a simple in-vitro test which has been applied to the cells of normal controls and of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The degree of sensitivity varied amongst the normal controls and in-vitro resistance of the lymphocytes in the patients was sometimes found in the absence of in-vivo experience of the drug. Resistance in-vitro tended to be associated with very high total peripheral blood lymphocyte counts but not with the age of the patient. Where the information was available the in-vitro sensitivity test agreed with the results of biochemical estimations of drug resistance and with the clinical responses to the drug. It is suggested that this test may have applications in patient management. PMID:5144524

  7. Study of total count, E. coli and coliforms contamination of raw milk from letdown stage till delivery to factory in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behrouz Yarahmadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarahmadi B1, Mahdavi HR2, Moaydinezhad A4 1. Research Instructor, Department of Animal Products, Lorstan Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Research Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Products, Karaj Animal Science Research Institue, Karaj, Iran 3. MSc in Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Hamadan Bou Ali University, Hamadan, Iran Abstract Background: The primary quality of raw milk is affected by several factors including animal nutrition, animal health, milk components, and its bacterial activity and these factors are effective on the final products. Therefore, the quality of raw milk depends on time and milk condition from production to delivery. In Lorestan, 97% of the milk production is obtained from rural and small units. This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting the bacteriological quality of raw milk from letdown phase till delivery to factory and to find out the critical points of bacterial contamination in the years 2003 and 2004. Materials and methods: In this study, the collecting centers of raw milk with a capacity of more than 3 tons, between 1.5 to 3 tons, and fewer than 1.5 tons were included as the centers with high, moderate, and low capacity respectively. The sampling stages consisted of cow milk letdown, milk collecting equipment, milk collecting tankers, milk cooling tanks, and milk delivery to factory. Microbial experiments consisted of standard plate count (SPC, E. coli, and coliforms. All the collected samples were 45 ones in each month and 540 samples in a year. Being converted to Log10, the data were analyzed by the SPSS software (version 11.5 and GLM procedure was used to determine the effects of month, capacity of centers, and sampling stages. Results: Based on the results of the study, the average total count (TC in all seasons in Lorestan province was 6.43 0.37cfu/m. The effects of month, capacity of centers, and the sampling

  8. Comparative seric TGF({beta}1, {beta}2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons; Evolution comparee des taux seriques des TGF ({beta}1, {beta}2) et de la numeration plaquettaire chez le babouin irradie globalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-{beta} falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author). 5 refs.

  9. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Cyclosporine, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Hematopoietic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    ; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  10. Dual character of interaction between lymphocytes and allogeneic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, R.V.; Dozmorov, I.M.; Kochetkova, M.O.; Nikolaeva, I.S.

    1986-10-01

    The mechanisms of stimulation of colony formation by small doses of allogeneic lymphocytes were studied in mice. When interaction of lymphocytes with allogeneic stem cells was studied, bone marrow cells of mice were injected into lethally irradiated recipients in the control, and mixtures of bone marrow cells with varied numbers of lymphocytes were injected in the experiment. Dependence of the inactivation indices on the number of lymphocytes injected, based on the results of counting macro- and microcolonies in the spleen, is shown.

  11. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05) and control group (262 ± 95 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05). In GD group, more platelet-bound lymphocytes (332 ± 91 /µL) were found than that in TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  12. Initial analysis of peripheral lymphocytic extracellular signal related kinase activation in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A; Ray, Balmiki; Wink, Logan K; Bayon, Baindu L; Pedapati, Ernest V; Shaffer, Rebecca; Schaefer, Tori L; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activity has been potentially implicated in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder (autism). ERK is part of a central intracellular signaling cascade responsible for a myriad of cellular functions. ERK is expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and measurement of activated (phosphorylated) lymphocytic ERK is commonly executed in many areas of medicine. We sought to conduct the first study of ERK activation in humans with autism by utilizing a lymphocytic ERK activation assay. We hypothesized that ERK activation would be enhanced in peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons with autism compared to those of neurotypical control subjects. We conducted an initial study of peripheral lymphocyte ERK activation in 45 subjects with autism and 26 age- and gender-matched control subjects (total n = 71). ERK activation was measured using a lymphocyte counting method (primary outcome expressed as lymphocytes staining positive for cytosolic phosphorylated ERK divided by total cells counted) and additional Western blot analysis of whole cell phosphorylated ERK adjusted for total ERK present in the lymphocyte lysate sample. Cytosolic/nuclear localization of pERK activated cells were increased by almost two-fold in the autism subject group compared to matched neurotypical control subjects (cell count ratio of 0.064 ± 0.044 versus 0.034 ± 0.031; p = 0.002). Elevated phosphorylated ERK levels in whole cell lysates also showed increased activated ERK in the autism group compared to controls (n = 54 total) in Western blot analysis. The results of this first in human ERK activation study are consistent with enhanced peripheral lymphocytic ERK activation in autism, as well as suggesting that cellular compartmentalization of activated ERK may be altered in this disorder. Future work will be required to explore the impact of concomitant medication use and other subject characteristics such as level of cognitive

  13. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  14. BRONOPOL AND AZIDIOL CHEMICALS: TIME AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE IN THE TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF RAW MILK CONSERVANTES BRONOPOL E AZIDIOL: INFLUÊNCIA DO BINÔMIO TEMPO/TEMPERATURA NA CONTAGEM BACTERIANA TOTAL DO LEITE CRU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Eduardo Pereira Martins

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bronopol chemical in contrast to azidiol in the total bacterial counting (TBC in raw milk samples submitted the different temperatures of storage. Four bands of samples storage temperature had been evaluated: T1 – 1.8 the 4.2 ºC; T2 – 6.4 the 8.3ºC; T3 – 12.1 the 14.5ºC; and T4 – 24 the 25.5ºC in three groups: Group 1 – control without chemical; Group 2 – liquid azidiol added of bromofenol blue; Group 3 – Bronopol®. The samples were analyzed during ten consecutive days, starting 24h after sampling. After analyzes by the flow citometry, have been considered raw milk samples of 14 expansion tanks that were divided in two levels of milk contamination: <105 and >106 CFU/mL. The bronopol effect was influenced by the raw milk contamination level. The Bronopol has bacteriostatic effect in milk samples with TBC below of 105 CFU/mL and bactericidal in samples with TBC above of 106 CFU/mL. The TBC gotten in raw milk samples conserved with bronopol was lower to that one gotten in the samples with azidiol. The bronopol effect on the TBC was influenced by the temperature and by the storage time of the sample. The Bronopol® bactericidal effect becomes impracticable its use in raw milk samples destined the TBC. The azidiol efficiency in the raw milk sample destined the CBT as bacteriostatic agent was dependent of the lesser storage temperature of the sample, independent of the initial contamination level. The raw milk sample destined the CBT can be analyzed in up to one week after harvested if the same one will be added of azidiol and kept under refrigeration in temperature between 1ºC and 4 ºC.
      
    KEY WORDS: Azidiol, bronopol,  bacterial counting, raw milk, time, temperature.

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito

  15. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  16. [Analysis of variance of bacterial counts in milk. 1. Characterization of total variance and the components of variance random sampling error, methodologic error and variation between parallel errors during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, L; Hildebrandt, G

    1998-01-01

    In contrast to the prevailing automatized chemical analytical methods, classical microbiological techniques are linked with considerable material- and human-dependent sources of errors. These effects must be objectively considered for assessing the reliability and representativeness of a test result. As an example for error analysis, the deviation of bacterial counts and the influence of the time of testing, bacterial species involved (total bacterial count, coliform count) and the detection method used (pour-/spread-plate) were determined in a repeated testing of parallel samples of pasteurized (stored for 8 days at 10 degrees C) and raw (stored for 3 days at 6 degrees C) milk. Separate characterization of deviation components, namely, unavoidable random sampling error as well as methodical error and variation between parallel samples, was made possible by means of a test design where variance analysis was applied. Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Immediately after filling, the total count deviation in milk mainly followed the POISSON-distribution model and allowed a reliable hygiene evaluation of lots even with few samples. Subsequently, regardless of the examination procedure used, the setting up of parallel dilution series can be disregarded. 2. With increasing storage period, bacterial multiplication especially of psychrotrophs leads to unpredictable changes in the bacterial profile and density. With the increase in errors between samples, it is common to find packages which have acceptable microbiological quality but are already spoiled by the time of the expiry date labeled. As a consequence, a uniform acceptance or rejection of the batch is seldom possible. 3. Because the contamination level of coliforms in certified raw milk mostly lies near the detection limit, coliform counts with high relative deviation are expected to be found in milk directly after filling. Since no bacterial multiplication takes place

  17. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  18. HIV/AIDS手术切口愈合与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的关系%Relationship between CD4+T lymphocyte cell count and the prognosis (including the healing of the incision wound) of HIV/AIDS patients who had undergone surgical operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涤; 赵红心; 郜桂菊; 魏凯; 张俐; 韩宁; 肖江; 李鑫; 王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between CD4+T lymphocyte cell count and prognosis as well as healing of the surgical incision in HIV/AIDS patients who had received operation.Methods Data were collected and analysed retrospectively from 234 HIV/AIDS patients hospitalized at the Beijing Ditan hospital who underwent operation between January 2008 and December 2012.Following factors were taken into consideration that including:age,gender,time and where that anti-HIV(+) was diagnosed,CD4+T lymphocyte cell count at the time of operation,part of the body that being operated,typology of incision,different levels of healing on the surgical incision,infection at the incision site,post-operative complications and the prognosis,etc.Wilcoxon rank sum test,x2 test,Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman rank correlation were used for statistical analysis to compare the different levels on healing of the incision in relation to the different CD4+T lymphocyte cell counts.Rates of level A healing under different CD4+T cell counts were also compared.Results 1)Among the 234 patients including 125 males and 109 females,the average age was 36.17 ± 11.56 years old.Time after discovery of anti-HIV(+) was between 0 and 204 months.The medium CD4+T cell count was 388.5 cell/μl; 23.93% of the patients having CD4+T lymphocyte cell counts as < 200 cell/μl.2)7.26% of the operations were emergent.There were 23 different organs affected at the time of operation,due to 48 different kinds of illness.21.37% of the operations belonged to class Ⅰ incision,49.57% was class l incision and 29.06% was class Ⅲ incision.86.32% of the incisions resulted in level A healing,12.51% resulted in level B and 1.71% in level C.4.27% of the patients developed post-operative complications.Differences between level A healing and level B or C healing in terms of CD4+T lymphocyte cell count were not significant (P>0.05).There was no statistically significant difference on the CD4 +T

  19. Circulating human B and plasma cells. Age-associated changes in counts and detailed characterization of circulating normal CD138- and CD138+ plasma cells. : Blood B-lymphocytes and plasma cells in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Generation of B and plasma cells involves several organs with a necessary cell trafficking between them. A detailed phenotypic characterization of four circulating B-cell subsets (immature-, naïve-, memory- B-lymphocytes and plasma cells) of 106 healthy adults was realized by multiparametric flow cytometry. We show that CD10, CD27 and CD38 is the minimal combination of subsetting markers allowing unequivocal identification of immature (CD10(+)CD27(-)CD38(+), 6+/-6 cell...

  20. Relationship between total bacteria counts and somatic cell counts from mammary quarters infected by mastitis pathogens Relação entre contagem total de bactérias e contagem de células somáticas de quartos mamários infectados por patógenos da mastite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emídio Ferreira Lopes Júnior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the relationship between somatic cell count (SCC and bacterial shedding from mammary quarters according to mastitis pathogens. Milk samples from 638 mammary quarters were examined for mastitis pathogens, SCC and total bacterial count (TBC. The raw data of SCC and TBC were used to perform descriptive statistics. The significance of the arithmetic mean differences between SCC and TBC according to bacteriological examination results was determined by a two-tailed unpaired t-test. Pearson and Spearman´s correlations were done with logarithmic data and linear regression analyses. The geometric means of the bacteriological examination results were (cells mL-1; CFU mL-1: no growth (52,000; 12,000, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85,000; 17,000, Staphylococcus aureus (587,000; 77,000; other streptococci (432,000; 108,000 and Streptococcus agalactiae (1,572,000; 333,000. The Pearson and Spearman's correlations between SCC and TBC were higher than 0.60 for all mastitis pathogens. The regression analyses slopes showed different increase in TBC with the same increase in SCC according to mastitis pathogens. The slope for S. agalactiae (0.542 was higher than that for other mastitis pathogens. The results suggest that the intensity of inflammatory process was associated with number of mastitis pathogens shedding from the mammary gland.Este estudo foi realizado com objetivo de estabelecer a relação entre contagem de células somáticas (CCS e a liberação de bactérias de quartos mamários de acordo com os patógenos da mastite. Amostras de leite de 638 quartos mamários foram examinadas para identificação dos patógenos da mastite, CCS e contagem total de bactérias (CTB. Estatísticas descritivas foram utilizadas para avaliar os dados brutos de CCS e CTB. A diferença entre médias para CCS e CTB de acordo com os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos foi avaliada pelo teste T para amostras independentes. Foram

  1. 刃天青还原法快速检测鲜牛奶中总菌数的研究%STUDY ON RAPID DETECTION OF TOTAL BACTERIA COUNT IN MILK BY USING RESAZURIN REDUCTION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 苏丰薇

    2013-01-01

    鲜牛奶中细菌活动繁殖后的产物——还原酶可使刃天青等还原型染料褪色,试验结果表明:刃天青褪色时间(t)与牛奶中总菌数(N)存在一定的关系,通过生物学统计方法建立数学回归模型:N=A1ekt+y0即N=5 969.906 94e-0.888 636t+36.544 59.刃天青还原法检测牛奶总菌数方便快速,比传统的菌落计数法快40 h左右.%Reductase, the product reproduced by bacteria in fresh milk, can make reductive dyes, such as resazurin, fade. The experiment results showed that the fading time (t) of resazurin had a certain relationship with the total bacteria count (N) in milk, and a mathematic regression model was established by biological statistics, N= A1ekt+γ0, N= 5 969.906 94-0.888636t+36.544 59. The resazurin reduction method was rapid in detecting the total bacteria count in milk, and the detection time was reduced by about 40 hours in comparison with the conventional colony counting method.

  2. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  3. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  4. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  5. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  6. 测试瓶法用于景观水细菌总数检测%Determination of Total Bacterial Count in Landscape Water by Test-bottle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹃; 陆柱

    2011-01-01

    探讨了采用测试瓶法检测景观水中细菌总数的可行性和操作方法,细菌培养条件为37 c℃下恒温l~2d.平皿计数法和测试瓶法对照试验的数据显示,二者相对误差在10%左右,在景观水的细菌总数测定中可以用测试瓶法代替或者部分代替平皿计数法.测试瓶法可在水体现场进行操作,无需采样保存,检测及时,且能够缩短检测时间、简化操作条件和步骤,节省资源和人工工作量.%The feasibility and operational approach of test-bottle method in determination of total bacterial count in landscape water are discussed. The bacteria are cultured for 1 to 2 d at 37 ℃. The comparison test results of plate count method and test-bottle method show that the relative error between the two methods is about 10%. So the test-bottle method can either replace plate count method or a part of it in determination of total bacterial count in landscape water. This method can be used on site without sample preservation, and it has characteristics of timely determination, short time, simple operational conditions, saving resources and workload.

  7. LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. M. Kapuler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Forty-two patients with progressive vulgar psoriasis (PASI = 19.7 ± 1.5 and 40 healthy volunteers were under investigation. Psoriatic patients were characterized by increased number of CD4+ CD95+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes, which correlates with clinical psoriatic score, and by increased levels of soluble Fas (sFas in serum, as compared to controls (resp., 1868.1 ± 186.8 pg/ml vs. 1281.4 ± 142.5 pg/ml, PLSD = 0.019. The levels of spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis and anti-Fas (Mab-induced apoptosis in psoriatic patients did not differ from the controls. However, apoptosis induced by “oxidative stress” (50 M Н202, 4 hrs was depressed in the patients. Moreover, a simultaneous assessment of cell cycle structure (metachromatic staining with Acridine Orange, apoptosis and Fas receptor expression (AnnV-FITC/antiFas mAbs-PE staining following a short-term mitogenic stimulation (PHA-P, 5 µg/ml, 24 hrs were performed. We found no marked differences in mitogenic reactivity, activation-induced apoptosis, and activation-induced Fas receptor expression when studying lymphocytes from healthy donors and psoriatic patients. However, PHA-activated lymphocytes from psoriatic patients displayed a significantly decreased ratio of AnnV+CD95+ to the total AnnV+ subpopulation, thus suggesting a decreased role of Fas-dependent mechanisms of apoptosis during the cell activation. The data obtained confirm a view, that an abnormal lymphocyte “apoptotic reactivity”, which plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of autoimmunity, may also of importance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  8. To analyze the correlation between CD3 + CD4 + T lymphocyte count of 23 healthy persons and the relative time%23例健康人CD3+CD4+T淋巴细胞计数与相对时间之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段飞云; 普红珍; 赵正龙; 段江丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析测定23例健康人CD3+CD4+T淋巴细胞计数与相对时间之间的关系.方法:对采集的23例全血标本以FITC-CD4/CD8/CD3抗体标记,通过流式细胞仪分别在采血后0 h,24 h,48 h,72 h,96h进行CD3+CD4+T淋巴细胞计数.应用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行重复测量资料的方差分析,再应用General Linear Model(GLM)对后四次与第一次检测结果之间的差异做方差分析,评估CD3+CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的最佳时间及后4次检测结果与第一次之间的差异.结果:球形检验的结果判断重复测量数据之间存在相关性(P<0.05),在Greenhouse-Geisser校正下应用GLM模型分析后四次与第一次计数之间的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),计算后四次与第一次计数之间的下降率,分别为1.0%、1.8%、21.5%、31.9%.结论:应用FTTC-CD4/CD8/CD3抗体标记全血标本,实验室检测CD3+CD4+T淋巴细胞计数在48 h内完成,结果较能反映受试者的真实情况.%Objective: To determine the relationship between CD3 + CD4 + T lymphocyte count of 23 healthy persons and the relative time. Methods: Mark the collected whole blood specimens of 23 healthy persons by FITC - CD4/CD8/CD3 antibody.Then take count of CD3 + CD4 + T lymphocyte by flow cytometry, respectively after blood sampled 0 hours, 24 hours,48 hours, 72 hours, 96 hours. Analysis the test datum by the repeated measurement data analysis of variance through statistical software SPSS 13.0. Then test the variance between the 1stand other four times by the GLM procedure to assess the best time for the detection of CD3 + CD4 + T lymphocyte count. Results: It results from Mauchly's Sphericity Tests that correlation exists in repeated measurement datum( P < 0.05 ). There is statistically significant between the1 st and all the other four times ,which depends on the results of the GLM procedure adjusted by Greenhouse -Geisser( P <0.05). The droop rate between the posterior four times and the 1st are respectively 1

  9. Association of peripheral differential leukocyte counts with dyslipidemia risk in Chinese patients with hypertension: insight from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Wen; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Yu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fan Fan; Gao, Wei; Sun, Ningling; Li, Jianping; Venners, Scott A.; Jiang, Shanqun; Huo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between peripheral differential leukocyte counts and dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 10,866 patients with hypertension were enrolled for a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Plasma lipid levels and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were determined according to standard methods. Peripheral differential leukocyte counts were consistently and positively associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and TG levels (all P < 0.001 for trend), while inversely associated with HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for trend). In subsequent analyses where serum lipids were dichotomized (dyslipidemia/normolipidemia), we found that patients in the highest quartile of total leukocyte count (≥7.6 × 109 cells/l) had 1.64 times the risk of high TG [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46, 1.85], 1.34 times the risk of high TC (95% CI: 1.20, 1.50), and 1.24 times the risk of high LDL-C (95% CI: 1.12, 1.39) compared with their counterparts in the lowest quartile of total leukocyte count. Similar patterns were also observed with neutrophils and lymphocytes. In summary, these findings indicate that elevated differential leukocyte counts are directly associated with serum lipid levels and increased odds of dyslipidemia. PMID:27879312

  10. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  11. Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deVos Annemarie JBM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study had two principal objectives: (i to investigate the relationship between asthma severity and proximity to major roadways in Perth, Western Australia; (ii to demonstrate a more accurate method of exposure assessment for traffic pollutants using an innovative GIS-based measure that fully integrates all traffic densities around subject residences. Methods We conducted a spatial case-control study, in which 'cases' were defined as individuals aged under 19 years of age with more severe asthma (defined here as two or more emergency department contacts with asthma in a defined 5-year period versus age- and gender-matched 'controls' with less severe asthma (defined here as one emergency department contact for asthma. Traffic exposures were measured using a GIS-based approach to determine the lengths of the roads falling within a buffer area, and then multiplying them by their respective traffic counts. Results We examined the spatial relationship between emergency department contacts for asthma at three different buffer sizes: 50 metres, 100 metres and 150 metres. No effect was noted for the 50 metre buffer (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.91-1.26, but elevated odds ratios were observed with for crude (unadjusted estimates OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46 for 100 metre buffers and OR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.02-1.54 for 150 metre buffers. For adjusted risk estimates, only the 150 metre buffer yielded a statistically significant finding (OR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.00-1.52. Conclusions Our study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. This study provides support for the hypothesis that traffic related air pollution increases the frequency of health service contacts for asthma. This study used advanced GIS techniques to establish traffic-weighted buffer zones around the geocoded residential location of subjects to provide an accurate

  12. Psychopatholgy, fundamental assumptions and CD-4 T lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in HIV-positive patients were associated with lower CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Method: Self-rating .... depression) were excluded from participation. For comparison ... Examination (MMSE) and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The. MMSE is the ...

  13. B-lymphocytes as key players in chemical-induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De Vooght

    Full Text Available T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are key players in allergic asthma, with B-lymphocytes producing antigen-specific immunoglobulins E (IgE. We used a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma and transferred B-lymphocytes from sensitized animals into naïve wild type mice, B-lymphocyte knock-out (B-KO mice or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. On days 1 and 8, BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized with 0.3% toluene diisocyanate (TDI (20 µl/ear. On day 15, mice were euthanized and the auricular lymph nodes isolated. B-lymphocytes (CD19(+ were separated from the whole cell suspension and 175,000 cells were injected in the tail vein of naïve wild type, B-KO or SCID mice. Three days later, the mice received a single oropharyngeal challenge with 0.01% TDI (20 µl or vehicle (acetone/olive oil (AOO (controls. Airway reactivity to methacholine and total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were measured 24 hours after challenge. B-lymphocytes of AOO or TDI-sensitized mice were characterized for the expression of surface markers and production of cytokines. We found that transfer of B-cells obtained from mice dermally sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI into naïve wild type mice, B-KO mice or SCID mice led, within three days, to an acute asthma-like phenotype after an airway challenge with TDI. This response was specific and independent of IgE. These B-lymphocytes showed antigen presenting capacities (CD80/CD86 and CD40 and consisted of B effector (Be2- (IL-4 and Be1-lymphocytes (IFN-γ. The transferred B-lymphocytes were visualized near large airways, 24 hours after TDI challenge. Thus, B-lymphocytes can provoke an asthmatic response without the action of T-lymphocytes and without major involvement of IgE.

  14. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 106 / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 106 / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26980930

  15. Response of in vivo protein synthesis in T lymphocytes and leucocytes to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A; Loré, K; Essén, P; Andersson, B; McNurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; Ringdén, O; Andersson, J; Wernerman, J

    2002-11-01

    In vivo determination of protein synthesis in immune cells reflects metabolic activity and immunological activation. An intravenous injection of endotoxin to healthy volunteers was used as a human sepsis model, and in vivo protein synthesis of T lymphocytes and leucocytes was measured. The results were related to plasma concentrations of selected cytokines, peripheral cell counts and subpopulations of immune cells. The subjects (n = 8 + 8) were randomized to an endotoxin (4 ng/kg) or a saline group. In vivo protein synthesis was determined twice: before and 1-2.5 h after the endotoxin/saline injection. Protein synthesis decreased in isolated T lymphocytes, but increased in leucocytes. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1 ra and IL-10 were elevated, whereas IL-2 and IFN-gamma, produced predominantly by T lymphocytes, did not change in response to endotoxin. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes decreased 2.5 h after the endotoxin injection. Flow cytometry revealed a drop in total CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD56+ natural killer cells, accompanied by an increase in CD15+ granulocytes. In summary, in vivo protein synthesis decreased in T lymphocytes, while the total leucocyte population showed a concomitant increase immediately after the endotoxin challenge. The changes in protein synthesis were accompanied by alterations in immune cell subpopulations and in plasma cytokine levels.

  16. Response of in vivo protein synthesis in T lymphocytes and leucocytes to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A; Loré, K; EsséN, P; Andersson, B; Mcnurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; RingdéN, O; Andersson, J; Wernerman, J

    2002-01-01

    In vivo determination of protein synthesis in immune cells reflects metabolic activity and immunological activation. An intravenous injection of endotoxin to healthy volunteers was used as a human sepsis model, and in vivo protein synthesis of T lymphocytes and leucocytes was measured. The results were related to plasma concentrations of selected cytokines, peripheral cell counts and subpopulations of immune cells. The subjects (n = 8 + 8) were randomized to an endotoxin (4 ng/kg) or a saline group. In vivo protein synthesis was determined twice: before and 1–2·5 h after the endotoxin/saline injection. Protein synthesis decreased in isolated T lymphocytes, but increased in leucocytes. Plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1 ra and IL-10 were elevated, whereas IL-2 and IFN-γ, produced predominantly by T lymphocytes, did not change in response to endotoxin. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes decreased 2·5 h after the endotoxin injection. Flow cytometry revealed a drop in total CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD56+ natural killer cells, accompanied by an increase in CD15+ granulocytes. In summary, in vivo protein synthesis decreased in T lymphocytes, while the total leucocyte population showed a concomitant increase immediately after the endotoxin challenge. The changes in protein synthesis were accompanied by alterations in immune cell subpopulations and in plasma cytokine levels. PMID:12390314

  17. Signatures of reproductive events on blood counts and biomarkers of inflammation: Implications for chronic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999–2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total homocysteine (tHCY). We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR), platelet-monocyte (PMR), and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR). Using sampling weights per NHANES guidelines, means for counts, ratios, or biomarkers by reproductive events were compared using linear regression. We performed trend tests and calculated p-values with partial sum of squares F-tests. Higher PLR and lower LMR were associated with nulliparity. In postmenopausal women, lower PMR was associated with early age at first birth and higher NMR with later age at and shorter interval since last birth. Lower PNR and higher neutrophils and tHCY were associated with early natural menopause. In all women, the neutrophil count correlated positively with CRP; but, in premenopausal women, correlated inversely with tHCY. Reproductive events leave residual signatures on blood counts and inflammatory biomarkers that could underlie their links to chronic disease risk. PMID:28234958

  18. Ibrutinib-induced lymphocytosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, S E M; Niemann, C U; Farooqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Ibrutinib and other targeted inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling achieve impressive clinical results for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A treatment-induced rise in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has emerged as a class effect of kinase inhibitors in CLL and warrants further...

  19. Effect of catecholamines and thermal exposure on lymphocyte proliferation, IL-1α & β in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Upadhyay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of catecholamines (epinephrine/norepinephrine and thermal exposure on in vitro buffalo Lymphocyte Proliferation (LP apparently healthy 2- 2 1/2 years old Murrah buffalo heifers maintained as per the standard feeding and management practices were selected from Institute herd. Jugular blood was collected in the forenoon on the day of experiment and processed for Total Leucocyte Count (TLC and Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC. Lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using whole blood and cells were incubated with epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng/ml at 37oC with 5% CO2. Cells were counted after 72 hrs of incubation and Lymphocyte Proliferation Index (LPI was calculated. Thermal stress effect on the cultures was observed after exposure at 45oC for 4 hr after 72hrs of incubation. The cells were separated from media and media was used for analysis of IL-1α & 1β by ELISA kit. Lymphocyte proliferation Index decreased in responses to Epinephrine and Norepinephrine (P<0.01. Concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine (1, 1.5,2 ng /ml had no distinguishable effect on LPI. IL-1α & IL-1β levels when compared with control in supernatant (exposed to 45°C were low (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between LPI and IL-1α (r=0.80; P<0.01 and between LPI and IL-1β (r=0.78; P<0.05. The study indicated that lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and IL-1α & β levels were affected by catecholamines and thermal exposure. Further the levels of catecholamines had significant (P<0.01 negative effect on LPI indicating that catecholamines levels modulate immunity through IL-1α and IL-1β in buffaloes.

  20. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with Impaired Interferon-Gamma Release to Phytohemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Sook Woo

    Full Text Available The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been shown to predict adverse outcomes in several pathologic conditions. The majority of indeterminate interferon (IFN-γ release assays were due to inadequate IFN-γ response to the phytohemagglutinin. We sought to study the value of NLR to predict an indeterminate result of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT performed in routine laboratory practice.Results from 2,773 QFT-GIT assays were analyzed. Data collection included demographic data, the level of IFN-γ to nil, mitogen, and TB antigen of QFT-GIT, total WBC, and a differential count. We calculated the absolute neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and NLR.Of the total, 224 (8.1% indeterminate results were observed. Twelve (1.8% showed indeterminate results in the NLR range from 1.71 to 2.84, but 132 (19.2% had indeterminate results in NLR ≥ 5.18 (p < 0.0001. The likelihood ratio for indeterminate results were 2.70 (95% CI, 2.36-3.08 in NLR ≥ 5.18 and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.64-2.27 in lymphocyte count ≤ 1050/μL. NLR and neutrophil count were independent predictors for indeterminate QFT-GIT result in multiple regression analysis. The IFN-γ response to PHA was negatively associated with NLR (r = -0.33, p < 0.001.We showed that the NLR is an independent predictor of indeterminate QFT-GIT result. Low frequency of indeterminate results in group with normal NLR may imply the importance of a balance between two cellular compartments in physiological and pathological conditions.

  1. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  2. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KO Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG∆cobS∆cbiA and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr of Gallinarum (SG. In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4. At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG∆cobS∆cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI and 24 hours after (1 DAI, and three (3 DAI, five (5 DAI, seven (7 DAI ten (10 DAI, and fifteen (15 DAI days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain.

  3. Lymphocyte dynamics in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2009-01-01

    Following immune depletion, it is vital that the immune system recovers rapidly to avoid severe or life-threatening infections. In adults, full recovery of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, important cell types of the immune system, may take years. Similar to other lymphocytes, T cells start their develo

  4. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, D.E. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Belli, J.A.Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-10-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.

  5. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-10-22

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered.

  6. Association of High Density Lipoprotein with Platelet to Lymphocyte and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh H. Prajapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR (P=0.008 and NLR (P=0.009; however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (P=0.488, neutrophil (P=0.407, and lymphocyte (P=0.952 counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR (P=0.024 and NLR (P=0.03 were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; P=0.01 and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; P=0.01 were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR (P=0.007 and NLR (P=0.001 were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR (P=0.05 had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels.

  7. Morphometric and DNA image analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophages nuclei in interstitial lung diseases with lymphocytic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smojver-Jezek, Silvana; Peros-Golubicić, Tatjana; Tekavec-Trkanjec, Jasna; Alilović, Marija; Vrabec-Branica, Bozica; Juros, Zrinka; Mazuranić, Ivica

    2010-03-01

    Lymphocytic alveolitis is a characteristic of diverse interstitial lung diseases (ILD-s), but macrophages are often more numerous cell population in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Aim of this study is to analyze morphometric characteristics of macrophages nuclei in BALF in patients with ILD-s and to detect possible differences allowing distinguishing sarcoidosis from other lymphocytic alveolitis ILD-s. Thirty-one patient with interstitial lung disease who had lymphocytic alveolitis in BALF cell count (17 sarcoidosis and 14 other ILD-s) and nine controls were included in the study. The following patients data were numbered: age, lymphocyte percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio in BALE Investigated morphometric parameters of macrophages nuclei were: area, outline, maximal radius, minimal radius, length, breadth, form factor (FF), elongation factor (EF) and DNA image cytometry ploidy status determined with Van Velthoven method. Predicted classifications in classification matrix (forward step-wise method in multivariate discriminant function analysis) based on macrophages nuclei length mean, minimum and maximum, breadth SD, FF mean and lymphocyte % were 100% (9/9) correct for control group, 88.235% (15/17) correct for sarcoidosis, and 92.857% (13/14) correct for other lymphocytic alveolitis ILD group. In total, 92.5% (37/40) of the examinees were correctly classified in particular group upon the observed variables.

  8. A Method for Assessing the Total Viable Count of Fresh Meat Based on Hyperspectral Scattering Technique%光学扩散特征的生鲜肉细菌总数的无损检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋育霖; 彭彦昆; 郭辉; 张雷蕾; 赵娟

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to predict the bacteria total viable count in fresh pork .The hyperspectral scattering data were curvefitted by different fitting methods ,and correlation differences of models were compared based on the bacteria total viable count of fresh pork ,thus providing modeling basis of device for future study . Total 63 fresh pork samples which was used in the experiment were stored at 4 ℃ in the refrigerator of constant temperature . Experiment was performed everyday for 15 days .4 or 5 random samples were used each day for the experiment .Hyperspectral scattering images and spectral scattering optical data in the wavelength region of 400 to 1 100 nm were acquired from the surface of all of the pork samples .Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork samples .Different parameters could be obtained by Lorentz and Gompertz fitting and the modified function fitting .The dif-ferent parameters could represent the optical characteristic of the scattering profiles .The standard values of the bacteria total vi-able count of pork were obtained by classical microbiological plating methods .Because the standard value of the bacteria total via-ble count was big ,log10 of the bacteria total viable count obtained by classical microbiological plating was used to simplify the calculation .Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the models .The multi-linear regres-sion statistical approach was used to establish the models for predicting pork the bacteria total viable count .Both Lorentz and Gompertz function and the modified function included three and four parameters formula .The results showed that correlation co-efficient of the models is higher with Lorentz three parameters combination ,Lorentz four parameters combination and Gompertz four parameters combination than the individual parameters and other two or

  9. Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordek, A

    2011-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

  10. BF02, a recombinant TNFR2 fusion protein, alleviates adjuvant arthritis by regulating T lymphocytes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-shan SONG; Bei HUANG; Qing-tong WANG; Yu-jing WU; Jing-jing FU; Yun-fang ZHANG; Yan CHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the therapeutic effects of BF02 on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats and the regulatory effects of BF02 on T lymphocyte function.Methods:SD rats received a single intradermal injection of Freund's complete adjuvant emulsion into the right hind metatarsal footpad.After the onset of AA,the rats were injected BF02 (1,3,or 9 mg/kg,sc) every 3 d for a total of 15 d.Intragastric administration of methotrexate (MTX,0.5 mg/kg,every 3 d for a total of 15 d) was taken as the positive control drug.Arthritis index,swollen joint count,ankle joint histopathology,spleen histopathology and the paw radiography were used for evaluating the drug effects on AA rats.T lymphocyte function was assessed by measuring T lymphocyte cytokine levels,IL17 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels,and percentage ofT lymphocyte subsets.Results:in the AA rats,remarkable secondary inflammatory responses exhibited,accompanied by significantly higher levels of IL-1,IL-6,TNF-α,IL-17,LTα,RANKL,and MMP-13.The expression of IL17 and TNF-α mRNAs was also substantially higher than in normal rats.The percentages of CD3+CD4+ and CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes were increased,whereas the percentages of CD4+CD62L+ and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T lymphocytes were decreased.Treatment of the AA rats with BF02 (9 mg/kg) or MTX significantly decreased the arthritis index,swollen joint count and arthritis global assessment.Moreover,both BF02 (9 mg/kg) and MTX significantly inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation,and blocked the above mentioned aberrance in T lymphocyte cytokine levels,IL17 and TNF-α mRNA expression,and percentages of T lymphocyte subsets.Conclusion:BF02 exerts therapeutic effects on AA rats via the regulation of T lymphocytes.

  11. 原料乳中菌落总数检测方法的比较研究%Study on the detection methods of the total plate count in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张名爱; 李洁慧; 于翠芳; 杜中彩

    2013-01-01

    Three detection methods of the total count of bacteria was compared in raw milk. GB/T4789.2—2010, IDF100A:1987 and FDA BAM—2001 were used respectively to test the total count of bacteria in raw milk. The result showed that there were significant differences among the three methods. The detection rate of IDF100A:1987 was the highest, and the bacteria colo⁃nies on the medium were easily distinguished, but the test period of IDF100A:1987 was longer than other two methods, so it wasn't applied to rapid detection. The FDA BAM—2001 was bet⁃ter than GB/T 4789.2—2010 in raw milk, and the common advantages of them were simplicity of operation and the shorter inspection periods.%  试验比较原料乳中三种菌落总数的测定方法.分别采用国家标准GB/T4789.2—2010、世界乳品联合会国际标准IDF100A:1987和美国食品与药品监督局FDA BAM—2001标准中三种菌落总数的检测方法对原料乳中菌落总数进行测定比较分析.结果表明,3种检测方法之间存在显著性差异,IDF100A:1987的检出率最高,菌落易于分辨,但检验周期较长,不利于快速检测;在检测原料乳上,FDA BAM—2001优于GB/T 4789.2—2010,其共同优点为方法简单,检验周期短.

  12. ATP生物发光法检测布拉氏酵母菌总数的研究%Study on ATP Bioluminescent method for the detection of total count of Saccharomyces boulardii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌; 伍金娥; 常超; 马治敏; 张超

    2013-01-01

    利用ATP生物发光法建立了布拉氏酵母菌与相对发光值的定量线性模型,对比研究了十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)和苯扎溴铵(BAB)两种提取剂在不同的浓度、提取时间下对酵母菌相对发光值的影响.结果表明,浓度为0.015% CTAB作用时间4min的提取效果最好.同时,对检出的RLU值的对数值与菌落总数的对数值作统计学线性相关分析发现,R2 =0.9919,具有统计学意义.ATP生物发光法对布拉氏酵母菌的最低检测限是103cfu/mL.%In this paper, ATP Bioluminescence method was used to set up the quantitative linear model for total count of Saccharomyces boulardii and relative light unit. Comparative research was applied to study the effect of relative light unit of Saccharomyces boulardii in two kinds of extracting agent between the Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the Benzalkonium bromide (BAB) in different concentration and extracting time. Results showed the best concentration of CTAB was 0.015% and the optimum extracting time was 4min.Meanwhile,statistic method used to analyze the correlation between the logarithm value of RLU and total plate count showed R2 = 0.9919,which was statistically significant.The detection limit of ATP Bioluminescence method for Saccharomyces boulardii could reach 103cfu/mL.

  13. Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: case report; Normalizacao da contagem de linfocitos apos dose ablativa de I-131 em um paciente com leucemia linfoide cronica e carcinoma papilifero da tireoide: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: afthom@einstein.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teles, Veronica Goes [Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and paraaortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. (author)

  14. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate™ TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35ºC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate™ TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate™ TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate™ TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate™ TPC CI é um método rápido para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como substância indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua eficiência em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo Sim

  15. HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染与总淋巴细胞计数之间的关系%Study on the relationship between opportunistic infection and total lymphocyte count of HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂军

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察成人HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染发生的频率与总淋巴细胞计数(TLC)之间的关系.方法 对2005~2008年9月于我院传染科住院的39例成人HIV/AIDS患者的TLC进行跟踪分析.结果 (1)TLC≥1000个/μl者有5 例(12.8%),TLC为500~999个/μl者 17例(43.5%),TLC为200~499个/μl 者15例(38.4%),TLC≤199个/μl 者2例(5.3%);(2)22例TLC≥500个/μl者共发生机会性感染36人次(感染率160%),17例TLC≤499个/μl者共发生机会性感染44人次(感染率258.8%),两者比较差异具有显著性. 结论 HIV/AIDS患者在TLC≤999个/μl时机会性感染频率增加,TLC≤499个/μl时机会性感染的频率明显增加,且均为多重感染.TLC在资源贫乏地区用来帮助监测机会性感染的发生和预后很有意义.

  16. 39例AIDS病人机会性感染与总淋巴细胞计数之间关系观察%39 examples AIDS patient opportunity infection and between the total lymphocyte counting relates the observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂军

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察成人HIV/ AIDS病人机会性感染发生的频率与总淋巴细胞计数(TLC)之间的关系.方法:对2005~2008年9月在我院传染科住院的39例成人HIV/AIDS病人的TLC进行跟踪分析.结果:① TLC≥1000个/μl有5 例(12.8%),TLC为500~999个/μl 17例 (43.5%),TLC为200~499个/μl 15例 (38.4%),TLC≤199个/μl 2例 (5·3%).②22例TLC≥500个/μl共发生机会性感染36人次(感染率160%),17例TLC≤ 499个/μl共发生机会性感染44人次(感染率258.8%).两者比较有显著性差异.结论:HIV /AIDS病人在TLC≤999个/μl时机会性感染出现频率增加,TLC≤499个/μl时机会性感染的频率明显增加,且均为多重感染.TLC可在资源贫乏地区用来帮助监测机会性感染的发生和愈后很有意义.

  17. [Changes in blood lymphocytes and their subpopulation in patients with myeloblastic leukemia treated with cytostatic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasiński, I; Proniewska, M; Schumacher, K

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative determinations of lymphocytas were done in the active period of the disease, immediately after treatment by the COAP schedule and during remission. In 6 patients the determinations were done several times during 20 weeks of maintenance treatment. It was found that independently of the stage of the disease the absolute lymphocyte count and the counts of B and T populations were low, while that of lymphocyte O population was raised. It was observed that the reduced count concerned all 4 subclasses of lymphocytes B, that is those with surface receptors for IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE immunoglobulins. In remission the values of lymphocytes and their T and B subpopulations increased, failing, however, to reach the normal values. This rise was more pronounced in the case of lymphocytes T. Lymphocyte depression in these patients is explained by the authors as due mainly to intensive cytostatic treatment.

  18. 不同类型公共场所环境空气细菌总数的监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results of different types of public environmental air-total bacterial count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the monitoring results of different types of public environmental air total bacterial count. Methods 254 samples were selected in our hospital in 2012 January -2013 year in December from different public places to col-lect, the total number of bacteria in the air of the environment. Results Shopping malls, public transport waiting room, waiting room of hospital air bacterial count qualified rate reached 100%, cultural entertainment and qualified rate was 85.5%, the hair-dressing industry 97.6%, hotel of 65.8%. Different types of public environmental air bacteria are statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Understanding the different types of public environmental air bacteria, strengthen the management, to im-prove the public plays an important role in environmental treatment.%目的:探讨不同类型公共场所环境空气细菌总数的监测结果。方法选取我中心2012年1月-2013年12月自不同公共场所所采集到的254份样品,对其环境空气细菌总数进行分析。结果商场、公共交通等候室、医院候诊室环境空气细菌总数合格率达到100%,文化娱乐场所合格率85.5%,理发美容业97.6%,旅店业65.8%。不同类型公共场所环境空气细菌总数存在明显统计学差异性(P<0.05)。结论了解不同类型公共场所环境空气细菌总数,加强其管理,对于提高公共场所环境治疗具有重要作用。

  19. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  20. 儿童急性淋巴细胞白血病诱导治疗结束时外周血淋巴细胞数与预后的关系%Prognostic value of absolute lymphocytes counts at the end of induction in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎巧茹; 柯志勇; 谭惠珍; 王丽娜; 罗学群; 黄礼彬

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the prognostic value of absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) at the end of induction in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and investigate its impact factors. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the newly diagnosed childhood ALL younger than 16 years treated in pediatric department, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2013. The outcome and ALC at the end of induction were reviewed. ALC at the end of induction correlated with different risk classification , age, 5-year event free survival (EFS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and treatment related mortality (TRM) were studied. EFS and survival curves were estimated according to Kaplan-Meier method and compared by two tailed log-rank test. Cox regression proportional hazards model was used to analyze the possible prognostic factor. Results Totally, 348 cases of children with newly diagnosed ALL were analyzed. The 5-year EFS of patients in low ALC group (≤0.62×109/L) and high ALC group (>0.62×109/L) was (61.6±5.6)%and (81.8±1.5)%, respectively, and the difference had statistical significance. The 5 years CIR in low ALC group and high ALC group were (28.0±5.6)%and (15.3±2.4)%, and the TRM in low ALC group and high ALC group were (12.8±3.8)%and (2.9±1.1)%, respectively, and the difference had statistical significance. Only in the group of no more than 6 years old, 5-years EFS of low ALC group were inferior compared to those of high ALC group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that, low ALC was an independent risk factor influencing the EFS of pediatric ALL in this study, risk ratio was 1.95, 95%CI (1.22,3.11). Conclusion Low ALC (≤0.62×109/L) at the end of induction was an independent factor for poor outcome in children with ALL, especially in non-high risk patients under 6 years old.%目的:分析儿童急性淋巴细胞白血病(ALL)诱导治疗结束时外

  1. Effect of antiretroviral drugs on maternal CD4 lymphocyte counts, HIV-1 RNA levels, and anthropometric parameters of their neonates Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre os valores dos linfócitos TCD4, RNA do HIV-1 e parâmetros antropométricos de neonatos de gestantes portadoras do HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered during pregnancy on CD4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women and on the anthropometric parameters of their neonates. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 57 pregnant women and their neonates divided into 3 groups: ZDV Group, HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (n = 20; triple therapy (TT Group, mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (n = 25, and Control Group, normal women (n = 12. CD4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women were analyzed during two periods of pregnancy. The perinatal prognosis took into account preterm rates, birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, perinatal death, and vertical transmission of HIV-1. Data were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests, with the level of significance set at P OBJETIVOS: Estudar o efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre a quantificação dos linfócitos TCD4 e RNA do HIV-1 de gestantes portadoras do HIV-1 e parâmetros antropométricos de seus neonatos. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo avaliando 57 gestantes e seus neonatos em três grupos: Grupo AZT, gestantes portadoras do HIV utilizando zidovudina (n=20; Grupo TT, mães utilizando zidovudina+lamivudina+nelfinavir (n=25, e Grupo Controle, mulheres saudáveis (n=12. A quantificação dos linfócitos TCD4 e RNA do HIV-1 de gestantes portadoras do HIV foi analisada em dois períodos durante a gestação. O prognóstico perinatal levou em consideração as taxas de pré-termos, restrição de crescimento intra-útero, mortalidade perinatal e transmissão vertical do HIV-1. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se testes não paramétricos de qui-quadrado, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallys e Wilcoxon para amostras pareadas, considerando-se significativos valores associados a p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se homogeneidade entre

  2. HIV/AIDS患者皮肤黏膜表现与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数关系的临床分析%Relationship of skin and mucosa manifestations with CD4 +T lymphocyte count in HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾林玫; 卢祥禅; 潘彩芳; 梁娟英; 伍秋云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of skin and mucous lesions applied to the prediction and assessment of the immune status of HIV/AIDS patients by investigating the type and severity of skin and mucosa manifestations of HIV /AIDS patients and their relationship with CD4 +T lymphocyte count.Methods The clinical data of 345 HIV/AIDS patients confirmed in the first visit in the hospital were retrospectively analyzed.There were 192 patients with skin and mucosa manifestations and 153 patients without skin and mucosa manifestations.The CD4 +T lymphocyte count was recorded,and the incidences of skin diseases in HIV infection population were observed.The correlation of the type and severity of skin diseases with the patients′immune function was analyzed.Results The incidence of skin diseases in HIV-positive patients was 55.65%(192/345).The most of skin and mucosa injuries were infected with fungi and viruses,up to 43.77%(151/345) and 11.59%(40/345),respectively.The incidence of oral candidiasis was the highest up to 36.23%(125/345),while penicilliosis marneffe,syphilis,simple herpes and tuberculosis of cervical lymph node showed a higher incidence.Significant difference was observed in the CD4+T lymphocyte count among the patients without skin and mucosa manifestations,the patients with one kind of skin and mucosa changes,and the patients with two kinds of skin and mucosa changes or more((247 ±119)/μl,(84 ±59)/μl,(36 ±23)/μl, P<0.05).Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients present various skin and mucosa manifestations.Poorer immune function the HIV infectors own, higher incidences of skin and mucosa diseases occur.Some skin and mucosa manifestations can be considered as clinical markers for the prediction and assessment of the immune status of HIV infectors.%目的 通过分析HIV/AIDS患者皮肤黏膜表现的种类、严重程度及其与CD4 +T淋巴细胞计数的关系,评估皮肤黏膜病变预测、评价患者免疫状态的可行性. 方法 对345 例首诊

  3. Evaluation of lymphocyte subgroups in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, C; Yuca, S A; Yilmaz, N; Oner, A F; Caksen, H

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be fully elucidated, although it follows infection with a hypermutant defective M-protein measles virus. This study analysed peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups to determine their role in the pathophysiology of SSPE. It included 22 children with SSPE aged 2 - 15 years (patient group) and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy children (control group). In children or= 6 years old, there were no significant differences in the lymphocyte subgroups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a low CD4(+) lymphocyte count might be responsible for SSPE in younger children.

  4. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J. (St. Radbond Academic Hospital, Nijmegen, Netherlands); Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  5. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  6. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Graham, Stephen M; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Elizabeth E; Drayson, Mark T; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2015-11-18

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria. Copyright © 2016 Mandala et al.

  7. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  8. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  9. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  10. Rapid Determination of Total Bacterial Counts in Hygienic Tissue by Headspace Gas Chromatography%顶空气相色谱法快速检测卫生纸中的细菌含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田迎新; 胡会超; 柴欣生

    2012-01-01

    本文基于细菌在培养过程中的生长繁殖数量与其代谢产物(CO2)释放量的关系,建立了一种利用顶空气相色谱技术快速测定卫生纸中细菌含量的新方法;同时,考察了不同培养基、纸样处理及接种方式、培养液浆浓对检测速度及可靠性的影响。结果表明:采用TGEA培养基比LB液体培养基能获得更快的检测速度;在纸样处理及接种方式中I,SO 8784-1:2005(E)标准的方法优于GB/T 20810-2006标准;为了提高检测的灵敏度和检测的准确性,培养液的纸浆浓度不应高于0.5%(摇床转速360r/min)。在上述条件下,该方法在培养时间8h时即可实现对卫生纸细菌含量的准确检测,与传统方法相比大大提高了检测的效率。%This paper reports a headspace gas chromatographic technique for rapid determination of total bacterial counts in hygienic tissue.The method is based on the relationship between the number of bacteria and the mass of carbon dioxide(CO2) produced during the bacteria incubation.The effects of different conditions such as the types of culture medium,pulp consistency,and approach of sample preparation were investigated.The results showed that compared with Luria Broth(LB) liquid medium,using Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar(TGEA) could accelerate the rate of the bacterial growth and thus the amount of CO2 generated was detectable in a short incubation time.The sample preparation procedures in ISO 8784-1:2005(E) standard method is better than in that of GB/T 20810-2006 standard method since it can transfer much more amount of bacteria into the cultural medium and thus improves the detection sensitivity.A pulp consistency of 0.5% in culture medium was ideal in the present method and the bacterial counts in hygienic tissue can be determined within 8 hours.

  11. Predictive role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis (AA is not uncommon during pregnancy but can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR in addition to conventional diagnostic indicators of the disease to diagnose AA during pregnancy. Age, gestational age, white blood cell (WBC count, Alvarado scores, C-reactive protein (CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR were compared among 28 pregnant women who underwent surgery for AA, 35 pregnant women wrongly suspected as having AA, 29 healthy pregnant women, and 30 nonpregnant healthy women. Mean WBC counts and CRP levels were higher in women with proven AA than in those of control groups (all p < 0.05. Among all the groups, the median NLR and PLR were significantly different in women with proven AA (all p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cut-off values for WBC count, CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR and PLR used with routine methods could diagnose AA with 90.5% accuracy. Used in addition to routine diagnostic methods, NLR and PLR increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of AA in pregnant women.

  12. L-Carnitine Supplementation Reduces Short-Term Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Pektaş, Mehmet Bilgehan; Parlar, Ali İhsan; Akcı, Önder; Emren, Sadık Volkan; Tecer, Evren; Adalı, Fahri; Yüksel, Şeref; Darçın, Osman Tansel

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate whether preoperative L-carnitine supplementation affects the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an inflammatory marker that has proven usefulness for predicting postoperative complications in coronary artery bypass surgery. A lot of studies concerning the role of L-carnitine in the immune system have been performed, contradictory results have been reported on its effects on absolute numbers of WBC subtypes. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted among patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery between June 2012 and December 2013 in our cardiovascular surgery clinic. A total of 60 consecutive patients were randomized and divided into 2 groups. The first group received 2 g of L-carnitine in 1000 mL of 0.9% saline solution infused over 24 hours for each of the 3 preoperative days (L-carnitine group, n = 30), or only 1000 mL of 0.9% saline solution for the same time period (placebo group, n = 30). The basal values of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were similar in the 2 groups. After L-carnitine supplementation (just before surgery), leukocyte and neutrophil counts of the L-carnitine group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (7.7 ± 1.5 versus 9.7 ± 2.6, P carnitine group (1.1 ± 0.6 versus 0.8 ± 0.9, P carnitine group at postoperative day 1 (20.7 ± 13.8 versus 10.8 ± 4.1, P carnitine supplementation may reduce neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio during the early postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  13. Peripheral blood lymphocyte HIV DNA levels correlate with HIV associated neurocognitive disorders in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumare, Jibreel; Sunshine, Sara; Ahmed, Hayat; El-Kamary, Samer S; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Burdo, Tricia; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M; Umlauf, Anya; Cherner, Mariana; Abimiku, Alash'le; Charurat, Man; Li, Jonathan Z; Blattner, William A; Royal, Walter

    2017-02-27

    Mononuclear cells play key roles in the pathogenic mechanisms leading to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). We examined the association between HIV DNA within peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and HAND in Nigeria. PBMCs were collected at baseline from 36 antiretroviral naive participants. CD14+ cells and T&B lymphocyte fractions were isolated by, respectively, positive and negative magnetic bead separation. Total HIV DNA within CD14+ and T&B cells were separately quantified using real-time PCR assay targeting HIV LTR-gag and cell input numbers determined by CCR5 copies/sample. Utilizing demographically adjusted T scores obtained from a 7-domain neuropsychological test battery, cognitive status was determined by the global deficit score (GDS) approach, with a GDS of ≥0.5 indicating cognitive impairment. In a linear regression adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, CD4 and lymphocyte count, Beck's depression score, and years of education, there was 0.04 lower log10 HIV DNA copies within T&B lymphocytes per unit increase in global T score (p = 0.02). Adjusting for the same variables in a logistic regression, the odds of cognitive impairment were 6.2 times greater per log10 increase in HIV DNA within T&B lymphocytes (p = 0.048). The association between cognitive impairment and HIV DNA within CD14+ monocytes did not reach statistical significance. In this pretreatment cohort with mild cognitive dysfunction, we found a strong association between levels of HIV DNA within the lymphocyte subset and HAND independent of plasma HIV RNA. These findings likely reflect the neurologic impact of a larger HIV reservoir and active viral replication.

  14. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: A novel and simple prognostic marker for infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbay, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin

    2015-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatining infectious disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Leukocytes play a main role in infectious diseases. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are subgroup of leukocytes, and they are routinely measured as a part of automated complete blood count test. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of unfavorable clinical outcomes in infectious and cardiovascular diseases.

  15. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  16. Predictors of lymph node count in colorectal cancer resections: data from US nationwide prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Noriko; Kuchiba, Aya; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Yamauchi, Mai; Hornick, Jason L; Swanson, Richard S; Chan, Andrew T; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Huttenhower, Curtis; Schrag, Deborah; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2012-08-01

    To identify factors that influence the total and negative lymph node counts in colorectal cancer resection specimens independent of pathologists and surgeons. We used multivariate negative binomial regression. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, family history of colorectal carcinoma, year of diagnosis, hospital setting, tumor location, resected colorectal length (specimen length), tumor size, circumferential growth, TNM stage, lymphocytic reactions and other pathological features, and tumor molecular features (microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, long interspersed nucleotide element 1 [LINE-1] methylation, and BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA mutations). Two US nationwide prospective cohort studies. Patients with rectal and colon cancer (N=918). The negative and total node counts (continuous). Specimen length, tumor size, ascending colon location, T3N0M0 stage, and year of diagnosis were positively associated with the negative node count (all P.002). Mutation of KRAS might also be positively associated with the negative node count (P=.03; borderline significance considering multiple hypothesis testing). Among node-negative (stages I and II) cases, specimen length, tumor size, and ascending colon location remained significantly associated with the node count (all P.002), and PIK3CA and KRAS mutations might also be positively associated (P=.03 and P=.049, respectively, with borderline significance). This molecular pathological epidemiology study shows that specimen length, tumor size, tumor location, TNM stage, and year of diagnosis are operator-independent predictors of the lymph node count. These crucial variables should be examined in any future evaluation of the adequacy of lymph node harvest and nodal staging when devising individualized treatment plans for patients with colorectal cancer.

  17. Distribution of T-cell receptor-bearing lymphocytes in the synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouni, I; Radal, M; Simony-Lafontaine, J; Combe, B; Sany, J; Rème, T

    1990-12-01

    Using immunohistology and monoclonal antibodies directed to the T-cell receptor (TCR) chains, we have analysed the distribution of TCR-bearing lymphocytes within the membrane of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Alkaline phosphatase staining for TCR alpha beta-bearing lymphocytes showed a distribution paralleling that of the total T cells. Staining for the TCR gamma delta chains revealed a moderate and rather homogeneous distribution of T gamma delta lymphocytes within the RA synovium. As evidenced by simultaneous staining for alpha beta and gamma delta receptors, the relative count of T gamma delta to alpha beta-expressing cells is close to the peripheral count (e.g.5%), and lower than that previously observed in the synovial fluid. Interestingly, the peripheral type V gamma 9-J gamma P rearrangement using the T gamma delta cell subset was relatively decreased in the synovial membrane, as compared to synovial fluid and peripheral blood, suggesting that the T gamma delta distribution in the rheumatoid synovium resembles a thymic-like situation.

  18. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Good sources include the National Cancer Institute, the ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/basics/definition/CON-20042915 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  19. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Lymphocyte subpopulations in a Two‐year Follow‐up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siadat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intractions of the immune system of the immune system, nutrition, and nervous system are one of the main research areas of interest in immunology and disease treatment. Due to changes in the mood, behavior, and diet of an individual during fasting period, the body's internal homeostasis is affected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on lymphocyte subgroups, which are the main specific immune cells in the body. For this purpose, in years 1999 and 2000, thirty‐eight healthy Muslims (9 females and 29 males, within the age range of 17 to 51 years (mean age=35.4 years, were assessed before the start and one day before the end of Ramadan. The pre‐Lymphocytic subpopulations analysis was conducted using flow cytometery. The results showed that the percentage of total lymphocytes was 25.82% and 26.23% in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; the observed difference was insignificant. However, the absolute lymphocyte counts were 2.3×103 and 2.1×103 mm3 before and late Ramadan, respectively, and the difference was considered significant (P‐value=0.06. The percentage of CD3+ cells (T cells was 70.12% before Ramadan and 70.25% late Ramadan, and the absolute lymphocyte counts were 1.6×103 and 1.5×103 mm3, respectively; therefore, the differences were not significant. Regarding the subgroups of CD4+cells (TH, the percentage ratios of the cells were 53.46% and 52.8% in the pre‐ and late Ramadan periods, and the absolute counts were 0.087×103 and 0.081×103 mm3, respectively; however, the differences were not significant in this cell subgroup. The percentage of CD8+ (TC cells was 37.7% before Ramadan and 37.8% late Ramadan, and the absolute counts were 0.6×103 and 0.54×103 mm3 in the pre‐ and late‐Ramadan periods, respectively; therefore, the differences were considered insignificant. In addition, the percentage ratios of Blymphocytes cells were 14.56 % and 14.74% in the pre

  1. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC.

  2. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  3. Accumulation of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes in the lungs after exposure to pinewood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripenbäck, S; Lundgren, L; Eklund, A; Lidén, C; Skare, L; Tornling, G; Grunewald, J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust within the woodworking industry has been shown to cause a variety of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood from healthy individuals exposed to pinewood dust. Eleven healthy volunteers were exposed to pinewood dust for 1 h in a whole-body exposure chamber. BAL fluid and blood cells were differentially counted and the expression of activation, adhesion and subset markers on alveolar macrophages and T-lymphocytes was determined 2-6 weeks before and 20 h after the exposure. Following pinewood dust exposure, the total BAL fluid cell concentration increased from 81.4 (64.1-97.5) x 10(6) cells x L(-1) (median (interquartile range)) to 195.3 (154.6-341.2) x 10(6) cells x L(-1). The BAL fluid T-lymphocyte concentration increased from 3.8% (3.5-6.5%) to 7.6% (4.9-11.2%), and BAL fluid eosinophil concentration from 0.0% (0.0-0.2%) to 1.8% (0.6-3.5%). Inhalation of pinewood dust leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airways of healthy individuals. The increase in numbers of eosinophils, T-lymphocytes and mast cells, i.e. cells of crucial importance to airway inflammation, in the lungs may be related to the increased risk of developing respiratory disorders among woodworkers.

  4. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  5. Transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to lymphocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bittencourt Júnior, P I; Curi, R

    1998-02-01

    A major feature of macrophage metabolism is its capacity to produce and export cholesterol. Several reports have shown that the manipulation of lymphocyte cholesterol content elicits important changes in lymphocyte proliferation. These findings lead to an inquiry as to whether macrophage-derived cholesterol released into the lymphocyte surroundings may be transferred to the latter thus affecting lymphocyte function. In this study, cholesterol transfer from macrophages to lymphocytes was examined in vitro using rat cells in culture. The findings indicate that there may be a significant transfer of cholesterol from [4-14C]cholesterol labeled resident peritoneal macrophages to mesenteric lymph node resting lymphocytes (up to 173.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages when co-cultivated for 48 h), in a lipoprotein-dependent manner. This represents the mass transfer of ca. 17 nmoles of cholesterol molecules per 10(7) lymphocytes from 10(7) macrophages (calculated on the basis of specific radioactivity incorporated into macrophages after the pre-labelling period), which suggests that macrophages are capable of replacing the whole lymphocyte cholesterol pool every 21 h. Moreover, an 111%-increase in the total cholesterol content of lymphocytes was found after co-cultivation with macrophages for 48 h. When compared to peritoneal cells, monocytes/macrophages obtained from circulating blood leukocytes presented a much higher cholesterol transfer capacity to lymphocytes (3.06 +/- 0.10 nmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages co-cultivated for 24 h). Interestingly, inflammatory macrophages dramatically reduced their cholesterol transfer ability (by up to 91%, as compared to resident macrophages). Cholesterol transfer may involve a humoral influence, since it is not only observed when cells are co-cultivated in a single-well chamber system (cells in direct contact), but also in a two-compartment system (where cells can communicate but not by direct contact). Co

  6. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy Malawians: implications for immunologic assessment of HIV infection in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; MacLennan, Jenny M; Gondwe, Esther N; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2010-01-01

    CD4(+)T lymphocyte measurements are the most important indicator of mortality in HIV-infected individuals in resource-limited settings. There is currently a lack of comprehensive immunophenotyping data from African populations to guide the immunologic assessment of HIV infection. To quantify variation in absolute and relative lymphocyte subsets with age in healthy Malawians. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of 539 healthy HIV-uninfected Malawians stratified by age were enumerated by flow cytometry. B and T-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte subset absolute concentrations peaked in early childhood then decreased to adult levels, whereas lymphocyte subset proportions demonstrated much less variation with age. Adult lymphocyte subsets were similar to those in developed countries. In contrast, high B-lymphocyte and CD8(+)T-lymphocyte levels among children under 2 years, relative to those in developed countries, resulted in low CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages that varied little between 0 and 5 years (35% to 39%). The CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages in 35% of healthy children under 1 year and 18% of children age 1 to 3 years were below the World Health Organization threshold defining immunodeficiency in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Thirteen percent of healthy children under 18 months old had a CD4:CD8T-lymphocyte ratio <1.0, which is commonly associated with HIV infection. All immunologic parameters except absolute natural killer lymphocyte concentration varied significantly with age, and percentage and overall absolute CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts were higher in females than males. Although lymphocyte subsets in Malawian adults are similar to those from developed countries, CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages in young children are comparatively low. These findings need to be considered when assessing the severity of HIV-related immunodeficiency in African children under 3 years. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  7. 91st Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1990 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,469 individual birds were counted.

  8. 92nd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1991 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 25 species and 2,655 individual birds were counted.

  9. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  10. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  11. Effect of Occupational Exposure on WBC Count and Oxidative Stress in Rice Mill Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several occupations where individuals are exposed to high concentration of dust particles. The exposed dust can be organic, inorganic, bacterial toxins, viruses or lipopolysaccharides. Exposure to rice husk causes activation of eosinophils and inammation reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decrease in levels of antioxidants. Aim & Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and biochemical parameters of rice mill workers by analyzing blood cell Counts, Malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitric Oxide (NO and Ascorbic acid. Material and Methods: A total of 134 eligible individuals who had been exposed to dust in rice mills for more than 5 years were included in the study group where as another 134 unexposed individuals constituted control group. Estimation of serum MDA, serum NO and plasma Ascorbic acid were done by using semiautoanalyzer. Results: There was no signicant difference between Total Leucocyte Count of exposed and unexposed individuals. Lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts are signicantly increased in exposed individuals. Serum levels of MDA, NO and Ascorbic acid are also signicantly increased in exposed group compared with control group. Conclusion: The ndings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. Increased MDA, NO and decreased Vitamin-C are probably due to high oxidative stress.

  12. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  13. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Babio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. METHODS: Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377 and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637 were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. RESULTS: Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trend<0.001. This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Total WBC counts, and some subtypes

  14. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  15. Weekly monitoring of the effects of conventional external beam radiation therapy on patients with head and neck, chest, and pelvis cancer by means of blood cells count

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Maria da Salete Fonseca dos Santos [Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE (Brazil). Radiotherapy Unit]. E-mail: salete@lundgren.med.br; Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro de Mendonca [Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Sampaio, Divaldo de Almeida [Centro de Hematologia de Pernambuco (Hemope), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the necessity of weekly monitoring by means of leukocyte and platelet counts of patients with head and neck, chest, and pelvis cancer submitted to conventional radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A hundred and one adult patients with cancer of head and neck (n = 11), chest (n = 35) and pelvis (n = 55), submitted to radiotherapy were assessed by means of leukocyte and platelet counts on a weekly basis, with a comparison between the results before and during the treatment and in correlation with the area treated, patient's sex and age group. Results: The most significant decrease in leukocytes was observed in the fourth week, when lymphocytes, total leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets presented a decrease of 53.5%, 26.8%, 19.4%, 22.2% and 14.6%, respectively, in comparison with the values found before the beginning of the therapy. Geometric means for pelvis during the treatment were lower than those for chest, and head and neck. Lymphocytes demonstrated to be more sensitive to radiation therapy. No alteration was found in leukocyte or platelet counts in correlation with patients' sex or age. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, weekly leukocyte and platelet counts do not seem to be useful in the assessment patients submitted to conventional radiotherapy for localized cancer. (author)

  16. Blood mean platelet volume and platelet lymphocyte ratio as new predictors of hip osteoarthritis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşoğlu, Özlem; Şahin, Ali; Karataş, Gülşah; Koyuncu, Engin; Taşoğlu, İrfan; Tecimel, Osman; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2017-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a low grade systemic inflammatory disease in which many inflammatory mediators are known to be elevated in the peripheric blood. Blood platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are accepted as novel markers in many of the systemic inflammatory disorders, but have not been investigated in synovitis-free radiographic OA yet.The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of blood PLR and MPV in radiographic hip OA. A total of 880 patients were evaluated retrospectively and after certain exclusion criteria, 237 of them who have primary hip OA were included. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), PLR, and MPV levels were recorded, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading of the hip joints were performed. Patients were then divided into 2 groups as KL grades 1 to 2 (mild-moderate) and KL grades 3 to 4 (severe) hip OA.Mean age, mean neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, mean MPV, mean PLR, and mean ESR were statistically significantly different between mild/moderate hip OA group and severe hip OA group. In univariate analysis, older age and higher MPV, PLR, and ESR were severely associated with severe hip OA. In multiple logistic regression analysis, MPV, PLR, and ESR emerged as independent predictors of severe hip OA.The results of the present study, for the first time in the literature, suggest blood PLR and MPV as novel inflammatory markers predicting the radiographic severity of hip OA in the daily practice.

  17. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  18. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  19. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  20. POSSIBLE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ONCE-DAILY ORAL THERAPEUTIC DOSE OF EITHER GLUCOSAMINE SULFATE OR GLUCOSAMINE/CHONDROITIN SULFATE ON BLOOD CELLS COUNT IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushi Abeer Amer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the possible adverse effects that may be induced by once-daily therapeutic doses of either glucosamine sulfate or glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate administered orally to rats for 30 days on blood cells (RBCs, WBCs and platelets counts. Forty three white healthy adult Albino rats of both sexes were selected randomly for this study. They were divided into three groups (І, ІІ, ІІІ. Group І received 0.05 ml distilled water, group ІІ received once daily therapeutic dose of glucosamine sulphate and group ІІІ received once daily therapeutic dose of glucosamine sulphate/chondroitin sulphate orally. The treatment period was for 30 days. At day 31, the animals were subjected to light ether anaesthesia and blood was withdrawn from the eye by retro-orbital puncture for the estimation of blood cells (RBCs, WBCs and platelets count. Treatment with single daily therapeutic dose of either GS alone or GS/CS for 30 days on blood cells count in rats produced a non significant change in RBCs counts compared to control and to each other. There were no statistically significant differences in total WBCs count at day 31 in animals administered once daily therapeutic dose of either GS or GS/CS orally compared to control group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant elevation in total WBCs count in GS/CS- treated rats compared to that in the GS-treated rats. The results of this study also showed that there was statistically significant decrease in neutrophils percentage in both drug treatment groups compared to control group. A statistically significant reduction in the percentage of monocytes was observed in GS/CS group compared to the corresponding percentage in animals of control group; while, there were non-significant differences in the percentage of monocytes in GS treated rats compared to that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the percentage of monocytes at day 31 of GS

  1. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in patients with major depressive disorder undergoing no pharmacological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Süleyman Demir,1 Abdullah Atli,1 Mahmut Bulut,1 Aslihan Okan İbiloğlu,1 Mehmet Güneş,1 Mehmet Cemal Kaya,1 Özlem Demirpençe,2 Aytekin Sir1 1Department of Psychiatry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 2Department of Biochemistry, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey Abstract: Studies attempting to clarify the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD and the immune system have been increasing in recent years. It was reported that increased production of the main proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and that of acute phase reactants may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of depression. Stress and depression were reported to increase leukocyte and neutrophil counts and to decrease lymphocyte count. Biological determinants affecting the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of depression are quite limited. Therefore, new etiological models are needed to explain the pathophysiology of depression. In recent years, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR was determined to be a good indicator of inflammatory status. There is no study in the literature investigating NLR in MDD. This study aims to examine the role of inflammation in the etiology of depression based on the NLR in MDD patients who are undergoing no pharmacological therapy. A total of 41 patients diagnosed with MDD, who received no antidepressant therapy within the past 1 month, were included in the study, which took place between January and March 2015. The control group consisted of 47 healthy subjects with no psychiatric disorders. A sociodemographic information form and a Beck Depression Scale were administered, and the blood was taken for biochemical analysis. Significant differences were identified in the NLR, neutrophil count, lymphocyte percentage, and leukocyte values of the patient group when compared with the control group (P<0.05. Our study is the first in which NLR was investigated in MDD. The findings of the

  2. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-12-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

  4. Effects of competition on acute phase proteins and lymphocyte subpopulations - oxidative stress markers in eventing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, E; Zanatta, R; Odetti, P; Traverso, N; Furfaro, A; Bergero, D; Badino, P; Girardi, C; Miniscalco, B; Bergagna, S; Tarantola, M; Intorre, L; Odore, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate markers of the acute phase response (APR) in eventing horses by measuring acute phase proteins (APP) (haptoglobin, Hp, and serum amyloid A, SAA), lysozyme, protein adducts such as pentosidine-like adducts (PENT), malondialdehyde adducts (MDA), hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE) and total advanced glycation/glycoxidation end products (AGEs), complete blood count and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+) both at rest and at the end of an eventing competition. Blood samples were collected from eight Warmblood horses (medium age 10 ± 3) during an official national 2-day event competition at rest (R) and 10 min after the arrival of the cross-country test on the second day. Exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell number, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, neutrophils, white blood cell and lymphocyte number; however, these values remained within the normal range. The CD4+ and CD8+ cells significantly increased, whereas the CD21+ lymphocytes decreased; a significant increase in serum SAA, lysozyme and protein carbonyl derivates was also observed. Two-day event causes significant changes in APR markers such as lysozyme, protein carbonyl derivates (HNE, AGEs, PENT) and lymphocyte subpopulations. The data support the hypothesis that 2-day event may alter significantly APR markers. Limitations of the study were the relatively small sample size and sampling time conditioned by the official regulations of the event. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the time required for recovery to basal values in order to define the possible effects on the immune function of the athlete horse.

  5. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikbilek, Mehmet; Dogan, Serkan; Akyol, Lutfi; Borekci, Elif; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Kozan, Mustafa; Gunaydin, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    Blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio is an indicator of the overall inflammatory status of the body, and an alteration in N/L ratio may be found in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between N/L ratio and FMF. One hundred and fifteen patients and controls were enrolled in the study. The cases in the study were categorized as FMF with attack, FMF with attack-free period, and controls. The neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were recorded, and the N/L ratio was calculated from these parameters. All patients were diagnosed according to Tel Hashomer criteria. A total of 79 FMF patients were included in the study and all subjects were receiving colchicine treatment at the time. The serum N/L ratios of active patients were significantly higher than those of attack-free FMF patients and controls (P < 0.001). The optimum N/L ratio cut-off point for active FMF was 2.63 with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 0.62 (0.41-0.80), 0.85 (0.72-0.93), 0.67 (0.44-0.85), and 0.82 (0.69-0.91), respectively. The overall accuracy of the N/L ratio in determination of FMF patients during attack was 71%. Our results demonstrate that N/L ratio is higher in patients with active FMF compared with FMF patients in remission and controls, and a cut-off value of 2.63 can be used to identify patients with active FMF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Clinical syndrome in HIV/AIDS resulting in hospitalization based on the CD4 count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 3 November, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractBackground and purpose: The CD4 lymphocyte count is the strongest index indicating the severity of immunodeficiency, prediction of incidence, diagnosis, and making a decision to start anti retroviral treatment and follow up of therapeutic response. This study was conducted to establish the clinical syndrome resulting in admission of patients with HIV infection based on the CD4 count.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 71 HIV patients admitted at least for onece to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran during 2008 and 2009. HIV infection was confirmed by positive ELISA and Western blot. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.Results: From a total of 71 patients, 8.5% were female and 91.5% were male. The mean age of the subjects was 35 ± 8.1 years. 74.6% were addicted and 38% had a prison history. The average CD4 count was 202.9 ± 20.09 /ML. 21.1% of the patients received anti-retroviral medication. 49.3% of HIV patients had hepatitis C and 18.6% had hepatitis B simultaneously. Patient with PCP, toxoplasma and TB had the least CD4 count, with an average of 75.85, 94.66 and 143.95 /ML respectively. Patients with empyema, esophagititis and abscess of femur had the highest CD4 average count of 698, 536 and 349.5 ML, respectively. There was a significant correlation between pneumonia and CD4<200/ML (P=0.001 and also, between prison history and TB (P<0.001, and between TB and CD4<200/ML (P=0.012.Conclusion: The prevalence of Pneumocystic pneumonia, Toxoplasmosis and TB syndrome may be higher in patients with CD4<200/ML and the incidence of pulmonary TB were greater in patients eith prison history. Key words: HIV, AIDS, CD4 lymphocyte count, pneumonia, tuberclosisJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(74: 70-77 (Persian.

  7. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  8. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  9. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms, pulmonary tuberculosis, and natural killer cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen Chia-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether the toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms could influence susceptibility to pulmonary TB, its phenotypes, and blood lymphocyte subsets. Methods A total of 368 subjects, including 184 patients with pulmonary TB and 184 healthy controls, were examined for TLR2 polymorphisms over locus -100 (microsatellite guanine-thymine repeats, -16934 (T>A, -15607 (A>G, -196 to -174 (insertion>deletion, and 1350 (T>C. Eighty-six TB patients were examined to determine the peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations. Results We newly identified an association between the haplotype [A-G-(insertion-T] and susceptibility to pulmonary TB (p = 0.006, false discovery rate q = 0.072. TB patients with systemic symptoms had a lower -196 to -174 deletion/deletion genotype frequency than those without systemic symptoms (5.7% vs. 17.7%; p = 0.01. TB patients with the deletion/deletion genotype had higher blood NK cell counts than those carrying the insertion allele (526 vs. 243.5 cells/μl, p = 0.009. TB patients with pleuritis had a higher 1350 CC genotype frequency than those without pleuritis (12.5% vs. 2.1%; p = 0.004. TB patients with the 1350 CC genotype had higher blood NK cell counts than those carrying the T allele (641 vs. 250 cells/μl, p = 0.004. TB patients carrying homozygous short alleles for GT repeats had higher blood NK cell counts than those carrying one or no short allele (641 vs. 250 cells/μl, p = 0.004. Conclusions TLR2 genetic polymorphisms influence susceptibility to pulmonary TB. TLR2 variants play a role in the development of TB phenotypes, probably by controlling the expansion of NK cells.

  10. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzkowsky, P; Shende, A; Aral, I; Saluja, G

    1975-01-01

    Lanzkowsky, P., Shende, A., Aral, I., Saluja, G. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 685. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children. A total of 30 consecutive children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) were treated from June 1971 until December 1974. Remission was induced with the use of vincristine and prednisone. After induction of remission, cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate were given. Then the liver, spleen, and kidney were irradiated and 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate were administered during the maintenance phase. Pulsed doses of vincristine and prednisone were administered at 10- to 12-week intervals. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on their initial white blood cell (WBC) counts: a standard risk group with an initial WBC count of less than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1) and a high risk group with an initial WBC count greater than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1). Of the 30 children entered in this study one standard risk patient died in the induction phase before attaining remission. Analysis of the results is therefore based on the remaining 29 patients, 22 standard risk and 7 high risk patients, who attained complete remission. Survival rates in continuous remission were found to be 43% of the high risk group, 88% for the standard risk group, and 77% for the combined group. Analysis of the data indicates that this therapy is unsatisfactory in high risk ALL. The results to date of this therapy for standard risk are sufficiently encouraging to continue its use in this subgroup of patients. PMID:1059384

  11. T-lymphocyte subset dynamics in well-treated HIV-infected men during a bout of exhausting exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Birgitte R; Kolte, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals the substantial lymphocytosis during a bout of exhausting exercise constitutes primarily mature T cells from the peripheral lymphoid organs but naïve T cells are also recruited. This study investigated whether the defective CD4 + T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood during......-infected patients are also reflected in defective acutely mobilized active immune cells following exhausting exercise. The CD4 + T-lymphocyte count is highly sensitive to physical activity....

  12. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  13. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  14. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  15. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  16. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  17. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  18. Fast Examination of Total Bacteria Count in Liwa Creek by ATP Bioluminescence Method%利用ATP生物发光法快速检测丽娃河中细菌总数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋卓; 毛映丹; 杨洁; 徐亚同; 朱文杰

    2011-01-01

    利用ATP生物发光法对丽娃河中细菌总数进行了快速检测。结果表明,丽娃河中细菌总数维持在0.72×106~1.2×107CFU/mL,较综合整治前的水质有了明显地改善。研究了游离ATP以及浮游生物等对发光强度的影响,发现对样品采用过滤的方法进行预处理是提高ATP生物发光法精确度的一种重要手段。%To monitor the water quality of the Liwa Creek, once a heavily polluted small river in Shanghai, grab water samples were analyzed with respect to bacteria count using a quick examination method -ATP bioluminescence. The examination process involves the studies on interferences due to free ATP and plankton in the stream water and the pretreatment by filtration of water sample, which proved indispensable for increasing the measurement accuracy.

  19. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  20. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  1. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications of CLL and its treatment may include: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia Bleeding from low platelet count Hypogammaglobulinemia, a condition ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  3. Correlation analysis between lympocyte counts and opportunistic infections in 210 cases of HIV / AIDS patients%210例HIV/AIDS患者淋巴细胞计数与机会性感染相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许超宇; 张宇锋; 朱宇佳; 陈昌枝; 覃琼芬; 梁世寅; 李仕雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between lymphocyte counts and opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients in order to provide reference for the treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis for HIV/ AIDS patients with opportunistic infections. Methods The total infection rate and type of 210 patients with HIV/AIDS were analyzed. According to lymphocyte counts, patients were divided into two groups; lymphocyte counts more than 1 300 /μi and less than 1 300 /μl. Differences of infection rate of opportunistic infections between two groups were compared. Results The total infection rate of opportunistic infections in 210 cases of HIV/AIDS patients was 86.7%.The major opportunistic infections were oral candidiasis (56.2%), bacterial pneumonia (46.7%), tuberculosis (42.4%), sepsis (21.4% ) and infectious diarrhea (20.5%). The infection incidence in the group of patients with lymphocyte counts less than 1 300/μl (93.6%) was significantly higher than that of patients with lymphocyte counts more than 1 300 /μl (55.3%) (P<0.05). With the decline of lymphocyte counts,the incidence of opportunistic infections increased. Conclusions HIV/AIDS patients have a high incidence of opportunistic infections. Lymphocyte counts was an independent risk factor of opportunistic infections in HIV/ AIDS patients. Therefore, lymphocyte counts of HIV/AIDS patients should be monitored regularly to strengthen the primary and secondary prophylaxis of opportunistic infections.%目的 分析HIV/AIDS患者总淋巴细胞计数(TLC)与机会性感染的关系,为HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染的治疗及一级、二级预防提供参考依据.方法 对2009年6月至2011年5月210例HIV/AIDS患者的淋巴细胞及出现的机会性感染进行分析.将患者分为TLC>1 300个/μl组(G1组)和TLC≤1 300个/μl组(G2组),比较两组患者机会性感染发生率的差异.结果 210例HIV/AIDS患者机会性感染的总感染率为86.7%,主要的机会性

  4. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  5. Multiple dysfunctions in developmental and activational stages of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and monocytes in ARC and AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Y; Tsang, P H; Petrella, R J; Bekesi, J G

    1987-11-01

    Peripheral blood leukocytes from ARC and AIDS patients were examined before and after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation by dual color flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies which identify developmental and activational stages of T lymphocytes, B cells and monocytes. There was a persistent elevation in the total number of circulating Ia+ lymphocytes with progressive selection for B1+ Ia+ lymphocytes and T suppressor cells and a concurrent reduction in the antigen-presenting monocytes. Following PHA stimulation there was a marked decrease in all subsets of Ia+ lymphocytes and monocytes. These results indicate (a) multicellular dysfunctions in the immunosurveillance mechanisms in AIDS, and (b) that many functional subsets of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were already activated and therefore poorly responsive to additional antigenic or mitogenic stimuli.

  6. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trendcomponents hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

  7. Is neutrophil lymphocyte ratio an indicator for proteinuria in chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoğlu, Emine; Şengül, Erkan; Halhallı, Gökçen; Dindar, Sevim; Şen, Hacer

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong indicator in determining inflammation in cardiac and non-cardiac diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between proteinuria and NLR in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients without diabetes mellitus (DM). Between 2011 and 2012 files of a total of 1000 CKD patients attending outpatient clinic were retrospectively scanned. Patients with DM, chronic disease, malignancy or stage 5 CKD were excluded. After these patients were excluded, a total of 69 patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD were evaluated. The study comprised 27 patients with CKD without proteinuria (Group 1), 42 patients with CKD and proteinuria (Group 2) and 30 healthy volunteers (Group 3). NLR was highest in Group 2 and this was statistically significant compared with the control group (p = 0.012). The platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in Group 2 was higher than the control group at a significant level (p = 0.004). There was a moderate positive correlation found between proteinuria and NLR (p = 0.013, r = 0.3). There was a positive correlation found between proteinuria and PLR (p = 0.002, r = 0.306). In conclusion, NLR, a parameter easily found in routine blood counts of CKD patients, is a marker with prognostic value for the presence and degree of proteinuria. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio are predictive of chemotherapeutic response and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi; Yan, Qin; Li, Shuangdi; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-06-07

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) used as prognostic markers for predicting chemotherapeutic response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. A total of 344 patients diagnosed with EOC who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy from 2005 to 2010 in the hospital were enrolled. NLR and PLR were calculated from complete blood cell count taken before operation. The patients were divided into platinum-resistant (P-R) group and platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to chemotherapeutic response. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared among groups. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimal cut-off values for NLR and PLR to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity of NLR > 3.02 to predict platinum resistance were 0.819, 75.0% and 81.45%, respectively. The corresponding values of PLR > 207 were 0.727, 60.42% and 85.48%, respectively. Patients with lower value of NLR (NLR platinum resistance in patients with EOC.

  9. Study of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as novel marker for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Ashokrao Khandare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a microvascular complication of diabetes. DN is clinically manifested as an increase in urine albumin excretion. Total white blood cell count is a crude but sensitive indicator of inflammation and studied in many cardiac and noncardiac diseases as an inflammatory marker such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. In this study, the association of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with DN is studied. Patients and Methods: It is an observational cross-sectional study. Totally 115 diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were registered in this study. NLR was calculated by analyzing differential leukocyte count in complete blood picture. Albuminuria was tested by MICRAL-II TEST strips by dipstick method. Results: Totally 115 diabetic patients were registered. About 56 patients had DN and 59 had normal urine albumin. Mean NLR for a normal group is 1.94 ± 0.65 and in DN group is 2.83 ± 0.85 which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.047 and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (P < 0.001 were also significant. Conclusion: The results of our study show that there was a significant relation between NLR and DN. Therefore, NLR may be considered as a novel surrogate marker of DN in early stages.

  10. Protease-mediated enhancement of lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis in X-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.J.; Majewski, S.; Kaminska, G.; Bem, W.; Szmurlo, A. (Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland). Zaklad Histologii i Embriologii)

    1983-02-01

    Angiogenesis was induced in mice by intradermal injection of semi-syngeneic splenocytes, and after three days the number of newly formed blood vessels at the injection site was counted. When recipients were total-body irradiated with 700 R 2 hours before the lymphocyte injection, the angiogenesis was significantly higher than in non-irradiated mice. The angiogenesis enhancement was of a systemic (not local) character as revealed in experiments with shielding of irradiated animals. This enhancement was not due to X-ray dependent immunosuppression, as shown in experiments with non-irradiated, pharmacologically immunosuppressed mice. Decreased angiogenesis was observed in irradiated mice after treatment with cortisone acetate, aprotinin, and EACA. The results suggest that proteases might be involved in mediating the angiogenesis enhancement after X-irradiation.

  11. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio are Predictors of Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Durmus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR are inflammatory markers used as prognostic factors in various diseases. The aims of this study were to compare the PLR and the NLR of heart failure (HF patients with those of age-sex matched controls, to evaluate the predictive value of those markers in detecting HF, and to demonstrate the effect of NLR and PLR on mortality in HF patients during follow-up.Methods:This study included 56 HF patients and 40 controls without HF. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography to evaluate cardiac functions. The NLR and the PLR were calculated as the ratio of neutrophil count to lymphocyte count and as the ratio of platelet count to lymphocyte count, respectively. All HF patients were followed after their discharge from the hospital to evaluate mortality, cerebrovascular events, and re-hospitalization.Results:The NLR and the PLR of HF patients were significantly higher compared to those of the controls (p < 0.01. There was an inverse correlation between the NLR and the left ventricular ejection fraction of the study population (r: -0.409, p < 0.001. The best cut-off value of NLR to predict HF was 3.0, with 86.3% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity, and the best cut-off value of PLR to predict HF was 137.3, with 70% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Only NLR was an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. A cut-off value of 5.1 for NLR can predict death in HF patients with 75% sensitivity and 62% specificity during a 12.8-month follow-up period on average.Conclusion:NLR and PLR were higher in HF patients than in age-sex matched controls. However, NLR and PLR were not sufficient to establish a diagnosis of HF. NLR can be used to predict mortality during the follow-up of HF patients.

  12. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  13. Increased neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in delirium: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberts A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelique Egberts, Francesco US Mattace-Raso Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Aim: Delirium is a common and severe complication among older hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but it has been suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress may play a role. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate levels of the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR – a marker of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress – in patients with and without delirium. Methods: This pilot study was performed within a retrospective chart review study that included acutely ill patients, 65 years and older, who were admitted to the ward of geriatrics of the Erasmus University Medical Center. All patients in whom the differential white blood cell (WBC counts as well as the C-reactive protein (CRP level were determined within 24 h after admission were included in the present study. Differences in NLR between patients with and without delirium were investigated using univariate analysis of variance, with adjustments for age, sex, comorbidities, CRP level, and total WBC count. Results: Eighty-six patients were included. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with delirium. In adjusted models, higher mean NLR values were found in patients with, than in those without, delirium (9.10 vs 5.18, P=0.003. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we found increased NLR levels in patients with delirium. This finding might suggest that an inadequate response of the immune system and oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of delirium. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between NLR and delirium. Keywords: delirium, pathology, biomarkers, leukocytes, immune system, brain 

  14. Affordable flow cytometry for enumeration of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocytes to identify subtype C HIV-1 infected adults requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART and monitoring response to ART in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucheche Mary

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO's "3 × 5 program" has spurred efforts to place 3 million people on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART for treatment of AIDS in resource-limited countries. Paradoxically, the cost of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count essential for decision-making to commence HIV positive adults on ART as well as for monitoring responses to ART remains unaffordable in most resource-limited countries. Thus, low-cost methods for enumerating CD4+ T-lymphocyte are urgently needed. Objective To evaluate Cyflow cytometry (Cyflow SL, Partec, Munster, Germany for enumeration of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte in subtype C HIV-1 seropositive subjects using FACSCount (Becton and Dickinson, Immunocytometry Systems, San Jose, CA, USA as the "predicate method". Methods A total of 150 HIV-1 seropositive subjects were included in the evaluation exercise. Fifty-eight specimens were collected from pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women (subtype C drug resistance study. Twenty-seven specimens were collected from women and their spouses with AIDS followed in a Duke ART study to assess the immunologic and virologic responses to generic ART, comprising Stavudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine (Stalanev, Varichem Labs, Harare, Zimbabwe. Sixty-five specimens were collected from AIDS patients enrolled in an ongoing Kaposi Sarcoma (KS study to investigate impact of ART on KS progression. Enumeration of CD4+ T-lymphocytes using FACSCount is routinely conducted for all the three studies. The Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe and Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe approved the studies. Whole blood was collected in EDTA vacutainer tubes and aliquoted into two tubes (200 μL in each. CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were enumerated using a Cyflow counter, in the Department of Immunology and a FACSCount in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology within 6 hours of phlebotomy following manufacturers' instructions. Results Using linear regression analysis

  15. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  16. Circulating T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with bipolar II or major depression: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zheng, Ya-li; Tian, Li-ping; Lai, Jian-bo; Hu, Chan-chan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jing-kai; Hu, Jian-bo; Huang, Man-li; Wei, Ning; Xu, Wei-juan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Lu, Shao-jia; Lu, Jing; Qi, Hong-li; Wang, Dan-dan; Zhou, Xiao-yi; Duan, Jin-feng; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the less known activation pattern of T lymphocyte populations and immune checkpoint inhibitors on immunocytes in patients with bipolar II disorder depression (BD) or major depression (MD). A total of 23 patients with BD, 22 patients with MD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The blood cell count of T lymphocyte subsets and the plasma level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were selectively investigated. The expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on T lymphocytes and monocytes, was detected. In results, blood proportion of cytotoxic T cells significantly decreased in BD patients than in either MD patients or HCs. The plasma level of IL-6 increased in patients with BD and MD. The expression of TIM-3 on cytotoxic T cells significantly increased, whereas the expression of PD-L2 on monocytes significantly decreased in patients with BD than in HCs. These findings extended our knowledge of the immune dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. PMID:28074937

  17. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  18. Chronic lymphocytic-leukemia with pleomorphic lymphocytes (cll-pleo) - a comparative-study with typical cll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, A; Shen, B; Batata, S

    1994-05-01

    Cell suspensions from the peripheral brood of 21 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with pleomorphic lymphocytes (CLL-pleo) and 155 cases of typical CLL were analyzed to define the phenotype of the former and compare it with the phenotype of the latter. CLL-pleo was characterized by weak fluorescence intensity of surface immunoglobulin (mean channel number on flow cytometry <200), positive mouse rosettes and CD5, and negative CD22 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. Comparison of the positive rates of the markers and of the mean percentages of marker-expressing cells showed no statistical difference between CLL-pleo and typical CLL. CLL-pleo constitutes a morphological variant of typical CLL bearing the same membrane phenotype as typical CLL, although the mean absolute lymphocyte count in CLL-pleo was significantly higher than that of typical CLL.

  19. Effect of transportation, time of sampling, and lymphocyte numbers on gamma interferon response to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle at time of slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Grooms, Daniel L; Bolin, Steven R; Gravelyn, Tara D; Kaneene, John B

    2013-03-01

    Adapting the gamma interferon (IFNγ) assay for tuberculosis screening at points-of-concentration of cattle would improve global efforts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis. Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate if transportation of cattle, the time of blood collection, and total lymphocyte count affects the retention of a positive IFNγ assay result during slaughter of cattle experimentally sensitized with inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Study 1 evaluated IFNγ assay responses to M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium stimulations in 5 cows (4 sensitized and 1 control) at the housing facility, after a 30-min transport to the slaughter facility, immediately before stunning, at commencement of exsanguination, and at 5 min after exsanguination commenced. Study 2 evaluated IFNγ assay responses to Mycobacterium antigen stimulations and total lymphocyte count in blood collected from 5 steers (4 sensitized and 1 control) at the housing facility, at commencement of exsanguination and at 2 successive 1-min intervals. The results indicated that blood obtained from sensitized cattle at commencement of exsanguination was more likely to remain positive than blood collected at successive time points; hence the time of blood collection is crucial to obtaining a useful IFNγ assay result for bovine tuberculosis at slaughter. The lymphocyte count progressively declined following exsanguination, and this decline might contribute to the reduction in the measured IFNγ. To compensate for the reduction in IFNγ production, a different set of positive cutoff values might be needed for blood collected at exsanguination. The current findings provide useful preliminary information necessary for making changes to the interpretation of the IFNγ assay on blood collected during exsanguination.

  20. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  1. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  2. Biological in-vivo measurement of dose distribution in patients' lymphocytes by gamma-H2AX immunofluorescence staining: 3D conformal- vs. step-and-shoot IMRT of the prostate gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Peter E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different radiation-techniques in treating local staged prostate cancer differ in their dose- distribution. Physical phantom measurements indicate that for 3D, less healthy tissue is exposed to a relatively higher dose compared to SSIMRT. The purpose is to substantiate a dose distribution in lymphocytes in-vivo and to discuss the possibility of comparing it to the physical model of total body dose distribution. Methods For each technique (3D and SSIMRT, blood was taken from 20 patients before and 10 min after their first fraction of radiotherapy. The isolated leukocytes were fixed 2 hours after radiation. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB in lymphocytes' nuclei were stained immunocytochemically using the gamma-H2AX protein. Gamma-H2AX foci inside each nucleus were counted in 300 irradiated as well as 50 non-irradiated lymphocytes per patient. In addition, lymphocytes of 5 volunteer subjects were irradiated externally at different doses and processed under same conditions as the patients' lymphocytes in order to generate a calibration-line. This calibration-line assigns dose-value to mean number of gamma-H2AX foci/ nucleus. So the dose distributions in patients' lymphocytes were determined regarding to the gamma-H2AX foci distribution. With this information a cumulative dose-lymphocyte-histogram (DLH was generated. Visualized distribution of gamma-H2AX foci, correspondingly dose per nucleus, was compared to the technical dose-volume-histogram (DVH, related to the whole body-volume. Results Measured in-vivo (DLH and according to the physical treatment-planning (DVH, more lymphocytes resulted with low-dose exposure ( 80% was equal in both radiation techniques. The mean number of gamma-H2AX foci per lymphocyte was 0.49 (3D and 0.47 (SSIMRT without significant difference. Conclusions In-vivo measurement of the dose distribution within patients' lymphocytes can be performed by detecting gamma-H2AX foci. In case of 3D and SSIMRT, the

  3. Sysmex XE2100全自动血液分析仪对浆膜腔积液白细胞检测应用探讨%Analysis of serous fluid total and differential leukocyte counts with the Sysmex XE2100 hematology analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁远; 张苗苗; 纪东辉; 付水

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application value of XE2100 hematology analyzer in examination of total and differential leukocyte counts in serous fluid. Methods: Serous fluid samples (n=70) were obtained from patients undergoing diagnostic thoracocentesis or peritoneocentesis, divided into two groups (NO. 1 group: 0 × 106/L < WBC < 100 × 106/L, 35 patients;NO. 2 group: WBC > 100 × 106/L, 35 patients) base on WBC of manual method, using XE2100 to analyze total and differential leukocyte counts, which can be compared with got by the manual total WBC count and Wright's staining. Results: A poor agreement between the XE2100 method and manual method were found in NO. 1 group patients(y - XE2100 =0. 9236x - manual method + 5. 4764, R2 = 0.406 ), there were significant relativity between two methods in NO. 2 group patients ( y - XE2100 = O. 9949x - manual mothed + 9. 2063, R2 = 0. 9828). Good agreement was also observed for the relatively polymorph nucleated cell count ( y - XE2100 = 0. 9347x - reference + 2.7989, R2 = 0.9148; n = 35 ), and the relatively mononuclear cell count ( y - XE2100 = 0. 9693x - reference + 1. O107, R2 = 0.8093; n = 35). The functional detection limit for WBC was calculated at 100 × 106/L ( coefficient of variation 20% ). Conclusion: With some limitations, total and differential WBC counts in serous fluid can be reliably determined using the Sysmex XE- 2100 instrument.%目的:探讨Sysmex XE2100在浆膜腔积液检测自细胞中的临床应用.方法:随机采集70例住院患者的浆膜腔积液,以手工法计数白细胞为标准分成2组(第1组:0×106/L100×106/L,共35份).在XE2100测定白细胞数量并分类,与手工计数和瑞氏染色分类进行比对分析.结果:第1组的XE2100法与手工法检测WBC的结果比较不具有相关性(yXE2100=0.9236X手工法+5.4764,R2=0.4062),第2组两法检测结果具有高度相关性(yXE2100=0.9949x手工法+9.2063,R2=0.9828).XE2100法检测多核细胞和单个核细胞

  4. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios: are they useful for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargın MA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Akif Sargın, Murat Yassa, Bilge Dogan Taymur, Ayhan Celik, Emrah Ergun, Niyazi Tug Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR could be utilized to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Subjects and methods: NLR and PLR were assessed by retrospective analysis of 762 healthy and pregnant women with GDM. The patients were stratified into four groups, as follows: GDM (n=144, impaired glucose tolerance (n=76, only screen positive (n=238, and control (n=304.Results: The leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the control group (P=0.001; P<0.01. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to the NLR and PLR (P>0.05.Conclusion: We do not recommend that blood NLR and PLR can be used to screen for GDM. However, increase in the leukocyte count is an important marker for GDM as it provides evidence of subclinical inflammation. Keywords: inflammation, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, pregnancy

  5. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  6. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  7. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...... to host defense against invading pathogens and the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Lymphocyte function is critically dependent on their ability to traffic into the correct anatomic locations at the appropriate times. This process is highly regulated and requires that lymphocytes interact...

  8. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  9. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  10. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  11. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  12. [Full blood count reference values in children of 8 to 12 years old residing at 2,760 m above sea level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando García-Miranda, L; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-04-01

    To determine reference values for full blood count parameters in a population of children 8 to 12 years old, living at an altitude of 2760 m above sea level. Our sample consisted of 102 individuals on whom a full blood count was performed. The parameters included: total number of red blood cells, platelets, white cells, and a differential count (millions/μl and %) of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. Additionally, we obtained values for hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width. The results were statistically analyzed with a non-parametric test, to divide the sample in quartiles and obtain the lower and upper limits for our intervals. Moreover, the values for the intervals obtained from this analysis were compared to intervals obtained estimating+- 2 standard deviations above and below from our mean values. Our results showed significant differences compared to normal interval values reported for the adult Mexican population in most of the parameters studied. The full blood count is an important laboratory test used routinely for the initial assessment of a patient. Values of full blood counts in healthy individuals vary according to gender, age and geographic location; therefore, each population should have its own reference values. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  14. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  15. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 μm × 15 μm measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results.

  16. 供水管网水样R2 A培养基细菌总数测定及其影响因素探究%Influencing Factors and Determination of Total Bacterial Count of Water Samples on R2 A Medium in Water Supply Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文明; 李伟英; 陆辉; 乔羽; 王峰

    2014-01-01

    满足饮用水卫生标准的城市给水处理厂净水在输送过程中受到污染,致使管网水中细菌的重新生长和繁殖,从而导致饮用水水质存在安全隐患。以南方某城市管网为研究对象,运用ExpAssoc模型对管网水中细菌菌落总数与细菌出现概率进行模拟,并探讨了管网水的温度、浊度、余氯三个常规指标与水样细菌总数之间的关系。结果表明ExpAssoc模型可以较好地模拟管网水中细菌菌落总数和细菌出现概率的关系,相关系数R2均大于0.97。水温与管网水细菌菌落总数呈正相关关系;管网水高浊度与细菌出现频率亦存在正相关性。余氯对管网水细菌存在水平确实存在影响,当余氯量小于1.0 mg/L时,细菌出现率为100%;当余氯量大于1.0 mg/L时,细菌的出现与余氯值并不相关,呈随机分布状态。%Clean water from the water treatment plants could be polluted during transportation,which leads to the regrowth of bacteria and the potential risk of drinking water safety. The temperature,turbidity,residual chlorine and the total bacterial count of water samples on R2A medium in the water supply distribution system (WSDS)of some southern city were investigated and the total bacterial count of water samples on R2A medium in WSDS and the bacterial appearance probability were fitted by ExpAssoc model. In the same time, influence factors were also discussed. The results indicate that the ExpAssoc model can fit well the relationship between the total bacterial count and the bacterial occurrence probability and the correlation coefficients are greater than 0.97. Additionally,the total bacterial count of water samples on R2A medium in WSDS is positively correlated with the temperature;high turbidity has a positive correlation with the high bacterial probability of bacteria in WSDS;the residual chlorine indeed has an effect on the bacterial count of water samples in WSDS;when the

  17. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on functional status in chronic multiple sclerosis: importance of lymphopenia early after treatment--the pros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Devereux, R.B.; Kopecky, K.J.; Friedman, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Hafstein, M.P.; Rohowsky-Kochan, C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    To determine whether immunosuppression by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) slowed deterioration of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), functional impairment score and blood lymphocyte counts were compared at 6-month intervals through 4 years following treatment of MS patients by either TLI (n = 27) or sham irradiation (n = 21). At each interval, 20 to 30% fewer TLI-treated patients had deteriorated (p less than 0.05 at 6, 12, and 18 months), and the difference in mean functional impairment score between groups became progressively greater (p less than 0.01 at 42 and 48 months). Benefit accrued principally to the 17 TLI-treated patients with absolute blood lymphocyte counts less than 900/mm3 3 months after treatment, whose mean functional impairment score remained within 0.6 units of baseline (p = NS), whereas the ten TLI patients with higher post-treatment lymphocyte counts had progressive deterioration (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001 versus TLI-treated patients with lower lymphocyte counts at all intervals except 30 months) and had deteriorated by more than 5 functional scale units by 42 and 48 months. Side effects were minor and complications rare in TLI-treated patients, but one TLI-treated patient developed staphylococcal sepsis. Thus, TLI slows deterioration of chronic progressive MS, with what appears to be enduring benefit through 4 years compartmented to patients with greater induced lymphopenia. Modification of lymphoid irradiation regimens to increase the proportion of MS patients who achieve a favorable degree of lymphopenia and to avert functional hyposplenism may further improve the benefit/risk ratio.

  18. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  19. Lipid and acute-phase protein alterations in HIV-1 infected patients in the early stages of infection: correlation with CD4+ lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treitinger Arício

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and acute-phase protein alterations have been described in various infection diseases, and they have been recorded during the early stages of HIV infection. Lipid and acute-phase protein profiles also have been correlated with cellular immunological abnormalities. To document these correlations during HIV infection, we studied 75 HIV-infected patients and 26 HIV-negative controls. Patients were classified according to the criteria proposed by the Walter Reed Army Institute: as WR-1 (CD4 lymphocytes, 1154 ± 268/mm³, WR-2 (CD4, 793 ± 348/mm³ and WR3/4 (CD4, 287±75 mm³. Triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods. Immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG and acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin, a1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein and transferrin were determined by immunonephelometry. Haptoglobin levels were significantly increased in HIV-positive patients and correlated with the progression of HIV-infection (controltotal cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and albumin concentrations, however, a1-acid glycoprotein and IgA levels were higher, when compared to HIV-negative controls. Elevated triglyceride levels (1.51±0.75 mmol/L were found only in WR3/4 patients, when compared to the control individuals (1.05±0.04 mmol/L. No differences were found in transferrin and C-reactive protein concentrations among the studied groups. CD4+ lymphocyte counts were inversely correlated with triglycerides, IgA, a1-acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin, and they were positively correlated with albumin, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that increased haptoglobin and IgA levels were the best predictive variables of a decreasing CD4+ lymphocyte count. In conclusion, our data showed that: 1 a decrease in total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and albumin levels occurred earlier than hypertriglyceridemia in the course of

  20. Lipid and acute-phase protein alterations in HIV-1 infected patients in the early stages of infection: correlation with CD4+ lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitinger, A; Spada, C; da Silva, L M; Hermes, E M; Amaral, J A; Abdalla, D S

    2001-08-01

    Lipid and acute-phase protein alterations have been described in various infection diseases, and they have been recorded during the early stages of HIV infection. Lipid and acute-phase protein profiles also have been correlated with cellular immunological abnormalities. To document these correlations during HIV infection, we studied 75 HIV-infected patients and 26 HIV-negative controls. Patients were classified according to the criteria proposed by the Walter Reed Army Institute: as WR-1 (CD4 lymphocytes, 1154 +/- 268/mm3), WR-2 (CD4, 793 +/- 348/mm3) and WR3/4 (CD4, 287+/-75 mm3). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods. Immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein and transferrin) were determined by immunonephelometry. Haptoglobin levels were significantly increased in HIV-positive patients and correlated with the progression of HIV-infection (controltotal cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and albumin concentrations, however, alpha1-acid glycoprotein and IgA levels were higher, when compared to HIV-negative controls. Elevated triglyceride levels (1.51+/-0.75 mmol/L) were found only in WR3/4 patients, when compared to the control individuals (1.05+/-0.04 mmol/L). No differences were found in transferrin and C-reactive protein concentrations among the studied groups. CD4+ lymphocyte counts were inversely correlated with triglycerides, IgA, alpha1-acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin, and they were positively correlated with albumin, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that increased haptoglobin and IgA levels were the best predictive variables of a decreasing CD4+ lymphocyte count. In conclusion, our data showed that: 1) a decrease in total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and albumin levels occurred earlier than hypertriglyceridemia in the course of

  1. Lipid and acute-phase protein alterations in HIV-1 infected patients in the early stages of infection: correlation with CD4+ lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arício Treitinger

    Full Text Available Lipid and acute-phase protein alterations have been described in various infection diseases, and they have been recorded during the early stages of HIV infection. Lipid and acute-phase protein profiles also have been correlated with cellular immunological abnormalities. To document these correlations during HIV infection, we studied 75 HIV-infected patients and 26 HIV-negative controls. Patients were classified according to the criteria proposed by the Walter Reed Army Institute: as WR-1 (CD4 lymphocytes, 1154 ± 268/mm³, WR-2 (CD4, 793 ± 348/mm³ and WR3/4 (CD4, 287±75 mm³. Triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods. Immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG and acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin, a1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein and transferrin were determined by immunonephelometry. Haptoglobin levels were significantly increased in HIV-positive patients and correlated with the progression of HIV-infection (controltotal cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and albumin concentrations, however, a1-acid glycoprotein and IgA levels were higher, when compared to HIV-negative controls. Elevated triglyceride levels (1.51±0.75 mmol/L were found only in WR3/4 patients, when compared to the control individuals (1.05±0.04 mmol/L. No differences were found in transferrin and C-reactive protein concentrations among the studied groups. CD4+ lymphocyte counts were inversely correlated with triglycerides, IgA, a1-acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin, and they were positively correlated with albumin, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that increased haptoglobin and IgA levels were the best predictive variables of a decreasing CD4+ lymphocyte count. In conclusion, our data showed that: 1 a decrease in total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and albumin levels occurred earlier than hypertriglyceridemia in the course of

  2. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  3. Studies on the relationship between expression of CCR5 of peripheral blood lymphocytes and total serum IgE in patients with seasonal contact dermatitis%季节性接触性皮炎患者外周血淋巴细胞趋化因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 毕志刚; 刘彦群

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the role of CCR5 in immunological pathogenesis ofseasonal contact dermatitis, the expression of CCR5 on peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after being cultured in 22 cases of seasonal contact dermatitis (SCD), 25 cases of non-season allergic contact dermatitis(NSCD) was detected by immunofluorescent marker-flowcytometry; total serum IgE was detected by RIA. The result showed that: (1) The positive rate of total serum IgE in SCD was higher than that of NSCD( P<0.01) and health group ( P<0.01). (2) Compare to health group, the number of CD4+CCR5+ lymphocytes of SCD was lower before culture( P<0.01) and was higher after culture ( P < 0.01 ) but still lower than that of NSCD( P<0.01) . (3) The numbers of CD4+CDR5+ lym phocytes after culture in both SCD and NSCD was higher than those before culture (both P<0.01 ), but the number was lower in the group( P<0.01 ). Our results indicated that the capacity of the lymphocyte differentiating to Thl type cell might be impaired which might be related to the IgE-mediated late-phase reaction in SCD.%为探讨外周血淋巴细胞趋化因子受体5(CCR5)在季节性接触性皮炎发病中的作用,检测了22例季节性接触性皮炎患者,25例非季节性变应性接触性皮炎患者及20名健康对照外周血淋巴细胞在培养前、后CCR5的表达(流式细胞仪 法)及血清总IgE水平(IRMA法)。结果表明:季节组的血清总IgE阳性率高于非季节组(P<0.01);季节组的CD4+ CCR5+细胞在培养前低于对照组(P<0.01),而在培养后则高于对照组(P<0.01),但低于非季节组(P<0.05);季节 组和非季节组的CD4+CCR5+细胞在培养后均高于培养前(均P<0.01)。提示季节性接触性皮炎患者的淋巴细胞向Th1 方向分化的能力可能减弱,并可能与IgE介导的迟发相反应有关。

  4. Influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during hospital stay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR) to the poor prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients during the stay in hospital.Method:A total of 133 cases elderly patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from March 2013 to September 2014 were selected, and divided them into death group (31 cases) and survival group (102 cases) according to in-hospital death occurrence; To compare the on admission general clinical data, therapy method, lung function, blood routine examination [white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophile granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio(NLR)], C-reactive protein (CRP), blood gas analysis and blood biochemical indexes in both groups, and drew ROC curve for a analysis of the clinical value of NLR in the prediction of death.Results: Among 133 cases of elderly AECOPD patients: the proportion of combined pulmonary heart disease and mechanical ventilation in death group was higher than that in survival group, PaCO2, WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR, CRP level in death group was higher, but lymphocyte count, serum albumin(ALB) in death group was lower; multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR presented independent positive correlation with the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients; ROC curve analysis showed that the ROCAUC of NLR to the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients was 0.787, the best diagnostic node value was 7.3, sensitivity and specificity were 77.4% and 74.5% respectively; bounded by NLR(7.3), divided patients into NLR 7.3 group and NLR<7.3 group, hospital stays, CRP level and mortality in NLR 7.3 group were higher than that in NLR<7.3 group.Conclusion:NLR was the high risk factor of the in-hospital death in elderly AECOPD patients, early detection of NLR level had a certain difference to the evaluation for short-term prognosis of elderly AECOPD patients and guide treatment.

  5. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  6. Is lymphocytic (hashimoto) thyroiditis associated with suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Stephen J; Perper, Joshua A

    2009-09-01

    The histologic diagnosis of lymphocytic (Hashimoto) thyroiditis requires lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland in combination with Hourthle cell metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells. Clinically, this autoimmune process has been associated with hypothyroidism and psychiatric conditions including depression. This retrospective study was designed to quantify the incidence and severity of lymphocytic thyroiditis in a series of nonconsecutive suicides compared with a cohort of motor vehicle accident victim controls. Eighty-one suicide victims (61 male, 20 female; age range 13-79 years, average 43) were compared with 88 age and gender matched controls (64 males, 24 females; age range 19-85 years, average 36). The degree of lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland was graded on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = no inflammation, 1 = mild inflammation, 2-3 moderate-to-marked inflammation with Hourthle cell metaplasia). Slides from each case were reviewed while blinded to the cause and manner of death in each case. Of these 169 total cases, 8 (4.7%) received a score of 3, whereas additional 7 (4.1%) received a grade of 2. Eighty-six percent of all of the cases showed no significant inflammation and recorded a score of 0. Of the 81 suicides, 3 had a score of 3, and 3 had a score of 2 (combined incidence of 7.4%). Within the control group, 5 of 88 cases scored 3 and another 4 scored 2 (combined incidence = 10.2%). Three males and 5 females scored 3 with an age range of 23 to 63 years, average 42. Incidental data tabulated showed that 19% of suicide victims were on psychoactive medications compared with 6% in the motor vehicle accident control group. No one on this study was on thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Depression is strongly linked to suicide and lymphocytic thyroiditis may be a cause of depression. Based on this study, however, the presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis cannot be used as a histologic adjunct to discriminate between suicide and accident in

  7. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  8. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  9. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  10. Lymphocytes as an Indicator for Initial Kidney Function: A Single Center Analysis of Outcome after Alemtuzumab or Basiliximab Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Weissenbacher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 T-cell and B-cell depleting monoclonal antibody, is established for induction therapy in renal transplantation (KTx. We herein provide a comparative analysis between alemtuzumab and basiliximab induction therapy and correlate lymphocyte depletion and recovery with the clinical course after KTx. This is a single center retrospective analysis of 225 patients/consecutive kidney transplantations treated with alemtuzumab for lymphocyte depletion and 205 recipients treated with basiliximab. Mean lymphocyte counts were 22.8 ± 9.41% before Tx and 2.61 ± 3.11% between week 1 and week 3 in the alemtuzumab group and 23.77 ± 10.42% before Tx and 13.92 ± 8.20% in the basiliximab group. Delayed graft function (DGF, cytomegalovirus (CMV status, and recipient age showed a significant correlation with lymphocyte counts in the alemtuzumab group only. The outcome was read in reference to the velocity of lymphocyte recovery and in comparison to the control group. Lymphocyte counts early after transplantation, following alemtuzumab treatment, could be identified as a predictive factor for kidney function early after transplantation. A detailed analysis of phenotype and function of lymphocytes after alemtuzumab induction together with a correlation with the clinical course is warranted.

  11. Lymphocytes as an Indicator for Initial Kidney Function: A Single Center Analysis of Outcome after Alemtuzumab or Basiliximab Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Hautz, Theresa; Kimelman, Michael; Oberhuber, Rupert; Ulmer, Hanno; Bösmüller, Claudia; Maglione, Manuel; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 T-cell and B-cell depleting monoclonal antibody, is established for induction therapy in renal transplantation (KTx). We herein provide a comparative analysis between alemtuzumab and basiliximab induction therapy and correlate lymphocyte depletion and recovery with the clinical course after KTx. This is a single center retrospective analysis of 225 patients/consecutive kidney transplantations treated with alemtuzumab for lymphocyte depletion and 205 recipients treated with basiliximab. Mean lymphocyte counts were 22.8 ± 9.41% before Tx and 2.61 ± 3.11% between week 1 and week 3 in the alemtuzumab group and 23.77 ± 10.42% before Tx and 13.92 ± 8.20% in the basiliximab group. Delayed graft function (DGF), cytomegalovirus (CMV) status, and recipient age showed a significant correlation with lymphocyte counts in the alemtuzumab group only. The outcome was read in reference to the velocity of lymphocyte recovery and in comparison to the control group. Lymphocyte counts early after transplantation, following alemtuzumab treatment, could be identified as a predictive factor for kidney function early after transplantation. A detailed analysis of phenotype and function of lymphocytes after alemtuzumab induction together with a correlation with the clinical course is warranted.

  12. T-lymphocyte subset dynamics in well-treated HIV-infected men during a bout of exhausting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Birgitte R; Kolte, Lilian; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals the substantial lymphocytosis during a bout of exhausting exercise constitutes primarily mature T cells from the peripheral lymphoid organs but naïve T cells are also recruited. This study investigated whether the defective CD4 + T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood during rest in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients would also be observed following a maximal output ergometer bicycle test. At rest, in 45 well-treated HIV-infected patients, mature and naïve CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts were decreased whereas the less immune active CD8 + T lymphocytes were increased compared with 10 healthy control subjects. In response to exercise mature and naïve CD4 + T lymphocytes increased less and mature and naïve CD8 + T lymphocytes increased most in HIV-infected patients. In conclusion, defective resting mature and naïve CD4 + T lymphocytes in well-treated HIV-infected patients are also reflected in defective acutely mobilized active immune cells following exhausting exercise. The CD4 + T-lymphocyte count is highly sensitive to physical activity.

  13. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  14. Total-Count Calibration Blocks for use in uranium Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    Transportable calibration blocks for field scintillometers and borehole probes were manufactured from concrete and installed at calibration sites in Denmark and Greece. The concrete mixes were prepared from aggregates of quartz sand and crushed uranium-thorium ore. Hater-reducing agents and silica...... dust added to the cement paste produced concretes of acceptable porosity and pore structure. The content of ore was adjusted to provide block grades of approximately 2, 140, and 540 units of radioelement concentration (Ur). Thorium was estimated to contribute 0.39 ± 0.02 Ur per ppm Th. The adopted...

  15. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  16. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  17. A case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with massive ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Nalcaci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year old woman with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL was admitted with night sweats and abdominal distension. A complete blood count showed hemoglobin 5 g/dL, white blood cell (WBC count 28.5x109/L and platelets 38.4x109/L. Peripheral blood smear examination showed a large number of smudge cells and lymphocytosis composed of mature-looking lymphocytes with clumped nuclear chromatin. Computed tomography scan demonstrated enlarged cervical, axillary, paraaortic, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes with concomitant omental thickening and ascites. Also, the liver and the spleen were enlarged in the presence of multiple ill-defined hypoechoic areas in the latter. Histopathological analysis of the cervical lymph node biopsy was consistent with CLL. Bone marrow examination showed diffuse infiltration of the marrow with small lymphocytes. Analysis of the ascitic fluid revealed an exudate with WBC 1220 cells/mL. Cytocentrifuge preparation of the ascitic fluid showed small mature lymphoid cells containing hyperchromatic nuclei with coarsely gran- ular chromatin. On flow cytometric analysis of the ascitic fluid, expression of CD5, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD45 and HLA-DR was compatible with a diagnosis of CLL, in accordance with the results of the peripheral blood analysis. The patient was treated with chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone but died within one month after development of non-chylous ascites.

  18. Uso de aditivos promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e bactérias totais do intestino de frangos de corte Use of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield and total intestinalbacteria counts in broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Clementino dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento em substituição ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça (partes e gordura abdominal e bactérias totais do intestino delgado e cecos de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade, criados em cama reutilizada e alimentados com rações à base de milho moído e farelo de soja. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com um arranjo fatorial 7 x 2, correspondendo a 7 fontes de aditivos (antibiótico, basal, mananoligossacarídeo (MOS, frutoligossacarídeo (FOS, ácido fumárico, cogumelo desidratado e probiótico e dois sexos (macho e fêmea. Foram utilizados um total de 1680 pintos, sexados, da linhagem Hybro, distribuídos em 14 tratamentos com 04 repetições e 30 aves por parcela experimental. Foi observado efeito significativo (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth promoters additives on performance, carcass yield (parts and abdominal fat, total intestinal bacteria counts in broilers from 1 at 42 days old fed with corn and soybean meal based diets, compared to antibiotics supplementation diets. In this study were urilized a 7 x 2 factorial design, with seven differents additives (antibiotic, basal, MOS, FOS, fumaric acid, mutshroom extract and probiotic and two sex (males and females. A total of1680 sexed broilers chickens from Hybro line were distributed in 14 treatments, with 4 replicates and 30 chickens per experimental unit. Effects of growth promotant additives on feed intake , feed conversion and production efficiency factor were measured. Male chickens shown better performance results than females in all parameters evaluated, except for viability. Additives shown positive effects on carcars yield, parts yield, and abdominal fat. Male chickens were heavier at slaughter and shown higher leg yields than females. Additives also influenced total bacteria counts in

  19. Role of Circulating Lymphocytes in Patients with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul de Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection. The incidence rate is estimated to be up to 19 million cases worldwide per year and the number of cases is rising. Infection triggers a complex and prolonged host response, in which both the innate and adaptive immune response are involved. The disturbance of immune system cells plays a key role in the induction of abnormal levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Furthermore, the involvement of effector immune system cells also impairs the host response to the infective agents and tissue damage. Recently, postmortem studies of patients who died of sepsis have provided important insights into why septic patients die and showed an extensive depletion of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and they found that circulating blood cells showed similar findings. Thus, the knowledge of the characterization of circulating lymphocyte abnormalities is relevant for the understanding of the sepsis pathophysiology. In addition, monitoring the immune response in sepsis, including circulating lymphocyte subsets count, appears to be potential biomarker for predicting the clinical outcome of the patient. This paper analyzes the lymphocyte involvement and dysfunction found in patients with sepsis and new opportunities to prevent sepsis and guide therapeutic intervention have been revealed.

  20. Peripheral T-cell count in sixty cases of cutaneous vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal RR

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Clinically diagnosed 60 cases of cutaneous vasculitis (CV were collected from Dermato-venereology Department. T-cell count in the peripheral blood, a marker of cell-mediated immunity, was done in all the cases by Thomson Method 1977. Statistically significant increase in peripheral T-lymphocytes was seen in 15/60 (25 percent cases of CV.

  1. Automated flagging influences the inconsistency and bias of band cell and atypical lymphocyte morphological differentials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, W. van der; Scott, C.S.; Keijzer, M.H. de

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated inter- and intra-observer variabilities of band cell and atypical lymphocyte differentials and the influence of instrument flagging information on resulting microscopic differentials. Five stained slides with a range of band cell counts and five with variable numbers of atypical

  2. Profound peripheral T-lymphocyte depletion and activation in disseminated tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silva Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Three HIV-1-seronegative patients with disseminated tuberculosis presented significant depletion of T-cell counts, in CD4+ and/or CD8+ cells, associated with increased expression of activation marker CD38 on CD8+ T-lymphocytes. This finding raises the question of potential mechanisms involved in the activation or loss of T-cells in disseminated tuberculosis.

  3. The comparison of thrombocytosis and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as potential prognostic markers in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Krzystanek, Marcin; Josa, Valeria;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the preoperative platelet count and the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) of different stages and with hepatic metastasis of CRC (mCRC) and to compare these factors as potential prognostic markers. Clinicopathologi...

  4. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio May Be a Diagnostic Marker for Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Golge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is an effective and successful procedure but the outcome may occasionally be compromised by complications such as periprosthetic joint infection (PJI. Blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR is a simple marker of subclinical inflammation that can be easily obtained from the differential White Blood Cell count. This study aims to to analyze the predictive ability of NLR for the diagnosis of PJI. Material and Method: Patients who were diagnosed as grade 4 gonartrosis and operated for total knee arthroplasty between years 2007-2014 were evaluated. Thirty patients with PJI were included in the study as Group I and hematological tests including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood cell count (WBC and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR of the patients were evaluated retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative 6th month NLR values of the patients were compared. Also 103 age matched patients operated for total knee arthroplasty with no sign of infection  were included in the study as controls (Group II. Patients in Group I and Group II were also compared in terms of NLR. Results:Thirty patients (17 female, 13 male were present in Group I (patients with PJI and treated with two staged revision surgery and 103 patients (94 female, 9 male were present in Group II  (patients operated for total knee arthroplasty and had no sign of infection during the follow up period. NLR has been found to decrease from  3.2±0.7 to 2.2±0.5 when compared between the preoperative and postoperative 6th month period (p=<0,001. NLR has been found to be 2.1±0.7 in Group II and 3.2±0.7 in Group I at preoperative period. (p=<0,001.The value of 2.45 was found to be cut-off point for infection. Discussion:NLR can be used as marker for PJI together with the other markers as ESR and CRP to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis.

  5. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways.

  6. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limitações metodológicas de contagens de leucócitos e trombócitos totais em répteis (tartaruga da Amazônia, Podocnemis expansa: uma análise e discussão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três diferentes métodos para contar leucócitos totais [LT] (método de Natt & Herrick, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos e três métodos para contar trombócitos totais [TT] ( método de Wojtaszek, de estimação em 1000 e 2000 eritrócitos em uma espécie de tartaruga de água doce da América do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o método de Natt & Herrick mostraram limitações que são aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritrócitos na extensão sanguínea não são recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amazônia nem para outras espécies de répteis, pois houve ampla variação nestas contagens. Os métodos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritrócitos nas extensões sanguíneas foram mais aceitáveis porque

  7. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Konwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition. Materials and Methods: 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days. Results: In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05 effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb (g/dl after 45 days; total leukocyte count (103/mm3 and total erythrocyte count (106/mm3 after 30 days; packed cell volume (%, lymphocyte (%, and eosinophil (% after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (% and neutrophil (% values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH (pg after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment. Conclusion: The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.

  8. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  9. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  10. Changes in hematological indices and lymphocyte subsets in response to whole blood donation in healthy male donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Alsobhi, Enaam; Al Sofyani, Abeer; Balgoon, Dalal; Farzal, Anwar; Almohammadi, Mohammed; Al-Amri, Abdulafattah; Bahijri, Suhad; Alrowaili, Daad; Bassiuni, Wafaa; Saleh, Ayman; Alrowaili, Norah; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits. Following blood donation, changes in CBC and erythropoietin were as expected. The neutrophil count increased by 11.3% at 8 days (p donation, there are transient changes in lymphocyte subsets. The effect of BMI on lymphocyte subsets and the effect of this immunomodulation on the immune response merit further investigation.

  11. Total body irradiation therapy for thymectomized myasthenic patients and immunological evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kurihara, Teruyuki (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

    1983-06-01

    Three patients with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) were treated with total body irradiation (TBI). All the three patients had been unstable after extended thymectomy and poorly responding to prednisolone therapy. Radiation therapy consisted of 10 doses of 10 rads/day given over five weeks. After the radiation therapy the three patients improved clinically, and an objective parameter, area of M-waves also improved. No significant side effects were noted. TBI therapy can be considered as a safe method to induce selective reduction of circulating lymphocytes. This was indeed achieved, as evidenced by a drop of the lymphocyte counts to the levels of 20-40 % of the pretreatment level. The effects were persistent over twelve weeks. Early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes were recognized. The levels of T..gamma.. cells were low before TBI therapy, increasing gradually during TBI therapy and returned to normal range after twelve weeks. Serum anti-AChR antibody titers decreased in all the cases, but it was impossible to determine whether the decrement was due to the therapy or natural course after thymectomy. Two of our three cases had a significant percentage decrement of the titers after TBI therapy. We suggest that TBI therapy is a safe method of immunosupperssive treatment for the myasthenic patients after thymectomy.

  12. The ratio Neutrophil/Lymphocyte and Platelet/Lymphocyte in patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis that are Treating with Anti-TNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Boyraz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology. RA is characterized by a variable course of remissions and relapses, and subclinical inflammation persists between the disease exacerbations. Anti-TNF therapies have become more often preferred in recent years in the treatment of RA. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between N/L and P/L ratios and subclinical inflammation in patients with RA who achieved remission with anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective, controlled and multicenter study. The present study reviewed the medical records of the patients who were on follow-up in the outpatient clinics of the Department of Physical Therapy in Abant İzzet Baysal University and Harran University due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA and who achieved remission with anti-TNF therapy.A total of 80 patients in the inactive phase of RA and 45 healthy subjects in the control group were included in the study. Hemogram results of the people were examined retrospectively. RESULTS: There was significant difference between the patient and the control group in terms of platelet ratio and lymphocyte and neutrophil ratio. There was no significant difference between the group in terms of N/L and P/L ratios.CONCLUSIONS:  In the current study, we found significant differences between the patient and the control group in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of N/L and P/L ratios. These findings suggest that therapies with anti-TNF agents in patients with RA achieved complete control of inflammation. 

  13. VARIABILITY OF LEUKOCYTE COUNT AS AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AMONG HYPERTENSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension, a globally prevailing non communicable disease has been linked to various pathophysiological mechanisms. The new spotlight is on the inflammatory mechanism, which has been embarked on this study by utilising the White blood cell counts as the predominant marker. The pathogenesis behind this concept is the endothelial alteration which occurs in hypertension, causing increased oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators and further causing damage to the vascular walls and may result in sustained hypertension. OBJECTIVE To substantiate the difference in leukocyte count among the hypertensives and normotensives, to assess the variation in the leukocyte count among varied grades of hypertension. METHODS 80 subjects and 40 controls of both sex and age between 20-60 years were taken. Subjects with other chronic medical disorders, pregnancy, menstruation phase, history of infections in past 3 months, obesity, smokers and regular alcoholics were excluded. Three recordings of blood pressure were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The differential leukocyte count was estimated with an automated counter. RESULTS Statistical analysis was done using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Total Leukocyte count (Mean = 8397.50 ± 1666.57 was raised significantly among the hypertensives, with P value <0.001. Comparison was done on the total count with the varied hypertensive years, which was suggestive of increase in total count among the pre hypertensives (systolic pressure and there was linear increase in total count with diastolic pressure though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The elevation of white blood cell count is suggestive of underlying inflammatory mechanism among the hypertensives. The onset of inflammation could be at the onset of hypertension, as there is rise in total leukocyte count among the pre hypertensives which could also lead to sustained hypertension.

  14. The influence of the calibration standard and the chemical composition of the water samples residue in the counting efficiency of proportional detectors for gross alpha and beta counting. Application on the radiologic control of the IPEN-CNEN/SP; A influencia do padrao de calibracao e da composicao do residuo de amostras de agua na eficiencia de contadores proporcionais para contagem alfa e beta total. Aplicacao no controle radiologico do IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cecilia Martins

    2003-07-01

    In this work the efficiency calibration curves of thin-window and low background gas-flow proportional counters were determined for calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we have used {sup 241}Am and natural uranium standards and for the gross beta counting we have used {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs standards in residue thicknesses ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm{sup 2}. These sample thicknesses were increased with a previously determined salted solution prepared simulating the chemical composition of the underground water of IPEN The counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,273 +- 0,038 for a weightless residue to only 0,015 +- 0,002 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue for {sup 241}Am standard. For natural uranium standard the efficiency ranged from 0,322 +- 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023 +- 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue. The counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430 +- 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247 +- 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue for {sup 137}Cs standard. For {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y standard the efficiency ranged from 0,489 +- 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323 +- 0,026 in a planchet containing 18 mg/cm{sup 2} of residue. Results make evident the counting efficiency variation with the alpha or beta emitters energies and the thickness of the water samples residue. So, the calibration standard, the thickness and the chemical composition of the residue must always be considered in the gross alpha and beta radioactivity determination in water samples. (author)

  15. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  16. Exercise Training Alleviates Hypoxia-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Lymphocytes of Sedentary Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Chang, Shao-Chiang; Chou, Cheng-Hsien; Weng, Tzu-Pin; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-01-01

    This study elucidates how interval and continuous exercise regimens affect the mitochondrial functionality of lymphocytes under hypoxic stress. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomly assigned to engage in either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 3 min intervals at 80% and 40% VO2max, n = 20) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, sustained 60% VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks or were assigned to a control group that did not receive exercise intervention (n = 20). Lymphocyte phenotypes/mitochondrial functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2) were determined before and after the various interventions. Before the intervention, HE (i) increased the mobilization of senescent (CD57+/CD28−) lymphocytes into the blood, (ii) decreased the ATP-linked O2 consumption rate (OCR), the reserve capacity of OCR, and the citrate synthase activity in the mitochondria, and (iii) lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential (MP) and elevated the matrix oxidant burden (MOB) of lymphocytes. However, both HIIT and MICT significantly (i) decreased blood senescent lymphocyte counts, (ii) enhanced the mitochondrial OCR with increased citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities, (iii) increased mitochondrial MP and decreased MOB and (iv) increased the ratio of mitofusin to DRP-1 in lymphocytes after HE. Thus, we concluded that either HIIT or MICT effectively improves lymphocyte mitochondrial functionality by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and suppressing oxidative damage under hypoxic conditions. PMID:27731374

  17. Exercise Training Alleviates Hypoxia-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Lymphocytes of Sedentary Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Chang, Shao-Chiang; Chou, Cheng-Hsien; Weng, Tzu-Pin; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-10-12

    This study elucidates how interval and continuous exercise regimens affect the mitochondrial functionality of lymphocytes under hypoxic stress. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomly assigned to engage in either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 3 min intervals at 80% and 40% VO2max, n = 20) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, sustained 60% VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks or were assigned to a control group that did not receive exercise intervention (n = 20). Lymphocyte phenotypes/mitochondrial functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2) were determined before and after the various interventions. Before the intervention, HE (i) increased the mobilization of senescent (CD57(+)/CD28(-)) lymphocytes into the blood, (ii) decreased the ATP-linked O2 consumption rate (OCR), the reserve capacity of OCR, and the citrate synthase activity in the mitochondria, and (iii) lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential (MP) and elevated the matrix oxidant burden (MOB) of lymphocytes. However, both HIIT and MICT significantly (i) decreased blood senescent lymphocyte counts, (ii) enhanced the mitochondrial OCR with increased citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activities, (iii) increased mitochondrial MP and decreased MOB and (iv) increased the ratio of mitofusin to DRP-1 in lymphocytes after HE. Thus, we concluded that either HIIT or MICT effectively improves lymphocyte mitochondrial functionality by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and suppressing oxidative damage under hypoxic conditions.

  18. Effect of Spleen Lymphocytes on the Splenomegaly in Hepatocellular Carcinoma-bearing Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jing Jing; ZHU Zhen Yuan; DONG Hui; ZHENG Guo Qiang; TENG An Guo; LIU An Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of spleen lymphocytes on the splenomegaly by hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mouse model. Methods Cell counts, cell cycle distribution, the percentage of lymphocytes subsets and the levels of IL-2 were measured, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to investigate the relationship between spleen lymphocytes and splenomegaly in hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice. Results Compared with the normal group, the thymus was obviously atrophied and the spleen was significantly enlarged in the tumor-bearing group. Correlation study showed that the number of whole spleen cells was positively correlated with the splenic index. The cell diameter and cell-cycle phase distribution of splenocytes in the tumor-bearing group showed no significant difference compared to the normal group. The percentage of CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes in spleen and peripheral blood of tumor-bearing mice were substantially higher than that in the normal mice. Meanwhile, the IL-2 level was also higher in the tumor-bearing group than in the normal group. Furthermore, two dysregulated protein, β-actin and S100-A9 were identified in spleen lymphocytes from H22-bearing mice, which were closely related to cellular motility. Conclusion It is suggested that dysregulated β-actin and S100-A9 can result in recirculating T lymphocytes trapped in the spleen, which may explain the underlying cause of splenomegaly in H22-bearing mice.

  19. Changes in T-Lymphocytes' Viability After Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomatos, Ilias P.; Alevizos, Leonidas; Kalathaki, Olga; Kantsos, Harilaos; Kataki, Agapi; Leandros, Emmanuel; Zografos, George; Konstantoulakis, Manousos

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery results in decreased immune and metabolic stress response compared to open surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the suspension of host immune defense in terms of apoptosis, necrosis, and survival of peripheral T-lymphocytes in patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Apoptosis, necrosis and viability of peripheral T-lymphocytes were measured preoperatively and postoperatively by means of flow cytometry in 27 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 25 undergoing open cholecystectomy. White cell count, CRP, and serum glucose levels were also measured. Viable peripheral T-lymphocytes were significantly decreased in open cholecystectomy (P = 0.02), while their late apoptotic as well as the overall necrotic rate were significantly increased (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Open cholecystectomy was also associated with lower levels of surviving circulating T-lymphocytes (P = 0.01) and higher percentage of necrotic T lymphocytes (P = 0.03) 24 hours postoperatively compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Serum CRP was increased 24 hours after open cholecystectomy (P = 0.04). All differences failed to sustain more than 48 hours postoperatively. Increased viability and decreased necrosis of circulating T-lymphocytes were observed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Necrosis (and not apoptosis) seems to be the predominant pathway of T-lymphocyte death in open cholecystectomy, in a process reaching its peak at 24 hours and further attenuating 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:25875553

  20. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  2. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  3. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  4. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  5. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increases CD4+ T cell counts of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving stable, highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aladdin, H; Ullum, H; Dam Nielsen, S.

    2000-01-01

    counts resulted from increases in CD45RO+ memory T cells and cells expressing the CD38 activation marker. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin and Candida antigen decreased, whereas NK cell activity and plasma HIV RNA did not change during G-CSF treatment. After 24 weeks, all immune......Thirty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ T cell counts

  6. The effects of phototherapy on the numbers of circulating natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2009-04-01

    The innate immune system is believed to be important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and natural killer (NK) have been found in increased numbers in psoriatic plaques. Alterations in the numbers of NK cells in peripheral blood have been reported. We investigated the effect of phototherapy on levels of peripheral NK cells and lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis. In nine patients whom we followed before, during and after narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment there were no differences in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets or cells expressing NK markers and controls. Treatment with narrowband UVB did, however, significantly lower circulating CD4 counts which gradually recovered posttreatment.

  7. T lymphocyte subsets of the umbilical cord blood of dogs Subpopulações de linfócitos t no sangue de cordão umbilical de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.B. Cápua

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The hematological parameters red blood cells (RBC and total white blood cells (WBC counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and RBC indexes (median corpuscular volume and median corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were determined and T CD5+ lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations of the umbilical cord blood (UCB of dogs were quantified by the cytofluorimetric technique. Nine adult Beagles, from two do five-year old, were used as control. The umbilical cord blood (UCB was collected from 20 neonate dogs. The method for the UCB collection was adequate to obtain sufficient quantity of blood for the accomplishment of the hematological analyses and lymphocyte quantification. Cytoscopic preparations of the UCB suggested high erythropoietic activity. There was no difference for the global leukocyte and lymphocyte counts between the groups. UCB T lymphocyte counts were lower than those obtained for adult dogs. The proportion of CD4:CD8 showed a great dominance of T CD4+ cells over T CD8+ lymphocytes in UCB.Determinaram-se os valores hematológicos da contagem de hemácias, contagem total de leucócitos, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina e os índices hematimétricos (volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e quantificaram-se os linfócitos T CD5+ e as subpopulações CD4+ e CD8+ do sangue do cordão umbilical (SCU de cães por meio da técnica de citometria de fluxo. Nove cães adultos, da raça Beagle, foram utilizados como controle. O SCU foi colhido de 20 cães neonatos, a termo. O método de colheita de SCU utilizado proporcionou quantidade suficiente de sangue para realização das análises hematológicas e quantificação de linfócitos. As preparações citoscópicas do SCU sugeriram elevada atividade eritropoética. Não houve diferença nas contagens globais de leucócitos e linfócitos entre os grupos. A contagem de linfócitos T no SCU foi mais baixa que a obtida em animais adultos. A

  8. CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes imbalance in children with severe 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study was conducted to investigate the immune responses of children with moderate and severe novel influenza A virus (H1N1 pneumonia, and to compare their clinical and immunological findings with those of control subjects. Methods : Thirty-two admitted patients with H1N1 pneumonia were enrolled in the study. The clinical profiles, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of the 16 H1N1 pneumonia patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (severe pneumonia group, 16 H1N1 pneumonia patients admitted to the pediatric general ward (moderate pneumonia group and 13 control subjects (control group were measured. Results : Total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in patients with H1N1 pneumonia than in the control group (P=0.02. The number of CD4+ T lymphocytes was significantly lower in the severe pneumonia group (411.5±253.5/μL than in the moderate pneumonia (644.9±291.1/μL, P=0.04 and control (902.5±461.2/μL, P=0.01 groups. However, the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in the severe pneumonia group (684.2±420.8/μL than in the moderate pneumonia (319.7±176.6/μL, P=0.02 and control (407.2±309.3/μL, P=0.03 groups. The CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes ratio was significantly lower in the severe pneumonia group (0.86±0.24 than in the moderate pneumonia (1.57±0.41, P=0.01 and control (1.61±0.49, P=0.01 groups. The serum levels of immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin E were significantly higher in the severe pneumonia group than in the 2 other groups. Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that increased humoral immune responses and the differences in the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte profiles, and imbalance of their ratios may be related to the severity of H1N1 pneumonia in children.

  9. Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Dolma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the immunotherapeutic effect of astaxanthin (AX on total clinical score (TCS, C-reactive protein (CRP, and neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio in mice mastitis model challenged with pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four lactating mice were divided in 4 equal groups: group I mice served as normal healthy control, group II, positive control, were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus, group III mice were challenged and treated with AX, and group IV were treated with amoxicillin plus sulbactum. The TCS was higher in postchallenged mice; however it was significantly higher in group II untreated mice as compared to group III and group IV mice. The neutrophil was higher and lymphocyte count was lower in group II mice at 120 hrs post challenge (PC. The CRP was positive in all the challenged group at 24 hrs PC, but it remained positive till 120 hrs PC in group II. The parameters are related to enhancement of the mammary defense and reduction of inflammation. Hence AX may be used alone or as an adjunct therapy with antibiotic for amelioration of mastitis. Development of such therapy may be useful to reduce the antibiotic burden in management of intramammary infection.

  10. Leukocytic Response and Peripheral Venous Blood Lymphocyte Apoptosis as a Marker of Tissue Ischemia in Acute Massive Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Borovkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the level of peripheral venous blood lymphocyte apoptosis and intraoperative hypoxia in victims with acute massive blood loss. Subjects and methods. Twenty-two patients with open and close chest and abdominal traumas complicated by acute massive blood loss were examined. All the patients were emergently operated on to stop bleeding. Tissue metabolism was evaluated from gases, acid-base parameters, and plasma lactate, glucose, potassium, and sodium levels. Apoptosis of mononuclear cells was studied and dead leukocytes were counted using flow cytometry. Results. Preoperatively, the victims were found to have venous hypoxemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperglycemia, moderate leukocytosis, and higher dead leukocyte counts. There were also raised counts of lymphocytes coming into the process of apoptosis. A significant relationship was found between monocyte counts and hypoxia values. At the end of surgery, oxygen balance values became stable and exerted an effect on the count of leukocytes, the relative level of granulocytes, the relative and absolute counts of dead and damaged leukocytes, and the concentration of lymphocytes in the victims’ venous blood during the early stages of apoptosis, as evidenced by nonlinear regression models. Conclusion. The indicators of immunocompetent cell apoptosis and the count of venous blood dead leukocytes along with lactate levels and venous hypoxemia parameters reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia and may be used as specific markers.

  11. Long-term increases in lymphocytes and platelets in human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, Melissa T; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Hirschkorn, Dale; Sacher, Ronald A; Fridey, Joy; Garratty, George; Gibble, Joan; Smith, James W; Newman, Bruce; Yeo, Anthony E; Murphy, Edward L

    2008-11-15

    Human T-lymphotropic viruses types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) cause chronic infections of T lymphocytes that may lead to leukemia and myelopathy. However, their long-term effects on blood counts and hematopoiesis are poorly understood. We followed 151 HTLV-I-seropositive, 387 HTLV-II-seropositive, and 799 HTLV-seronegative former blood donors from 5 U.S. blood centers for a median of 14.0 years. Complete blood counts were performed every 2 years. Multivariable repeated measures analyses were conducted to evaluate the independent effect of HTLV infection and potential confounders on 9 hematologic measurements. Participants with HTLV-II had significant (P platelet counts (+16 544 and +21 657 cells/mm(3); P platelet count and lymphocyte counts, and to increases in MCV and monocytes. Sex, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption all had significant effects on blood counts. The HTLV-II effect on lymphocytes is novel and may be related to viral transactivation or immune response. HTLV-I and HTLV-II associations with higher platelet counts suggest viral effects on hematopoietic growth factors or cytokines.

  12. Identification and characterization of elevated microbial counts in bulk tank raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M C; Ralyea, R D; Murphy, S C; Carey, N R; Scarlett, J M; Boor, K J

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial composition of bulk tank milk from 13 farms was examined over a 2-wk period to characterize sudden elevations in the total bacterial count referred to as "spikes." Bulk tank milk samples collected at each pick-up were analyzed for standard plate count, Petrifilm aerobic count, somatic cell count, gram-negative organisms, and streptococci. Twenty standard plate count spikes were observed: 12 associated with streptococci, 4 associated with gram-negative organisms, 2 associated with streptococci and gram-negative organisms, and 2 that were not definitively characterized. Spikes ranged from 14,000 to 600,000 cfu/ml. Streptococcus uberis was isolated as the predominant organism from 11 spikes, and Escherichia coli was isolated from 4 spikes. Statistical analysis of total bacterial counts indicated a high correlation (r = 0.94) between standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic count. Regression analysis of standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic counts yielded the equation log10 (standard plate count) = 0.73 + 0.85log10 (Petrifilm aerobic count), indicating that the correlation, although strong, is not one to one. In a related pilot study, triplicate bulk tank milk samples were collected and analyzed for total bacterial count and presumptive streptococcus, gram-negative, and staphylococcus counts. Two-way ANOVA of these triplicate data indicated a lack of significant variation among the triplicate samples, suggesting that one sample can reliably gauge the microbial status of the entire bulk tank.

  13. Mediastinal irradiation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawitskii, A.; Rai, K.R.; Aral, I.; Silver, R.T.; Glicksman, A.S.; Carey, R.W.; Scialla, S.; Cornell, C.J. Jr.; Seligman, B.; Shapiro, L.

    1976-12-01

    Thirty-one patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were treated with mediastinal radiation. In none of the patients was complete remission achieved; either partial remission or clinical improvement was achieved in 52 percent, but the duration of response was short. The response rate was 77 percent for the patients receiving a total radiation dose greater than 3,000 rads and 45 percent for those receiving less than 3,000 rads. Severe life-threatening toxicity was noted in 11 patients and seven of these patients died; two patients died with progressive disease. Severe toxicity was manifested by one or more of the following: bone marrow aplasia, pancytopenia, gram-negative sepsis, generalized herpes zoster and severe esophagitis. Neither the total dose of radiation nor the dose per week correlated with the severity of reaction or death.

  14. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  15. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  16. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  17. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2017-06-01

    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  18. Automated Scoring and Analysis of Micronucleated Human Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisen, Hannes Heinrich

    Physical and chemical mutagens and carcinogens in our environment produce chromosome abberations in the circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes. The abberations, in turn, give rise to micronuclei when the lymphocytes proliferate in culture. In order to improve the micronucleus assay as a method for screening human populations for chromosome damage, I have (1) developed a high-resolution optical low-light-level micrometry expert system (HOLMES) to digitize and process microscope images of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, (2) defined a protocol of image processing techniques to objectively and uniquely identify and score micronuclei, and (3) analysed digital images of lymphocytes in order to study methods for (a) verifying the identification of suspect micronuclei, (b) classifying proliferating and non-proliferating lymphocytes, and (c) understanding the mechanisms of micronuclei formation and micronuclei fate during cell division. For the purpose of scoring micronuclei, HOLMES promises to (a) improve counting statistics since a greater number of cells can be scored without operator/microscopist fatigue, (b) provide for a more objective and consistent criterion for the identification of micronuclei than the human observer, and (c) yield quantitative information on nuclear and micronuclear characteristics useful in better understanding the micronucleus life cycle. My results on computer aided identification of micronuclei on microscope slides are gratifying. They demonstrate that automation of the micronucleus assay is feasible. Manual verification of HOLMES' results show correct extraction of micronuclei from the scene for 70% of the digitized images and correct identification of the micronuclei for 90% of the extracted objects. Moreover, quantitative analysis on digitized images of lymphocytes using HOLMES has revealed several exciting results: (a) micronuclear DNA content may be estimated from simple area measurements, (b) micronuclei seem to

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. A study of peripheral T-Lymphocytes in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of peripheral T-lymphocytes (active and total was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Boyam (1977 and West et al (1978. Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Thirty healthy subjects served as controls. Decrease in percentage of both active and total E-RFC was observed in 70% cases. The decrease was more significant in group II.

  1. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  2. Association between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varım, Ceyhun; Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Uyanık, Mehmet Sevki; Acar, Turkan; Alagoz, Neslihan; Nalbant, Ahmet; Kaya, Tezcan; Ergenc, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is characterised by abnormal sensations in the legs as well as dysaesthesia. Although the aetiology of RLS has not yet been determined, it may be associated with systemic inflammation. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new and simple marker indicating systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between systemic inflammation and RLS through the use of the NLR. METHODS A total of 75 newly diagnosed patients with RLS and 56 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Baseline NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count by the absolute lymphocyte count. The NLRs of the two groups were compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in gender and age between the two groups. The NLR was 1.96 ± 0.66 in the patient group and 1.67 ± 0.68 in the control group (p = 0.005). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value of NLR to predict RLS. The NLR was predictive at 1.58 with a 64% sensitivity and 50% specificity (95% confidence interval 0.55–0.74, area under curve 0.648 ± 0.05). The NLR was found to be statistically higher in patients with RLS and may be used to predict RLS. CONCLUSION The aetiology of RLS remains undetermined. The present study showed that systemic inflammation may play a role in RLS. However, RLS could also be associated with systemic inflammatory diseases. This relationship is supported by high NLR values, which are related to chronic systemic inflammation. PMID:27662970

  3. Effects of stress, mimicked by administration of corticosterone in drinking water, on the expression of chicken cytokine and chemokine genes in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shini, S; Kaiser, P

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we identify molecular mediators that participate in the regulation of the immune response during corticosterone-induced stress in chickens. At 7 weeks of age, 120 chickens were exposed for 1 week to corticosterone treatment. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression levels were evaluated in peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes. Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta4 mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lymphocytes 3 h after first treatment with corticosterone. TGF-beta4 and IL-18 remained elevated 1 week post-initial treatment. Compared with controls, corticosterone-treated birds showed greater expression levels of chemokine (CC) mRNA, particularly for CCLi2, CCL5 (RANTES), CCL16 and CXCLi1, in peripheral and splenic lymphocytes 3 h post-initial exposure. CCLi2 mRNA was highly expressed in splenocytes at all time-points. Administration of corticosterone significantly increased circulating corticosterone concentrations and decreased total lymphocyte counts at 3, 24 h and 1 week post-initiation of corticosterone treatment. There was a positive correlation between plasma corticosterone concentrations and CCL5 and CCL16 mRNA at 3 h post-initial administration. At 1 week post-initial treatment, corticosterone concentrations correlated positively with CCL5 and negatively with IL-18 mRNA level. Conditions associated with significant changes in corticosterone levels might therefore affect the immune response by increasing pro-inflammatory responses, leading to potential modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  4. Studies on rabbit lymphocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Anti-allotypic sera that have no known allotypic determinants other than those also present in the genotype of the lymphocyte donor are as able to induce lymphocyte `blast' transformation in vitro as are anti-allotypic sera that do have allotypic determinants that are not present in the lymphocyte donor. Therefore, anti-allotypic sera do not appear to function in the stimulation of blast transformation by providing access for any of the known allotypic determinants into lymphocytes. PMID:5769980

  5. Rapid exacerbation of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibue, Kimitaka; Fujii, Toshihito; Goto, Hisanori; Yamashita, Yui; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Tanji, Masahiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a relatively rare autoimmune disease defined by lymphocytic infiltration to the pituitary. Its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations make clarification of the pathology difficult. Here, we describe a case we examined from the primary diagnosis to final discharge, showing the serial progression of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH) to panhypopituitarism with extrapituitary inflammatory invasion in a short period, and responding favorably to high-dose glucocorticoid treatment. Patient concerns: Polyuria, General fatigue and Nausea/Vomiting. Diagnoses: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH). Interventions: Desmopressin acetate, High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Outcomes: He was prescribed desmopressin acetate and subsequently discharged. A month later, he revisited our hospital with general fatigue and nausea/vomiting. A screening test disclosed hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency. MRI revealed expanded contrast enhancement to the peripheral extrapituitary lesion. He received high-dose GC treatment and the affected lesion exhibited marked improvement on MRI, along with the recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Lessons: This case demonstrates the potential for classical LINH to develop into panhypopituitarsim. We consider this is the first documentation of approaching the cause of atypical LINH with progressive clinical course from the pathological viewpoint. PMID:28248860

  6. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  7. Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio Connected to Treatment Options and Inflammation Markers of Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökmen, Ferhat; Akbal, Ayla; Reşorlu, Hatice; Gökmen, Esra; Güven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Erbağ, Gökhan; Kömürcü, Erkam; Akbal, Erdem; Coşar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, white blood cells (WBCs) and their subtypes have been studied in relation to inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We enrolled a total of 177 patients, 96 AS and 81 healthy controls. Complete blood count, WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte levels were measured, and the NLR was calculated. In the assessment of AS, we used the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. In the present study, 96 AS and 81 healthy individuals were enrolled. The mean age was 43.8 ± 12.9 and 46.5 ± 11.2 years, respectively. Mean disease duration of AS patients was 6.9 ± 5.6 years (median = 5, min-max = 1-25). The patients with AS had a higher NLR than the control individuals (mean NLR, 2.24 ± 1.23 and 1.73 ± 0.70, respectively, P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between NLR and CRP (r = 0.322, P = 0.01). The patients receiving antitumor necrosis factor α therapy had a lower NLR than the patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy (mean NLR, 1.71 ± 0.62 and 2.41 ± 1.33, respectively, P = 0.02). NLR may be seen as a useful marker for demonstrating inflammation together with acute phase reactants such as CRP and in evaluating the effectiveness of anti-TNF-α therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [SEX HORMONE INFLUENCE ON PERIPHERAL NATURAL KILLER CELLS COUNT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P; Konova, E; Blajeva, Sv; Lukanov, Tsv; Angelova, P; Georgieva, V; Totev, V; Komsa-Penkova, R

    2015-01-01

    Proper evaluation of immunological factors connected with pregnancy establishment increased the possibility for exact treatment in high risk gestation cases. Hormonal changes during an ovarian cycle may affect immune response, which is crucial for the embryonic implantation. Peripheral Natural killer (pNK) cells are key components of immune systems and their activities could be regulated by sex hormones. In the present study we investigated the effects of estrogen fluctuation on the number of NK cells in vivo during the early follicular and middle luteal phase of menstrual cycle. In 63 healthy women with at least one full term pregnancy and regular menstrual cycle with duration between 24 and 32 days, blood samples have been collected twice for investigation of CD3/CD16/CD56 positive lymphocytes. The mean pNK count in follicular phase was 11.6% with 4.7% variation. The median was 10.6%. The mean pNK count in luteal phase was 12.1% with 5.1% variation, respectively median for cell number 11.8%. The two-tailed t-test comparison did not find any statistical difference despite the slight elevation of pNK cells count in luteal phase. The insignificant variation in pNK cells count objected the suggestion to evaluate immunological status in women with adverse pregnancy outcome in specific phase of menstrual cycle.

  9. Folate deficiency and an abnormal lymphocyte deoxyuridine suppression test in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenen, S W; Hwang, S M; Blocker, D E; Meadows, C A

    1991-01-01

    Cebus albifrons were fed folate-deficient diets in order to assess folate status at the cellular level with the deoxyuridine suppression test. Plasma and red blood cell folates were significantly lower at 2 months, compared to control values. Hematologic signs of megaloblastic anemia occurred after 6 months, with significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell number values and increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte lobe counts. Urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion also was elevated significantly. Whole blood lymphocyte cultures exhibited abnormal deoxyuridine suppression of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA with folate deficiency. Thus this deoxyuridine suppression test can be used in isolated whole blood lymphocytes of these nonhuman primates to document folate deficiency.

  10. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  12. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  13. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  14. Concanavalin A-induced activation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus memory lymphocytes into specifically cytotoxic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Andersen, G T

    1977-01-01

    When spleen cells, which have been primed to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) virus during a primary infection several months previously, are stimulated in vitro with Con A. highly specific secondary cytotoxic effector cells are generated. The degree of cytotoxicity revealed by such Con A......-stimulated cells is higher than that of non-incubated spleen cells harvested nine days following the primary infection, and the effect is totally inhibited by anti-theta serum plus complement treatment of the effector cells immediately before the cytotoxic test....

  15. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  16. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  17. Counting the Minutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Sternberg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    How truck drivers spend their time is crucial to the profitability of motor carriers. However, the aspect of time has been marginally addressed in industry practice and academic literature on motor-carrier strategies and operations. Given the importance of the drivers in transport operations......, the purpose of this article is to outline how driver time in motor-carrier operations can be measured using various methods. The underlying empirical data related to transport efficiency have been collected over five years throughout numerous projects in Europe. The article summarizes the experiences from...... the measurements carried out in these projects. In total, 80 drivers from 22 motor carriers were measured using different types of participant observations and driver self-observation. Practitioners addressing drivers’ time use will find important principles to guide their work in measuring drivers’ activities...

  18. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  19. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  20. Stereological quantification of lymphocytes in skin biopsies from atopic dermatitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, A R; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Larsen, J O;

    2001-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is histologically characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the skin and quantitative assessment is required. This study introduces stereological techniques to quantify the number of lymphocytes in skin biopsies. Four-millimetre punch biopsies were taken from skin...... with active eczema in 8 adults with AD and from clinically normal skin from 4 of the patients. Five persons without allergy or skin disease served as controls. The mean number of lymphocytes in 4-mm skin biopsies was 469,000 and 124,000 in active eczema and in clinically normal skin, respectively. Compared...... with controls, the number of lymphocytes in biopsies increased by a factor of 6.8 in active eczema and a factor of 1.8 in clinically normal skin. If 20% of skin is affected by eczema the total number of lymphocytes located in the affected skin can be estimated to 1.27 x 10(10). A patient with clinically...

  1. Effect of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy on peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and its treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy on peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its treatment strategy. Ninety-eight pediatric patients with adenoidal hypertrophy associated with OSAHS admitted to the Department of Otolaryngology, Xuzhou Children's Hospital were selected. After admission, patients received perfected 24 h polysomnogram monitoring, routine blood examination, fasting blood biochemistry examination, T-lymphocyte subset count, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and nasopharyngeal computed tomography. After patients were diagnosed with adenoidal hypertrophy associated with OSAHS, they underwent transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy with a power microdebrider. Patients were evaluated at 3-, 6- and 12-week follow-up visits. The CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-cell counts, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, and changes of 24 h ambulatory blood pressure before and after surgery were recorded. After the 6-week follow-up visit, the mean CD4(+) T lymphocyte count in patients was increased significantly compared with that before surgery, the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio increased gradually, and the differences were statistically significant (PT lymphocyte ratio was negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP) (r=-1.06, P=0.003). In conclusion, adenoidectomy can significantly decrease the MAP in pediatric patients with OSAHS and increase the duration of nocturnal sleep. The peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in pediatric patients was significantly negatively correlated with MAP.

  2. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  3. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  4. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Denis, Josiane; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Foucher, Barbara; Desangles, François; Martigne, Patrick; Chaussard, Hervé; Drouet, Michel; Abend, Michael; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI) and partial-body irradiation (PBI) to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims). To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18) were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI) or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI). More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6) and PBI (n = 12), for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  5. Are neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio reliable parameters as prognostic indicators in malignant mesothelioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Onur, Seda; Sokucu, Sinem Nedime; Dalar, Levent; Iliaz, Sinem; Kara, Kaan; Buyukkale, Songül; Altin, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive asbestos-related pleural tumor. The incidence is increasing with intensive use of asbestos in developing countries. We need an easily accessible, inexpensive, and reliable method for determining the low survival time prognosis of this tumor. The aim of our study was to investigate the viability of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as prognostic indicators in MM. Patients and methods Thirty-six patients with MM, whose histopathologic diagnosis and follow-up were performed by our clinic and whose complete archive data were accessible, were included in this retrospective study. The patients’ histopathologic disease types and stages, complete blood count parameters at diagnosis, and survival were recorded. Results Eighteen of the patients with MM were male and the remaining 18 of them were female; the average follow-up period was 24.83±3.61 months. The PLR levels of the patients were statistically significant (P<0.05). The NLR and PLR area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.559 and 0.749, respectively (P=0.631 and P=0.044, respectively). Conclusion PLR was a significant prognostic indicator of MM at diagnosis on complete blood count parameters; however, NLR was not a significant prognostic indicator. A large number of prospective studies are needed to prove the reliability of the parameters. PMID:27217757

  6. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  7. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  8. Can neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predict lamina propria invasion in patients with non muscle invasive bladder cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Halis, Fikret; Saglam, Hasan Salih; Gokce, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Recent studies have demonstrated the role of systemic inflammation in the development and progression of cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether preoperatively measured neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict lamina propria invasion in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Material and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 304 consecutive and newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer who had been treated with transurethral resection between January 2008 and June 2014. In total, 271 patients were included in the study and the patients were divided into two groups according to the pathological stage (Group 1: Ta, Group 2: T1). NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count (N) by the absolute lymphocyte count (L). Results In total, 271 patients (27 women and 244 men) were enrolled. Mean age was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (67.3±10.8 vs. 62.9±10.8, pblood cell (WBC) and N counts were statistically insignificant (7.63±1.87 vs. 7.69±1.93, p=0.780; 4.72±1.54 vs. 4.46±1.38, p=0.140; respectively), L was significantly lower and NLR was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (2.07±0.75 vs. 2.4±0.87, p=0.001; 2.62±1.5 vs. 2.19±1.62, p=0.029; respectively). Conclusion Our data indicate that high NLR and low L are statistically associated with T1 stage, whereas low L are able to predict lamina propria invasion in patients with NMIBC. These findings suggest that pretreatment measurement of NLR may provide valuable information for the clinical management of patients with NMIBC. Prospective studies are now required to further validate the role of NLR as a risk factor in NMIBC. PMID:28124528

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and

  10. Blood and alveolar lymphocyte subsets in pulmonary cytomegalovirus infection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenet Dominique

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV pneumonitis has been shown to be associated with lymphocytic alveolitis after lung transplantation. In the present study, we investigated a series of bronchoalveolar (BAL and blood samples, collected in the absence of rejection or acute infectious episodes. in order -1: to evaluate intra-alveolar cell population changes concomitant with CMV replication and -2: to reappraise the value of cell population analysis in the management of patients after lung transplantation. Methods We used flow cytometry to investigate modifications of lymphocyte subpopulations related to pulmonary cytomegalovirus infections in blood and BAL samples from a series of 13 lung transplant recipients. After exclusion of samples obtained during pulmonary rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans or acute bacterial infection, 48 blood and BAL samples were retained for analysis: 17 were CMV positive by shell-vial assay and 31 were CMV negative in blood and BAL. Results Our results demonstrate that pulmonary CMV infection is associated with a significant increase in the total lymphocyte population in BAL samples, but with minor modifications of the various lymphocyte subpopulations and a significantly higher absolute number of B lymphocytes in blood samples. Conclusions Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection is accompanied by only minor changes in BAL lymphocyte subpopulations. The study of BAL lymphocyte subpopulations therefore appears to be of limited clinical value in the diagnosis of pulmonary CMV infection. However, increased blood B-lymphocytes seems to be a clinical feature associated with CMV infection.

  11. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mediates integrin LFA-1 de-adhesion during T lymphocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nicole A; Oakes, Patrick W; Hyun, Young-Min; Lee, Dooyoung; Chin, Y Eugene; Chin, Eugene Y; King, Michael R; Springer, Timothy A; Shimaoka, Motomu; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S; Kim, Minsoo

    2008-01-21

    Precise spatial and temporal regulation of cell adhesion and de-adhesion is critical for dynamic lymphocyte migration. Although a great deal of information has been learned about integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 adhesion, the mechanism that regulates efficient LFA-1 de-adhesion from intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 during T lymphocyte migration is unknown. Here, we show that nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MyH9) is recruited to LFA-1 at the uropod of migrating T lymphocytes, and inhibition of the association of MyH9 with LFA-1 results in extreme uropod elongation, defective tail detachment, and decreased lymphocyte migration on ICAM-1, without affecting LFA-1 activation by chemokine CXCL-12. This defect was reversed by a small molecule antagonist that inhibits both LFA-1 affinity and avidity regulation, but not by an antagonist that inhibits only affinity regulation. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the contact zone between migrating T lymphocytes and ICAM-1 substrate revealed that inactive LFA-1 is selectively localized to the posterior of polarized T lymphocytes, whereas active LFA-1 is localized to their anterior. Thus, during T lymphocyte migration, uropodal adhesion depends on LFA-1 avidity, where MyH9 serves as a key mechanical link between LFA-1 and the cytoskeleton that is critical for LFA-1 de-adhesion.

  12. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  13. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  14. Role of Total Antral Follicle Count in Evaluation of Ovarian Function and Prediction of Outcome after ART%基础窦卵泡数在评价卵巢的反应性及预测人类辅助生殖技术(ART)结局中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全吴敏; 朱桂金

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨基础总窦卵泡数(tAFC)在评价卵巢功能和预测ART结局中的作用.方法:回顾性分析1 353例接受常规体外受精(IVF)/卵母细胞质内单精子显微注射(ICSI)治疗的不孕患者早卵泡期窦卵泡计数的资料,按tAFC分组:A组<5个,B组5~10个,C组11~15个,D组>15个,分别统计各组促性腺激素(Gn)用量、hCG注射日直径≥14mm卵泡数、获卵数、2原核(2PN)数、可利用胚胎数及妊娠结局.结果:tAFC对卵巢反应性和卵巢储备功能的预测价值优于年龄和基础卵泡刺激素(bFSH),tAFC<10个预示卵巢低反应性,>12个则预示卵巢高反应性;tAFC对ART结局的预测价值稍优于年龄和bFSH,tAFC >10个则预示临床妊娠可能性大,tAFC>15个或<5个则预示周期取消率增加.新鲜周期妊娠率随tAFC增多而上升(C组最高42.3%),周期取消率随tAFC增多而下降,但tAFC> 15个时,周期取消率上升至24.2%,主要原因是卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS).结论:基础tAFC与影响ART结局的各种因素密切相关,可作为预测ART结局的参考指标,并且直接有效地评价卵巢储备功能和卵巢反应性,是患者接受ART前的首选检查,临床应用中值得推广.%Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of the antral follicle count in patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Methods: A retrospective study including 1 353 couples who undergoing IVF/ICSI was performed. The ovarian total antral follicle count (tAFC) was analyzed. All treatment cycles were divided into 4 groups according to the number of antral follicles (group A 15) to evaluate the influence of various factors. Results: tAFC had better value in predicting ovarian response and ovarian reserve than age and basal FSH, it predicted poor ovarian response if tAFC was less than 8 and high response if tAFC was more than 12. Also tAFC had better value in predicting outcome after ART than age and basal FSH, it predicted more

  15. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Depletion After Hepatic Arterial {sup 90}Yttrium Microsphere Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Brian I., E-mail: brianicarr@hotmail.com [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA and Department of Nutrition and Exptl Biology, Saverio De Bellis Medical Research Institute, Castellana Grotte, Bari (Italy); Metes, Diana M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA and Department of Nutrition and Exptl Biology, Saverio De Bellis Medical Research Institute, Castellana Grotte, Bari (Italy)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The short- and long-term effects of {sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on peripheral blood lymphocytes are unknown and were therefore examined. Methods and Materials: Ninety-two HCC patients were enrolled in a {sup 90}Yttrium therapy study and routine blood counts were examined as part of standard clinical monitoring. Results: We found an early, profound, and prolonged lymphopenia. In a subsequent cohort of 25 additional HCC patients, prospective flow cytometric immune-monitoring analysis was performed to identify specific changes on distinct lymphocyte subsets (i.e., CD3, CD4, CD8 T, and CD19 B lymphocytes) and NK cells absolute numbers, in addition to the granulocytes and platelets subsets. We found that the pretreatment lymphocyte subset absolute numbers (with the exception of NK cells) had a tendency to be lower compared with healthy control values, but no significant differences were detected between groups. Posttherapy follow-up revealed that overall, all lymphocyte subsets, except for NK cells, were significantly (>50% from pretherapy values), promptly (as early as 24 h) and persistently (up to 30 months) depleted post-{sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy. In contrast, granulocytes increased rapidly (24 h) to compensate for lymphocyte depletion, and remained increased at 1-year after therapy. We further stratified patients into two groups, according to survival at 1 year. We found that lack of recovery of CD19, CD3, CD8, and especially CD4 T cells was linked to poor patient survival. No fungal or bacterial infections were noted during the 30-month follow-up period. Conclusions: The results show that lymphocytes (and not granulocytes, platelets, or NK cells) are sensitive to hepatic arterial {sup 90}Yttrium without associated clinical toxicity, and lack of lymphocyte recovery (possibly leading to dysregulation of adaptive cellular immunity) posttherapy indicates poor survival.

  16. NEUTROPHIL/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AND PLATELET/LYMPHOCYTE RATIO IN PATIENTS WITH NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to compare neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with NSCLC (Non- Small- Cell Lung Cancer): with and without metastases at the time of diagnosis to find out if there is the importance of these cell ratios in the assessment of severity NSCLC. Material and Methods: this is the retrospective analysis of NRL and PRL in patients with NSCLC at the time of the diagnosis of disease before any anti tumor treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery). 57 of patients with NSCLC treated in the first three months of 2016. year were chosen at random regardless of sex and age. We examined full blood count cells (FBC), calculated NLR and PLR in every patient and compared obtained values in patients with and patients without metastases. Results: In 57 patients with NSCLC there were 15 males with metastases, 28 without metastases, and 8 females with metastases, 6 without metastases. Since there was no regularity in the distribution of obtained values of NLR and PLR we made the Mann-Whitney U test. Mean values are presented with a median and interquartile percentiles. There was no significant difference in NLR between patients without and with metastases (p = 0.614; p = NS) as well as in PLR (p=0,068; p=NS). Conclusion: There must be a link between the immune status of the organism and lung cancer development. Immune cells have become of interest in recent years and much work has been done to study their role in the genesis of cancer but it did not give satisfactory results. Further clinical studies on large number of patients and further laboratory examination of the role of immune cells in cancer development and suppression are required. PMID:27999489

  17. Automated blood cell count: a sensitive and reliable method to study corticosterone-related stress in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    In chickens the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L) has proved to be a valuable tool in stress related research. In general, H/L is determined with the microscopic differential count on a blood film. We evaluated automated analysis for measuring blood cell parameters in relation to corticosterone in a

  18. Changes in lymphocyte subsets in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, F.; Lenters, V.C.; Boers, D.; Portengen, L.; Baeten, E.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Bloem, A.C.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known to have toxic effects on the haematopoietic system in animals but epidemiological studies in humans have shown inconsistent results. In this cross-sectional study we investigated changes in peripheral blood cell counts and lymphocyte su

  19. Low Lymphocyte Ratio as a Novel Prognostic Factor in Acute Heart Failure : Results from the Pre-RELAX-AHF Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milo-Cotter, Olga; Teerlink, John R.; Metra, Marco; Felker, G. Michael; Ponikowski, Piotr; Voors, Adriaan A.; Edwards, Christopher; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Greenberg, Barry; Filippatos, Gerassimos; Unemori, Elaine; Teichman, Sam L.; Cotter, Gad

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that a lower lymphocyte ratio (Ly%) in the white blood cell (WBC) differential count is related to worse outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and other cardiovascular disorders. Methods: In the Pre-RELAX-AHF study, 234 patients with AHF, sys

  20. Measurement of subgroups of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小平; 尹炽标; 张复春; 付永贵; 陈伟烈; 陈燕清; 王建; 贾卫东; 徐安龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of subgroups of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its clinical significance. Methods Subgroups of blood T lymphocytes in 93 patients with SARS were detected by flow cytometer. The results detected in 64 normal subjects and 50 patients with AIDS served as controls. Results The numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes all significantly decreased in acute phase of patients with SARS [(722±533)/μl, (438±353)/μl, (307±217)/μl)] compared with those in normal controls [(1527±470)/μl, (787±257)/μl, (633±280)/μl, all P<0.01)], which was different from what we observed in patients with AIDS who had decreased CD4+[(296±298)/μl] but ncreased CD8+[(818±566)/μl] counts. The counts of CD3+,CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes decreased more apparently in patients with severe SARS. All the five patients who died had CD4+ counts less than 200/μl. As the patients' condition improved, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ counts gradually returned to normal ranges. Conclusion The damage of cellular immunity is probably an important mechanism of pathogenesis of SARS.

  1. Periprosthetic joint infection diagnosis: a complete understanding of white blood cell count and differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmistowski, Benjamin; Restrepo, Camilo; Huang, Ronald; Hozack, William J; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-10-01

    Recent research has raised doubts regarding the utility of serum white blood cell count (WBC) for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). As synovial WBC and neutrophil (PMN) percentage have been adopted as accurate markers of PJI, this study investigated the correlation of WBC in serum versus joint fluid and diagnostic value of all WBC levels for failed arthroplasty patients. 153 patients (73 PJI) undergoing revision knee arthroplasty were identified. Weak correlations between joint fluid and serum for WBC (R = 0.19), PMN count (R = 0.31), and lymphocyte count (R = -0.22) were observed. Diagnostic accuracy of PMN (93%) and WBC (93%) synovial count relative to serum was similar to synovial WBC (93%) and PMN% (95%) alone. Serum WBC analysis does little to improve the accurate diagnosis of PJI.

  2. Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

  3. Induction of DNA repair synthesis by ultraviolet radiation and methylmethanesulphonate in cultured mouse lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, V.; Zantedeschi, A.; Levis, A.G. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata); Ronchese, F. (Inst. of Pathological Anatomy, Padua (Italy))

    1983-02-01

    The induction of DNA repair synthesis by UV-radiation and methylmethanesulphonate (MMS) was studied in mouse lymphocytes and leukemic cells by means of autoradiography and scintillation counting, after labelling in vitro with tritiated thymidine ((/sup 3/H)dThd). Repair stimulation was detected by both procedures in LSTRA AND YC8 leukemic cell lines as well as in primary fibroblasts of BALB/c and BALB/Mo mice. No stimulation was observed in primary cultures of lymphocytes from the spleen, thymus and lymph-nodes of the same mice. In primary lymphocytes neither stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) nor pre-incubation with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) were effective in making evident DNA repair. The data put into question the reliability of the repair test for the prediction of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

  4. Expected Number Counts of Radio Galaxy Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies may contain radio sources if they still experience successive mergers at present. This has been confirmed by radio observations that about 30% of nearby clusters possess radio halos. We present a theoretical prediction of radio cluster counts using a semi-analytic approach which incorporates the empirical correlation between radio power and dynamical mass of clusters, and the cluster mass function described by the Press-Schechter formalism. The total population of radio clusters over the whole sky and their redshift distribution are given.

  5. Prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianqian Yu; Hong Qiu; Mingsheng Zhang; Guangyuan Hu; Liu Huang; Xianglin Yuan 

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting clinical outcomes of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) undergoing irinotecan-based first-line chemotherapy. Methods This study was based on a Chinese prospective multicenter trial (NCT01282658). Baseline complete blood cel counts were performed. Survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analyses based on the Cox regression model were performed to determine the ef ects of inde-pendent biomarkers. Results A total of 139 patients were evaluated. Values below the median NLR were associated with bet-ter progression-free survival (PFS) (9.9 vs 7.7 months, P = 0.043) and overal survival (OS) (21.8 vs 15.1 months, P = 0.013). These ef ects remained significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusion NLR is an independent prognostic marker of mCRC treated with first-line irinotecan-based therapy in a Chinese population.

  6. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. [Lower lymphocyte response in severe cases of acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Antúnez-Fernández, Cristina; Milano-Manso, Guillermo; Cordón-Martínez, Ana María; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-08-14

    Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015. Those with a full blood count in the first 48hours of respiratory distress were included. Infants with underlying disease, bacterial superinfection, and premature infants <32 weeks of gestation were excluded. The main dichotomous variable was PICU admission. Other variables were: gender, age, post-menstrual age, gestational and post-natal tobacco exposure, admission month, type of lactation, and days of onset of respiratory distress. Lymphocyte counts were categorised by quartiles. Bivariate analysis was performed with the main variable and then by logistic regression to analyse confounding factors. The study included 252 infants, of whom 6.6% (17) required PICU admission. The difference in mean±SD of lymphocytes for patients admitted to and not admitted to PICU was 4,044±1755 and 5,035±1786, respectively (Student-t test, P<.05). An association was found between PICU admission and lymphocyte count <3700/ml (Chi-squared, P=.019; OR: 3.2) and it was found to be maintained in the logistic regression, regardless of age and all other studied factors (Wald 4.191 P=.041, OR: 3.8). A relationship was found between lymphocytosis <3700/ml in the first days of respiratory distress and a worse outcome in previously healthy infants <12 months and gestational age greater than 32 weeks with RSV-AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, calprotectin and YKL-40 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Klitgaard; Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone Hagens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive decline in pulmonary function. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), YKL-40 and calprotectin are biomarkers of inflammation and predict mortality in patients with different inflammatory......- and multivariate Cox regression analyses with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Plasma calprotectin was positively correlated with neutrophil granulocyte count and NLR. No significant association was found between plasma YKL-40 and the cellular biomarkers, irrespective...... of glucocorticoid treatment. In the group not treated with systemic glucocorticoids, plasma calprotectin [HR 1.002 (95% CI 1.000 - 1.004)], NLR [HR 1.090 (1.036 - 1.148)] and lymphocyte count [HR 0.667 (0.522 - 0.851)] were significantly associated with higher mortality. In the group treated with systemic...

  9. Preoperative Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Peripheral Blood Predicts Stages, Metastasis, and Histological Grades in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangdong Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR has been shown to be associated with the prognosis of various solid tumors. This study sought to evaluate the important value of the MLR in ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 133 ovarian cancer patients and 43 normal controls were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' demographics were analyzed along with clinical and pathologic data. The counts of peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets were collected and used to calculate the MLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR. and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR was determined by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. We compared the MLR, NLR, and PLR between ovarian cancer and normal control patients and among patients with different stages and different grades, as well as between patients with lymph node metastasis and non–lymph node metastasis. We then investigated the value of the MLR in predicting the stage, grade, and lymph node positivity by using logistic regression. The impact of the MLR on overall survival (OS was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the MLR were observed between ovarian cancer patients and normal controls. However, no difference was found for the NLR and PLR. Highly significant differences in the MLR were found among patients with different stages (stage I-II and stage III-IV, grades (G1 and >G1, and lymph node metastasis status. The MLR was a significant and independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis, as determined by logistic regression. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR was 0.23. We also classified the data according to tumor markers (CA125, CA199, HE4, AFP, and CEA and conventional coagulation parameters (International Normalized Ratio [INR] and fibrinogen. Highly significant differences in CA125, CA199, HE4, INR, fibrinogen levels, and lactate

  10. Seasonal changes in haematology, lymphocyte transferrin receptors and intracellular iron in Ironman triathletes and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether 12 months of chronic endurance training would affect haematology, CD4(+) lymphocyte transferrin receptor (CD71) expression, CD4(+) intracellular iron and the incidence of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) in Ironman triathletes compared with untrained men. Resting venous blood samples were taken from 15 Ironman triathletes (TR 30 ± 5 year) and 12 untrained men (UT 30 ± 6 year) every 4 weeks for 12 months. Erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet concentration, haematocrit, haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC) were measured with a full blood count. CD4(+) lymphocytes were analysed for changes in transferrin receptor (CD71) expression (CD4(+)CD71(+)), and intracellular iron (Fe(3+)), by flow cytometry. The TR group had significantly lower Hb, MCHC, and platelets for 10, 9 and 11 months, respectively; lower CD4(+)CD71(+) (3 months) and Fe(3+) (1 month), respectively; higher CD4(+)CD71(+) (1 month); a higher lymphocyte count for 4 months. There were no between-group differences in other variables. In both groups haematology and lymphocytes increased during spring, early summer and winter and decreased during late summer/late winter, with an inverse relationship between CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+). The TR group reported significantly fewer URTI than the UT. Low Hb and MCHC suggest an iron deficiency which may affect triathlete performance. Monthly changes in lymphocytes, CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+) suggested that spring, summer and late autumn are associated with CD4(+) proliferation. There may be seasonal relationships between haematology and lymphocyte function, independent of endurance training, possibly affecting performance but not the incidence of URTI.

  11. Changes in Some Biochemical Parameters and Somatic Cell Counts in the Milk of Buffalo and Cattle Suffering from Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain§, Muhammad Tariq Javed and Ahrar Khan*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a total of 592 buffaloes and 453 cattle in their different stages of lactation to investigate the biochemical changes occurring in milk due to mastitis. California Mastitis Test (CMT was used to diagnose the mammary gland infection. The results revealed significant (P<0.0001 increase in pH, electrical conductivity, malondialdehyde and total dissolved solids, while decrease in fat, protein, lactose and solids not fat in milk samples of both mastitic buffaloes and cattle. The total somatic cell and neutrophil counts were significantly higher, while the macrophage and lymphocytes were lower in the milk of mastitic animals. The enzymes including lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase along with sodium were significantly higher in mastitic than healthy buffaloes. It was similar in cattle as well, with the exception of aspartate aminotransferase which was non-significant in cattle. The values of potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were significantly higher in the milk of mastitic animals. The copper levels were significantly (P<0.0001 lower in mastitic than in healthy buffaloes, while it showed non-significant difference in cattle. The investigation of enzymes, lipid peroxidation product and milk electrical conductivity in present study appeared suitable diagnostic tools for identification of mastitis.

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  13. The Relationship between Obesity, Prostate Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Macrophages, and Biochemical Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Morales, Knashawn H; Lal, Priti; Feldman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Obesity reflects a chronic inflammatory environment that may contribute to prostate cancer progression and poor treatment outcomes. However, it is not clear which mechanisms drive this association within the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this pilot study was to examine prostatic inflammation via tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages characterized by obesity and cancer severity. We studied paraffin-embedded prostatectomy tissue from 99 participants (63 non-obese and 36 obese) from the Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk and Ethnicity (University of Pennsylvania). Pathologists analyzed the tissue for type and count of lymphocytes and macrophages, including CD3, CD8, FOXP3, and CD68. Pathology data were linked to clinical and demographic variables. Statistical analyses included frequency tables, Kruskal-Wallis tests, Spearman correlations, and multivariable models. We observed positive univariate associations between the number of CD68 cells and tumor grade (p = 0.019). In multivariable analysis, CD8 counts were associated with time to biochemical failure (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.004-1.192, p-value = 0.041.) There were no differences in lymphocytes or macrophages by obesity status or BMI. The number of lymphocytes and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment did not differ by obesity status. However, these inflammation markers were associated with poor prostate cancer outcomes. Further examination of underlying mechanisms that influence obesity-related effects on prostate cancer outcomes is warranted. Such research will guide immunotherapy protocols and weight management as they apply to diverse patient populations and phenotypes.

  14. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  15. The efficacy of tonsillectomy in chronic tonsillitis patients as demonstrated by the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy are the oldest surgical procedures. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an inflammatory marker. This study aimed to investigate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios in chronic tonsillitis patients and to determine whether this ratio reflects the pre- and post-operative inflammatory status in these patients. Patients and healthy individuals were assigned to four groups: the adenoid hypertrophy, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, chronic tonsillitis and control groups. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated for each patient before surgery and one month post-surgery. Pre- and post-operative white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were compared both within and between groups. Pre- and post-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly higher in the chronic tonsillitis group than in the adenoid hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy groups (p tonsillitis group, post-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower than pre-operative ratios (p = 0.045). The pre-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the chronic tonsillitis group than in the adenoid hypertrophy, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and control groups (p = 0.000). In contrast, there was no significant difference in post-operative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios among all groups (p = 0.584). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio measurement can be used in chronic tonsillitis patients as an effective auxiliary method for determining the necessity and timing of tonsillectomy and post-operative follow up, thereby helping prevent complications due to delayed or inadequate treatment.

  16. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  17. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  18. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  19. Using CD4 counts to evaluate the stages and epidemiology of HIV infection in South Carolina public clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, S; Jones, J; Horan, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. CD4 lymphocyte counts decrease with the duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We used CD4 counts collected for clinical reasons to evaluate the stage of HIV infection and the epidemiology of recent HIV infections among attendees of South Carolina's public health clinics. METHODS. We measured the CD4 T-lymphocyte counts of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection April 1989 through June 1990 at South Carolina public health clinics who returned for follow-up. RESULTS. Of 812 newly diagnosed HIV-infected health department patients, 420 (52%) had their CD4 lymphocyte counts measured. Of these 420, 51 (12%) had CD4 counts of or = 900), which are associated with more recent HIV infection, were more common in females. CONCLUSIONS. In South Carolina, almost half of newly reported HIV-infected persons who agreed to CD4 testing at the health department might benefit from immediate drug therapy. Within this population, women may be an emerging risk group that requires specifically directed HIV prevention efforts. PMID:7907458

  20. Lymphocytes subsets in children with febrile convulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Karaman, Sait; Caksen, Hüseyin; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabas, Dursun; Yilmaz, Cahide; Atas, Bülent

    2007-07-01

    In this study, lymphocytes subsets including blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were analyzed in children with febrile convulsion (FC) to determine whether there was the association of lymphocytes subsets in the pathogenesis of FC. The study includes 48 children with FC, and 55 healthy age matched control subjects, followed in Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, and CD56 values were examined in the study and control groups. The analyses were performed in the Hematology Laboratory, Yüzüncü Yil University Faculty of Medicine, with flow cytometer device (Coulter Epics XL2, Flow Cytometer). A total of 48 children [17 girls (35.5%) and 31 boys (64.5%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 22.20 +/- 13.75 months) with FC and 55 healthy children [28 girls (51%) and 27 boys (49%)], aged 6 months to 60 months (mean 28.87 +/- 17.04 months) were included in the study. When compared with the control group, the study found significantly decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values in the study group (p .05). When comparing the children with and without positive family history for FC, the study did not find any difference for all CD values between the groups (p >.05). Similarly, there was not significant difference in CD values between the children with simple and complex FC (p >.05). The findings suggested that decreased blood CD3 and CD4 values might be responsible for the infections connected with FC or that they might be related to the pathogenesis of FC in some children.

  1. [Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, H; Clémenceau, B

    2017-09-01

    Within a few years, the success of treatments based on the use of T-cells armed with a chimeric T-receptor for the CD19 molecule (CAR-T CD19) has revolutionized the perception of adoptive transfer approaches. The levels of responses observed in acute leukemias, of the order of 70-90 % are indeed unprecedented. The medical and financial enthusiasm aroused by these results has led to the current situation where more than 300 clinical trials are under way, against some thirty different antigens. This enthusiasm, well justified by the first successes, must however be tempered by the difficulties associated with the use of these cells. Indeed, the management of patients is made very complex both for medical reasons, because the toxicities associated with these treatments are important, and for technical reasons, because the preparation of T lymphocytes for therapeutic use requires dedicated structures. During this same period, knowledge of the mechanisms of regulation of T lymphocytes and the possibilities offered by synthetic biology and techniques of genome engineering have progressed considerably. Combined, they allow envisaging a true "programming" of the T lymphocytes, intended to improve the efficiency of the treatments and the safety of the patients. Medical and industrial perspectives and the role of these approaches in the arsenal of cancer therapies will depend largely on two conditions: the emergence of a robust demonstration of their effectiveness in solid tumors, and the establishment of an acceptable production and distribution model 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between absolute blood eosinophil count and CKD stages among cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Rui; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Kizawa, Shun; Sakane, Kazushi; Morita, Hideaki; Ozeki, Michishige; Sohmiya, Koichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2016-02-01

    Elevated eosinophil count was shown to be associated with the development of cholesterol embolization syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, after catheter-based procedures. We investigated the association between stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) among cardiac patients. CKD stages were determined solely on the estimated glomerular filtration rate or requirement for hemodialysis. Eosinophilia is defined as an eosinophil count exceeding 500/μL. A total of 1022 patients were enrolled in the current study, and eosinophil counts (/μL) in the first through fourth eosinophil count quartiles were blood pressure, and total white blood cell count. Similarly, after adjustment for the same variables, eosinophilia was associated with severe renal dysfunction with an odds ratio of 2.60 (95 % confidence interval, 1.08-6.26, P count was positively associated with higher CKD stages among cardiology patients, some fraction of which might be related to subclinical cholesterol embolization.

  3. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  5. Assembly of bionanostructures onto beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards for antibody recognition and lymphocyte cell counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Li, X.; Greve, Jan; van Amerongen, Aart; Escalante Marun, M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto β-cyclodextrin (βCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host−guest, protein−ligand, and protein−protein interactions. The buildup of a structure

  6. Assembly of bionanostructures onto Beta-cyclodextrin molecular printboards for antibody recognition and lymphocyte cell counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Li, X.; Greve, J.; Amerongen, van A.; Escalante, M.; Subramaniam, V.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Huskens, J.

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of complex bionanostructures onto ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) monolayers has been investigated with the aims of antibody recognition and cell adhesion. The formation of these assemblies relies on host¿guest, protein¿ligand, and protein¿protein interactions. The buildup of a structure

  7. Physics of a rapid CD4 lymphocyte count with colloidal gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P; Barry, D; Restell, A; Sylvia, D; Magnin, O; Dombkowski, D; Preffer, F

    2012-03-01

    The inherent surface charges and small diameters that confer colloidal stability to gold particle conjugates (immunogold) are detrimental to rapid cell surface labeling and distinct cluster definition in flow cytometric light scatter assays. Although the inherent immunogold surface charge prevents self aggregation when stored in liquid suspension, it also slows binding to cells to timeframes of hours and inhibits cell surface coverage. Although the small diameter of immunogold particles prevents settling when in liquid suspension, small particles have small light scattering cross sections and weak light scatter signals. We report a new, small particle lyophilized immunogold reagent that maintains activity after 42°C storage for a year and can be rapidly dissolved into stable liquid suspension for use in labelling cells with larger particle aggregates that have enhanced scattering cross section. Labeling requires less than 1 min at 20°C, which is ∼30 times faster than customary fluorescent antibody labeling. The labeling step involves neutralizing the surface charge of immunogold and creating specifically bound aggregates of gold on the cell surface. This process provides distinct side-scatter cluster separation with blue laser light at 488 nm, which is further improved by using red laser light at 640 nm. Similar comparisons using LED light sources showed less improvement with red light, thereby indicating that coherent light scatter is of significance in enhancing side-scatter cluster separation. The physical principles elucidated here for this technique are compatible with most flow cytometers; however, future studies of its clinical efficacy should be of primary interest in point-of-care applications where robust reagents and rapid results are important.

  8. Effects of occupational exposure to carbon black on peripheral white blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Bassig, Bryan A; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Xiao; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiaofa; Vermeulen, Roel; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in CB-exp

  9. Characterization of the count rate performance of modern gamma cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silosky, M.; Johnson, V.; Beasley, C.; Cheenu Kappadath, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of count rate performance (CRP) is an integral component of gamma camera quality assurance and system deadtime (τ) may be utilized for image correction in quantitative studies. This work characterizes the CRP of three modern gamma cameras and estimates τ using two established methods (decay and dual source) under a variety of experimental conditions. Methods: For the decay method, uncollimated detectors were exposed to a Tc-99m source of relatively high activity and count rates were sampled regularly over 48 h. Input count rate at each time point was based on the lowest observed count rate data point. The input count rate was plotted against the observed count rate and fit via least-squares to the paralyzable detector model (PDM) to estimate τ (rates method). A novel expression for observed counts as a function of measurement time interval was derived, taking into account the PDM and the presence of background but making no assumption regarding input count rate. The observed counts were fit via least-squares to this novel expression to estimate τ (counts method). Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to assess agreement in estimates of τ between the rates and counts methods. The dependence of τ on energy window definition and incident energy spectrum were characterized. The dual source method was also used to estimate τ and its agreement with estimates from the decay method under identical conditions was also investigated. The dependences of τ on the total activity and the ratio of source activities were characterized. Results: The observed CRP curves for each gamma camera agreed with the PDM at low count rates but deviated substantially from it at high count rates. The estimates of τ determined from the paralyzable portion of the CPR curve using the rates method and the counts method were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.999) but with a small (∼6%) difference. No statistically significant difference was observed

  10. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  11. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  12. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  13. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  14. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  15. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  16. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  17. Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting

    CERN Document Server

    Gillam, W D

    2011-01-01

    Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.

  18. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  19. Rapid loss of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets during the acute phase of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太生; 邱志峰; 韩扬; 王仲; 范宏伟; 吕玮; 谢静; 马小军; 王爱霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the alteration of peripheral lymphocyte subsets in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients and to help improve the early diagnosis of the disease. Methods Anti-coagulating blood samples from 98 SARS patients in the acute phase, 56 normal healthy blood donors, and from patients infected by HIV, CMV and EBV were collected. The T lymphocyte subsets were counted by flow cytometry using fluorescence-labeled specific monoclonal antibodies. Results A significant decrease was observed in all SARS patients in their peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte absolute counts [256(104)×106/L and 256 (117)×106/L, respectively], which were also lower than those of the patients infected with HIV, CMV and EBV. All patients infected with HIV, CMV and EBV had significantly higher CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in comparison with normal controls. Conclusions Decrease of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of patients is related to onset of SARS. T lymphocyte subset analysis would help improve the early diagnosis of the disease.

  20. Evaluation of T, B and natural killer lymphocyte in the cervical stroma of HIV-positive and negative patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Adriana A S; Guimarães, Mírian Viviane M B; Michelin, Márcia A; Lodi, Cláudia T C; Lima, Maria Inês M; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Melo, Victor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) are closely associated with oncogenic subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the presence of this virus, it is known that the activation or suppression of immune system is the key to the development, progression and/or regression of cervical lesions. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare the local immune response among HIV-seropositive and seronegative patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia regarding the expression of T lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD20+) and natural killers cells (CD56+) in the cervical stroma. A cross-sectional study of paraffin blocks containing cervical tissue after conization by the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) from 47 HIV-seropositive and 38 seronegative patients with CIN. Cervical stroma immunohistochemistry was performed in the CIN area. The Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical analysis. When HIV-seropositive and seronegative women were compared, the seropositive women had a higher count of CD8+ T lymphocytes (52.1% versus 28.9%, PHIV-seronegative patients with CIN 1 had a low count of CD20+B-lymphocytes (7.1%) in comparison with CIN 1 HIV seropositive and with CIN 2/3 HIV-seronegative patients, respectively 50% (PHIV infection and degree of CIN influenced the cytotoxic lymphocytes inducing an increase in the number of cells high count of CD20+ lymphocytes with CIN 1.

  1. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  2. Changes of lymphocyte kinetics in the normal rat, induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormai, S.; Hagenbeek, A.; Palkovits, M.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    1973-01-01

    The changes in lymphocyte kinetics induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) were studied in the normal rat. Quantitative data are presented concerning the degree of lymphocyte mobilization in the spleen and in various lymph nodes at different times after PMAA administra

  3. Level of CD8 T Lymphocytes Activation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: In the Context of CD38 and HLA-DR Activation Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanslaus Musyoki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To date the effect of pregnancy on the immune activation of CD8 T cells that may affect HIV disease progression has not been well studied and remains unclear. Objective. To determine the effect of pregnancy on CD8 T lymphocyte activation and its relationship with CD4 count in HIV infected pregnant women. Study Design. Case control. Study Site. AMPATH and MTRH in Eldoret, Kenya. Study Subjects. Newly diagnosed asymptomatic HIV positive pregnant and nonpregnant women with no prior receipt of antiretroviral medications. Study Methods. Blood samples were collected from the study participants and levels of activated CD8 T lymphocytes (CD38 and HLA-DR were determined using flow cytometer and correlated with CD4 counts of the study participants. The descriptive data focusing on frequencies, correlation, and cross-tabulations was statistically determined. Significance of the results was set at P<0.05. Results. HIV positive pregnant women had lower activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts than nonpregnant HIV positive women. Activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts were also noted to decrease in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Co