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Sample records for lymphatic vessel development

  1. Development and plasticity of meningeal lymphatic vessels.

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    Antila, Salli; Karaman, Sinem; Nurmi, Harri; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Mathivet, Thomas; Chilov, Dmitri; Li, Zhilin; Koppinen, Tapani; Park, Jun-Hee; Fang, Shentong; Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Saarma, Mart; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-12-04

    The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect. Surprisingly, in adult mice, the LVs showed regression after VEGF-C or VEGFR3 deletion, administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, or expression of VEGF-C/D trap, which also compromised the lymphatic drainage function. Conversely, an excess of VEGF-C induced meningeal lymphangiogenesis. The plasticity and regenerative potential of meningeal LVs should allow manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage and neuropathological processes in the CNS. © 2017 Antila et al.

  2. Development and validation of a custom made indocyanine green fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager

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    Pallotta, Olivia J.; van Zanten, Malou; McEwen, Mark; Burrow, Lynne; Beesley, Jack; Piller, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic progressive condition often producing significant morbidity. An in-depth understanding of an individual's lymphatic architecture is valuable both in the understanding of underlying pathology and for targeting and tailoring treatment. Severe lower limb injuries resulting in extensive loss of soft tissue require transposition of a flap consisting of muscle and/or soft tissue to close the defect. These patients are at risk of lymphoedema and little is known about lymphatic regeneration within the flap. Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble dye, has proven useful for the imaging of lymphatic vessels. When injected into superficial tissues it binds to plasma proteins in lymph. By exposing the dye to specific wavelengths of light, ICG fluoresces with near-infrared light. Skin is relatively transparent to ICG fluorescence, enabling the visualization and characterization of superficial lymphatic vessels. An ICG fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager was manufactured to excite ICG and visualize real-time fluorescence as it travels through the lymphatic vessels. Animal studies showed successful ICG excitation and detection using this imager. Clinically, the imager has assisted researchers to visualize otherwise hidden superficial lymphatic pathways in patients postflap surgery. Preliminary results suggest superficial lymphatic vessels do not redevelop in muscle flaps.

  3. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Sassi, Francesco; Brunetti, Barbara; Rizzo, Antonio; Diracca, Laura; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA)-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C), its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG), ten benign (BT) and 32 malignant (MT) tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. The number of both VEGFR-3 positive and negative lymphatics in the extratumoral

  4. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  5. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

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    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  6. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

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    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, Marcia R; Wu, Xue-Ru; Saban, Ricardo; Towner, Rheal; Smith, Nataliya; Abbott, Andrew; Neeman, Michal; Davis, Carole A; Simpson, Cindy; Maier, Julie; Mémet, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ) exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ), we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and function (LVF) during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5) suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic flow within the tumoral area. In addition, NIRF

  8. Low lymphatic vessel density associates with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

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    Luukkainen, A; Seppälä, M; Renkonen, J; Renkonen, R; Hagstrő M, J; Huhtala, H; Rautiainen, M; Myller, J; Paavonen, T; Ranta, A; Torkkeli, T; Toppila-Salmi, S

    2017-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP) and antrochoanal polyps (ACP) are different upper airway inflammation phenotypes with different pathomechanisms. In order to understand the development of tissue edema, the present study aimed to evaluate lymphatic vessel density in CRSsNP, CRSwNP and ACP. 120 retrospective nasal and maxillary sinus specimens were stained immunohistochemically with a von Willebrand factor polyclonal antibody recognizing vascular and lymphatic endothelium, and with a podoplanin monoclonal antibody recognizing lymphatic endothelium. Vessels were studied by microscopy in a blinded fashion, and the vessel density and the relative density of lymphatic vessels were calculated. Patient characteristic factors and follow-up data of in average 9 years were collected from patient records. In the nasal cavity, the low absolute and relative density of vessels and of lymphatic vessels was associated with CRSwNP and ACP tissues compared to control inferior turbinate. This was observed also in the inflammatory hotspot area. In the maxillary sinus, lower absolute and relative density of lymphatic vessels associated with the CRSwNP phenotype. High lymphatic vessel density in polyp tissue associated with the need for revision CRS-surgery. As a conclusion, low density of lymphatic vessels distinguished patients with CRSwNP not only in the hotspot area of polyp tissue, but also in maxillary sinus mucosa. Yet, higher lymphatic vessel density seems to associate with polyp recurrence. Further studies are still needed to explore if formation of nasal polyps could be diminished by intranasal therapeutics affecting lymphangiogenesis.

  9. Ligand-directed targeting of lymphatic vessels uncovers mechanistic insights in melanoma metastasis.

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    Christianson, Dawn R; Dobroff, Andrey S; Proneth, Bettina; Zurita, Amado J; Salameh, Ahmad; Dondossola, Eleonora; Makino, Jun; Bologa, Cristian G; Smith, Tracey L; Yao, Virginia J; Calderone, Tiffany L; O'Connell, David J; Oprea, Tudor I; Kataoka, Kazunori; Cahill, Dolores J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-02-24

    Metastasis is the most lethal step of cancer progression in patients with invasive melanoma. In most human cancers, including melanoma, tumor dissemination through the lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis. Unfortunately, molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between melanoma cells and lymphatic vessels are unknown. Here, we developed an unbiased approach based on molecular mimicry to identify specific receptors that mediate lymphatic endothelial-melanoma cell interactions and metastasis. By screening combinatorial peptide libraries directly on afferent lymphatic vessels resected from melanoma patients during sentinel lymphatic mapping and lymph node biopsies, we identified a significant cohort of melanoma and lymphatic surface binding peptide sequences. The screening approach was designed so that lymphatic endothelium binding peptides mimic cell surface proteins on tumor cells. Therefore, relevant metastasis and lymphatic markers were biochemically identified, and a comprehensive molecular profile of the lymphatic endothelium during melanoma metastasis was generated. Our results identified expression of the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit A, α-isoform (PPP2R1A) on the cell surfaces of both melanoma cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. Validation experiments showed that PPP2R1A is expressed on the cell surfaces of both melanoma and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro as well as independent melanoma patient samples. More importantly, PPP2R1A-PPP2R1A homodimers occur at the cellular level to mediate cell-cell interactions at the lymphatic-tumor interface. Our results revealed that PPP2R1A is a new biomarker for melanoma metastasis and show, for the first time to our knowledge, an active interaction between the lymphatic vasculature and melanoma cells during tumor progression.

  10. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity.

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    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija; Jakobsson, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Tissue fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and its role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, Pdgfb overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and the low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate the requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels, and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint that prevents SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Short time effects of radiotherapy on lymphatic vessels and restorative lymphatic pathways: experimental approaches ina mouse model.

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    Pastouret, F; Lievens, P; Leduc, O; Bourgeois, P; Tournel, K; Lamote, J; Zirak, C; Leduc, A

    2014-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an important component in the therapeutic approach to oncologic conditions. This study presents the investigative results on the impact of RT on lymphatic vessels and on the regenerative response of the lymphatic system in a mouse model. We first irradiated 3 groups of ten mice using brachytherapy in a single treatment of 20 Gy. We then performed morphological examination of the irradiated lymphatic vessels using an in vivo microscopic transillumination technique at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Next we evaluated lymphatic flow using lymphoscintigraphy and in vivo microscopy at 6 to 11 weeks in: 10 additional mice following irradiation as above (IR), in 10 mice following incision of a lymphatic vessel (I), and in a non-treated control group of 10 mice (N). Intact lymphatic vessels were observed in all mice at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following the single dose of radiotherapy in the first group of mice and normal lymphatic flow was fully restored in the irradiated (IR) and incised (I) mice indicating that the reparative substitution lymphatic pathways are functioning normally. We found that following irradiation with one dose of 20 Gy, lymphatic vessels were not visibly damaged and also that lymphatic flow was consistently restored and substitutive lymphatic pathways formed.

  12. Intravital two-photon microscopy of immune cell dynamics in corneal lymphatic vessels.

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    Philipp Steven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of lymphatic vessels in tissue and organ transplantation as well as in tumor growth and metastasis has drawn great attention in recent years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now developed a novel method using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to simultaneously visualize and track specifically stained lymphatic vessels and autofluorescent adjacent tissues such as collagen fibrils, blood vessels and immune cells in the mouse model of corneal neovascularization in vivo. The mouse cornea serves as an ideal tissue for this technique due to its easy accessibility and its inducible and modifiable state of pathological hem- and lymphvascularization. Neovascularization was induced by suture placement in corneas of Balb/C mice. Two weeks after treatment, lymphatic vessels were stained intravital by intrastromal injection of a fluorescently labeled LYVE-1 antibody and the corneas were evaluated in vivo by two-photon microscopy (TPM. Intravital TPM was performed at 710 nm and 826 nm excitation wavelengths to detect immunofluorescence and tissue autofluorescence using a custom made animal holder. Corneas were then harvested, fixed and analyzed by histology. Time lapse imaging demonstrated the first in vivo evidence of immune cell migration into lymphatic vessels and luminal transport of individual cells. Cells immigrated within 1-5.5 min into the vessel lumen. Mean velocities of intrastromal corneal immune cells were around 9 µm/min and therefore comparable to those of T-cells and macrophages in other mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge we here demonstrate for the first time the intravital real-time transmigration of immune cells into lymphatic vessels. Overall this study demonstrates the valuable use of intravital autofluorescence two-photon microscopy in the model of suture-induced corneal vascularizations to study interactions of immune and subsequently tumor cells with lymphatic vessels under close as possible

  13. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

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    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  14. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  15. Synchronization and Random Triggering of Lymphatic Vessel Contractions

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    Baish, James W.; Kunert, Christian; Padera, Timothy P.; Munn, Lance L.

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream, but unlike the cardiovascular system, lacks a centralized pump-the heart–to drive flow. Instead, each collecting lymphatic vessel can individually contract and dilate producing unidirectional flow enforced by intraluminal check valves. Due to the large number and spatial distribution of such pumps, high-level coordination would be unwieldy. This leads to the question of how each segment of lymphatic vessel responds to local signals that can contribute to the coordination of pumping on a network basis. Beginning with elementary fluid mechanics and known cellular behaviors, we show that two complementary oscillators emerge from i) mechanical stretch with calcium ion transport and ii) fluid shear stress induced nitric oxide production (NO). Using numerical simulation and linear stability analysis we show that the newly identified shear-NO oscillator shares similarities with the well-known Van der Pol oscillator, but has unique characteristics. Depending on the operating conditions, the shear-NO process may i) be inherently stable, ii) oscillate spontaneously in response to random disturbances or iii) synchronize with weak periodic stimuli. When the complementary shear-driven and stretch-driven oscillators interact, either may dominate, producing a rich family of behaviors similar to those observed in vivo. PMID:27935958

  16. Lymphatic endothelial cells efferent to inflamed joints produce iNOS and inhibit lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage in TNF-induced arthritis in mice.

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    Liang, Qianqian; Ju, Yawen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Wensheng; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Li; Xu, Hao; Wood, Ronald W; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F; Wang, Yongjun; Xing, Lianping

    2016-03-12

    In this study, we sought to determine the cellular source of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the effects of iNOS on lymphatic smooth muscle cell (LSMC) function and on the development of arthritis in TNF-transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice, and whether iNOS inhibitors improve lymphatic function and reduce joint destruction in inflammatory erosive arthritis. We used quantitative polymerase chain reactions, immunohistochemistry, histology, and near-infrared imaging to examine (1) iNOS expression in podoplanin + LECs and lymphatic vessels from wild-type (WT) and TNF-Tg mice, (2) iNOS induction by TNF in WT LECs, (3) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on expression of functional muscle genes in LSMCs, and (4) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage, as well as the severity of arthritis, in TNF-Tg mice. LECs from TNF-Tg mice had eight fold higher iNOS messenger RNA levels than WT cells, and iNOS expression was confirmed immunohistochemically in podoplanin + LECs in lymphatic vessels from inflamed joints. TNF (0.1 ng/ml) increased iNOS levels 40-fold in LECs. LSMCs cocultured with LECs pretreated with TNF had reduced expression of functional muscle genes. This reduction was prevented by ferulic acid, which blocked nitric oxide production. Local injection of L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine 5-tetrazole-amide into inflamed paws of TNF-Tg mice resulted in recovery of lymphatic vessel contractions and drainage. Treatment of TNF-Tg mice with ferulic acid reduced synovial inflammation as well as cartilage and bone erosion, and it also restored lymphatic contraction and drainage. iNOS is produced primarily by LECs in lymphatic vessel efferent from inflamed joints of TNF-Tg mice in response to TNF and inhibits LSMC contraction and lymph drainage. Ferulic acid represents a potential new therapy to restore lymphatic function and thus improve inflammatory

  17. Refinements of the radiographic cadaver injection technique for investigating minute lymphatic vessels.

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    Suami, Hiroo; Taylor, G Ian; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Ren

    2007-07-01

    The authors previously reported a new technique with which to delineate the lymphatic vessels, using hydrogen peroxide to identify them and a lead oxide suspension to demonstrate them on radiographs. This technique provided excellent studies of the lymph vessels in human cadavers, but there was still room for improvement. Lymph collecting vessels run superficially in some regions, where they may be damaged while the surgeon is attempting to find them. Vessels smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter could not be cannulated with a 30-gauge needle, which was the smallest the authors had available, and the lead oxide suspension often blocked this cannula. The authors also encountered problems holding the cannula steady. The authors solved these problems by using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ink to better identify the lymphatics, an extruded glass tube instead of a metal needle to cannulate them, an agate pestle and mortar to grind the lead oxide into finer particles, powdered milk to suspend the lead oxide, and a micromanipulator to facilitate accurate and steady cannulation of the vessels. This study developed these modifications to focus on tributaries of the collecting lymphatic channels that are smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter.

  18. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI.

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    Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S

    2017-10-03

    Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents. In primates, meningeal lymphatics display a typical panel of lymphatic endothelial markers by immunohistochemistry. This discovery holds promise for better understanding the normal physiology of lymphatic drainage from the central nervous system and potential aberrations in neurological diseases.

  19. Finding an optimal method for imaging lymphatic vessels of the upper limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Susan; Purushotham, Arnie D.; Rose, Sarah L.; Chilvers, Alison J.; Ballinger, James R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, A. Michael; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy involves interstitial injection of radiolabelled particulate materials or radioproteins. Although several variations in the technique have been described, their place in clinical practice remains controversial. Traditional diagnostic criteria are based primarily on lymph node appearances but in situations such as breast cancer, where lymph nodes may have been excised, these criteria are of limited use. In these circumstances, lymphatic vessel morphology takes on greater importance as a clinical endpoint, so a method that gives good definition of lymphatic vessels would be useful. In patients with breast cancer, for example, such a method, used before and after lymph node resection, may assist in predicting the development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. The aim of this study was to optimise a method for the visualisation of lymphatic vessels. Subcutaneous (sc) and intradermal (id) injection sites were compared, and technetium-99m nanocolloid, a particulate material, was compared with 99m Tc-human immunoglobulin (HIG), which is a soluble macromolecule. Twelve normal volunteers were each studied on two occasions. In three subjects, id 99m Tc-HIG was compared with sc 99m Tc-HIG, in three id 99m Tc-nanocolloid was compared with sc 99m Tc-nanocolloid, in three id 99m Tc-HIG was compared with id 99m Tc-nanocolloid and in three sc 99m Tc-HIG was compared with sc 99m Tc-nanocolloid. Endpoints were quality of lymphatic vessel definition, the time after injection at which vessels were most clearly visualised, the rate constant of depot disappearance (k) and the systemic blood accumulation rate as measured by gamma camera imaging over the liver or cardiac blood pool. Excellent definition of lymphatic vessels was obtained following id injection of either radiopharmaceutical, an injection route that was clearly superior to sc. Differences between radiopharmaceuticals were less clear, although after id injection, 99m Tc-HIG gave images that were

  20. Correlation between blood and lymphatic vessel density and results of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

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    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Walasek, Tomasz; Ryś, Janusz; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a novel technique used for detection of tumour vascularity by imaging the moment in which contrast, delivered to the lesion by blood vessels, leaks out of them, and flows out through lymphatic vessels. In our study, we included 174 women for whom spectral mammography was performed for diagnostic purposes. The relationship between enhancement in CESM and blood vessel density (BVD), lymphatic vessel density (LVD) or the percentage of fields with at least one lymphatic vessel (distribution of podoplanin-positive vessels - DPV) and other related parameters was assessed in 55 cases. BVD, LVD and DPV were assessed immunohistochemically, applying podoplanin and CD31/CD34 as markers of lymphatic and blood vessels, respectively. The sensitivity (in detection of malignant lesions) of CESM was 100%, while its specificity - 39%. We found a significant positive correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and BVD (p = 0.007, r = 0.357) and a negative correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and DPV (p = 0.003, r = -0.390). Lesions with the highest enhancement in CESM showed a high number of blood vessels and a low number of lymphatics. 1) CESM is a method characterized by high sensitivity and acceptable specificity; 2) the correlation between CESM results and blood/lymphatic vessel density confirms its utility in detection of tissue angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis.

  1. The potential role of perivascular lymphatic vessels in preservation of kidney allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimoto, Akihiro; Nakano, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Shoko; Masutani, Kosuke; Matsukuma, Yuta; Eriguchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Masaharu; Nishiki, Takehiro; Kitada, Hidehisa; Tanaka, Masao; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangiogenesis occurs in diseased native kidneys and kidney allografts, and correlates with histological injury; however, the clinical significance of lymphatic vessels in kidney allografts is unclear. This study retrospectively reviewed 63 kidney transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin, and were classified according to their location as perivascular or interstitial lymphatic vessels. The associations between perivascular lymphatic density and kidney allograft function and pathological findings were analyzed. There were no significant differences in perivascular lymphatic densities in kidney allograft biopsy specimens obtained at 0 h, 3 months and 12 months. The groups with higher perivascular lymphatic density showed a lower proportion of progression of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy grade from 3 to 12 months (P for trend = 0.039). Perivascular lymphatic density was significantly associated with annual decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate after 12 months (r = -0.31, P = 0.017), even after adjusting for multiple confounders (standardized β = -0.30, P = 0.019). High perivascular lymphatic density is associated with favourable kidney allograft function. The perivascular lymphatic network may be involved in inhibition of allograft fibrosis and stabilization of graft function.

  2. Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Croft, Alexandra; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Furuya, Momoko; Kemp, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes

  3. Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Croft, Alexandra; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Furuya, Momoko; Kemp, Christopher J

    2014-05-21

    Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes.

  4. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels at the implant interface in a rat model of osteoporotic fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Susanne Lips

    Full Text Available Insertion of bone substitution materials accelerates healing of osteoporotic fractures. Biodegradable materials are preferred for application in osteoporotic patients to avoid a second surgery for implant replacement. Degraded implant fragments are often absorbed by macrophages that are removed from the fracture side via passage through veins or lymphatic vessels. We investigated if lymphatic vessels occur in osteoporotic bone defects and whether they are regulated by the use of different materials. To address this issue osteoporosis was induced in rats using the classical method of bilateral ovariectomy and additional calcium and vitamin deficient diet. In addition, wedge-shaped defects of 3, 4, or 5 mm were generated in the distal metaphyseal area of femur via osteotomy. The 4 mm defects were subsequently used for implantation studies where bone substitution materials of calcium phosphate cement, composites of collagen and silica, and iron foams with interconnecting pores were inserted. Different materials were partly additionally functionalized by strontium or bisphosphonate whose positive effects in osteoporosis treatment are well known. The lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against podoplanin. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels were detected in the granulation tissue filling the fracture gap, surrounding the implant and growing into the iron foam through its interconnected pores. Significant more lymphatic capillaries were counted at the implant interface of composite, strontium and bisphosphonate functionalized iron foam. A significant increase was also observed in the number of lymphatics situated in the pores of strontium coated iron foam. In conclusion, our results indicate the occurrence of lymphatic vessels in osteoporotic bone. Our results show that lymphatic vessels are localized at the implant interface and in the fracture gap where they might be involved in the removal of

  5. Podoplanin Immunopositive Lymphatic Vessels at the Implant Interface in a Rat Model of Osteoporotic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Katrin Susanne; Kauschke, Vivien; Hartmann, Sonja; Thormann, Ulrich; Ray, Seemun; Kampschulte, Marian; Langheinrich, Alexander; Schumacher, Matthias; Gelinsky, Michael; Heinemann, Sascha; Hanke, Thomas; Kautz, Armin R.; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian; Alt, Volker; Kilian, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of bone substitution materials accelerates healing of osteoporotic fractures. Biodegradable materials are preferred for application in osteoporotic patients to avoid a second surgery for implant replacement. Degraded implant fragments are often absorbed by macrophages that are removed from the fracture side via passage through veins or lymphatic vessels. We investigated if lymphatic vessels occur in osteoporotic bone defects and whether they are regulated by the use of different materials. To address this issue osteoporosis was induced in rats using the classical method of bilateral ovariectomy and additional calcium and vitamin deficient diet. In addition, wedge-shaped defects of 3, 4, or 5 mm were generated in the distal metaphyseal area of femur via osteotomy. The 4 mm defects were subsequently used for implantation studies where bone substitution materials of calcium phosphate cement, composites of collagen and silica, and iron foams with interconnecting pores were inserted. Different materials were partly additionally functionalized by strontium or bisphosphonate whose positive effects in osteoporosis treatment are well known. The lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against podoplanin. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels were detected in the granulation tissue filling the fracture gap, surrounding the implant and growing into the iron foam through its interconnected pores. Significant more lymphatic capillaries were counted at the implant interface of composite, strontium and bisphosphonate functionalized iron foam. A significant increase was also observed in the number of lymphatics situated in the pores of strontium coated iron foam. In conclusion, our results indicate the occurrence of lymphatic vessels in osteoporotic bone. Our results show that lymphatic vessels are localized at the implant interface and in the fracture gap where they might be involved in the removal of lymphocytes, macrophages

  6. Lymphatic vessel assessment by podoplanin (D2-40 immunohistochemistry in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Puri Wahal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Taking into account our small sample size, we conclude that a further large-sized study should be carried out to further prove the role of lymphatics in tumor dissemination. New therapeutic options can be developed targeting the lymphatic channels to arrest the lymphatic spread of the breast cancer.

  7. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  8. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  9. Human Lymphatic Mesenteric Vessels: Morphology and Possible Function of Aminergic and NPY-ergic Nerve Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Vito; Panarese, Alessandra; Taurone, Samanta; Coppola, Luigi; Cavallotti, Carlo; Artico, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The lymphatic vessels have been studied in different organs from a morphological to a clinical point of view. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the catecholaminergic control of the lymphatic circulation is still incomplete. The aim of this work is to study the presence and distribution of the catecholaminergic and NPY-ergic nerve fibers in the whole wall of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels in order to obtain knowledge about their morphology and functional significance. The following experimental procedures were performed: 1) drawing of tissue containing lymphatic vessels; 2) cutting of tissue; 3) staining of tissue; 4) staining of nerve fibers; 5) histofluorescence microscopy for the staining of catecholaminergic nerve fibers; 6) staining of neuropeptide Y like-immune reactivity; 7) biochemical assay of proteins; 8) measurement of noradrenaline; 9) quantitative analysis of images; 10) statistical analysis of data. Numerous nerve fibers run in the wall of lymphatic vessels. Many of them are catecholaminergic in nature. Some nerve fibers are NPY-positive. The biochemical results on noradrenaline amounts are in agreement with morphological results on catecholaminergic nerve fibers. Moreover, the morphometric results, obtained by the quantitative analysis of images and the subsequent statistical analysis of data, confirm all our morphological and biochemical data. The knowledge of the physiological or pathological mechanism regulating the functions of the lymphatic system is incomplete. Nevertheless the catecholaminergic nerve fibers of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels come from the adrenergic periarterial plexuses of the mesenterial arterial bed. NPY-ergic nerve fibers may modulate the microcirculatory mesenterial bed in different pathological conditions.

  10. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick; Jackson, David

    2009-01-01

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  11. Primary disorders of the lymphatic vessels--a unified concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, C

    1989-03-01

    Congenital defects of lymphatics constitute a spectrum of disorders that may manifest with a variety of clinical presentations including lymphedema, chylous effusions, lymphangiomatous malformations with cystic masses and localized gigantism, and intestinal lymphangiectasia with malabsorption. These entities constitute a relatively rare group of disorders, the origin of which remains somewhat controversial, but in some it appears to be due to early lymphatic obstruction. Five cases are described, which demonstrate the anatomical pathology of these entities. A classification and description of the defects is also presented. An attempt is made to present a unified theory of origin for this seemingly diverse group of diseases. While these entities may be challenging from a diagnostic and therapeutic standpoint, a wide variety of imaging modalities, which includes lymphography, computed tomography scanning, and ultrasound, may be used to diagnose the extent and internal structural characteristics of the abnormalities.

  12. Debulking surgery for elephantiasis nostras with large ectatic podoplanin-negative lymphatic vessels in patients with lipo-lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Nowak, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo-lymphedema. While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery. We present 2 cases of advanced lipo-lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed. The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed. It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo-lymphedema. Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing. Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas.

  13. Application of optical coherence tomography for in vivo monitoring of the meningeal lymphatic vessels during opening of blood-brain barrier: mechanisms of brain clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Dubrovsky, Alexander; Bragin, Denis; Bragina, Olga; Shushunova, Nataliya; Maslyakova, Galina; Navolokin, Nikita; Bucharskaya, Alla; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Juergen; Shirokov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels. We first demonstrate successful application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of the lymphatic vessels in the meninges after opening of the BBB, which might be a new useful strategy for noninvasive analysis of lymphatic drainage in daily clinical practice. Also, we give information about the depth and size of the meningeal lymphatic vessels in mice. These new fundamental data with the applied focus on the OCT shed light on the mechanisms of brain clearance and the role of lymphatic drainage in these processes that could serve as an informative platform for a development of therapy and diagnostics of diseases associated with injuries of the BBB such as stroke, brain trauma, glioma, depression, or Alzheimer disease.

  14. Microparticle image velocimetry approach to flow measurements in isolated contracting lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaris, Konstantinos N; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Zawieja, David C; Moore, James; Black, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development of an optical flow visualization method for resolving the flow velocity vector field in lymphatic vessels in vitro. The aim is to develop an experimental protocol for accurately estimating flow parameters, such as flow rate and shear stresses, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previous studies in situ have relied on lymphocytes as tracers, but their low density resulted in a reduced spatial resolution whereas the assumption that the flow was fully developed in order to determine the flow parameters of interest may not be valid, especially in the vicinity of the valves, where the flow is undoubtedly more complex. To overcome these issues, we have applied the time-resolved microparticle image velocimetry (μ -PIV) technique, a well-established method that can provide increased spatial and temporal resolution that this transient flow demands. To that end, we have developed a custom light source, utilizing high-power light-emitting diodes, and associated control and image processing software. This paper reports the performance of the system and the results of a series of preliminary experiments performed on vessels isolated from rat mesenteries, demonstrating, for the first time, the successful application of the μ -PIV technique in these vessels.

  15. Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is expressed in lymphatic vessels in human skin and affects lymphatic endothelial cell function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigl, Benjamin; Zgraggen, Claudia; Rehman, Nadia; Banziger-Tobler, Nadia E.; Detmar, Michael; Halin, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels play an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, intestinal fat absorption and immunosurveillance. Furthermore, they are involved in pathologic conditions, such as tumor cell metastasis and chronic inflammation. In comparison to blood vessels, the molecular phenotype of lymphatic vessels is less well characterized. Performing comparative gene expression analysis we have recently found that coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is significantly more highly expressed in cultured human, skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), as compared to blood vascular endothelial cells. Here, we have confirmed these results at the protein level, using Western blot and FACS analysis. Immunofluorescence performed on human skin confirmed that CAR is expressed at detectable levels in lymphatic vessels, but not in blood vessels. To address the functional significance of CAR expression, we modulated CAR expression levels in cultured LECs in vitro by siRNA- and vector-based transfection approaches. Functional assays performed with the transfected cells revealed that CAR is involved in distinct cellular processes in LECs, such as cell adhesion, migration, tube formation and the control of vascular permeability. In contrast, no effect of CAR on LEC proliferation was observed. Overall, our data suggest that CAR stabilizes LEC-LEC interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity

  16. Lymphangiography: Forgotten Tool or Rising Star in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Postoperative Lymphatic Vessel Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Sebastian; Haueisen, Harald; Lachmund, Ulrich; Roeren, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Since the advent of computed tomography, numbers and expertise in Lymphangiography (LAG) have markedly dropped. The intention of our study was to demonstrate the persisting diagnostic and therapeutic impact of LAG on the postoperative patient with known or suspected lymphatic vessel leakage. Between May 1, 1999, and April 30, 2006, we investigated pedal lipiodol-LAGs (18 monopedal, 2 bipedal) on 22 patients (16 male, 6 female) with known or suspected postoperative chylothorax, chylaskos, lymphocele, or lymphatic fistula. Ages varied from 26 to 81 years. The spectrum of operative procedures was broad: 6 thoracic, 5 abdominal, and 11 peripheral operations were performed. In 20 patients who underwent mono- or bipedal LAG for lymphatic vessel injury, we were able to demonstrate the specific site of leakage in 15 cases (75%) and found signs of extravasation in 5 patients (25%). Furthermore, in 11 patients (55%) we were able to avoid surgery because of closure of the leak after LAG. As the conservative therapeutic approach usually takes 2-3 weeks to reveal its therapeutic effects, 73.3% (11/15) of the patients who were not reoperated before this hallmark was passed did not need any further operation. Our study clearly demonstrates that even in the decades of modern cross-sectional imaging, classic LAG is a powerful and highly reliable tool to visualize and even assist occlusion of the postoperatively damaged lymphatic vessel and may thereby avoid the need for reoperation

  17. Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Visualize Threadlike Structures inside Lymphatic Vessels of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Min Johng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles was made to visualize a new tissue which had not been detectable by using simple stereomicroscopes. This unfamiliar threadlike structure inside the lymphatic vessels of rats was demonstrated in vivo by injecting nanoparticles into lymph nodes and applying magnetic fields on the collecting lymph vessels so that the nanoparticles were taken up by the threadlike structures. Confocal laser scanning microscope images of cryosectioned specimens exhibited that the nanoparticles were absorbed more strongly by the threadlike structure than by the lymphatic vessels. Further examination using a transmission electron microscope revealed that the nanoparticles had been captured between the reticular fibers in the extracellular matrix of the threadlike structures. The emerging technology of nanoparticles not only allows the extremely elusive threadlike structures to be visualized but also is expected to provide a magnetically controllable means to investigate their physiological functions.

  18. Fluid and mass transport in a single lymphatic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    The problem considers the single blood vessel model in pulmonary circulation in the presence of gravitation and mass transfer. The tissue surrounding the blood vessel is modelled as a permeable medium distinct from the blood vessel which is a normal free space. On the assumption that the mass concentration varies slowly at the interface between the blood vessel and the tissue, the problem is tackled by asymptotic approximation. A crucial point of the analysis is the dependence of the flow variables on the permeability K of the tissue in a completely arbitrary manner. A primary conjecture of the study is the intimacy of the pathological pulmonary edema and the parameter K. (author). 4 refs

  19. Lymphatic Vessel Density as Prognostic Factor in Breast Carcinoma: Relation to Clinico pathologic Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendi, S.; Abdel-Hadi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are essential for breast cancer growth and progression. This study aimed at investigating lymphatic micro vessel density (LVD) and microvessel density (MVD) as prognostic markers in breast carcinoma. Forty breast carcinomas were immuno stained for D2-40, CD31 and VEGF. Median lymphatic and blood micro vessel densities, as well as VEGF expression, were related to each other and to clinico pathologic parameters including lymph node (Ln) status. The efficacy of haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) in detecting lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) compared to D2-40 immunostaining was also investigated. D2-40 stained normal lymphatic endothelium and myoepithelial cells, but with different staining patterns. D2-40 LVD related significantly to CD31 counts (r=0.470; p=0.002), and LN metastasis (Mann-Whitney U=101.500; p=0.043); however, it did not relate to age, tumor grade, tumor size or LVI. D2-40 identified LVI in 3 more cases (7.5%) than those detected by H and E. VEGF was expressed in 85% of cases, and was significantly related to CD31 and D2-40 counts (p=0.033 and 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, D2-40 LVD showed a significant association with LN metastasis, and can be considered to segregate patients with positive from those with negative LNs. D2-40 enhances the detection of LVI relative to H and E staining reflecting a potential for lymphatic metastatic spread and possible poor prognosis

  20. Lymphatic vessel density in vocal cord carcinomas assessed with LYVE-1 receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, Walter J.; Bono, Petri; Leivo, Ilmo; Vaheri, Antti; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Joensuu, Heikki

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Early stage vocal cord carcinomas are usually cured by radiation therapy despite the use of portals that exclude the cervical lymph nodes. We investigated whether the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) of vocal cord carcinomas differs from that of other head and neck carcinomas. Patients and methods: Deparaffinized tissue from tumors of 60 patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were immunostained for LYVE-1, a novel lymphatic vessel marker. Twenty-two had vocal cord carcinoma. Tumor blood vessel density (BVD) was assessed using immunostaining for CD31. Results: Tumor overall LVD, including both intra- and peritumoral lymph vessels, was 10-fold lower than the BVD (5 counts/mm 2 vs. 52 mm -2 , respectively). A high LVD was associated with a high BVD (P=.002), but neither was associated with the tumor size. Both tumor LVD and BVD were lower in vocal cord carcinomas than in HNSCCs arising at other sites (median, 0 vs. 7 mm -2 , P=.016; and median, 36 vs. 52 mm -2 , P=.006, respectively). Only one vocal cord carcinoma was associated with a regional metastasis at the time of the diagnosis. Among the rest of the cases tumor size was a better predictor for the presence of regional metastases than tumor BVD or LVD in a logistic regression model (odds ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5). Conclusion: Vocal cord carcinomas have a low lymph vessel density as compared with HNSCCs arising at other sites

  1. Prediction of melanoma metastasis by the Shields index based on lymphatic vessel density

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    Metcalfe Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma usually presents as an initial skin lesion without evidence of metastasis. A significant proportion of patients develop subsequent local, regional or distant metastasis, sometimes many years after the initial lesion was removed. The current most effective staging method to identify early regional metastasis is sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB, which is invasive, not without morbidity and, while improving staging, may not improve overall survival. Lymphatic density, Breslow's thickness and the presence or absence of lymphatic invasion combined has been proposed to be a prognostic index of metastasis, by Shields et al in a patient group. Methods Here we undertook a retrospective analysis of 102 malignant melanomas from patients with more than five years follow-up to evaluate the Shields' index and compare with existing indicators. Results The Shields' index accurately predicted outcome in 90% of patients with metastases and 84% without metastases. For these, the Shields index was more predictive than thickness or lymphatic density. Alternate lymphatic measurement (hot spot analysis was also effective when combined into the Shields index in a cohort of 24 patients. Conclusions These results show the Shields index, a non-invasive analysis based on immunohistochemistry of lymphatics surrounding primary lesions that can accurately predict outcome, is a simple, useful prognostic tool in malignant melanoma.

  2. Spontaneous and α-adrenoceptor-induced contractility in human collecting lymphatic vessels require chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Majgaard, Jens; Telinius, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    - with the impermeant anion aspartate and inhibition of Cl- transport and channels with the clinical diuretics furosemide and bendroflumethiazide, as well as DIDS and NPPB. The molecular expression of calcium-activated chloride channels was investigated by RT-PCR and proteins localized using immunoreactivity....... Spontaneous and norepinephrine-induced contractility in human lymphatic vessels was highly abrogated after Cl- substitution with aspartate. 100‒300µM DIDS or NPPB inhibited spontaneous contractile behavior. Norepinephrine-stimulated tone was furthermore markedly abrogated by 200µM DIDS. Furosemide lowered...

  3. Characterization of biosynthesis and modes of action of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sonia; Blanckaert, Pauline; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2009-12-01

    Rhythmical transient constrictions of the lymphatic vessels provide the means for efficient lymph drainage and interstitial tissue fluid balance. This activity is critical during inflammation, to avoid or limit oedema resulting from increased vascular permeability, mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostacyclin modulate lymphatic contractility in isolated guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of mRNA for enzymes and receptors involved in the production and action of PGE(2) and prostacyclin in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels. Frequency and amplitude of lymphatic vessel constriction were measured in the presence of these prostaglandins and the role of their respective EP and IP receptors assessed. Prostaglandin E(2) and prostacyclin decreased concentration-dependently the frequency, without affecting the amplitude, of lymphatic constriction. Data obtained in the presence of the EP(4) receptor antagonists, GW627368x (1 microM) and AH23848B (30 microM) and the IP receptor antagonist CAY10441 (0.1 microM) suggest that PGE(2) predominantly activates EP(4), whereas prostacyclin mainly stimulates IP receptors. Inhibition of responses to either prostaglandin with H89 (10 microM) or glibenclamide (1 microM) suggested a role for the activation of protein kinase A and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Our findings characterized the inhibition of lymphatic pumping induced by PGE(2) or prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics. This action is likely to impair oedema resolution and to contribute to the pro-inflammatory actions of these prostaglandins.

  4. Altered Pulmonary Lymphatic Development in Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNellis, Emily M.; Mabry, Sherry M.; Taboada, Eugenio; Ekekezie, Ikechukwu I.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphatic development in chronic lung disease (CLD) has not been investigated, and anatomy of lymphatics in human infant lungs is not well defined. Hypothesis. Pulmonary lymphatic hypoplasia is present in CLD. Method. Autopsy lung tissues of eighteen subjects gestational ages 22 to 40 weeks with and without history of respiratory morbidity were stained with monoclonal antipodoplanin and reviewed under light microscopy. Percentage of parenchyma podoplanin stained at the acinar level was determined using computerized image analysis; 9 CLD and 4 control subjects gestational ages 27 to 36 weeks were suitable for the analysis. Results. Distinct, lymphatic-specific staining with respect to other vascular structures was appreciated in all gestations. Infants with and without respiratory morbidity had comparable lymphatic distribution which extended to the alveolar ductal level. Podoplanin staining per parenchyma was increased and statistically significant in the CLD group versus controls at the alveolar ductal level (0.06% ± 0.02% versus 0.04% ± 0.01%, 95% CI −0.04% to −0.002%, P CLD. It is suggested that the findings, by expanding current knowledge of CLD pathology, may offer insight into the development of more effective therapies to tackle CLD. PMID:24527433

  5. Optical coherent tomography and fluorescent microscopy for the study of meningeal lymphatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Namykin, A.; Fedosov, I.; Pavlov, A.; Karavaev, A.; Sindeeva, O.; Shirokov, A.; Ulanova, M.; Shushunova, N.; Khorovodov, A.; Agranovich, I.; Bodrova, A.; Sagatova, M.; Shareef, Ali Esmat; Saranceva, E.; Dvoryatkina, M.; Tuchin, V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of novel technologies for the imaging of meningeal lymphatic vessels is one of the amazing trends of biophotonics thanks to discovery of brain lymphatics over several years ago. However, there is the limited technologies exist for the study of lymphatics in vivo because lymphatic vessels are transparent with a low speed flow of lymph. Here we demonstrate the successful application of fluorescent microscopy for the imaging of lymphatic system in the mouse brain in vivo.

  6. Phenotypically heterogeneous podoplanin-expressing cell populations are associated with the lymphatic vessel growth and fibrogenic responses in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Maria; Cannatá, Antonio; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Rota, Marcello; Goichberg, Polina

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac lymphatic vasculature undergoes substantial expansion in response to myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited information on the cellular mechanisms mediating post-MI lymphangiogenesis and accompanying fibrosis in the infarcted adult heart. Using a mouse model of permanent coronary artery ligation, we examined spatiotemporal changes in the expression of lymphendothelial and mesenchymal markers in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium. We found that at the time of wound granulation, a three-fold increase in the frequency of podoplanin-labeled cells occurred in the infarcted hearts compared to non-operated and sham-operated counterparts. Podoplanin immunoreactivity detected LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels, as well as masses of LYVE-1-negative cells dispersed between myocytes, predominantly in the vicinity of the infarcted region. Podoplanin-carrying populations displayed a mesenchymal progenitor marker PDGFRα, and intermittently expressed Prox-1, a master regulator of the lymphatic endothelial fate. At the stages of scar formation and maturation, concomitantly with the enlargement of lymphatic network in the injured myocardium, the podoplanin-rich LYVE-1-negative multicellular assemblies were apparent in the fibrotic area, aligned with extracellular matrix deposits, or located in immediate proximity to activated blood vessels with high VEGFR-2 content. Of note, these podoplanin-containing cells acquired the expression of PDGFRβ or a hematoendothelial epitope CD34. Although Prox-1 labeling was abundant in the area affected by MI, the podoplanin-presenting cells were not consistently Prox-1-positive. The concordance of podoplanin with VEGFR-3 similarly varied. Thus, our data reveal previously unknown phenotypic and structural heterogeneity within the podoplanin-positive cell compartment in the infarcted heart, and suggest an alternate ability of podoplanin-presenting cardiac cells to generate lymphatic endothelium and pro

  7. Phenotypically heterogeneous podoplanin-expressing cell populations are associated with the lymphatic vessel growth and fibrogenic responses in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cimini

    Full Text Available Cardiac lymphatic vasculature undergoes substantial expansion in response to myocardial infarction (MI. However, there is limited information on the cellular mechanisms mediating post-MI lymphangiogenesis and accompanying fibrosis in the infarcted adult heart. Using a mouse model of permanent coronary artery ligation, we examined spatiotemporal changes in the expression of lymphendothelial and mesenchymal markers in the acutely and chronically infarcted myocardium. We found that at the time of wound granulation, a three-fold increase in the frequency of podoplanin-labeled cells occurred in the infarcted hearts compared to non-operated and sham-operated counterparts. Podoplanin immunoreactivity detected LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels, as well as masses of LYVE-1-negative cells dispersed between myocytes, predominantly in the vicinity of the infarcted region. Podoplanin-carrying populations displayed a mesenchymal progenitor marker PDGFRα, and intermittently expressed Prox-1, a master regulator of the lymphatic endothelial fate. At the stages of scar formation and maturation, concomitantly with the enlargement of lymphatic network in the injured myocardium, the podoplanin-rich LYVE-1-negative multicellular assemblies were apparent in the fibrotic area, aligned with extracellular matrix deposits, or located in immediate proximity to activated blood vessels with high VEGFR-2 content. Of note, these podoplanin-containing cells acquired the expression of PDGFRβ or a hematoendothelial epitope CD34. Although Prox-1 labeling was abundant in the area affected by MI, the podoplanin-presenting cells were not consistently Prox-1-positive. The concordance of podoplanin with VEGFR-3 similarly varied. Thus, our data reveal previously unknown phenotypic and structural heterogeneity within the podoplanin-positive cell compartment in the infarcted heart, and suggest an alternate ability of podoplanin-presenting cardiac cells to generate lymphatic endothelium

  8. Development of a Tissue-Engineered Lymphatic Graft Using Nanocomposite Polymer for the Treatment of Secondary Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapathy, Muholan; Kalaskar, Deepak; Mosahebi, Afshin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Damage of the lymphatic vessels, commonly due to surgical resection for cancer treatment, leads to secondary lymphedema. Tissue engineering approach offers a possible solution to reconstruct this damage with the use of lymphatic graft to re-establish the lymphatic flow, hence preventing lymphedema. The aim of this study is to develop a tissue-engineered lymphatic graft using nanocomposite polymer and human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). A nanocomposite polymer, the polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), which has enhanced mechanical, chemical, and physical characteristics, was used to develop the lymphatic graft. POSS-PCU has been used clinically for the world's first synthetic trachea, lacrimal duct, and is currently undergoing clinical trial for coronary artery bypass graft. Two designs and fabrication methods were used to manufacture the conduits. The fabrication method, the mechanical and physical properties, as well as the hydraulic conductivity were tested. This is followed by in vitro cell culture analysis to test the cytocompatibility of HDLEC with the polymer surface. Using the casted extrusion method, the nanocomposite lymphatic graft demonstrates desirable mechanical property and hydraulic conductivity to re-establish the lymphatic flow. The conduit has high tensile strength (casted: 74.86 ± 5.74 MPa vs. coagulated: 31.33 ± 3.71 MPa; P nanocomposite polymer. It displays excellent mechanical property and cytocompatibility to HDLECs, offering much promise for clinical applications and as a new treatment option for secondary lymphedema. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High Endothelial Venules and Lymphatic Vessels in Tertiary Lymphoid Organs: Characteristics, Functions, and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy H Ruddle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High endothelial venules (HEVs and lymphatic vessels (LVs are essential for the function of the immune system, by providing communication between the body and lymph nodes (LNs, specialized sites of antigen presentation and recognition. HEVs bring in naïve and central memory cells and LVs transport antigen, antigen presenting cells, and lymphocytes in and out of LNs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs are accumulations of lymphoid and stromal cells that arise and organize at ectopic sites in response to chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, microbial infection, graft rejection, and cancer. TLOs are distinguished from primary lymphoid organs-the thymus and bone marrow, and secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs-the LNs, spleen, and Peyer’s patches, in that they arise in response to inflammatory signals, rather than in ontogeny. TLOs usually do not have a capsule, but are rather contained within the confines of another organ. Their structure, cellular composition, chemokine expression, and vascular and stromal support resemble SLOs and are the defining aspects of TLOs. T and B cells, antigen presenting cells, fibroblast reticular cells and other stromal cells and vascular elements including HEVs and LVs are all typical components of TLOS. A key question is whether the HEVs and LVs play comparable roles and are regulated similarly to those in LNs. Data are presented that support this concept, especially with regard to TLO HEVs. Emerging data suggest that the functions and regulation of TLO LVs are also similar to those in LNs. These observations support the concept that TLOs are not merely cellular accumulations, but are functional entities that provide sites to generate effector cells, and that their HEVs and LVs are crucial elements in those activities.

  10. Lymphatic vessel invasion detected by the endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40 (podoplanin is predictive of regional lymph node status and an independent prognostic factor in patients with resected esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Laudański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of markers to lymphatic endothelial cells and the development of novel antibodies to these markers have brought increasing attention to the lymphatics and progress in the understanding of lymphangiogenesis and cancer metastasis. In this study, we investigate the presence of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI detected by D2-40 immunohistochemical staining in resected esophageal cancer and correlated with clinicopathologic data and patient survival. Sixty nine patients, who had a primary resection of esophageal cancer, were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression, and univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The total rate of LVI was 72% (50/69. Positive LVI was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001, tumor size (p < 0.001, histological grading (p = 0.017, tumor depth (p = 0.001, and stage (p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic analysis identified LVI (p = 0.036 as a predictor of regional lymph node metastasis. On univariate survival analysis, patients with LVI had a significantly shorter disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Multivariate analysis proved that LVI diagnosed by D2-40 is an independent prognostic factor of both disease-free survival (p = 0.04 and overall survival (p = 0.032 in resected esophageal cancer. These results show that LVI assessment identifies patients at high risk for regional lymph node metastasis and that LVI is an independent prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 90–97

  11. Synergistic actions of blocking angiopoietin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in suppressing remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics in airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Catherine T K; Laidlaw, Grace; Morehouse, Christopher A; Naiman, Brian; Brohawn, Philip; Mustelin, Tomas; Connor, Jane R; McDonald, Donald M

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics are prominent features of sustained inflammation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)/Tie2 receptor signaling and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)/TNF receptor signaling are known to contribute to these changes in airway inflammation after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in mice. We determined whether Ang2 and TNF are both essential for the remodeling on blood vessels and lymphatics, and thereby influence the actions of one another. Their respective contributions to the initial stage of vascular remodeling and sprouting lymphangiogenesis were examined by comparing the effects of function-blocking antibodies to Ang2 or TNF, given individually or together during the first week after infection. As indices of efficacy, vascular enlargement, endothelial leakiness, venular marker expression, pericyte changes, and lymphatic vessel sprouting were assessed. Inhibition of Ang2 or TNF alone reduced the remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics, but inhibition of both together completely prevented these changes. Genome-wide analysis of changes in gene expression revealed synergistic actions of the antibody combination over a broad range of genes and signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses. These findings demonstrate that Ang2 and TNF are essential and synergistic drivers of remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics during the initial stage of inflammation after infection. Inhibition of Ang2 and TNF together results in widespread suppression of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathological diagnostic criterion of blood and lymphatic vessel invasion in colorectal cancer: a framework for developing an objective pathological diagnostic system using the Delphi method, from the Pathology Working Group of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Motohiro; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Iwaya, Keiichi; Kage, Masayoshi; Akiba, Jun; Ohkura, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Shomori, Kohei; Kushima, Ryoji; Ajioka, Yoichi; Nomura, Shogo; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study is to create an objective pathological diagnostic system for blood and lymphatic vessel invasion (BLI). 1450 surgically resected colorectal cancer specimens from eight hospitals were reviewed. Our first step was to compare the current practice of pathology assessment among eight hospitals. Then, H&E stained slides with or without histochemical/immunohistochemical staining were assessed by eight pathologists and concordance of BLI diagnosis was checked. In addition, histological findings associated with BLI having good concordance were reviewed. Based on these results, framework for developing diagnostic criterion was developed, using the Delphi method. The new criterion was evaluated using 40 colorectal cancer specimens. Frequency of BLI diagnoses, number of blocks obtained and stained for assessment of BLI varied among eight hospitals. Concordance was low for BLI diagnosis and was not any better when histochemical/immunohistochemical staining was provided. All histological findings associated with BLI from H&E staining were poor in agreement. However, observation of elastica-stained internal elastic membrane covering more than half of the circumference surrounding the tumour cluster as well as the presence of D2-40-stained endothelial cells covering more than half of the circumference surrounding the tumour cluster showed high concordance. Based on this observation, we developed a framework for pathological diagnostic criterion, using the Delphi method. This criterion was found to be useful in improving concordance of BLI diagnosis. A framework for pathological diagnostic criterion was developed by reviewing concordance and using the Delphi method. The criterion developed may serve as the basis for creating a standardised procedure for pathological diagnosis.

  13. Increased detection of lymphatic vessel invasion by D2-40 (podoplanin) in early breast cancer: possible influence on patient selection for accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debald, M.; Polcher, M.; Flucke, U.E.; Walgenbach-Brunagel, G.; Walgenbach, K.J.; Holler, T.; Wolfgarten, M.; Rudlowski, C.; Buttner, R.; Schild, H.; Kuhn, W.; Braun, M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several international trials are currently investigating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer. According to existing guidelines, patients with lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) do not qualify for APBI. D2-40 (podoplanin) significantly

  14. Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels modulate lung remodeling and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Ruppert, Aline Domingos Pinto; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2014-01-01

    To validate the importance of the angiotensin II receptor isotypes and the lymphatic vessels in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We examined angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels in the pulmonary tissues obtained from open lung biopsies of 30 patients with systemic sclerosis and 28 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Their histologic patterns included cellular and fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia for systemic sclerosis and usual interstitial pneumonia for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We used immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry to evaluate the number of cells in the alveolar septae and the vessels stained by these markers. Survival curves were also used. We found a significantly increased percentage of septal and vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors in the systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients compared with the controls. A similar percentage of angiotensin 2 receptor positive vessel cells was observed in fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. A significantly increased percentage of lymphatic vessels was present in the usual interstitial pneumonia group compared with the non-specific interstitial pneumonia and control groups. A Cox regression analysis showed a high risk of death for the patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and a high percentage of vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin 2 receptor in the lymphatic vessels. We concluded that angiotensin II receptor expression in the lung parenchyma can potentially control organ remodeling and fibrosis, which suggests that strategies aimed at preventing high angiotensin 2 receptor expression may be used as potential therapeutic target in patients with pulmonary systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. The prognostic significance of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Nguyen, Linh; Banting, Jonathan; Christophi, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background. Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in Australia across both genders. Approximately, 40%-60% of patients with CRC develop metastasis, the liver being the most common site. Almost 70% of CRC mortality can be attributed to the development of liver metastasis. This study examines the pattern and density of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases (CLM) as predictors of survival following hepatic resection for CLM. Methods. Patient tissue samples were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the spatial differences in blood and lymphatic vessel densities between different regions within the tumor (CLM) and surrounding host tissue. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was assessed as a potential prognostic marker. Results. Patients with low lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre, tumor periphery, and adjacent normal liver demonstrated a significant disease-free survival advantage compared to patients with high lymphatic vessel density (P = 0.01, P > 0.01, and P = 0.05, resp.). Lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre and periphery and adjacent normal liver was an accurate predictive marker of disease-free survival (P = 0.05). Conclusion. Lymphatic vessel density in CLM appears to be an accurate predictor of recurrence and disease-free survival.

  16. The Prognostic Significance of Lymphatics in Colorectal Liver Metastases

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    Vijayaragavan Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal Cancer (CRC is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in Australia across both genders. Approximately, 40%–60% of patients with CRC develop metastasis, the liver being the most common site. Almost 70% of CRC mortality can be attributed to the development of liver metastasis. This study examines the pattern and density of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases (CLM as predictors of survival following hepatic resection for CLM. Methods. Patient tissue samples were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the spatial differences in blood and lymphatic vessel densities between different regions within the tumor (CLM and surrounding host tissue. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD was assessed as a potential prognostic marker. Results. Patients with low lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre, tumor periphery, and adjacent normal liver demonstrated a significant disease-free survival advantage compared to patients with high lymphatic vessel density (P=0.01, P>0.01, and P=0.05, resp.. Lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre and periphery and adjacent normal liver was an accurate predictive marker of disease-free survival (P=0.05. Conclusion. Lymphatic vessel density in CLM appears to be an accurate predictor of recurrence and disease-free survival.

  17. PWR vessel flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Kinsman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on PWR pressure vessels which operate under NRC rules and regulatory guides intended to prevent failure of the vessels. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified under these rules and regulations are required to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. However, the flaw distribution assumed in the development of the NRC Regulations and recommended for the plant specific analyses is potentially over-conservative. This is because the distribution is based on the limited amount of vessel inspection data available at the time the criteria were being developed and does not take full advantage of the more recent and reliable domestic vessel inspection results. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding an effort through Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of developing a new flaw distribution based on the increased amount and improved reliability of domestic vessel inspection data. Results of Phase I of the program indicate that state-of-the-art NDE systems' capabilities are sufficient for development of a new flaw distribution that could ultimately provide life extension benefits over the presently required operating practice

  18. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Atri, Deepak; Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1S259A) that is associated with Noonan syndrome. Expression of mutant RAF1S259A in ECs activated ERK and induced SOX18 and PROX1 expression, leading to increased commitment of venous ECs to the lymphatic fate. Excessive production of lymphatic ECs resulted in lymphangiectasia that was highly reminiscent of abnormal lymphatics seen in Noonan syndrome and similar “RASopathies.” Inhibition of ERK signaling during development abrogated the lymphatic differentiation program and rescued the lymphatic phenotypes induced by expression of RAF1S259A. These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases. PMID:23391722

  19. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

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    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  20. Assessment of peripheral vessels and of the lymphatic system by means of gamma-camera scintiscan (gamma-scintigraphy of the whole body)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, J T

    1981-01-01

    For diagnosing pathologies of the peripheric vessels or of the lymphatic system, albumin aggregates marked with sup(99m) technetium (MAA) or antimonocolloids were used. The radionuclide venography is useful in diagnosing thrombosis, venous insufficiency, and permits a high degree of accuracy, comparable with that of phlebography. In the most cases the radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is required for the diagnosis of lymphoedema and allows by distribution analysis an adequate morphological representation of the lymphatic ducts and glands. Contrary to lymphography, lymphoscintigraphy presents a completely physiological radionuclide transport and does not cause any reactive lymphatic node hyperplasia by contrast media. Increased capillary perfusion is found in collateral vessel formation in cases of arterial obstruction and ischaemic ulcus, whereas hypoperfusion is seen in obstructions of the larger arteries having no collateral vessels, and in bad circulatory states. Particularly in diabetics with microangiopathy, a peripheral distribution with hyperfusion of the skon presents itself as piece-meal necrosis. The importance and relevance of the perfusion scans of the extremities for the diagnostic assessment within the field of resection surgery is explained.

  1. Development of Catamaran Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamaluddin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihull due to a couple of advantages has been the topic of extensive research work in naval architecture. In this study, a series of investigation of fishing vessel to save fuel energy was carried out at ITS. Two types of ship models, monohull (round bilge and hard chine and catamaran, a boat with two hulls (symmetrical and asymmetrical were developed. Four models were produced physically and numerically, tested (towing tank and simulated numerically (CFD code. The results of the two approaches indicated that the catamaran mode might have drag (resistance smaller than those of monohull at the same displacement. A layout of catamaran fishing vessel, proposed here, indicates the freedom of setting the deck equipments for fishing vessel.

  2. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  3. Minilaparoscopic varicocelectomy with preservation of testicular artery and lymphatic vessels by using intracorporeal knot-tying technique: five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Wu, Chia-Chang; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yang, Stephen Shei Dei; Tsai, Yao-Chou

    2011-08-01

    In this study we present our experience using minilaparoscopic intracorporeal knot tying to ligate internal spermatic veins (ISV) while sparing the spermatic artery and lymphatics. Minilaparoscopic varicocelectomies were performed in 87 patients between January 2004 and January 2009. All varicoceles were detected clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and confirmed by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography. The surgical indications were scrotal symptoms in 71, infertility in 16, and both conditions in 2. Three 3.5 mm minilaparoscopic ports were used for the operation. The ISVs were dissected and then ligated with intracorporeal knot-tying. The testicular artery and lymphatic vessels were carefully preserved to minimize procedure-related complications. Unilateral laparoscopic varicocelectomy was performed in 21 (24.2%) patients and bilateral in 66 (75.8%). Mean operative time was 71.1 ± 29.2 and 46.8 ± 12.6 min for bilateral and unilateral varicocelectomies, respectively. All patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Neither immediate major nor late procedure-related complications were noted. Of the 71 patients with scrotal symptoms, the symptoms completely subsided in 55 (77.5%) and partially subsided in 10 (14.1%). Only one (1.2%) recurrent varicocele was detected within a mean follow-up of 21 months (range = 3-42). Neither hydrocele formation nor testicular atrophy was found during the follow-up period. Our 5-year experience revealed that minilaparoscopic varicocelectomy with sparing of artery and lymphatic vessels could safely and effectively ligate all spermatic veins and preserve spermatic arteries and lymphatic channels without leading to a high varicocele persistence or recurrence.

  4. Role of Hyperplasia of Gingival Lymphatics in Periodontal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, P; Bletsa, A; Yassin, M A; Karlsen, T V; Wiig, H; Berggreen, E

    2017-04-01

    Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown. Here, we test if transgenic overexpression of epithelial VEGFC in a murine model is followed by hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa and if the lymphatic drainage capacity is altered. We also test if lymphatic hyperplasia protects against periodontal disease development. Transgenic keratin 14 (K14)-VEGFC mice had significant hyperplasia of lymphatics in oral mucosa, including gingiva, without changes in blood vessel vasculature. The basal lymph flow was normal but slightly lower than in wild-type mice when oral mucosa was challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Under normal conditions, K14-VEGFC mice exhibited an increased number of neutrophils in gingiva, demonstrated enhanced phagocyte recruitment in the cervical lymph nodes, and had more alveolar bone when compared with their wild-type littermates. After induction of periodontitis, no strain differences were observed in the periodontal tissues with respect to granulocyte recruitment, bone resorption, angiogenesis, cytokines, and bone-related protein expressions or in draining lymph node immune cell proportions and vascularization. We conclude that overexpression of VEGFC results in hyperplastic lymphatics, which do not enhance lymphatic drainage capacity but facilitate phagocyte transport to draining lymph nodes. Hyperplasia of lymphatics does not protect against development of ligature-induced periodontitis.

  5. Semaphorin3A, Neuropilin-1, and PlexinA1 are required for lymphatic valve formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvrée, Karine; Brunet, Isabelle; Del Toro, Raquel; Gordon, Emma; Prahst, Claudia; Cristofaro, Brunella; Mathivet, Thomas; Xu, Yunling; Soueid, Jihane; Fortuna, Vitor; Miura, Nayoki; Aigrot, Marie-Stéphane; Maden, Charlotte H; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Thomas, Jean Léon; Eichmann, Anne

    2012-08-03

    The lymphatic vasculature plays a major role in fluid homeostasis, absorption of dietary lipids, and immune surveillance. Fluid transport depends on the presence of intraluminal valves within lymphatic collectors. Defective formation of lymphatic valves leads to lymphedema, a progressive and debilitating condition for which curative treatments are currently unavailable. How lymphatic valve formation is regulated remains largely unknown. We investigated if the repulsive axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) plays a role in lymphatic valve formation. We show that Sema3A mRNA is expressed in lymphatic vessels and that Sema3A protein binds to lymphatic valves expressing the Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) and PlexinA1 receptors. Using mouse knockout models, we show that Sema3A is selectively required for lymphatic valve formation, via interaction with Nrp1 and PlexinA1. Sema3a(-/-) mice exhibit defects in lymphatic valve formation, which are not due to abnormal lymphatic patterning or sprouting, and mice carrying a mutation in the Sema3A binding site of Nrp1, or deficient for Plxna1, develop lymphatic valve defects similar to those seen in Sema3a(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate an essential direct function of Sema3A-Nrp1-PlexinA1 signaling in lymphatic valve formation.

  6. Macrophage-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis: The Emerging Role of Macrophages as Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Sophia; Montgomery, Kyle E.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is accompanied by macrophage transition from an anti-tumor to a pro-tumorigenic type. The latter is characterized by high expression of factors that activate endothelial cells, suppress immune response, degrade extracellular matrix, and promote tumor growth. Cumulatively, these products of TAMs promote tumor expansion and growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels that facilitate metastatic spread. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies induce the formation of new lymphatic vessels (i.e., lymphangiogenesis) that leads to lymphatic and subsequently, to distant metastasis. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that TAMs significantly promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through paracrine and cell autonomous modes. The paracrine effect consists of the expression of a variety of pro-lymphangiogenic factors that activate the preexisting lymphatic vessels. The evidence for cell-autonomous contribution is based on the observed tumor mobilization of macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP) that integrate into lymphatic vessels prior to sprouting. This review will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage-dependent growth of new lymphatic vessels with specific emphasis on an emerging role of macrophages as lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP)

  7. Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Dianna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the applicability of this concept to other species, especially to humans has never been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the CSF and nasal lymph associations in human and non-human primates with those observed in other mammalian species. Methods Studies were performed in sheep, pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, monkeys and humans. Immediately after sacrifice (or up to 7 hours after death in humans, yellow Microfil was injected into the CSF compartment. The heads were cut in a sagittal plane. Results In the seven species examined, Microfil was observed primarily in the subarachnoid space around the olfactory bulbs and cribriform plate. The contrast agent followed the olfactory nerves and entered extensive lymphatic networks in the submucosa associated with the olfactory and respiratory epithelium. This is the first direct evidence of the association between the CSF and nasal lymph compartments in humans. Conclusions The fact that the pattern of Microfil distribution was similar in all species tested, suggested that CSF absorption into nasal lymphatics is a characteristic feature of all mammals including humans. It is tempting to speculate that some disorders of the CSF system (hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension for example may relate either directly or indirectly to a lymphatic CSF absorption deficit.

  8. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  9. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  10. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed.Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration.Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration.

  11. Lymphatic Leak Occurring After Surgical Lymph Node Dissection: A Preliminary Study Assessing the Feasibility and Outcome of Lymphatic Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Yoolim; Won, Je Hwan [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Tae-Wook; Paek, Jiheum; Chang, Suk-Joon; Ryu, Hee-Sug [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gynecologic Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinoo, E-mail: jinoomail@gmail.com [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeTo analyze imaging findings of lymphatic leakage associated with surgical lymph node dissection on lymphangiography and assess the outcome of lymphatic embolization.Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study comprised 21 consecutive patients who were referred for lymphatic intervention between March 2014 and April 2015 due to postsurgical lymphatic leaks. Lymphangiography was performed through inguinal lymph nodes to identify the leak. When a leak was found, lymphatic embolization was performed by fine-needle injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into the site of leakage or into an inflow lymphatic vessel or into a pelvic lymph node located below the leakage. Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to assess the outcome.ResultLymphangiography revealed single or multiple leaks in all but one patient. Lymphatic embolization was performed in 20 patients with leaks. Including the patient who did not undergo embolization, 17 patients (81.0 %) showed initial response to treatment. Three patients underwent repeated embolization with successful results. The overall success rate was 95.2 %. The mean duration of hospitalization after lymphatic intervention was 5.9 days. During a mean follow-up period of 11 months, two patients developed localized swelling in the groin following lipiodol injection. There were no complications related to lymphatic embolization. Three patients were found to have developed small, asymptomatic lymphoceles on CT or MRI that did not require further treatment.ConclusionLymphangiography is useful for detecting lymphatic leakage occurring after lymph node dissection. Furthermore, lymphatic embolization is feasible, effective, and safe for managing leaks demonstrated on lymphangiography.

  12. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  13. Lymphatic System Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E., Jr.; Bertram, Christopher D.

    2018-01-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is performed by the blood system and involves a net leakage of fluid outward at the capillary level. One of the principal functions of the lymphatic system is to gather this fluid and return it to the blood system to maintain overall fluid balance. Fluid in the interstitial spaces is often at subatmospheric pressure, and the return points into the venous system are at pressures of approximately 20 cmH2O. This adverse pressure difference is overcome by the active pumping of collecting lymphatic vessels, which feature closely spaced one-way valves and contractile muscle cells in their walls. Passive vessel squeezing causes further pumping. The dynamics of lymphatic pumping have been investigated experimentally and mathematically, revealing complex behaviors that indicate that the system performance is robust against minor perturbations in pressure and flow. More serious disruptions can lead to incurable swelling of tissues called lymphedema.

  14. Flaw distribution development from vessel ISI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.; Basin, S.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for use in the structural integrity evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ''generic'' distribution applicable to all vessels. In contrast, this paper describes the analysis of vessel-specific in-service inspection (ISI) data for the development of a flaw distribution reliably representative of the condition of the particular vessel inspected. The application of the methodology may be extended to other vessels, but has been primarily developed for PWR reactor vessels. For this study, the flaw data analyzed included data obtained from three recently performed PWR vessel ISIs and from laboratory inspection of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor vessel. The variability in both the character of the reviewed data (size range of flaws, number of flaws) and the UT (ultrasonic test) inspection system performance identified a need for analyzing the inspection results on a vessel-, or data set-specific basis. For this purpose, traditional histogram-based methods were inadequate, and a new methodology that can accept a very small number of flaws (typical of vessel-specific ISI results) and that includes consideration of inspection system flaw detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy and flaw detection threshold, was developed. Results of the application of the methodology to each of the four PWR reactor vessel cases studied are presented and discussed

  15. Detection of D2-40 monoclonal antibody-labeled lymphatic vessel invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its clinicopathologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Bing; Ma, Wei; Wang, Kai; Ha, Sita; Wang, Jian-Bo; Tan, Bing-Xu; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Sheng-Si; Jia, Yi-Bin; Cheng, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of D2-40 and LVI in 107 ESCC patients. Then, the correlation between the clinicopathologic feature and the overall survival time of the patients was analyzed. The lymph node metastasis rates were 70% and 21% in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. The nodal metastasis rate was higher in the LVI-positive group than in the LVI-negative group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that LVI was related to nodal metastasis (P<0.001). The median survival time of the patients was 26 and 43 months in the LVI-positive and LVI-negative groups, respectively. Although univariate regression analysis showed significant difference between the two groups (P=0.014), multivariate regression analysis revealed that LVI was not an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in the ESCC patients (P=0.062). Lymphatic node metastasis (P=0.031), clinical stage (P=0.019), and residual tumor (P=0.026) were the independent prognostic factors. LVI labeled by D2-40 monoclonal antibody is a risk factor predictive of lymph node metastasis in ESCC patients

  16. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Basin, S.L.

    1991-12-01

    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ''generic'' distribution applicable to all PWR vessels. In contrast, this report describes (1) a new flaw distribution development analytic methodology that can be applied to the analysis of vessel-specific inservice inspection (ISI) data, and (2) results of the application of the methodology to the analysis of flaw data for each vessel case (ISI data on three PWR vessels and laboratory inspection data on sections of the Midland reactor vessel). Results of this study show significant variation among the flaw distributions derived from the various data sets analyzed, strongly suggesting than a vessel-specific flaw distribution (for vessel integrity prediction under pressurized thermal shock) is preferred over a ''generic'' distribution. In addition, quantitative inspection system flaw sizing accuracy requirements have been identified for developing a flaw distribution from vessel ISI data. The new flaw data analysis methodology also permits quantifying the reliability of the flaw distribution estimate. Included in the report are identified needs for further development of several aspects of ISI data acquisition and vessel integrity prediction practice

  17. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox...

  19. [Pleural lymphatics and effusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordant, P; Arame, A; Legras, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2013-06-01

    The pleural lymphatic system has a great absorption capacity. Its most known function is fluid resorption. The pleura which cover the lungs (visceral pleura), the mediastinum, diaphragm and thoracic wall (parietal pleura) are formed by a mesothelial cell layer (mesothelium). This permeable layer is in direct contact with the vascular endothelium. The mesothelium is based over a connective tissue (interstitium) containing the blood and lymphatic vessels. The primary lymphatic vessels drain interstitium but are also in direct contact with pleural space by the stoma or openings, situated in the lower parts of parietal pleura, i.e: diaphragm, over lower ribs and mediastinum but not existing in the adjacent visceral pleura. In addition, a part of interstitial pulmonary fluid entered in the pleural cavity by passing the visceral pleura would be absorbed by these openings. The resorption process is active and directly related to the function of smooth muscles of lymphatic vessels. Besides resorption, we must emphasize that this "pumping" activity is permanent and the origin of negative pressure (the pleural void) in pleural cavity, a unique property. The other resorbed elements are molecules, bacterial and cellular debris, cells, red blood and cancer cells. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Absorption Are Related and Increased in Chronic Kidney Failure, Independent of Exposure to Dialysis Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, Carmen A.; de Graaff, Marijke; Aten, Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2015-01-01

    Increased lymphatic absorption might contribute to ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Lymphangiogenesis develops during PD, but little is known about the relationship between its morphologic and functional parameters. The relationships between lymph vessel density, the effective

  1. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and

  2. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.

  3. Co-localization of lymphoid aggregates and lymphatic networks in nose- (NALT) and lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrberg, Melanie; Pabst, Reinhard; Wilting, Jörg

    2018-01-25

    The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with the lymphatics has remained unknown although the mouse is the most often used species in immunology. Here, we studied the association of nasal and nasolacrimal duct lymphatics with lymphoid aggregates in 14-day-old and 2-month-old mice. We performed paraffin sectioning of whole, decalcified heads, and immunostaining with the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. Most parts of the nasal mucous membrane do not contain any lymphatics. Only the region of the inferior turbinates contains lymphatic networks, which are connected to those of the palatine. Nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is restricted to the basal parts of the nose, which contain lymphatics. NALT is continued occipitally and can be found at both sides along the sphenoidal sinus, again in close association with lymphatic networks. Nasal lymphatics are connected to those of the ocular region via a lymphatic network along the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). By this means, lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) has a dense supply with lymphatics. NALT and LDALT play a key role in the immune system of the mouse head, where they function as primary recognition sites for antigens. Using the dense lymphatic networks along the NLD described in this study, these antigens reach lymphatics near the palatine and are further drained to lymph nodes of the head and neck region. NALT and LDALT develop in immediate vicinity of lymphatic vessels. Therefore, we suggest a causative connection of lymphatic vessels and the development of lymphoid tissues.

  4. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevine M.F. El Deeb

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... migration of connective tissue cells, and re-epithelialization of the wound ... lymphatic vessels sprouting in experimental rabbit ear wounds.9The ..... of lymphatic flow within 14 days, regaining the ability to drain fluid and ...

  5. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  6. Chapter 20. Lymphatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyniel, G.; Plagne, R.; Veyre, A.

    1975-01-01

    It is recalled than in isotopic lymphography the tracer may be introduced into the lymphatic system by two methods: direct lymphography when the product is injected directly into a lymphatic vessel or lymph node, indirect lymphography when the product is injected into interstitial tissues, taken up by the lymph flow and fixed by the glands. The disadvantages of the direct method at present restrict the radioisotopic exploration of the lymphatic system to indirect lymphography. This technique, whereby the lymphatic draining of the tracer injection zone may be followed, is described. The use of metallic colloids (Au-198, In-111, Tc-99m) fixed by the glands gives a sharp and lasting contrast, but also possesses disadvantages. The conditions required of a selective tracer are examined and the possibilities of various types of molecules for this study estimated. In spite of undeniable disadvantages the colloids of technetium-99m are being used more and more because of the quality of the images obtained. The results are interpreted and the chief indications of the method defined. The therapeutic possibilities of isotopic lymphography are also shown [fr

  7. Exercise training improves obesity-related lymphatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; Savetsky, Ira L; García Nores, Gabriela D; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Nitti, Matthew D; Gardenier, Jason C; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z; Jones, Lee W; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene expression of lymphatic

  8. Exercise training improves obesity‐related lymphatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Kataru, Raghu P.; Savetsky, Ira L.; García Nores, Gabriela D.; Torrisi, Jeremy S.; Nitti, Matthew D.; Gardenier, Jason C.; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z.; Jones, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction.Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells.Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Abstract Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti‐inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene

  9. Increased Detection of Lymphatic Vessel Invasion by D2-40 (Podoplanin) in Early Breast Cancer: Possible Influence on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debald, Manuel; Poelcher, Martin; Flucke, Uta; Walgenbach-Bruenagel, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several international trials are currently investigating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer. According to existing guidelines, patients with lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) do not qualify for APBI. D2-40 (podoplanin) significantly increases the frequency of LVI detection compared with conventional hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining in early-stage breast cancer. Our purpose was to retrospectively assess the hypothetical change in management from APBI to whole breast radiotherapy with the application of D2-40. Patients and Methods: Immunostaining with D2-40 was performed on 254 invasive breast tumors of 247 patients. The following criteria were used to determine the eligibility for APBI: invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of ≤3 cm, negative axillary node status (N0), and unifocal disease. Of the 247 patients, 74 with available information concerning LVI, as detected by D2-40 immunostaining and routine HE staining, formed our study population. Results: Using D2-40, our results demonstrated a significantly greater detection rate (p = .031) of LVI compared with routine HE staining. LVI was correctly identified by D2-40 (D2-40-positive LVI) in 10 (13.5%) of 74 tumors. On routine HE staining, 4 tumors (5.4%) were classified as HE-positive LVI. Doublestaining of these specimens with D2-40 unmasked false-positive LVI status in 2 (50%) of the 4 tumors. According to the current recommendations for APBI, immunostaining with D2-40 would have changed the clinical management from APBI to whole breast radiotherapy in 8 (10.8%) of 74 patients and from whole breast radiotherapy to APBI in 2 patients (2.7%). Conclusion: These data support the implementation of D2-40 immunostaining in the routine workup to determine a patient's eligibility for APBI.

  10. Brain drains: new insights into brain clearance pathways from lymphatic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Neil I; Hogan, Benjamin M

    2018-05-01

    The lymphatic vasculature act as the drainage system for most of our tissues and organs, clearing interstitial fluid and waste and returning them to the blood circulation. This is not the case for the central nervous system (CNS), which is devoid of parenchymal lymphatic vessels. Nevertheless, the brain is responsible for 25% of the body's metabolism and only compromises 2% of the body's mass. This high metabolic load requires an efficient system to remove waste products and maintain homeostasis. Well-described mechanisms of waste clearance include phagocytic immune cell functions as well as perivascular fluid flow; however, the need for active drainage of waste from the brain is becoming increasingly appreciated. Recent developments in lymphatic vascular biology challenge the proposition that the brain lacks lymphatic drainage or an equivalent. In this review, we describe the roles of the glymphatic system (a key drainage mechanism in the absence of lymphatics), the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels, and explore an enigmatic cell population found in zebrafish called mural lymphatic endothelial cells. These systems may play important individual and collective roles in draining and clearing wastes from the brain.

  11. Lymphatics and Lymphangiogenesis in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Nakao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic is a prerequisite for the maintenance of tissue fluid balance and immunity in the body. A body of evidence also shows that lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases such as tumor metastasis and inflammation. The eye was thought to lack lymphatic vessels except for the conjunctiva; however, advances in the field, including the identification of lymphatic endothelial markers (e.g., LYVE-1 or podoplanin and lymphangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-C, have revealed the exsitence and possible roles of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in the eye. Recent studies have shown that corneal limbus, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, orbital meninges, and extraocular muscles contain lymphatic vessels and that the choroid might have a lymphatic-like system. There is no known lymphatic outflow from the eye. However, several lymphatic channels including uveolymphatic pathway might serve the ocular fluid homeostasis. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in pathological conditions in the eye including corneal transplant rejection and ocular tumor progression. Yet, the role of lymphangiogenesis in most eye diseases, especially inflammatory disease or edema, remains unknown. A better understanding of lymphatic and lymphangiogenesis in the eye will open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent vision loss in ocular diseases.

  12. Effect of water resource development and management on lymphatic filariasis, and estimates of populations at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanger, Tobias E; Keiser, Jennifer; Caldas De Castro, Marcia; Bos, Robert; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2005-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease overwhelmingly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, which is transmitted by various mosquito species. Here, we present a systematic literature review with the following objectives: (i) to establish global and regional estimates of populations at risk of LF with particular consideration of water resource development projects, and (ii) to assess the effects of water resource development and management on the frequency and transmission dynamics of the disease. We estimate that globally, 2 billion people are at risk of LF. Among them, there are 394.5 million urban dwellers without access to improved sanitation and 213 million rural dwellers living in close proximity to irrigation. Environmental changes due to water resource development and management consistently led to a shift in vector species composition and generally to a strong proliferation of vector populations. For example, in World Health Organization (WHO) subregions 1 and 2, mosquito densities of the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus were up to 25-fold higher in irrigated areas when compared with irrigation-free sites. Although the infection prevalence of LF often increased after the implementation of a water project, there was no clear association with clinical symptoms. Concluding, there is a need to assess and quantify changes of LF transmission parameters and clinical manifestations over the entire course of water resource developments. Where resources allow, integrated vector management should complement mass drug administration, and broad-based monitoring and surveillance of the disease should become an integral part of large-scale waste management and sanitation programs, whose basic rationale lies in a systemic approach to city, district, and regional level health services and disease prevention.

  13. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... December 8, 2017 11.08.2017 The Lymphatic Education & Research Network… Read More > ASRM LE&RN Combined ...

  14. Pleural function and lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, D; Moriondo, A

    2013-02-01

    The pleural space plays an important role in respiratory function as the negative intrapleural pressure regimen ensures lung expansion and in the mean time maintains the tight mechanical coupling between the lung and the chest wall. The efficiency of the lung-chest wall coupling depends upon pleural liquid volume, which in turn reflects the balance between the filtration of fluid into and its egress out of the cavity. While filtration occurs through a single mechanism passively driving fluid from the interstitium of the parietal pleura into the cavity, several mechanisms may co-operate to remove pleural fluid. Among these, the pleural lymphatic system emerges as the most important one in quantitative terms and the only one able to cope with variable pleural fluid volume and drainage requirements. In this review, we present a detailed account of the actual knowledge on: (a) the complex morphology of the pleural lymphatic system, (b) the mechanism supporting pleural lymph formation and propulsion, (c) the dependence of pleural lymphatic function upon local tissue mechanics and (d) the effect of lymphatic inefficiency in the development of clinically severe pleural and, more in general, respiratory pathologies. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  15. The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuan-Xiang; Pan, Wei-Ren; Liu, Zhi-An; Zeng, Fan-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-03

    The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. The deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A model to measure lymphatic drainage from the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhui; Johnston, Miles G; Gupta, Neeru; Moore, Sara; Yücel, Yeni H

    2011-11-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for glaucoma development and progression. Most anti-glaucoma treatments aim to lower IOP by enhancing aqueous humor drainage from the eye. Aqueous humor drainage occurs via well-characterized trabecular meshwork (TM) and uveoscleral (UVS) pathways, and recently described ciliary body lymphatics. The relative contribution of the lymphatic pathway to aqueous drainage is not known. We developed a sheep model to quantitatively assess lymphatic drainage along with TM and UVS outflows. This study describes that model and presents our initial findings. Following intracameral injection of (125)I-bovine serum albumin (BSA), lymph was continuously collected via cannulated cervical lymphatic vessels and the thoracic lymphatic duct over either a 3-h or 5-h time period. In the same animals, blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein every 15 min. Lymphatic and TM drainage were quantitatively assessed by measuring (125)I-BSA in lymph and plasma, respectively. Radioactive tracer levels were also measured in UVS and "other" ocular tissue, as well as periocular tissue harvested 3 and 5 h post-injection. Tracer recovered from UVS tissue was used to estimate UVS drainage. The amount of (125)I-BSA recovered from different fluid and tissue compartments was expressed as a percentage of total recovered tracer. Three hours after tracer injection, percentage of tracer recovered in lymph and plasma was 1.64% ± 0.89% and 68.86% ± 9.27%, respectively (n = 8). The percentage of tracer in UVS, other ocular and periocular tissues was 19.87% ± 5.59%, 4.30% ± 3.31% and 5.32% ± 2.46%, respectively. At 5 h (n = 2), lymphatic drainage was increased (6.40% and 4.96% vs. 1.64%). On the other hand, the percentage of tracer recovered from UVS and other ocular tissue had decreased, and the percentage from periocular tissue showed no change. Lymphatic drainage increased steadily over the 3 h post-injection period, while TM

  17. VIPAR, a quantitative approach to 3D histopathology applied to lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerling, René; Drees, Dominik; Scherzinger, Aaron; Dierkes, Cathrin; Martin-Almedina, Silvia; Butz, Stefan; Gordon, Kristiana; Schäfers, Michael; Hinrichs, Klaus; Ostergaard, Pia; Vestweber, Dietmar; Goerge, Tobias; Mansour, Sahar; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Mortimer, Peter S; Kiefer, Friedemann

    2017-08-17

    Lack of investigatory and diagnostic tools has been a major contributing factor to the failure to mechanistically understand lymphedema and other lymphatic disorders in order to develop effective drug and surgical therapies. One difficulty has been understanding the true changes in lymph vessel pathology from standard 2D tissue sections. VIPAR (volume information-based histopathological analysis by 3D reconstruction and data extraction), a light-sheet microscopy-based approach for the analysis of tissue biopsies, is based on digital reconstruction and visualization of microscopic image stacks. VIPAR allows semiautomated segmentation of the vasculature and subsequent nonbiased extraction of characteristic vessel shape and connectivity parameters. We applied VIPAR to analyze biopsies from healthy lymphedematous and lymphangiomatous skin. Digital 3D reconstruction provided a directly visually interpretable, comprehensive representation of the lymphatic and blood vessels in the analyzed tissue volumes. The most conspicuous features were disrupted lymphatic vessels in lymphedematous skin and a hyperplasia (4.36-fold lymphatic vessel volume increase) in the lymphangiomatous skin. Both abnormalities were detected by the connectivity analysis based on extracted vessel shape and structure data. The quantitative evaluation of extracted data revealed a significant reduction of lymphatic segment length (51.3% and 54.2%) and straightness (89.2% and 83.7%) for lymphedematous and lymphangiomatous skin, respectively. Blood vessel length was significantly increased in the lymphangiomatous sample (239.3%). VIPAR is a volume-based tissue reconstruction data extraction and analysis approach that successfully distinguished healthy from lymphedematous and lymphangiomatous skin. Its application is not limited to the vascular systems or skin. Max Planck Society, DFG (SFB 656), and Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence EXC 1003.

  18. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A.; Antila, Salli

    2017-01-01

    Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss...... the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges...... and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems....

  19. Lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil El-Chemaly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the lymphatic system is absorbing and transporting macromolecules and immune cells to the general circulation, thereby regulating fluid, nutrient absorption and immune cell trafficking. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination. Lymphatic involvement is seen in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. LAM, a disease primarily affecting females, involves the lung (cystic destruction, kidney (angiomyolipoma and axial lymphatics (adenopathy and lymphangioleiomyoma. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Cystic lung destruction results from proliferation of LAM cells, which are abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Lymphatic abnormalities arise from infiltration of LAM cells into the lymphatic wall, leading to damage or obstruction of lymphatic vessels. Benign appearing LAM cells possess metastatic properties and are found in the blood and other body fluids. IPF is a progressive lung disease resulting from fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pulmonary destruction and disease severity. A macrophage subset isolated from IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF express lymphatic endothelial cell markers in vitro, in contrast to the same macrophage subset from normal BALF. Herein, we review lymphatic involvement in LAM and IPF.

  20. Pulmonary lymphatics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system has been more difficult to acquire than that of other organ systems owing to the complexity of the respiratory function of the lungs and to the technical difficulties involved. This is especially true of the lymphatics of the lung and is illustrated by the fact that the first measurement of pulmonary lymph flow was in 1942 by Warren and Drinker. A review of the literature reveals that few experiments have been designed to study the pulmonary lymphatics per se in relation to the effects of external radiation or after the inhalation of radioactive particles. However, the documented involvement of hilar lymph nodes implies that the lung lymphatics have a role in transporting particles from the alveoli or malignant cells from the parenchyma. Information from clinical and experimental sources, though scattered, is fairly abundant and of value in assessing the role of the pulmonary lymphatics. Our method for collecting pulmonary lymph is presented. Studies on the pulmonary lymph flow in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental congestive heart failure are described. We irradiated (4000 to 5000 R) the medial one-third of both lungs of a series of dogs. The lymph flow of the lungs was measured immediately after the course of irradiation and after a period of about 5 months. Although lung biopsies showed characteristic radiation pneumonitis in many areas, alterations in the lung parenchyma were not quantitatively reflected in the pulmonary lymph flow either in the acute stage or after fibrosis had time to develop

  1. Semaphorin 3G Provides a Repulsive Guidance Cue to Lymphatic Endothelial Cells via Neuropilin-2/PlexinD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyi; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Fukushima, Yoko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Hirashima, Masanori

    2016-11-22

    The vertebrate circulatory system is composed of closely related blood and lymphatic vessels. It has been shown that lymphatic vascular patterning is regulated by blood vessels during development, but its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the artery-derived ligand semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) and the endothelial cell receptor PlexinD1 play a role in lymphatic vascular patterning. In mouse embryonic back skin, genetic inactivation of Sema3G or PlexinD1 results in abnormal artery-lymph alignment and reduced lymphatic vascular branching. Conditional ablation in mice demonstrates that PlexinD1 is primarily required in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In vitro analyses show that Sema3G binds to neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), which forms a receptor complex with PlexinD1. Sema3G induces cell collapse in an Nrp2/PlexinD1-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on a molecular mechanism by which LECs are distributed away from arteries and form a branching network during lymphatic vascular development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel integrity predictions performed through fracture mechanics analysis of a pressurized thermal shock event have been shown to be significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modem vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. Throughout the program, new insight was obtained into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. For example, the potential application of a vessel-specific flaw distribution now provides at least one method by which a vessel-specific reference flaw size applicable to pressure-temperature limit curves determination can be estimated. This paper will discuss the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses

  3. Nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1992-01-01

    Our present design for a common pressure vessel (CPV) battery, a nickel hydrogen battery system to combine all of the cells into a common pressure vessel, uses an open disk which allows the cell to be set into a shallow cavity; subsequent cells are stacked on each other with the total number based on the battery voltage required. This approach not only eliminates the assembly error threat, but also more readily assures equal contact pressure to the heat fin between each cell, which further assures balanced heat transfer. These heat fin dishes with their appropriate cell stacks are held together with tie bars which in turn are connected to the pressure vessel weld rings at each end of the tube.

  4. A New Technique to Map the Lymphatic Distribution and Alignment of the Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liu Yan; Qiang, Pan Fu; Ling, Tao; Wei, Zhang Yan; Long, Zhang Yu; Shan, Meng; Rong, Li Shi; Li, Li Hong

    2015-08-01

    The present study was to examine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis of normal adult males, which could provide an anatomical basis for improvement of incisions in penile lengthening surgery, and may also help to prevent postoperative refractory edema. Thirteen normal adult male volunteers were recruited for this study. Contrast agent was injected subcutaneously in the foreskin of the penis, and after two minutes magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) was performed. The acquired magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the changes in the number and diameter of lymphatic vessels in different parts of the penis. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and materializes interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) were applied to analyze the overall distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the lymphatic vessels were in conspicuous contrast with surrounding tissues and could be clearly identified. Penile lymphatic vessels were clearly visible in the root of the penis. At the junction of the penis and the abdominal wall, all lymphatic vessels were found to be concentrated in the dorsal part of the penis. MIP two-dimensional reconstruction showed that the overall distribution of relatively large lymphatic vessels in the dorsal and ventral parts of the penis could be seen clearly on bilateral 45° position, but not inside the abdominal wall because some of lymphatic vessels were overlapped by other tissues in the abdomen. MIMICS three-dimensional reconstruction was able to reveal the overall spatial distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis from any angle. The reconstruction results showed that there were 1-2 main lymphatic vessels on the root of dorsal penis, which coursed along the cavernous to the first physiological curvature of the penis. Lymphatic vessels merged on both sides of the ventral penis. At the root of the penis, lymphatic vessels gradually coursed to the dorsal surface

  5. Development of prestressed concrete containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuji, Hideo; Kuniyoshi, Mutsumu; Nagata, Kaoru

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of evaluations for the selection of the structural and prestressing system type to be employed for the first domestic Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) in Japan. This paper also discusses characteristic features in the design of the liner plate system provided on the PCCV inner surface to assure its leak-tight integrity. Prestressed concrete containment vessels so far constructed in foreign countries are to a considerable extent of different structural types, depending on differences in dome shapes, prestressing systems and number of buttresses. These differences are caused not only by differences in design philosophy and construction practices, but also by difference in the level of technology of the times when the individual containment vessels are being constructed. In the investigation reported herein, the most suitable types of PCCV and Prestressing Systems were determined as the results of an overall comparative evaluation of data and information obtained from PCCV's so far constructed from the design, construction and cost aspects, taking into consideration the seismic criteria, available technology, construction practices, regulations and technical standards in Japan. The function of the liner plate system requires the liner to have enough deformability so that the liner deformation can be consistent with the PCCV concrete deformation. Therefore, in the design of the liner plate system a method for evaluating liner deformability was employed, instead of the stress evaluation method which is widely used in the design of ordinary structures. (author)

  6. The lymphatic mechanisms of brain cleaning: application of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkovskaya-Semyachkina, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Fedosov, I.; Namykin, A.; Pavlov, A.; Shirokov, A.; Shushunova, N.; Sindeeva, O.; Khorovodov, A.; Ulanova, M.; Sagatova, V.; Agranovich, I.; Bodrova, A.; Kurths, J.

    2018-04-01

    Here we studied the role of cerebral lymphatic system in the brain clearing using intraparenchymal injection of Evans Blue and gold nanorods assessed by optical coherent tomography and fluorescence microscopy. Our data clearly show that the cerebral lymphatic system plays an important role in the brain cleaning via meningeal lymphatic vessels but not cerebral veins. Meningeal lymphatic vessels transport fluid from the brain into the deep cervical node, which is the first anatomical "station" for lymph outflow from the brain. The lymphatic processes underlying brain clearing are more slowly vs. peripheral lymphatics. These results shed light on the lymphatic mechanisms responsible for brain clearing as well as interaction between the intra- and extracranial lymphatic compartment.

  7. Lymphatic involvement in the histopathogenesis of mucous retention cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sukalyan; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Saku, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Mucous retention cyst results from extravasation of saliva. Our intent was to study the role of lymphatics in its pathogenesis. Twenty-three surgical specimens of mucous retention cyst of the lip were examined for involvement of lymphatic vessels by a comparative immunohistochemical demonstration of lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells, as well as lymphatic and salivary contents. Mucous retention cysts were histopathologically classified into three stages: early, intermediate, and advanced. In the early stage, there was diffuse extravasation of mucous material in the interstitium of the lamina propria or the submucosal layer of the oral mucosa. In the intermediate stage, lymphatics, which were clearly revealed and immunohistochemically distinguished from blood vessels by monoclonal antibody D2-40, were dilated and finally ruptured, leaving fragments of lymphatic walls in the periphery of mucous pools. In the advanced stage, thick cyst walls of granulation tissue were formed around mucous retention. Lymphatics were no longer involved in the granulation tissue wall, which was actively driven by blood vessel formation. The results suggest that the lymphatic rupture seems to contribute to the enlargement in the pathogenesis of mucous retention cyst.

  8. Lymphatic imaging in unsedated infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Balaguru, Duraisamy; Douglas, William I.; Breinholt, John P.; Greives, Matthew R.; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Primary lymphedema and lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the underlying anatomy and function of the lymphatic system. Diagnostics for the lymphatic vasculature are limited, consisting of lymphoscintigraphy or invasive lymphangiography, both of which require sedation that can restrict use in infants and children. As a result, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients with lymphatic disorders remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. Because near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables image acquisition on the order of tenths of seconds with trace administration of fluorescent dye, sedation is not necessary. The lack of harmful radiation and radioactive contrast agents further facilitates imaging. Herein we summarize our experiences in imaging infants and children who are suspected to have disorders of the lymphatic vascular system using indocyanine green (ICG) and who have developed chylothorax following surgery for congenital heart defects. The results show both anatomical as well as functional lymphatic deficits in children with congenital disease. In the future, NIRF lymphatic imaging could provide new opportunities to tailor effective therapies and monitor responses. The opportunity to use expand NIRF imaging for pediatric diagnostics beyond the lymphatic vasculature is also afforded by the rapid acquisition following trace administration of NIRF contrast agent.

  9. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  10. Development of an integrated data acquision system for research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.

    This article describes an integrated data acquisition system (IDAS) designed and developed for multi-oceanographic research vessels. The prime motivation was to provide a flexible system, which could be used in the context of ocean related...

  11. Lamb congenital lymphatic malformation - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neria Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations have been rarely reported in literature either in humans or in animals. However, in recent years, concern about these malformations in humans has increased. A five-month-old Rasa Aragonesa male lamb was received at the Ovine Clinical Service of the Veterinary Faculty of Zaragoza, Spain, with a history of cervical protuberances coming from birth. The lamb showed three round swollen lumps (5–12 cm in diameter parallel to the trachea on the left side of the neck. Clinical examination, haematology, ultrasonography, fluid examination and histopathology were performed. No abnormalities were found in blood samples and ultrasound confirmed a multicystic lesion with internal separations. Histological evaluation of the tissue revealed dilated lymphatic vessels and channels in the dermis and hypodermis; some lymphatic vessels were filled with amorphous proteinaceous material and occasional lymphocytes and macrophages. These protuberances were diagnosed as congenital lymphatic malformations. Most of the gross and microscopical lesions were very similar to those described in humans. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that a congenital lymphatic malformation is described in sheep.

  12. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation ({approx}30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  13. Development of ITER in-vessel viewing and metrology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The ITER in-vessel viewing system is vital for detecting and locating damage to in-vessel components such as the blankets and divertors and in monitoring and assisting in-vessel maintenance. This system must be able to operate at high temperature (200degC) under intense gamma radiation (∼30 kGy/h) in a high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope viewing system was chosen as a reference due to its clear, wide view and a fiberscope viewing system chosen as a backup for viewing in narrow confines. According to the ITER R and D program, both systems and a metrology system are being developed through the joint efforts of Japan, the U.S., and RF Home Teams. This paper outlines design and technology development mainly on periscope in-vessel viewing and laser metrology contributed by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  14. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  15. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Li, Wenjun; Fulp, Brian; Platt, Andrew M; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Westerterp, Marit; Bittman, Robert; Tall, Alan R; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Thomas, Michael J; Kreisel, Daniel; Swartz, Melody A; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic drainage from skin--1 surgical and the other genetic--to quantitatively track RCT following injection of [3H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages upstream of blocked or absent lymphatic vessels. Macrophage RCT was markedly impaired in both models, even at sites with a leaky vasculature. Inhibited RCT was downstream of cholesterol efflux from macrophages, since macrophage efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol analog (BODIPY-cholesterol) was not altered by impaired lymphatic drainage. We next addressed whether RCT was mediated by lymphatic vessels from the aortic wall by loading the aortae of donor atherosclerotic Apoe-deficient mice with [2H]6-labeled cholesterol and surgically transplanting these aortae into recipient Apoe-deficient mice that were treated with anti-VEGFR3 antibody to block lymphatic regrowth or with control antibody to allow such regrowth. [2H]-Cholesterol was retained in aortae of anti-VEGFR3-treated mice. Thus, the lymphatic vessel route is critical for RCT from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. These results suggest that supporting lymphatic transport function may facilitate cholesterol clearance in therapies aimed at reversing atherosclerosis.

  16. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Acute Lymphatic Leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of a patient who developed fatal pneumocystis pneumonia while in remission from acute lymphatic leukaemia is presented. Clinical and aetiological aspects of this rare infection are discussed. Attention is drawn to diagnostic pitfalls encountered in leukaemia.

  17. Development of automatic reactor vessel inspection systems: development of data acquisition and analysis system for the nuclear vessel weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, H. T.; Um, B. G. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an automated ultrasonic data acquisition and data analysis system to examine the reactor vessel weldsIn order to examine nuclear vessel welds including reactor pressure vessel(RPV), huge amount of ultrasonic data from 6 channels should be able to be on-line processed. In addition, ultrasonic transducer scanning device should be remotely controlled, because working place is high radiation area. This kind of an automated ultrasonic testing equipment has not been developed domestically yet In order to develop an automated ultrasonic testing system, RPV ultrasonic testing equipments developed in foreign countries were investigated and the capability of high speed ultrasonic signal processing hardwares was analyzed in this study, ultrasonic signal processing system was designed. And also, ultrasonic data acquisition and analysis software was developed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  18. Postnatal Deletion of Podoplanin in Lymphatic Endothelium Results in Blood Filling of the Lymphatic System and Impairs Dendritic Cell Migration to Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Roberta; Russo, Erica; Bachmann, Samia B; Proulx, Steven T; Sesartic, Marko; Smaadahl, Nora; Watson, Steve P; Buckley, Christopher D; Halin, Cornelia; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic vascular system exerts major physiological functions in the transport of interstitial fluid from peripheral tissues back to the blood circulation and in the trafficking of immune cells to lymph nodes. Previous studies in global constitutive knockout mice for the lymphatic transmembrane molecule podoplanin reported perinatal lethality and a complex phenotype with lung abnormalities, cardiac defects, lymphedema, blood-filled lymphatic vessels, and lack of lymph node organization, reflecting the importance of podoplanin expression not only by the lymphatic endothelium but also by a variety of nonendothelial cell types. Therefore, we aimed to dissect the specific role of podoplanin expressed by adult lymphatic vessels. We generated an inducible, lymphatic-specific podoplanin knockout mouse model (Pdpn ΔLEC ) and induced gene deletion postnatally. Pdpn ΔLEC mice were viable, and their lymphatic vessels appeared morphologically normal with unaltered fluid drainage function. Intriguingly, Pdpn ΔLEC mice had blood-filled lymph nodes and vessels, most frequently in the neck and axillary region, and displayed a blood-filled thoracic duct, suggestive of retrograde filling of blood from the blood circulation into the lymphatic system. Histological and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses revealed normal lymph node organization with the presence of erythrocytes within lymph node lymphatic vessels but not surrounding high endothelial venules. Moreover, fluorescein isothiocyanate painting experiments revealed reduced dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes in Pdpn ΔLEC mice. These results reveal an important role of podoplanin expressed by lymphatic vessels in preventing postnatal blood filling of the lymphatic vascular system and in contributing to efficient dendritic cell migration to the lymph nodes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The Glymphatic-Lymphatic Continuum: Opportunities for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Kyle; Smith, Kyle; Cuoco, Joshua A; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Mancini, Jayme D; Leheste, Joerg R; Torres, German

    2016-03-01

    The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine. For instance, manipulation of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum could be used to promote experimental initiatives for nonpharmacologic, noninvasive management of neurologic disorders. In the present review, the authors describe what is known about the glymphatic system and identify several osteopathic experimental strategies rooted in a mechanistic understanding of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum.

  20. Scholars and scientists in the history of the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Bocci, Guido; Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of the lymphatic system has a long and fascinating history. The interest in anatomy and physiology of this system paralleled that of the blood cardiocirculatory system and has been maybe obscured by the latter. Paradoxically, if the closed blood system appeared open in Galen's anatomy and physiology, and took a very long time to be correctly described in terms of pulmonary and general circulation by ibn Al-Nafis/Michael Servetus/Realdo Colombo and William Harvey, respectively, the open lymphatic system was incorrectly described as a closed circuit connected with arteries and veins. In ancient times only macroscopic components of the lymphatic system have been described, although misinterpreted, including lymph nodes and lacteals, the latter being easily identified because of their milk-like content. For about 15 centuries the dogmatic acceptance of Galen's notions did not allow a significant progress in medicine. After Vesalius' revolution in anatomical studies, new knowledge was accumulated, and the 17th century was the golden age for the investigation of the lymphatic system with several discoveries: gut lacteals (Gaspare Aselli), cloacal bursa (Hieronimus Fabricius of Acquapendente), reservoir of the chyle (Jean Pecquet), extra-intestinal lymphatic vessels (Thomas Bartholin and Olaus Rudbeck dispute), hepatic lymph circulation (Francis Glisson). In the Enlightenment century Frederik Ruysch described the function of lymphatic valves, and Paolo Mascagni provided a magnificent iconography of the lymphatic network in humans. In recent times, Leonetto Comparini realized three-dimensional reconstructions of the liver lymphatic vessels, and Kari Alitalo discovered the lymphatic growth factor/receptor system. Far from a complete understanding of its anatomy and function, the lymphatic system still needs to be profoundly examined. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  1. Altered T cell memory and effector cell development in chronic lymphatic filarial infection that is independent of persistent parasite antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Steel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphatic filarial (LF infection is associated with suppression of parasite-specific T cell responses that persist even following elimination of infection. While several mechanisms have been implicated in mediating this T cell specific downregulation, a role for alterations in the homeostasis of T effector and memory cell populations has not been explored. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, we investigated the role of persistent filarial infection on the maintenance of T cell memory in patients from the filarial-endemic Cook Islands. Compared to filarial-uninfected endemic normals (EN, microfilaria (mf positive infected patients (Inf had a reduced CD4 central memory (T(CM compartment. In addition, Inf patients tended to have more effector memory cells (T(EM and fewer effector cells (T(EFF than did ENs giving significantly smaller T(EFF:T(EM ratios. These contracted T(CM and T(EFF populations were still evident in patients previously mf+ who had cleared their infection (CLInf. Moreover, the density of IL-7Rα, necessary for T memory cell maintenance (but decreased in T effector cells, was significantly higher on memory cells of Inf and CLInf patients, although there was no evidence for decreased IL-7 or increased soluble IL7-Rα, both possible mechanisms for signaling defects in memory cells. However, effector cells that were present in Inf and CLInf patients had lower percentages of HLA-DR suggesting impaired function. These changes in T cell populations appear to reflect chronicity of infection, as filarial-infected children, despite the presence of active infection, did not show alterations in the frequencies of these T cell phenotypes. These data indicate that filarial-infected patients have contracted T(CM compartments and a defect in effector cell development, defects that persist even following clearance of infection. The fact that these global changes in memory and effector cell compartments do not yet occur in infected children

  2. The interaction between the meningeal lymphatics and blood-brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Dubrovsky, A.; Pavlov, A.; Shushunova, N.; Maslyakova, G.; Navolokin, N.; Bucharskaya, A.; Tuchin, V.; Kurths, J.

    2018-02-01

    Here we show the interaction between the meningeal lymphatic system and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. In normal state, the meningeal lymphatic vessels are invisible on optical coherent tomography (OCT), while during the opening of the BBB, meningeal lymphatic vessels are clearly visualized by OCT in the area of cerebral venous sinuses. These results give a significant impulse in the new application of OCT for the study of physiology of meningeal lymphatic system as well as sheds light on novel strategies in the prognosis of the opening of the BBB related with many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, brain trauma, Alzheimers disease, etc.

  3. Immunohistochemical Examination on the Distribution of Cells Expressed Lymphatic Endothelial Marker Podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the Mouse Tongue Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuya; Amano, Ikuko; Hata, Minoru; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The clinical study for lingual disease requires the detailed investigation of the lingual lymphatic network and lymphatic marker-positive cells. Recently, it has been reported that several tissue cells and leukocytes express lymphatic markers, LYVE-1 and podoplanin. This study was aimed to clarify the lingual distribution of cells expressing LYVE-1 and podoplanin. In the mouse tongue, podoplanin is expressed in nerve sheaths, lingual gland myoepithelial cells, and lymphatic vessels. LYVE-1 is expressed in the macrophage marker Mac-1-positive cells as well as lymphatic vessels, while factor-VIII was detected in only blood endothelial cells. α-SMA was detected in vascular smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. Therefore, identification of lymphatic vessels in lingual glands, the combination of LYVE-1 and factor-VIII, or LYVE-1 and Mac-1 is useful because myoepithelial cells express podoplanin and α-SMA. The immunostaining of factor-VIII on lymphatic vessels was masked by the immunostaining to LYVE-1 or podoplanin because lymphatic vessels express factor-VIII to a far lesser extent than blood vessels. Therefore, except for the salivary glands, the combination of podoplanin and α-SMA, or factor-VIII is useful to identify lymphatic vessels and blood vessels with smooth muscle, or blood capillaries. PMID:20514293

  4. The effect of lymphatic valve morphology on fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon

    2016-11-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is present in nearly all invertebrate tissue, and is essential in the transport of fluid and particles such as immune cells, antigens, proteins and lipids from the tissue to lymph nodes and to the venous circulation. Lymphatic vessels are made of up a series of contractile units that work together in harmony as "micro hearts" to pump fluid against a pressure gradient. Lymphatic valves are critical to this functionality, as they open and close with the oscillating pressure gradients from contractions, thus allowing flow in only one direction and leading to a net pumping effect. We use a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring model which captures fluid-solid interactions through two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a section of a lymphatic vessel to study the dynamics of lymphatic valves and their effect on fluid transport. Further, we investigate the effect of variations in valve geometry and material properties on fluid pumping. This work helps to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphatic fluid transport, which has implications in a variety of pathologies, including cancer metastasis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis and obesity. Support from NSF CMMI 1635133 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  6. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  7. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide

    1999-01-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  8. A novel podoplanin-GFPCre mouse strain for gene deletion in lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Hyea Jin; Ma, Wanshu; Oliver, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    The lymphatic vascular system is a one-direction network of thin-walled capillaries and larger vessels covered by a continuous layer of endothelial cells responsible for maintaining fluid homeostasis. Some of the main functions of the lymphatic vasculature are to drain fluid from the extracellular spaces and return it back to the blood circulation, lipid absorption from the intestinal tract, and transport of immune cells to lymphoid organs. A number of genes controlling the development of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature have been identified in the last few years, and their functional roles started to be characterized using gene inactivation approaches in mice. Unfortunately, only few mouse Cre strains relatively specific for lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are currently available. In this article, we report the generation of a novel Podoplanin (Pdpn) GFPCre transgenic mouse strain using its 5' regulatory region. Pdpn encodes a transmembrane mucin-type O-glycoprotein that is expressed on the surface of embryonic and postnatal LECs, in addition to few other cell types. Our detailed characterization of this novel strain indicates that it will be a valuable additional genetic tool for the analysis of gene function in LECs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of automatic reactor vessel inspection systems; development of data acquisition and analysis system for the nuclear vessel weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Po; Park, C. H.; Kim, H. T.; Noh, H. C.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, C. K.; Um, B. G. [Research Institute of KAITEC, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an automated ultrasonic data acquisition and data analysis system to examine heavy vessel welds. In order to examine nuclear vessel welds including reactor pressure vessel(RPV), huge amount of ultrasonic data from 6 channels should be able to be on-line processed. In addition, ultrasonic transducer scanning device should be remotely controlled, because working place is high radiation area. This kind of an automated ultrasonic testing equipment has not been developed domestically yet. In order to develop an automated ultrasonic testing system, RPV ultrasonic testing equipments developed in foreign countries were investigated and the capability of high speed ultrasonic signal processing hardwares was analyzed. In this study, ultrasonic signal processing system was designed. And also, ultrasonic data acquisition software was developed. The new systems were tested on the RPV welds of Ulchin Unit 6 to confirm their functions and capabilities. They worked very well as designed and the tests were successfully completed. 13 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  10. Research and development of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shoji; Omata, Ippei; Nakamura, Norio

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the steel reactor vessel, the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) is said to be superior in safety and economy. One of the characteristics of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is the adoption of the PCRV instead of the steel reactor vessel to ensure safety. In order to improve safety characteristics, it is necessary for the PCRV to be provided with more reliable functions. When the multi-purpose HTGR or the gas cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) are realized in future, more severe conditions of technology will be imposed on the PCRV, and accordingly, technical developments are now increasingly required. IHI is now proceeding with the technical research and development on the PCRV, in which a basic study of its liner cooling system has already been completed. In this study applying a large cylindrical PCRV model, comparison was made between experimental data and analyses concerning the liner cooling system, and the results of analytical technique have been evaluated. The analytical technique established this time is applicable to the estimation of temperature distribution in the concrete of a large PCRV and also to the evaluation of the liner cooling system. (auth.)

  11. The Lymphatic Vasculature: Its Role in Adipose Metabolism and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Noelia; Oliver, Guillermo

    2017-10-03

    Obesity is a key risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and although we understand the mechanisms regulating weight and energy balance, the causes of some forms of obesity remain enigmatic. Despite the well-established connections between lymphatics and lipids, and the fact that intestinal lacteals play key roles in dietary fat absorption, the function of the lymphatic vasculature in adipose metabolism has only recently been recognized. It is well established that angiogenesis is tightly associated with the outgrowth of adipose tissue, as expanding adipose tissue requires increased nutrient supply from blood vessels. Results supporting a crosstalk between lymphatic vessels and adipose tissue, and linking lymphatic function with metabolic diseases, obesity, and adipose tissue, also started to accumulate in the last years. Here we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms by which defective lymphatics contribute to obesity and fat accumulation in mouse models, as well as our understanding of the lymphatic-adipose tissue relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Apparative developments for inservice inspections of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, H.; Ruthrof, K.; Barbian, O.A.; Kappes, W.; Neumann, R.; Stanger, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizing PWR pressure vessel (RPV) inspections, recent developments of new generations of automated and mechanized ultrasonic inspection equipment are presented. Starting from general equipment design and inservice implenentation criteria, specific examples are given. Main attention is directed to equipment realization of phased array and ALOK inspection techniques, especially in their combination. Refined aspects of subsequent computer processing and evaluation of defect detection data are described. Analytical features and potential for further developments become evident. Remote controlled RPV inspections are stressed by describing a new generation of central mast manipulators, forming an integral part of total inservice inspection system. (orig./HP)

  13. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A; Antila, Salli; Alitalo, Kari; Nedergaard, Maiken; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems.

  14. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control) and from cirrhotic livers (LC) (Child A-LC and Child C-LC). Immunohistochemical (IHC), Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver. PMID:21059220

  15. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  16. Spleen and Lymphatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrong Print en español El bazo y el sistema linfático The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  17. Lymphatic compensation during the postoperative period after breast cancer treatment with axillary dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maia Freire de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer causes physical and psychological morbidity and compromises quality of life. The objective of this literature review was to study lymphatic compensation after surgery for breast cancer and the factors that influence this process, with a view to understanding the etiopathogenesis of lymphedema. Articles indexed on Pubmed published from 1985 to 2012 were reviewed. According to the literature, lymphangiogenesis reduces damage to lymph vessels; there is little evidence that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is elevated in women with lymphedema; lymphovenous communications can be observed 60 days after surgery; women without lymphedema have acquired alternative mechanisms for removal of proteins from the interstitial space; and active exercise stimulates lymphatic and venous pumping. Health professionals should teach these patients about the risk factors for lymphedema. The effects of lymphangiogenesis, proteolysis and lymphovenous communications on development of lymphedema should be studied, since these events are intimately related.

  18. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  19. Liquid metal systems development: reactor vessel support structure evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an evaluation of support structures for the reactor vessel are reported. The U ring, box ring, integral ring, tee ring and tangential beam supports were investigated. The U ring is the recommended vessel support structure configuration

  20. Development of a master model concept for DEMO vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzillo, Rocco; Marzullo, Domenico; Tarallo, Andrea [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion PMU, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Gironimo, Giuseppe, E-mail: peppe.digironimo@gmail.com [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The present work concerns the development of a first master concept model for DEMO vacuum vessel. • A parametric-associative CAD master model concept of a DEMO VV sector has been developed in accordance with DEMO design guidelines. • A proper CAD design methodology has been implemented in view of the later FEM analyses based on “shell elements”. - Abstract: This paper describes the development of a master model concept of the DEMO vacuum vessel (VV) conducted within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium. Starting from the VV space envelope defined in the DEMO baseline design 2014, the layout of the VV structure was preliminarily defined according to the design criteria provided in RCC-MRx. A surface modelling technique was adopted and efficiently linked to the finite element (FE) code to simplify future FE analyses. In view of possible changes to shape and structure during the conceptual design activities, a parametric design approach allows incorporating modifications to the model efficiently.

  1. Development of a master model concept for DEMO vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzillo, Rocco; Marzullo, Domenico; Tarallo, Andrea; Bachmann, Christian; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work concerns the development of a first master concept model for DEMO vacuum vessel. • A parametric-associative CAD master model concept of a DEMO VV sector has been developed in accordance with DEMO design guidelines. • A proper CAD design methodology has been implemented in view of the later FEM analyses based on “shell elements”. - Abstract: This paper describes the development of a master model concept of the DEMO vacuum vessel (VV) conducted within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium. Starting from the VV space envelope defined in the DEMO baseline design 2014, the layout of the VV structure was preliminarily defined according to the design criteria provided in RCC-MRx. A surface modelling technique was adopted and efficiently linked to the finite element (FE) code to simplify future FE analyses. In view of possible changes to shape and structure during the conceptual design activities, a parametric design approach allows incorporating modifications to the model efficiently.

  2. Manual lymphatic drainage with comprehensive anti-diabetic therapy (MLD / CDT as a method of treatment of lymphoedema - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Płoszaj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is an accumulation of lymph, i.e stagnation of water and proteins in extracellular space and lymphatic vessel due to impairment of its transportation as an effect of congenital disorders or lymph vessel lesion. The priority in therapeutic approach to lymphedema should be establishing the cause of edema, setting medical diagnosis and treatment method as early as possible. Complex Decongestive Therapy is recommended by International Society of Lymphology and considered as a standard in lympedema treatment irrespective of their stage of development and the cause.

  3. Recent development for inservice inspection of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Engl, G.; Rathgeb, W.; Heumueller, R.

    1991-01-01

    The German Nuclear Code (KTA-rules) requires a full scope inservice inspection (ISI) of reactor pressure vessels within a period of four years. This has a remarkable influence on plant operation and economy. Therefore, the development of advanced inspection equipment and techniques is directed not only to the enhancement of defect detectability and flaw sizing capabilities but also to reducing inspection times. A new manipulator system for PWR vessels together with fast data processing reduces the time for ISI of modern RPVs to 7 days. A new multichannel UT-system based on ALOK principle offers increased ultrasonic information with comfortable and rapid evaluation and presentation of results together with enhanced sizing capabilities. For specific inspection problems characterized by geometrical complexity the application of phased array probes in connection with UT-tomography provides improved ultrasonic information together with a streamlined manipulator principle and simplification of set up and tear down at the component which results in considerable reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  4. Development of design Criteria for ITER In-vessel Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannazzaro, G.; Barabash, V.; Kang, S.C.; Fernandez, E.; Kalinin, G.; Obushev, A.; Martínez, V.J.; Vázquez, I.; Fernández, F.; Guirao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Absrtract: The components located inside the ITER vacuum chamber (in-vessel components – IC), due to their specific nature and the environments they are exposed to (neutron radiation, high heat fluxes, electromagnetic forces, etc.), have specific design criteria which are, in this paper, referred as Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). The development of these criteria started in the very early phase of the ITER design and followed closely the criteria of the RCC-MR code. Specific rules to include the effect of neutron irradiation were implemented. In 2008 the need of an update of the SDC-IC was identified to add missing specifications, to implement improvements, to modernise rules including recent evolutions in international codes and regulations (i.e. PED). Collaboration was set up between ITER Organization (IO), European (EUDA) and Russian Federation (RFDA) Domestic Agencies to generate a new version of SDC-IC. A Peer Review Group (PRG) composed by members of the ITER Organization and all ITER Domestic Agencies and code experts was set-up to review the proposed modifications, to provide comments, contributions and recommendations

  5. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. © 2015 Aspelund et al.

  6. Italian developments in the ultrasonic examination of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, V.

    1987-01-01

    A review of developments being pursued in Italy in ultrasonics for application to pressure vessels is presented. Although nuclear construction in Italy has suffered heavy delays, R and D activities promoted by the Italian Electricity Board in the mid 1970s on advanced UT for non-destructive inspection of thick welded sections made it possible to obtain significant results scored by CISE Laboratories, mainly through the design, construction and qualification of the manual UT spectroscopy and signal processing computerized ARICE system and of the mechanized multifrequency acoustic holography HADIS system. Meanwhile theoretical ultrasonic modelling is actively studied in order to implement software applications and the overall reliability of UT inspections with regard to flaw detection, location and sizing. Selected contributions from manufacturers and service companies with a view to improving UT practice are acknowledged, and still wider technology transfers may be expected in the future, also under ENEA industrial promotion programmes. (author)

  7. Temperature-dependent modulation of regional lymphatic contraction frequency and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela; Moriondo, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Lymph drainage and propulsion are sustained by an extrinsic mechanism, based on mechanical forces acting from the surrounding tissues against the wall of lymphatic vessels, and by an intrinsic mechanism attributable to active spontaneous contractions of the lymphatic vessel muscle. Despite being heterogeneous, the mechanisms underlying the generation of spontaneous contractions share a common biochemical nature and are thus modulated by temperature. In this study, we challenged excised tissues from rat diaphragm and hindpaw, endowed with spontaneously contracting lymphatic vessels, to temperatures from 24°C (hindpaw) or 33°C (diaphragmatic vessels) to 40°C while measuring lymphatic contraction frequency ( f c ) and amplitude. Both vessel populations displayed a sigmoidal relationship between f c and temperature, each centered around the average temperature of surrounding tissue (36.7 diaphragmatic and 32.1 hindpaw lymphatics). Although the slope factor of the sigmoidal fit to the f c change of hindpaw vessels was 2.3°C·cycles -1 ·min -1 , a value within the normal range displayed by simple biochemical reactions, the slope factor of the diaphragmatic lymphatics was 0.62°C·cycles -1 ·min -1 , suggesting the added involvement of temperature-sensing mechanisms. Lymph flow calculated as a function of temperature confirmed the relationship observed on f c data alone and showed that none of the two lymphatic vessel populations would be able to adapt to the optimal working temperature of the other tissue district. This poses a novel question whether lymphatic vessels might not adapt their function to accommodate the change if exposed to a surrounding temperature, which is different from their normal condition. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates to what extent lymphatic vessel intrinsic contractility and lymph flow are modulated by temperature and that this modulation is dependent on the body district that the vessels belong to, suggesting a possible

  8. The lymphatics of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Koji

    1990-01-01

    For the studies of the esophageal lymphatics, endoscopic RI-lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 23 cases of esophageal cancer, 3 cases of lung cancer and 5 cases of gastric cancer. 99m Tc-Rhenium colloid was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer of the esophagus near the tumor and the images of th lymph flow were obtained after about 3 hours. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was used to acquire the three-dimensional images of the esophageal lymph flow on 19 patients. RI-uptake of all dissected lymph nodes was also counted after the operation. The results were shown as follows. Whole neck, thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes could be imaged in any case injected at any part of the thoracic esophagus. But the lymph flow in the upper third of the esophagus tended to move mainly upward, and the lymph flow in the lower third tended to move mainly downward. The block of intra-mural lymph vessels by the tumor had very important roles upon the esophageal lymph flow. The removal of upper mediastinal lymph nodes and intraabdominal lumph nodes as well as paraesophageal lymph nodes seemed to be very important for curative resection of carcinoma of the esophagus. (author)

  9. Development of automatic Ultrasonic testing equipment for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kor R.; Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.

    1996-06-01

    The selected weld areas of a reactor pressure vessel and adjacent piping are examined by the remote mechanized ultrasonic testing (MUT) equipment. Since the MUT equipment was purchased from southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in April 1985, 15 inservice inspections and 5 preservice inspections are performed with this MUT equipment. However due to the old age of the equipment and frequent movements to plant sites, the reliability of examination was recently decreased rapidly and it is very difficult to keep spare parts. In order to resolve these problems and to meet the strong request from plant sites, we intend to develop a new 3-axis control system including hardware and software. With this control system, we expect more efficient and reliable examination of the nozzle to shell weld areas, which is specified in ASME Code Section XI. The new 3-axis control system hardware and software were designed and development of our own control system, the advanced technologies of computer control mechanism were established and examination reliability of the nozzle to shell weld area was improved. With the development of our 3-axis control system for PaR ISI-2 computer control system, the reliability of nozzle to shell weld area examination has been improved. The established technologies from the development and detailed analysis of existing control system, are expected to be applied to the similar control systems in nuclear power plants. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 33 figs

  10. Development of automatic Ultrasonic testing equipment for reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kor R.; Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.

    1996-06-01

    The selected weld areas of a reactor pressure vessel and adjacent piping are examined by the remote mechanized ultrasonic testing (MUT) equipment. Since the MUT equipment was purchased from southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in April 1985, 15 inservice inspections and 5 preservice inspections are performed with this MUT equipment. However due to the old age of the equipment and frequent movements to plant sites, the reliability of examination was recently decreased rapidly and it is very difficult to keep spare parts. In order to resolve these problems and to meet the strong request from plant sites, we intend to develop a new 3-axis control system including hardware and software. With this control system, we expect more efficient and reliable examination of the nozzle to shell weld areas, which is specified in ASME Code Section XI. The new 3-axis control system hardware and software were designed and development of our own control system, the advanced technologies of computer control mechanism were established and examination reliability of the nozzle to shell weld area was improved. With the development of our 3-axis control system for PaR ISI-2 computer control system, the reliability of nozzle to shell weld area examination has been improved. The established technologies from the development and detailed analysis of existing control system, are expected to be applied to the similar control systems in nuclear power plants. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 33 figs.

  11. Comparison of the Blood and Lymphatic Microvessel Density of Pleomorphic Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Borges Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland, while basal cell adenoma (BCA is an uncommon neoplasm. Blood and lymphatic vessels are crucial for tumor metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and lymphatic vascular density and vascular and endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in PA and BCA tumors. In addition, cell proliferation was evaluated in these tumors. Methods Blood and lymphatic vessel content, VEGF expression, and cell proliferation were analyzed in 30 cases of PA and 13 cases of BCA by immu-nohistochemistry using antibodies for CD34, CD105, D2-40, VEGF, and Mcm -2. Results Regarding CD34 and CD105 expression, PA demonstrated a high vascularity and a low number of positive vessels, respectively. D2-40-positive lymphatic vessels were mainly located in the tumor capsules, with small intratumoral lymphatic vessels observed occasionally. VEGF expression revealed a remarkably heterogeneous immunoreactivity, alternating from weak or negative to positive or intense. BCA presented significantly higher CD34, CD34, CD105, D2-40, and VEGF expression compared to PA. No significant difference was found in cell proliferation between the tumors. Conclusion Although PA and BCA are considered part of the same spectrum of differentiation, this study showed that the blood and lymphatic vascularization of these tumors is different.

  12. Low-cost microcontroller platform for studying lymphatic biomechanics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A; Nipper, Matthew E; Dixon, J Brandon

    2013-01-04

    The pumping innate to collecting lymphatic vessels routinely exposes the endothelium to oscillatory wall shear stress and other dynamic forces. However, studying the mechanical sensitivity of the lymphatic endothelium remains a difficult task due to limitations of commercial or custom systems to apply a variety of time-varying stresses in vitro. Current biomechanical in vitro testing devices are very expensive, limited in capability, or highly complex; rendering them largely inaccessible to the endothelial cell biology community. To address these shortcomings, the authors propose a reliable, low-cost platform for augmenting the capabilities of commercially available pumps to produce a wide variety of flow rate waveforms. In particular, the Arduino Uno, a microcontroller development board, is used to provide open-loop control of a digital peristaltic pump using precisely timed serial commands. In addition, the flexibility of this platform is further demonstrated through its support of a custom-built cell-straining device capable of producing oscillatory strains with varying amplitudes and frequencies. Hence, this microcontroller development board is shown to be an inexpensive, precise, and easy-to-use tool for supplementing in vitro assays to quantify the effects of biomechanical forces on lymphatic endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Apparent Deficiency of Lymphatic Capillaries in the Islets of Langerhans in the Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgren, Erik; Korsgren, Olle

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for efficient immune surveillance and for the maintenance of a physiological pressure in the interstitial space. Even so, almost no information is available concerning the lymph drainage of the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. Immunohistochemical staining allowed us to distinguish lymphatic capillaries from blood capillaries. Almost no lymphatic capillaries were found within the islets in pancreatic biopsy specimens from subjects without diabetes or from subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Lymphatic capillaries were, however, found at the islet-exocrine interface, frequently located along blood capillaries and other fibrotic structures within or close to the islet capsule. Lymphatic capillaries were regularly found in the exocrine pancreas, with small lymphatic vessels located close to and around acini. Larger collecting lymphatic vessels were located in fibrotic septa between the exocrine lobules and adjacent to the ductal system of the pancreas. In summary, we report a pronounced deficiency of lymphatic capillaries in human islets, a finding with implications for immune surveillance and the regulation of interstitial fluid transport in the endocrine pancreas as well as for the pathophysiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Lymphatic malformations: a proposed management algorithm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a management algorithm for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations, based on the authors\\' experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature on the subject. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of all the patients treated for lymphatic malformations at our institution during a 10-year period (1998-2008) was performed. DATA COLLECTED: age at diagnosis, location and type of lesion, radiologic investigation performed, presenting symptoms, treatment modality used, complications and results achieved. RESULTS: 14 patients were identified. Eight (57%) male and six (43%) female. There was an equal distribution between the left and right sides. The majority (71%) of cases were diagnosed within the first year of life. The majority of lesions were located in the suprahyoid region. The predominant reason for referral was an asymptomatic mass in 7 cases (50%) followed by airway compromise (36%) and dysphagia (14%). Management options employed included: observation, OK-432 injection, surgical excision and laser therapy. In 5 cases (36%) a combination of these were used. CONCLUSION: Historically surgical excision has been the management option of choice for lymphatic malformations. However due to the morbidity and high complication rate associated this is increasingly being questioned. Recent advances in sclerotherapy e.g. OK-432 injection have also shown significant promise. Based on experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature the authors of this paper have developed an algorithm for the management of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

  15. Results from ITER Vacuum Vessel Sector Manufacturing Development in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.

    2006-01-01

    Significant results have been achieved since the previous SOFT conference, when the manufacturing development work required to prepare for the ITER Vacuum Vessel Sector was described. The contract for the manufacture of a full-size, 20 Ton poloidal part of the inboard section, fabricated according to the ITER reference manufacturing route, including bracing fixtures, welding applications, restraint effects, and fit-up aspects is approaching completion. Since the main aim of the work is to establish the practicability of achieving the tight dimensional tolerances, an accompanying SYSWELD analysis programme has been validation by instrumented welding coupons, and then used for predicting the distortion of the actual construction. A local machining tool has been developed to allow the requirement for machining of the cylindrical features at a late stage of manufacture. Experimental and analytical work has also been carried out to establish the possibility of 3-D cold-forming large sections of walls of the VV. A manufacturing programme to validate an alternative method of fabricating parts of the double-walled VV, utilising e-beam welding only and avoiding the quality issues of the one-sided access and inspection of the closing welds is presented. This paper describes the results of the manufacturing development programme and the future activities. (author)

  16. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-04-18

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells' functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response.

  17. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  18. Development of automatic ultrasonic testing equipment for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kee Ok; Park, Dae Yung; Park, Moon Hoh; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Kwang Heui; Kang, Sang Sin; Bang, Heui Song; Noh, Heui Choong; Kong, Woon Sik

    1994-08-01

    The selected weld areas of reactor pressure vessel and adjacent piping are examined by remote mechanized ultrasonic testing(MUT) equipment. Since the MUT equipment was purchased from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in April 1985, we have performed 15 inservice inspections and 5 preservice inspections. However, the reliability of examination was recently decreased rapidly as the problems which results from the old age of equipment and the frequent movement to plant site to site have occurred frequently. Therefore, the 3-axis control system hardware in occurring many problems among the equipments of mechanized ultrasonic testing (MUT) was designed and developed to cover the examination areas of nozzle-shell weld as specified in ASME Code Section XI and to improve the examination reliability. The new 3-axis control system hardware with the performance of this project was developed to be compatible with the old one and it was used as dual system or spare parts of the old system. Furthermore, the established technologies are expected to be applied to the similar control systems in nuclear power plant. 17 figs, 2 pix, 2 tabs, 10 refs. (Author)

  19. Development of automatic ultrasonic testing equipment for reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kee Ok; Park, Dae Yung; Park, Moon Hoh; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Kwang Heui; Kang, Sang Sin; Bang, Heui Song; Noh, Heui Choong; Kong, Woon Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    The selected weld areas of reactor pressure vessel and adjacent piping are examined by remote mechanized ultrasonic testing(MUT) equipment. Since the MUT equipment was purchased from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in April 1985, we have performed 15 inservice inspections and 5 preservice inspections. However, the reliability of examination was recently decreased rapidly as the problems which results from the old age of equipment and the frequent movement to plant site to site have occurred frequently. Therefore, the 3-axis control system hardware in occurring many problems among the equipments of mechanized ultrasonic testing (MUT) was designed and developed to cover the examination areas of nozzle-shell weld as specified in ASME Code Section XI and to improve the examination reliability. The new 3-axis control system hardware with the performance of this project was developed to be compatible with the old one and it was used as dual system or spare parts of the old system. Furthermore, the established technologies are expected to be applied to the similar control systems in nuclear power plant. 17 figs, 2 pix, 2 tabs, 10 refs. (Author).

  20. A BMPy Road for Venous Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lauren M; Kahn, Mark L

    2017-09-11

    Detailed molecular pathways for the specific growth of arteries and lymphatic vessels have been identified, but the mechanisms controlling venous vessel growth have been obscure. Tischfield and colleagues (2017) shed new light on this problem by identifying a role for BMP signaling in development of the cerebral venous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MR imaging of edematous limbs in lymphatic and nonlymphatic edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of edema, various types of edema were examined with MR imaging. MR imaging of edematous limbs was performed on 60 patients (lymphatic edema 48, nonlymphatic edema 12) using. T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo and shot inversion time inversion recovery sequences. Thickness and signal intensity of the cutis, subcutis and subfascia were evaluated in the images. In all 48 cases with lymphatic edema, trabecular structures suggesting dilated collateral lymphatic vessels were observed in the swollen subcutis. Two cases with nephrotic syndrome showed similar findings. In 6 cases with venous edema, fatty intensity was found in the subfascia. In the remaining 4 cases, the subcutis exhibited only water intensity. MR imaging is a potential contributor to the diagnosis of various edematous diseases. (orig./MG)

  2. Common-Pressure-Vessel Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Development

    OpenAIRE

    Otzinger, Burton; Wheeler, James

    1991-01-01

    The dual-cell, common-pressure vessel, nickel-hydrogen configuration has recently emerged as an option for small satellite nickel-hydrogen battery application. An important incentive is that the dual-cell, CPV configured battery presents a 30 percent reduction in volume and nearly 50 percent reduction in mounting footprint, when compared with an equivalent battery of individual pressure- vessel (IPV) cells. In addition energy density and cost benefits are significant. Eagle-Picher Industries ...

  3. Nickel hydrogen multicell common pressure vessel battery development update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    The technology background and design qualification of the multicell common pressure vessel nickel hydrogen battery are described. The results of full flight qualification, including random vibration at 19.5 g for two minutes in each axis, electrical characterization in a thermal vacuum chamber, and mass spectroscopy vessel leak detection are reviewed and 12.7 cm qualification and 25.4 cm design adaptation are discussed.

  4. Validation of ALFIA: a platform for quantifying near-infrared fluorescent images of lymphatic propulsion in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Bautista, Merrick; Tan, I.-Chih; Adams, Kristen E.; Aldrich, Melissa; Marshall, Milton V.; Fife, Caroline E.; Maus, Erik A.; Smith, Latisha A.; Zhang, Jingdan; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-02-01

    Recently, we demonstrated near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for quantifying real-time lymphatic propulsion in humans following intradermal injections of microdose amounts of indocyanine green. However computational methods for image analysis are underdeveloped, hindering the translation and clinical adaptation of NIR fluorescent lymphatic imaging. In our initial work we used ImageJ and custom MatLab programs to manually identify lymphatic vessels and individual propulsion events using the temporal transit of the fluorescent dye. In addition, we extracted the apparent velocities of contractile propagation and time periods between propulsion events. Extensive time and effort were required to analyze the 6-8 gigabytes of NIR fluorescent images obtained for each subject. To alleviate this bottleneck, we commenced development of ALFIA, an integrated software platform which will permit automated, near real-time analysis of lymphatic function using NIR fluorescent imaging. However, prior to automation, the base algorithms calculating the apparent velocity and period must be validated to verify that they produce results consistent with the proof-of-concept programs. To do this, both methods were used to analyze NIR fluorescent images of two subjects and the number of propulsive events identified, the average apparent velocities, and the average periods for each subject were compared. Paired Student's t-tests indicate that the differences between their average results are not significant. With the base algorithms validated, further development and automation of ALFIA can be realized, significantly reducing the amount of user interaction required, and potentially enabling the near real-time, clinical evaluation of NIR fluorescent lymphatic imaging.

  5. Hydraulic control of tuna fins: A role for the lymphatic system in vertebrate locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Vadim; Rosental, Benyamin; Hansen, Nathaniel F; Beers, Jody M; Parish, George; Rowbotham, Ian; Block, Barbara A

    2017-07-21

    The lymphatic system in teleost fish has genetic and developmental origins similar to those of the mammalian lymphatic system, which is involved in immune response and fluid homeostasis. Here, we show that the lymphatic system of tunas functions in swimming hydrodynamics. Specifically, a musculo-vascular complex, consisting of fin muscles, bones, and lymphatic vessels, is involved in the hydraulic control of median fins. This specialization of the lymphatic system is associated with fish in the family Scombridae and may have evolved in response to the demand for swimming and maneuvering control in these high-performance species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. A computational model predicting disruption of blood vessel development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kleinstreuer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis and remodeling (angiogenesis come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/ modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a

  7. Cold source vessel development for the advanced neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Lucas, A.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), in its conceptual design phase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will be a user-oriented neutron research facility that will produce the most intense flux of neutrons in the world. Among its many scientific applications, the productions of cold neutrons is a significant research mission for the ANS. The cold neutrons come from two independent cold sources positioned near the reactor core. Contained by an aluminum alloy vessel, each cold source is a 410 mm diameter sphere of liquid deuterium that functions both as a neutron moderator and a cryogenic coolant. With nuclear heating of the containment vessel and internal baffling, steady-state operation requires close control of the liquid deuterium flow near the vessel`s inner surface. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses supporting the cold source design are being performed with multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of the liquid deuterium flow and heat transfer. This paper presents the starting phase of a challenging program and describes the cold source conceptual design, the thermal-hydraulic feasibility studies of the containment vessel, and the future computational and experimental studies that will be used to verify the final design.

  8. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wun-Jae

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most bladder cancer patients experience lymphatic metastasis in the course of disease progression, yet the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis is not well known. The aim of this study is to elucidate underlying mechanisms of how expanded lymphatic vessels and tumor microenvironment interacts each other and to find effective therapeutic options to inhibit lymphatic metastasis. Results The orthotopic urinary bladder cancer (OUBC model was generated by intravesical injection of MBT-2 cell lines. We investigated the angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and CD11b+/CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM by using immunofluorescence staining. OUBC displayed a profound lymphangiogenesis and massive infiltration of TAM in primary tumor and lymphatic metastasis in lymph nodes. TAM flocked near lymphatic vessels and express higher levels of VEGF-C/D than CD11b- cells. Because VEGFR-3 was highly expressed in lymphatic vascular endothelial cells, TAM could assist lymphangiogenesis by paracrine manner in bladder tumor. VEGFR-3 expressing adenovirus was administered to block VEGF-C/D signaling pathway and clodronate liposome was used to deplete TAM. The blockade of VEGF-C/D with soluble VEGF receptor-3 markedly inhibited lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in OUBC. In addition, the depletion of TAM with clodronate liposome exerted similar effects on OUBC. Conclusion VEGF-C/D are the main factors of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer. Moreover, TAM plays an important role in these processes by producing VEGF-C/D. The inhibition of lymphangiogenesis could provide another therapeutic target to inhibit lymphatic metastasis and recurrence in patients with invasive bladder cancer.

  9. Lymphatic drainage system of the brain: A novel target for intervention of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Liang; Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Tuo; Sun, Jing-Yi; Mao, Lei-Lei; Yang, Ming-Feng; Yuan, Hui; Colvin, Robert A; Yang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-09-10

    The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes. Brain lymphatic drainage helps maintain water and ion balance of the ISF, waste clearance, and reabsorption of macromolecular solutes. A second physiological function includes communication with the immune system modulating immune surveillance and responses of the brain. These physiological functions are influenced by aging, genetic phenotypes, sleep-wake cycle, and body posture. The impairment and dysfunction of the brain lymphatic system has crucial roles in age-related changes of brain function and the pathogenesis of neurovascular, neurodegenerative, and neuroinflammatory diseases, as well as brain injury and tumors. In this review, we summarize the key component elements (regions, cells, and water transporters) of the brain lymphatic system and their regulators as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of neurologic diseases and their resulting complications. Finally, we highlight the clinical importance of ependymal route-based targeted gene therapy and intranasal drug administration in the brain by taking advantage of the unique role played by brain lymphatic pathways in the regulation of CSF flow and ISF/CSF exchange. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Design and development of the CRBRP ex-vessel transfer machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The Reactor Refueling System (RRS) for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) uses the Ex-Vessel Transfer Machine (EVTM) for transferring core assemblies outside the reactor vessel. The design of the Ex-Vessel Transfer Machine (EVTM) and its gantry-trolly for the CRBRP is discussed. The development tests required for the design are presented, in conjunction with the impact of the test results on the design. The impact of the increased seismic requirements on the design are also presented

  11. Normal anatomy of the lymphatic system in the CT-image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Peters, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate a pathologic process of a lymphatic node, detailed knowledge is required of the normal anatomy of the lumphatic system in an axial CT image. The anatomy is demonstrated in a comparative study before and after lymphography with CT-scans of patients with normal lymphadenographs. Hereby it appears that with the high-resolution scanning method and favourable imaging conditions even small lymphatic nodes can be differentiated without a lymphographic contrast technique. However, nerves and vessels cannot be differentiated. The extreme variability in the size of normal lymphatic nodes makes the differentiation of pathologic processes very difficult. (orig.) [de

  12. The technology development for surveillance test of reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Sun Phil; Park, Day Young; Choi, Kwen Jai

    1997-12-01

    Benchmark test was performed in accordance with the requirement of US NRC Reg. Guide DG-1053 for Kori unit-1 in order to determine best-estimated fast neutron fluence irradiated into reactor vessel. Since the uncertainty of radiation analysis comes from the calculation error due to neutron cross-section data, reactor core geometrical dimension, core source, mesh density, angular expansion and convergence criteria, evaluation of calculational uncertainty due to analytical method was performed in accordance with the regulatory guide and the proof was performed for entire analysis by comparing the measurement value obtained by neutron dosimetry located in surveillance capsule. Best-estimated neutron fluence in reactor vessel was calculated by bias factor, neutron flux measurement value/calculational value, from reanalysis result from previous 1st through 4th surveillance testing and finally fluence prediction was performed for the end of reactor life and the entire period of plant life extension. Pressurized thermal shock analysis was performed in accordance with 10 CFR 50.61 using the result of neutron fluence analysis in order to predict the life of reactor vessel material and the criteria of safe operation for Kori unit 1 was reestablished. (author). 55 refs., 55 figs.

  13. Development and application of an LWR reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Previous efforts by the US Department of Energy have shown that the PWR reactor vessel integrity predictions performed through probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for a pressurized thermal shock event are significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modern vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. The methodology helped provide original insight into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. This paper briefly discusses the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses

  14. Development efforts on helium vessel for 5 cell - 650 MHz SRF cavity at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Pankaj; Sandha, R.S.; Dutta, Subhajit; Soni, Rakesh; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Thakurta, A.C.; Bhatnagar, V.K.; Mundra, G.

    2011-01-01

    The work focuses on the development of helium vessel which houses a 5 cell - 650 MHz SRF niobium cavity and serves as a helium bath to maintain the cavity at 2 K. The vessel has provision for changing the axial length of the cavity for tuning purpose by using a tuning mechanism and a large bellow. Titanium has been chosen as a material of construction of the vessel due to its coefficient of thermal expansion being close to that of niobium. Efforts have been initiated to understand the functional requirements, design requirements, acceptance criteria for design and analysis, non-destructive examination requirements, inspection and testing requirements, manufacturing technology of the titanium vessel and its integration with the SRF cavity. The welding assumes a special significance as titanium is highly reactive and ductility of the weld joint is lost in the presence of air and other impurities. A trial vessel has been conceptualised having typical sizes and geometries. The manufacturing features of vessel are based on ASME B and PV Code, Section VIII Division-1 and manufacturing of this vessel has been started at an Indian industry. Quality assurance plan for this work is developed. The paper describes the work done at RRCAT on the functional and integration requirements, overall design requirements, design methodology to achieve code conformance, manufacturing technology and QAP being used in the development of helium vessel. (author)

  15. Development of remote welding equipment and techniques for the TFTR vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, L.S.; Watts, K.D.; Larson, R.A.; Aldrich, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    In the event that the TFTR vacuum vessel is damaged or one of the toroidal field coils fails after the system has become substantially activated, it is necessary to remotely remove and replace the damaged section of the vessel using remote handling procedures. This paper describes a welding system developed through the final design stage to perform the remote welding necessary during the replacement operation. Information is presented describing the vessel configuration, the replacement sequence, the welding system requirements, welder configuration, supporting systems, the weld development program and future development requirements

  16. Preliminary Performance Analysis Program Development for Safety System with Safeguard Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Jun; Park, Cheon-Tae; Yoon, Ju-Hyeon; Park, Keun-Bae

    2007-01-01

    SMART is an advanced modular integral type pressurized water reactor for a seawater desalination and an electricity production. Major components of the reactor coolant system such as the pressurizer, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP), and steam generators are located inside the reactor vessel. The SMART can fundamentally eliminate the possibility of large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), improve the natural circulation capability, and better accommodate and thus enhance a resistance to a wide range of transients and accidents. The safety goals of the SMART are enhanced through highly reliable safety systems such as the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) and the safeguard vessel coupled with the passive safety injection feature. The safeguard vessel is a steel-made, leak-tight pressure vessel housing the RPV, SIT, and the associated valves and pipelines. A primary function of the safeguard vessel is to confine any radioactive release from the primary circuit within the vessel under DBAs related to loss of the integrity of the primary system. A preliminary performance analysis program for a safety system using the safeguard vessel is developed in this study. The developed program is composed of several subroutines for the reactor coolant system, passive safety injection system, safeguard vessel including the pressure suppression pool, and PRHRS. A small break loss of coolant accident at the upper part of a reactor is analyzed and the results are discussed

  17. Development of lymphatic filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) fed artificially on microfilaremic blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2006-11-01

    The efficiency of laboratory colonies of mosquitoes such as Anopheles stephensi Liston, Aedes aegypti (L.) Liverpool strain, Ae. aegypti wild type, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, and Armigeres subalbatus Coquillett in supporting the development of Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae to infective larvae was investigated. The mosquitoes were fed on heparinized microfilaremic human blood by using a membrane-feeding unit with Parafilm as membrane. The rate of infection, parasite development, and parasite burden were compared with that in the known vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Cx. quinquefasciatus showed the highest percentage of infection, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The rate of development of the parasite was more or less similar in all the three species, and infective larvae were found on day 13. When the larvae were harvested on day 17, Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded the highest numbers, followed by Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain and An. stephensi. The percentage of infection was low, and the development was slow in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus compared with the other susceptible species. The parasite developed to second-stage larvae only by day 22 and to infective larvae by day 28. When 2-wk-old Cx. tritaeniorhynchus were fed on microfilaremic blood, they could develop the parasite to infective larvae by day 13 postfeeding. All other species of mosquitoes tested were found to be refractory to parasite development. It is shown that Cx. quinquefasciatus is the most suitable mosquito host for the production of infective larvae. However, Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, which is commonly used for Brugia malayi filarial parasite, also can be used for generation of W. bancrofti infective larvae to circumvent the problem of maintaining two mosquito species.

  18. More recent developments for the ultrasonic testing of light water reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiger, H.; Engl, G.

    1976-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic testing method for the inspection from the outside of the areas close to the cladding of the spherical fields of holes of light water reactor pressure vessels is described

  19. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  20. Manufacturing technology development for vacuum vessel and plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, Arttu; Liimatainen, Jari; Hallila, Pentti

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum vessel and plasma facing components of the ITER construction including shield modules and primary first wall panels have great impact on the production costs and reliability of the installation. From the manufacturing technology point of view, accuracy of shape, properties of the various austenitic stainless steel/austenitic stainless steel interfaces or CuCrZr/austenitic stainless steel interfaces as well as those of the base materials are crucial for technical reliability of the construction. The current approach in plasma facing components has been utilisation of solid-HIP technology and solid-powder-HIP technology. Due to the large size of especially shield modules shape, control of the internal cavities and cooling channels is extremely demanding. This requires strict control of the raw materials and manufacturing parameters

  1. Lymphographic criteria of lymphatic edema of the limbs in terms of microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Krylov, V.S.; Milanov, N.O.; Lein, A.P.; Ermakov, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Based on the assessment of the results of 126 lymphographic studies, performed on patients with lymphatic edema of the limbs of various genesis, an important role has been assigned to lymphography as the criterion for establishing indications and contra-indications for microsurgical lymphovenous anastomosis. A special technique of pre-operation lymphophlebographic examination of patients with lymphatic edema of the limbds has been developed. A working scheme of primary lymphatic edemas, as well as the detailed interpretation of lymphographic appearance of primary and secondary lymphatic edemas are also provided

  2. Identification and characterization of nematode specific protective epitopes of Brugia malayi TRX towards development of synthetic vaccine construct for lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Kiran, Pote; Rao, Donthamsetty Nageswara; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-07-12

    Although multi-epitope vaccines have been evaluated for various diseases, they have not yet been investigated for lymphatic filariasis. Here, we report for the first time identification of two immunodominant B epitopes (TRXP1 and TRXP2) from the antioxidant Brugia malayi thioredoxin by studying their immune responses in mice model and human subjects. TRXP1 was also found to harbor a T epitope recognized by human PBMCs and mice splenocytes. Further, the epitopic peptides were synthesized as a single peptide conjugate (PC1) and their prophylactic efficacy was tested in a murine model of filariasis with L3 larvae. PC1 conferred a significantly high protection (75.14%) (P TRX (63.03%) (P < 0.018) in experimental filariasis. Our results suggest that multi-epitope vaccines could be a promising strategy in the control of lymphatic filariasis.

  3. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  4. Offshore support vessel developments for deep water oil and gas E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dielen, Baldo A.M. [SMIT, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide trend to move towards more exposed locations and deeper waters for O and G exploration and production activities resulted in an increased need for larger and more powerful tugs and offshore support vessels. These vessels must meet higher operational requirements under higher wind and sea-state conditions. This market-driven need, together with technological developments, is leading towards a new generation of powerful and sophisticated offshore support vessels (OSV's). This paper will describe the actual and future trends in OSV design for deep water offshore use. (author)

  5. Development of computational methods of design by analysis for pressure vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan; Wu Honglin

    2005-01-01

    Stress classification is not only one of key steps when pressure vessel component is designed by analysis, but also a difficulty which puzzles engineers and designers at all times. At present, for calculating and categorizing the stress field of pressure vessel components, there are several computation methods of design by analysis such as Stress Equivalent Linearization, Two-Step Approach, Primary Structure method, Elastic Compensation method, GLOSS R-Node method and so on, that are developed and applied. Moreover, ASME code also gives an inelastic method of design by analysis for limiting gross plastic deformation only. When pressure vessel components design by analysis, sometimes there are huge differences between the calculating results for using different calculating and analysis methods mentioned above. As consequence, this is the main reason that affects wide application of design by analysis approach. Recently, a new approach, presented in the new proposal of a European Standard, CEN's unfired pressure vessel standard EN 13445-3, tries to avoid problems of stress classification by analyzing pressure vessel structure's various failure mechanisms directly based on elastic-plastic theory. In this paper, some stress classification methods mentioned above, are described briefly. And the computational methods cited in the European pressure vessel standard, such as Deviatoric Map, and nonlinear analysis methods (plastic analysis and limit analysis), are depicted compendiously. Furthermore, the characteristics of computational methods of design by analysis are summarized for selecting the proper computational method when design pressure vessel component by analysis. (authors)

  6. Design and development of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, K.; Nakahira, M.; Itou, Y.; Tada, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Johnson, G.; Ioki, K.; Elio, F.; Iizuka, T.; Sannazzaro, G.; Takahashi, K.; Utin, Y.; Onozuka, M. [ITER Joint Central Team (JCT), Garching (Germany); Nelson, B. [US Home Team, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Vallone, C. [EU Home Team, NET Team, Garching (Germany); Kuzmin, E. [RF Home Team, Efremov Institute, City (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    In ITER, the vacuum vessel (VV) is designed to be a water cooled, double-walled toroidal structure made of 316LN stainless steel with a D-shaped cross section approximately 9 m wide and 15 m high. The design work which began at the beginning of the ITER-EDA is nearing completion by resolving the technical issues. In parallel with the design activities, the R and D program, full-scale VV sector model project, was initiated in 1995 to resolve the design and fabrication issues. The full-scale sector model corresponds to an 18 sector (9 sub-sector x 2) and is being fabricated on schedule. To date, 60% of the fabrication had been completed. The fabrication of full-scale model including sector-to-sector connection will be completed by the end of 1997 and performance tests are scheduled until the end of ITER-EDA. This paper describes the latest status of the ITER VV design and the full-scale sector model project. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Design and development of in-vessel viewing periscope for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Ito, Akira; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke

    1999-02-01

    An in-vessel viewing system is essential not only to detect and locate damage of components exposed to plasma, but also to monitor and assist in-vessel maintenance operation. In ITER, the in-vessel viewing system must be capable of operating at high temperature (200degC), under intense gamma radiation (30 kGy/h) and high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope-type in-vessel viewing system has been chosen as a reference of the ITER in-vessel viewing system due to its wide viewing capability and durability for sever environments. According to the ITER research and development program, a full-scale radiation hard periscope with a length of 15 m has been successfully developed by the Japan Home Team. The performance tests have been shown sufficient capability at high temperature up to 250degC and radiation resistance over 100 MGy. This report describes the design and R and D results of the ITER in-vessel viewing periscope based on the development of 15-m-length radiation hard periscope. (author)

  8. Podoplanin-expressing Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Play a Crucial Role in Postnatal Lymphatic Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Changwon; Cho, Yong Pil; Lee, Eugine; Kim, Hyongbum; Kim, Pilhan; Yun, Seok H.; Yoon, Young-sup

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence has suggested a contribution of bone marrow (BM) cells to lymphatic vessel formation; however, the exact phenotype of the cells with lymphatic endothelial progenitor cell (LEPC) function has yet to be identified. Here we investigate the identity of BM-derived LEPCs and their role in lymphatic neovascularization. Methods and Results Culture of BM-mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the presence of VEGFA, VEGFC and EGF resulted in expression of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers. Among these cells, podoplanin+ cells were isolated by magnetic-labeled cell separation system (MACS) and characterized by FACS and immunocytochemistry. These podoplanin+ cells highly express markers for LECs, hematopoietic lineages, and stem/progenitor cells, and upon further cultivation, generate LECs. We further confirmed that podoplanin+ cells exist in small numbers in BM and peripheral blood (PB) of normal mice, but are significantly (15 fold) augmented upon lymphangiogenic stimuli such as tumor implantation. Next, to evaluate the potential of podoplanin+ cells for the formation of new lymphatic vessels in vivo, we injected culture-isolated or freshly isolated BM-derived podoplanin+ cells into wound and tumor models. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the injected cells were incorporated into the lymphatic vasculature, displayed LEC phenotypes, and increased lymphatic vascular density in tissues, suggesting lymphvasculogenesis. Podoplanin+ cells also expressed high levels of lymphangiogenic cytokines and increased proliferation of LECs during co-culture, suggesting a lymphangiogenic or paracrine role. Conclusions Our results provide compelling evidence that BM-derived podoplanin+ cells, a previously unrecognized cell type, function as LEPCs and participate in postnatal lymphatic neovascularization through both lymphvasculogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:20855662

  9. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA...

  10. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs...

  11. Lymphoscintigraphic studies of lymphatic drainage from the testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.D.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Two colloidal radiopharmaceuticals, Au-198 and Tc-99m antimony, were used to evaluate the lymphatic drainage of the testis in experimental animals and humans. One to 24 hours after direct intratesticular injection of Au-198 colloid in dogs and 4-6 hours after injection of Tc-99m antimony colloid in men, distribution within retroperitoneal lymph nodes was demonstrated. Uptake within the para-aortic lymph nodes primarily draining the testis was decreased following proximal ligation of the spermatic vessels in dogs. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy successfully demonstrated an intact spermatic cord lymphatic communication to the para-aortic nodes in five of six patients with chronic lower-extremity lymphedema. When the intact testicle and spermatic cord were transposed to the thigh in a patient with chronic lymphedema of the lower extremity, percutaneous pedal lymphoscintigraphy successfully demonstrated uptake within the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the ipsilateral testis

  12. Development of data acquisition and analysis system for the nuclear vessel weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Lim, H. T.; Noh, H. C. [Research Institute of KAITEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an automated ultrasonic data acquisition and data analysis system to examine heavy vessel welds. In order to examine nuclear vessel welds including reactor pressure vessel(RPV), huge amount of ultrasonic data from 6 channels should be able to be on-line processed. In addition, ultrasonic transducer scanning device should be remotely controlled, because working place is high radiation area. This kind of an automated ultrasonic testing equipment has not been developed domestically yet. In order to develop an automated ultrasonic testing system, RPV ultrasonic testing equipments developed in foreign countries were investigated and the capability of high speed ultrasonic signal processing hardwares was analyzed. In this study, ultrasonic signal processing system was designed. And also, ultrasonic data acquisition software was developed. 11 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  13. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo...

  14. Applicability of newly developed 610MPa class heavy thickness high strength steel to boiler pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Norihiko; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Ishii, Jun [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Kajigaya, Ichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Totsuka, Takehiro; Miyazaki, Takashi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Aioi (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Construction of a 350 MW Class PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) boiler plant is under planning in Japan. Design temperature and pressure of the vessel are maximum 350 C and 1.69 MPa, respectively. As the plate thickness of the vessel exceeds over 100 mm, high strength steel plate of good weldability and less susceptible to reheat cracking was required and developed. The steel was aimed to satisfy the tensile strength over 610 MPa at 350 C after postweld heat treatment (PWHT), with good notch toughness. The authors investigated the welding performances of the newly developed steel by using 150 mm-thick plate welded by pulsed-MAG and SAW methods. It was confirmed that the newly developed steel and its welds possess sufficient strength and toughness after PWHT, and applicable to the actual pressure vessel.

  15. Developments of high-performance moderator vessel for JRR-3 cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masaji; Tamura, Itaru; Hazawa, Tomoya

    2015-05-01

    The cold neutron source (CNS) facility converts thermal neutrons into cold neutrons to moderate neutrons with liquid hydrogen. The cold neutron beam at Japan Research Reactor No. 3 (JRR-3) is led to the beam experimental devices in the beam hall through neutron guide tubes. High intensities of the cold neutron beam are always demanded for increasing the experimental effectiveness and accuracy. In the Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, developments of high-performance CNS moderator vessel that can produce cold neutron intensity about two times higher compared to the existing vessel have been performed in the second medium term plans. We compiled this report about the technological development to solve several problems with the design and manufacture of new vessel. In the present study, design strength evaluation, mockup test, simulation for thermo-fluid dynamics of the liquid hydrogen and strength evaluation of the different-material-bonding were studied. By these evaluation results, we verified that the developed new vessel can be applied to CNS moderator vessel of JRR-3. (author)

  16. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  17. Roentgenoradionuclide study of the liver lymphatic system (the development of the method and criteria for the evaluation of extravascular plasma flow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatochenko, K V; Morgunov, N B; Uskov, I A [Pervyj Moskovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1984-05-01

    An attempt was made to develop an instrumental method for the evaluation of the extravascular plasma flow (lymph flow) of the liver. Ultrasonography of the liver does not give an opportunity to differentiate between different states including those accompanied by the excess lymph discharge into the liver. The results of intraparenchymal lymphography of the liver were analysed in patients with and without biliary and portal hypertension. 11 criteria have been singled out that make it possible to judge an elevated production of the lymph in the liver. A method of ''radioangiolymphography'' of the liver based on the administration of diffusing and nondiffusing radiopharmaceuticals in the afferent vessels of the liver was worked out. Variation in the parameters of the radionuclide circulation seems to reflect significantly extrahepatic circulation in the liver and holds great promise for the use in hepatology.

  18. Roentgenoradionuclide study of the liver lymphatic system (the development of the method and criteria for the evaluation of extravascular plasma flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatochenko, K.V.; Morgunov, N.B.; Uskov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to develop an instrumental method for the evaluation of the extravascular plasma flow (lymph flow) of the liver. Ultrasonography of the liver does not give an opportunity to differentiate between different states including those accompanied by the excess lymph discharge into the liver. The results of intraparenchymal lymphography of the liver were analysed in patients with and without biliary and portal hypertension. 11 criteria have been singled out that make it possible to judge an elevated production of the lymph in the liver. A method of ''radioangiolymphography'' of the liver based on the administration of diffusing and nondiffusing radiopharmaceuticals in the afferent vessels of the liver was worked out. Variation in the parameters of the radionuclide circulation seems to reflect significantly extrahepatic circulation in the liver and holds great promise for the use in hepatology

  19. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  20. A Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematode, Rumenfilaria andersoni (Filarioidea; Splendidofilariinae), is an emerging parasite in Finnish cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background-Recent studies revealed expansion of filarioid nematodes into the northern Finland. In addition to Setaria tundra, unidentified and very abundant filarioids, representing Rumenfilaria andersoni, were found inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of reindeer. Our study explores the biology and d...

  1. Thoracic involvement in generalised lymphatic anomaly (or lymphangiomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Luisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalised lymphatic anomaly (GLA, also known as lymphangiomatosis, is a rare disease caused by congenital abnormalities of lymphatic development. It usually presents in childhood but can also be diagnosed in adults. GLA encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from single-organ involvement to generalised disease. Given the rarity of the disease, most of the information regarding it comes from case reports. To date, no clinical trials concerning treatment are available. This review focuses on thoracic GLA and summarises possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  2. Development of in-vessel source term analysis code, tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, K.; Miyahara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of radionuclide transport in fuel failure accidents (generally referred to source terms) are considered to be important especially in the severe accident evaluation. The TRACER code has been developed to realistically predict the time dependent behavior of FPs and aerosols within the primary cooling system for wide range of fuel failure events. This paper presents the model description, results of validation study, the recent model advancement status of the code, and results of check out calculations under reactor conditions. (author)

  3. Development of Ultrasonic Visual Inspection Program for In-Vessel Structures of SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y. S.; Park, C. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    As the liquid sodium of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is opaque to light, a conventional visual inspection is unavailable for the evaluation of the in-vessel structures under a sodium level. ASME Section XI Division 3 provides rules and guidelines for an in-service inspection (ISI) and testing of the components of SFR. For the ISI of in-vessel structures, the ASME code specifies visual examinations. An ultrasonic wave should be applied for an under-sodium visual inspection of the in-vessel structures. The plate-type waveguide sensor has been developed and the feasibility of the waveguide sensor technique has been successfully demonstrated for an ultrasonic visual inspection of the in-vessel structures of SFR. In this study, the C-scan image mapping program (Under-Sodium MultiView) is developed to apply this waveguide sensor technology to an under-sodium visual inspection of in-vessel structures in SFR by using a LabVIEW graphical programming language. The Under-Sodium MultiVIEW program has the functions of a double rotating scanner motion control, a high power pulser receiver control, a image mapping and a signal processing. The performance of Under-Sodium MultiVIEW program was verified by a C-scanning test

  4. Lymphatic deletion of calcitonin receptor–like receptor exacerbates intestinal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Reema B.; Kechele, Daniel O.; Blakeney, Elizabeth S.; Pawlak, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatics play a critical role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis and in the absorption of dietary lipids, yet their roles in intestinal inflammation remain elusive. Given the increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, we investigated whether lymphatic vessels contribute to, or may be causative of, disease progression. We generated a mouse model with temporal and spatial deletion of the key lymphangiogenic receptor for the adrenomedullin peptide, calcitonin receptor–like receptor (Calcrl), and found that the loss of lymphatic Calcrl was sufficient to induce intestinal lymphangiectasia, characterized by dilated lacteals and protein-losing enteropathy. Upon indomethacin challenge, Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice demonstrated persistent inflammation and failure to recover and thrive. The epithelium and crypts of Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice exhibited exacerbated hallmarks of disease progression, and the lacteals demonstrated an inability to absorb lipids. Furthermore, we identified Calcrl/adrenomedullin signaling as an essential upstream regulator of the Notch pathway, previously shown to be critical for intestinal lacteal maintenance and junctional integrity. In conclusion, lymphatic insufficiency and lymphangiectasia caused by loss of lymphatic Calcrl exacerbates intestinal recovery following mucosal injury and underscores the importance of lymphatic function in promoting recovery from intestinal inflammation. PMID:28352669

  5. Development of glia and blood vessels in the internal capsule of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, K L; Mitrofanis, J

    1998-02-01

    We have explored two aspects of internal capsule development that have not been described previously, namely, the development of glia and of blood vessels. To these ends, we used antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and to vimentin (to identify astrocytes and to radial glia) and Griffonia simplicifolia (lectin; to identify microglia and blood vessels). Further, we made intracardiac injections of Evans Blue to examine the permeability of this dye in the vessels of the internal capsule during neonatal development. Our results show that large numbers of radial glia, astrocytes and microglia are not labelled with these markers in the white matter of the internal capsule until about birth; very few are labelled earlier, during the critical stages of corticofugal and corticopetal axonal ingrowth (E15-E20). The large glial labelling in the internal capsule at birth is accompanied by a dense vascular innervation of the capsule; as with the glia, very few labelled patent vessels are seen earlier. After intracardiac injections of Evans Blue, we find that the blood vessels of the internal capsule are not particularly permeable to Evans Blue. At each age examined (P0, P5, P15), blood vessels are outlined very clearly and there is no diffuse haze of fluorescence within the extracellular space, which is indicative of a leaky vessel. There are three striking differences between the glial environment of the internal capsule and that of the adjacent thalamus. First, the internal capsule is never rich with radial glial fibres (vimentin- and GFAP-immunoreactive) during development (except at P0), whereas the thalamus has many radial fibres from very early development (E15-E17). Second, astrocytes (vimentin- and GFAP-immunoreactive) first become apparent in the internal capsule (E20-P0) well before they do in the thalamus (P15). Third, the internal capsule houses a large transient population of amoeboid microglia (P0-P22), whereas the thalamus does not; only ramified

  6. Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Norman L. [Hexagon Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Hexagon Lincoln started this DOE project as part of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) contract on 1 February 2009. The purpose of the HSECoE was the research and development of viable material based hydrogen storage systems for on-board vehicular applications to meet DOE performance and cost targets. A baseline design was established in Phase 1. Studies were then conducted to evaluate potential improvements, such as alternate fiber, resin, and boss materials. The most promising concepts were selected such that potential improvements, compared with the baseline Hexagon Lincoln tank, resulted in a projected weight reduction of 11 percent, volume increase of 4 percent, and cost reduction of 10 percent. The baseline design was updated in Phase 2 to reflect design improvements and changes in operating conditions specified by HSECoE Partners. Evaluation of potential improvements continued during Phase 2. Subscale prototype cylinders were designed and fabricated for HSECoE Partners’ use in demonstrating their components and systems. Risk mitigation studies were conducted in Phase 3 that focused on damage tolerance of the composite reinforcement. Updated subscale prototype cylinders were designed and manufactured to better address the HSECoE Partners’ requirements for system demonstration. Subscale Type 1, Type 3, and Type 4 tanks were designed, fabricated and tested. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate vacuum insulated systems for cooling the tanks during fill, and maintaining low temperatures during service. Full scale designs were prepared based on results from the studies of this program. The operating conditions that developed during the program addressed adsorbent systems operating at cold temperatures. A Type 4 tank would provide the lowest cost and lightest weight, particularly at higher pressures, as long as issues with liner compatibility and damage tolerance could be resolved. A Type 1 tank might be the choice if the

  7. Development of Multi-physics (Multiphase CFD + MCNP) simulation for generic solution vessel power calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-17

    The current study aims to predict the steady state power of a generic solution vessel and to develop a corresponding heat transfer coefficient correlation for a Moly99 production facility by conducting a fully coupled multi-physics simulation. A prediction of steady state power for the current application is inherently interconnected between thermal hydraulic characteristics (i.e. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics solved by ANSYS-Fluent 17.2) and the corresponding neutronic behavior (i.e. particle transport solved by MCNP6.2) in the solution vessel. Thus, the development of a coupling methodology is vital to understand the system behavior at a variety of system design and postulated operating scenarios. In this study, we report on the k-effective (keff) calculation for the baseline solution vessel configuration with a selected solution concentration using MCNP K-code modeling. The associated correlation of thermal properties (e.g. density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat) at the selected solution concentration are developed based on existing experimental measurements in the open literature. The numerical coupling methodology between multiphase CFD and MCNP is successfully demonstrated, and the detailed coupling procedure is documented. In addition, improved coupling methods capturing realistic physics in the solution vessel thermal-neutronic dynamics are proposed and tested further (i.e. dynamic height adjustment, mull-cell approach). As a key outcome of the current study, a multi-physics coupling methodology between MCFD and MCNP is demonstrated and tested for four different operating conditions. Those different operating conditions are determined based on the neutron source strength at a fixed geometry condition. The steady state powers for the generic solution vessel at various operating conditions are reported, and a generalized correlation of the heat transfer coefficient for the current application is discussed. The assessment of multi

  8. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  9. Lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourdrain, Alex; Lafitte, Sophie; Iquille, Jules; De Dominicis, Florence; Havet, Eric; Peltier, Johann; Bagan, Patrick; Berna, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Although peribronchial lymphatic drainage of the lung has been well characterized, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura is less well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura. Adult, European cadavers were examined. Cadavers with a history of pleural or pulmonary disease were excluded. The cadavers had been refrigerated but not embalmed. The lungs were surgically removed and re-warmed. Blue dye was injected into the subpleural area and into the first draining visceral pleural lymphatic vessel of each lung segment. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males and 14 females; mean age 80.9 years) were dissected an average of 9.8 day postmortem. A total of 380 dye injections (in 95 lobes) were performed. Lymphatic drainage of the visceral pleura followed a segmental pathway in 44.2% of the injections (n = 168) and an intersegmental pathway in 55.8% (n = 212). Drainage was found to be both intersegmental and interlobar in 2.6% of the injections (n = 10). Lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura followed an intersegmental pathway in 22.8% (n = 13) of right upper lobe injections, 57.9% (n = 22) of right middle lobe injections, 83.3% (n = 75) of right lower lobe injections, 21% (n = 21) of left upper lobe injections, and 85.3% (n = 81) of left lower lobe injections. In the lung, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura appears to be more intersegmental than the peribronchial pathway is-especially in the lower lobes. The involvement of intersegmental lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura should now be evaluated during pulmonary resections (and especially sub-lobar resections) for lung cancer.

  10. Reactor vessel assessment and the development of a reactor vessel life extension program for Calvert Cliffs Units One and Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, B.; Hijeck, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to provide a general assessment of the life extension capabilities for the Calvert Cliffs Units One and Two reactor pressure vessels. The purpose of the study is to assess the general life extension capabilities for the Calvert Cliffs reactor pressure vessels based upon an extension and variation of the Surry pilot plant life extension study. This assessment provided a detailed reactor vessel surveillance program for plant life extension along with a hierarchy of specific tasks necessary for attaining maximum useful life. The assessment identified a number of critical issues which may impact life attainment and extension along with potential solutions to address these issues to ensure the life extension option is not precluded

  11. In-vessel inspection before head removal: TMI II: Phase I. (Conceptual development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, N.E.; Greenlee, D.W.; Lawrence, G.R.; Paglia, A.L.; Piatt, T.D.; Tucker, B.A.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of the task is to provide for an internal inspection of the reactor vessel and the fuel assemblies prior to reactor vessel head removal. Because the degree of damage to equipment and fuel in the TMI-II reactor is not precisely known, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained on present conditions inside the reactor. This information will serve to benchmark the various analyses already completed or underway and will also guide the development of programs to obtain more information on the TMI-II core damage. In addition, the early look will provide data for planning the reactor disassembly program

  12. Multiphase flow in ex-vessel coolability: development of an innovative concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The paper provides the background of past experiments as well as key fundamentals that are needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability

  13. Quality assurance experience in the manufacture of PFBR reactor vessel during technology development work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, K.; Chandramohan, R.; Ramamurthy, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    An efficient and proper implementation of quality assurance in the technology development works of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) main vessel was undertaken to achieve the desired quality and dimensional accuracy of main vessel. In this paper an attempt has been made to bring out the methods and procedures adopted to implement the quality assurance programme on important activities including approval of documents, material, general requirements for manufacture of SS components, inspection procedures, forming and welding of petals, non-destructive testing etc. (author)

  14. R and D Developments. Research Programs on Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Vessel Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Serrano, M.; Perosanz, F.

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels is a degradation mechanism time dependent that can lead to operational restrictions with adverse effects in the efficiency and life of a plant. For the last year, several research programs have been devoted to study thye evaluation of neutronic radiation effect on mechanical properties of pressure vessel steels. However, at the present, there is a growing interest on the development of new methodologies to optimize the surveillance program information, and the understanding of the irradiation damage mechanism. This paper give an overview of international research programs, and on the R+D activities carried out by the Structural Materials Project on irradiation embrittlement on pressure vessel steels. (Author)

  15. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchin, Pedro; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Fernandes, Larissa Araujo; Barreiros, Glória; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis), it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  16. Octreotide in Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Lack of a Clinical Response and Failure to Alter Lymphatic Function in a Guinea Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Makhija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lymphangiectasia, which can be classified as primary or secondary, is an unusual cause of protein-losing enteropathy. The main clinical features include edema, fat malabsorption, lymphopenia and hypoalbuminemia. Clinical management generally includes a low-fat diet and supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. A small number of recent reports advocate the use of octreotide in intestinal lymphangiectasia. It is unclear why octreotide was used in these studies; although octreotide can alter splanchnic blood flow and intestinal motility, its actions on lymphatic function has never been investigated. A case of a patient with intestinal lymphangiectasia who required a shunt procedure after failing medium chain triglycerides and octreotide therapy is presented. During the management of this case, all existing literature on intestinal lymphangiectasia and all the known actions of octreotide were reviewed. Because some of the case reports suggested that octreotide may improve the clinical course of intestinal lymphangiectasia by altering lymphatic function, a series of experiments were undertaken to assess this. In an established guinea pig model, the role of octreotide in lymphatic function was examined. In this model system, the mesenteric lymphatic vessels responded to 5-hydroxytryptamine with a decrease in constriction frequency, while histamine administration markedly increased lymphatic constriction frequency. Octreotide failed to produce any change in lymphatic function when a wide range of concentrations were applied to the mesenteric lymphatic vessel preparation. In conclusion, in this case, octreotide failed to induce a clinical response and laboratory studies showed that octreotide did not alter lymphatic function. Thus, the mechanisms by which octreotide induced clinical responses in the cases reported elsewhere in the literature remain unclear, but the present study suggests that it does not appear to act via increasing

  17. The Development of Key Technologies in Applications of Vessels Connected to the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Tian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, traffic perception, communication, information processing, artificial intelligence and the shipping information system have become important in supporting the realization of intelligent shipping transportation. Against this background, the Internet of Vessels (IoV is proposed to integrate all these advanced technologies into a platform to meet the requirements of international and regional transportations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how to benefit from the Internet of Vessels to improve the efficiency and safety of shipping, and promote the development of world transportation. In this paper, the IoV is introduced and its main architectures are outlined. Furthermore, the characteristics of the Internet of Vessels are described. Several important applications that illustrate the interaction of the Internet of Vessels’ components are proposed. Due to the development of the Internet of Vessels still being in its primary stage, challenges and prospects are identified and addressed. Finally, the main conclusions are drawn and future research priorities are provided for reference and as professional suggestions for future researchers in this field.

  18. Urban lymphatic filariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.

    2013-01-01

    parasite species causing LF in humans, only Wuchereria bancrofti has been documented to have a significant potential for urban transmission. This is primarily because one of its vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus, thrives and proliferates excessively in crowded city areas with poor sanitary, sewerage...... impact. However, with rapid and unplanned growth of cities in the developing world, there is a need also to consider LF transmission and control in urban settings. Here, we review currently available knowledge on urban LF and the environmental and socio-economic basis for its occurrence. Among the three...... and drainage facilities. For this reason, urban LF also often shows a marked focality in distribution, with most cases clustered in areas inhabited by the less privileged city populations. More knowledge on urban LF is needed, in particular on its socio-economic and human behavioural context, on the potential...

  19. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  20. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B Ramesh; Gangradey, R

    2012-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  1. Development of improved SGV480 steel plate for containment vessel in PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Norioki [Advanced Nuclear Equipment Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Morikage, Yasushi; Okayama, Yutaka; Higashikubo, Tomohiro

    2001-01-01

    When a nuclear containment vessel made of steel plate at PWR plants in Japan is produced, SGV480 steel plate made by annealing method according to JIS G3118 is usually used in main. And, when thickness of welding portion of the vessel is larger than 38 mm, as heat treatment after welding is regulated to carry out according to the ministerial ordinance, it is difficult in actual to carry out the heat treatment of the actual welded portions. In a leading plant, approval of welding using a special method without heat treatment less than 47.25 mm of SGV480 carbon steel plate for JIS G3118 middle and ordinary pressure vessel was carried out to supply it for actual use. And, it is required for protection of welding fracture to carry out pre-heat treatment before welding. Because of increasing plate thickness requiring for lower temperature and more seismic resistance in construction condition, in order to produce a containment vessel without heat treatment after welding, more toughness is required for using material and welded portion. Therefore, a new SGV480 steel plate was developed by using TMCP method of modern steel manufacturing technology, to establish lower carbon equivalence and finer texture with upgrading of both toughness and weldability, without heat treatment after welding and pre-heat treatment before welding, at the Shin-Nippon Steel Co, Ltd. and Kawasaki Steel, Co. Ltd., respectively. (G.K.)

  2. Development of FB-MultiPier dynamic vessel-collision analysis models, phase 2 : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    When collisions between large vessels and bridge : supports occur, they can result in significant : damage to bridge and vessel. These collisions : are extremely hazardous, often taking lives on : the vessel and the bridge. Direct costs of repair : a...

  3. Development of FB-MultiPier dynamic vessel-collision analysis models, phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Massive waterway vessels such as barges regularly transit navigable waterways in the U.S. During passages that fall within : the vicinity of bridge structures, vessels may (under extreme circumstances) deviate from the intended vessel transit path. A...

  4. Classification of the lymphatic drainage status of a primary tumor: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.L.; Maza, S.; Ivancevic, V.; Geworski, L.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Creation of a classification of the lymphatic drainage status of a primary tumour. It shall enable comparison of different approaches, standardisation and quality control. Methods: Identification and topographic localisation of the sentinel node(s) using lymphatic radionuclide gamma camera imaging and/or gamma probe detection and/or vital dye mapping. Results: A classification comprising four classes (D-Class I-IV) and distinct subclasses (A-E) proved to be simply to be learned and applicable as well as reliably reproducible. It is based on the number of sentinel lymph nodes and their locations and can be combined with the pathological and molecular biological lymph node status. D-classes/subclasses obtained in 420 patients with malignant melanoma of the skin are presented. Conclusions: The classification is applicable to different approaches. Its diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic value should be studied prospectively in those primary tumours which preferably metastasise via their draining lymphatic vessels. (orig.) [de

  5. Lower Length Scale Model Development for Embrittlement of Reactor Presure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chakraborty, Pritam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the lower-length-scale effort during FY 2016 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution, plasticity and fracture in reactor pressure vessel steels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation induced defect accumulation and irradiation enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. A crystal plasticity model to capture defect-dislocation interaction and a damage model for cleavage micro-crack propagation is also provided.

  6. The muscle contraction mode determines lymphangiogenesis differentially in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles by modifying local lymphatic extracellular matrix microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiwe, L; Vinck, M; Suhr, F

    2016-05-01

    Lymphatic vessels are of special importance for tissue homeostasis, and increases of their density may foster tissue regeneration. Exercise could be a relevant tool to increase lymphatic vessel density (LVD); however, a significant lack of knowledge remains to understand lymphangiogenesis in skeletal muscles upon training. Interestingly, training-induced lymphangiogenesis has never been studied in the heart. We studied lymphangiogenesis and LVD upon chronic concentric and chronic eccentric muscle contractions in both rat skeletal (Mm. Edl and Sol) and cardiac muscles. We found that LVD decreased in both skeletal muscles specifically upon eccentric training, while this contraction increased LVD in cardiac tissue. These observations were supported by opposing local remodelling of lymphatic vessel-specific extracellular matrix components in skeletal and cardiac muscles and protein levels of lymphatic markers (Lyve-1, Pdpn, Vegf-C/D). Confocal microscopy further revealed transformations of lymphatic vessels into vessels expressing both blood (Cav-1) and lymphatic (Vegfr-3) markers upon eccentric training specifically in skeletal muscles. In addition and phenotype supportive, we found increased inflammation (NF-κB/p65, Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Tnf-α and MPO(+) cells) in eccentrically stressed skeletal, but decreased levels in cardiac muscles. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into lymphangiogenic processes in skeletal and cardiac muscles upon chronic muscle contraction modes and demonstrate that both tissues adapt in opposing manners specifically to eccentric training. These data are highly relevant for clinical applications, because eccentric training serves as a sufficient strategy to increase LVD and to decrease inflammation in cardiac tissue, for example in order to reduce tissue abortion in transplantation settings. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lymphatic drainage pathways from the cervix uteri: implications for radical hysterectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraima, A C; Derks, M; Smit, N N; Van Munsteren, J C; Van der Velden, J; Kenter, G G; DeRuiter, M C

    2014-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for early-stage cervical cancer. Wertheim's original technique has been often modified, mainly in the extent of parametrectomy. Okabayashi's technique is considered as the most radical variant regarding removal of the ventral parametrium and paracolpal tissues. Surgical outcome concerning recurrence and survival is good, but morbidity is high due to autonomic nerve damage. While the autonomic network has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system is less understood. This study describes the lymphatic drainage pathways of the cervix uteri and specifically the presence of lymphatics in the vesico-uterine ligament (VUL). A developmental series of 10 human female fetal pelves was studied. Paraffin embedded blocks were sliced in transverse sections of 8 or 10 μm. Analysis was performed by staining with antibodies against LYVE-1 (lymphatic endothelium), S100 (Schwann cells), alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (smooth muscle cells) and CD68 (macrophages). The results were three-dimensionally represented. Two major pathways drained the cervix uteri: a supra-ureteral pathway, running in the cardinal ligament superior to the ureter, and a dorsal pathway, running in the utero-sacral ligament towards the rectal pillars. No lymph vessels draining the cervix uteri were detected in the VUL. In the paracolpal parametrium lymph vessels draining the upper vagina fused with those from the bladder. The VUL does not contain lymphatics from the cervix uteri. Hence, the favorable survival outcomes of the Okabayashi technique cannot be explained by radical removal of lymphatic pathways in the ventrocaudal parametrium. © 2013.

  8. Development of automated ultrasonic device for in-service inspection of ABWR pressure vessel bottom head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Y.; Matsuyama, A.

    1995-01-01

    An automated device and its controller have been developed for the bottom head weld examination of pressure vessel of Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The internal pump casings and the housings of control rod prevent a conventional ultrasonic device from scanning the required inspection zone. With this reason, it is required to develop a new device to examine the bottom head area of ABWR. The developed device is characterized by the following features. (1) Composed of a mother vehicle and a compact inspection vehicle. They are connected only by an electric wire without using the conventional arm mechanism. (2) The mother vehicle travels on a track and lift up the inspection vehicle to the vessel. (3) The mother vehicle can automatically attach the inspection vehicle to the bottom head, and detach the inspection vehicle from it. (4) Collision avoidance control function with a touch sensor is installed at the front of the inspection vehicle. The device was successfully demonstrated using a mock-up of reactor pressure vessel

  9. Development of advanced design features for KNGR reactor vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Ru, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyung Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Ku, Kyung Heoy; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Jun; Kim, Young In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Developments of KNGR design require to enhance the design to implement the design requirements, such as plant life time from 40 years to 60 years, safety, performance and structure and components design. The designs used for existing nuclear power plants should be modified or improved to meet the requirements in KNGR design. The purpose of the task is to develop the Advanced Design Features (ADF) related to mechanical and structural design for KNGR reactor vessel and reactor internals. The structural integrity for the System 80+ reactor vessel, of which design life is 60 years, was reviewed. EPRI-URD, CESSAR-DC, and the present design status and characteristics of System 80+ reactor vessel were comparatively studied and the improvement of reactor vessel surveillance program was investigated. The performance and aseismic characteristics of the CE-type CEDM, which will be used in System 80+, are investigated. The driving cycles of CEDM are evaluated for the load follow operation(LFO), of which Mode K is being developed by KAERI. The position of the USNRC, EPRI, ABB-CE, and industries on the elimination of OBE are reviewed, and especially ABB-CE System 80+ FSER is reviewed in detail. For the pre-stage of the verification of the OBE elimination from the design, the review of the seismic responses, i.e.. shear forces and moments, of YGN 3/4 RI was performed and the ratio of OBE response to SSE response was analysed. The screening criteria were reviewed to evaluate the integrity against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for RV belt-line of System 80+. The evaluation methods for fracture integrity when screening criteria are not met were reviewed. The structural characteristics of IRWST spargers of System 80+ were investigated and the effect of hydrodynamic loads on NSSS was reviewed. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 40 refs. (Author) .new.

  10. Development of advanced design features for KNGR reactor vessel and internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Ru, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyung Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Ku, Kyung Heoy; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Jun; Kim, Young In

    1995-12-01

    Developments of KNGR design require to enhance the design to implement the design requirements, such as plant life time from 40 years to 60 years, safety, performance and structure and components design. The designs used for existing nuclear power plants should be modified or improved to meet the requirements in KNGR design. The purpose of the task is to develop the Advanced Design Features (ADF) related to mechanical and structural design for KNGR reactor vessel and reactor internals. The structural integrity for the System 80+ reactor vessel, of which design life is 60 years, was reviewed. EPRI-URD, CESSAR-DC, and the present design status and characteristics of System 80+ reactor vessel were comparatively studied and the improvement of reactor vessel surveillance program was investigated. The performance and aseismic characteristics of the CE-type CEDM, which will be used in System 80+, are investigated. The driving cycles of CEDM are evaluated for the load follow operation(LFO), of which Mode K is being developed by KAERI. The position of the USNRC, EPRI, ABB-CE, and industries on the elimination of OBE are reviewed, and especially ABB-CE System 80+ FSER is reviewed in detail. For the pre-stage of the verification of the OBE elimination from the design, the review of the seismic responses, i.e.. shear forces and moments, of YGN 3/4 RI was performed and the ratio of OBE response to SSE response was analysed. The screening criteria were reviewed to evaluate the integrity against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for RV belt-line of System 80+. The evaluation methods for fracture integrity when screening criteria are not met were reviewed. The structural characteristics of IRWST spargers of System 80+ were investigated and the effect of hydrodynamic loads on NSSS was reviewed. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 40 refs. (Author) .new

  11. The effect of cisterna chyli ablation combined with thoracic duct ligation on abdominal lymphatic drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Gretchen K; Waller, Ken R; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cisterna chyli ablation (CCA) and thoracic duct ligation (TDL) on abdominal lymphatic drainage in normal dogs. Experimental study. Nine female beagle dogs. TDL was performed in 3 dogs and was combined with CCA (CCA-TDL) and local omentalization in 6 dogs. Contrast lymphangiography was attempted in all dogs immediately before and after TDL. Dogs were reanesthetized at 31-37 days for lymphatic studies by new methylene blue (NMB) injection into a mesenteric lymph node and by contrast lymphangiography. In 6 CCA-TDL dogs, 2 had direct shunting of contrast from the lymphatic system into major abdominal veins, 3 had contrast material that dissipated into abdominal vessels within the mesenteric root, and 1 had shunting into the azygous vein. NMB was not observed within the omental pedicle after CCA-TDL. Chylous drainage was by the azygous vein in all 3 TDL dogs. CCA-TDL disrupted chylous drainage to the thoracic duct and resulted in direct intraabdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses identified by shunting of lymphatic flow directly into the abdominal vasculature in 5 of 6 CCA-TDL dogs. Omentalization of the cisternal ablation site was not beneficial in augmenting extrathoracic lymphatic drainage and is not recommended with CCA-TDL. CCA-TDL represents a novel approach to surgical redirection of chylous drainage to the venous circulation outside of the thorax and may be useful in the treatment of spontaneous chylothorax in the dog.

  12. Genetic Regulation of Vascular Development: Building the Zebrafish Vascular Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.J.M. Herpers (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe extensive networks of blood and lymphatic vessels within the vertebrate body are essential for the transport and delivery of fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells, and play important roles in facilitating immune responses. The development of the vascular tree requires a highly

  13. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  14. Investigation of intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics expressed by podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the hybridoma-induced tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, RC; Eshita, Y; Kato, S

    2007-01-01

    Tumour-associated lymphatics contribute to a key component of metastatic spread, however, the biological interaction of tumour cells with intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics (ITLs and PTLs) has remained unclear. To address this important issue, we have focused on the morphological and molecular aspects of newly formed lymphatics (lymphangiogenesis) and pre-existing lymphatics in the intratumoural and peritumoural tissues by using a hybridoma-induced tumour model. In the present study, ITLs with very high vessel density within the tumour mass showed small and flattened contours that varied from non-solid-to-solid tumours, whereas PTLs were relatively disorganized and tortuous, and packed with a cluster of tumour cells at the tumour periphery. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) both in ITLs and PTLs were expressed with LYVE-1 and podoplanin in various tumour tissues, in which initial lymphatics were extremely extended and dilated. The tumour cells were frequently detected adhering to or penetrating lymphatic walls, especially near the open junctions. In the metastatic tissues, lymphangiogenic vasculatures occurred within the tumour matrix, and collecting PTLs represented abnormal twisty valve leaflets. The Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed local variations of LEC proliferating potentials and lymphatic involvement in metastasis by a distinct profile of the protein and mRNA expression by LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-3 (VEGFR-3). These findings indicated that both ITLs and PTLs, including enlarged pre-existing and newly formed lymphatics, may play a crucial role in metastasis with an active tumour cell adhesion, invasion, migration and implantation. PMID:17696907

  15. The impact of regulations on the development of oil spill recovery vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Past, present, and future regulations have imposed and may continue to impose serious and unnecessary restraints on the design, construction, and operation of oil spill recovery vessels (OSRVs). OSRVs have been regulated as tankers under 46 CFR Subchapter D regulations. The application of these regulations to the design and construction of the Clean Sound Cooperative's Shearwater and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's Valdez Star and other vessels through the design approval and inspection processes of the American Bureau of Shipping and United States Coast Guard illustrate some of the problems. Present regulations do not encourage the development of new OSRVS. The regulations regarding OSRVs should be reevaluated. Committees of OSRV designers and users as well as regulators should evaluate comments and recommendations before incorporating them in the design of new OSRVS

  16. Two Complementary Mechanisms Underpin Cell Wall Patterning during Xylem Vessel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rene; Tang, Lu; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Barkwill, Sarah; Lathe, Rahul; Zhang, Yi; McFarlane, Heather E; Pesquet, Edouard; Niittyla, Totte; Mansfield, Shawn D; Zhou, Yihua; Persson, Staffan

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the plant vasculature was essential for the emergence of terrestrial life. Xylem vessels are solute-transporting elements in the vasculature that possess secondary wall thickenings deposited in intricate patterns. Evenly dispersed microtubule (MT) bands support the formation of these wall thickenings, but how the MTs direct cell wall synthesis during this process remains largely unknown. Cellulose is the major secondary wall constituent and is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CesAs) whose catalytic activity propels them through the membrane. We show that the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1)/POM2 is necessary to align the secondary wall CesAs and MTs during the initial phase of xylem vessel development in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice ( Oryza sativa ). Surprisingly, these MT-driven patterns successively become imprinted and sufficient to sustain the continued progression of wall thickening in the absence of MTs and CSI1/POM2 function. Hence, two complementary principles underpin wall patterning during xylem vessel development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Secchin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis, it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  18. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  19. PMab-48 Recognizes Dog Podoplanin of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-02-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is a specific marker of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Recently, we developed PMab-38, an anti-dog podoplanin monoclonal antibody that did not stain canine LECs. In this study, we newly developed PMab-48 against dog podoplanin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PMab-48 reacts not only with canine squamous cell carcinoma cells but also with LECs of the normal colon. Therefore, PMab-48 may be useful in investigating the function of dog podoplanin in LECs.

  20. Prediction of occult lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx using peritumoral Prospero homeobox protein 1 lymphatic nuclear quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermod, Maxime; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Petrova, Tatiana V; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Simon, Christian; Tolstonog, Genrich; Monnier, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The use of lymphatic vessel density as a predictor of occult lymph node metastasis (OLNM) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has never been reported. Staining of the specific lymphatic endothelial cells nuclear marker, PROX1, as an indicator of lymphatic vessel density was determined by counting the number of positive cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx with clinically negative necks. Correlation with histopathological data was established. Peritumoral PROX1 lymphatic nuclear count significantly correlated with the detection of OLNM in multivariate analysis (p oral cavity and the oropharynx allows accurate prediction of occult lymph node metastasis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1407-1415, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of a Compact and Efficient Ice Thermal Energy Storage Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaguchi, Kengo; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Muta, Kenji; Yoshino, Kiyotaka; Hayashi, Hiroko; Baba, Yoshiyuki

    In the present study, the authors propose the use of a low concentration aqueous solution as phase change material for static-type ice-storage-vessels, instead of pure water commonly used today. If an aqueous solution with low concentration is used, even when a large amount of solution (aqueous ethylene glycol in this study) is solidified and bridging of ice developed around cold tubes occurs, the pressure increase could be prevented by the existence of a continuous liquid phase in the solid-liquid two-phase layer (mushy layer) which opens to an air gap at the top of a vessel. Therefore, one can continue to solidify an aqueous solution after bridging, achieving a high ice packing factor (IPF). First, experiments using small-scale test cells have been conducted to confirm the present idea, and then we have performed experiments using a large vessel with an early practical size. It was seen that a large pressure increase is prevented for the initial concentration of the solution C0 of 1.0%, and IPF obtained using the solution is much greater than 0.65 using pure water for which the solidification must be stopped before the bridging.

  2. Latest developments in prestressed concrete vessels for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ople, F.S. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an update of the design development of prestressed concrete vessels, commonly referred to as 'PCRVs' starting with the first single-cavity PCRV for the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station to the latest multi-cavity PCRV configurations being utilized as the primary reactor vessels for both the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) and the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) in the U.S.A. The complexity of PCRV design varies not only due to the type of vessel configuration (single versus multi-cavity) but also on the application to the specific type of reactor concept. PCRV technology as applied to the Steam Cycle HTGR is fairly well established; however, some significant technical complexities are associated with PCRV design for the Gas Turbine HTGR and the GCFR. For the Gas Turbine HTGR, for instance, the fluid dynamics of the turbo-machinery cause multi-pressure conditions to exist in various portions of the power conversion loops during operation. This condition complicates the design approach and the proof test specification for the PCRV. The geometric configuration of the multi-cavity PCRV is also more complex due to the introduction of large horizontal cylindrical cavities (housing the turbo/machines for the Gas Turbine HTGR and circulators for the GCFR) in addition to the vertical cylindrical cavities for the core and heat exchangers. Because of this complex geometry, it becomes difficult to achieve an optimum prestressing arrangement for the PCRV. Other novel features of the multi-cavity PCRV resulting from the continuing design optimization effort are the incorporation of an asymmetric (offset core) configuration and the use of large vessel cavity/penetration concrete closures directly held down by prestressing tendons for both economic and safety reasons. (orig.)

  3. In service inspection for Superphenix vessels development of ultrasonic techniques available at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondard, C.

    1983-12-01

    The main and safety vessels of SUPERPHENIX 1 were designed to allow in-service inspections. The remote controlled inspection device MIR was developped for this purpose. The ultrasonic examination has required the development of all new transducers fitted with severe operating conditions prevailing in intervessels interval. A list of problems to be resolved and technological solutions which were found is given. Measurements of acoustical properties on actual probes are compared with theoretical values. It appears that concordance is good and that an in-service inspection using high temperature transducers is possible with a good spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio

  4. Kinematic analysis on rail development into vacuum vessel for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The vehicle manipulator system for blanket maintenance is used as a main driving mechanism for rail development, and three driving mechanisms d1, d2 (or d2') and d3 are used as cycle sequence of the repeated operations for rail development. This repeated operation can develop the articulated rail into the vacuum vessel. The rail development scenario, kinematic analysis model for rail development without any driving mechanisms in the rail joints, equations defined the angular between two rail links, identification of rail link at repeated operation, numerical analysis results on rail deployment under the forced position control of l i+1 , new rail development scenario using two driving mechanisms d1 and d2''under one cycle sequence of the repeated operations, and rail development test are reported. (S.Y.)

  5. Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for external cooling of an advanced reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    coatings by comparing the measurements with those for a plain vessel without coatings. An overall enhancement in nucleate boiling rates and CHF limits up to 100% were observed. Moreover, combination of data from quenching experiments and steady-state experiments produced new sets of boiling curves, which covered both the nucleate and transient boiling regimes with much greater accuracy. Beside the experimental work, a theoretical CHF model has also been developed by considering the vapor dynamics and the boiling-induced two-phase motions in three separate regions adjacent to the heating surface. The CHF model is capable of predicting the performance of micro-porous coatings with given particle diameter, porosity, media permeability and thickness. It is found that the present CHF model agrees favorably with the experimental data. Effects of an enhanced vessel/insulation structure on the local nucleate boiling rate and CHF limit have also been investigated experimentally. It is observed that the local two-phase flow quantities such as the local void fraction, quality, mean vapor velocity, mean liquid velocity, and mean vapor and liquid mass flow rates could have great impact on the local surface heat flux as boiling of water takes place on the vessel surface. An upward co-current two-phase flow model has been developed to predict the local two-phase flow behavior for different flow channel geometries, which are set by the design of insulation structures. It is found from the two-phase flow visualization experiments and the two-phase flow model calculations that the enhanced vessel/insulation structure greatly improved the steam venting process at the minimum gap location compared to the performance of thermal insulation structures without enhancement. Moveover, depending on the angular location, steady-state boiling experiments with the enhanced insulation design showed an enhancement of 1.8 to 3.0 times in the local critical heat flux. Finally, nucleate boiling and CHF

  6. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Nagahata, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However

  7. Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement management through EPRI-Developed material property databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Server, W.L.; Griesbach, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Uncertainties and variability in U.S. reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material properties have caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to request information from all nuclear utilities in order to assess the impact of these data scatter and uncertainties on compliance with existing regulatory criteria. Resolving the vessel material uncertainty issues requires compiling all available data into a single integrated database to develop a better understanding of irradiated material property behavior. EPRI has developed two comprehensive databases for utility implementation to compile and evaluate available material property and surveillance data. RPVDATA is a comprehensive reactor vessel materials database and data management program that combines data from many different sources into one common database. Searches of the data can be easily performed to identify plants with similar materials, sort through measured test results, compare the ''best-estimates'' for reported chemistries with licensing basis values, quantify variability in measured weld qualification and test data, identify relevant surveillance results for characterizing embrittlement trends, and resolve uncertainties in vessel material properties. PREP4 has been developed to assist utilities in evaluating existing unirradiated and irradiated data for plant surveillance materials; PREP4 evaluations can be used to assess the accuracy of new trend curve predictions. In addition, searches of the data can be easily performed to identify available Charpy shift and upper shelf data, review surveillance material chemistry and fabrication information, review general capsule irradiation information, and identify applicable source reference information. In support of utility evaluations to consider thermal annealing as a viable embrittlement management option, EPRI is also developing a database to evaluate material response to thermal annealing. Efforts are underway to develop an irradiation

  8. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, Steven E; Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-10-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Development of cold moderator vessel for the spallation neutron source. Flow field measurements and thermal hydraulic analyses in cold moderator vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a several MW-scale spallation target system under the High-Intensity Accelerator Project. A cold moderator using supercritical hydrogen is one of the key components in the target system, which directly affects the neutronic performance both in intensity and resolution. Since a hydrogen temperature rise in the moderator vessel affects the neutronic performance, it is necessary to suppress the recirculation and stagnant flows which cause hot spots. In order to develop the conceptual design of the moderator structure in progress, the flow field was measured using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system under water flow conditions using a flat model that simulated a moderator vessel. From these results, the flow field such as recirculation flows, stagnant flows etc. was clarified. The hydraulic analytical results using the standard k-ε model agreed well with experimental results. Thermal-hydraulic analyses in the moderator vessel were carried out under liquid hydrogen conditions. Based on these results, we clarified the possibility of suppressing the local temperature rise within 3 K under 2 MW operating condition. (author)

  10. Design and analysis of concrete reactor vessels: New developments, problems and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.

    1984-01-01

    This lecture reviews new developments in analysis and design of prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRV). After a brief assessment of the current status and experience, the advantages, disadvantages, and especially the safety features of PCRV, are discussed. Attention is then focused on the design of penetrations and openings, and on the design for high-temperature resistance - areas in which further developments are needed. Various possible designs for high-temperature exposure of concrete in a hypothetical accident are analyzed. Considered are not only PCRVs for gas-cooled reactors (GCR), but also guard vessels for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), for which designs mitigating the adverse effects of molten sodium, molten steel, and core melt are surveyed. Realistic analysis of the problems requires further development in the knowledge of material behavior and its mathematical modeling. Recent advances in the modeling of high-temperature response of concrete, including pore water transfer, pore pressure, creep and shrinkage are outlined. This is followed by a discussion of new developments in the analysis of cracking of concrete, where the need of switching from stress criteria to energy criteria for fracture is emphasized. The lecture concludes with a brief discussion of long-time behavior, the effect of aging, and probabilistic analysis of creep. (orig.)

  11. Development of user-friendly structural design system for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takuya; Nomoto, Taeko; Kado, Kenichiro; Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new user-friendly structural design system for pressure vessels, which is based on finite element stress analyses. The basic concept of the developed system is to minimize input data required for the finite element analysis and to perform the analysis quickly. To realize this, the system is equipped with the finite element modeling module based on fuzzy knowledge processing, the input data generation module, the finite element analyzer, the graphic user-interface module for analysis results, and the stress evaluation module. Fundamental performance of the present system is clearly demonstrated through the analysis of a top nozzle. (author)

  12. Development of a supplemental surveillance program for reactor pressure vessel thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The technical decision to thermally anneal a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) depends upon the level of embrittlement in the RPV steels, the amount of recovery of fracture toughness properties expected from the anneal, and the rate of re-embrittlement after the vessel is placed back into service. The recovery of Charpy impact toughness properties after annealing can be estimated initially by using a recovery model developed using experimental measurements of recovery (such as that developed by Eason et al. for U.S. vessel materials). However, actual validation measurements on plant-specific archived vessel materials (hopefully in the existing surveillance program) are needed; otherwise, irradiated surrogate materials, essentially the same as the RPV steels or bounding in expected behavior, must be utilized. The efficient use of any of these materials requires a supplemental surveillance program focused at both recovery and reirradiation embrittlement. Reconstituted Charpy specimens and new surveillance capsules will most likely be needed as part of this supplemental surveillance program. A new version of ASTM E 509 has recently been approved which provides guidance on thermal annealing in general and specifically for the development of an annealing supplemental surveillance program. The post-anneal re-embrittlement properties are crucial for continued plant operation, and the use of a re-embrittlement model, such as the lateral shift approach, may be overly conservative. This paper illustrates the new ASTM E 509 Standard Guide methodology for an annealing supplemental surveillance program. As an example, the proposed program for the Palisades RPV beltline steels is presented which covers the time from annealing to the end of operating license and beyond, if license renewal is pursued. The Palisades nuclear power plant RPV was planned to be annealed in 1998, but that plant is currently being re-evaluated. The proposed anneal was planned to be conducted at a

  13. Giant pediatric cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzou, Salma; Boulaadas, Malik; Essakalli, Leila

    2013-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are benign lesions. Most of them are found in head and neck regions as asymptomatic mass, but giant lymphangiomas may affect breathing or swallowing and constitute a major therapeutic challenge. A retrospective analysis of giant head and neck LMs with impairment of respiration or swallow for the past 11 years was performed in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and ENT of the Avicenne Medical University Center. Seven patients with large and extensive LMs of the head and neck were identified. There were 3 males and 4 females with a mean age of 6 years. The predominant reason for referral was airway compromise necessitating tracheostomy (57%) and dysphagia (43%). Three patients had macrocystic lesions; others were considered mixed or microcystic. All the patients underwent surgical excision as a primary treatment modality. Complete surgical resection was realized in 4 patients, and subtotal resection in 3 patients. Of 7 patients, 4 patients had complications including nerve damage and recurrence of the disease. The majority of the patients underwent only a single surgical procedure. Cervicofacial LMs in children should be managed in multidisciplinary setting. Surgery remains the first treatment for managing giant, life-threatening lesions.

  14. Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling induced by filarial parasites: implications for pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of an adaptive immune system in murine models, lymphatic dilatation and dysfunction occur in filarial infections, although severe irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis appears to require an intact adaptive immune response in human infections. To address how filarial parasites and their antigens influence the lymphatics directly, human lymphatic endothelial cells were exposed to filarial antigens, live parasites, or infected patient serum. Live filarial parasites or filarial antigens induced both significant LEC proliferation and differentiation into tube-like structures in vitro. Moreover, serum from patently infected (microfilaria positive patients and those with longstanding chronic lymphatic obstruction induced significantly increased LEC proliferation compared to sera from uninfected individuals. Differentiation of LEC into tube-like networks was found to be associated with significantly increased levels of matrix metalloproteases and inhibition of their TIMP inhibitors (Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases. Comparison of global gene expression induced by live parasites in LEC to parasite-unexposed LEC demonstrated that filarial parasites altered the expression of those genes involved in cellular organization and development as well as those associated with junction adherence pathways that in turn decreased trans-endothelial transport as assessed by FITC-Dextran. The data suggest that filarial parasites directly induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic differentiation and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the pathology seen in lymphatic filariasis.

  15. Neonatal systemic inflammation in rats alters retinal vessel development and simulates pathologic features of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ko, Jung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Park, Ji Yeon; Choi, Chang Won; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Ahn, Seong Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon; Oh, Joo Youn

    2014-05-15

    Alteration of retinal angiogenesis during development leads to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants, which is a leading cause of visual impairment in children. A number of clinical studies have reported higher rates of ROP in infants who had perinatal infections or inflammation, suggesting that exposure of the developing retina to inflammation may disturb retinal vessel development. Thus, we investigated the effects of systemic inflammation on retinal vessel development and retinal inflammation in neonatal rats. To induce systemic inflammation, we intraperitoneally injected 100 μl lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.25 mg/ml) or the same volume of normal saline in rat pups on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The retinas were extracted on postnatal days 7 and 14, and subjected to assays for retinal vessels, inflammatory cells and molecules, and apoptosis. We found that intraperitoneal injection of LPS impaired retinal vessel development by decreasing vessel extension, reducing capillary density, and inducing localized overgrowth of abnormal retinal vessels and dilated peripheral vascular ridge, all of which are characteristic findings of ROP. Also, a large number of CD11c+ inflammatory cells and astrocytes were localized in the lesion of abnormal vessels. Further analysis revealed that the number of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIloCD68loCD11bloCD11chi cells in the retina was higher in LPS-treated rats compared to controls. Similarly, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12a were increased in LPS-treated retina. Also, apoptosis was increased in the inner retinal layer where retinal vessels are located. Our data demonstrate that systemic LPS-induced inflammation elicits retinal inflammation and impairs retinal angiogenesis in neonatal rats, implicating perinatal inflammation in the pathogenesis of ROP.

  16. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  17. Development of the Simulation Program for the In-Vessel Fuel Handling System of Double Rotating Plug Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In-vessel fuel handling machines are the main equipment of the in-vessel fuel handling system, which can move the core assembly inside the reactor vessel along with the rotating plug during refueling. The in vessel fuel handling machines for an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor(SFR) demonstration plant are composed of a direct lift machine(DM) and a fixed arm machine(FM). These machines should be able to access all areas above the reactor core by means of the rotating combination of double rotating plugs. Thus, in the in vessel fuel handling system of the double rotating plug type, it is necessary to decide the rotating plug size and evaluate the accessibility of in-vessel fuel handling machines in given core configuration. In this study, the simulation program based on LABVIEW which can effectively perform the arrangement design of the in vessel fuel handling system and simulate the rotating plug motion was developed. Fig. 1 shows the flow chart of the simulation program

  18. Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage Imaging with Quantitative Vessel Wall T1 Mapping: Technical Development and Initial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Sun, Jie; Qiao, Huiyu; Chen, Shuo; Zhou, Zechen; Pan, Xinlei; Wang, Yishi; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Yuan, Chun; Chen, Huijun

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To develop a three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution time-efficient sequence for use in quantitative vessel wall T1 mapping. Materials and Methods A previously described sequence, simultaneous noncontrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging, was extended by introducing 3D golden angle radial k-space sampling (GOAL-SNAP). Sliding window reconstruction was adopted to reconstruct images at different inversion delay times (different T1 contrasts) for voxelwise T1 fitting. Phantom studies were performed to test the accuracy of T1 mapping with GOAL-SNAP against a two-dimensional inversion recovery (IR) spin-echo (SE) sequence. In vivo studies were performed in six healthy volunteers (mean age, 27.8 years ± 3.0 [standard deviation]; age range, 24-32 years; five male) and five patients with atherosclerosis (mean age, 66.4 years ± 5.5; range, 60-73 years; five male) to compare T1 measurements between vessel wall sections (five per artery) with and without intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). Statistical analyses included Pearson correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test with data permutation by subject. Results Phantom T1 measurements with GOAL-SNAP and IR SE sequences showed excellent correlation (R 2 = 0.99), with a mean bias of -25.8 msec ± 43.6 and a mean percentage error of 4.3% ± 2.5. Minimum T1 was significantly different between sections with IPH and those without it (mean, 371 msec ± 93 vs 944 msec ± 120; P = .01). Estimated T1 of normal vessel wall and muscle were 1195 msec ± 136 and 1117 msec ± 153, respectively. Conclusion High-spatial-resolution (0.8 mm isotropic) time-efficient (5 minutes) vessel wall T1 mapping is achieved by using the GOAL-SNAP sequence. This sequence may yield more quantitative reproducible biomarkers with which to characterize IPH and monitor its progression. © RSNA, 2017.

  19. Current Status of Development of High Nickel Low Alloy Steels for Commercial Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, B. S.; Park, S. G.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels have been used for nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels up to now. Currently, the design goal of nuclear power plant is focusing at larger capacity and longer lifetime. Requirements of much bigger pressure vessels may cause critical problems in the manufacturing stage as well as for the welding stage. Application of higher strength steel may be required to overcome the technical problems. It is known that a higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel could be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. Therefore, SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel is very attractive as eligible RPV steel for the next generation PWR systems. In this report, we propose the possibility of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for an application of next generation commercial RPV, based on the literature research result about development history of the RPV steels and SA508 specification. In addition, we have surveyed the research result of HSLA(High Strength Low Alloy steel), which has similar chemical compositions with SA508 Gr.4N, to understand the problems and the way of improvement of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel. And also, we have investigated eastern RPV steel(WWER-1000), which has higher Ni contents compared to western RPV steel.

  20. Development of gap measurement technique in-vessel corium retention using ultrasonic pulse echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sang Baik; Sim, Cheul Muu

    1999-03-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of Sonata-IV program. In this technical report, quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method are presented. This report aims at development of an appropriate ultrasonics test method, by analyzing the problems from the external environmental reason and the internal characteristic reason. The signal analyzing methods to improve the S/N ratio in these problems are divided into the time variant synthesized signal analyzing method and the time invariant synthesized signal analyzing method. In this report, the possibility of the application of these two methods to the gap signal and the noise is considered. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel. The quantitative gap measurement using the off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method was available for a little of the scanned region. But furtherly using DSP technique and imaging technique, the better results will be obtained. Some of the measured signals are presented as 2-dimensional spherical mapping method using distance and amplitude. Other signals difficult in quantitative measurement are saved for a new signal processing method. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  1. Development of a shallow-flaw fracture assessment methodology for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Pennell, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Shallow-flaw fracture technology is being developed within the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program for application to the safety assessment of radiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing postulated shallow flaws. Cleavage fracture in shallow-flaw cruciform beam specimens tested under biaxial loading at temperatures in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain-controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture. A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model that includes both the properties of the inner-surface stainless-steel cladding and a biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness correlation gave a reduction in probability of cleavage initiation of more than two orders of magnitude from an ASME-based reference case

  2. Development on the ex-vessel transfer machine for Monju, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Kinuta, Kenji; Tomita, Takaaki

    1980-01-01

    As for the fast breeder reactors being developed as the national project, the construction of the prototype reactor ''Monju'' is started in 1980 based on the results of development of the experimental reactor ''Joyo''. In the fuel-handling facility, the development of which is promoted by Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., the development of the fuel transfer machines which take out and charge the fuel for the reactors and carry out the transport between fuel storage facilities is important subject. In this paper, the outline of the development of a fuel transfer machine is described, centering around the handling of fuel in sodium and the removal of the heat of spent fuel. ''Monju'' with 300 MW electric output is being developed for the purposes of putting fast breeder reactors in practical use, increasing plant power output, improving the rate of operation, and securing the safety. Plutonium is used as the fuel, and liquid metallic sodium is used as the coolant in fast breeder reactors, accordingly the fuel must be handled safely in gas-tight, shielded vessels while it is cooled, and securely in sodium and sodium cover gas by remote operation. Gripper, gripper-driving mechanism, coffin, movable block, door valves, cooling system and carriage compose the fuel transfer machine, and these are described. The main results of development and the tests for the development, such as the trial manufacture of gripper and decay heat removal test, are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Development of Safety Review Guide for the Periodic Safety Review of Reactor Vessel Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongsoon; Ko, Hanok; Kim, Seonjae; Jhung, Myungjo

    2013-01-01

    Aging management of the reactor vessel internals (RVIs) is one of the important issues for long-term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Safety review on the assessment and management of the RVI aging is conducted through the process of a periodic safety review (PSR). The regulatory body should check that reactor facilities sustain safety functions in light of degradation due to aging and that the operator of a nuclear power reactor establishes and implements management program to deal with degradation due to aging in order to guarantee the safety functions and the safety margin as a result of PSR. KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has utilized safety review guides (SRG) which provide guidance to KINS staffs in performing safety reviews in order to assure the quality and uniformity of staff safety reviews. The KINS SRGs for the continued operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) published in 2006 contain areas of review regarding aging management of RVIs in chapter 2 (III.2.15, Appendix 2.0.1). However unlike the SRGs for the continued operation, KINS has not officially published the SRGs for the PSR of PWRs, but published them as a form of the research report. In addition to that, the report provides almost same review procedures for aging assessment and management of RVIs with the ones provided in the SRGs for the continued operation, it cannot provide review guidance specific to PSRs. Therefore, a PSR safety review guide should be developed for RVIs in PWRs. In this study, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals in PWRs is developed and provided. In this paper, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals (PSR SRG-RVIs) in PWRs is introduced and main contents of the draft are provided. However, since the PSR safety review guides for areas other than RVIs in the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are expected to be developed in the near future, the draft PSR SRG-RVIs should be revisited to be compatible with

  4. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, W.; Glass, D.M.; Bradley, D.; Peters, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m- labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99m Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99m Tc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99m Tc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99m Tc-HIG compared with 99m Tc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99m Tc-HIG was significantly higher (P 99m Tc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not sinificantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99m Tc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per minute for

  5. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces

  6. Research and development on in-service inspection system for reactor vessel of FBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindo, Hiroshi; Mitabe, Noriaki; Ara, Kuniaki; Nagai, Keiichi; Otaka, Masahiko

    1993-01-01

    In-Service Inspection (ISI) is required for main components and piping of FBRs. Visual test and volumetric examination of the reactor vessel (RV) from the outer surface are to be performed under severe conditions such as limited space, high temperature and high gamma dose rate during the reactor shutdown. Therefore, ISI should be performed by using a remote operation system, and the ISI system should be very compact. PNC has been developing the ISI system to apply to the RV inspection. Verification and performance tests of ISI system were carried out by use of the RV test model. This paper describes the system structure, system verification tests including operation and controlling the inspection robot, the functions of the visual test and the volumetric examination under the high temperature

  7. Development of mobile manipulator for maintenance work in containment vessels of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nakayama, Junji; Sato, Masatoshi; Ishida, Michiyasu

    1985-01-01

    The teleoperation system with robot is described for in the containment vessels of nuclear power plants. We have developed a high level robot system as the practical use level. The robot is designed to execute the locomotions and manipulations required for closing and opening the valve, tightening the bolt and others. The robot consists of a locomotor with four legs and two driving wheels, an articulated manipulator with seven joints, and an ITV arm with stereo-camera. The size of the robot is small, that is about 500 mm in length, 500 mm in width, 1200 mm in height and 420 kg in weight. The robot can be operated in a hostile environment, which has a 10 6 R gamma ray dose, 70 deg C temperature, 100 % relative humidity. We have added an advanced control method in order to reduce the operator's load. Also, an interlock and a fail-safe control are installed in the robot system. (author)

  8. Development of an application-oriented multi-frequency eddy current procedure for the outer reactor vessel- and store vessel wall of the SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, E.

    1991-08-01

    The following companies participated in the development of the application oriented multi-frequency eddy current procedure for the outer reactor vessel- and store vesselwall of the SNR-300: Interatom GmbH (coordinator), MAN-Energie GmbH (ME, subcontractor), Fraunhofer Institut IzfP, own promotion project). The precisely defined work packages of the participating companies Interatom and IzfP were supported by the Federal Minister for Research and Technology in separate promotion project. The present report comprises the work performed at Interatom and ME for developing the manipulator and the subsystems. The development aim was reached largely. Manufactoring of the manipulator with all necessary peripherical equipments was finished and accepted in partial function tests at the manufacturer. Tests at the Interatom teststand however with the fully mounted systems at ambient- and reactor temperature could not be done within the appropriated timeschedule and finance frame. (orig.) [de

  9. Factor VIII-associated antigen in human lymphatic endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, R B; Witte, M H; Martinez, A P; Witte, C L; Hendrix, M J; Way, D; Reed, K

    1987-03-01

    Lymphatic vascular endothelium both on tissue section and in culture exhibits positivity for Factor VIII-associated antigen although staining is generally less intense and more spotty than in comparable blood vascular endothelium. Lymphatic endothelium also exhibits Weibel-Palade bodies. Neither marker, therefore, reliably distinguishes blood vascular endothelium from lymphatic endothelium.

  10. Site-specific induction of lymphatic malformations in a rat model for image-guided therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Robert F.; Shiels, William E. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Radiological Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Sferra, Thomas J. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Gastroenterology, The Columbus Children' s Research Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Nicol, Kathleen K. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Schofield, Minka; Wiet, Gregory J. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Otolaryngology, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Lymphatic malformation is a common benign mass in children and adults and is representative of a derangement in lymphangiogenesis. These lesions have high recurrence rates and significant morbidity associated with surgery. Several sclerotherapy regimens have been developed clinically to treat lymphatic malformations; however, an animal model has not been developed that is adequate to test the efficacy of image-guided therapeutic interventions. To develop an animal model suitable for evaluation of percutaneous treatments of lymphatic malformations. Male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) received two US-guided injections of Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) over a 2-week period. All nine rats were injected twice into the peritoneum (IP); a subgroup (n = 3) received additional injections into the neck. Three animals that received IP injections of saline were used as controls. The injection sites were monitored for the development of lesions by high-resolution ultrasonography at 2-week intervals for 100 days. High-resolution (4.7 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging was then performed on two animals noted to have developed masses. The rats were sacrificed and histologic examination of the identified lesions was performed, including immunohistochemical staining for vascular (CD31) and lymphatic (Flt-4 and Prox-1) endothelium. All animals injected with IFA developed cystic lesions. The three animals injected at dual sites were noted to have both microcystic and macrocystic malformations in the neck and microcystic plaque-like lesions in the peritoneum. The macrocystic malformations ({>=}5 mm) in the neck were detected by ultrasonography and grossly later during necropsy. Histopathologic analysis revealed the cystic spaces to be lined by lymphatic endothelium supported by a connective tissue stroma. Control animals did not exhibit detectable lesions with either ultrasonography or necropsy. This model represents a promising tool for translational development of image

  11. Site-specific induction of lymphatic malformations in a rat model for image-guided therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Robert F.; Shiels, William E.; Sferra, Thomas J.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Schofield, Minka; Wiet, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    Lymphatic malformation is a common benign mass in children and adults and is representative of a derangement in lymphangiogenesis. These lesions have high recurrence rates and significant morbidity associated with surgery. Several sclerotherapy regimens have been developed clinically to treat lymphatic malformations; however, an animal model has not been developed that is adequate to test the efficacy of image-guided therapeutic interventions. To develop an animal model suitable for evaluation of percutaneous treatments of lymphatic malformations. Male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) received two US-guided injections of Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) over a 2-week period. All nine rats were injected twice into the peritoneum (IP); a subgroup (n = 3) received additional injections into the neck. Three animals that received IP injections of saline were used as controls. The injection sites were monitored for the development of lesions by high-resolution ultrasonography at 2-week intervals for 100 days. High-resolution (4.7 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging was then performed on two animals noted to have developed masses. The rats were sacrificed and histologic examination of the identified lesions was performed, including immunohistochemical staining for vascular (CD31) and lymphatic (Flt-4 and Prox-1) endothelium. All animals injected with IFA developed cystic lesions. The three animals injected at dual sites were noted to have both microcystic and macrocystic malformations in the neck and microcystic plaque-like lesions in the peritoneum. The macrocystic malformations (≥5 mm) in the neck were detected by ultrasonography and grossly later during necropsy. Histopathologic analysis revealed the cystic spaces to be lined by lymphatic endothelium supported by a connective tissue stroma. Control animals did not exhibit detectable lesions with either ultrasonography or necropsy. This model represents a promising tool for translational development of image

  12. Development of LILAC-meltpool for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of core melt relocated in a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    2002-03-01

    LILAC-meltpool has been developed to study thermo-hydraulic behavior of molten pool and thermal behavior of vessel wall during severe accident. To validate LILAC-meltpool code several two and three dimensional thermo-hydraulic problems were selected and solved. The benchmark problems have experimental results or verified numerical results. Through the validation it was found that LILAC-meltpool reproduces very accurate numerical results. Two-layered semicircular pool was solved to study thermal and hydraulic characteristics of pool stratification. The LAVA experiment using alumina/ferrite molten pool was calculated and compared with computed results. Cooling of alumina/ferrite two-layered pool was affected by stratification. In the numerical results temperature of vessel inner was highest at a location below the interface. Crust was developed from upper surface and lower outer surface, but in the area near the interface corium simulant existed as molten state for long time. LAVA-4 experiment was studied using gap-cooling model in LILAC-meltpool code. Temperature increase of LAVA vessel after alumina melt relocation was strongly dependent on gap formation mechanism. Calculated cooling rates of the vessel were very similar to experimental results. For LAVA experiments which do not have heat generation coolant penetrates easily into a gap and it is found that gap-cooling is very effective for cooling of vessel, but it is thought that coolant penetration could be limited near upper part of gap because of decay heat and high temperature of corium crust

  13. Manufacturing and maintenance technologies developed for a thick-wall structure of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Alfile, J.P.; Aubert, Ph.; Dagenais, J.-F.; Grebennikov, D.; Ioki, K.; Jones, L.; Koizumi, K.; Krylov, V.; Maslakowski, J.; Nakahira, M.; Nelson, B.; Punshon, C.; Roy, O.; Schreck, G.

    2001-01-01

    Development of welding, cutting and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques, and development of remotized systems have been carried out for on-site manufacturing and maintenance of the thick-wall structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV). Conventional techniques, including tungsten inert gas welding, plasma cutting, and ultrasonic inspection, have been improved and optimized for the application to thick austenitic stainless steel plates. In addition, advanced methods have been investigated, including reduced-pressure electron-beam and multi-pass neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (NdYAG) laser welding, NdYAG laser cutting, and electro-magnetic acoustic transducer inspection, to improve cost and technical performance. Two types of remotized systems with different payloads have been investigated and one of them has been fabricated and demonstrated in field joint welding, cutting, and NDT tests on test mockups and full-scale ITER VV sector models. The progress and results of this development to date provide a high level of confidence that the manufacturing and maintenance of the ITER VV is feasible

  14. Manufacturing and maintenance technologies developed for a thick-wall structure of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. E-mail: onozukm@itereu.de; Alfile, J.P.; Aubert, Ph.; Dagenais, J.-F.; Grebennikov, D.; Ioki, K.; Jones, L.; Koizumi, K.; Krylov, V.; Maslakowski, J.; Nakahira, M.; Nelson, B.; Punshon, C.; Roy, O.; Schreck, G

    2001-09-01

    Development of welding, cutting and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques, and development of remotized systems have been carried out for on-site manufacturing and maintenance of the thick-wall structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV). Conventional techniques, including tungsten inert gas welding, plasma cutting, and ultrasonic inspection, have been improved and optimized for the application to thick austenitic stainless steel plates. In addition, advanced methods have been investigated, including reduced-pressure electron-beam and multi-pass neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (NdYAG) laser welding, NdYAG laser cutting, and electro-magnetic acoustic transducer inspection, to improve cost and technical performance. Two types of remotized systems with different payloads have been investigated and one of them has been fabricated and demonstrated in field joint welding, cutting, and NDT tests on test mockups and full-scale ITER VV sector models. The progress and results of this development to date provide a high level of confidence that the manufacturing and maintenance of the ITER VV is feasible.

  15. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica via VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in silicotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Mao, Lijun; Guan, Li; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2016-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted mainly from Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert strong pro-angiogenic activities in vivo. But it is unclear whether ginsenoside Rg1 could promote lung lymphangiogenesis to improve lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica in silicotic rats. Here we investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica during experimental silicosis, and found that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment significantly raised the silicon content in tracheobronchial lymph nodes and serum to reduce the silicon level in lung interstitium, meanwhile increased pulmonary lymphatic vessel density by enhancing the protein and mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The stimulative effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica was actively correlated with its pro-lymphangiogenic identity. And VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 blocked these above effects of ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits good protective effect against lung burden of silica during experimental silicosis through improving lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica, which is potentially associated with the activation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spleen and Lymphatic System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Print en español El bazo y el sistema linfático The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  18. Modelling Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Swaminathan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito borne parasitic disease of the tropics. Of the three species of parasites causing the disease, W. bancrofti transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus is the most widely prevalent. Infection can lead to disabling chronic manifestations: lymphoedema,

  19. Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission, Treatment and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne, tropical disease caused by filarial worms. Infection can lead to disabling chronic disease, characterized by swelling of extremities or external genitalia (lymphoedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele). Mass treatment with antifilarial drugs is

  20. Laryngeal spaces and lymphatics: current anatomic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, L.W.; Welsh, J.J.; Rizzo, T.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the anatomic concepts of individual spaces or compartments within the larynx by isotope and dye diffusion. The authors identified continuity of spaces particularly within the submucosal planes and a relative isolation within the fixed structures resulting from the longitudinal pattern of fibroelastic tissues, muscle bands, and perichondrium. The historical data of anatomic resistance are refuted by the radioisotope patterns of dispersion and the histologic evidence of tissue permeability to the carbon particles. There is little clinical application of the compartment concept to the perimeter of growth and the configuration of extensive endolaryngeal cancers. The internal and extralaryngeal lymphatic network is presented and the regional associations are identified. The normal ipsilateral relationship is distorted by dispersion within the endolarynx supervening the anatomic midline. The effects of lymphatic obstruction caused by regional lymphadenectomy, tumor fixation, and irradiation-infection sequelae are illustrated; these result in widespread bilateral lymphatic nodal terminals. Finally, the evidence suggests that the internal network is modified by external interruption to accommodate an outflow system in continuity with the residual patent lymphatic channels

  1. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  2. Design and development of weld inspection manipulator for reactor pressure vessel of TAPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, H.; Singh, J.P.; Ranjon, R.; Kulkarni, M.P.; Patel, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of TAPS-1 BWR contains six longitudinal and four circumferential welds. Periodical in-service inspection of these weld joints has been a regulatory issue pending for long. In the 22 nd refuelling outage in July 2012 the inspection of L1-1, L1-2 longitudinal welds as well as their junctions with C1 circumferential weld were proposed to be done using ultrasonic technique. Approaching these welds from OD side of the RPV is a difficult and tedious task. Therefore it was decided to examine these welds from ID side of the RPV by filling the cavity with water and approaching the RPV from top. No technology was locally available to take the probes at a depth of 10-12 m under water. NPCIL approached RTD, BARC to develop an underwater manipulator to accomplish this task. RTD took up this work as a challenge and came out with the design of manipulator. The weld inspection manipulator (WIM) was fabricated on a war foot basis, tested and successfully implemented in the reactor for the first time in TAPS history. The entire activity was completed in three months time. This article gives the details of design, manufacturing, performance testing, qualification trials and implementation of WIM in the reactor. Ultrasonic testing techniques were developed by QAD, BARC which are not covered in this article. (author)

  3. Development of internet-based cooperative system for integrity evaluation of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Choon; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Young Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Since early 1950s fracture mechanics has brought significant impact on structural integrity assessment in a wide range of industries such as power, transportation, civil and petrochemical industries, especially in nuclear power plant industries. For the last two decades, significant efforts have been devoted in developing defect assessment procedures, from which various fitness-for-purpose or fitness-for-service codes have been developed. From another aspect, recent advances in IT (Information Technologies) bring rapid changes in various engineering fields. IT enables people to share information through network and thus provides concurrent working environment without limitations of working places. For this reason, a network system based on internet or intranet bas been appeared in various fields of business. Evaluating the integrity of structures is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to evaluate the integrity of structures, a complicated and collaborative procedure is required including regular in-service inspection, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. And thus, experts in different fields have to cooperate to resolve the integrity problem. In this paper, an internet-based cooperative system for integrity evaluation system which adapts IT into a structural integrity evaluation procedure for reactor pressure vessel is introduced. The proposed system uses Virtual Reality (VR) technique, Virtual Network Computing (VNC) and agent programs. This system is able to support 3-dimensional virtual reality environment and to provide experts to cooperate by accessing related data through internet

  4. Characterization of Imidazoline Receptors in Blood Vessels for the Development of Antihypertensive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor (I-2R may reduce the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Also, guanidinium derivatives show the ability to activate imidazoline receptors. Thus, it is of special interest to characterize the I-2R using guanidinium derivatives in blood vessels for development of antihypertensive agent(s. Six guanidinium derivatives including agmatine, amiloride, aminoguanidine, allantoin, canavanine, and metformin were applied in this study. Western blot analysis was used for detecting the expression of imidazoline receptor in tissues of Wistar rats. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male rats was also estimated. The expression of imidazoline receptor on rat aorta was identified. However, guanidinium derivatives for detection of aortic relaxation were not observed except agmatine and amiloride which induced a marked relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. Both relaxations induced by agmatine and amiloride were attenuated by glibenclamide at concentration enough to block ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels. Meanwhile, only agmatine-induced relaxation was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Taken together, we suggest that agmatine can induce vascular relaxation through activation of peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor to open KATP channels. Thus, agmatine-like compound has the potential to develop as a new therapeutic agent for hypertension in the future.

  5. Development of observation techniques in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor Joyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Imaizumi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Akinori; Sekine, Takashi; Maeda, Yukimoto

    2010-01-01

    In-Vessel Observations (IVO) techniques for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) are important in confirming its safety and integrity. And several IVO equipments for an SFR are developed. However, in order to secure the reliability of IVO techniques, it was necessary to demonstrate the performance under the actual reactor environment with high temperature, high radiation dose and remained sodium. During the investigation of an incident that occurred with Joyo, IVO using a standard Video Camera (VC) and a Radiation-Resistant Fiberscope (RRF) took place at (1) the top of the Sub-Assemblies (S/As) and the In-Vessel Storage rack (IVS), (2) the bottom face of the Upper Core Structure (UCS). A simple 6 m overhead view of each S/A, through the fuel handling or inspection holes etc, was photographed using a VC for making observations of the top of S/As and IVS. About 650 photographs were required to create a composite photograph of the top of the entire S/As and IVS, and a resolution was estimated to be approximately 1 mm. In order to observe the bottom face of the UCS, a Remote Handling Device (RHD) equipped with RRFs (approximately 13 m long) was specifically developed for Joyo with a tip that could be inserted into the 70 mm gap between the top of the S/As and the bottom of the UCS. A total of about 35,000 photographs were needed for the full investigation. Regarding the resolution, the sodium flow regulating grid of 0.8 mm in thickness could be discriminated. The performance of IVO equipments under the actual reactor environment was successfully confirmed. And the results provided useful information on incident investigations. In addition, fundamental findings and the experience gained during this study, which included the design of equipment, operating procedures, resolution, lighting adjustments, photograph composition and the durability of the RRF under radiation exposure, provided valuable insights into further improvements and verifications for IVO techniques to

  6. Development of containers sealing system like part of surveillance program of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N.

    2009-10-01

    The owners of nuclear power plants should be demonstrate that the embrittlement effects by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity from the pressure vessel of nuclear reactors, during conditions of routine operation and below postulate accident. For this reason, there are surveillance programs of vessels of nuclear power plants, in which are present surveillance capsules. A surveillance capsule is compound by the support, six containers for test tubes and dosimeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for test tubes, Charpy V and Cylindrical Container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow to that of vessel, being representative of vessel mechanical conditions. The test tubes are rehearsed to watch over the increase of embrittlement that presents the vessel. This work describes the development of welding system to seal the containers for test tubes, these should be filled with helium of ultra high purity, to a pressure of an atmosphere. In this system the welding process Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is used, a hermetic camera that allows to place the containers with three grades of freedom, a vacuum subsystem and pressure, high technology equipment's like: power source with integrated computer, arc starter of high frequency, helium flow controller, among others. Finally, the advances in the inspection system for the qualification of sealing system are mentioned, system that should measure the internal pressure of containers and the helium purity inside these. (Author)

  7. The development of reactor vessel internal heavy forging for 1000 MW pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhifeng; Chen Yongbo; Ding Xiuping; Zhang Lingfang

    2012-01-01

    This Paper introduced the development of Reactor Vessel Internal (RVI) heavy forgings for 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant, analyzed the manufacture difficulties and technical countermeasures. The testing result of the product indicated that the performance of RVI heavy forgings manufactured by Shanghai Heavy Machinery Plant Ld. (SHMP) is outstanding and entirely satisfy the technical requirements for RVI product. (authors)

  8. The development of an in-vessel cryopump system for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Laughon, G.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Makariou, C.C.; Smith, J.P.; Schaffer, M.J.; Menon, M.M.

    1993-07-01

    The design, testing and initial operation of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryocondensation pumping system is presented. The pump resides inside the tokamak plasma containment vessel where it provides particle exhaust pumping, and it is subjected to Joule heating and hot particle heat loads during each 10 second discharge. In addition, the pump must withstand plasma disruption induced electromagnetic forces and 400 degrees C bake-out temperatures. Cooling is accomplished by forced flow liquid helium with the two-phase helium exhaust passing through a reliquefier for thermal efficiency. A prototype pump was constructed to study surface temperature rise as a function of flow geometry, applied heat load, helium mass flow rate, and pump outlet conditions. Prototype testing led to the development of a special geometry which was demonstrated to enhance two-phase flow stability and overall heat transfer. During initial operation, deuterium pumping speeds of 32,000 L/s at 2 mTorr pressure were achieved with a helium flow rate of 5 g/s. This speed was maintained during 300 W, 8 s long test beat pulses which meets operational goals

  9. Development of Hemolytic Anemia in a Nivolumab-Treated Patient with Refractory Metastatic Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Schwab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer, refractory to initial therapy with standard chemotherapy and radiation protocols, remains difficult with poor overall prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recently, promising response rates with nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1-blocking antibody, in squamous cancer of the head and neck have been demonstrated. Considering the similar histological patterns of squamous cell cancer of the skin and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, we assumed that nivolumab could also be effective in our patients with refractory metastatic squamous cell cancer of the skin. So far, there have been no clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab in squamous cell skin cancer. We here present a case of a patient with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer refractory to previous therapies, who showed a good response to nivolumab over a period of 5 months, but developed a serious hemolytic crisis under nivolumab treatment after eight applications.

  10. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An; Olivera, Gustavo; Somlo, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribs and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk

  11. Development of a reconstitution system of Charpy probes for the surveillance of vessels in nucleo electric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez, R.; Fernandez, F.; Gonzalez M, A.

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the development of a welding system, for the rebuilding of halves of Charpy test tubes, the rebuilding consists on welding two implants in those ends of these halves of test tubes, in these welding the main requirement is not to alter the mechanical properties in a minimum volume of 1 cm 3 , the rebuilding is medullary in the surveillance programs of the reactor vessel. In these programs, the mechanical state of the vessel is evaluated, for it there are surveillance capsules with a Charpy witness test tubes series, subjected to a neutron flow similar or bigger to that of the vessel. The objective is to evaluate in advance on the vessel fragilization grade its life design. However the number of capsules with the witness test tubes it is only for the plant design life and at the moment the nucleo electric, negotiates an extension of life of these, until for 20 more years, of there the importance of this material witness's that stores the information of the damage accumulated by the neutron flow. This material requires to be taken advantage it after being rehearsed and the normative one settles down as obligatory to qualify the rebuilding process with all the requirements settled down in the ASTM Designation: E 1253-99 'Standard Guide for Reconstitution of irradiated Charpy-Sized Specimens', to obtain other reconstituted Charpy test tubes that are again introduced in the reactor. When being reconstituted the halves of the original test tubes it is obtained double reconstituted Charpy test tubes. Half of the test tubes they are used in the surveillance program of the vessel, with the surpluses test tubes, it can determine the fracture toughness, property of the material used in the extension methodology of life of vessel. (Author)

  12. Research and development of spent fuel shipping casks and the criteria for seagoing vessel carrying casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Considering that the transportation of spent fuel will increase rapidly and extensively in the near future, Japanese Atomic Energy Committee enacted ''Technical Standard for Transportation of Radioactive Materials'' based on ''IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials 1973 Revised Edition''. Coping with the recommendation of AEC, Atomic Energy Bureau in Science and Technology Agency and other authorities concerned started to review the former ordinances for transportation of radioactive materials and to consolidate a unified system of relevant laws and standards. On the other hand, Atomic Energy Bureau has invested in research and development since ten years ago in order to obtain the data for design and licensing work of spent fuel shipping casks. In those studies some different scale models of a prototype of 80 t in weight have been used to make clear the scale effect at the drop, pucture and fire tests, which are one of the features of Japanese research and development. And also the immersion test in high pressure water up to about 500 bars is now carried out to investigate the integrity of cask body and sealing structure to prevent leakage of radioactive contents to the ambient when the cask falls into deep sea. In Japan, depending on the site conditions of nuclear plants, almost all transportations of unirradiated and spent fuels are done on the sea. Therefore, in order to secure the safety of transportation, the design criteria of the seagoing vessels for exclusive transportation of spent fuel shipping casks, namely full load shipping, has been enacted, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collison, stranding and other unforeseen accidents at sea and also to restrain radiation exposure of the crew as low as possible

  13. Development of Reactor Vessel Bottom Mount Instrumentation Nozzle Routine Inspection Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaled, Atya Ahmed Abdallah; Ihn, Namgung [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors has created cracks in j-weld of penetrations with Alloy 600 through a process called primary water stress corrosion cracking. On October 6, 2013, BMI nozzle number 3 at Palo Verde Unit 3 (PVNGS-3) exhibited small white de-posits around the annulus. Nozzle attachment to the RV lower head is by J-groove weld to the inside penetration of the nozzle and the weld material is of Alloy 600 material. Above two cases clearly show the necessity of routine inspection of RV lower head penetration during refueling outage. Nondestructive inspection is generally performed to detect fine cracks or defects that may develop during operation. Defects usually occur at weld regions, hence most non-destructive inspection is to scan and check any defects or crack in the weld region. BMI nozzles at the bottom head of a nuclear reactor vessel (RV) are one of such area for inspection. But BMI nozzles have not been inspected during regular refuel outage due to the relative small size of BMI nozzle and limited impact of the consequences of BMI leak. However, there is growing concern since there have been leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as recent operating experience. In this study, we propose a system that is conveniently used for nondestructive inspection of BMI nozzles during regular refueling outage without removing all the reactor internals. A 3D model of the inspection system was also developed along with the RV and internals which permits a virtual 3D simulation to check the design concept and usability of the system.

  14. Prolonged lymphatic leak after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Katherine M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent lymphatic drainage following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular tumor is an uncommon complication. Case presentation We describe a 21-year old man of Caucasian origin who had metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis, and underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, nephrectomy and partial inferior vena cava excision for a residual mass. The patient subsequently developed persistent lymphatic drainage causing foot drop that eventually responded to conservative medical and surgical measures. Conclusion This postoperative condition usually responds well to conservative measures but has the potential for serious morbidity if it is not managed appropriately.

  15. Radionuclide studies of the lymphatic systems and their particular role in the assessment of the lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakkou, E.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic radionuclide studies of the lymphatic system are used to measure the length of time required for the tracer to transit the upper and lower extremities as well as to determine, for any given point of time, the transportation and storage capacities of lymph vessels and nodes, respectively. Secondary lymphoedemas of more substantial proportions can reliably be diagnosed and classified on the basis of degrees of severity. The presence of those lymphoedemas is typically indicated by dermal back flow at circulatory bottlenecks, delays or marked delays (by more than 15 min) in transit and durations of transit beyond the measurable range. Further characteristic signs are passive dilatation of the prefacial bundle of lymph vessels (which is likely to be a first degree dilatation, if seen in late scintigrams and a second or third degree dilatation in cases escaping scintigraphic detection) and wide-spread inhibitions of activity over the entire extremity examined. Combined oedematous changes of lymph vessels and veins can only be predicted from lymph circulation disorders. This method permits an immediate diagnosis of any conditions precluding the use of endolymphatic therapy in malignant melanomas, thus sparing the patient the discomforts of treatment and helping to avoid unnecessary expenditure. Dynamic scintigraphy offers advantages over lymphography in that it has a greater discriminating power in diagnostic evaluations of active or passive dilatation of the bundle of lymph vessels, dermal back flow as well as the functional performance of damaged lymph vessels and also in that it permits a more precise visualisation of the superfacial and deep vessels of the lymphatic systems. (TRV) [de

  16. FFTF and CRBRP reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) reactor vessel each serve to enclose a fast spectrum reactor core, contain the sodium coolant, and provide support and positioning for the closure head and internal structure. Each vessel is located in its reactor cavity and is protected by a guard vessel which would ensure continued decay heat removal capability should a major system leak develop. Although the two plants have significantly different thermal power ratings, 400 megawatts for FFTF and 975 megawatts for CRBRP, the two reactor vessels are comparable in size, the CRBRP vessel being approximately 28% longer than the FFTF vessel. The FFTF vessel diameter was controlled by the space required for the three individual In-Vessel Handling Machines and Instrument Trees. Utilization of the triple rotating plug scheme for CRBRP refueling enables packaging of the larger CRBRP core in a vessel the same diameter as the FFTF vessel

  17. Development of a Numerical Model of Hypervelocity Impact into a Pressurized Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. A.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    . Also seen in the figure is the eroded projectile that had passed into the COPV vessel with the generated shock wave in the pressurant propagating just ahead of the material. In this paper, pertinent experimental details and the development of the material constitutive models necessary for this work along with the efforts to validate their use are dis-cussed. The simulation results are presented and compared with the NASA experimental observations. While work is on-going from this effort, early observations pertinent to the failure threshold are presented.

  18. Lymphatic Expression of CLEVER-1 in Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aula Ammar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanisms regulating breast cancer lymph node metastasis are unclear. Staining of CLEVER-1 (common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1 in human breast tumors was used, along with in vitro techniques, to assess involvement in the metastatic process. Methods: 148 sections of primary invasive breast cancers, with 10 yr follow-up, were stained with anti-CLEVER-1. Leukocyte infiltration was assessed, along with involvement of specific subpopulations by staining with CD83 (mature dendritic cells, mDC, CD209 (immature DC, iDC and CD68 (macrophage, M&phis;. in vitro expression of CLEVER-1 on lymphatic (LEC and blood endothelial cells (BEC was examined by flow cytometry. Results: in vitro results showed that although both endothelial cell types express CLEVER-1, surface expression was only evident on LEC. In tumour sections CLEVER-1 was expressed in blood vessels (BV, 61.4% of samples, lymphatic vessels (LV, 18.2% of samples and in M&phis;/DCs (82.4% of samples. However, only CLEVER-1 expression in LV was associated with LN metastasis (p = 0.027 and with M&phis; indices (p = 0.021. Although LV CLEVER-1 was associated with LN positivity there was no significant correlation with recurrence or overall survival, BV CLEVER-1 expression was, however, associated with increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.049. The density of inflammatory infiltrate correlated with CLEVER-1 expression in BV (p < 0.001 and LV (p = 0.004. Conclusions: The associations between CLEVER-1 expression on endothelial vessels and macrophage/leukocyte infiltration is suggestive of its regulation by inflammatory conditions in breast cancer, most likely by macrophage-associated cytokines. Its upregulation on LV, related surface expression, and association with LN metastasis suggest that it may be an important mediator of tumor cell metastasis to LN.

  19. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  20. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Katayama, Kanji; Sawa, Toshiharu

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach was examined using lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m colloid in 98 patients with gastric cancer and 4 patients with esophageal cancer. The colloidal Tc-99m was injected into the submucosa of stomach 12 hr before operation with the aid of endoscopy. Each lymph node dissected from the specimens was measured by scintillation counter. Lymph nodes located along the left gastric, splenic and left inferior phrenic arteries were mainly involved in the lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. There was strong relationship between the cardia and the node of number 16. The lymphatics was also present in the mediastinum. These results suggest the necessities of the complete removal of the gastropancreatic mesenteriolum including the left inferior phrenic artery and the extirpation of the regional lymph nodes around the aorta above and below the left renal artery, in addition to the removal of both pancreas and spleen in cases of cardia tumors. Furthermore, in cases of squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes, it seems necessary to extirpate the complete mediastinal lymph nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Molecular Signature for Lymphatic Invasion Associated with Survival of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, E Sun; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Choi, Chel Hun

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to develop molecular classifier that can predict lymphatic invasion and their clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. We analyzed gene expression (mRNA, methylated DNA) in data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To identify molecular signatures for lymphatic invasion, we found differentially expressed genes. The performance of classifier was validated by receiver operating characteristics analysis, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM). We assessed prognostic role of classifier using random survival forest (RSF) model and pathway deregulation score (PDS). For external validation,we analyzed microarray data from 26 EOC samples of Samsung Medical Center and curatedOvarianData database. We identified 21 mRNAs, and seven methylated DNAs from primary EOC tissues that predicted lymphatic invasion and created prognostic models. The classifier predicted lymphatic invasion well, which was validated by logistic regression, LDA, and SVM algorithm (C-index of 0.90, 0.71, and 0.74 for mRNA and C-index of 0.64, 0.68, and 0.69 for DNA methylation). Using RSF model, incorporating molecular data with clinical variables improved prediction of progression-free survival compared with using only clinical variables (p < 0.001 and p=0.008). Similarly, PDS enabled us to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk group, which resulted in survival difference in mRNA profiles (log-rank p-value=0.011). In external validation, gene signature was well correlated with prediction of lymphatic invasion and patients' survival. Molecular signature model predicting lymphatic invasion was well performed and also associated with survival of EOC patients.

  3. The development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in cerebral vessels. A review with illustrations based upon own investigated post mortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, T A; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, T; Lewandowska, E; Stępień, T; Szpak, G M

    2013-12-01

    The process of β-amyloid accumulation in cerebral vessels is presented. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was confirmed during an autopsy. It was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can involve all kinds of cerebral vessels (cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles, capillaries and veins). The development of CAA is a progressive process. β-amyloid appears first in the tunica media, surrounding smooth muscle cells, and in the adventitia. β-amyloid is progressively accumulated, causing a gradual loss of smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall and finally replacing them. Then, the detachment and delamination of the outer part of the tunica media results in the "double barrel" appearance, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysm formation. Microbleeding with perivascular deposition of erythrocytes and blood breakdown products can also occur. β-amyloid can also be deposited in the surrounding of the affected vessels of the brain parenchyma, known as "dysphoric CAA". Ultrastructurally, when deposits of amyloid fibers were localized in or outside the arteriolar wall, the degenerating vascular smooth muscle cells were observed. In the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology the study was carried out in a group of 48 patients who died due to intracerebral hemorrhage caused by sporadic CAA.

  4. Overview of experimental results obtained under the Prestressed Concrete Nuclear Pressure Vessel Development Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Under the Prestressed Concrete Nuclear Pressure Vessel Development Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, various aspects of Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessels (PCPVs) are investigated and evaluated with respect to reliability, structural performance, constructability, and economy. Based upon identified needs, analytical and experimental investigations are conducted. Areas of interest include finite-element analysis development, materials and structural behavior tests, instrumentation evaluation and development, and structural model tests. Studies have been recently completed in the following areas: concrete embedment instrumentation systems for PCPVs, grouted-nongrouted prestressing systems, acoustic emission as a technique for structural integrity monitoring, and model tests of steam-generator cavity closure plugs for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). An overview of results is presented

  5. Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance causes alterations in cellular bioenergetics and activation of inflammatory signaling in lymphatic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang; Fluckey, James D; Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2017-07-01

    Insulin resistance is a well-known risk factor for obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and associated cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanisms are undefined in the lymphatics. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels from MetSyn or LPS-injected rats exhibited impaired intrinsic contractile activity and associated inflammatory changes. Hence, we hypothesized that insulin resistance in lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) affects cell bioenergetics and signaling pathways that consequently alter contractility. LMCs were treated with different concentrations of insulin or glucose or both at various time points to determine insulin resistance. Onset of insulin resistance significantly impaired glucose uptake, mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption rates, glycolysis, lactic acid, and ATP production in LMCs. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia also impaired the PI3K/Akt while enhancing the ERK/p38MAPK/JNK pathways in LMCs. Increased NF-κB nuclear translocation and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and VCAM-1 levels in insulin-resistant LMCs indicated activation of inflammatory mechanisms. In addition, increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain-20, a key regulator of lymphatic muscle contraction, was observed in insulin-resistant LMCs. Therefore, our data elucidate the mechanisms of insulin resistance in LMCs and provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia promote insulin resistance and impair lymphatic contractile status by reducing glucose uptake, altering cellular metabolic pathways, and activating inflammatory signaling cascades.-Lee, Y., Fluckey, J. D., Chakraborty, S., Muthuchamy, M. Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance causes alterations in cellular bioenergetics and activation of inflammatory signaling in lymphatic muscle. © FASEB.

  6. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.A.

    Research on automatic welding processes for the fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels continued. A literature review on the subject was completed. A laboratory study of criteria for judging acceptable root parameters continued. Equipment for a demonstration facility to test the components and processes of the automated welding system has been specified and is being obtained

  7. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, U A

    1981-01-01

    Research on automatic welding processes for the fabrication of thick-walled pressure vessels continued. A literature review on the subject was completed. A laboratory study of criteria for judging acceptable root parameters continued. Equipment for a demonstration facility to test the components and processes of the automated welding system has been specified and is being obtained. (LCL)

  8. Progress on the design development and prototype manufacturing of the ITER In-vessel coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encheva, A.; Omran, H.; Devred, A.; Vostner, A.; Mitchell, N.; Mariani, N.; Jun, CH H.; Long, F.; Zhou, C.; Macklin, B.; Marti, H. P.; Sborchia, C.; della Corte, A. Della; Di Zenobio, A.; Anemona, A.; Righetti, R.; Wu, Y.; Jin, H.; Xu, A.; Jin, J.

    2017-01-01

    ITER is incorporating two types of In-Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide a reliable Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required in order that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements.

  9. Basic Description of the Lymphatic System from the Perspective of SLN Uptake of Radioactive Tracers. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, R.; Janevik-Ivanovska, E.

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system. It is closely associated with the cardiovascular system because it includes a network of vessels that contributes to liquid transportation throughout the body. This circulatory system is essential for the maintenance of interstitial fluid balance, uptake of dietary fat and for body defence against invasion by disease causing agents. Lymph nodes, which contain large numbers of B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, are located along lymphatic pathways. They have two primary functions: filtering and digesting potentially harmful particles from lymph before returning it to the bloodstream and contributing to the immune surveillance provided by lymphocytes and macrophages. In their function of filtering particles or cell debris, lymph nodes may collect cancer cells that are breaking and travelling away from the primary tumour. The spread of some forms of cancer usually follows an orderly progression, spreading first to regional lymph nodes, then the next rank of lymph nodes and so on. Therefore, the first lymph node (the SLN) is more likely than other lymph nodes to contain cancer cells. If a suitable radioactive tracer, generally a nanocolloid or a dye, is administrated in the proximity of the tumour site, it will travel through the lymphatic system and be trapped in the SLN, allowing its localization using an appropriate probe or by visual determination. The size and the charge of the radioactive tracer will mainly influence the extent of radioactivity remaining at the site of injection, the rate of diffusion into the lymphatic vessels and the uptake in the SLN. Knowledge of the physiology of the lymphatic system will help to identify factors influencing the diffusion and uptake mechanism of radioactive tracers in the lymph nodes and will assist in the design of more efficient and selective SLN seeking drugs. (author)

  10. Sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations in children: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Paige; Otal, Damanjot; Pemberton, Julia; Ali, Abdullah; Flageole, Helene; Walton, J Mark

    2011-05-01

    This scoping review assesses the literature and summarizes the current evidence on sclerotherapy for the treatment of lymphatic malformations in pediatric patients. A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature was conducted using multiple databases. Title, abstract, and full-text screening was conducted by 2 independent clinicians. All discrepancies were resolved during consensus meetings. A total of 182 articles were retrieved. Forty-four articles were removed as duplicates, and 11 articles were added after reviewing prominent studies. After full-text abstraction, 44 articles and 2 conference proceedings (N = 882 patients) were included in the final results. Twelve articles were classified as level II and 34 articles as level IV evidence. Picibanil (OK-432) was the primary agent used in most included studies. Postinjection symptoms with OK-432 were primarily fever, swelling, and erythema at the site. Life-threatening complications were uncommon and involved postinjection swelling of cervical lesions causing airway compromise. The literature regarding sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations is of a low level of evidence and suffers from a lack of standardization. Randomized clinical trials focused on OK-432, bleomycin, or alcoholic solution of zein; standardized dosing protocols; and consistent and reliable outcome reporting will be necessary for further development of treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for

  12. Development and application of surrogate model for assessment of ex-vessel debris bed dryout probability - 15157

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakush, S.E.; Lubchenko, N.T.; Kudinov, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider a water-cooled power reactor severe accident scenario with pressure vessel failure and subsequent release of molten corium. A surrogate model for prediction of dryout heat flux for ex-vessels debris beds of different shapes is developed. Functional form of dryout heat flux dependence on problem parameters is developed by the analysis of coolability problem in non-dimensional variables. It is shown that for a flat debris bed the dryout heat flux can be represented in terms of three 1-dimensional functions for which approximating formulas are found. For two-dimensional debris beds (cylindrical, conical, Gaussian heap, mound-shaped), an additional function taking into account the bed shape geometry is obtained from numerical simulations using DECOSIM code as a full model. With the surrogate model in hand, risk analysis of debris bed coolability is carried out by Monte Carlo sampling of the input parameters within selected ranges, with assumed distribution functions

  13. Lymphatic microangiopathy of the skin in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, A J; Gretener, S B; Enderlin, S; Brühlmann, P; Michel, B A; Kowal-Bielecka, O; Hoffmann, U; Franzeck, U K

    1999-03-01

    The cutaneous capillary lymphatic system in patients with systemic sclerosis was investigated using fluorescence microlymphography. The distal upper limbs of 16 healthy controls (mean age 62.3+/-13.1 yr) and 16 patients with systemic sclerosis (mean age 58.9+/-13.6 yr) were examined and the following parameters were evaluated: (a) single lymphatic capillaries; (b) lymphatic capillary network and cutaneous backflow; (c) extension of the stained lymphatics; (d) diameter of single lymphatic capillaries. At the finger level, lymphatic capillaries were lacking in five patients, while they were present in all controls (P < 0.05). Extension of the stained lymphatics was increased in 11 patients (8.1+/-6.0 mm) compared to the 16 healthy controls (2.0+/-1.2 mm) (P < 0.0001). Cutaneous backflow was observed in three patients (P < 0.05). At the hand level, lymphatic network extension was significantly different between patients (3.8+/-2.4 mm) and controls (1.2+/-0.8 mm) (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found at the forearm level. Lesional skin in patients with systemic sclerosis exhibits evidence of lymphatic microangiopathy.

  14. Lymphatic imaging: Lymphography, computed tomography and scintigraphy, 2nd ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, M.E.; Wallace, S.

    1985-01-01

    The latest addition to the Golden's Diagnostic Radiology series deals not only with imaging of the lymphatic system but also with lymphatic anatomy, its pathophysiology, and treatment of disorders. The first two chapters deal with the history of the discovery of the lymphatic system and its normal anatomy. The section on technique contains practical information and discussion of lymphatic physiology and the pathology of lymphomas. Half of the book's 16 chapters are devoted to problems encountered in clinical imaging. The approach is both by anatomy (thorax, neck, abdomen) and pathology (benign disease, lymphoma, solid tumors)

  15. Impact of Surgical Route in Influencing the Risk of Lymphatic Complications After Ovarian Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Montanelli, Luca; Di Donato, Violante; Infantino, Carmelo; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Lymphatic complications are a common occurrence after staging surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer (eEOC). We investigated whether the introduction of minimally invasive surgery influences the risk of developing lymphoceles and lymphorrhea in patients undergoing staging for eEOC. For this purpose, data of consecutive patients affected by eEOC undergoing staging surgery between January 1980 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Review. Among 341 patients included in the present study, 47 severe postoperative complications occurred (13.7%), including 40 lymphatic complications: 31 symptomatic lymphoceles (9%) and 9 cases of lymphorrhea (2.6%), respectively. Laparoscopic staging correlated with a lower risk of developing any severe lymphatic complications in comparison with open surgery (p = .02). In particular, the laparoscopic approach and para-aortic node involvement were associated with a trend toward lower lymphoceles (odds ratio, .13; 95% confidence interval, .07-2.20; p = .05) and a trend toward higher risk of lymphorrhea developing (odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval, .93-17.3; p = .06), respectively. In conclusion, the implementation of a minimally invasive approach might result in a slight reduction of lymphatic complications after eEOC staging. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Underclad crack development of steam generators tube sheets and reactor vessels nozzles in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, F.; Bocquet, P.; Boudot, R.; Zacharie, G.

    1985-01-01

    Defects formed, before stress relieving treatment, under the coating of tube plates of steam generators and vessel pipes are cold cracks formed in the segregation zone during surface coating without pre- and postheating of the 2nd layers and eventually of the following coating layers. To solve this problem, the conditions of pre- and post-heating are reinforced and applied to all the coating layers. 13 refs [fr

  17. Intravenous thrombolysis of large vessel occlusions is associated with higher hospital costs than small vessel strokes: a rationale for developing stroke severity-based financial models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ansaar T; Evans, Kim; Riggs, Jack E; Hobbs, Gerald R

    2016-04-01

    Owing to their severity, large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes may be associated with higher costs that are not reflected in current coding systems. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous thrombolysis costs are related to the presence or absence of LVO. Patients who had undergone intravenous thrombolysis over a 9-year period were divided into LVO and no LVO (nLVO) groups based on admission CT angiography. The primary outcome was hospital cost per admission. Secondary outcomes included admission duration, 90-day clinical outcome, and discharge destination. 119 patients (53%) had LVO and 104 (47%) had nLVO. Total mean±SD cost per LVO patient was $18,815±14,262 compared with $15,174±11,769 per nLVO patient (p=0.04). Hospital payments per admission were $17,338±13,947 and $15,594±16,437 for LVO and nLVO patients, respectively (p=0.4). A good outcome was seen in 33 LVO patients (27.7%) and in 69 nLVO patients (66.4%) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.3, pregression analysis after controlling for comorbidities showed the presence of LVO to be an independent predictor of higher total hospital costs. The presence or absence of LVO is associated with significant differences in hospital costs, outcomes, admission duration, and home discharge. These differences can be important when developing systems of care models for acute ischemic stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Development and application of gamma scanning technology for on-line investigation of industrial process columns and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah

    1999-01-01

    Plant Assessment Technology (PAT) group, in association with Intelligent System (IS) Group and Engineering Services Department of Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed gamma scanning facilities for on-line investigation of industrial process columns and vessels. The technology, based on the principle of gamma-ray absorption, has been successfully applied for troubleshooting of a number of distillation columns and process vessels in petroleum refineries, gas processing plants and chemical plants in the country and the region. This paper outlines basic characteristics of the system and describes the inspection procedures, and in addition, case studies are also presented. The case studies are purposely chosen to illustrate the versatility of the technology, and furthermore to demonstrate the economic benefits which can be realised from the application of this technology. (author)

  19. Anatomy of the transverse colon revisited with respect to complete mesocolic excision and possible pathways of aberrant lymphatic tumor spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzner, Sigmar; Hohenberger, Werner; Weber, Klaus; West, Nicholas P; Witzigmann, Helmut; Wedel, Thilo

    2016-02-01

    Although lymph node metastases to pancreatic and gastroepiploic lymph node stations in transverse colon cancer have been described, the mode of lymphatic spread in this area remains unclear. This study was undertaken to describe possible pathways of aberrant lymphatic spread in the complex anatomic area of the proximal superior mesenteric artery and vein, the greater omentum, and the lower pancreatic border. Abdominal specimens obtained from four cadaveric donors were dissected according to the principles of complete mesocolic excision. The vascular architecture of the transverse colon was scrutinized in search of possible pathways of lymphatic spread to the pancreatic and gastroepiploic lymph nodes. Vascular connections between the transverse colon and the greater omentum at the level of both the hepatic and the splenic flexures could be identified. In addition, small vessels running from the transverse mesocolon to the lower pancreatic border in the area between the middle colic artery and the inferior mesenteric vein were demonstrated. Moreover, venous tributaries to the gastrocolic trunk could be exposed to highlight its surgical importance as a guiding structure for complete mesocolic excision. The technical feasibility to clearly separate embryologic compartments by predefined tissue planes in complete mesocolic excision was confirmed. However, the vicinity of all three endodermal intestinal segments (foregut, midgut, and hindgut) obviously gives way to vascular connections that might serve as potential pathways for lymphatic metastatic spread of transverse colon cancer.

  20. Lymphatics and lymphatic-like structures in melanoma : a pathobiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarijs, Johannes Antonius Godefridus Marinus

    2003-01-01

    Solid malignant tumors can be regarded as a functional tissue in which architecture and function are maintained by a dynamic interplay between tumor cells and a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing fibroblasts, blood and lymphatic vasculature and infiltrating and

  1. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in

  2. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishi Toh

    Full Text Available Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5 and later (E15.5-17.5 developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with

  3. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  4. Development of a technique for level measurement in pressure vessels using thermal probes and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir Maximo

    2008-01-01

    A technique for level measurement in pressure vessels was developed using thermal probes with internal cooling and artificial neural networks (ANN's). This new concept of thermal probes was experimentally tested in an experimental facility (BETSNI) with two test sections, ST1 and ST2. Two different thermal probes were designed and constructed: concentric tubes probe and U tube probe. A data acquisition system (DAS) was assembled to record the experimental data during the tests. Steady state and transient level tests were carried out and the experimental data obtained were used as learning and recall data sets in the ANN's program RETRO-05 that simulate a multilayer perceptron with backpropagation. The results of the analysis show that the technique can be applied for level measurements in pressure vessel. The technique is applied for a less input temperature data than the initially designed to the probes. The technique is robust and can be used in case of lack of some temperature data. Experimental data available in literature from electrically heated thermal probe were also used in the ANN's analysis producing good results. The results of the ANN's analysis show that the technique can be improved and applied to level measurements in pressure vessels. (author)

  5. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  6. Venous anastomosis procedure for treatment of lymphatic malformation in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kato, M.D.

    2017-05-01

    We previously reported that lymphatic venous anastomosis (LVA may be a safe and effective procedure for reducing the size of micro cystic type LM by decreasing the intra cystic lymph [3]. We treated a case of KTS in a 9-year-old boy who had improvement of lower abdominal swelling and penile pain after a single LVA. The method involved is to make a bypass, from the afferent lymph-collecting vessel to subcutaneous veins. However, to apply LVA to LM, it is sometimes problematic to detect the afferent flow in combined vascular malformations, such as KTS. Therefore, we performed VA making a bypass directly from LM, instead. We classify two types of LVA methods for LM: afferent lymph vessel LMVA (A-LMVA, and sidewall LMVA (S-LMVA. S-LMVA has more merits than the previously reported A-LMVA.

  7. Design and development of a blood vessel localization system using a Nir viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez R, A.; Plascencia C, L. E.; Cordova F, T.; Padilla R, N.

    2017-10-01

    In addition to the multiple applications of ionizing radiation in clinical diagnosis there is the possibility of using another part of the electromagnetic spectrum such as near infrared (Nir). This paper presents the design and construction of a Nir Biosensor in a range between 800 and 900 nm, which allows the visualization of blood vessels for the venepuncture procedure with the aim of reducing the trauma of venous access to patients of all ages. The possibility that the device is used in the location of venous ulcers as an alternative to veno grams obtained by X-rays is also explored. (Author)

  8. Development of a Versatile Ultrasonic Internal Pipe/Vessel Component Monitor for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Reactor Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searfass, Clifford T. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., State College, PA (United States); Malinowski, Owen M. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., State College, PA (United States); Van Velsor, Jason K. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-03-22

    The stated goal of this work was to develop a versatile system which could accurately measure vessel and valve internal vibrations and cavitation formation under in-service conditions in nuclear power plants, ultrasonically. The developed technology will benefit the nuclear power generation industry by allowing plant operators to monitor valve and vessel internals during operation. This will help reduce planned outages and plant component failures. During the course of this work, Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. gathered information from industry experts that target vibration amplitudes to be detected should be in the range of 0.001-in to 0.005-in (0.025-mm to 0.127-mm) and target vibration frequency ranges which should be detected were found to be between 0-Hz and 300-Hz. During the performed work, an ultrasonic measuring system was developed which utilized ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight measurements to measure vibration frequency and amplitude. The developed system has been shown to be able to measure vibration amplitudes as low as 0.0008-in (0.020-mm) with vibration frequencies in the range of 17-Hz to 1000-Hz. Therefore, the developed system was able to meet the industry needs for vibration measurement. The developed ultrasonic system was also to be able to measure cavitation formation by monitoring the received ultrasonic time- and frequency-domain signals. This work also demonstrated the survivability of commercially available probes at temperatures up to 300-F for several weeks.

  9. Inflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tabibiazar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained lymph stagnation engenders a pathological response that is complex and not well characterized. Tissue inflammation in lymphedema may reflect either an active or passive consequence of impaired immune traffic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied an experimental model of acute post-surgical lymphedema in the tails of female hairless, immunocompetent SKH-1 mice. We performed in vivo imaging of impaired immune traffic in experimental, murine acquired lymphatic insufficiency. We demonstrated impaired mobilization of immunocompetent cells from the lymphedematous region. These findings correlated with histopathological alterations and large-scale transcriptional profiling results. We found intense inflammatory changes in the dermis and the subdermis. The molecular pattern in the RNA extracted from the whole tissue was dominated by the upregulation of genes related to acute inflammation, immune response, complement activation, wound healing, fibrosis, and oxidative stress response. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized a mouse model of acute, acquired lymphedema using in vivo functional imaging and histopathological correlation. The model closely simulates the volume response, histopathology, and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of human acquired lymphedema, and the response is accompanied by an increase in the number and size of microlymphatic structures in the lymphedematous cutaneous tissues. Molecular characterization through clustering of genes with known functions provides insights into processes and signaling pathways that compose the acute tissue response to lymph stagnation. Further study of genes identified through this effort will continue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and lead to potential therapeutic strategies for lymphatic vascular insufficiency.

  10. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  11. Development of a Weibull model of cleavage fracture toughness for shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Williams, P.T.; McAfee, W.J.; Pugh, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    A primary objective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) -sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is to develop and validate technology applicable to quantitative assessments of fracture prevention margins in nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing flaws and subjected to service-induced material toughness degradation. This paper describes an experimental/analytical program for the development of a Weibull statistical model of cleavage fracture toughness for applications to shallow surface-breaking and embedded flaws in RPV materials subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The experimental part includes both material characterization testing and larger fracture toughness experiments conducted using a special-purpose cruciform beam specimen developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for applying biaxial loads to shallow cracks. Test materials (pressure vessel steels) included plate product forms (conforming to ASTM A533 Grade B Class 1 specifications) and shell segments procured from a pressurized-water reactor vessel intended for a nuclear power plant. Results from tests performed on cruciform specimens demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower-transition temperature region. A local approach methodology based on a three-parameter Weibull model was developed to correlate these experimentally-observed biaxial effects on fracture toughness. The Weibull model, combined with a new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the Weibull stress integral definition, is shown to provide a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states for 2-dimensional flaws located in the A533-B plate material. The Weibull stress density was introduced as a matrice for identifying regions along a semi-elliptical flaw front that have a higher probability of cleavage initiation. Cumulative

  12. Development of a Weibull model of cleavage fracture toughness for shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Williams, P.T.; McAfee, W.J.; Pugh, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    A primary objective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) -sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is to develop and validate technology applicable to quantitative assessments of fracture prevention margins in nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing flaws and subjected to service-induced material toughness degradation. This paper describes an experimental/analytical program for the development of a Weibull statistical model of cleavage fracture toughness for applications to shallow surface-breaking and embedded flaws in RPV materials subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The experimental part includes both material characterization testing and larger fracture toughness experiments conducted using a special-purpose cruciform beam specimen developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for applying biaxial loads to shallow cracks. Test materials (pressure vessel steels) included plate product forms (conforming to ASTM A533 Grade B Class 1 specifications) and shell segments procured from a pressurized-water reactor vessel intended for a nuclear power plant. Results from tests performed on cruciform specimens demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower-transition temperature region. A local approach methodology based on a three-parameter Weibull model was developed to correlate these experimentally-observed biaxial effects on fracture toughness. The Weibull model, combined with a new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the Weibull stress integral definition, is shown to provide a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states for 2-dimensional flaws located in the A533-B plate material. The Weibull stress density was introduced as a matrice for identifying regions along a semi-elliptical flaw front that have a higher probability of cleavage initiation. Cumulative

  13. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  14. Development of in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism for a innovative small reactor (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Although the control rod drive mechanism of an existing large scale light water reactor is generally installed outside the reactor vessel, an in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism (INV-CRDM) is installed inside the reactor vessel. The INV-CRDM contributes to compactness and simplicity of the reactor system, and it can eliminate the possibility of a rod ejection accident. Therefore, INV-CRDM is an important technology adopted in an innovative small reactor. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has developed this type of CRDM driven by an electric motor, which can work under high temperature and high pressure water for the advanced marine reactor. On the basis of this research result, a driving motor coil and a bearing were developed to be used under the high temperature steam, severe condition for an innovative small reactor. About the driving motor, we manufactured the driving motor available for high temperature steam and carried out performance test under room temperature atmosphere to confirm the electric characteristic and coolability of the driving coil. With these test results and the past test results under high temperature water, we analyzed and evaluated the electric performance and coolability of the driving coil under high temperature steam. Concerning bearing, we manufactured the test pieces using some candidate material for material characteristic test and carried out the rolling wear test under high temperature steam to select the material. Consequently, we confirmed that performance of the driving coil for the advanced type driving motor, is enough to be used under high temperature steam. And, we evaluated the performance of the bearing and selected the material of the bearing, which can be used under high temperature steam. From these results, we have obtained the prospect that the INV-CRDM can be used for an innovative small reactor under steam atmosphere could be developed. (author)

  15. Development of a system for measuring wall shear stress in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Keita; Nagao, Taisuke; Okada, Kouji; Miyazaki, Shohei; Yang, Xiaomei; Yamazaki, Youichi; Murase, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    We developed a system for measuring the wall shear stress (WSS) in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The time-dependent velocity at the center of the blood vessel was measured by phase-contrast MRI and was approximated by finite Fourier series, which was used for generating the velocity profile at the inlet for the boundary condition to the CFD method. To validate the CFD method, we compared the WSS obtained by the CFD method with the theoretical value in a straight cylinder with various radii for both steady and pulsatile flows. We also investigated the dependence of the WSS on the inlet velocity profile incorporated into the CFD method. For steady flow, there was a good agreement between the WSS obtained by the CFD method and the theoretical value. For pulsatile flow, there was a relatively good agreement between them when the radius of the cylinder was 2.5 mm and the inlet velocity profile was given by the Womersley solution for fully developed pulsatile flow in a straight circular cylinder. When the radius of the cylinder was 5 mm and/or the inlet velocity profile was assumed to be parabolic, large differences were observed between them, suggesting that the assumption of fully developed flow does not hold true in these cases. In human studies, the vortex due to the secondary blood flow in the carotid arterial sinus was clearly observed. The WSS in the bifurcation was the highest, while that in the carotid arterial sinus was the smallest. In conclusion, the system presented here appears to be useful for measuring the WSS in blood vessels and for analyzing the cause and/or extent of atherosclerosis, and our results suggest that the inlet velocity profile should be carefully considered. (author)

  16. Development of Deterministic and Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis Code PROFAS-RV for Reactor Pressure Vessel - Progress of the Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Bong Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a deterministic/probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis program for reactor pressure vessel, PROFAS-RV, is developed. This program can evaluate failure probability of RPV using recent radiation embrittlement model of 10CFR50.61a and stress intensity factor calculation method of RCC-MRx code as well as the required basic functions of PFM program. Applications of some new radiation embrittlement model, material database, calculation method of stress intensity factors, and others which can improve fracture mechanics assessment of RPV are introduced. The purpose of this study is to develop a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis program for RPV considering above modification and application of newly developed models and calculation methods. In this paper, it deals with the development progress of the PFM analysis program for RPV, PROFAS-RV. The PROFAS-RV is being tested with other codes, and it is expected to revise and upgrade by reflecting the latest model and calculation method continuously. These efforts can minimize the uncertainty of the integrity evaluation for the reactor pressure vessel.

  17. Development and operational experiences of an automated remote inspection system for interior of primary containment vessel of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, N.; Chikara, S.; Fumio, T.; Katsuhiro, M.; Katsutoshi, S.; Ken-Ichiro, S.; Masaaki, F.; Masayoshi, S.

    1983-01-01

    A prototype was developed for an automated remote inspection system featuring continuous monitoring of the working status of major components inside the primary containment vessel of a boiling water reactor. This inspection system consists of four units, or vehicles, which are towed by a trolley chain along a monorail; a complex coaxial cable for data transmission and for power supply; and an operator's console. A TV camera, microphone, thermometer, hygrometer, and ionization chamber are mounted on the various units. After several months' testing under high-ambient temperature, the system was installed in the Tokai-2 power station of Japan Atomic Power Company for in situ tests

  18. Development and deployment of BARC Vessel Inspection System (BARVIS) for TAPS-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jit Pal; Ranjon, R.; Kulkarni, M.P.; Soni, N.L.; Patel, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    As per regulatory requirements, inspection of welds in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is necessary for further continuing operation of TAPS - 1 and 2. Upper shell longitudinal welds of RPV which were seen as inaccessible up till now have been inspected first time since operation of the reactors by deploying Weld Inspection Manipulator (WIM) in Unit-1 in August 2012. Subsequently Unit-2 and again Unit-1 upper shell welds were inspected with upgraded versions of WIM in Feb 2013 and March 2015 respectively. Inspection of upper shell welds paves the way for more challenging inspection of beltline region welds. These welds are accessible only from Inside Diameter (JD) surface through a narrow annular gap of 25 mm between RPV wall and thermal shield by managing obstructions due to core internals. BARC Vessel Inspection System (BARVIS) for inspection of beltline region welds from inner side of the RPV was designed, manufactured, tested and qualified for sending scanning probes in to the annular gap of 25mm as per RPV engineering drawings and also based on actual gap measured in Unit-2. Annular gap measurement was done in Units-1 before deployment of BARVIS during 25 th Refuelling Outage (RFO) in Unit-1. Contrary to the expectation, the annular gap was found less and inspection of beltline region with BARVIS in Unit-1 could not be done. Finally during RFO in January 2016 of Unit-2, BARVIS has been successfully deployed for beltline region welds inspection. BARVIS mainly consists of manipulator, its operating system and data acquisition system. Data acquisition system and data analysis are not covered in this report. (author)

  19. Development of an integrity evaluation system on the basis of cooperative virtual reality environment for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.; Choi, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Choi, Y.H.; Park, Y.W.; Yoshimura, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since early 1950's, the fracture mechanics has brought significant impact on structural integrity assessment in a wide range of industries such as power, transportation, civil and petrochemical industries, especially in nuclear power plant industries. For the last two decades, significant efforts have been devoted in developing defect assessment procedures, and as a result, various fitness-for-purpose or fitness-for-service codes have been developed. From another aspect, recent advances in IT (information technologies) bring rapid changes in various engineering fields. IT enables people to share information through network and thus provides concurrent working environment without limitations of locations. For this reason, a network system based on internet or intranet bas been appeared in various fields of business. Evaluating the integrity of critical components is one of the most critical issues in the nuclear industry. In order to evaluate the integrity of structures, a complicated and collaborative procedure is required including periodical in-service inspection, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. And thus, experts in different fields have to cooperate to resolve the integrity problem. In this paper, an integrity evaluation system on the basis of cooperative virtual reality environment for reactor pressure vessel which adopts IT into a structural integrity evaluation procedure for reactor pressure vessel is introduced. The proposed system uses virtual reality (VR) technique, virtual network computing (VNC) and knowledge based programs. This system is able to support 3-dimensional virtual reality environment and provide experts to co-operate each other by accessing related data through internet. The proposed system is expected to provide a more efficient integrity evaluation for reactor pressure vessel. (orig.)

  20. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia and its Association With Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria María Díaz Marugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymph is a fluid originating in the interstitial spaces of the body that contains cells, proteins, particles, chylomicrons, and sometimes bacteria. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL results from a disruption of lymphatic circulation, thus corresponding to a secondary rather than a primary event in the context of generalized lymphatic anomaly. Materials and Methods: In this case series and record review, an analysis of intestinal lymphatic involvement was performed on patients diagnosed with PIL between 1965 and 2013. Of the 21 patients included in the study, 10 had been diagnosed before 5 years of age (1 prenatal, 8 between 5 and 18 years of age, and 3 while older than 18 years of age. The follow-up period varied between 1 and 34 years. Clinical data, blood and fecal parameters, imaging studies, endoscopy results, biopsy analyses, treatment details, and outcome information were collected from medical records. Endoscopy, histological studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and lymphoscintigraphy were performed on all patients. Dynamic intranodal lymphangiography was performed on 8 patients. Results: Central lymphatic channel obstruction was identified in 12 patients (57%. Associated lymphatic malformation (LM was present in 16, diarrhea in 10, chylothorax in 11, chylous ascites in 10, pericardial effusion in 6, coagulopathy in 3, and osteolysis in 7. Conclusions: We consider intestinal lymphangiectasia not as an entity in itself, but as a consequence of lymphatic flow impairment in the thoracic duct, producing chylous reflux into the intestinal lymphatics.

  1. Mapping lymphatic nodes: Role of thrombospondin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spana, G.S.; Liu, J.; Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Lymphatic (sentinel) node (SN) mapping determines the status of lymphatic basin draining a primary tumor, provides staging information of systemic spread of malignancy, and is vital in the management of breast cancer and melanoma. Thrombospondin (TSP), a matrix bound adhesive glycoprotein, promotes cell proliferation and angiogenesis. TSP receptors are expressed on lymphocytes, and on the cells of breast cancer and melanoma. We hypothesized that Tc-99m-CSVTCR, a small, soluble, and TSP specific peptide, can image SN. Method: CSVTCR was modified at the N terminus with Aba-G(D) AGG (TP1300) and labeled with Tc-99m. Female New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and 125 μCi TP1300 was given into the plantar/palmer surface of each foot pad in the metacarpal/metatarsal region, followed by dynamic imaging for 2 hrs and quantification of Tc-99m in SN and injection site by ROI. Control rabbits received Tc-99m-O 4 - and TP1300>Tc-99mO- 4 . Tc-99m clearance from injection site was Tc-99m-O 4 >TP1300>>TSC. % ID/g in the axillary SN was greater in than the popliteal SN for all agents. For TP1300, SN to muscle Tc-99m ratios were 552 for axillary and 140 for popliteal nodes. With infiltrating tumor cells higher uptake in SN is expected. Summary: Due to high SN uptake, rapid clearance from injection site delivering low radiation dose at injection site and ease of handling, targeting TSP receptors with Tc-99m-TP1300, a soluble, receptor specific, small biomolecule for efficient imaging of SN is promising

  2. Development of a surrogate model for analysis of ex-vessel steam explosion in Nordic type BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Basso, Simone, E-mail: simoneb@kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe accident. • Steam explosion. • Surrogate model. • Sensitivity study. • Artificial neural networks. - Abstract: Severe accident mitigation strategy adopted in Nordic type Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) employs ex-vessel core melt cooling in a deep pool of water below reactor vessel. Energetic fuel–coolant interaction (steam explosion) can occur during molten core release into water. Dynamic loads can threaten containment integrity increasing the risk of fission products release to the environment. Comprehensive uncertainty analysis is necessary in order to assess the risks. Computational costs of the existing fuel–coolant interaction (FCI) codes is often prohibitive for addressing the uncertainties, including the effect of stochastic triggering time. This paper discusses development of a computationally efficient surrogate model (SM) for prediction of statistical characteristics of steam explosion impulses in Nordic BWRs. The TEXAS-V code was used as the Full Model (FM) for the calculation of explosion impulses. The surrogate model was developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the database of FM solutions. Statistical analysis was employed in order to treat chaotic response of steam explosion impulse to variations in the triggering time. Details of the FM and SM implementation and their verification are discussed in the paper.

  3. Development of an automated remote inspection system for the interior of the primary containment vessel of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senoo, Makoto; Yoshida, Tomiharu; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Tanaka, Keiji; Koga, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    An automated remote inspection system has been developed for the interior of the primary containment vessel of a nuclear power plant. This system consists of an inspection robot and an operator's console. The inspection robot travels along a monorail provided in the interior of the primary containment vessel. The operator's console is located in the central control room of the power plant. We have made efforts to downsize the robot and automate the inspection and monitoring machinery. As for downsizing the robot, a 152 mm wide, 290 mm high cross-sectional area and 15 kg weight can be realized using commercially available small sensors and rearranging the parts in those sensors. As for automating the inspection and monitoring, several monitoring functions are developed using image processing, frequency analysis and other techniques applied to signals from sensors such as an ITV camera, an infrared camera and a microphone, which are mounted on the robot. Endurance tests show resistance of the robot to radiational and thermal conditions is adequate for actual use in actual power plants. (author)

  4. Podoplanin as Key Player of Tumor Progression and Lymph Vessel Proliferation in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobec, Ionut Marcel; Sas, Ioan; Pirtea, Laurențiu; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Moatar, Aurica Elisabeta; Ceaușu, Raluca Amalia; Raica, Marius

    2016-10-01

    Podoplanin plays a key role in tumor progression and metastasis. We evaluated lymphatics proliferation rate and podoplanin expression in tumor cells of ovarian carcinoma. Seventy-five paraffin-embedded specimens of ovarian cancer were immunohistochemically assessed in order to quantify peritumoral (LMVDP) and intratumoral (LMVDT) lymphatic microvessel density of proliferating lymphatics and for podoplanin variability in tumor cells. LMVDT correlated with proliferating tumor vessels located in the peritumoral area (p=0.024) and with the number of mature vessels located in the intratumoral area (p<0.0001), while LMVDP correlated with peritumoral mature vessels (p<0.000l). Proliferating tumor cells at the invasive front were highly positive for podoplanin. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first assessment of lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation correlated with podoplanin expression in tumor cells from ovarian cancer. Our data support podoplanin as a potential target that may help reduce ovarian cancer dissemination and lymphatic metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Developing Optimal Combination of Bulking Agents in an In-Vessel Composting of Vegetable Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Monson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the optimum combination of feed stock components for composting the organic solid waste, a prerequisite for effective microbial degradation and for obtaining quality compost. Combination of dry leaves with locally available bulking agents like sawdust, wood shavings, paddy straw, sugarcane bagasse and rice husk are composted along with vegetable waste in a laboratory scale reactor for the study. The central core of composting process is replicated in controlled conditions in the in-vessel by keeping initial feed stock C/N ratio fixed between 30 and 35. The study is monitored for 14 days for the variations in temperature, pH, moisture and macronutrients C and N of the compost. It is found that composting vegetable waste with the combination of paddy straw and dry leaves provided best results of C/N ratio of 17.58 confirming that, if right feedstock components are provided, an effective environment for the growth of microorganisms is achieved to accelerate the process to produce a resultant C/N ratio acceptable to be used as compost.

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-40 - Public vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-40 Public vessels. Public vessel means a vessel that— (a) Is owned, or demise... Department (except a vessel operated by the Coast Guard or Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation...

  7. Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Obara, Kenjiro; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yousuke; Yagi, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuhisa; Sato, Masaru.

    1997-12-01

    Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has been conducted. Since the in-vessel remote maintenance equipment is operated under the condition of 10 6 R/h gamma ray dose rate, the electric connector has to be radiation hard for an accumulation dose of 10 10 R. In addition, the simple attachment/removal mechanism is essential for remote operation. For this, the alumina (Al203) ceramics and a ball bearing were adopted to electric insulator and plug (male) of connector, respectively. The handling tests on attachment/removal of the connector were conducted by using master slave manipulator and general purpose robot with handling tool, and as a result, the validity of the attachment/removal mechanism was verified. In the gamma ray irradiation tests, which are under way, no degradation in break down voltage (1000V 1min.) up to 10 10 R was confirmed. However insulation resistance and contact resistance between contact pin and contact socket were deteriorated in proportion to the accumulation dose. Increase of contact resistance is considered due to an erosion of contact pin. (author)

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Human Lung Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Bruno; Falco, Angela; Madeddu, Denise; Frati, Caterina; Cavalli, Stefano; Graiani, Gallia; Gervasi, Andrea; Rinaldi, Laura; Lagrasta, Costanza; Maselli, Davide; Gnetti, Letizia; Silini, Enrico M.; Quaini, Eugenio; Ampollini, Luca; Carbognani, Paolo; Quaini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of lymphatic endothelial cells from the respiratory system may be crucial to investigate the role of the lymphatic system in the normal and diseased lung. We describe a simple and inexpensive method to harvest, isolate, and expand lymphatic endothelial cells from the human lung (HL-LECs). Fifty-five samples of healthy lung selected from patients undergoing lobectomy were studied. A two-step purification tool, based on paramagnetic sorting with monoclonal antibodies to CD31 and Podoplanin, was employed to select a pure population of HL-LECs. The purity of HL-LECs was assessed by morphologic criteria, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and functional assays. Interestingly, these cells retain in vitro several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) implicated in cell survival and proliferation. HL-LECs represent a clinically relevant cellular substrate to study lymphatic biology, lymphoangiogenesis, interaction with microbial agents, wound healing, and anticancer therapy. PMID:26137493

  9. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  10. Pdgfrb-Cre targets lymphatic endothelial cells of both venous and non-venous origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvmar, Maria H; Martinez-Corral, Ines; Stanczuk, Lukas; Mäkinen, Taija

    2016-06-01

    The Pdgfrb-Cre line has been used as a tool to specifically target pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Recent studies showed additional targeting of cardiac and mesenteric lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by the Pdgfrb-Cre transgene. In the heart, this was suggested to provide evidence for a previously unknown nonvenous source of LECs originating from yolk sac (YS) hemogenic endothelium (HemEC). Here we show that Pdgfrb-Cre does not, however, target YS HemEC or YS-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). Instead, a high proportion of ECs in embryonic blood vessels of multiple organs, as well as venous-derived LECs were targeted. Assessment of temporal Cre activity using the R26-mTmG double reporter suggested recent occurrence of Pdgfrb-Cre recombination in both blood and lymphatic ECs. It thus cannot be excluded that Pdgfrb-Cre mediated targeting of LECs is due to de novo expression of the Pdgfrb-Cre transgene or their previously established venous endothelial origin. Importantly, Pdgfrb-Cre targeting of LECs does not provide evidence for YS HemEC origin of the lymphatic vasculature. Our results highlight the need for careful interpretation of lineage tracing using constitutive Cre lines that cannot discriminate active from historical expression. The early vascular targeting by the Pdgfrb-Cre also warrants consideration for its use in studies of mural cells. genesis 54:350-358, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  12. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  13. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A; Antila, Salli

    2017-01-01

    to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege...... and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems....

  14. C-ERC/mesothelin provokes lymphatic invasion of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Futoshi; Homma, Shigenori; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Einama, Takahiro; Kato, Yasutaka; Tsuda, Masumi; Tanaka, Shinya; Maeda, Masahiro; Kajino, Kazunori; Hino, Okio; Takahashi, Norihiko; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Akinobu; Todo, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a key event of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Mesothelin is expressed in various types of malignant tumor and associated with an unfavorable prognosis. The full-length mesothelin (Full-ERC) is cleaved by protease into membrane-bound C-ERC/mesothelin and N-ERC/mesothelin which is secreted into the blood. The aim of this study was to examine the biological role of mesothelin in CRC by clinicopathological analysis and in vitro lymphatic invasion assay. Ninety-one cases of CRC specimens were immunohistochemically examined and the localization of mesothelin in luminal membrane and/or cytoplasm was also evaluated. Lymphatic invasion assay was also performed using the human CRC cell line, WiDr, which was transfected with Full-, N- and C-ERC/mesothelin expression plasmids (Full-WiDr, N-WiDr and C-WiDr). Immunohistochemically, "luminal membrane positive" of mesothelin was identified in 37.4 %, and correlated with lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis, but not with patients' prognosis. Interestingly, among the patients with lymph node metastasis (N = 38), "luminal membrane positive" of mesothelin significantly correlated with unfavorable patients' outcome. In addition, lymphatic invasion assay revealed that Full-WiDr and C-WiDr more significantly invaded human lymphatic endothelial cells than the Mock-WiDr (P ERC/mesothelin associated with lymphatic invasion of cancer in vitro.

  15. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  16. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  17. Avoiding transport bottlenecks in an expanding root system: xylem vessel development in fibrous and pioneer roots under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Byczyk, Julia; Eissenstat, David M; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zadworny, Marcin

    2012-09-01

    Root systems develop to effectively absorb water and nutrients and to rapidly transport these materials to the transpiring shoot. In woody plants, roots can be born with different functions: fibrous roots are primarily used for water and nutrient absorption, whereas pioneer roots have a greater role in transport. Because pioneer roots extend rapidly in the soil and typically quickly produce fibrous roots, they need to develop transport capacity rapidly so as to avoid becoming a bottleneck to the absorbed water of the developing fibrous roots and, as we hypothesized, immediately activate a specific type of autophagy at a precise time of their development. Using microscopy techniques, we monitored xylem development in Populus trichocarpa roots in the first 7 d after emergence under field conditions. Newly formed pioneer roots contained more primary xylem poles and had larger diameter tracheary elements than fibrous roots. While xylogenesis started later in pioneer roots than in fibrous, it was completed at the same time, resulting in functional vessels on the third to fourth day following root emergence. Programmed cell death was responsible for creating the water conducting capacity of xylem. Although the early xylogenesis processes were similar in fibrous and pioneer roots, secondary vascular development proceeded much more rapidly in pioneer roots. Compared to fibrous roots, rapid development of transport capacity in pioneer roots is not primarily caused by accelerated xylogenesis but by larger and more numerous tracheary elements and by rapid initiation of secondary growth.

  18. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  19. Differential Gene Expression of Primary Cultured Lymphatic and Blood Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs and the developmentally related lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs create complementary, yet distinct vascular networks. Each endothelial cell type interacts with flowing fluid and circulating cells, yet each vascular system has evolved specialized gene expression programs and thus both cell types display different phenotypes. BECs and LECs express distinct genes that are unique to their specific vascular microenvironment. Tumors also take advantage of the molecules that are expressed in these vascular systems to enhance their metastatic potential. We completed transcriptome analyses on primary cultured LECs and BECs, where each comparative set was isolated from the same individual. Differences were resolved in the expression of several major categories, such as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, cytokines, cytokine receptors. We have identified new molecules that are associated with BECs (e.g., claudin-9, CXCL11, neurexin-1, neurexin-2, the neuronal growth factor regulator-1 and LECs (e.g., claudin-7, CD58, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (HAPLN1, the poliovirus receptor-related 3 molecule that may lead to novel therapeutic treatments for diseases of lymphatic or blood vessels, including metastasis of cancer to lymph nodes or distant organs.

  20. Microemulsions containing long-chain oil ethyl oleate improve the oral bioavailability of piroxicam by increasing drug solubility and lymphatic transportation simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiao; Song, Jia; You, Xiuhua; Xu, Dongling; Wang, Kexin; Song, Jiaqi; Guo, Qin; Li, Pengyu; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-09-25

    Drug solubility and lymphatic transport enhancements are two main pathways to improve drug oral bioavailability for microemulsions. However, it is not easy to have both achieved simultaneously because excipients used for improving lymphatic transport were usually insufficient in forming microemulsions and solubilizing drugs. Our research is to explore whether ethyl oleate, an oil effective in developing microemulsions with desired solubilizing capability, could increase bioavailability to a higher extent by enhancing lymphatic transport. As a long-chain oil, ethyl oleate won larger microemulsion area than short-chain tributyrin and medium-chain GTCC. In contrast, long-chain soybean oil failed to prepare microemulsions. The solubility of piroxicam in ethyl oleate microemulsions (ME-C) increased by about 30 times than in water. ME-C also won significantly higher AUC0-t compared with tributyrin microemulsions (ME-A) and GTCC microemulsions (ME-B). Oral bioavailability in ME-C decreased by 38% after lymphatic transport was blocked by cycloheximide, severer than those in ME-A and ME-B (8% and 34%). These results suggest that improving lymphatic transport and solubility simultaneously might be a novel strategy to increase drug oral bioavailability to a higher extent than increasing solubility only. Ethyl oleate is a preferred oil candidate due to its integrated advantages of high solubilizing capability, large microemulsion area and effective lymphatic transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiologic appearance of primary anomalies of lung lymphatics. Review and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Jacobi, V.; Stein, A.; Berkefeld, J.; Thalhammer. A.; Kollath, J.

    1997-01-01

    Congenital disorders of the lymphatics of the lung are rare. On the basis of a literature review and our own experiences the disorders are divided into four groups and their radiographic findings are described. Pulmonary lymphangiectasia shows not typical signs. As an expression of the underlying pathophysiologic processes CT shows thickening of interlobular septs, interstitial edema and pleural effusions. Neither architectural distraction nor thickening of intralobular septs was seen. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis shows rather typical findings with multiple thin-walled bullae. In contrast to the opinion that architectural distraction is not seen in LAM we sometimes found signs of fibrosis. Disseminated pulmonary lymphangioma is characterised by proliferation of lymph vessels. CT-findings of this disorder have not been described before. CT shows multiple disseminated nodules of up to 2.5 cm accompanied by multiple bullae of similar distribution and size. (orig.) [de

  2. Imaging of the interaction of cancer cells and the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Cao, Hop S; McElroy, Michele; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2011-09-10

    A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system and its interaction with cancer cells is crucial to our ability to fight cancer metastasis. Efforts to study the lymphatic system had previously been limited by the inability to visualize the lymphatic system in vivo in real time. Fluorescence imaging can address these limitations and allow for visualization of lymphatic delivery and trafficking of cancer cells and potentially therapeutic agents as well. Here, we review recent articles in which antibody-fluorophore conjugates are used to label the lymphatic network and fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells in the evaluation of lymphatic delivery and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Manual lymphatic drainage therapy in patients with breast cancer related lymphoedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Helena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphoedema is a common and troublesome condition that develops following breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the treatment of postmastectomy lymphoedema in order to reduce the volume of lymphoedema and evaluate the improvement of the concomitant symptomatology. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial in 58 women with post-mastectomy lymphoedema. The control group includes 29 patients with standard treatment (skin care, exercise and compression measures, bandages for one month and, subsequently, compression garnments. The experimental group includes 29 patients with standard treatment plus Manual Lymphatic Drainage. The therapy will be administered daily for four weeks and the patient's condition will be assessed one, three and six months after treatment. The primary outcome parameter is volume reduction of the affected arm after treatment, expressed as a percentage. Secondary outcome parameters include: duration of lymphoedema reduction and improvement of the concomitant symptomatology (degree of pain, sensation of swelling and functional limitation in the affected extremity, subjective feeling of being physically less atractive and less feminine, difficulty looking at oneself naked and dissatisfaction with the corporal image. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage and its impact on the quality of life and physical limitations of these patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT01152099

  4. Technology development for cutting a reactor pressure vessel using a mechanical cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Miyao, Hidehiko; Ooki, Arahiko; Ninomiya, Toshiaki; Koiwai, Masami

    2001-01-01

    On decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the thermal cutting technique such as an oxygen-acetylene gas cutting and a plasma arc cutting are generally used for cutting massive and thick steel structures in consideration with cutting speed and control performance. These techniques generate dust, smoke, aerosol and a large quantity of secondary waste. Mechanical cutting technique has an advantage of small amount of secondary waste, and the metal chips from the kerf recovered easily compared with these thermal cutting technique. The remote mechanical cutting system for highly activated RPV has been developed with the manner which achieves the safety and cost effectiveness. The development has been performed on consignment to RANDEC from the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  5. Ex-vessel remote maintenance development plans for the Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.W.; Davis, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Remote maintenance (RM) is fundamental to the basic design requirements of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), and an extensive RM development and demonstration program is planned to meet these requirements. The program first draws from the experience base that exists in the fission community and Europe's Joint European Torus (JET) Project. Successful solutions are applied where possible and, in many cases, improved in order to achieve the performance demanded by a multiyear program that must be capable of efficiently executing RM procedures. Early, concurrent efforts in the design and fabrication of prototype remote handling (RH) equipment, remote tooling, and maintainable machine components will precede an extensive use of mock-up equipment in order to test, develop, and demonstrate the technology. 7 refs,. 5 figs

  6. Program to develop acoustic emission: flaw relationship for inservice monitoring of nuclear pressure vessels. Progress report No. 1, July 1, 1976--February 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Schwenk, E.B.

    1977-03-01

    This is a laboratory research program to characterize acoustic emission (AE) from flaw growth and noise from innocuous sources in A533B Class 1 pressure vessel steel. The objectives are: characterize AE from a limited range of defects and material property conditions of concern to reactor pressure vessel integrity; characterize AE from innocuous sources (including defects); develop criteria for distinguishing significant flaws from innocuous sources; and develop an AE flaw damage model to serve as a basis for relating in-service AE to pressure vessel integrity. The purpose of the program is to build an experimental evaluation of the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundaries by continuously monitoring for AE. A detailed program plan in the form of an analysis-before-test document has been prepared and approved

  7. Development of a method for detecting nuclear fuel debris and water leaks at a nuclear reactor/containment vessel by flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Shuichi; Tanaka, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    It is the important issue to fill up each nuclear reactor/containment vessel with water and to take out debris of damaged fuel from them for decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. It is necessary to detect the debris and water leaks at a nuclear reactor/containment vessel for the purpose. However, the method is not completely developed in the present stage. Accordingly, we have developed a method for detecting debris and water leaks at a nuclear reactor/containment vessel by flow visualization. Experiments of the flow visualization were conducted using two types of water tanks. An optical fiber and a collimator lens were employed for modifying a straight laser beam into a sheet projection. Some visualized images were obtained through the experiments. Particle Image Velocimetry, i.e. PIV, analysis was applied to the images for quantitative flow rate analysis. Consequently, it is considered that the flow visualization method has a possibility for the practical use. (author)

  8. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Matlack, Katie [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Light, Glenn [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Energy s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort which works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure changes in materials and systems, structure, and components as they age in environments associated with continued long-term operations of existing commercial nuclear power reactors. This year, the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of this program has placed emphasis on emerging Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods which support these objectives. DOE funded Research and Development (R&D) on emerging NDE techniques to support commercial nuclear reactor sustainability is expected to begin next year. This summer, the MAaD Pathway invited subject matter experts to participate in a series of workshops which developed the basis for the research plan of these DOE R&D NDE activities. This document presents the results of one of these workshops which are the DOE LWRS NDE R&D Roadmap for Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). These workshops made a substantial effort to coordinate the DOE NDE R&D with that already underway or planned by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through their representation at these workshops.

  9. Containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbirohowski-Koscia, K.F.; Roberts, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vessel for nuclear reactors is disclosed that is spherical and that has prestressing tendons disposed in first, second and third sets, the tendons of each set being all substantially concentric and centred around a respective one of the three orthogonal axes of the sphere; the tendons of the first set being anchored at each end at a first anchor rib running around a circumference of the vessel, the tendons of the second set being anchored at each end at a second anchor rib running around a circumference of the sphere and disposed at 90 0 to the first rib, and the tendons of the third set being anchored some to the first rib and the remainder to the second rib. (author)

  10. Study on enhanced lymphatic tracing of isosulfan blue injection by influence of osmotic pressure on lymphatic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tiantian; He, Rui; Wu, Yue; Shang, Lei; Wang, Shujun

    2018-04-01

    Isosulfan blue (IB) is being used as a lymphatic tracer has been approved by the FDA in 1981. This study aimed at improving lymphatic exposure of IB injection by osmotic pressure regulation to achieve step-by step lymphatic tracing. First, IB injection with appropriate osmotic pressure, stability, and suitable pH was prepared. Next, the lymphatic tracing ability of different osmotic pressure was studied to determine the blue-stained state of IB in three-level lymph nodes after subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics of lymphatic drainage, lymph node uptake, and plasma concentration was investigate to explore the improving law of the lymphatic tracing by osmotic pressure, and combined with tissue irritation to determine the optimal osmotic pressure. At last, the tissue distribution in mice of IB injection which had the property of optimal osmotic pressure was investigated. The results showed that increasing osmotic pressure could significantly reduce injection site retention and increase IB concentration of lymph node. The lymph nodes could be obviously blue-stained by IB injection which had 938 mmol/kg osmotic pressure and would not cause inflammatory reaction and blood exposure. The tissue distribution study suggested that IB injection which had 938 mmol/kg osmotic pressure was mainly distributed into gallbladder and duodenum that verified the reports that 90% IB was excreted through the feces through biliary excretion. In conclusion, this study provides the basic study to improve lymphatic exposure of IB injection by regulate the osmotic pressure and have the potential to be the helpful guidance for the elective lymph node dissection.

  11. Development of in-vessel neutron flux monitor equipped with microfission chambers to withstand the extreme ITER environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masao, E-mail: ishikawa.masao@jaea.go.jp; Takeda, Keigo; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The in-vessel components of MFC system must withstand the extreme ITER environment. • To verify this, the thermal cycle test and the vibration tests were conducted. • Both tests were conducted under much severer conditions than ITER environment. • Soundness verification tests after the tests indicated that no problemswere found. • It is shown that the in-vessel component is sufficiently robust ITER environment. - Abstract: Via thermal cycling and vibration tests, this study aims to demonstrate that the in-vessel components of the microfission chamber (MFC) system can withstand the extreme International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) environment. In thermal cycle tests, the signal cable of the device was bent into a smaller radius and it was given more bends than those in its actual configuration within ITER. A faster rate of temperature change than that under the typical ITER baking scenario was then imposed on in-vessel components. For the vibration tests, strong 10 G vibrational accelerations with frequencies ranging from 30 Hz to 2000 Hz were imposed to the detector and the connector of the in-vessel components to simulate various types of electromagnetic events. Soundness verification tests of the in-vessel components conducted after thermal cycling and vibration testing indicated that problems related to the signal transmission cable functioning were not found. Thus, it was demonstrated that the in-vessel components of the MFC can withstand the extreme environment within ITER.

  12. Development of the multi-function robot for the containment vessel of the nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmichi, Takeo; Hosaka, Shigetaka; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Ibe, Tomoyoshi; Okino, Akihisa; Nakayama, Junji; Miida, Toshiro; Ishida, Michiyasu

    1985-01-01

    A mobile manipulator has been developed and consummated on an experimental basis to perform various maintenance and repair work in places where it is not accessible to workers during operation of the nuclear power plant. This manipulator provided with legs is capable of climbing stairs, clearing obstacles and adequately moving over flat surfaces, and has an arm to handle various tools with the sensibility and strength beyond the average of men and eyes that have a three dimensional vision. Its feature of size is as small as a man and it can be operated by autonomic and manual control under the severe environment. 5 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  13. Supplementary oxygen and risk of childhood lymphatic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumburg, E; Bellocco, R; Cnattingius, S; Jonzon, A; Ekbom, A

    2002-01-01

    Childhood leukaemia has been linked to several factors, such as asphyxia and birthweight, which in turn are related to newborn resuscitation. Based on the findings from a previous study a population-based case-control study was performed to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and exposure to supplementary oxygen and other birth-related factors. Children born in Sweden and diagnosed with lymphatic leukaemia between 1973 and 1989 (578 cases) were individually matched by gender and date of birth to a randomly selected control. Children with Down's syndrome were excluded. Exposure data were blindly gathered from antenatal, obstetric and other standardized medical records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen with a facemask and bag immediately postpartum was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood lymphatic leukaemia (OR = 2.57, 95% Cl 1.21-6.82). The oxygen-related risk further increased if the manual ventilation lasted for 3 min or more (OR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.16-10.80). Low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were associated with a non-significantly increased risk of lymphatic leukaemia. There were no associations between lymphatic leukaemia and supplementary oxygen later in the neonatal period or other birth-related factors. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen immediately postpartum is associated with childhood lymphatic leukaemia, but further studies are warranted to confirm the findings.

  14. Development Concept of the Dubrovnik Passenger Port for Accommodation of Large Cruise Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Perko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical, traffic and economic parameters of the p011of Dubrovnik, specialized in goods traffic, allow for its reorganizationand conversion into a multi-purpose terminal able toaccommodate cruise ships. The following is required for its successfulconversion: development strategy analysis, financial ratioanalysis and conversion effect analysis. The paper providesthe definition and analysis of the components affecting theidentification of the port of Dubrovnik space requirements withthe aim of defining possible indicators of the port future dimensionswith respect to both, its sea and land area. The pwpose ofthis study is to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of theport of Dubrovnik as a passenger port with respect to both thenational liners and international cn1isers. The questions relatedto finding the optimal solutions for the port facilities and servicescan only be resolved by perceiving all the factors impactingthe traffic in the port, no matter whether marine or overlandconnecting the port with the highway and the airport.

  15. Development of outcome measures for large-vessel vasculitis for use in clinical trials: opportunities, challenges, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direskeneli, Haner; Aydin, Sibel Z; Kermani, Tanaz A; Matteson, Eric L; Boers, Maarten; Herlyn, Karen; Luqmani, Raashid A; Neogi, Tuhina; Seo, Philip; Suppiah, Ravi; Tomasson, Gunnar; Merkel, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    Giant cell (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) are 2 forms of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) that involve the aorta and its major branches. GCA has a predilection for the cranial branches, while TAK tends to affect the extracranial branches. Both disorders may also cause nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Although some clinical features are more common in one or the other disorder and the ages of initial presentation differ substantially, there is enough clinical and histopathologic overlap between these disorders that some investigators suggest GCA and TAK may be 2 processes within the spectrum of a single disease. There have been few randomized therapeutic trials completed in GCA, and none in TAK. The lack of therapeutic trials in LVV is only partially explained by the rarity of these diseases. It is likely that the lack of well validated outcome measures for LVV and uncertainties regarding trial design contribute to the paucity of trials for these diseases. An initiative to develop a core set of outcome measures for use in clinical trials of LVV was launched by the international OMERACT Vasculitis Working Group in 2009 and subsequently endorsed by the OMERACT community at the OMERACT 10 meeting. Aims of this initiative include: (1) to review the literature and existing data related to outcome assessments in LVV; (2) to obtain the opinion of experts and patients on disease content; and (3) to formulate a research agenda to facilitate a more data-based approach to outcomes development.

  16. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  17. Development of an ex-vessel corium debris bed with two-phase natural convection in a flooded cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Lee, Mooneon; Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Jin Ho

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • For ex-vessel severe accidents in LWRs with wet-cavity strategy, development of debris bed with two-phase natural convection flow due to thermal characteristics of prototypic corium particles was investigated experimentally by using simulant particles and local air bubble control system. • Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to describe the spreading of the debris bed in terms of two-phase flow and the debris injection parameters. • This model was then used to analyze the formation of debris beds at the reactor scale, and a sensitivity analysis was carried out based on key accident parameters. - Abstract: During severe accidents of light water reactors (LWRs), the coolability of relocated corium from the reactor vessel is a significant safety issue and a threat to the integrity of containment. With a flooded cavity, a porous debris bed is expected to develop on the bottom of the pool due to breakup and fragmentation of the melt jet. As part of the coolability assessment under accident conditions, the geometrical configuration of the debris bed is important. The Debris Bed Research Apparatus for Validation of the Bubble-Induced Natural Convection Effect Issue (DAVINCI) experimental apparatus facility was constructed to investigate the formation of debris beds under the influence of a two-phase flow induced by steam generation due to the decay heat of the debris bed. Using this system, five kilograms of stainless steel simulant debris were injected from the top of the water level, while air bubbles simulating the vapor flow were injected from the bottom of the particle catcher plate. The airflow rate was determined based on the quantity of settled debris, which will form a heat source due to the decay of corium. The radial distribution of the settled debris was examined using a ‘gap–tooth’ approach. Based on the experimental results of this study, an analytical model was established to

  18. Development of a Laser Ablation System Kit (LASK) for Tokamak in vessel tritium and dust inventory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Roche, H.; Pocheau, C.; Grisolia, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Semerok, A.; Vatry, A.; Delaporte, P.; Mercadier, L.

    2009-01-01

    During Tokamak operation, Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are subjected to severe interaction with plasma. As a consequence and independently of the PFCs composition, materials eroded and then re-deposited in the form of layers on the surfaces, can flake and produce dusts. These fragile structures are able to trap part of the hydrogenated species (tritium for example) in vessel inventory. For safety reasons, it is mandatory to measure and to control vessel dust and tritium inventory. Up to now, laser techniques are a part of the most promising methods able to solve these ITER open issues. Of special interest are laser systems loaded on a miniature tool that can be attached to a Multi Purpose Deployer (MPD) and used for laser treatments (detritiation and other), for PFCs chemical analysis as well as for micro particles recovery of dust produced during laser ablation. Such a system (Laser Ablation System Kit: LASK) is currently under development at IRFM and the following presentation will describe the current achievements of this project and the perspectives. In this paper, we will present an innovative compact system, which, loaded on a Multi Purpose Deployer, could allow operation in a harsh environment (pressure range from atmospheric to Ultra High Vacuum and temperature up to 120 deg. C). According to the process conditions, different treatments can be performed: at low laser fluence, PFCs thermal treatment will be expected, while at high laser fluence material will be ablated allowing Dust (and T) recovery as well as chemical analysis of material. This 'in-line' chemical analysis based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) enables the ablation process to be controlled and preserves the substrate integrity. The paper will be focussed on the methodology followed during the LASK development and the method used to determine a laser process window able to remove co-deposited film without damaging the bulk material and taking into account external parameter

  19. Development of neutron irradiation embrittlement correlation of reactor pressure vessel materials of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soneda, Naoki; Dohi, Kenji; Nomoto, Akiyoshi; Nishida, Kenji; Ishino, Shiori

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of surveillance data of the RPV embrittlement of the Japanese light water reactors have been compiled since the current Japanese embrittlement correlation has been issued in 1991. Understanding on the mechanisms of the embrittlement has also been greatly improved based on both experimental and theoretical studies. CRIEPI and the Japanese electric power utilities have started research project to develop a new embrittlement correlation method, where extensive study of the microstructural analyses of the surveillance specimens irradiated in the Japanese commercial reactors has been conducted. The new findings obtained from the experimental study are that the formation of solute-atom clusters with little or no copper is responsible for the embrittlement in low-copper materials, and that the flux effect exists especially in high-copper materials and this is supported by the difference in the microstructure of the high-copper materials irradiated at different fluxes. Based on these new findings, a new embrittlement correlation method is formulated using rate equations. The new methods has higher prediction capability than the current Japanese embrittlement correlation in terms of smaller standard deviation as well as smaller mean value of the prediction error. (author)

  20. Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (5) Identification of dominant factors in ex-vessel accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shuji; Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of accident progression outside of a reactor vessel (ex-vessel) and subsequent transfer behavior of radioactive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of Level 2 PSA. Hence typical ex-vessel accident sequences in the JAEA Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor are qualitatively discussed in this paper and dominant behaviors or factors in the sequences are investigated through parametric calculations using the CONTAIN/LMR code. Scenarios to be focused on are, 1) sodium vapor leakage from the reactor vessel and 2) sodium-concrete reaction, which are both to be considered in the accident category of LOHRS (loss of heat removal system) and might be followed by an early containment failure due to the thermal effect of sodium combustion and hydrogen burning respectively. The calculated results clarify that the sodium vapor leak rate and the scale of sodium-concrete reaction are the important factors to dominate the ex-vessel accident progression. In addition to the understandings of the dominant factors, the analyzed results also provide the specific information such as pressure loading value to the containment and the timing of pressurization, which is indispensable as technical base in Level 2 PSA for developing event trees and for quantifying the accident consequences. (author)

  1. Indirect measurement of lymphatic absorption in CAPD patients is not influenced by trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, D. G.; Koomen, G. C.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    The disappearance rate of intraperitoneally administered macromolecules is often used to calculate lymphatic absorption during CAPD. The possible contribution of local accumulation (trapping) of such solutes in the tissues surrounding the peritoneal cavity, leading to overestimation of lymphatic

  2. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  3. Development of a sensitive experimental set-up for LIF fuel wall film measurements in a pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Beyrau, Frank

    2015-05-01

    This paper focusses on fundamental investigations of fuel wall films, which are formed when the spray impinges on the piston or cylinder walls. To reproduce the wide range of operating conditions within homogeneously charged gasoline direct-injection engines, it is necessary to use a film thickness measurement method, which can be applied inside a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. Hence, we developed a method based on laser-induced fluorescence that reaches: a precision better than 1 µm, a geometric resolution of 31 µm and a practical applicability for wall film thicknesses smaller 80 µm. To obtain accurate film thickness results, we provide a detailed description of the selection of the surrogate fuel isooctane with 3-pentanone as fluorescence tracer and the resulting assembly of the excitation source, beam expander, filters, camera and the essential image processing. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of other possible solutions are discussed. Earlier publications provide only little information about the accuracy of their calibration and measurement procedures. Therefore, we tested and compared three basic calibration methods to each other and provide an analysis of possible errors, such as the influence of the preferential evaporation of 3-pentanone. Finally, images of resulting wall films are presented, and practical considerations for the execution of the measurements like recording timings are discussed.

  4. Development of a crack monitoring technique for use in a corrosion fatigue study of SA533-B pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Tait, R.B.; Garrett, G.G.

    1981-10-01

    At present there does not exist a realistic crack growth law which will provide a good description of the relationship between the alternating stress intensity factor and the crack growth per cycle of stress. Such a law should be applicable to either the pressurized water reactor environment (PWR) or boiling water reactor environmnt (BWR). This project was formulated with the aim of examining the fatigue crack growth rate of SA533-B steel (a nuclear pressure vessel steel) in the threshold region in a simulated PWR environment. The aim of this report is to develop a crack monitoring technique for use in corrosion fatigue studies. Factors affecting fatigue crack propagation include: frequency, stress range, the effect of irradiation, ageing and environment. The mechanisms of crack propagation that are discussed include: slip dissolution, hydrogen assisted cracking, corrosion potential, and morphology studies. D.C. electrical potential, the compliance technique and the back-faced strain gauge method can be used for crack monitoring. Details are also given on the experimental equipment and programme. The results of the experiment has shown that the potential difference technique for monitoring crack length is a valuable one and is well suited for use in fatigue testing applications

  5. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage, Lincoln Composites, Lincoln, NE, May 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, III, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kallman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maes, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skolnik, Edward G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiner, Steven C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-12-22

    Lincoln Composites operates a facility for designing, testing, and manufacturing composite pressure vessels. Lincoln Composites also has a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to develop composite tanks for high-pressure hydrogen storage. The initial stage of this project involves testing the permeation of high-pressure hydrogen through polymer liners. The company recently moved and is constructing a dedicated research/testing laboratory at their new location. In the meantime, permeation tests are being performed in a corner of a large manufacturing facility. The safety review team visited the Lincoln Composites site on May 25, 2010. The project team presented an overview of the company and project and took the safety review team on a tour of the facility. The safety review team saw the entire process of winding a carbon fiber/resin tank on a liner, installing the boss and valves, and curing and painting the tank. The review team also saw the new laboratory that is being built for the DOE project and the temporary arrangement for the hydrogen permeation tests.

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the lymphatic fluid determined by novel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nagahashi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In agreement with the previous theory, our results confirm “S1P gradient” among blood, lymphatic fluid and peripheral lymphatic tissues. Convenient methods for collection and measurement of sphingolipids in lymphatic fluid are expected to provide new insights on functions of sphingolipids.

  7. Nanoradioliposomes molecularly modulated to study the lung deep lymphatic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Rabaça Roque Botelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung deep lymphatic drainage (LDLD plays an important role in the removal of foreign materials from lungs being alveolar macrophages the first line of phagocytic defence with high affinity for pathogenic microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a well-known genome- decoded saprophyte of the human respiratory tract used in research and in the biotechnology industry.Lung deep lymphatic chains (LDLC constitute one of the first sites of lung tumours’ dissemination. In this work we intended to develop and validate a non-invasive method for assessing LDLC by nanoradioliposomes aerosolised modulated on the Bacillus subtilis spore wall. The final goal was to produce a nanoradioliposome formulation that can mimics the dynamics of preferential removal of spores by LDLD and present the ideal properties as a tracer for molecular imaging studies.Seven different liposomal formulations were tested, and the formulation-F demonstrated physicochemical and radiopharmaceutical properties that make it an ideal candidate as an in vivo probe for molecular imaging studies of the LDLC.Nanoradioliposomes of the formulation-F after labelling with 99mTc-HMPAO were administered as aerosols to 20 Sus scrofa. Hilar and interpulmonary communications were visualized in first 5 minutes post-inhalation, infradiaphragmatic chains between 10 and 20 minutes, the ganglia of the aortic chain at 20 minutes and those of the renal hilar region at 30 minutes. Conclusion: the proposed method enables visualization of deep lymphatic lung network and lymph nodes. Besides, this technique involving the modulation of nanoradioliposomes targeting specific organs or tissues may be an important tool for diagnostic or even for therapeutic purposes. Resumo: A drenagem linfática pulmonar profunda (DLPP desempenha um papel importante na remoção de materiais estranhos, constituindo os macrófagos alveolares a primeira linha de defesa fagocitária, dada a grande afinidade para

  8. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  9. Development and investigation of the prestressed reinforced concrete vessels for the water cooled reactors in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medovikov, A.I.; Bogopol'skij, V.G.; Nikolaev, Yu.B.; Konevskij, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of calculation results for characteristics of stress-strained state of reactor vessel made of prestressed reinforced concrete is presented. Experimental data obtained during the investigation into a model of reactor vessel top cover are given. Thermal shielding system both for boiling water and pressurized-water reactors has been considered and its working capacity has been evaluated. An analysis of experimental data show correctness of the method assumed for calculation of the reactor top cover which permits to exactly determine its stressed-strained state as well as the nature of crack propagation in the vessel and the structure supporting power. Ceramics is suggested to be used as a heat-insulating material

  10. Development of a Remotely-operated Visual Inspection System for Reactor Vessel Bottommounted Instrument Penetrations of KSNP and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyungmin; Choi, Youngsu; Lee, Sunguk; Seo, Yongchil; Kang, Jong Gyu; Kim, Seungho; Jung, Seungho

    2006-01-01

    In April 2003, South Texas Project Unit 1 made a surprising discovery of boron acid leakage from two nozzles from a bare-metal examination of the reactor vessel bottom-mounted instrument penetrations during a routine refueling outage. A small powdery substance about 150mg was found on the outside of two instrument guide penetration nozzles on the bottom of the reactor. The primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors has caused cracking in penetrations with Alloy 600 through a process called primary water stress corrosion cracking. In South Korea, it is required to conduct 100% visual inspection of the outside of instrument guide penetration nozzles on the bottom of PWRs to confirm the integrity of reactor vessel. This paper describes the remotely-operated visual inspection systems for reactor vessel bottom-mounted instrument penetrations dispatched two times to Youngkwang NPPs and discusses the lessons learned

  11. Manufacturing, assembly and tests of SPIDER Vacuum Vessel to develop and test a prototype of ITER neutral beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccaria, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.zaccaria@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Padova (Italy); Valente, Matteo; Rigato, Wladi; Dal Bello, Samuele; Marcuzzi, Diego; Agostini, Fabio Degli; Rossetto, Federico; Tollin, Marco [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy F4E, Barcelona (Spain); Corniani, Giorgio; Badalocchi, Matteo; Bettero, Riccardo; Rizzetto, Dario [Ettore Zanon S.p.A., Schio (VI) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The SPIDER experiment aims to qualify and optimize the ion source for ITER injectors. • The large SPIDER Vacuum Vessel was built and it is under testing at the supplier. • The main working and assembly steps for production are presented in the paper. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an RF plasma) aims to qualify and optimize the full size prototype of the negative ion source foreseen for MITICA (full size ITER injector prototype) and the ITER Heating and Current Drive Injectors. Both SPIDER and MITICA experiments are presently under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova (I), with the financial support from IO (ITER Organization), Fusion for Energy, Italian research institutions and contributions from Japan and India Domestic Agencies. The vacuum vessel hosting the SPIDER in-vessel components (Beam Source and calorimeters) has been manufactured, assembled and tested during the last two years 2013–2014. The cylindrical vessel, about 6 m long and 4 m in diameter, is composed of two cylindrical modules and two torispherical lids at the ends. All the parts are made by AISI 304 L stainless steel. The possibility of opening/closing the vessel for monitoring, maintenance or modifications of internal components is guaranteed by bolted junctions and suitable movable support structures running on rails fixed to the building floor. A large number of ports, about one hundred, are present on the vessel walls for diagnostic and service purposes. The main working steps for construction and specific technological issues encountered and solved for production are presented in the paper. Assembly sequences and tests on site are furthermore described in detail, highlighting all the criteria and requirements for correct positioning and testing of performances.

  12. Manufacturing, assembly and tests of SPIDER Vacuum Vessel to develop and test a prototype of ITER neutral beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Valente, Matteo; Rigato, Wladi; Dal Bello, Samuele; Marcuzzi, Diego; Agostini, Fabio Degli; Rossetto, Federico; Tollin, Marco; Masiello, Antonio; Corniani, Giorgio; Badalocchi, Matteo; Bettero, Riccardo; Rizzetto, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The SPIDER experiment aims to qualify and optimize the ion source for ITER injectors. • The large SPIDER Vacuum Vessel was built and it is under testing at the supplier. • The main working and assembly steps for production are presented in the paper. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an RF plasma) aims to qualify and optimize the full size prototype of the negative ion source foreseen for MITICA (full size ITER injector prototype) and the ITER Heating and Current Drive Injectors. Both SPIDER and MITICA experiments are presently under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova (I), with the financial support from IO (ITER Organization), Fusion for Energy, Italian research institutions and contributions from Japan and India Domestic Agencies. The vacuum vessel hosting the SPIDER in-vessel components (Beam Source and calorimeters) has been manufactured, assembled and tested during the last two years 2013–2014. The cylindrical vessel, about 6 m long and 4 m in diameter, is composed of two cylindrical modules and two torispherical lids at the ends. All the parts are made by AISI 304 L stainless steel. The possibility of opening/closing the vessel for monitoring, maintenance or modifications of internal components is guaranteed by bolted junctions and suitable movable support structures running on rails fixed to the building floor. A large number of ports, about one hundred, are present on the vessel walls for diagnostic and service purposes. The main working steps for construction and specific technological issues encountered and solved for production are presented in the paper. Assembly sequences and tests on site are furthermore described in detail, highlighting all the criteria and requirements for correct positioning and testing of performances.

  13. Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematodes in reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus, (cervidae) in Finland, identified as Rumenfilaria andersoni Lankester & Snider, 1982 (nematoda: Onchocercidae: Splendidofilariinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, S; Saari, S; Nikander, S; Oksanen, A; Bain, O

    2010-03-01

    A filarioid nematode inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of the subserosal rumen and mesenteries associated with a high prevalence of its microfilariae in peripheral blood was observed in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in 2004 and 2006. Adult specimens were collected by dissecting lymphatic vessels from slaughtered animals, where some of the nematodes were seen through the wall of the dilated vessels as thin white winding threads obscuring the vessel. The morphology of adult worms and microfilaria is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. These filariae belong to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae of the Onchocercidae and resemble Rumenfilaria andersoni, recovered from different host and localization, the ruminal veins of Alces alces in Canada. Comparison of paratypes of this species revealed only minor differences which were not sufficient to separate the filarioid parasitic in R. tarandus in Finland and we identify the nematode as R. andersoni. However, the findings suggest two different parasite populations. The finalizing of this taxonomic question in the future requires an integrated approach, in which the DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent.

  14. Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematodes in reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus, (Cervidae in Finland, identified as Rumenfilaria andersoni Lankester & Snider, 1982 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Splendidofilariinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen S.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A filarioid nematode inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of the subserosal rumen and mesenteries associated with a high prevalence of its microfilariae in peripheral blood was observed in Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in 2004 and 2006. Adult specimens were collected by dissecting lymphatic vessels from slaughtered animals, where some of the nematodes were seen through the wall of the dilated vessels as thin white winding threads obscuring the vessel. The morphology of adult worms and microfilaria is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. These filariae belong to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae of the Onchocercidae and resemble Rumenfilaria andersoni, recovered from different host and localization, the ruminal veins of Alces alces in Canada. Comparison of paratypes of this species revealed only minor differences which were not sufficient to separate the filarioid parasitic in R. tarandus in Finland and we identify the nematode as R. andersoni. However, the findings suggest two different parasite populations. The finalizing of this taxonomic question in the future requires an integrated approach, in which the DNAbased and morphological identifications are consistent.

  15. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, Catherine; Li, Wenjun; Fulp, Brian; Platt, Andrew M.; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Westerterp, Marit; Bittman, Robert; Tall, Alan R.; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Thomas, Michael J.; Kreisel, Daniel; Swartz, Melody A.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic

  16. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna Bjørkbom; Simonsen, L; Holst, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after ...... online publication, 3 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.98....

  17. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...

  18. Development of technology for the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel metal condition using a magnetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirov, M. B.; Zabruskov, N.Y; Massoud, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The opportunity to perform the inspection of condition of base metal and metal of welded joints of cladded vessels of PWR by non destructive methods is shown. The technique for on-site specimen-free testing is offered on the basis of sharing a kinetic hardness method and magnetic method. The results of studies of magnetic and mechanical properties of vessel steels in various condition after irradiation and thermal processing are submitted. It is shown, that the magnetic properties (first of all coercive force) are sensitive to change of structure of a material. (authors)

  19. Expression of nm23-H1 gene product in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its association with vessel invasion and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaki; Ayabe, Takanori; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Edagawa, Masao; Maeda, Masayuki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Hara, Masaki; Onitsuka, Toshio

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the nm23-H1 gene product expression and its relationship with lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 45 patients who were treated surgically were used in this study. Pathologists graded lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in each of the tissue samples. Expression of nm23-Hl gene product was determined using a specific monoclonal antibody. Expression of nm23-H1 gene product was present in 17 (37.8%) cases. We found an inverse correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion, whereas no correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and blood vessel invasion. Overall survival rate was not different between nm23-H1 gene product positive and negative patients (p = 0.21). However, reduced expression of nm23-H1 gene product was associated with shorter overall survival in patients with involved lymph nodes (p < 0.05), but not in patients without involved lymph nodes (p = 0.87). In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, there appears to be an inverse relationship between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion. Furthermore, nm23-H1 gene product expression might be a prognostic marker in patients with involved lymph nodes. Our data does not demonstrate any correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and blood vessel invasion

  20. Pressure vessel integrity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, S.; Doney, R.O.; McDonald, M.S.; Jones, D.P.; Wilson, W.K.; Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains papers relating to the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping, with special emphasis on nuclear industry applications. The papers were prepared for technical sessions developed under the sponsorship of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Committees for Codes and Standards, Computer Technology, Design and Analysis, and Materials Fabrication. They were presented at the 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference in San Diego, California, June 23-27. The primary objective of the sponsoring organization is to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of information on development and application of technology for the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. This publication includes contributions from authors from Australia, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The papers here are organized in six sections, each with a particular emphasis as indicated in the following section titles: Fracture Technology Status and Application Experience; Crack Initiation, Propagation and Arrest; Ductile Tearing; Constraint, Stress State, and Local-Brittle-Zones Effects; Computational Techniques for Fracture and Corrosion Fatigue; and Codes and Standards for Fatigue, Fracture and Erosion/Corrosion

  1. Development of a Remote Handling Robot for the Maintenance of an ITER-Like D-Shaped Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic operation is one of the major challenges in the remote maintenance of ITER vacuum vessel (VV and future fusion reactors as inner operations of Tokamak have to be done by robots due to the internal adverse conditions. This paper introduces a novel remote handling robot (RHR for the maintenance of ITER-like D-shaped vessel. The modular designed RHR, which is an important part of the remote handling system for ITER, consists of three parts: an omnidirectional transfer vehicle (OTV, a planar articulated arm (PAA, and an articulated teleoperated manipulator (ATM. The task of RHR is to carry processing tools, such as the viewing system, leakage detector, and electric screwdriver, to inspect and maintain the components installed inside the D-shaped vessel. The kinematics of the OTV, as well as the kinematic analyses of the PAA and ATM, is studied in this paper. Because of its special length and heavy payload, the dynamics of the PAA is also investigated through a dynamic simulation system based on robot technology middleware (RTM. The results of the path planning, workspace simulations, and dynamic simulation indicate that the RHR has good mobility together with satisfying kinematic and dynamic performances and can well accomplish its maintenance tasks in the ITER-like D-shaped vessel.

  2. Progress in RPV-examination of the Chooz-A vessel (and the French procedures, its new developments (MIS5))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samman, J; Martin, E; Lacroix, R [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Groupe des Labs.

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the French Chooz-A reactor. It describes the method used for in-service inspection of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). The ultrasonic testing procedure is described, showing its advantages and limitations. The supplementary ultrasonic examination is also described, as well as the validation of underclad cracks detection and sizing. Historical data is also provided. (TEC).

  3. Morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical identification of cardiac lymphatic vessels and their functional role in cardiomyopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Il sistema linfatico consiste in una fitta rete di capillari e vasi che vanno a formare un circolo aperto e monodirezionale parallelo a quello sanguigno. Tra le sue più importanti funzioni figurano l’assorbimento degli acidi grassi ed il mantenimento dell’omeostasi tissutale mediante drenaggio di liquidi e proteine plasmatiche fuoriuscite dai capillari sanguigni nei tessuti. Il circolo linfatico, attraverso le stazioni linfonodali, svolge anche un ruolo determinante nel trasporto delle cellul...

  4. Reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use

  5. Design developments for the ITER in-Vessel equilibrium pick-up Coils and Halo current Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitarin, G; Grando, L.; Pomaro, N.; Peruzzo, S.; Taccon, C.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER magnetic diagnostics must provide essential information to be used both for plasma diagnostic purposes, and as feedback signals for the machine control loops. Some of the sensors have to be installed in a hostile environment characterized by severe neutron irradiation and plasma heat loads, which can reduce the sensor lifetime (due to mechanical and electrical damage) and also generate undesired DC signals, which might compromise the accuracy of the measurements obtained by time-integration. The paper is focused on the design development and optimization of a typical in-vessel tangential pick-up Coil. The work is aimed to achieve the required measurement precision in spite of Radiation Induced Electromotive Force (RIEMF) and Radiation Induced Thermo-Electric Sensitivity (RITES), which have recently been documented to take place in Mineral Insulated Cables (MIC). To this purpose, a substantial reduction of the thermal gradient and the maximum temperature due to nuclear heating in the pick-up coils is considered necessary. Within the limits of several heavy engineering constraints, a new concept of magnetic pick up coil has been developed. A winding made of a ceramic-coated conductor (instead of a MIC) and '' impregnated '' with ceramic filler is proposed. Different material choices for the coil support structure have been investigated. Similar issues are related to the Halo Sensor design. The possibility of replacing the circular tubes used as support of the Rogowski coils with a ceramic support in order to avoid the non-linear effect of the magnetic material has also been studied. The replacement of the MIC of the winding with a ceramic-coated wire is also investigated in order to increase of the effective area of the sensor. The paper includes also a critical review of each stage of the measurement chain (probes, cabling, conditioning electronics and data acquisition) in order to assess the compliance with the overall system precision that is required for

  6. Developing a Computational Environment for Coupling MOR Data, Maps, and Models: The Virtual Research Vessel (VRV) Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; O'Dea, E.; Cushing, J. B.; Cuny, J. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Hackett, K.; Tikekar, R.

    2001-12-01

    The East Pacific Rise (EPR) from 9-10deg. N is currently our best-studied section of fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. During several decades of investigation it has been explored by the full spectrum of ridge investigators, including chemists, biologists, geologists and geophysicists. These studies, and those that are ongoing, provide a wealth of observational data, results and data-driven theoretical (often numerical) studies that have not yet been fully utilized either by research scientists or by professional educators. While the situation is improving, a large amount of data, results, and related theoretical models still exist either in an inert, non-interactive form (e.g., journal publications) or as unlinked and currently incompatible computer data or algorithms. Infrastructure is needed not just for ready access to data, but linkage of disparate data sets (data to data) as well as data to models in order quantitatively evaluate hypotheses, refine numerical simulations, and explore new relations between observables. The prototype of a computational environment and toolset, called the Virtual Research Vessel (VRV), is being developed to provide scientists and educators with ready access to data, results and numerical models. While this effort is focused on the EPR 9N region, the resulting software tools and infrastructure should be helpful in establishing similar systems for other sections of the global mid-ocean ridge. Work in progress includes efforts to develop: (1) virtual database to incorporate diverse data types with domain-specific metadata into a global schema that allows web-query across different marine geology data sets, and an analogous declarative (database available) description of tools and models; (2) the ability to move data between GIS and the above DBMS, and tools to encourage data submission to archivesl (3) tools for finding and viewing archives, and translating between formats; (4) support for "computational steering" (tool composition

  7. Delayed astrocytic contact with cerebral blood vessels in FGF-2 deficient mice does not compromise permeability properties at the developing blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Unsicker, Klaus; Ek, C Joakim

    2016-11-01

    The brain functions within a specialized environment tightly controlled by brain barrier mechanisms. Understanding the regulation of barrier formation is important for understanding brain development and may also lead to finding new ways to deliver pharmacotherapies to the brain; access of many potentially promising drugs is severely hindered by these barrier mechanisms. The cellular composition of the neurovascular unit of the blood-brain barrier proper and their effects on regulation of its function are beginning to be understood. One hallmark of the neurovascular unit in the adult is the astroglial foot processes that tightly surround cerebral blood vessels. However their role in barrier formation is still unclear. In this study we examined barrier function in newborn, juvenile and adult mice lacking fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which has been shown to result in altered astroglial differentiation during development. We show that during development of FGF-2 deficient mice the astroglial contacts with cerebral blood vessels are delayed compared with wild-type animals. However, this delay did not result in changes to the permeability properties of the blood brain barrier as assessed by exclusion of either small or larger sized molecules at this interface. In addition cerebral vessels were positive for tight-junction proteins and we observed no difference in the ultrastructure of the tight-junctions. The results indicate that the direct contact of astroglia processes to cerebral blood vessels is not necessary for either the formation of the tight-junctions or for basic permeability properties and function of the blood-brain barrier. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1201-1212, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of TPNCIRC code for Evaluation of Two-Phase Natural Circulation Flow Performance under External Reactor Vessel Cooling Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A-Reum; Song, Hyuk-Jin; Park, Jong-Woon

    2015-01-01

    During a severe accident, corium is relocated to the lower head of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Design concept of retaining the corium inside a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) through external cooling under hypothetical core melting accidents is called external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). In this respect, validated two-phase natural circulation flow (TPNC) model is necessary to determine the adequacy of the ERVC design and operating conditions such as inlet area, form losses, gap distance, riser length and coolant conditions. The most important model generally characterizing the TPNC are void fraction and two-phase friction factors. Typical experimental and analytical studies to be referred to on two-phase circulation flow characteristics are those by Reyes, Gartia et al. based on Vijayan et al., Nayak et al. and Dubey et al. In the present paper, two-phase natural circulation (TPNC) flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) conditions are studied using two existing TPNC flow models of Reyes and Gartia et al. incorporating more improved void fraction and two-phase friction models. These models and correlations are integrated into a computer program, TPNCIRC, which can handle candidate ERVC design parameters, such as inlet, riser and downcomer flow lengths and areas, gap size between reactor vessel and surrounding insulations, minor loss factors and operating parameters of decay power, pressure and subcooling. Accuracy of the TPNCIRC program is investigated with respect to the flow rate and void fractions for existing measured data from a general experiment and ULPU specifically designed for the AP1000 in-vessel retention. Also, the effect of some important design parameters are examined for the experimental and plant conditions. Using the flow models and correlations are integrated into a computer program, TPNCIRC, a number of correlations have been examined. This seems coming from the differences of void fractions

  9. Development of ball bearing in high temperature water for in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism of advanced marine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Imayoshi, Shou; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    An advanced marine reactor MRX designed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) adopts an in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism, which is installed inside the reactor vessel. Since the in-vessel type control rod drive mechanism should work at a severe condition of a high temperature and high pressure water - 310degC and 12 MPa -, the JAERI has developed the components, a ball bearing of which especially is one of key technologies for realization of this type mechanism. The present report describes the development of the ball bearing containing a survey of materials, material screening tests on oxidation in an autoclave and rolling wear by a small facility, a trial fabrication of the full size ball bearing, and endurance test of it in the high temperature water. As a result, it was found from the development that the materials of cobalt alloy for both of the inner and outer races, cermet for the ball, and graphite for the retainer can satisfy the design condition of the ball bearing. (author)

  10. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  11. Global abnormalities in lymphatic function following systemic therapy in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, S K; Peters, A M; Zammit, C; Ryan, N; Ballinger, J; Glass, D M; Allen, S; Stanton, A W B; Mortimer, P S; Purushotham, A D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a result of interaction between several pathophysiological processes, and is not simply a 'stopcock' effect resulting from removal of axillary lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a constitutional 'global' lymphatic dysfunction in patients who develop BCRL. Lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 30 women who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection at least 3 years previously, of whom 15 had BCRL and 15 did not. No patient had any clinical abnormality of the lower limb. The control group comprised 24 women with no history of cancer or lower-limb lymphoedema. (99m) Tc-Nanocoll was injected subcutaneously into the first webspace of each foot, followed by whole-body imaging. Scans were reported as abnormal if there was delay in lymph transport or rerouting through skin or deep system. Quantification was expressed as the percentage injected activity accumulating in ilioinguinal nodes. Mean(s.d.) ilioinguinal nodal accumulation at 150 min was significantly lower in women with BCRL than in those without (2·7(2·5) versus 5·9(4·8) per cent respectively; P = 0·006). Abnormal findings on lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy were observed in 17 of the 30 patients: ten of the 15 women who had BCRL and seven of the 15 who did not. None of the 24 control subjects had abnormal scan findings. Women with BCRL had reduced lower-limb lymph drainage, supporting the hypothesis of a predisposition to BCRL. A surprisingly high proportion of patients with breast cancer also demonstrated lymphatic dysfunction, despite clinically normal lower limbs. Possible explanations could be a systemic effect of breast cancer or its treatment, or an unidentified association between breast cancer and lymphatic dysfunction. ISRCTN84866416 ( http://www.isrctn.com). © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Socio-cultural aspects of lymphatic filariasis and the role of communities in its control in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Gyapong, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is one of the worlds most debilitating and disfiguring tropical diseases. The World Health Organization estimates that there are about one billion people at risk in about 80 countries worldwide. It is the world’s second leading cause of permanent long-term disability and its prevalence continues to increase. The World Bank development report indicates that the global burden for the disease was estimated at 850,000 DALY’s lost which represents only 0.23...

  14. Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaoudi, R

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels in performed in support of the RVP integrity assessment. Its main objectives are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate the applied methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  15. Effects of lymphatic drainage on cellulitis assessed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Martins, Nara Mendes; Martins, Flavia Mendes; Monteiro, Rosimary Araujo; Mendonca, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto de

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of magnetic resonance as a new method for evaluating the manual lymphatic drainage technique in treating cellulitis. Cellulitis is one of the main esthetic problems that lead women toward seeking guidance and specific treatments. There are various therapeutic approaches, owing to the multifactorial nature of its pathogen, although the effectiveness of most of these has not been definitively proven, given that the assessment methods used are mostly subjective or do not provide enough information on subcutaneous tissue. The introduction of magnetic resonance as a means of assessing a lymphatic drainage technique in cellulitis treatment makes the evaluation more accurate, since it enables a detailed study of subcutaneous architecture. (author)

  16. Effects of lymphatic drainage on cellulitis assessed by magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Martins, Nara Mendes; Martins, Flavia Mendes; Monteiro, Rosimary Araujo; Mendonca, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of magnetic resonance as a new method for evaluating the manual lymphatic drainage technique in treating cellulitis. Cellulitis is one of the main esthetic problems that lead women toward seeking guidance and specific treatments. There are various therapeutic approaches, owing to the multifactorial nature of its pathogen, although the effectiveness of most of these has not been definitively proven, given that the assessment methods used are mostly subjective or do not provide enough information on subcutaneous tissue. The introduction of magnetic resonance as a means of assessing a lymphatic drainage technique in cellulitis treatment makes the evaluation more accurate, since it enables a detailed study of subcutaneous architecture. (author)

  17. Studies of lymphatic drainage from testes by lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.D.J.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Severe lymphedema of lower extremity may cause functional disability and foster recurrent lymphangitis. Surgical transportation of the testis to the thigh offers the possibility of enhancing lymphatic drainage from the leg via spermatic cord lymphatics. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy was employed to assess the quality of testicular lymphatic drainage prior to testis transposition. Images of abdomen and measurement of testis radioactivity were made serially after injection of Au 198 colloid into the testis of dogs before and after litigation of the spermatic cord. In the intact dogs, the residual radioactivities in the testis (5 dogs) were 53.5 +- 13.25, 41.6 +- 7.80 and 26.3 +- 5.66% at 2, 4 and 24 hours post injection. After ligation of spermatic cord, the residual activities in the testis were 95.0 +- 3.33, 86.4 +- 6.49 and 74.2 +- 6.28% at corresponding intervals post injection. Paraaortic nodes and liver were visualized in the abdominal images 1 hour after injection in the intact animals but only poorly seen in dogs following ligation. /sup 99m/Tc antimony colloid was used similarly in 5 patients who had severe lymphedema and abnormal pelvic lymphoscintigraphy following bipedal injection. With intratesticular injection, paraaortic lymph nodes and liver were visualized in 7 studies between 3 to 5 hours. Poor visualization was noted in two studies in patients who had previous radiation to the abdomen. The findings suggest that this simple technic can aid in the assessment of testicular lymphatic drainage and help to select patients for appropriate surgical intervention

  18. Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Jospeh; Kinney, Greg; Slimp, Jefferson; Lee, Gi Soo; Oliaei, Sepehr; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2009-10-01

    Establish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. Retrospective study in which patients were clinically followed for at least 6 months postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics (i.e., size, stage, location) were recorded. Operative notes revealed surgical techniques, findings, and complications. Preoperative, short-/long-term postoperative facial nerve function was standardized using the House-Brackmann Classification. Mapping was done prior to incision by percutaneously stimulating the facial nerve and its branches and recording the motor responses. Intraoperative monitoring and mapping were accomplished using a four-channel, free-running EMG. Neurophysiologists continuously monitored EMG responses and blindly analyzed intraoperative findings and final EMG interpretations for abnormalities. Seven patients collectively underwent 8 lymphatic malformation surgeries. Median age was 30 months (2-105 months). Lymphatic malformation diagnosis was recorded in 6/8 surgeries. Facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade I in 8/8 cases preoperatively. Facial nerve was abnormally elongated in 1/8 cases. EMG monitoring recorded abnormal activity in 4/8 cases--two suggesting facial nerve irritation, and two with possible facial nerve damage. Transient or long-term facial nerve paresis occurred in 1/8 cases (House-Brackmann grade II). Preoperative facial nerve mapping combined with continuous intraoperative EMG and mapping is a successful method of identifying the facial nerve course and protecting it from injury during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations involving the facial nerve.

  19. Lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. Examination using RI lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Katayama, Kanji; Sawa, Toshiharu

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach was examined using lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m colloid in 98 patients with gastric cancer and 4 patients with esophageal cancer. The colloidal Tc-99m was injected into the submucosa of stomach 12 hr before operation with the aid of endoscopy. Each lymph node dissected from the specimens was measured by scintillation counter. Lymph nodes located along the left gastric, splenic and left inferior phrenic arteries were mainly involved in the lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. There was strong relationship between the cardia and the node of number 16. The lymphatics was also present in the mediastinum. These results suggest the necessities of the complete removal of the gastropancreatic mesenteriolum including the left inferior phrenic artery and the extirpation of the regional lymph nodes around the aorta above and below the left renal artery, in addition to the removal of both pancreas and spleen in cases of cardia tumors. Furthermore, in cases of squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes, it seems necessary to extirpate the complete mediastinal lymph nodes. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Tumor implantation model for rapid testing of lymphatic dye uptake from paw to node in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue - used in the sentinel lymph node procedure - in normal and tumor-bearing animals, and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  1. PWR vessel inspection performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair Fairbrother, D.; Bodson, Francis

    1998-01-01

    A compact robot for ultrasonic inspection of reactor vessels has been developed that reduces setup logistics and schedule time for mandatory code inspections. Rather than installing a large structure to access the entire weld inspection area from its flange attachment, the compact robot examines welds in overlapping patches from a suction cup anchor to the shell wall. The compact robot size allows two robots to be operated in the vessel simultaneously. This significantly reduces the time required to complete the inspection. Experience to date indicates that time for vessel examinations can be reduced to fewer than four days. (author)

  2. Developments for the ultrasonic in-service inspection of the inner near surface zone of circular welds in the vessel of the fast breeder-reactor SNR 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzburger, H.J.; Huebschen, G.; Neuschwander, R.; Kleffner, G.; Wessels, J.

    1990-01-01

    For in-service, ultrasonic inspection of the inner near-surface zone of the welds 1 and 6 of the vessel of the SNR-300, an automated system has been developed for scanning, manipulation and evaluation tasks. The scanning system which currently is tested and qualified as a prototype system uses heat-resistant EMUS probes which do not require coupling agents, and which have been optimized for three different testing tasks. The required electronic equipment has also been developed to prototype stage, and both have been incorporated into the automated manipulation, data acquisition and evaluation system. (orig.) [de

  3. Providing Pressurized Gasses to the International Space Station (ISS): Developing a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) for the Safe Transport of Oxygen and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezirian, Michael; Cook, Anthony; Dick, Brandon; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    To supply oxygen and nitrogen to the International Space Station, a COPV tank is being developed to meet requirements beyond that which have been flown. In order to "Ship Full' and support compatibility with a range of launch site operations, the vessel was designed for certification to International Standards (ISO) that have a different approach than current NASA certification approaches. These requirements were in addition to existing NASA certification standards had to be met. Initial risk-reduction development tests have been successful. Qualification is in progress.

  4. Development and control towards a parallel water hydraulic weld/cut robot for machining processes in ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki; Pessi, Pekka; Kilkki, Juha; Jones, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special robot, able to carry out welding and machining processes from inside the ITER vacuum vessel (VV), consisting of a five degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism, mounted on a carriage driven by two electric motors on a rack. The kinematic design of the robot has been optimised for ITER access and a hydraulically actuated pre-prototype built. A hybrid controller is designed for the robot, including position, speed and pressure feedback loops to achieve high accuracy and high dynamic performances. Finally, the experimental tests are given and discussed

  5. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  6. Power reactor pressure vessel benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of experimental and calculational benchmarks for use in understanding the radiation embrittlement effects in the pressure vessels of operating light water power reactors. The requirements of such benchmarks for application to pressure vessel dosimetry are stated. Recent developments in active and passive neutron detectors sensitive in the ranges of importance to embrittlement studies are summarized and recommendations for improvements in the benchmark are made. (author)

  7. Tumor Vessel Compression Hinders Perfusion of Ultrasonographic Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Galiè

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an advanced approach to in vivo assessment of tumor vascularity and is being increasingly adopted in clinical oncology. It is based on 1- to 10 μm-sized gas microbubbles, which can cross the capillary beds of the lungs and are effective echo enhancers. It is known that high cell density, high transendothelial fluid exchange, and poorly functioning lymphatic circulation all provoke solid stress, which compresses vessels and drastically reduces tumor blood flow. Given their size, we supposed that the perfusion of microbubbles is affected by anatomic features of tumor vessels more than are contrast agents traditionally used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI. Here, we compared dynamic information obtained from CEUS and DCE-MRI on two experimental tumor models exhibiting notable differences in vessel anatomy. We found that tumors with small, flattened vessels show a much higher resistance to microbubble perfusion than to MRI contrast agents, and appear scarcely vascularized at CEUS examination, despite vessel volume adequate for normal function. Thus, whereas CEUS alone could induce incorrect diagnosis when tumors have small or collapsed vessels, integrated analysis using CEUS and DCE-MRI allows in vivo identification of tumors with a vascular profile frequently associated with malignant phenotypes.

  8. Tumor Vessel Compression Hinders Perfusion of Ultrasonographic Contrast Agents1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiè, Mirco; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Calderan, Laura; Marzola, Pasquina; Benati, Donatella; Merigo, Flavia; Marchini, Cristina; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an advanced approach to in vivo assessment of tumor vascularity and is being increasingly adopted in clinical oncology. It is based on 1- to 10 µm-sized gas microbubbles, which can cross the capillary beds of the lungs and are effective echo enhancers. It is known that high cell density, high transendothelial fluid exchange, and poorly functioning lymphatic circulation all provoke solid stress, which compresses vessels and drastically reduces tumor blood flow. Given their size, we supposed that the perfusion of microbubbles is affected by anatomic features of tumor vessels more than are contrast agents traditionally used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we compared dynamic information obtained from CEUS and DCE-MRI on two experimental tumor models exhibiting notable differences in vessel anatomy. We found that tumors with small, flattened vessels show a much higher resistance to microbubble perfusion than to MRI contrast agents, and appear scarcely vascularized at CEUS examination, despite vessel volume adequate for normal function. Thus, whereas CEUS alone could induce incorrect diagnosis when tumors have small or collapsed vessels, integrated analysis using CEUS and DCE-MRI allows in vivo identification of tumors with a vascular profile frequently associated with malignant phenotypes. PMID:15967105

  9. VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate mesenchymal stem cell commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Sawada, Shunsuke; Kondo, Hisatomo; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The direction of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is regulated by stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines. We recently established MSC lines, [transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-responsive SG‑2 cells, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive SG‑3 cells, and TGF-β/BMP-non-responsive SG‑5 cells], derived from the bone marrow of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice. In this study, to compare gene expression profiles in these MSC lines, we used DNA microarray analysis to characterize the specific gene expression profiles observed in the TGF-β-responsive SG‑2 cells. Among the genes that were highly expressed in the SG‑2 cells, we focused on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 3 (VEGFR3), the gene product of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 4 (Flt4). We found that VEGF-C, a specific ligand of VEGFR3, significantly induced the cell proliferative activity, migratory ability (as shown by Transwell migration assay), as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the SG‑2 cells. Additionally, VEGF-C significantly increased the expression of prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (Lyve1), which are lymphatic endothelial cell markers, and decreased the expression of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in these cells. By contrast, TGF-β significantly increased the expression of early-phase osteogenic differentiation marker genes in the SG‑2 cells and markedly decreased the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers. The findings of our study strongly suggest the following: i) that VEGF-C promotes the proliferative activity and migratory ability of MSCs; and ii) VEGF-C and TGF-β reciprocally regulate MSC commitment to differentiation into lymphatic endothelial or osteoblastic phenotypes, respectively. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regenerative ability of MSCs.

  10. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  11. Comparative analysis of the development of collateral vessels in macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion following grid laser or ranibizumab treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokolaki AE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Afroditi Eleni Kokolaki, Ilias Georgalas, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea, Athanasios Kotsolis, Maria Niskopoulou, Ioannis LadasDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the development of collateral vessels in patients with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after treatment with either grid laser or ranibizumab (RNB.Methods: Comparative study including patients with macular edema due to acute BRVO and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA between 20/40 and 20/200. The sample was divided into two groups according to the treatment applied: laser group, including eyes treated with Argon laser when retinal hemorrhages were sufficiently absorbed to perform the treatment, and RNB group,  including patients treated initially with one monthly intravitreal injection for a period of 3 months of RNB and more injections according to need thereafter.. Before treatment patients in both groups, received a complete ophthalmic examination, including BCVA, fundus examination, optical coherence tomography, fundus color photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography (FA. This same protocol of examination was repeated in every visit after treatment, except FA that was only repeated every 3 months. The detection of the collateral vessels was done by two experienced examiners based on the analysis of the early phase of the FA. If there was a discrepancy in their judgment, the criterion of a third examiner evaluating the FA was considered.Results: Mean baseline BCVA was 0.86±0.26 and 0.82±0.25 (logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution] in the RNB and laser groups, respectively (P=0.83. At the end of the follow-up, mean BCVA was 0.38±0.18 and 0.64±0.33 (logMAR in the RNB and laser groups, respectively. The difference in the final BCVA between both groups was statistically significant (P=0.002. Collaterals developed in both groups; 66.67% of patients (14 out of 21

  12. Diagnostic possibilities in lymphatic node diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief review of lymphoscintigraphy applied in Bulgarian medical practice is presented. The most widely used radiopharmaceuticals are listed: 9 m Tc-colloid and 113 In-colloid; 67 Ga-citrate, 75 Se-methionine, 51 Cr-bleomycin, 201 Tl-chloride; monoclonal antibodies labelled with 125 I, 131 I, 111 In, 99 Tc. Some pathological changes occurring during indirect colloid lymphoscintigraphy re mentioned. Except for diagnostic purposes, lymphoscintigraphy is also used in following up the development of malignant lymphomas. A combination of indirect lymphoscintigraphy with succeeding radioimmunoscintigraphy of lymph nodes gives maximal reliable and precise data about the disease process and its distribution. 9 refs. (orig.)

  13. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  14. Imagery of the abdominal reticulo-histiocytary system [lymphatic nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, Y.; Begon, D.

    1996-01-01

    Radiography and ultrasonography used together provide useful help in the clinical exploration of spleen and of abdominal lymphatic node abnormalities. These organs are difficult to examine by other techniques. Examination by radiography and ultrasonography often allows the abnormality to be localized and described, to visualize its spread and to observe its extension to other organs. Although these examinations do not allow this aspect they are invaluable in effective diagnosis. The information provided by these studies should avoid some exploratory laparotomies, to prepare for future surgical operations, to help in the prognostic (observation of metastasis,..), even to complete direct visual pre-operation examination (intra-hepatic metastasis)

  15. Survival of Lymphatic Cells after X-Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, O. [Medical Biological Laboratory, National Defense Research Organization TNO, Ruswuk, Z.H. (Netherlands)

    1967-07-15

    Lymphatic tissues are generally classified among the most radiosensitive tissues of the body. The main reason for this is that histologically extensive destruction is found within a few hours after irradiation. We tried to estimate the degree of cellular degeneration by making cell suspensions from lymph nodes and thymus of mice at different times after X-irradiation with 800 R or at 24 h after radiation with different doses. The numbers of normal viable cells we obtained were expressed as percentages of the cells recovered from unirradiated control mice.

  16. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

  17. Mathematical models for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: Challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliannagounder Krishnamoorthy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models developed for describing the dynamics of transmission, infection, disease and control of lymphatic filariasis (LF gained momentum following the 1997 World Health Assembly resolution and the launching of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF in 2000. Model applications could provide valuable inputs for making decisions while implementing large scale programmes. However these models need to be evaluated at different epidemiological settings for optimization and fine-tuning with new knowledge and understanding on infection/disease dynamics. Discussion EPIFIL and LYMFASIM are the two mathematical simulation models currently available for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control. Both models have been used for prediction and evaluation of control programmes under research settings. Their widespread application in evaluating large-scale elimination programmes warrants validation of assumptions governing the dynamics of infection and disease in different epidemiological settings. Furthermore, the predictive power of the models for decision support can be enhanced by generating knowledge on some important issues that pose challenges and incorporating such knowledge into the models. We highlight factors related to the efficacy of the drugs of choice, their mode of action, and the possibility that drug resistance may develop; the role of vector-parasite combinations; the magnitude of transmission thresholds; host-parasite interactions and their effects on the dynamics of infection and immunity; parasite biology, and progression to LF-associated disease. Summary The two mathematical models developed offer potential decision making tools for transmission and control of LF. In view of the goals of the GPELF, the predictive power of these models needs to be enhanced for their wide-spread application in large scale programmes. Assimilation and translation of new information into the models is

  18. An overview of experimental results obtained under the prestressed concrete nuclear pressure vessel development program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Under the Prestressed Concrete Nuclear Pressure Development Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, various aspects of Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessels (PCPVs) are investigated with respect to reliability, structural performance, constructability, and economy. These investigations are conducted under the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Program and the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) Program. The objectives are to: (1) provide technical support to ongoing PCPV design activities, (2) contribute to the overall technological data base, and (3) provide independent review and evaluations. Specific areas of interest at present include finite-element analysis development, materials and structural behaviour tests, instrumentation evaluations and development, and structural model tests. The following provides an overview of both the HTGR and GCFR PCPV activities and a summary of recent experimental results

  19. Data base management system for lymphatic filariasis--a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Nelaturu, Sarat Chandra Babu

    2012-01-01

    Researchers working in the area of Public Health are being confronted with large volumes of data on various aspects of entomology and epidemiology. To obtain the relevant information out of these data requires particular database management system. In this paper, we have described about the usages of our developed database on lymphatic filariasis. This database application is developed using Model View Controller (MVC) architecture, with MySQL as database and a web based interface. We have collected and incorporated the data on filariasis in the database from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The importance of this database is to store the collected data, retrieve the information and produce various combinational reports on filarial aspects which in turn will help the public health officials to understand the burden of disease in a particular locality. This information is likely to have an imperative role on decision making for effective control of filarial disease and integrated vector management operations.

  20. IL-20 activates human lymphatic endothelial cells causing cell signalling and tube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Troels; Tritsaris, Katerina; Hübschmann, Martin V

    2009-01-01

    IL-20 is an arteriogenic cytokine that remodels collateral networks in vivo, and plays a role in cellular organization. Here, we investigate its role in lymphangiogenesis using a lymphatic endothelial cell line, hTERT-HDLEC, which expresses the lymphatic markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Upon stimul...

  1. Erratum: PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, R.H.; Bjorndahl, M.A.; Religa, P.

    2006-01-01

    This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45.......This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45....

  2. Anatomy and physiology of lymphatic drainage of the breast from the perspective of sentinel node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system is helpful when considering a particular sentinel node biopsy technique. The delicate balance between internal and external pressures in a lymphatic channel can be influenced by the injection volume and by massage in a negative or

  3. Diabetes mellitus and female gender are the strongest predictors of poor collateral vessel development in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, Ertan; Topal, Ergun; Erguzel, Nuri; Senen, Kubilay; Heper, Gulumser; Waltenberger, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Coronary collateral vessel development (CVD), i.e., arteriogenesis, is regarded as one of the most important mechanisms—along with angiogenesis—to result in protection of the myocardium. Coronary CVD is associated with a reduction in infarct size, future cardiovascular events and improved survival in patients with occlusive coronary artery disease by enhancing regional perfusion in the chronically ischemic myocardium. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relation of cardiovascular risk factors and hematological parameters with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic (≥95%) and totally occluded coronary artery disease including at least one major coronary artery. The study population was selected from the patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2008 and March 2009. Five hundred and two patients who had at least one coronary artery stenosis ≥95% (368 men; mean age 59 ± 10 years) comprised the study population. Of the 502 patients, 228 had total occlusion in at least one major epicardial coronary artery. Collateral artery grading was performed by using Cohen-Rentrop method to the vessel with coronary artery stenosis of ≥95% and patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO). Patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as the poor collateral group, and patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as the good collateral group. Two hundred and fifty-eight (51%) of 502 patients had poor collateral development, and 244 (49%) had good collateral development. Logistic regression analysis revealed that DM was independently associated with poor CVD in patients with ≥95% stenosis (p risk factor for poor CVD in addition to DM in patients with CTO.

  4. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  5. Improvement to reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The vessel described includes a prestressed concrete vessel containing a chamber and a removable cover closing this chamber. The cover is in concrete and is kept in its closed position by main and auxiliary retainers, comprising fittings integral with the concrete of the vessel. The auxiliary retainers pass through the concrete of the cover. This improvement may be applied to BWR, PWR and LMFBR type reactor vessel [fr

  6. [Study of Chinese herbal medicine in treating ascites and their mechanism in regulating lymphatic stomata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Li, J C; Mao, L G

    2001-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating ascites to elucidate its mechanism in regulating the lymphatic stomata and promoting the absorption of ascites from the peritoneal cavity. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and computerized image processing and quantitative analysis assays, the CHM extract consisting of Atractylodes macrocephala, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Codonopsis pilosula, Alismatis orientale and Leonurus heterophyllus were studied. Intraperitoneal injection of nitric oxide (NO) supplier or CHM administration could cause the average area of lymphatic stomata obviously enlarged (P inverted obviously, i.e. the average area and the density of lymphatic stomata were markedly reduced (P < 0.01). CHM might treat ascites through increasing the endogenous NO concentration to open the lymphatic stomata and in turn to conduct the peritoneal water through lymphatic path.

  7. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  8. Lymphatic drainage and sentinel node location in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.F.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Roberts, J.; Renwick, S.; Gillett, D.; Neische, F.; Ramsay-Stewart, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Mammary lymphoscintigraphy using small volume (0.1-0.2 ml) peritumoral injections of 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid provided a map of the lymph drainage of a breast cancer to its draining sentinel lymph nodes in 92 of 102 patients (over 90%). Non-migration of tracer is reduced by post-injection massage for 5 min but may occur especially if the lymphatics are blocked by metastases. Drainage included the axilla in 92%, internal mammary nodes in 43%, supraclavicular nodes in 12% and intramammary interval nodes in 10% of patients. One patient drained to an interpectoral node. Drainage across the centre-line of the breast occurred in 46% of patients but direct drainage to the contralateral side of the patient was not seen. Lymphatic drainage occurred to 1 node field in 52 patients, 2 node fields in 34 patients and 3 node fields in 6 patients, so that 43% of patients had multiple draining node fields. Drainage to non-axillary sites occurred in 51% of patients. In conclusion, mammary lymphoscintigraphy accurately maps sentinel node location in breast cancer. Approximately half of the patients will have sentinel nodes outside the axilla. To achieve complete lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer, it is logical to biopsy these non-axillary sentinel nodes as well as the sentinel nodes in the axilla. Failure to do so will potentially understage the node status in 50% of patients

  9. Histopathologic aspects of radiation effects on lymphatic tissues and malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Swartzendruber, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Morphologic study with the light microscope remains our most facile and rapid means of tissue identification, diagnosis and staging of diseases, and demonstration of radiation-induced and other toxic effects. The inadequacy of its use alone, however, for the solution of biologic problems is nowhere better illustrated than in such studies on lymphatic tissues as are reported in this symposium. Nearly every classical concept concerning lymphocyte biology and disease derived by morphologic methods has been challenged or disproved in recent years by applications of nonmorphologic technologies. Studies with light and electron microscopy in combination with cell-labeling techniques, histochemical methodology, virology, immunology, and radiation biology have corrected many of our misconceptions and provided unifying concepts of lymphatic-tissue structure and function which explain anew our observations of the past. For example, nearly everyone now accepts the biologic role of viruses in what once were considered radiation-caused neoplasms in rodents, although whether the role of radiation and other physical and chemical insults in human carcinogenesis is direct or indirect is still to be elucidated. Also, the exact relations that obtain between radiation and cancer induction via viruses even in well-studied rodent systems remain to be determined; and here morphologic studies continue to play an important integrating role for the multidisciplinary studies that are required

  10. [The mantle zone in lymphatic follicles and its stratification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, B

    1993-04-01

    Ten inguinal lymph nodes and spleens from autopsies were chosen according to age decades in order to get an idea about usual appearance of follicular structures. The group was complemented by 4 palatine tonsils from routine biopsies. Phenotype was ascertained by using about 30 standard markers and results were compared with a basic histocytological picture. The appearance of lymphatic tissue was quite different according to location and age categories, nevertheless, there were common immunophenotypic and structural features of follicular mantle in younger persons. It mostly comprised four cellular layers, more conspicuous at the upper pole of the follicle. An innermost layer was small-celled blastic, MB 2 and IgD positive, the next B monocytoid layer had medium sized cells of a similar phenotype but more alc, phosphatase positive. An inconstant plasmacytoid layer and a clarocellular layer used to be incomplete. It was cytostructurally characteristic but immunohistologically non-standard (faint CD 19 et CD 20 positivity). T 4 lymphocytes and perhaps some other elements leaving germinal centres were admixed into the inner mantle layer. Various small lymphoid cells, especially T 8 lymphocytes and sometimes litoral cells, were admixed into mantle periphery. Mutual exchange of lymphatic cells between the germinal and mantle zones was very scant. The mantle zone is presumed therefore to be independent from the structural and functional point of view as well.

  11. A series of parapharyngeal glial heterotopia mimicking lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloob, Nora; Pepper, Christopher; Hartley, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Otolaryngologists will most frequently encounter extra-cranial glial tissue within the nasal cavity, where it is known as a 'nasal glioma', and may communicate with the dura. However, glial tissue can also present extra-nasally in the form of a neck mass with no intracranial connection. In these rare cases, they can present soon after birth as an enlarging neck mass, causing compressive symptoms with airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. In this way, it is often initially misdiagnosed as a more common lesion such as a lymphatic malformation, teratoma, branchial anomaly or vascular malformation. As with many congenital head and neck masses, offering the most the appropriate management relies heavily on radiological imaging and, where possible, histopathology from a diagnostic biopsy. Once the diagnosis of extra-nasal glial heterotopia has been confirmed, the gold standard management is complete surgical excision. We review three cases of extra-nasal glial heterotopia presenting to our institution over an eleven year period as a large neck mass, which mimicked other congenital neck lumps, and discuss them in the context of those in the literature. We highlight how their clinical and radiological features can easily be confused with lymphatic malformations, and the potential implications of misdiagnosis. Raising awareness of this diagnostic confusion will highlight the need for management of these cases within an appropriate paediatric multidisciplinary setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress analysis of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.; Song, D.H.; Son, K.H.; Kim, K.S.; Park, K.B.; Song, H.K.; So, J.Y.

    1979-01-01

    This interim report contains the results of the effort to establish the stress report preparation capability under the research project ''Stress analysis of pressure vessels.'' 1978 was the first year in this effort to lay the foundation through the acquisition of SAP V structural analysis code and a graphic terminal system for improved efficiency of using such code. Software programming work was developed in pre- and post processing, such as graphic presentation of input FEM mesh geometry and output deformation or mode shope patterns, which was proven to be useful when using the FEM computer code. Also, a scheme to apply fracture mechanics concept was developed in fatigue analysis of pressure vessels. (author)

  13. Development of Mini-Compact Tension Test Method for Determining Fracture Toughness Master Curves for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Small specimens are playing the key role in evaluating properties of irradiated materials. The use of small specimens provides several advantages. Typically, only a small volume of material can be irradiated in a reactor at desirable conditions in terms of temperature, neutron flux, and neutron dose. A small volume of irradiated material may also allow for easier handling of specimens. Smaller specimens reduce the amount of radioactive material, minimizing personnel exposures and waste disposal. However, use of small specimens imposes a variety of challenges as well. These challenges are associated with proper accounting for size effects and transferability of small specimen data to the real structures of interest. Any fracture toughness specimen that can be made out of the broken halves of standard Charpy specimens may have exceptional utility for evaluation of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) since it would allow one to determine and monitor directly actual fracture toughness instead of requiring indirect predictions using correlations established with impact data. The Charpy V-notch specimen is the most commonly used specimen geometry in surveillance programs. Validation of the mini compact tension specimen (mini-CT) geometry has been performed on previously well characterized Midland beltline Linde 80 (WF-70) weld in the unirradiated condition. It was shown that the fracture toughness transition temperature, To, measured by these Mini-CT specimens is almost the same as To value that was derived from various larger fracture toughness specimens. Moreover, an International collaborative program has been established to extend the assessment and validation efforts to irradiated Linde 80 weld metal. The program is underway and involves the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Central Research Institute for Electrical Power Industry (CRIEPI), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The irradiated Mini-CT specimens from broken halves of previously tested Charpy

  14. Spontaneous development of bilateral subdural hematomas in an infant with benign infantile hydrocephalus: color Doppler assessment of vessels traversing extra-axial spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, John; Spektor, Vadim; Pramanik, Bidyut; Rivera, Rafael; Pinkney, Lynne; Fefferman, Nancy [New York University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We present an infant with macrocrania, who initially demonstrated prominent extra-axial fluid collections on sonography of the brain, compatible with benign infantile hydrocephalus (BIH). Because of increasing macrocrania, a follow-up sonogram of the brain was performed; it revealed progressive enlargement of the extra-axial spaces, which now had echogenic debris. Color Doppler US showed bridging veins traversing these extra-axial spaces, so it was initially thought that these spaces were subarachnoid in nature (positive cortical vein sign). However, an arachnoid membrane was identified superior to the cortex, and there was compression of true cortical vessels beneath this dural membrane. An MRI of the brain showed the extra-axial spaces to represent bilateral subdural hematomas. The pathogenesis of spontaneous development of the subdural hematomas, in the setting of BIH, is discussed. We also emphasize that visualizing traversing bridging veins through extra-axial spaces does not necessarily imply that these spaces are subarachnoid in origin. (orig.)

  15. Tolerogenic properties of lymphatic endothelial cells are controlled by the lymph node microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarish N Cohen

    Full Text Available Peripheral self-tolerance eliminates lymphocytes specific for tissue-specific antigens not encountered in the thymus. Recently, we demonstrated that lymphatic endothelial cells in mice directly express peripheral tissue antigens, including tyrosinase, and induce deletion of specific CD8 T cells via Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1. Here, we demonstrate that high-level expression of peripheral tissue antigens and PD-L1 is confined to lymphatic endothelial cells in lymph nodes, as opposed to tissue (diaphragm and colon lymphatics. Lymphatic endothelial cells in the lymph node medullary sinus express the highest levels of peripheral tissue antigens and PD-L1, and are the only subpopulation that expresses tyrosinase epitope. The representation of lymphatic endothelial cells in the medullary sinus expressing high-level PD-L1, which is necessary for normal CD8 T cell deletion kinetics, is controlled by lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling and B cells. Lymphatic endothelial cells from neonatal mice do not express high-level PD-L1 or present tyrosinase epitope. This work uncovers a critical role for the lymph node microenvironment in endowing lymphatic endothelial cells with potent tolerogenic properties.

  16. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  17. Fallopian tube cancer: incidence and role of lymphatic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Re, E; Grosso, G; Raspagliesi, F; Baiocchi, G

    1996-08-01

    Lymphatic spread pattern in 17 cases of adenocarcinoma of fallopian tube is reported. Median age of the patients was 48 years. All patients underwent surgical staging including total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy omentectomy, and appendectomy. Systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy was feasible in 15 cases. Majority of the patients (11 of 17 cases, 64%) had advanced disease and showed serous adenocarcinoma (83%). Lymph nodes were involved in 10 of 17 cases (59%). Node metastases rate increased significantly (P < 0.01) with intraperitoneal stage of disease and with grading. Interestingly, positive nodes were also found in 2 cases (33%) of 6 patients with disease still limited to fallopian tube. Overall, patients with negative nodes had a median survival of 76 months, compared with only 33 months if node metastases were found. In conclusion, combined pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy seems to be necessary for staging and perhaps for prognosis of this disease.

  18. Emergency venting of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, H.

    1995-01-01

    With the numerical codes developed for safety analysis the venting of steam vessel can be simulated. ATHLET especially is able to predict the void fraction depending on the vessel height. Although these codes contain a one-dimensional model they allow the description of complex geometries due to the detailed nodalization of the considered apparatus. In chemical reactors, however, the venting process is not only influenced by the flashing behaviour but additionally by the running chemical reaction in the vessel. Therefore the codes used for modelling have to consider the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Further multi-component systems and dissolving processes have to be regarded. In order to preduct the fluid- and thermodynamic process it could be helpful to use 3-dimensional codes in combination with the one-dimensional codes as used in nuclear industry to get a more detailed describtion of the running processes. (orig./HP)

  19. Efficacy and safety of OK-432 immunotherapy of lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark C; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Burke, Diane K; Bauman, Nancy M; Sato, Yutaka; Smith, Richard J H

    2009-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of the immunostimulant OK-432 (Picibanil) as a treatment option in the management of children with cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. A prospective, randomized, multi-institutional phase II clinical trial at 27 U.S. academic medical centers. 182 patients with lymphatic malformations (LM) were enrolled between January 1998 and November 2004. Of the 151 patients with complete case report forms, 117 patients were randomized into immediate or delayed treatment groups; 34 patients were nonrandomized and assigned to the open-label group. Treatment consisted of a four-dose intralesional injection series of OK-432 at eight-week intervals. Patients randomized into the delayed treatment group served as observational controls for spontaneous regression. Response to therapy was measured radiographically by quantitating change in lesion size and graded as complete (90%-100%), substantial (60%-89%), intermediate (20%-59%), or none (<20%). Of 117 patients randomized with intent-to-treat, 68% demonstrated a complete or substantial response to OK-432 immunotherapy. Response data for macrocystic LM were higher, with a complete or substantial response in 94% of patients; 63% of patients with mixed macrocystic-microcystic LM responded to treatment; no patients with microcystic LM responded to treatment. Spontaneous resolution occurred in less than 2% of patients. Median follow-up of 2.9 years demonstrated a 9% recurrence rate. Major adverse effects related to therapy occurred in 11 patients. As compared to historical surgical data on LM, OK-432 immunotherapy is more effective (P < .001) and has a lower morbidity (P < .001). OK-432 immunotherapy is an effective, safe, and simple treatment option for the management of macrocystic cervicofacial LM. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010452.

  20. Antenatal hemorrhage of a cervical lymphatic malformation presenting as a draining neck mass: An unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, R N; Nawaz, M; Bettolli, M; Ferretti, E

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations in the neck can present as large fetal neck masses causing airway obstructions with potential perinatal demise and can pose a therapeutic challenge. We present a rare case of prenatally diagnosed large fetal neck mass with features of lymphatic malformation with intralesional hemorrhage of uncertain origin. Postnatal evaluation showed a complex cystic-solid lesion eroding through the skin with an open wound that made it clinically hard to differentiate from a teratoma. Given that malignancy could not be completely ruled out, surgery was favored. Final pathology showed a complex lymphatic malformation with intralesional hemorrhage, despite having no associated capillary, venous or arterial malformations.

  1. Short report: documentation of iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren: implication for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, M J; Streit, T G; Houston, R; May, W A; Addiss, D G; Lammie, P J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we documented unexpected moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren although they live in a coastal community where presumably they have access to iodine-containing seafood. This fact combined with the lack of an iodized salt supply and endemic lymphatic filariasis makes community distribution of diethylcarbamazine-fortified, iodized salt an attractive strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency disorders in this area of Haiti. Combining lymphatic filariasis elimination with other public health interventions is one strategy to increase its public health benefit and maximize the impact of limited public health resources.

  2. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  3. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  4. Fabrication of Separator Demonstration Facility process vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberst, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The process vessel system is the central element in the Separator Development Facility (SDF). It houses the two major process components, i.e., the laser-beam folding optics and the separators pods. This major subsystem is the critical-path procurement for the SDF project. Details of the vaious parts of the process vessel are given

  5. Use of Petri nets for the development of new control software for the in-vessel composting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.; Leston, I.; Armesto, I.; Mato, S.; Sole-Mauri, F.; Paulet, D.

    2009-01-01

    The composting process has been consolidated as one of the most accurate techniques for the treatment and recycling of the organic wastes. Along such process three different stages can be recognized taking into account temperature evolution, so the automation equipment's used to control the process at industrial scale must work on the control elements (fans, valves, sprinklers, etc.) with the objective that each of the stages is developed in a correct way. However, the organic wastes high variability, and the great amount of variables which can influence the microbial activity (responsible of the process), makes difficult to predict the behaviour a specific waste will develop once inside the bioreactor. (Author)

  6. Activities with regard to research and development of technics for SNR 300 reactor vessel in-service inspection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, K.; Kirchner, G.; Menck, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the development of SNR 300 in-service inspection equipment, several branches were tested by experiment. In this report special steps for testing of manipulation systems and additional engineering equipment for control systems, such as coupling fluid circuit or camera cooling system are considered more in detail

  7. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  8. Research and development of spent-fuel shipping casks and the criteria for sea-going vessels carrying them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Since the transport of spent fuel will increase rapidly and extensively in the near future, the Japanese Atomic Energy Committee enacted the Technical Standard for Transportation of Radioactive Materials, based on the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1973 Revised Edition. The authorities concerned have begun to review the former ordinances for transporting radioactive materials and to develop a unified system of relevant laws and standards. For ten years the Atomic Energy Bureau has invested in research and development to obtain data for the design and licence of a spent-fuel shipping cask. Different scale models of a prototype weighing 80t were used to clarify the scale effect of drop, puncture and fire tests, which are a feature of Japanese research and development. Also an immersion test in water at pressures up to about 500 bar is now carried out to investigate the integrity of the cask body and sealing structure to prevent leakage of radioactive contents to the surroundings should the cask fall into deep sea. In Japan, depending on the site of nuclear plants, almost all transport of unirradiated and spent fuels is by sea. Therefore, to secure safe transport, the design criteria of ships for the exclusive transport of spent-fuel shipping casks, namely full-load shipping, have been enacted, which aim to make the likelihood of sinking on collision, stranding, and other unforeseen accidents at sea highly improbable and also to keep radiation exposure of the crew as low as possible. (author)

  9. Treatment of Lymphatic Malformations With OK-432 (Picibanil) : Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poldervaart, Michelle T.; Breugem, Corstiaan C.; Speleman, Lucienne; Pasmans, Suzanne

    Introduction: Lymphatic malformations (LM) are benign structural defects that call cause serious complications because of their size and location. Traditionally surgical removal was the first treatment modality, but this Could be associated with many complications and risks. Since Ogita introduced

  10. Development of working methods used inside reactor pressure vessel at Oskarshamn from the radiation protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solstrand, C.

    2005-01-01

    When performing maintenance and repair work in the beginning of 1970's conventional work tools and working methods mostly were used. The focus was on how to protect workers sufficiently in a proper way to keep the doses ALARA. During the last years the focus has turned more towards construction of special work tools in order to minimise personnel doses without any special arrangements for radiation shielding. Three examples will be presented to show that the optimisation of radiation protection can lead to the development of work tools and working methods, reducing the doses, time and money. (author)

  11. Development of Preemptive Repair Technology for Alloy 600 J-Groove Welds of Reactor Vessel Upper Head CEDM Nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwang Woon; Lee, Jang Wook; Cho, Ki Hyun; Choi, Kwang Min; Choi, Dong Chul; Cho, Sang Beum; Cho, Hong Seok [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    After 2000, PWSCC in numerous NPPs around the world has been generated, and recently, PWSCC in several CEDM nozzles of domestic NPP Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 was founded and repaired with embedded flaw repair(EFR) welding method by Westinghouse. In this study, development status of EFR equipment and basic experimental results for preventive PWSCC of RVUH CEDM nozzles will be introduced. The development of EFR seal welding equipment and welding process for the preemptive repair with original Alloy 600 J-Groove welds of RVUHP was conducted. The EFR welding equipment was tested to be possible seal welding to track J-Groove welds with three dimensional curved surfaces and OD penetration with vertical welding position. Through several BOP and overlay welding experiments, it was verified that good weld beads with no defects, such as cracks, spatter, undercut at the stable welding conditions with heat input of 27.4-32.5 KJ/in were well produced. Consequently, it is expected that the EFR seal welding technique will be applicable on the site.

  12. Development of an integrated prestressed-concrete pressure vessel for water-cooled reactors (SBB type 'STERN' (star) with supporting boiler)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jueptner, G.; Kumpf, H.; Molz, G.; Neunert, B.; Seidl, O.

    1976-01-01

    This report goes into the reasons for selecting a 'STERN' (star) vessel configuration for accommodating a complete primary circuit including PWR, this involving the grouping of cylindrical pressure vessels of independent design into a star-shaped configuration with the central vessel housing the reactor core in the middle. This arrangement was made possible by application of the DYWIDAG-radial prestressing process generating controlled annular prestressing using existing presses and by an organic coupling of individual vessels. The liner, heat insulating and cooling system required for each vessel comprises a so-called support boiler, i.e. a hot liner not handicapped by the disadvantages of other systems. The support boiler is placed in the and PCV and has flat floor and cover surfaces. Temperature constraints are reduced to specific design requirements by means of radial gap permitting precise adjustment in conjunction with an axial expanding element comprising a multilayer diaphragm which is supported in operation. A detailed description is given of the PCPV, the support boiler and the cover used in the center vessel as well as of their design, the assembly and construction work is described and a summary presented of the quantities and estimated prices involved. Due to the absence of steam raising facilities adapted to meet the star-shaped configuration requirements, a study of satellite vessels was dispensed with, the design of which is in full accord with that of the center vessel. One part of the report is concerned with the calculation of the center vessel. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1981-02-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.

  14. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  15. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  16. RIP1 regulates TNF-α-mediated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in gallbladder cancer by modulating the NF-κB-VEGF-C pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Zong; Jiang, Xiao-Jie; Lin, Bin; Hong, Hai-Jie; Zhu, Si-Yuan; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Tang, Nan-Hong; She, Fei-Fei; Chen, Yan-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) enhances lymphangiogenesis in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) via activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB)-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). Receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) is a multifunctional protein in the TNF-α signaling pathway and is highly expressed in GBC. However, whether RIP1 participates in the signaling pathway of TNF-α-mediated VEGF-C expression that enhances lymphangiogenesis in GBC remains unclear. The RIP1 protein levels in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells upon stimulation with increasing concentrations of TNF-α as indicated was examined using Western blot. Lentiviral RIP1 shRNA and siIκBα were constructed and transduced respectively them into NOZ and GBC-SD cells, and then PcDNA3.1-RIP1 vectors was transduced into siRIP1 cell lines to reverse RIP1 expression. The protein expression of RIP1, inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα), p-IκBα, TAK1, NF-κB essential modulator were examined through immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation. Moreover, VEGF-C mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, VEGF-C protein levels were measured by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and VEGF-C promoter and NF-κB activities were quantified using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The association of NF-κB with the VEGF-C promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. A three-dimensional coculture method and orthotopic transplantation nude mice model were used to evaluate lymphatic tube-forming and metastasis ability in GBC cells. The expression of RIP1 protein, TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessels in human GBC tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry, and the dependence between RIP1 protein with TNF-α protein and lymphatic vessel density was analysed. TNF-α dose- and time-dependently increased RIP1 protein expression in the GBC-SD and NOZ cells of GBC, and the strongest effect was observed with a concentration of 50 ng/ml. RIP1 is fundamental

  17. Development and application of a material law for steel-fibre-reinforced concrete with regard to its use for pre-stressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelpfennig, K.; Borgerhoff, M.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the evaluation of many publications on the mechanical behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) and on the results of experiments using an SFRC especially developed for pre-stressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRVs), a material law for SFRC including general multiaxial stress conditions has been developed. From fibre pull-out tests described in the literature and by use of the experimental results, relations describing the capable tensile stress in SFRC after cracking, as a function of crack width, have been derived. There is a significant increase in the biaxial compressive strength of SFRC compared with plain concrete. The improved behaviour under multiaxial stress conditions, with one of the principal stresses being tensile, is outlined in comparison with different formulations of failure envelopes of plain concrete. For the purpose of verifying the material law implemented in the computer program used, analyses have been carried out for experiments with SFRC beams. After some modification concerning the shear behaviour, load-displacement curves and realistic crack propagations which correspond well have been obtained. In the stand-tube area in the centre of a PCRV top cap the use of SFRC is advantageous because of the difficulties concerning the arrangement of reinforcement in the concrete between the tubes. (orig.)

  18. Investigating the Lymphatic System by Dual-Color Elemental Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Niehoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary lymphedema accompanied with strong restrictions in