WorldWideScience

Sample records for lymphatic fluid stasis

  1. The effect of lymphatic valve morphology on fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon

    2016-11-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is present in nearly all invertebrate tissue, and is essential in the transport of fluid and particles such as immune cells, antigens, proteins and lipids from the tissue to lymph nodes and to the venous circulation. Lymphatic vessels are made of up a series of contractile units that work together in harmony as "micro hearts" to pump fluid against a pressure gradient. Lymphatic valves are critical to this functionality, as they open and close with the oscillating pressure gradients from contractions, thus allowing flow in only one direction and leading to a net pumping effect. We use a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring model which captures fluid-solid interactions through two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a section of a lymphatic vessel to study the dynamics of lymphatic valves and their effect on fluid transport. Further, we investigate the effect of variations in valve geometry and material properties on fluid pumping. This work helps to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphatic fluid transport, which has implications in a variety of pathologies, including cancer metastasis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis and obesity. Support from NSF CMMI 1635133 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the lymphatic fluid determined by novel methods

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    Masayuki Nagahashi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In agreement with the previous theory, our results confirm “S1P gradient” among blood, lymphatic fluid and peripheral lymphatic tissues. Convenient methods for collection and measurement of sphingolipids in lymphatic fluid are expected to provide new insights on functions of sphingolipids.

  3. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

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    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. © 2015 Aspelund et al.

  4. Dynamics of pleural fluid effusion and chylothorax in the fetus and newborn: role of the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, C; Ergaz, Z; Boccardo, F; Bellini, T; Campisi, C C; Bonioli, E; Ramenghi, L A

    2013-06-01

    Pleural fluid effusion particularly chylothorax is a relatively rare occurrence in the newborn, but when it occurs it is often life-threatening. In this article, we describe and illustrate the morphologic features of the visceral and parietal pleura including pleural lymphatics and the physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid balance. The role and function of the lymphatic system in controlling the volume and composition of pleural liquid are detailed and a conceptual scheme presented. Finally, the crucial role of inadequate lymphatic drainage (either functional overload from an imbalance in Starling forces or mechanical insufficiency from lymphatic dysplasia) is emphasized.

  5. Evaluation of Persistent Lymphatic Fluid Leakage Using a Strategy of Placing a Drain After Kidney Transplantation: A Statistical Analysis to Assess Its Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Saito, M; Narita, S; Numakura, K; Tsuruta, H; Maeno, A; Tsuchiya, N; Satoh, S; Habuchi, T

    2017-10-01

    Using a strategy of placing a surgical drain after kidney transplantation, the duration of a lymphatic fluid leakage and prevalence of a symptomatic lymphocele were retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors for persistent lymphatic fluid leakage or asymptomatic lymphocele were evaluated using multivariate analysis to estimate the origin of the lymphatic fluid leakage. Patients with persistent lymphatic fluid leakage and symptomatic lymphocele were defined as those with lymphatic fluid drainage >50 mL for more than 15 days and those who required a percutaneous drainage of the lymphocele, respectively. Persistent lymphatic fluid leakage and symptomatic lymphocele were observed in 40 (16.4%) and 10 (4.1%) of a total of 244 patients, respectively. The maximum durations of lymphatic fluid drainage from the initial drain tube and the second drainage of the symptomatic lymphocele were 48 and 28 days, respectively. Anastomosis of the graft artery to the external iliac artery was an independent risk factor to predict persistent lymphatic fluid leakage or symptomatic lymphocele after kidney transplantation (odds = 2.597, P = .008). The findings of the study suggest that the lymphatic fluid originates from the recipient's iliac lymph trunk rather than from the graft kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stasis dermatitis and ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... veins. Some people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower ...

  7. Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species

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    Armstrong Dianna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the applicability of this concept to other species, especially to humans has never been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the CSF and nasal lymph associations in human and non-human primates with those observed in other mammalian species. Methods Studies were performed in sheep, pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, monkeys and humans. Immediately after sacrifice (or up to 7 hours after death in humans, yellow Microfil was injected into the CSF compartment. The heads were cut in a sagittal plane. Results In the seven species examined, Microfil was observed primarily in the subarachnoid space around the olfactory bulbs and cribriform plate. The contrast agent followed the olfactory nerves and entered extensive lymphatic networks in the submucosa associated with the olfactory and respiratory epithelium. This is the first direct evidence of the association between the CSF and nasal lymph compartments in humans. Conclusions The fact that the pattern of Microfil distribution was similar in all species tested, suggested that CSF absorption into nasal lymphatics is a characteristic feature of all mammals including humans. It is tempting to speculate that some disorders of the CSF system (hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension for example may relate either directly or indirectly to a lymphatic CSF absorption deficit.

  8. Lymphatic Filariasis Increases Tissue Compressibility and Extracellular Fluid in Lower Limbs of Asymptomatic Young People in Central Myanmar

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    Janet Douglass

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When normal lymphatic function is hampered, imperceptible subcutaneous edema can develop and progress to overt lymphedema. Low-cost reliable devices for objective assessment of lymphedema are well accepted in clinical practice and research on breast-cancer related lymphedema but are untested in populations with lymphatic filariasis (LF. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data in a longitudinal study on asymptomatic, LF antigen-positive and -negative young people in Myanmar. Rapid field screening was used to identify antigen-positive cases and a group of antigen-negative controls of similar age and gender were invited to continue in the study. Tissue compressibility was assessed with three tissue tonometers, and free fluids were assessed using bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS. Infection status was confirmed by Og4C3 antigen assay. At baseline (n = 98, antigen-positive cases had clinically relevant increases in tissue compressibility at the calf using a digital Indurometer (11.1%, p = 0.021, and in whole-leg free fluid using BIS (9.2%, p = 0.053. Regression analysis for moderating factors (age, gender, hydration reinforced the between-infection group differences. Results demonstrate that sub-clinical changes associated with infection can be detected in asymptomatic cases. Further exploration of these low-cost devices in clinical and research settings on filariasis-related lymphedema are warranted.

  9. Cyclic approximation to stasis

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    Stewart D. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.

  10. Lymphatic System Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E., Jr.; Bertram, Christopher D.

    2018-01-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is performed by the blood system and involves a net leakage of fluid outward at the capillary level. One of the principal functions of the lymphatic system is to gather this fluid and return it to the blood system to maintain overall fluid balance. Fluid in the interstitial spaces is often at subatmospheric pressure, and the return points into the venous system are at pressures of approximately 20 cmH2O. This adverse pressure difference is overcome by the active pumping of collecting lymphatic vessels, which feature closely spaced one-way valves and contractile muscle cells in their walls. Passive vessel squeezing causes further pumping. The dynamics of lymphatic pumping have been investigated experimentally and mathematically, revealing complex behaviors that indicate that the system performance is robust against minor perturbations in pressure and flow. More serious disruptions can lead to incurable swelling of tissues called lymphedema.

  11. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war....... Whatever concepts were used, the Romans were not the first to experience internal war as a civil war—that is, a war between the citizens of a polity....

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.

  13. Lymphatic Vascular Regeneration : The Next Step in Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huethorst, Eline; Krebber, Merle M; Fledderus, Joost O; Gremmels, Hendrik; Xu, Yan Juan; Pei, Jiayi; Verhaar, Marianne C; Cheng, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays a crucial role in interstitial fluid drainage, lipid absorption, and immunological defense. Lymphatic dysfunction results in lymphedema, fluid accumulation, and swelling of soft tissues, as well as a potentially impaired immune response. Lymphedema significantly reduces

  14. Pleural function and lymphatics.

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    Negrini, D; Moriondo, A

    2013-02-01

    The pleural space plays an important role in respiratory function as the negative intrapleural pressure regimen ensures lung expansion and in the mean time maintains the tight mechanical coupling between the lung and the chest wall. The efficiency of the lung-chest wall coupling depends upon pleural liquid volume, which in turn reflects the balance between the filtration of fluid into and its egress out of the cavity. While filtration occurs through a single mechanism passively driving fluid from the interstitium of the parietal pleura into the cavity, several mechanisms may co-operate to remove pleural fluid. Among these, the pleural lymphatic system emerges as the most important one in quantitative terms and the only one able to cope with variable pleural fluid volume and drainage requirements. In this review, we present a detailed account of the actual knowledge on: (a) the complex morphology of the pleural lymphatic system, (b) the mechanism supporting pleural lymph formation and propulsion, (c) the dependence of pleural lymphatic function upon local tissue mechanics and (d) the effect of lymphatic inefficiency in the development of clinically severe pleural and, more in general, respiratory pathologies. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  15. [Pleural lymphatics and effusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordant, P; Arame, A; Legras, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2013-06-01

    The pleural lymphatic system has a great absorption capacity. Its most known function is fluid resorption. The pleura which cover the lungs (visceral pleura), the mediastinum, diaphragm and thoracic wall (parietal pleura) are formed by a mesothelial cell layer (mesothelium). This permeable layer is in direct contact with the vascular endothelium. The mesothelium is based over a connective tissue (interstitium) containing the blood and lymphatic vessels. The primary lymphatic vessels drain interstitium but are also in direct contact with pleural space by the stoma or openings, situated in the lower parts of parietal pleura, i.e: diaphragm, over lower ribs and mediastinum but not existing in the adjacent visceral pleura. In addition, a part of interstitial pulmonary fluid entered in the pleural cavity by passing the visceral pleura would be absorbed by these openings. The resorption process is active and directly related to the function of smooth muscles of lymphatic vessels. Besides resorption, we must emphasize that this "pumping" activity is permanent and the origin of negative pressure (the pleural void) in pleural cavity, a unique property. The other resorbed elements are molecules, bacterial and cellular debris, cells, red blood and cancer cells. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Evaluation of lymphatic regeneration in rat incisional wound healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevine M.F. El Deeb

    2014-06-20

    Jun 20, 2014 ... migration of connective tissue cells, and re-epithelialization of the wound ... lymphatic vessels sprouting in experimental rabbit ear wounds.9The ..... of lymphatic flow within 14 days, regaining the ability to drain fluid and ...

  17. Lymphatic Education & Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic Education & Research Network Donate Now Become a Supporting Member X Living with LYMPHEDEMA AND Lymphatic Disease FAQs About ... December 8, 2017 11.08.2017 The Lymphatic Education & Research Network… Read More > ASRM LE&RN Combined ...

  18. Lymphatics and Lymphangiogenesis in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Nakao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic is a prerequisite for the maintenance of tissue fluid balance and immunity in the body. A body of evidence also shows that lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases such as tumor metastasis and inflammation. The eye was thought to lack lymphatic vessels except for the conjunctiva; however, advances in the field, including the identification of lymphatic endothelial markers (e.g., LYVE-1 or podoplanin and lymphangiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-C, have revealed the exsitence and possible roles of lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in the eye. Recent studies have shown that corneal limbus, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, orbital meninges, and extraocular muscles contain lymphatic vessels and that the choroid might have a lymphatic-like system. There is no known lymphatic outflow from the eye. However, several lymphatic channels including uveolymphatic pathway might serve the ocular fluid homeostasis. Furthermore, lymphangiogenesis plays important roles in pathological conditions in the eye including corneal transplant rejection and ocular tumor progression. Yet, the role of lymphangiogenesis in most eye diseases, especially inflammatory disease or edema, remains unknown. A better understanding of lymphatic and lymphangiogenesis in the eye will open new therapeutic opportunities to prevent vision loss in ocular diseases.

  19. Lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Souheil El-Chemaly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the lymphatic system is absorbing and transporting macromolecules and immune cells to the general circulation, thereby regulating fluid, nutrient absorption and immune cell trafficking. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination. Lymphatic involvement is seen in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. LAM, a disease primarily affecting females, involves the lung (cystic destruction, kidney (angiomyolipoma and axial lymphatics (adenopathy and lymphangioleiomyoma. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Cystic lung destruction results from proliferation of LAM cells, which are abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Lymphatic abnormalities arise from infiltration of LAM cells into the lymphatic wall, leading to damage or obstruction of lymphatic vessels. Benign appearing LAM cells possess metastatic properties and are found in the blood and other body fluids. IPF is a progressive lung disease resulting from fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pulmonary destruction and disease severity. A macrophage subset isolated from IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF express lymphatic endothelial cell markers in vitro, in contrast to the same macrophage subset from normal BALF. Herein, we review lymphatic involvement in LAM and IPF.

  20. Korean Studies on Blood Stasis: An Overview

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    Bongki Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis is one of the important pathological concepts in Korean medicine. We analyzed the Korean studies concerning blood stasis. We searched for articles in eight electronic databases from their inception to September, 2014. We included reviews, clinical studies, and preclinical studies that had studied blood stasis and excluded articles in which blood stasis was not mentioned or in which the original authors had not explained blood stasis. Of 211 total included studies, 19 were reviews, 52 were clinical studies, and 140 were preclinical articles. “Stagnant blood within the body” was the most frequently mentioned phrase of the traditional concept of blood stasis. Traumatic injury was the most frequently studied disease/condition in the clinical studies. In the preclinical studies, coagulopathy was studied most frequently, followed by hyperviscosity, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, neoplasm, ischemic brain injury, and atherosclerosis. Hyeolbuchukeo-tang and Angelicae Gigantis Radix were the most frequent formula and single herb, respectively, used in the blood stasis researches. The results showed that blood stasis was mainly recognized as disorder of circulation and many studies showed the effectiveness of activating blood circulating herbs for diseases and pathologies such as traumatic injury or coagulopathy. Further studies are needed in the pathologic mechanisms and various diseases of blood stasis.

  1. The Glymphatic-Lymphatic Continuum: Opportunities for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Kyle; Smith, Kyle; Cuoco, Joshua A; Ruvolo, Kathryn E; Mancini, Jayme D; Leheste, Joerg R; Torres, German

    2016-03-01

    The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid are cleared through the glymphatic system, eventually draining into the lymphatic vessels of the neck, this continuous fluid circuit offers a paradigm shift in osteopathic manipulative medicine. For instance, manipulation of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum could be used to promote experimental initiatives for nonpharmacologic, noninvasive management of neurologic disorders. In the present review, the authors describe what is known about the glymphatic system and identify several osteopathic experimental strategies rooted in a mechanistic understanding of the glymphatic-lymphatic continuum.

  2. Stasis, Charging the Space of Change

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    Sarah Riviere

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article fossicks through the fragments of historical understandings of the word stasis in ancient Greece – where stasis, in its extreme state, involved conflictual hostilities between kindred parties, often termed ‘civil war’ today. Through a series of readings of ancient Greek texts on topics ranging from pathology to literature and politics, stasis is revealed as a powerfully charged state of located dynamic exchange that operates through a precise temporal and spatial performance. This article teases out relevant aspects of the state of stasis – its high levels of spatial engagement, its inevitable resolution into energetic productivity, its precise restraint, its demand for full participation, and its role in the integration of change – all of which were acknowledged as part of the enactment and resolution of a stasis at that time. The intention of this article is to resurrect a more nuanced understanding of the state of stasis that can enrich current concepts of the dynamic in architectural and urban discourse. This understanding of stasis also poses new questions for the future design of spaces that can accommodate charged kindred engagement: lively spaces where contest becomes opportunity, and located spaces of kindred understanding that promise productive reconciliation as the common aim of all the parties involved.

  3. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  4. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

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    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  5. The lymphatic mechanisms of brain cleaning: application of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence microscopy

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    Glushkovskaya-Semyachkina, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Fedosov, I.; Namykin, A.; Pavlov, A.; Shirokov, A.; Shushunova, N.; Sindeeva, O.; Khorovodov, A.; Ulanova, M.; Sagatova, V.; Agranovich, I.; Bodrova, A.; Kurths, J.

    2018-04-01

    Here we studied the role of cerebral lymphatic system in the brain clearing using intraparenchymal injection of Evans Blue and gold nanorods assessed by optical coherent tomography and fluorescence microscopy. Our data clearly show that the cerebral lymphatic system plays an important role in the brain cleaning via meningeal lymphatic vessels but not cerebral veins. Meningeal lymphatic vessels transport fluid from the brain into the deep cervical node, which is the first anatomical "station" for lymph outflow from the brain. The lymphatic processes underlying brain clearing are more slowly vs. peripheral lymphatics. These results shed light on the lymphatic mechanisms responsible for brain clearing as well as interaction between the intra- and extracranial lymphatic compartment.

  6. Semaphorin3A, Neuropilin-1, and PlexinA1 are required for lymphatic valve formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvrée, Karine; Brunet, Isabelle; Del Toro, Raquel; Gordon, Emma; Prahst, Claudia; Cristofaro, Brunella; Mathivet, Thomas; Xu, Yunling; Soueid, Jihane; Fortuna, Vitor; Miura, Nayoki; Aigrot, Marie-Stéphane; Maden, Charlotte H; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Thomas, Jean Léon; Eichmann, Anne

    2012-08-03

    The lymphatic vasculature plays a major role in fluid homeostasis, absorption of dietary lipids, and immune surveillance. Fluid transport depends on the presence of intraluminal valves within lymphatic collectors. Defective formation of lymphatic valves leads to lymphedema, a progressive and debilitating condition for which curative treatments are currently unavailable. How lymphatic valve formation is regulated remains largely unknown. We investigated if the repulsive axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) plays a role in lymphatic valve formation. We show that Sema3A mRNA is expressed in lymphatic vessels and that Sema3A protein binds to lymphatic valves expressing the Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) and PlexinA1 receptors. Using mouse knockout models, we show that Sema3A is selectively required for lymphatic valve formation, via interaction with Nrp1 and PlexinA1. Sema3a(-/-) mice exhibit defects in lymphatic valve formation, which are not due to abnormal lymphatic patterning or sprouting, and mice carrying a mutation in the Sema3A binding site of Nrp1, or deficient for Plxna1, develop lymphatic valve defects similar to those seen in Sema3a(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate an essential direct function of Sema3A-Nrp1-PlexinA1 signaling in lymphatic valve formation.

  7. Lamb congenital lymphatic malformation - a case report

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    Neria Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations have been rarely reported in literature either in humans or in animals. However, in recent years, concern about these malformations in humans has increased. A five-month-old Rasa Aragonesa male lamb was received at the Ovine Clinical Service of the Veterinary Faculty of Zaragoza, Spain, with a history of cervical protuberances coming from birth. The lamb showed three round swollen lumps (5–12 cm in diameter parallel to the trachea on the left side of the neck. Clinical examination, haematology, ultrasonography, fluid examination and histopathology were performed. No abnormalities were found in blood samples and ultrasound confirmed a multicystic lesion with internal separations. Histological evaluation of the tissue revealed dilated lymphatic vessels and channels in the dermis and hypodermis; some lymphatic vessels were filled with amorphous proteinaceous material and occasional lymphocytes and macrophages. These protuberances were diagnosed as congenital lymphatic malformations. Most of the gross and microscopical lesions were very similar to those described in humans. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that a congenital lymphatic malformation is described in sheep.

  8. Role of Hyperplasia of Gingival Lymphatics in Periodontal Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakou, P; Bletsa, A; Yassin, M A; Karlsen, T V; Wiig, H; Berggreen, E

    2017-04-01

    Lymphatic vessels are important for maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis and afferent antigen transport. In chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis takes place and is characterized by lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and lymphatic hyperplasia. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is the main known lymphangiogenic growth factor, and its expression is increased in periodontitis, a common chronic infectious disease that results in tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. The role of lymphangiogenesis during development of periodontitis is unknown. Here, we test if transgenic overexpression of epithelial VEGFC in a murine model is followed by hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in oral mucosa and if the lymphatic drainage capacity is altered. We also test if lymphatic hyperplasia protects against periodontal disease development. Transgenic keratin 14 (K14)-VEGFC mice had significant hyperplasia of lymphatics in oral mucosa, including gingiva, without changes in blood vessel vasculature. The basal lymph flow was normal but slightly lower than in wild-type mice when oral mucosa was challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Under normal conditions, K14-VEGFC mice exhibited an increased number of neutrophils in gingiva, demonstrated enhanced phagocyte recruitment in the cervical lymph nodes, and had more alveolar bone when compared with their wild-type littermates. After induction of periodontitis, no strain differences were observed in the periodontal tissues with respect to granulocyte recruitment, bone resorption, angiogenesis, cytokines, and bone-related protein expressions or in draining lymph node immune cell proportions and vascularization. We conclude that overexpression of VEGFC results in hyperplastic lymphatics, which do not enhance lymphatic drainage capacity but facilitate phagocyte transport to draining lymph nodes. Hyperplasia of lymphatics does not protect against development of ligature-induced periodontitis.

  9. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)

    2011-10-21

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  10. Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.

  11. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  12. Spleen and Lymphatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrong Print en español El bazo y el sistema linfático The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  13. Chapter 20. Lymphatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyniel, G.; Plagne, R.; Veyre, A.

    1975-01-01

    It is recalled than in isotopic lymphography the tracer may be introduced into the lymphatic system by two methods: direct lymphography when the product is injected directly into a lymphatic vessel or lymph node, indirect lymphography when the product is injected into interstitial tissues, taken up by the lymph flow and fixed by the glands. The disadvantages of the direct method at present restrict the radioisotopic exploration of the lymphatic system to indirect lymphography. This technique, whereby the lymphatic draining of the tracer injection zone may be followed, is described. The use of metallic colloids (Au-198, In-111, Tc-99m) fixed by the glands gives a sharp and lasting contrast, but also possesses disadvantages. The conditions required of a selective tracer are examined and the possibilities of various types of molecules for this study estimated. In spite of undeniable disadvantages the colloids of technetium-99m are being used more and more because of the quality of the images obtained. The results are interpreted and the chief indications of the method defined. The therapeutic possibilities of isotopic lymphography are also shown [fr

  14. Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia and its Association With Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly

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    Victoria María Díaz Marugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymph is a fluid originating in the interstitial spaces of the body that contains cells, proteins, particles, chylomicrons, and sometimes bacteria. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL results from a disruption of lymphatic circulation, thus corresponding to a secondary rather than a primary event in the context of generalized lymphatic anomaly. Materials and Methods: In this case series and record review, an analysis of intestinal lymphatic involvement was performed on patients diagnosed with PIL between 1965 and 2013. Of the 21 patients included in the study, 10 had been diagnosed before 5 years of age (1 prenatal, 8 between 5 and 18 years of age, and 3 while older than 18 years of age. The follow-up period varied between 1 and 34 years. Clinical data, blood and fecal parameters, imaging studies, endoscopy results, biopsy analyses, treatment details, and outcome information were collected from medical records. Endoscopy, histological studies, magnetic resonance imaging, and lymphoscintigraphy were performed on all patients. Dynamic intranodal lymphangiography was performed on 8 patients. Results: Central lymphatic channel obstruction was identified in 12 patients (57%. Associated lymphatic malformation (LM was present in 16, diarrhea in 10, chylothorax in 11, chylous ascites in 10, pericardial effusion in 6, coagulopathy in 3, and osteolysis in 7. Conclusions: We consider intestinal lymphangiectasia not as an entity in itself, but as a consequence of lymphatic flow impairment in the thoracic duct, producing chylous reflux into the intestinal lymphatics.

  15. Effects of Blood-cooling and Stasis-removing Formula on Hemorheology in Rats with Acute Blood Stasis

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    Songyi Ning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula on hemorheology in rats with acute blood stasis induced by mutifactor stimuli. Methods: The selected SD rats orally took blood-cooling and stasis-removing granule for six days, then the model of acute blood stasis was prepared on the fifth day by injection of epinephrine combined with ice-water bath. The variations of blood-cooling and stasis-removing granule on hemorheology were detected. Results: The high-dose group of blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula can decrease plasma viscosity in rats with acute blood stasis, and obviously reduce the blood viscosity under the condition of shear rates (200s-1, 30s-1, 5s-1, 1s-1 (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. The middle-dose group can decrease the blood viscosity under the condition of shear rate (30s-1 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Blood-cooling and stasis-removing formula can improve abnormal hemorheology in rats with acute blood stasis.

  16. Controllori controllati: le finestre della Stasi

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    Alessandra Goggio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This short essay aims to investigate the role played by the object ‘window’ in different post-1989 German representations of the so-called Stasi, that is to say, the secret policy of the German Democratic Republic. In particular, we will linger our attention on a precise situation, that of the controlled-controller, which often recurs in such representations. By analysing three different artistic products (one film: The life of the others by Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, and two novels: Ich by Wolfgang Hilbig and Helden wie wir by Thomas Brussig we will attempt to show how windows largely contributed not only to the functioning of the Stasi itself, but also to creating a country full of spies spying on one another without even knowing of being controlled by others. In the end we will demonstrate how the use of windows in this particular kind of representation also alludes to the concept of the Panopticon (Jeremy Bentham and its theoretical application carried out by the French philosopher Michael Foucault.

  17. Pulmonary lymphatics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system has been more difficult to acquire than that of other organ systems owing to the complexity of the respiratory function of the lungs and to the technical difficulties involved. This is especially true of the lymphatics of the lung and is illustrated by the fact that the first measurement of pulmonary lymph flow was in 1942 by Warren and Drinker. A review of the literature reveals that few experiments have been designed to study the pulmonary lymphatics per se in relation to the effects of external radiation or after the inhalation of radioactive particles. However, the documented involvement of hilar lymph nodes implies that the lung lymphatics have a role in transporting particles from the alveoli or malignant cells from the parenchyma. Information from clinical and experimental sources, though scattered, is fairly abundant and of value in assessing the role of the pulmonary lymphatics. Our method for collecting pulmonary lymph is presented. Studies on the pulmonary lymph flow in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental congestive heart failure are described. We irradiated (4000 to 5000 R) the medial one-third of both lungs of a series of dogs. The lymph flow of the lungs was measured immediately after the course of irradiation and after a period of about 5 months. Although lung biopsies showed characteristic radiation pneumonitis in many areas, alterations in the lung parenchyma were not quantitatively reflected in the pulmonary lymph flow either in the acute stage or after fibrosis had time to develop

  18. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, Marcia R; Wu, Xue-Ru; Saban, Ricardo; Towner, Rheal; Smith, Nataliya; Abbott, Andrew; Neeman, Michal; Davis, Carole A; Simpson, Cindy; Maier, Julie; Mémet, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ) exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ), we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and function (LVF) during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5) suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic flow within the tumoral area. In addition, NIRF

  19. Postnatal Deletion of Podoplanin in Lymphatic Endothelium Results in Blood Filling of the Lymphatic System and Impairs Dendritic Cell Migration to Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Roberta; Russo, Erica; Bachmann, Samia B; Proulx, Steven T; Sesartic, Marko; Smaadahl, Nora; Watson, Steve P; Buckley, Christopher D; Halin, Cornelia; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic vascular system exerts major physiological functions in the transport of interstitial fluid from peripheral tissues back to the blood circulation and in the trafficking of immune cells to lymph nodes. Previous studies in global constitutive knockout mice for the lymphatic transmembrane molecule podoplanin reported perinatal lethality and a complex phenotype with lung abnormalities, cardiac defects, lymphedema, blood-filled lymphatic vessels, and lack of lymph node organization, reflecting the importance of podoplanin expression not only by the lymphatic endothelium but also by a variety of nonendothelial cell types. Therefore, we aimed to dissect the specific role of podoplanin expressed by adult lymphatic vessels. We generated an inducible, lymphatic-specific podoplanin knockout mouse model (Pdpn ΔLEC ) and induced gene deletion postnatally. Pdpn ΔLEC mice were viable, and their lymphatic vessels appeared morphologically normal with unaltered fluid drainage function. Intriguingly, Pdpn ΔLEC mice had blood-filled lymph nodes and vessels, most frequently in the neck and axillary region, and displayed a blood-filled thoracic duct, suggestive of retrograde filling of blood from the blood circulation into the lymphatic system. Histological and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses revealed normal lymph node organization with the presence of erythrocytes within lymph node lymphatic vessels but not surrounding high endothelial venules. Moreover, fluorescein isothiocyanate painting experiments revealed reduced dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes in Pdpn ΔLEC mice. These results reveal an important role of podoplanin expressed by lymphatic vessels in preventing postnatal blood filling of the lymphatic vascular system and in contributing to efficient dendritic cell migration to the lymph nodes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Epidural venous stasis in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.C.; Capesius, P.; Poos, D.; Gratia, G.; Roilgen, A.; Sandt, G.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography permits reliable demonstration of the spinal canal and its contents. Measurements of the sagittal diameter of the bony canal do not take into consideration size, shape and state of intraspinal soft tissue structures, i.e. the thecal sac and its own contents, epidural fat and blood circulation pattern. Three particularly illustrative cases were selected in which obvious epidural venous engorgement was visualized in association with spinal stenosis. The authors think that epidural venous stasis occuring in segmental spinal stenosis is a CT sign of clinically significant narrowing of the neural canal. Accurate recognition of the type of lumbar stenosis together with epidural blood flow alterations permits a better understanding of the existing lesions. Thus, a more precise and specific surgical approach is possible. (orig.)

  1. [The effect of portal blood stasis on lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion in a rabbit model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yang, Jia-mei; Hou, Yuan-kai; Li, Dian-qi; Hu, Ming-hua; Liu, Peng

    2008-04-15

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of portal blood stasis on lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion. A rabbit hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury model was established by hepatic portal occlusion and in situ hypothermic irrigation for 30 min. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were employed and randomly divided into 3 groups equally by different dosage of portal blood stasis removal: group A5 (5 ml blood removal), group A10 (10 ml blood removal),and group B (no blood removal). Eight rabbits were served as controls with no hepatic portal occlusion and hypothermic irrigation. After reperfusion 4 h serum endotoxin content, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) were examined respectively, meantime lung and kidney tissues were sampled to determine the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), the pathology, and wet to dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content in lung tissues. Removing portal blood stasis ameliorated lung and renal injury as shown by decreasing the level of serum endotoxin, TNF-alpha, BUN, Cr, wet to dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content, MDA, SOD. TNF-alpha, Cr, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content in lung tissues and MDA in kidney tissue in group A5 were significantly reduced compared with those in group B (P portal blood stasis before the resume of splanchnic circulation may ameliorate the lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion. The possible mechanism may be that portal blood stasis removal reduces endotoxin absorption, and further decreases production of serum TNF-alpha.

  2. Metástasis hipofisaria Hypophyseal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mayoría son lesiones silentes descubiertas accidentalmente en las autopsia. La aparición de metástasis sintomáticas es, en cambio, excepcional. DESARROLLO: se describen aquí los hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con un carcinoma indiferenciado del pulmón, diagnosticado hace 2 años y medio, que comenzó con cefalea y trastornos visuales sin hipopituitarismo ni diabetes insípida. Se le realizó resonancia magnética nuclear y se le diagnosticó una lesión hipofisaria, que fue operada por vía tranesfenoidal, y se informó por anatomía patológica una metástasis del carcinoma del pulmón. CONCLUSIONES: la paciente se encuentra en estos momentos recibiendo quimioterapia, radioterapia y anticuerpo monoclonal con evolución favorable.INTRODUCTION: metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. DEVELOPMENT: we describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: patient receives chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and monoclonal antibody with a favorable evolution.

  3. Development and plasticity of meningeal lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Salli; Karaman, Sinem; Nurmi, Harri; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Mathivet, Thomas; Chilov, Dmitri; Li, Zhilin; Koppinen, Tapani; Park, Jun-Hee; Fang, Shentong; Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Saarma, Mart; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-12-04

    The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect. Surprisingly, in adult mice, the LVs showed regression after VEGF-C or VEGFR3 deletion, administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, or expression of VEGF-C/D trap, which also compromised the lymphatic drainage function. Conversely, an excess of VEGF-C induced meningeal lymphangiogenesis. The plasticity and regenerative potential of meningeal LVs should allow manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage and neuropathological processes in the CNS. © 2017 Antila et al.

  4. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  5. Coriocarcinoma con metástasis pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicia Sánchez Abalos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una fémina de 44 años de edad, con 32 semanas de embarazo, la cual fuera ingresada en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, por presentar insuficiencia respiratoria aguda como consecuencia de una sepsis. La paciente fue tratada con cefalosporina de tercera generación y ventilación mecánica no invasiva, pero se mantuvieron las características gasométricas de hipoxemia y una mala reacción terapéutica, por lo que se requirió instrumentación de las vías respiratorias y soporte hemodinámico, sin lograr regresión del cuadro clínico, lo cual condujo a un paro cardiorrespiratorio y, con ello, a la muerte. La necropsia mostró un coriocarcinoma del endometrio con metástasis pulmonar

  6. Explaining stasis: microevolutionary studies in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilä, J; Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E

    2001-01-01

    Microevolution, defined as a change in the genetic constitution of a population over time, is considered to be of commonplace occurrence in nature. Its ubiquity can be inferred from the observation that quantitative genetic divergence among populations usually exceeds that to be expected due to genetic drift alone, and from numerous observations and experiments consistent with local adaptation. Experimental manipulations in natural populations have provided evidence that rapid evolutionary responses may occur in the wild. However, there are remarkably few cases where direct observations of natural populations have revealed microevolutionary changes occurring, despite the frequent demonstration of additive genetic variation and strong directional selection for particular traits. Those few cases where responses congruent with expectation have been demonstrated are restricted to changes over one generation. In this article we focus on possible explanations as to why heritable traits under apparently strong directional selection often fail to show the expected evolutionary response. To date, few of these explanations for apparent stasis have been amenable to empirical testing. We describe new methods, derived from procedures developed by animal breeding scientists, which can be used to address these explanations, and illustrate the approach with examples from long-term studies of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Understanding why most intensively studied natural populations do not appear to be evolving is an important challenge for evolutionary biology.

  7. Hydraulic control of tuna fins: A role for the lymphatic system in vertebrate locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Vadim; Rosental, Benyamin; Hansen, Nathaniel F; Beers, Jody M; Parish, George; Rowbotham, Ian; Block, Barbara A

    2017-07-21

    The lymphatic system in teleost fish has genetic and developmental origins similar to those of the mammalian lymphatic system, which is involved in immune response and fluid homeostasis. Here, we show that the lymphatic system of tunas functions in swimming hydrodynamics. Specifically, a musculo-vascular complex, consisting of fin muscles, bones, and lymphatic vessels, is involved in the hydraulic control of median fins. This specialization of the lymphatic system is associated with fish in the family Scombridae and may have evolved in response to the demand for swimming and maneuvering control in these high-performance species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. Lymphatic drainage system of the brain: A novel target for intervention of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Liang; Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Tuo; Sun, Jing-Yi; Mao, Lei-Lei; Yang, Ming-Feng; Yuan, Hui; Colvin, Robert A; Yang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-09-10

    The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes. Brain lymphatic drainage helps maintain water and ion balance of the ISF, waste clearance, and reabsorption of macromolecular solutes. A second physiological function includes communication with the immune system modulating immune surveillance and responses of the brain. These physiological functions are influenced by aging, genetic phenotypes, sleep-wake cycle, and body posture. The impairment and dysfunction of the brain lymphatic system has crucial roles in age-related changes of brain function and the pathogenesis of neurovascular, neurodegenerative, and neuroinflammatory diseases, as well as brain injury and tumors. In this review, we summarize the key component elements (regions, cells, and water transporters) of the brain lymphatic system and their regulators as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of neurologic diseases and their resulting complications. Finally, we highlight the clinical importance of ependymal route-based targeted gene therapy and intranasal drug administration in the brain by taking advantage of the unique role played by brain lymphatic pathways in the regulation of CSF flow and ISF/CSF exchange. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A model to measure lymphatic drainage from the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhui; Johnston, Miles G; Gupta, Neeru; Moore, Sara; Yücel, Yeni H

    2011-11-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for glaucoma development and progression. Most anti-glaucoma treatments aim to lower IOP by enhancing aqueous humor drainage from the eye. Aqueous humor drainage occurs via well-characterized trabecular meshwork (TM) and uveoscleral (UVS) pathways, and recently described ciliary body lymphatics. The relative contribution of the lymphatic pathway to aqueous drainage is not known. We developed a sheep model to quantitatively assess lymphatic drainage along with TM and UVS outflows. This study describes that model and presents our initial findings. Following intracameral injection of (125)I-bovine serum albumin (BSA), lymph was continuously collected via cannulated cervical lymphatic vessels and the thoracic lymphatic duct over either a 3-h or 5-h time period. In the same animals, blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein every 15 min. Lymphatic and TM drainage were quantitatively assessed by measuring (125)I-BSA in lymph and plasma, respectively. Radioactive tracer levels were also measured in UVS and "other" ocular tissue, as well as periocular tissue harvested 3 and 5 h post-injection. Tracer recovered from UVS tissue was used to estimate UVS drainage. The amount of (125)I-BSA recovered from different fluid and tissue compartments was expressed as a percentage of total recovered tracer. Three hours after tracer injection, percentage of tracer recovered in lymph and plasma was 1.64% ± 0.89% and 68.86% ± 9.27%, respectively (n = 8). The percentage of tracer in UVS, other ocular and periocular tissues was 19.87% ± 5.59%, 4.30% ± 3.31% and 5.32% ± 2.46%, respectively. At 5 h (n = 2), lymphatic drainage was increased (6.40% and 4.96% vs. 1.64%). On the other hand, the percentage of tracer recovered from UVS and other ocular tissue had decreased, and the percentage from periocular tissue showed no change. Lymphatic drainage increased steadily over the 3 h post-injection period, while TM

  10. An Apparent Deficiency of Lymphatic Capillaries in the Islets of Langerhans in the Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgren, Erik; Korsgren, Olle

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is crucial for efficient immune surveillance and for the maintenance of a physiological pressure in the interstitial space. Even so, almost no information is available concerning the lymph drainage of the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. Immunohistochemical staining allowed us to distinguish lymphatic capillaries from blood capillaries. Almost no lymphatic capillaries were found within the islets in pancreatic biopsy specimens from subjects without diabetes or from subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Lymphatic capillaries were, however, found at the islet-exocrine interface, frequently located along blood capillaries and other fibrotic structures within or close to the islet capsule. Lymphatic capillaries were regularly found in the exocrine pancreas, with small lymphatic vessels located close to and around acini. Larger collecting lymphatic vessels were located in fibrotic septa between the exocrine lobules and adjacent to the ductal system of the pancreas. In summary, we report a pronounced deficiency of lymphatic capillaries in human islets, a finding with implications for immune surveillance and the regulation of interstitial fluid transport in the endocrine pancreas as well as for the pathophysiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija; Jakobsson, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Tissue fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and its role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, Pdgfb overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and the low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate the requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels, and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint that prevents SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed.Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration.Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration.

  13. Brain drains: new insights into brain clearance pathways from lymphatic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Neil I; Hogan, Benjamin M

    2018-05-01

    The lymphatic vasculature act as the drainage system for most of our tissues and organs, clearing interstitial fluid and waste and returning them to the blood circulation. This is not the case for the central nervous system (CNS), which is devoid of parenchymal lymphatic vessels. Nevertheless, the brain is responsible for 25% of the body's metabolism and only compromises 2% of the body's mass. This high metabolic load requires an efficient system to remove waste products and maintain homeostasis. Well-described mechanisms of waste clearance include phagocytic immune cell functions as well as perivascular fluid flow; however, the need for active drainage of waste from the brain is becoming increasingly appreciated. Recent developments in lymphatic vascular biology challenge the proposition that the brain lacks lymphatic drainage or an equivalent. In this review, we describe the roles of the glymphatic system (a key drainage mechanism in the absence of lymphatics), the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels, and explore an enigmatic cell population found in zebrafish called mural lymphatic endothelial cells. These systems may play important individual and collective roles in draining and clearing wastes from the brain.

  14. Counteracting venous stasis during acute lower leg immobilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Scheurwater, H.; Laarhoven, E.W. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: During lower limb immobilization, patients are at risk to develop deep venous thrombosis. Recently, a water-pad was developed that should counteract venous stasis. The water-pad, located under the plaster, mobilizes water from the foot to the calf during weight bearing and, thereby, imitates

  15. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA...

  16. Lymphatic Filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2010-01-01

    In most countries of sub-Saharan Africa the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. Here we present the first detailed study on the effect of 3 repeated MDAs...

  17. Synchronization and Random Triggering of Lymphatic Vessel Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baish, James W.; Kunert, Christian; Padera, Timothy P.; Munn, Lance L.

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream, but unlike the cardiovascular system, lacks a centralized pump-the heart–to drive flow. Instead, each collecting lymphatic vessel can individually contract and dilate producing unidirectional flow enforced by intraluminal check valves. Due to the large number and spatial distribution of such pumps, high-level coordination would be unwieldy. This leads to the question of how each segment of lymphatic vessel responds to local signals that can contribute to the coordination of pumping on a network basis. Beginning with elementary fluid mechanics and known cellular behaviors, we show that two complementary oscillators emerge from i) mechanical stretch with calcium ion transport and ii) fluid shear stress induced nitric oxide production (NO). Using numerical simulation and linear stability analysis we show that the newly identified shear-NO oscillator shares similarities with the well-known Van der Pol oscillator, but has unique characteristics. Depending on the operating conditions, the shear-NO process may i) be inherently stable, ii) oscillate spontaneously in response to random disturbances or iii) synchronize with weak periodic stimuli. When the complementary shear-driven and stretch-driven oscillators interact, either may dominate, producing a rich family of behaviors similar to those observed in vivo. PMID:27935958

  18. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  19. Radiological evaluation of the chronic venous stasis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Train, J.S.; Schanzer, H.; Peirce, E.C. II; Dan, S.J.; Mitty, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic venous stasis is an extremely complex clinical syndrome of pain and changes in the skin that can involve the superficial, deep, and perforating veins. This syndrome is commonly referred to as the postphlebitic syndrome, implying that thrombophlebitis is its sole etiology. To test this hypothesis, the authors performed ascending venography on 51 limbs of patients with the chromic venous stasis syndrome and demonstrated that 32 had no radiological evidence of recent or old thrombophlebitis. Instead, they had normal-appearing veins, suggesting primary incompetence of the deep and/or perforating venous valves rather than thrombophlebitis as the etiology. Since various operations have recently been proposed to correct or bypass malfunctioning valves, precise demonstration of pathological change is required to choose the appropriate procedure and to evaluate results. Descending venograms were combined with the ascending studies in 42 limbs for this purpose. In addition to outlining the abnormalities responsible for chronic venous stasis syndrome in individual cases, interesting conclusions regarding the syndrome itself were reached

  20. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and

  1. Esophageal stasis in achalasia patients without symptoms after treatment does not predict symptom recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, F B; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2017-08-01

    After achalasia treatment, a subset of patients has poor esophageal emptying without having symptoms. There is no consensus on whether to pre-emptively treat these patients. We hypothesized that, if left untreated, these patients will experience earlier symptom recurrence than patients without stasis. 99 treated achalasia patients who were in clinical remission (Eckardt ≤3) at 3 months after treatment were divided into two groups, based on presence or absence of esophageal stasis on a timed barium esophagogram performed after 3 months. Two years after initial treatment, patients with stasis after treatment still had a wider esophagus (3 cm; IQR: 2.2-3.8) and more stasis (3.5 cm; IQR: 1.9-5.6) than patients without stasis (1.8 cm wide and 0 cm stasis; both Ptreatment also had a higher degree of stasis and a more dilated esophagus, compared to patients without stasis, they did not have a higher chance of requiring retreatment. We conclude that stasis in symptom-free achalasia patients after treatment does not predict treatment failure within 2 years and can therefore not serve as a sole reason for retreatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A.; Antila, Salli

    2017-01-01

    Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss...... the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges...... and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems....

  3. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  4. Lymphatic imaging in unsedated infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Balaguru, Duraisamy; Douglas, William I.; Breinholt, John P.; Greives, Matthew R.; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Primary lymphedema and lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the underlying anatomy and function of the lymphatic system. Diagnostics for the lymphatic vasculature are limited, consisting of lymphoscintigraphy or invasive lymphangiography, both of which require sedation that can restrict use in infants and children. As a result, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients with lymphatic disorders remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. Because near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables image acquisition on the order of tenths of seconds with trace administration of fluorescent dye, sedation is not necessary. The lack of harmful radiation and radioactive contrast agents further facilitates imaging. Herein we summarize our experiences in imaging infants and children who are suspected to have disorders of the lymphatic vascular system using indocyanine green (ICG) and who have developed chylothorax following surgery for congenital heart defects. The results show both anatomical as well as functional lymphatic deficits in children with congenital disease. In the future, NIRF lymphatic imaging could provide new opportunities to tailor effective therapies and monitor responses. The opportunity to use expand NIRF imaging for pediatric diagnostics beyond the lymphatic vasculature is also afforded by the rapid acquisition following trace administration of NIRF contrast agent.

  5. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Atri, Deepak; Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1S259A) that is associated with Noonan syndrome. Expression of mutant RAF1S259A in ECs activated ERK and induced SOX18 and PROX1 expression, leading to increased commitment of venous ECs to the lymphatic fate. Excessive production of lymphatic ECs resulted in lymphangiectasia that was highly reminiscent of abnormal lymphatics seen in Noonan syndrome and similar “RASopathies.” Inhibition of ERK signaling during development abrogated the lymphatic differentiation program and rescued the lymphatic phenotypes induced by expression of RAF1S259A. These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases. PMID:23391722

  6. Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is expressed in lymphatic vessels in human skin and affects lymphatic endothelial cell function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigl, Benjamin; Zgraggen, Claudia; Rehman, Nadia; Banziger-Tobler, Nadia E.; Detmar, Michael; Halin, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels play an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, intestinal fat absorption and immunosurveillance. Furthermore, they are involved in pathologic conditions, such as tumor cell metastasis and chronic inflammation. In comparison to blood vessels, the molecular phenotype of lymphatic vessels is less well characterized. Performing comparative gene expression analysis we have recently found that coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is significantly more highly expressed in cultured human, skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), as compared to blood vascular endothelial cells. Here, we have confirmed these results at the protein level, using Western blot and FACS analysis. Immunofluorescence performed on human skin confirmed that CAR is expressed at detectable levels in lymphatic vessels, but not in blood vessels. To address the functional significance of CAR expression, we modulated CAR expression levels in cultured LECs in vitro by siRNA- and vector-based transfection approaches. Functional assays performed with the transfected cells revealed that CAR is involved in distinct cellular processes in LECs, such as cell adhesion, migration, tube formation and the control of vascular permeability. In contrast, no effect of CAR on LEC proliferation was observed. Overall, our data suggest that CAR stabilizes LEC-LEC interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity

  7. Brain washing : Transport of cerebral extracellular fluids and solutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedussi, B.

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of extracellular volume and fluid composition provides a robust microenvironment for brain cells. In peripheral tissue, fluid surplus and solutes are removed from the interstitium via drainage into lymphatic channels. Since the central nervous system lacks a proper lymphatic vasculature,

  8. [Discussion of acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy based on blood stasis theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Guo, Anlin; Wang, Houlian; She, Chang; Liu, Mi; Liu, Mailan; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Xiaorong

    2017-02-12

    Based on the understanding of TCM and western medicine on diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the relationship between DPN pathogenesis and blood stasis of TCM is discussed from the perspective of modern medicine. It is indicated blood stasis is the key pathogenesis to DPN, and a two-step acupuncture treatment of DPN from the theory of blood stasis is proposed. The first step is to analyze the pathogenesis of blood stasis, which could block the progress of the disease and diminish the symptoms. The second step is to apply acupuncture for pathological result of blood stasis by following the principle of eliminating exogenous pathogen , as a result, the purpose of treating both symptoms and root cause is achieved.

  9. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  10. Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Croft, Alexandra; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Furuya, Momoko; Kemp, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes

  11. Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Croft, Alexandra; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Furuya, Momoko; Kemp, Christopher J

    2014-05-21

    Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes.

  12. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Acute Lymphatic Leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of a patient who developed fatal pneumocystis pneumonia while in remission from acute lymphatic leukaemia is presented. Clinical and aetiological aspects of this rare infection are discussed. Attention is drawn to diagnostic pitfalls encountered in leukaemia.

  13. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Sassi, Francesco; Brunetti, Barbara; Rizzo, Antonio; Diracca, Laura; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA)-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C), its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG), ten benign (BT) and 32 malignant (MT) tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. The number of both VEGFR-3 positive and negative lymphatics in the extratumoral

  14. Microbial stasis of Leishmania enriettii in activated guinea pig macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groocock, C.M.; Soulsby, E.J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from Leishmania-sensitized guinea pigs were cultured in vitro in the presence (activated) or absence (non-activated) of leishmanial antigen for 24 or 48 hours. These were then labelled with 51 Cr and challenged with 125 I-labelled promastigotes. The changing relationship between the macrophage and the parasite was monitored by observing changes in the ratio of the cell-associated isotopes. Highly significant differences in the ratio change developed during culture. These differences were a result of the activated cultures showing a higher release of 51 Cr and a lower release of 125 I when compared with the non-activated cells, at 12 hours the percentage release of 125 I from the parasite within the activated macrophage was fourfold less than that released by parasites within non-activated cells (9.2% versus 38.3%) and tenfold less than that released from glutaraldehyde-killed organisms phagocytosed by activated macrophages (91.6%). These studies indicate that stasis rather than killing of leishmaniae occurs in the activated macrophage in vitro. Parallel experiments evaluated by the visual counting of leishmaniae within the macrophages support these data. PEC from tuberculin-sensitized guinea pigs activated in vitro by purified protein derivative showed little or no activity against leishmaniae, indicating a specific requirement for this microbial stasis by activated macrophages. As a corollary of this, peritoneal exudate lymphocytes separated from the same preparations of PEC were shown to be specifically reactive to leishmanial antigen by transformation and incorporation of 3 H-thymidine. (author)

  15. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  16. Transformation Stasis Phenomenon of Bainite Formation in Low-Carbon, Multicomponent Alloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei

    2017-11-01

    The transformation stasis phenomenon of bainite formation in low-carbon steel was detected using a high-resolution dilatometer. The phenomenon occurred at different stages for different isothermal temperatures. In combination with microstructural observation, the calculated overall activation energy of transformation and interface migration velocity shed new light on the cause of formation of the stasis phenomenon. The temporary stasis formed at the initial stage of phase transformation for high isothermal temperature was attributed to the drag effect of substitutional atoms, which leads to low-interface migration velocity and large overall activation energy.

  17. The lymphatics of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Koji

    1990-01-01

    For the studies of the esophageal lymphatics, endoscopic RI-lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 23 cases of esophageal cancer, 3 cases of lung cancer and 5 cases of gastric cancer. 99m Tc-Rhenium colloid was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer of the esophagus near the tumor and the images of th lymph flow were obtained after about 3 hours. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was used to acquire the three-dimensional images of the esophageal lymph flow on 19 patients. RI-uptake of all dissected lymph nodes was also counted after the operation. The results were shown as follows. Whole neck, thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes could be imaged in any case injected at any part of the thoracic esophagus. But the lymph flow in the upper third of the esophagus tended to move mainly upward, and the lymph flow in the lower third tended to move mainly downward. The block of intra-mural lymph vessels by the tumor had very important roles upon the esophageal lymph flow. The removal of upper mediastinal lymph nodes and intraabdominal lumph nodes as well as paraesophageal lymph nodes seemed to be very important for curative resection of carcinoma of the esophagus. (author)

  18. Giant pediatric cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzou, Salma; Boulaadas, Malik; Essakalli, Leila

    2013-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are benign lesions. Most of them are found in head and neck regions as asymptomatic mass, but giant lymphangiomas may affect breathing or swallowing and constitute a major therapeutic challenge. A retrospective analysis of giant head and neck LMs with impairment of respiration or swallow for the past 11 years was performed in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and ENT of the Avicenne Medical University Center. Seven patients with large and extensive LMs of the head and neck were identified. There were 3 males and 4 females with a mean age of 6 years. The predominant reason for referral was airway compromise necessitating tracheostomy (57%) and dysphagia (43%). Three patients had macrocystic lesions; others were considered mixed or microcystic. All the patients underwent surgical excision as a primary treatment modality. Complete surgical resection was realized in 4 patients, and subtotal resection in 3 patients. Of 7 patients, 4 patients had complications including nerve damage and recurrence of the disease. The majority of the patients underwent only a single surgical procedure. Cervicofacial LMs in children should be managed in multidisciplinary setting. Surgery remains the first treatment for managing giant, life-threatening lesions.

  19. A novel podoplanin-GFPCre mouse strain for gene deletion in lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Hyea Jin; Ma, Wanshu; Oliver, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    The lymphatic vascular system is a one-direction network of thin-walled capillaries and larger vessels covered by a continuous layer of endothelial cells responsible for maintaining fluid homeostasis. Some of the main functions of the lymphatic vasculature are to drain fluid from the extracellular spaces and return it back to the blood circulation, lipid absorption from the intestinal tract, and transport of immune cells to lymphoid organs. A number of genes controlling the development of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature have been identified in the last few years, and their functional roles started to be characterized using gene inactivation approaches in mice. Unfortunately, only few mouse Cre strains relatively specific for lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are currently available. In this article, we report the generation of a novel Podoplanin (Pdpn) GFPCre transgenic mouse strain using its 5' regulatory region. Pdpn encodes a transmembrane mucin-type O-glycoprotein that is expressed on the surface of embryonic and postnatal LECs, in addition to few other cell types. Our detailed characterization of this novel strain indicates that it will be a valuable additional genetic tool for the analysis of gene function in LECs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (Pgroup, high dose group (Pgroup (Pblood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  1. Basic and clinical application progression of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis Chinese medicine in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invigorating blood and dissolving stasis method is a kind of unique therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCMtreatment, which efficacy has become increasingly prominent in the treatment of ophthalmology. With the further studies of blood stasis and invigorating blood and dissolving stasis therapy, it is widely used in clinical ophthalmology, and get good effects beyond thought, especially when western medicine has no curative effects. It improved the cure rate of fundus oculi disease from the eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, vitreous body to the choroid and retina, optic nerve and macula lutea, from surface to fundus, or pathological changes related to inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, atrophy, hyperplasia of fibrous tissue hyperplasia. This paper is aim to explain the definition of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis and make a review of basic research and clinical application about it in several diseases.

  2. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  3. Exercise training improves obesity-related lymphatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; Savetsky, Ira L; García Nores, Gabriela D; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Nitti, Matthew D; Gardenier, Jason C; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z; Jones, Lee W; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene expression of lymphatic

  4. Exercise training improves obesity‐related lymphatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Kataru, Raghu P.; Savetsky, Ira L.; García Nores, Gabriela D.; Torrisi, Jeremy S.; Nitti, Matthew D.; Gardenier, Jason C.; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z.; Jones, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction.Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells.Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Abstract Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti‐inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene

  5. Characterization of biosynthesis and modes of action of prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehal, Sonia; Blanckaert, Pauline; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2009-12-01

    Rhythmical transient constrictions of the lymphatic vessels provide the means for efficient lymph drainage and interstitial tissue fluid balance. This activity is critical during inflammation, to avoid or limit oedema resulting from increased vascular permeability, mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and prostacyclin modulate lymphatic contractility in isolated guinea pig mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of mRNA for enzymes and receptors involved in the production and action of PGE(2) and prostacyclin in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels. Frequency and amplitude of lymphatic vessel constriction were measured in the presence of these prostaglandins and the role of their respective EP and IP receptors assessed. Prostaglandin E(2) and prostacyclin decreased concentration-dependently the frequency, without affecting the amplitude, of lymphatic constriction. Data obtained in the presence of the EP(4) receptor antagonists, GW627368x (1 microM) and AH23848B (30 microM) and the IP receptor antagonist CAY10441 (0.1 microM) suggest that PGE(2) predominantly activates EP(4), whereas prostacyclin mainly stimulates IP receptors. Inhibition of responses to either prostaglandin with H89 (10 microM) or glibenclamide (1 microM) suggested a role for the activation of protein kinase A and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Our findings characterized the inhibition of lymphatic pumping induced by PGE(2) or prostacyclin in guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics. This action is likely to impair oedema resolution and to contribute to the pro-inflammatory actions of these prostaglandins.

  6. Selection on skewed characters and the paradox of stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamour, Suzanne; Teplitsky, Céline; Charmantier, Anne; Crochet, Pierre-André; Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Observed phenotypic responses to selection in the wild often differ from predictions based on measurements of selection and genetic variance. An overlooked hypothesis to explain this paradox of stasis is that a skewed phenotypic distribution affects natural selection and evolution. We show through mathematical modeling that, when a trait selected for an optimum phenotype has a skewed distribution, directional selection is detected even at evolutionary equilibrium, where it causes no change in the mean phenotype. When environmental effects are skewed, Lande and Arnold's (1983) directional gradient is in the direction opposite to the skew. In contrast, skewed breeding values can displace the mean phenotype from the optimum, causing directional selection in the direction of the skew. These effects can be partitioned out using alternative selection estimates based on average derivatives of individual relative fitness, or additive genetic covariances between relative fitness and trait (Robertson-Price identity). We assess the validity of these predictions using simulations of selection estimation under moderate sample sizes. Ecologically relevant traits may commonly have skewed distributions, as we here exemplify with avian laying date - repeatedly described as more evolutionarily stable than expected - so this skewness should be accounted for when investigating evolutionary dynamics in the wild. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Factor VIII-associated antigen in human lymphatic endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, R B; Witte, M H; Martinez, A P; Witte, C L; Hendrix, M J; Way, D; Reed, K

    1987-03-01

    Lymphatic vascular endothelium both on tissue section and in culture exhibits positivity for Factor VIII-associated antigen although staining is generally less intense and more spotty than in comparable blood vascular endothelium. Lymphatic endothelium also exhibits Weibel-Palade bodies. Neither marker, therefore, reliably distinguishes blood vascular endothelium from lymphatic endothelium.

  8. Lymphatic malformations: a proposed management algorithm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a management algorithm for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations, based on the authors\\' experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature on the subject. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of all the patients treated for lymphatic malformations at our institution during a 10-year period (1998-2008) was performed. DATA COLLECTED: age at diagnosis, location and type of lesion, radiologic investigation performed, presenting symptoms, treatment modality used, complications and results achieved. RESULTS: 14 patients were identified. Eight (57%) male and six (43%) female. There was an equal distribution between the left and right sides. The majority (71%) of cases were diagnosed within the first year of life. The majority of lesions were located in the suprahyoid region. The predominant reason for referral was an asymptomatic mass in 7 cases (50%) followed by airway compromise (36%) and dysphagia (14%). Management options employed included: observation, OK-432 injection, surgical excision and laser therapy. In 5 cases (36%) a combination of these were used. CONCLUSION: Historically surgical excision has been the management option of choice for lymphatic malformations. However due to the morbidity and high complication rate associated this is increasingly being questioned. Recent advances in sclerotherapy e.g. OK-432 injection have also shown significant promise. Based on experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature the authors of this paper have developed an algorithm for the management of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

  9. Spleen and Lymphatic System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Print en español El bazo y el sistema linfático The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  10. Modelling Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Swaminathan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito borne parasitic disease of the tropics. Of the three species of parasites causing the disease, W. bancrofti transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus is the most widely prevalent. Infection can lead to disabling chronic manifestations: lymphoedema,

  11. Lymphatic Filariasis: Transmission, Treatment and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne, tropical disease caused by filarial worms. Infection can lead to disabling chronic disease, characterized by swelling of extremities or external genitalia (lymphoedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele). Mass treatment with antifilarial drugs is

  12. The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuan-Xiang; Pan, Wei-Ren; Liu, Zhi-An; Zeng, Fan-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-03

    The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. The deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Laryngeal spaces and lymphatics: current anatomic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, L.W.; Welsh, J.J.; Rizzo, T.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the anatomic concepts of individual spaces or compartments within the larynx by isotope and dye diffusion. The authors identified continuity of spaces particularly within the submucosal planes and a relative isolation within the fixed structures resulting from the longitudinal pattern of fibroelastic tissues, muscle bands, and perichondrium. The historical data of anatomic resistance are refuted by the radioisotope patterns of dispersion and the histologic evidence of tissue permeability to the carbon particles. There is little clinical application of the compartment concept to the perimeter of growth and the configuration of extensive endolaryngeal cancers. The internal and extralaryngeal lymphatic network is presented and the regional associations are identified. The normal ipsilateral relationship is distorted by dispersion within the endolarynx supervening the anatomic midline. The effects of lymphatic obstruction caused by regional lymphadenectomy, tumor fixation, and irradiation-infection sequelae are illustrated; these result in widespread bilateral lymphatic nodal terminals. Finally, the evidence suggests that the internal network is modified by external interruption to accommodate an outflow system in continuity with the residual patent lymphatic channels

  14. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  15. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  16. Short time effects of radiotherapy on lymphatic vessels and restorative lymphatic pathways: experimental approaches ina mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastouret, F; Lievens, P; Leduc, O; Bourgeois, P; Tournel, K; Lamote, J; Zirak, C; Leduc, A

    2014-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an important component in the therapeutic approach to oncologic conditions. This study presents the investigative results on the impact of RT on lymphatic vessels and on the regenerative response of the lymphatic system in a mouse model. We first irradiated 3 groups of ten mice using brachytherapy in a single treatment of 20 Gy. We then performed morphological examination of the irradiated lymphatic vessels using an in vivo microscopic transillumination technique at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Next we evaluated lymphatic flow using lymphoscintigraphy and in vivo microscopy at 6 to 11 weeks in: 10 additional mice following irradiation as above (IR), in 10 mice following incision of a lymphatic vessel (I), and in a non-treated control group of 10 mice (N). Intact lymphatic vessels were observed in all mice at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following the single dose of radiotherapy in the first group of mice and normal lymphatic flow was fully restored in the irradiated (IR) and incised (I) mice indicating that the reparative substitution lymphatic pathways are functioning normally. We found that following irradiation with one dose of 20 Gy, lymphatic vessels were not visibly damaged and also that lymphatic flow was consistently restored and substitutive lymphatic pathways formed.

  17. Fluid and mass transport in a single lymphatic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    The problem considers the single blood vessel model in pulmonary circulation in the presence of gravitation and mass transfer. The tissue surrounding the blood vessel is modelled as a permeable medium distinct from the blood vessel which is a normal free space. On the assumption that the mass concentration varies slowly at the interface between the blood vessel and the tissue, the problem is tackled by asymptotic approximation. A crucial point of the analysis is the dependence of the flow variables on the permeability K of the tissue in a completely arbitrary manner. A primary conjecture of the study is the intimacy of the pathological pulmonary edema and the parameter K. (author). 4 refs

  18. Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2006-06-29

    oxidation ca 570 Myr ago reduced methane flux at source, stabilizing Phanerozoic climates. I argue that the major cellular innovations exhibit a pattern of quantum evolution followed by very rapid radiation and then substantial stasis, as described by Simpson. They yielded organisms that are a mosaic of extremely conservative and radically novel features, as characterized by De Beer's phrase 'mosaic evolution'. Evolution is not evenly paced and there are no real molecular clocks.

  19. Inhibitory effect of pentobarbital anesthesia on venous stasis induced arteriolar vasoconstriction in the dog hindleg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Henriksen, O; Amtorp, Ole

    1984-01-01

    venous stasis. In another experimental series the effect of general pentobarbital anesthesia on the vasoconstrictor activity in response to venous stasis locally in subcutaneous and muscle tissue in the hind limb was examined in 6 dogs. It was found that during the first 2-3 h of anesthesia...... the vasoconstrictor response was present in both tissues although the response in muscle tissue exhibited a great variation between the dogs during this period. However, after 4-5 h of anesthesia the response was abolished in both tissues. During neurolept anesthesia with fentanyl/N2O the same vasoconstrictor...... response was demonstrated in the hindleg 1 h and 5 h after induction of the anesthesia. It is concluded that pentobarbital anesthesia abolishes the arteriolar constriction induced by venous stasis. The mechanism may be blockade of the local sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibres or interference with myogenic...

  20. [Applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Thrombotic diseases in different forms become a great threat to human health. Such anti-platelet aggregation drugs as aspirin and clopidogrel are common drugs in clinic. However, along with the appearance of resistance and side effects of western anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-platelet aggregation traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have gradually become an important study orientation. Platelet is one of major participant in thrombosis, and plays an important role as a bioactive material in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, mainly involving two aspects--the evaluation for the anti-platelet aggregation activity of traditional Chinese medicines and the screening of their active components. This paper summarized the applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, so as to provide basis for further studies.

  1. METÁSTASIS CEREBRALES: UNA MIRADA BIOLÓGICA Y CLÍNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Arnaldo Marín; Dr. Alex Renner; Dra. Laura Itriago; Dr. Manuel Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Las metástasis cerebrales son los tumores cerebrales más frecuentes y son un desafío médico. Los tumores tienen una capacidad diferente de metastatizarse en el cerebro y deben tener la capacidad de penetrar la barrera hematoencefálica, interactuar con las células residentes y sobrevivir. La clínica es variada dependiendo del sitio afectado, así como los riesgos asociados de convulsión. Genómicamente se ha documentado cada vez más que las metástasis cerebrales cambian la expresión de sus mu...

  2. [Analysis of clinical characteristics of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in Professor Jiang Liangduo's theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Ma, Qing; Xu, Dong; Tang, Shi-Huan; Luo, Zeng-Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the clinical practice, Professor Jiang Liangduo, a national senior Chinese medicine doctor, has created the theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis" from the theory of meridian dialectics and from the overall state. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine clinical characteristics of sanjiao meridian stasis theory which is often used by Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of out-patient syndrome differentiation, were first studied and summarized to investigate its inherent regularity. First, the source of data and research methods were introduced, and then the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System was used with the method of data mining to retrospectively analyze the disease characteristics of Chinese and Western medicine in 279 patients with sanjiao meridian stasis diagnosed by Professor Jiang in 2014. Then the following main conclusions were made after research: sanjiao meridian stasis was more common in women as well as young and middle-aged population. Often manifested by prolonged treatment course, red tongue with yellowishfur, with good correlation between modern Western medicine diagnosis and TCM differentiation syndrome. The symptoms of sanjiao meridian stasis syndrome are mostly of heat syndromes, and middle-aged patients are the most common patients with stasis and stasis of sanjiao. Related information of Western medicine diagnosis can help to diagnose the "sanjiao meridian stasis". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A; Antila, Salli; Alitalo, Kari; Nedergaard, Maiken; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Recent discoveries of the glymphatic system and of meningeal lymphatic vessels have generated a lot of excitement, along with some degree of skepticism. Here, we summarize the state of the field and point out the gaps of knowledge that should be filled through further research. We discuss the glymphatic system as a system that allows CNS perfusion by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF). We also describe the recently characterized meningeal lymphatic vessels and their role in drainage of the brain ISF, CSF, CNS-derived molecules, and immune cells from the CNS and meninges to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems.

  4. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Katayama, Kanji; Sawa, Toshiharu

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach was examined using lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m colloid in 98 patients with gastric cancer and 4 patients with esophageal cancer. The colloidal Tc-99m was injected into the submucosa of stomach 12 hr before operation with the aid of endoscopy. Each lymph node dissected from the specimens was measured by scintillation counter. Lymph nodes located along the left gastric, splenic and left inferior phrenic arteries were mainly involved in the lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. There was strong relationship between the cardia and the node of number 16. The lymphatics was also present in the mediastinum. These results suggest the necessities of the complete removal of the gastropancreatic mesenteriolum including the left inferior phrenic artery and the extirpation of the regional lymph nodes around the aorta above and below the left renal artery, in addition to the removal of both pancreas and spleen in cases of cardia tumors. Furthermore, in cases of squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes, it seems necessary to extirpate the complete mediastinal lymph nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundue, Michael A; Rothfels, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of morphological evolution at levels above family rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present study seeks to address this gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, including representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the evolution of the large eupolypod II clade (which includes nearly one-third of extant fern species) features unexpected patterns. The traditional 'athyrioid' ferns are scattered across the phylogeny despite their apparent morphological cohesiveness, and mixed among these seemingly conservative taxa are morphologically dissimilar groups that lack any obvious features uniting them with their relatives. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony character optimizations are used to determine characters that unite the seemingly disparate groups, and to test whether the polyphyly of the traditional athyrioid ferns is due to evolutionary stasis (symplesiomorphy) or convergent evolution. The major events in eupolypod II character evolution are reviewed, and character and character state concepts are reappraised, as a basis for further inquiries into fern morphology. Characters were scored from the literature, live plants and herbarium specimens, and optimized using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood, onto a highly supported topology derived from maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis of molecular data. Phylogenetic signal of characters were tested for using randomization methods and fitdiscrete. The majority of character state changes within the eupolypod II phylogeny occur at the family level or above. Relative branch lengths for the morphological data resemble those from molecular data and fit an ancient rapid radiation model (long branches subtended by very short backbone internodes), with few characters uniting the morphologically disparate clades. The traditional athyrioid ferns were circumscribed based upon a combination of

  7. Lymphatic microangiopathy of the skin in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, A J; Gretener, S B; Enderlin, S; Brühlmann, P; Michel, B A; Kowal-Bielecka, O; Hoffmann, U; Franzeck, U K

    1999-03-01

    The cutaneous capillary lymphatic system in patients with systemic sclerosis was investigated using fluorescence microlymphography. The distal upper limbs of 16 healthy controls (mean age 62.3+/-13.1 yr) and 16 patients with systemic sclerosis (mean age 58.9+/-13.6 yr) were examined and the following parameters were evaluated: (a) single lymphatic capillaries; (b) lymphatic capillary network and cutaneous backflow; (c) extension of the stained lymphatics; (d) diameter of single lymphatic capillaries. At the finger level, lymphatic capillaries were lacking in five patients, while they were present in all controls (P < 0.05). Extension of the stained lymphatics was increased in 11 patients (8.1+/-6.0 mm) compared to the 16 healthy controls (2.0+/-1.2 mm) (P < 0.0001). Cutaneous backflow was observed in three patients (P < 0.05). At the hand level, lymphatic network extension was significantly different between patients (3.8+/-2.4 mm) and controls (1.2+/-0.8 mm) (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found at the forearm level. Lesional skin in patients with systemic sclerosis exhibits evidence of lymphatic microangiopathy.

  8. Lymphatic imaging: Lymphography, computed tomography and scintigraphy, 2nd ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, M.E.; Wallace, S.

    1985-01-01

    The latest addition to the Golden's Diagnostic Radiology series deals not only with imaging of the lymphatic system but also with lymphatic anatomy, its pathophysiology, and treatment of disorders. The first two chapters deal with the history of the discovery of the lymphatic system and its normal anatomy. The section on technique contains practical information and discussion of lymphatic physiology and the pathology of lymphomas. Half of the book's 16 chapters are devoted to problems encountered in clinical imaging. The approach is both by anatomy (thorax, neck, abdomen) and pathology (benign disease, lymphoma, solid tumors)

  9. Relationship between two blood stasis syndromes and inflammatory factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cai-Yun; Liu, Jing-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xun; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Xu, Zhen-Ye; Wang, Shao-Ping; Jia, Min; Zhao, Fu-Hai; Jiang, Yue-Rong; Ma, Qin; Peng, Hong-Yu; Lu, Yuan; Zheng, Ze; Ren, Feng-Xue

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory factors and two Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) and qi deficiency and blood stasis (QDBS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty subjects with ACS, whose pathogenesis changes belongs to qi disturbance blood stasis syndrome, were divided into 2 groups: 30 in the QSBS group and 30 in the QDBS group. The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing general information, coronary angiography and inflammatory factors including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). Compared with the QSBS group, Lp-PLA2 and YKL-40 levels in the QDBS group showed no-significant difference (P>0.05); ICAM-1 was significantly higher in the QDBS group than in the QSBS group in the pathological processes of qi disturbance and blood stasis syndrome of ACS (Psyndrome typing of QSBS and QDBS, which provides a research direction for standardization research of CM syndrome types.

  10. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene; Hopkins, Melanie J.; Lidgard, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor-descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies, we find that stasis is common in the fossil record, as is a strict version of stasis that entails no real evolutionary changes. Incidence of directional evolution is relatively low (13%), but higher than in previous studies because our analytical approach can more sensitively detect noisy trends. Complex evolutionary models are often favored, overwhelmingly so for sequences comprising many samples. This finding is consistent with evolutionary dynamics that are, in reality, more complex than any of the models we consider. Furthermore, the timing of shifts in evolutionary dynamics varies among traits measured from the same series. Finally, we use our empirical collection of evolutionary sequences and a long and highly resolved proxy for global climate to inform simulations in which traits adaptively track temperature changes over time. When realistically calibrated, we find that this simple model can reproduce important aspects of our paleontological results. We conclude that observed paleontological patterns, including the prevalence of stasis, need not be inconsistent with adaptive evolution, even in the face of unstable physical environments.

  11. The effect of adipose derived stromal vascular fraction on stasis zone in an experimental burn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Atilla Adnan; Uysal, Cagri A; Ozgun, Gonca; Coskun, Erhan; Markal Ertas, Nilgun; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Stasis zone is the surrounding area of the coagulation zone which is an important part determining the extent of the necrosis in burn patients. In our study we aim to salvage the stasis zone by injecting adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF). Thermal injury was applied on dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20) by the "comb burn" model as described previously. When the burn injury was established on Sprague-Dawley rats (30min); rat dorsum was separated into 2 equal parts consisting of 4 burn zones (3 stasis zone) on each pair. ADSVF cells harvested from inguinal fat pads of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5) were injected on the right side while same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected on the left side of the same animal. One week later, average vital tissue on the statis zone was determined by macroscopy, angiography and microscopy. Vascular density, inflammatory cell density, gradient of fibrosis and epithelial thickness were determined via immunohistochemical assay. Macroscopic stasis zone tissue viability (32±3.28%, 57±4.28%) (p51, 1.50±0.43) (pzone on acute burn injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Difference of achalasia subtypes based on clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meillier

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Achalasia subtypes had similar clinical symptoms, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i. The maximum esophageal diameter in subtype ii was significantly greater than in subtype iii. Esophageal stasis scores were similar. Thus, high-resolution esophageal manometry remains essential in assessing achalasia subtypes.

  13. Relationship between endogenous hydrogen sulfide and blood stasis syndrome based on the Qi-blood theory of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Xue-mei

    2013-09-01

    "Qi" and "blood" are two essential concepts in Chinese medicine (CM). As qi is intangible, the concept of qi is still controversial between CM and Western medicine. However, the endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other gaseous signaling molecules provides a new approach for understanding the essence of qi in CM. Blood stasis syndrome is a common syndrome in CM. According to the CM theory, the incidence of blood stasis syndrome is closely correlated to the reckless movement of qi, as qi and blood are inseparable in regulating physiological functions. In recent years, more and more evidences suggest a close correlation between blood stasis syndrome and microcirculation dysfunction. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between endogenous H2S and blood stasis syndrome based on qi-blood theory of CM. We found that endogenous H2S maybe a material basis in concept of qi in CM, while dysfunctional microcirculation is the pathological basis of the blood stasis syndrome. As qi is closely associated with incidence and progression of blood stasis syndrome, endogenous H2S may play an important role in preventing and treating the blood stasis syndrome by improving the function of microcirculation.

  14. Lymphatics and lymphatic-like structures in melanoma : a pathobiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarijs, Johannes Antonius Godefridus Marinus

    2003-01-01

    Solid malignant tumors can be regarded as a functional tissue in which architecture and function are maintained by a dynamic interplay between tumor cells and a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) containing fibroblasts, blood and lymphatic vasculature and infiltrating and

  15. Neumotórax bilateral como complicación de metástasis pulmonar cavitaria de un angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V. Maldonado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las metástasis pulmonares de angiosarcoma constituyen una complicación común de una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente. Habitualmente se presentan como nódulos solidos periféricos y derrame pleural. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 65 años de edad con neumotórax bilateral recurrente, secundario a metástasis cavitadas de un angiosarcoma primitivo de cuero cabelludo. La videotoracoscopia permitió la inspección, la resección de las metástasis y la pleurodesis. No ocurrieron complicaciones ni recurrencia tumoral a los seis meses de seguimiento.

  16. Lymphatic Leak Occurring After Surgical Lymph Node Dissection: A Preliminary Study Assessing the Feasibility and Outcome of Lymphatic Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Yoolim; Won, Je Hwan [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Tae-Wook; Paek, Jiheum; Chang, Suk-Joon; Ryu, Hee-Sug [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gynecologic Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinoo, E-mail: jinoomail@gmail.com [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ajou University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeTo analyze imaging findings of lymphatic leakage associated with surgical lymph node dissection on lymphangiography and assess the outcome of lymphatic embolization.Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study comprised 21 consecutive patients who were referred for lymphatic intervention between March 2014 and April 2015 due to postsurgical lymphatic leaks. Lymphangiography was performed through inguinal lymph nodes to identify the leak. When a leak was found, lymphatic embolization was performed by fine-needle injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into the site of leakage or into an inflow lymphatic vessel or into a pelvic lymph node located below the leakage. Electronic medical records and imaging studies were reviewed to assess the outcome.ResultLymphangiography revealed single or multiple leaks in all but one patient. Lymphatic embolization was performed in 20 patients with leaks. Including the patient who did not undergo embolization, 17 patients (81.0 %) showed initial response to treatment. Three patients underwent repeated embolization with successful results. The overall success rate was 95.2 %. The mean duration of hospitalization after lymphatic intervention was 5.9 days. During a mean follow-up period of 11 months, two patients developed localized swelling in the groin following lipiodol injection. There were no complications related to lymphatic embolization. Three patients were found to have developed small, asymptomatic lymphoceles on CT or MRI that did not require further treatment.ConclusionLymphangiography is useful for detecting lymphatic leakage occurring after lymph node dissection. Furthermore, lymphatic embolization is feasible, effective, and safe for managing leaks demonstrated on lymphangiography.

  17. Lymphatic involvement in the histopathogenesis of mucous retention cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sukalyan; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Saku, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Mucous retention cyst results from extravasation of saliva. Our intent was to study the role of lymphatics in its pathogenesis. Twenty-three surgical specimens of mucous retention cyst of the lip were examined for involvement of lymphatic vessels by a comparative immunohistochemical demonstration of lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells, as well as lymphatic and salivary contents. Mucous retention cysts were histopathologically classified into three stages: early, intermediate, and advanced. In the early stage, there was diffuse extravasation of mucous material in the interstitium of the lamina propria or the submucosal layer of the oral mucosa. In the intermediate stage, lymphatics, which were clearly revealed and immunohistochemically distinguished from blood vessels by monoclonal antibody D2-40, were dilated and finally ruptured, leaving fragments of lymphatic walls in the periphery of mucous pools. In the advanced stage, thick cyst walls of granulation tissue were formed around mucous retention. Lymphatics were no longer involved in the granulation tissue wall, which was actively driven by blood vessel formation. The results suggest that the lymphatic rupture seems to contribute to the enlargement in the pathogenesis of mucous retention cyst.

  18. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchin, Pedro; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Fernandes, Larissa Araujo; Barreiros, Glória; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis), it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  19. Inflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tabibiazar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained lymph stagnation engenders a pathological response that is complex and not well characterized. Tissue inflammation in lymphedema may reflect either an active or passive consequence of impaired immune traffic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied an experimental model of acute post-surgical lymphedema in the tails of female hairless, immunocompetent SKH-1 mice. We performed in vivo imaging of impaired immune traffic in experimental, murine acquired lymphatic insufficiency. We demonstrated impaired mobilization of immunocompetent cells from the lymphedematous region. These findings correlated with histopathological alterations and large-scale transcriptional profiling results. We found intense inflammatory changes in the dermis and the subdermis. The molecular pattern in the RNA extracted from the whole tissue was dominated by the upregulation of genes related to acute inflammation, immune response, complement activation, wound healing, fibrosis, and oxidative stress response. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized a mouse model of acute, acquired lymphedema using in vivo functional imaging and histopathological correlation. The model closely simulates the volume response, histopathology, and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of human acquired lymphedema, and the response is accompanied by an increase in the number and size of microlymphatic structures in the lymphedematous cutaneous tissues. Molecular characterization through clustering of genes with known functions provides insights into processes and signaling pathways that compose the acute tissue response to lymph stagnation. Further study of genes identified through this effort will continue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and lead to potential therapeutic strategies for lymphatic vascular insufficiency.

  20. Scholars and scientists in the history of the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Gianfranco; Bocci, Guido; Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The discovery of the lymphatic system has a long and fascinating history. The interest in anatomy and physiology of this system paralleled that of the blood cardiocirculatory system and has been maybe obscured by the latter. Paradoxically, if the closed blood system appeared open in Galen's anatomy and physiology, and took a very long time to be correctly described in terms of pulmonary and general circulation by ibn Al-Nafis/Michael Servetus/Realdo Colombo and William Harvey, respectively, the open lymphatic system was incorrectly described as a closed circuit connected with arteries and veins. In ancient times only macroscopic components of the lymphatic system have been described, although misinterpreted, including lymph nodes and lacteals, the latter being easily identified because of their milk-like content. For about 15 centuries the dogmatic acceptance of Galen's notions did not allow a significant progress in medicine. After Vesalius' revolution in anatomical studies, new knowledge was accumulated, and the 17th century was the golden age for the investigation of the lymphatic system with several discoveries: gut lacteals (Gaspare Aselli), cloacal bursa (Hieronimus Fabricius of Acquapendente), reservoir of the chyle (Jean Pecquet), extra-intestinal lymphatic vessels (Thomas Bartholin and Olaus Rudbeck dispute), hepatic lymph circulation (Francis Glisson). In the Enlightenment century Frederik Ruysch described the function of lymphatic valves, and Paolo Mascagni provided a magnificent iconography of the lymphatic network in humans. In recent times, Leonetto Comparini realized three-dimensional reconstructions of the liver lymphatic vessels, and Kari Alitalo discovered the lymphatic growth factor/receptor system. Far from a complete understanding of its anatomy and function, the lymphatic system still needs to be profoundly examined. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  1. A vicious circle in chronic lymphoedema pathophysiology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucchi, F; Rossmeislova, L; Simonsen, L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphoedema is a disease caused by a congenital or acquired damage to the lymphatic system and characterized by complex chains of pathophysiologic events such as lymphatic fluid stasis, chronic inflammation, lymphatic vessels impairment, adipose tissue deposition and fibrosis. These event....... Together, these observations indicate strong reciprocal relationship between lymphatics and adipose tissue and suggest a possible key role of the adipocyte in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphoedema's vicious circle....

  2. METÁSTASIS CEREBRALES: UNA MIRADA BIOLÓGICA Y CLÍNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnaldo Marín

    2017-05-01

    Por lo tanto, la elección del tratamiento es compleja, considerando la primaria, el número de metástasis y los sitios afectados. La radioterapia ha sido durante mucho tiempo la elección de los pacientes que no son candidatos a la cirugía, y se espera que los avances reduzcan especialmente la toxicidad cognitiva. El conocimiento genómico de las metástasis cerebrales y la presencia de terapias dirigidas e inmunoterapias modificadas que penetran la barrera hematoencefálica han sido clave, se espera que en el futuro se realicen más estudios de combinaciones de tratamientos de radioterapia con terapias de inmunoterapia y dirigidas.

  3. Comparison of blood biochemics between acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis and simple acute myocardial infarction models in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Shaochun; Yu Xiaofeng; Wang Jia; Zhou Jinying; Xie Haolin; Sui Dayun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To construct the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis and study the difference on blood biochemics between the acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis and the simple acute myocardial infarction models. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, acute blood stasis model group, acute myocardial infarction sham operation group, acute myocardial infarction model group and of acute myocardial infarction model with blood stasis group. The acute myocardial infarction models under the status of the acute blood stasis in rats were set up. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were detected, the activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of prostacycline (PGI2), thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) and endothelin (ET) in plasma were determined. Results: There were not obvious differences in MDA, SOD, GSH-Px and FFA between the acute myocardial infarction models with blood stasis in rats and the simple acute myocardial infarction models (P 2 and NO, and the increase extents of TXA 2 , ET and TNF-α in the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis were higher than those in the simple acute myocardial infarction models (P 2 and NO, are significant when the acute myocardial infarction models in rats with blood stasis and the simple acute myocardial infarction models are compared. The results show that it is defective to evaluate pharmacodynamics of traditional Chinese drug with only simple acute myocardial infarction models. (authors)

  4. One hundred miles of lives: The Stasi files as a people's history of East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Molly

    1998-01-01

    The article explores a guiding assumption about oral history or "people's history": that it empowers "the people" simply because they are at the center of it. It provides the context of the Ministerium fur Staatsicherheit the "MfS" or "Stasi" files which were gathered by the communist government of Eastern Germany during the cold war. The author observes that although these files represent one of the most extensive examples which exist of a real people's history they are also a people's histo...

  5. The prognostic significance of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Nguyen, Linh; Banting, Jonathan; Christophi, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background. Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in Australia across both genders. Approximately, 40%-60% of patients with CRC develop metastasis, the liver being the most common site. Almost 70% of CRC mortality can be attributed to the development of liver metastasis. This study examines the pattern and density of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases (CLM) as predictors of survival following hepatic resection for CLM. Methods. Patient tissue samples were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the spatial differences in blood and lymphatic vessel densities between different regions within the tumor (CLM) and surrounding host tissue. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was assessed as a potential prognostic marker. Results. Patients with low lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre, tumor periphery, and adjacent normal liver demonstrated a significant disease-free survival advantage compared to patients with high lymphatic vessel density (P = 0.01, P > 0.01, and P = 0.05, resp.). Lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre and periphery and adjacent normal liver was an accurate predictive marker of disease-free survival (P = 0.05). Conclusion. Lymphatic vessel density in CLM appears to be an accurate predictor of recurrence and disease-free survival.

  6. The Prognostic Significance of Lymphatics in Colorectal Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaragavan Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal Cancer (CRC is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in Australia across both genders. Approximately, 40%–60% of patients with CRC develop metastasis, the liver being the most common site. Almost 70% of CRC mortality can be attributed to the development of liver metastasis. This study examines the pattern and density of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases (CLM as predictors of survival following hepatic resection for CLM. Methods. Patient tissue samples were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the spatial differences in blood and lymphatic vessel densities between different regions within the tumor (CLM and surrounding host tissue. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD was assessed as a potential prognostic marker. Results. Patients with low lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre, tumor periphery, and adjacent normal liver demonstrated a significant disease-free survival advantage compared to patients with high lymphatic vessel density (P=0.01, P>0.01, and P=0.05, resp.. Lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre and periphery and adjacent normal liver was an accurate predictive marker of disease-free survival (P=0.05. Conclusion. Lymphatic vessel density in CLM appears to be an accurate predictor of recurrence and disease-free survival.

  7. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Li, Wenjun; Fulp, Brian; Platt, Andrew M; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Westerterp, Marit; Bittman, Robert; Tall, Alan R; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Thomas, Michael J; Kreisel, Daniel; Swartz, Melody A; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-04-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic drainage from skin--1 surgical and the other genetic--to quantitatively track RCT following injection of [3H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages upstream of blocked or absent lymphatic vessels. Macrophage RCT was markedly impaired in both models, even at sites with a leaky vasculature. Inhibited RCT was downstream of cholesterol efflux from macrophages, since macrophage efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol analog (BODIPY-cholesterol) was not altered by impaired lymphatic drainage. We next addressed whether RCT was mediated by lymphatic vessels from the aortic wall by loading the aortae of donor atherosclerotic Apoe-deficient mice with [2H]6-labeled cholesterol and surgically transplanting these aortae into recipient Apoe-deficient mice that were treated with anti-VEGFR3 antibody to block lymphatic regrowth or with control antibody to allow such regrowth. [2H]-Cholesterol was retained in aortae of anti-VEGFR3-treated mice. Thus, the lymphatic vessel route is critical for RCT from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. These results suggest that supporting lymphatic transport function may facilitate cholesterol clearance in therapies aimed at reversing atherosclerosis.

  8. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Secchin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis, it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  9. Mapping lymphatic nodes: Role of thrombospondin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spana, G.S.; Liu, J.; Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Lymphatic (sentinel) node (SN) mapping determines the status of lymphatic basin draining a primary tumor, provides staging information of systemic spread of malignancy, and is vital in the management of breast cancer and melanoma. Thrombospondin (TSP), a matrix bound adhesive glycoprotein, promotes cell proliferation and angiogenesis. TSP receptors are expressed on lymphocytes, and on the cells of breast cancer and melanoma. We hypothesized that Tc-99m-CSVTCR, a small, soluble, and TSP specific peptide, can image SN. Method: CSVTCR was modified at the N terminus with Aba-G(D) AGG (TP1300) and labeled with Tc-99m. Female New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and 125 μCi TP1300 was given into the plantar/palmer surface of each foot pad in the metacarpal/metatarsal region, followed by dynamic imaging for 2 hrs and quantification of Tc-99m in SN and injection site by ROI. Control rabbits received Tc-99m-O 4 - and TP1300>Tc-99mO- 4 . Tc-99m clearance from injection site was Tc-99m-O 4 >TP1300>>TSC. % ID/g in the axillary SN was greater in than the popliteal SN for all agents. For TP1300, SN to muscle Tc-99m ratios were 552 for axillary and 140 for popliteal nodes. With infiltrating tumor cells higher uptake in SN is expected. Summary: Due to high SN uptake, rapid clearance from injection site delivering low radiation dose at injection site and ease of handling, targeting TSP receptors with Tc-99m-TP1300, a soluble, receptor specific, small biomolecule for efficient imaging of SN is promising

  10. Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Optical coherent tomography and fluorescent microscopy for the study of meningeal lymphatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Namykin, A.; Fedosov, I.; Pavlov, A.; Karavaev, A.; Sindeeva, O.; Shirokov, A.; Ulanova, M.; Shushunova, N.; Khorovodov, A.; Agranovich, I.; Bodrova, A.; Sagatova, M.; Shareef, Ali Esmat; Saranceva, E.; Dvoryatkina, M.; Tuchin, V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of novel technologies for the imaging of meningeal lymphatic vessels is one of the amazing trends of biophotonics thanks to discovery of brain lymphatics over several years ago. However, there is the limited technologies exist for the study of lymphatics in vivo because lymphatic vessels are transparent with a low speed flow of lymph. Here we demonstrate the successful application of fluorescent microscopy for the imaging of lymphatic system in the mouse brain in vivo.

  12. Basic Description of the Lymphatic System from the Perspective of SLN Uptake of Radioactive Tracers. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, R.; Janevik-Ivanovska, E.

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system. It is closely associated with the cardiovascular system because it includes a network of vessels that contributes to liquid transportation throughout the body. This circulatory system is essential for the maintenance of interstitial fluid balance, uptake of dietary fat and for body defence against invasion by disease causing agents. Lymph nodes, which contain large numbers of B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, are located along lymphatic pathways. They have two primary functions: filtering and digesting potentially harmful particles from lymph before returning it to the bloodstream and contributing to the immune surveillance provided by lymphocytes and macrophages. In their function of filtering particles or cell debris, lymph nodes may collect cancer cells that are breaking and travelling away from the primary tumour. The spread of some forms of cancer usually follows an orderly progression, spreading first to regional lymph nodes, then the next rank of lymph nodes and so on. Therefore, the first lymph node (the SLN) is more likely than other lymph nodes to contain cancer cells. If a suitable radioactive tracer, generally a nanocolloid or a dye, is administrated in the proximity of the tumour site, it will travel through the lymphatic system and be trapped in the SLN, allowing its localization using an appropriate probe or by visual determination. The size and the charge of the radioactive tracer will mainly influence the extent of radioactivity remaining at the site of injection, the rate of diffusion into the lymphatic vessels and the uptake in the SLN. Knowledge of the physiology of the lymphatic system will help to identify factors influencing the diffusion and uptake mechanism of radioactive tracers in the lymph nodes and will assist in the design of more efficient and selective SLN seeking drugs. (author)

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Human Lung Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Bruno; Falco, Angela; Madeddu, Denise; Frati, Caterina; Cavalli, Stefano; Graiani, Gallia; Gervasi, Andrea; Rinaldi, Laura; Lagrasta, Costanza; Maselli, Davide; Gnetti, Letizia; Silini, Enrico M.; Quaini, Eugenio; Ampollini, Luca; Carbognani, Paolo; Quaini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of lymphatic endothelial cells from the respiratory system may be crucial to investigate the role of the lymphatic system in the normal and diseased lung. We describe a simple and inexpensive method to harvest, isolate, and expand lymphatic endothelial cells from the human lung (HL-LECs). Fifty-five samples of healthy lung selected from patients undergoing lobectomy were studied. A two-step purification tool, based on paramagnetic sorting with monoclonal antibodies to CD31 and Podoplanin, was employed to select a pure population of HL-LECs. The purity of HL-LECs was assessed by morphologic criteria, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and functional assays. Interestingly, these cells retain in vitro several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) implicated in cell survival and proliferation. HL-LECs represent a clinically relevant cellular substrate to study lymphatic biology, lymphoangiogenesis, interaction with microbial agents, wound healing, and anticancer therapy. PMID:26137493

  14. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  15. C-ERC/mesothelin provokes lymphatic invasion of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Futoshi; Homma, Shigenori; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Einama, Takahiro; Kato, Yasutaka; Tsuda, Masumi; Tanaka, Shinya; Maeda, Masahiro; Kajino, Kazunori; Hino, Okio; Takahashi, Norihiko; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Akinobu; Todo, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a key event of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Mesothelin is expressed in various types of malignant tumor and associated with an unfavorable prognosis. The full-length mesothelin (Full-ERC) is cleaved by protease into membrane-bound C-ERC/mesothelin and N-ERC/mesothelin which is secreted into the blood. The aim of this study was to examine the biological role of mesothelin in CRC by clinicopathological analysis and in vitro lymphatic invasion assay. Ninety-one cases of CRC specimens were immunohistochemically examined and the localization of mesothelin in luminal membrane and/or cytoplasm was also evaluated. Lymphatic invasion assay was also performed using the human CRC cell line, WiDr, which was transfected with Full-, N- and C-ERC/mesothelin expression plasmids (Full-WiDr, N-WiDr and C-WiDr). Immunohistochemically, "luminal membrane positive" of mesothelin was identified in 37.4 %, and correlated with lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis, but not with patients' prognosis. Interestingly, among the patients with lymph node metastasis (N = 38), "luminal membrane positive" of mesothelin significantly correlated with unfavorable patients' outcome. In addition, lymphatic invasion assay revealed that Full-WiDr and C-WiDr more significantly invaded human lymphatic endothelial cells than the Mock-WiDr (P ERC/mesothelin associated with lymphatic invasion of cancer in vitro.

  16. The Lymphatic Vasculature: Its Role in Adipose Metabolism and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Noelia; Oliver, Guillermo

    2017-10-03

    Obesity is a key risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and although we understand the mechanisms regulating weight and energy balance, the causes of some forms of obesity remain enigmatic. Despite the well-established connections between lymphatics and lipids, and the fact that intestinal lacteals play key roles in dietary fat absorption, the function of the lymphatic vasculature in adipose metabolism has only recently been recognized. It is well established that angiogenesis is tightly associated with the outgrowth of adipose tissue, as expanding adipose tissue requires increased nutrient supply from blood vessels. Results supporting a crosstalk between lymphatic vessels and adipose tissue, and linking lymphatic function with metabolic diseases, obesity, and adipose tissue, also started to accumulate in the last years. Here we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms by which defective lymphatics contribute to obesity and fat accumulation in mouse models, as well as our understanding of the lymphatic-adipose tissue relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metástasis en hueso maxilar superior de adenocarcinoma de esófago: presentación de un caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Jiménez, Juan; Acebal Blanco, Faustino; Arévalo Arévalo, Rafael; Molina Martínez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Las metástasis en cavidad oral son lesiones raras que representan aproximadamente el 1% de todas las neoplasias malignas de cavidad oral. Las metástasis orales se localizan en un 80-90% en mandíbula, siendo mas raras en maxilar superior. Las metástasis en tejidos blandos de boca son raras, y es encía donde con mayor frecuencia se localizan las metástasis en tejidos blandos en boca. Los tumores primarios que metastatizan a boca son los más frecuentes pulmón, mama y riñón. ...

  18. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  19. Supra-annular Valve-in-Valve implantation reduces blood stasis on the transcatheter aortic valve leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Azadani, Ali N

    2017-06-14

    Leaflet thrombosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and Valve-in-Valve (ViV) procedures has been increasingly recognized. This study aimed to investigate the effect of positioning of the transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) in ViV setting on the flow dynamics aspect of post-ViV thrombosis by quantifying the blood stasis in the intra-annular and supra-annular settings. To that end, two idealized computational models, representing ViV intra-annular and supra-annular positioning of a TAV were developed in a patient-specific geometry. Three-dimensional flow fields were then obtained via fluid-solid interaction modeling to study the difference in blood residence time (BRT) on the TAV leaflets in the two settings. At the end of diastole, a strip of high BRT (⩾1.2s) region was observed on the TAV leaflets in the ViV intra-annular positioning at the fixed boundary where the leaflets are attached to the frame. Such a high BRT region was absent on the TAV leaflets in the supra-annular positioning. The maximum value of BRT on the surface of non-, right, and left coronary leaflets of the TAV in the supra-annular positioning were 53%, 11%, and 27% smaller compared to the intra-annular positioning, respectively. It was concluded that the geometric confinement of TAV by the leaflets of the failed bioprosthetic valve in ViV intra-annular positioning increases the BRT on the leaflets and may act as a permissive factor in valvular thrombosis. The absence of such a geometric confinement in the ViV supra-annular positioning leads to smaller BRT and subsequently less likelihood of leaflet thrombosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  1. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  2. LACTULOSE IN PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION OF CHILDREN WITH DECOMPENSATED TYPE OF CHRONIC COLON STASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kirgizov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of estimation of effectiveness of lactulose (Dupfalac in preoperative preparation of children with decompensated type of chronic colon stasis. Proved, that administration of this medication normalizes such indices of homeostasis as acid-base balance of blood and microbiocenose of colon by 7days. Use of lactulose decreases patient complaints on nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness in 1.6 times rarely then in group of children using other laxative medications in preoperative preparation.Key words: megacolon syndrome, lactulose, dysbacteriosis, blood acid-base balance.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:68-71

  3. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at skeletal muscle contraction (Dmc) decreased to 61.3 ± 1.4% of the precontraction value [resting diameter (Drest)]; however, if injection was at >900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Imaging of the interaction of cancer cells and the lymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Cao, Hop S; McElroy, Michele; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2011-09-10

    A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system and its interaction with cancer cells is crucial to our ability to fight cancer metastasis. Efforts to study the lymphatic system had previously been limited by the inability to visualize the lymphatic system in vivo in real time. Fluorescence imaging can address these limitations and allow for visualization of lymphatic delivery and trafficking of cancer cells and potentially therapeutic agents as well. Here, we review recent articles in which antibody-fluorophore conjugates are used to label the lymphatic network and fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells in the evaluation of lymphatic delivery and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on enhanced lymphatic tracing of isosulfan blue injection by influence of osmotic pressure on lymphatic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tiantian; He, Rui; Wu, Yue; Shang, Lei; Wang, Shujun

    2018-04-01

    Isosulfan blue (IB) is being used as a lymphatic tracer has been approved by the FDA in 1981. This study aimed at improving lymphatic exposure of IB injection by osmotic pressure regulation to achieve step-by step lymphatic tracing. First, IB injection with appropriate osmotic pressure, stability, and suitable pH was prepared. Next, the lymphatic tracing ability of different osmotic pressure was studied to determine the blue-stained state of IB in three-level lymph nodes after subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics of lymphatic drainage, lymph node uptake, and plasma concentration was investigate to explore the improving law of the lymphatic tracing by osmotic pressure, and combined with tissue irritation to determine the optimal osmotic pressure. At last, the tissue distribution in mice of IB injection which had the property of optimal osmotic pressure was investigated. The results showed that increasing osmotic pressure could significantly reduce injection site retention and increase IB concentration of lymph node. The lymph nodes could be obviously blue-stained by IB injection which had 938 mmol/kg osmotic pressure and would not cause inflammatory reaction and blood exposure. The tissue distribution study suggested that IB injection which had 938 mmol/kg osmotic pressure was mainly distributed into gallbladder and duodenum that verified the reports that 90% IB was excreted through the feces through biliary excretion. In conclusion, this study provides the basic study to improve lymphatic exposure of IB injection by regulate the osmotic pressure and have the potential to be the helpful guidance for the elective lymph node dissection.

  6. Supplementary oxygen and risk of childhood lymphatic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumburg, E; Bellocco, R; Cnattingius, S; Jonzon, A; Ekbom, A

    2002-01-01

    Childhood leukaemia has been linked to several factors, such as asphyxia and birthweight, which in turn are related to newborn resuscitation. Based on the findings from a previous study a population-based case-control study was performed to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and exposure to supplementary oxygen and other birth-related factors. Children born in Sweden and diagnosed with lymphatic leukaemia between 1973 and 1989 (578 cases) were individually matched by gender and date of birth to a randomly selected control. Children with Down's syndrome were excluded. Exposure data were blindly gathered from antenatal, obstetric and other standardized medical records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen with a facemask and bag immediately postpartum was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood lymphatic leukaemia (OR = 2.57, 95% Cl 1.21-6.82). The oxygen-related risk further increased if the manual ventilation lasted for 3 min or more (OR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.16-10.80). Low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were associated with a non-significantly increased risk of lymphatic leukaemia. There were no associations between lymphatic leukaemia and supplementary oxygen later in the neonatal period or other birth-related factors. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen immediately postpartum is associated with childhood lymphatic leukaemia, but further studies are warranted to confirm the findings.

  7. Altered Pulmonary Lymphatic Development in Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNellis, Emily M.; Mabry, Sherry M.; Taboada, Eugenio; Ekekezie, Ikechukwu I.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphatic development in chronic lung disease (CLD) has not been investigated, and anatomy of lymphatics in human infant lungs is not well defined. Hypothesis. Pulmonary lymphatic hypoplasia is present in CLD. Method. Autopsy lung tissues of eighteen subjects gestational ages 22 to 40 weeks with and without history of respiratory morbidity were stained with monoclonal antipodoplanin and reviewed under light microscopy. Percentage of parenchyma podoplanin stained at the acinar level was determined using computerized image analysis; 9 CLD and 4 control subjects gestational ages 27 to 36 weeks were suitable for the analysis. Results. Distinct, lymphatic-specific staining with respect to other vascular structures was appreciated in all gestations. Infants with and without respiratory morbidity had comparable lymphatic distribution which extended to the alveolar ductal level. Podoplanin staining per parenchyma was increased and statistically significant in the CLD group versus controls at the alveolar ductal level (0.06% ± 0.02% versus 0.04% ± 0.01%, 95% CI −0.04% to −0.002%, P CLD. It is suggested that the findings, by expanding current knowledge of CLD pathology, may offer insight into the development of more effective therapies to tackle CLD. PMID:24527433

  8. Effect of Qing Nao tablet on blood stasis model of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xuejun; Hao, Shaojun; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Xiaobin; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qing Nao tablet on mouse model of blood stasis syndrome, 60 mice, male and female, were randomly divided into 6 groups, were fed with large, small doses of Qing Nao tablet suspension, Naoluotong saline suspension and the same volume (group 2, 0.1ml/10g), administer 1 times daily, orally for 15 days. Intragastric administration for first days, in addition to the 1 group saline group every day in the hind leg intramuscular saline, the other 5 groups each rat day hind leg muscle injection of dexamethasone 0.8mg/kg intramuscular injection every day, 1 times, 15 days. 1 hour continuous intramuscular injection and intramuscular drug perfusion on the sixteenth day after mice. The eyeball blood, heparin after whole blood viscosity test. Compared with the control group, model group, high and low shear viscosity were significantly increased (Pgroup, high dose group and Qing Nao tablet Naoluotong group can significantly reduce the viscosity at high shear and (Pgroup can significantly reduce high shear and shear viscosity (Pgroup can significantly reduce the low shear viscosity (Pgroup can significantly reduce the low shear viscosity (Pgroup were lower high cut, low shear viscosity and trend The potential (P>0.05). The Qing Nao tablet has a good effect on the model of blood stasis in mice.

  9. Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2009-09-01

    One of the major controversies in evolutionary biology concerns the processes underlying macroevolutionary patterns in which prolonged stasis is disrupted by rapid, short-term evolution that leads species to new adaptive zones. Recent advances in the understanding of contemporary evolution have suggested that such rapid evolution can occur in the wild as a result of environmental changes. Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes. Based on the phylogeny of long-mouthed weevils in the genus Curculio, likelihood ratio tests showed that the macroevolutionary pattern of the weevils coincides with the punctuational evolution model. A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations. Through a microevolutionary analysis of the species, we also found that natural selection acting through co-evolutionary interactions is potentially strong enough to drive rapid evolutionary shifts between adaptive zones. Overall, we posit that co-evolution is an important factor driving the history of organismal evolution.

  10. Differential Gene Expression of Primary Cultured Lymphatic and Blood Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs and the developmentally related lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs create complementary, yet distinct vascular networks. Each endothelial cell type interacts with flowing fluid and circulating cells, yet each vascular system has evolved specialized gene expression programs and thus both cell types display different phenotypes. BECs and LECs express distinct genes that are unique to their specific vascular microenvironment. Tumors also take advantage of the molecules that are expressed in these vascular systems to enhance their metastatic potential. We completed transcriptome analyses on primary cultured LECs and BECs, where each comparative set was isolated from the same individual. Differences were resolved in the expression of several major categories, such as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, cytokines, cytokine receptors. We have identified new molecules that are associated with BECs (e.g., claudin-9, CXCL11, neurexin-1, neurexin-2, the neuronal growth factor regulator-1 and LECs (e.g., claudin-7, CD58, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (HAPLN1, the poliovirus receptor-related 3 molecule that may lead to novel therapeutic treatments for diseases of lymphatic or blood vessels, including metastasis of cancer to lymph nodes or distant organs.

  11. [Comparative analysis on the biological basis of blood stasis syndrome induced by qi-stagnation and qi-deficiency in patients with unstable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-xun; Liu, Jian-xun; Lin, Cheng-ren

    2010-04-01

    To comparatively analyse the objective characteristics of different syndrome types of qi-disturbance-induced blood stasis syndrome (QDBS) in the pathogenetic evolution of unstable angina coronary heart disease (UA-CHD). Seventy-eight patients with UA-CHD of QDBS were differentiated into 2 groups: 55 in the qi-deficiency-induced blood-stasis syndrome group (A) and 23 in the qi-stagnation-induced blood-stasis syndrome group (B). The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing their blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolisms, coagulation function, thyroid function and inflammation reaction changes, etc. In the pathogenetic process of qi-disturbance induced blood stasis, the initiating age, levels of HbA1c, TSH, PT and APTT between the two groups were significantly different (P emotional stress is possibly the essence of qi-stagnation induced blood stasis syndrome.

  12. Indirect measurement of lymphatic absorption in CAPD patients is not influenced by trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, D. G.; Koomen, G. C.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    The disappearance rate of intraperitoneally administered macromolecules is often used to calculate lymphatic absorption during CAPD. The possible contribution of local accumulation (trapping) of such solutes in the tissues surrounding the peritoneal cavity, leading to overestimation of lymphatic

  13. MR imaging of edematous limbs in lymphatic and nonlymphatic edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of edema, various types of edema were examined with MR imaging. MR imaging of edematous limbs was performed on 60 patients (lymphatic edema 48, nonlymphatic edema 12) using. T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo and shot inversion time inversion recovery sequences. Thickness and signal intensity of the cutis, subcutis and subfascia were evaluated in the images. In all 48 cases with lymphatic edema, trabecular structures suggesting dilated collateral lymphatic vessels were observed in the swollen subcutis. Two cases with nephrotic syndrome showed similar findings. In 6 cases with venous edema, fatty intensity was found in the subfascia. In the remaining 4 cases, the subcutis exhibited only water intensity. MR imaging is a potential contributor to the diagnosis of various edematous diseases. (orig./MG)

  14. Thoracic involvement in generalised lymphatic anomaly (or lymphangiomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Luisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalised lymphatic anomaly (GLA, also known as lymphangiomatosis, is a rare disease caused by congenital abnormalities of lymphatic development. It usually presents in childhood but can also be diagnosed in adults. GLA encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from single-organ involvement to generalised disease. Given the rarity of the disease, most of the information regarding it comes from case reports. To date, no clinical trials concerning treatment are available. This review focuses on thoracic GLA and summarises possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  15. [Experimental study on two-way application of traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in cold and hot blood stasis syndrome I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Er-Wei; Deng, Jia-Gang; Du, Zheng-Cai; Yan, Ke; Zheng, Zuo-Wen; Wang, Qin; Huang, Li-Zhen; Bao, Chuan-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Qiong; Lu, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Zhi-Ling

    2012-11-01

    To study the action characteristics of "two-way application and conditioned dominance" of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property by observing the action characteristic of 10 traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in the microcirculation in rats with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome. The rat model with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was established by injecting carrageenan and dry yeast, and the rat model with cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was built by the body freezing method. Ten traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, including 5 with hot property and 5 with cold property, were selected for intervention to observe blood flow rate and flow state indicators in rat auricles and make a comparative analysis on action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property. ANOVA showed that among the 10 traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, 6 such as Typhae Pollen, Sappan Lignum and Vaccariae Semen can obviously increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with cold property can increase the blood flow rate (P medicines showed no notable effect; among the 5 traditional Chinese medicines with hot property, Carthamus tinctorius and Ligusticum chuanxiong can increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with natural and cold properties showed similar effect on heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with hot property; those with natural and hot properties showed similar effect and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with cold property. Under the condition of heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome, traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property have the similar action characteristics with those with cold property; wile under the condition of cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome

  16. Lymphatic vessel assessment by podoplanin (D2-40 immunohistochemistry in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Puri Wahal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Taking into account our small sample size, we conclude that a further large-sized study should be carried out to further prove the role of lymphatics in tumor dissemination. New therapeutic options can be developed targeting the lymphatic channels to arrest the lymphatic spread of the breast cancer.

  17. Visualization of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in penile cancer patients by use of SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijte, Joost A P; van der Ploeg, Iris M C; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Nieweg, Omgo E; Horenblas, Simon

    2009-03-01

    The reliability of sentinel node biopsy is dependent on the accurate visualization and identification of the sentinel node(s). It has been suggested that extensive metastatic involvement of a sentinel node can lead to blocked inflow and rerouting of lymph fluid to a "neo-sentinel node" that may not yet contain tumor cells, causing a false-negative result. However, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Recently introduced hybrid SPECT/CT scanners provide both tomographic lymphoscintigraphy and anatomic detail. Such a scanner enabled the present study of the concept of tumor blockage and rerouting of lymphatic drainage in patients with palpable groin metastases. Seventeen patients with unilateral palpable and cytologically proven metastases in the groin underwent bilateral conventional lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT before sentinel node biopsy of the contralateral groin. The pattern of lymphatic drainage in the 17 palpable groin metastases was evaluated for signs of tumor blockage or rerouting. On the CT images, the palpable node metastases could be identified in all 17 groins. Four of the 17 palpable node metastases (24%) showed uptake of radioactivity on the SPECT/CT images. In 10 groins, rerouting of lymphatic drainage to a neo-sentinel node was seen; one neo-sentinel node was located in the contralateral groin. A complete absence of lymphatic drainage was seen in the remaining 3 groins. The concept of tumor blockage and rerouting was visualized in 76% of the groins with palpable metastases. Precise physical examination and preoperative ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration cytology may identify nodes with considerable tumor invasion at an earlier stage and thereby reduce the incidence of false-negative results.

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid Motion via the Glymphatic Pathway Modelled by Optimal Mass Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maikan; Lee, Hedok; Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Ratner, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs [1,2]. It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly throu...

  19. Laparoscopic management of abdominal lymphatic cyst in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Son; Nguyen, Thanh Liem

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery (LS) in management of abdominal lymphatic cyst (ALC) in children. Medical records of all patients undergoing LS for ALC at the National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam, from May 2007 to June 2011 were reviewed. For LS, one umbilical port of 10 mm and up to three other 3-5-mm ports were used. Cystic fluid was aspirated prior to removal of the cyst. When intestinal resection was indicated, the mesenteric cyst with the bowel loop was delivered out of the abdomen through a minimally enlarged umbilical incision; resection of the intestinal segment together with the cyst and the bowel anastomosis were both performed extracorporally. Forty-seven patients were identified, with a mean age of 4.3 ± 3.7 years. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (72.3%) and abdominal distention (34.0%). Four patients presented with acute abdomen due to infection or hemorrhage of the cyst. Mean size of the ALC was 9.5 ± 5.5 cm (range, 3.4-30 cm). In 12 cases the ALC was omental, and in 35 cases it was mesenteric. Laparoscopic cyst excision was performed in 36 cases (76.6%) versus laparoscopy-assisted bowel resection en bloc with the cyst in 8 cases (17.0%); in 3 patients (6.4%), conversion to open surgery was required. Mean operative time was 79 ± 39 minutes. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. Mean length of hospital stay after laparoscopic management was 3.8 ± 1.6 days. The results of pathologic investigation showed benign cystic lymphangioma in all cases. During follow-up ranging from 1 month to 4 years, recurrence was seen in 1 patient (2.1%) with complex mesenteric cyst. All other patients remained in good health. Laparoscopic management is safe, feasible, and effective and should be the treatment of choice for most cases of ALC in children.

  20. Metástasis hipofisaria de carcinoma de mama debutando como diabetes insípida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arévalo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores metastáticos que afectan a la glándula hipofisaria son hallazgos pocos comunes, presentándose en cerca del 1% de las cirugías hipofisarias. Los autores presentan el caso de una paciente mujer de 46 años que debuta con síntomas de diabetes insípida. Había sido tratada 3 años antes por un carcinoma ductal infiltrante de la mama derecha. Las imágenes de resonancia magnética cerebral mostraron una masa en la silla turca con extensión supraselar. La paciente fue sometida a resección tumoral vía transesfenoidal que demostró metástasis de carcinoma de mama.

  1. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, Catherine; Li, Wenjun; Fulp, Brian; Platt, Andrew M.; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Westerterp, Marit; Bittman, Robert; Tall, Alan R.; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Thomas, Michael J.; Kreisel, Daniel; Swartz, Melody A.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) refers to the mobilization of cholesterol on HDL particles (HDL-C) from extravascular tissues to plasma, ultimately for fecal excretion. Little is known about how HDL-C leaves peripheral tissues to reach plasma. We first used 2 models of disrupted lymphatic

  2. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna Bjørkbom; Simonsen, L; Holst, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after ...... online publication, 3 July 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.98....

  3. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...

  4. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  5. Mechanisms controlling the volume of pleural fluid and extravascular lung water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miserocchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleural and interstitial lung fluid volumes are strictly controlled and maintained at the minimum thanks to the ability of lymphatics to match the increase in filtration rate. In the pleural cavity, fluid accumulation is easily accommodated by retraction of lung and chest wall (high compliance of the pleural space; the increase of lymph flow per unit increase in pleural fluid volume is high due to the great extension of the parietal lymphatic. However, for the lung interstitium, the increase in lymph flow to match increased filtration does not need to be so great. In fact, increased filtration only causes a minor increase in extravascular water volume (<10% due to a marked increase in interstitial pulmonary pressure (low compliance of the extracellular matrix which, in turn, buffers further filtration. Accordingly, a less extended lymphatic network is needed. The efficiency of lymphatic control is achieved through a high lymphatic conductance in the pleural fluid and through a low interstitial compliance for the lung interstitium. Fluid volume in both compartments is so strictly controlled that it is difficult to detect initial deviations from the physiological state; thus, a great physiological advantage turns to be a disadvantage on a clinical basis as it prevents an early diagnosis of developing disease.

  6. The role of the State Security Service (Stasi) in the context of international clinical trials conducted by western pharmaceutical companies in Eastern Germany (1961-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erices, Rainer; Frewer, Andreas; Gumz, Antje

    2018-01-01

    After the building of the Berlin Wall in the 1960s, a number of international pharmaceutical manufacturers from the West had their drugs tested in Eastern Germany (GDR). So far, the extensive collection of documents on the subject stored in the archives of the GDR State Security Service (Stasi, MfS) has not been systematically analysed. Until now, the role of the Stasi with respect to the surveillance of the trials has been unclear. A keyword search within the database of the Stasi files was conducted. All available files were screened in order to identify institutions, companies and personnel involved in the clinical trials. On this basis, further files were requested. A total of 259 files were available for analysis. Relevant data was derived from 160 of these files. A contextualised approach was applied, which critically explored the origin, content, and impact of the data. In addition, an approach guided by the central steps of document analysis was applied. At least 400 clinical trials were conducted during the GDR period. The exact number remains speculative. According to references found in the Stasi files, it might have been considerably higher. Initially, the main goal of the trials was for the GDR authorities to decide whether to import certain Western drugs. By 1983, this intention had changed. Now, the primary aim of the trials was the procurement of foreign currency. The Stasi feared that the pharmaceutical companies could have a significant influence on GDR Health System. Stasi spies were holding positions in the responsible medical committees, universities, and hospitals. Constant surveillance by the Stasi served the purpose of monitoring any contact between people from the West and the East. Unknowingly, representatives of Western companies were surveilled by the Stasi. The studied documents also point to the fact that a number of clinical trials conducted during the GDR period did not comply with GDR regulations, and were therefore deemed illegal

  7. Ligand-directed targeting of lymphatic vessels uncovers mechanistic insights in melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Dawn R; Dobroff, Andrey S; Proneth, Bettina; Zurita, Amado J; Salameh, Ahmad; Dondossola, Eleonora; Makino, Jun; Bologa, Cristian G; Smith, Tracey L; Yao, Virginia J; Calderone, Tiffany L; O'Connell, David J; Oprea, Tudor I; Kataoka, Kazunori; Cahill, Dolores J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-02-24

    Metastasis is the most lethal step of cancer progression in patients with invasive melanoma. In most human cancers, including melanoma, tumor dissemination through the lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis. Unfortunately, molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between melanoma cells and lymphatic vessels are unknown. Here, we developed an unbiased approach based on molecular mimicry to identify specific receptors that mediate lymphatic endothelial-melanoma cell interactions and metastasis. By screening combinatorial peptide libraries directly on afferent lymphatic vessels resected from melanoma patients during sentinel lymphatic mapping and lymph node biopsies, we identified a significant cohort of melanoma and lymphatic surface binding peptide sequences. The screening approach was designed so that lymphatic endothelium binding peptides mimic cell surface proteins on tumor cells. Therefore, relevant metastasis and lymphatic markers were biochemically identified, and a comprehensive molecular profile of the lymphatic endothelium during melanoma metastasis was generated. Our results identified expression of the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit A, α-isoform (PPP2R1A) on the cell surfaces of both melanoma cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. Validation experiments showed that PPP2R1A is expressed on the cell surfaces of both melanoma and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro as well as independent melanoma patient samples. More importantly, PPP2R1A-PPP2R1A homodimers occur at the cellular level to mediate cell-cell interactions at the lymphatic-tumor interface. Our results revealed that PPP2R1A is a new biomarker for melanoma metastasis and show, for the first time to our knowledge, an active interaction between the lymphatic vasculature and melanoma cells during tumor progression.

  8. Assessment of blood stasis in left-atrial appendage with electron-beam CT: filling delay in atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Hamada, Seiki [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takamiya, Makoto [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Naito, Hiroaki [Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    The left-atrial appendage (LAA) is the most frequent site of thrombus formation. The most probable reason is its anatomical structure and blood stasis. We hypothesized that peak time delay should occur in the LAA with stagnant blood flow. We measured peak time delay in LAA against left atrium with the flow-mode study of electron-beam CT for 49 patients (including 23 patients with atrial fibrillation [AF]). Volume-mode scannings were also performed to detect intracardiac thrombi. Patients with atrial fibrillation showed a larger value than those with sinus rhythm. Some AF patients with no filling of contrast media into the LAA and/or thrombus showed a larger value than the others. The value obtained by the flow-mode study might have the potential by the flow-mode study might have the potential to assess blood stasis and to predict the jeopardized state in the LAA. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of blood stasis in left-atrial appendage with electron-beam CT: filling delay in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Naito, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    The left-atrial appendage (LAA) is the most frequent site of thrombus formation. The most probable reason is its anatomical structure and blood stasis. We hypothesized that peak time delay should occur in the LAA with stagnant blood flow. We measured peak time delay in LAA against left atrium with the flow-mode study of electron-beam CT for 49 patients (including 23 patients with atrial fibrillation [AF]). Volume-mode scannings were also performed to detect intracardiac thrombi. Patients with atrial fibrillation showed a larger value than those with sinus rhythm. Some AF patients with no filling of contrast media into the LAA and/or thrombus showed a larger value than the others. The value obtained by the flow-mode study might have the potential by the flow-mode study might have the potential to assess blood stasis and to predict the jeopardized state in the LAA. (orig.)

  10. Effects of lymphatic drainage on cellulitis assessed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Martins, Nara Mendes; Martins, Flavia Mendes; Monteiro, Rosimary Araujo; Mendonca, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto de

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of magnetic resonance as a new method for evaluating the manual lymphatic drainage technique in treating cellulitis. Cellulitis is one of the main esthetic problems that lead women toward seeking guidance and specific treatments. There are various therapeutic approaches, owing to the multifactorial nature of its pathogen, although the effectiveness of most of these has not been definitively proven, given that the assessment methods used are mostly subjective or do not provide enough information on subcutaneous tissue. The introduction of magnetic resonance as a means of assessing a lymphatic drainage technique in cellulitis treatment makes the evaluation more accurate, since it enables a detailed study of subcutaneous architecture. (author)

  11. Effects of lymphatic drainage on cellulitis assessed by magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Patricia Froes; Martins, Nara Mendes; Martins, Flavia Mendes; Monteiro, Rosimary Araujo; Mendonca, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of magnetic resonance as a new method for evaluating the manual lymphatic drainage technique in treating cellulitis. Cellulitis is one of the main esthetic problems that lead women toward seeking guidance and specific treatments. There are various therapeutic approaches, owing to the multifactorial nature of its pathogen, although the effectiveness of most of these has not been definitively proven, given that the assessment methods used are mostly subjective or do not provide enough information on subcutaneous tissue. The introduction of magnetic resonance as a means of assessing a lymphatic drainage technique in cellulitis treatment makes the evaluation more accurate, since it enables a detailed study of subcutaneous architecture. (author)

  12. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, Steven E; Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-10-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Primary disorders of the lymphatic vessels--a unified concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, C

    1989-03-01

    Congenital defects of lymphatics constitute a spectrum of disorders that may manifest with a variety of clinical presentations including lymphedema, chylous effusions, lymphangiomatous malformations with cystic masses and localized gigantism, and intestinal lymphangiectasia with malabsorption. These entities constitute a relatively rare group of disorders, the origin of which remains somewhat controversial, but in some it appears to be due to early lymphatic obstruction. Five cases are described, which demonstrate the anatomical pathology of these entities. A classification and description of the defects is also presented. An attempt is made to present a unified theory of origin for this seemingly diverse group of diseases. While these entities may be challenging from a diagnostic and therapeutic standpoint, a wide variety of imaging modalities, which includes lymphography, computed tomography scanning, and ultrasound, may be used to diagnose the extent and internal structural characteristics of the abnormalities.

  14. Lymphoscintigraphic studies of lymphatic drainage from the testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.D.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Two colloidal radiopharmaceuticals, Au-198 and Tc-99m antimony, were used to evaluate the lymphatic drainage of the testis in experimental animals and humans. One to 24 hours after direct intratesticular injection of Au-198 colloid in dogs and 4-6 hours after injection of Tc-99m antimony colloid in men, distribution within retroperitoneal lymph nodes was demonstrated. Uptake within the para-aortic lymph nodes primarily draining the testis was decreased following proximal ligation of the spermatic vessels in dogs. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy successfully demonstrated an intact spermatic cord lymphatic communication to the para-aortic nodes in five of six patients with chronic lower-extremity lymphedema. When the intact testicle and spermatic cord were transposed to the thigh in a patient with chronic lymphedema of the lower extremity, percutaneous pedal lymphoscintigraphy successfully demonstrated uptake within the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the ipsilateral testis

  15. PMab-48 Recognizes Dog Podoplanin of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-02-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is a specific marker of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Recently, we developed PMab-38, an anti-dog podoplanin monoclonal antibody that did not stain canine LECs. In this study, we newly developed PMab-48 against dog podoplanin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PMab-48 reacts not only with canine squamous cell carcinoma cells but also with LECs of the normal colon. Therefore, PMab-48 may be useful in investigating the function of dog podoplanin in LECs.

  16. Studies of lymphatic drainage from testes by lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.D.J.; Morse, M.J.; Grando, R.; Kleinert, E.L.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Severe lymphedema of lower extremity may cause functional disability and foster recurrent lymphangitis. Surgical transportation of the testis to the thigh offers the possibility of enhancing lymphatic drainage from the leg via spermatic cord lymphatics. Testicular lymphoscintigraphy was employed to assess the quality of testicular lymphatic drainage prior to testis transposition. Images of abdomen and measurement of testis radioactivity were made serially after injection of Au 198 colloid into the testis of dogs before and after litigation of the spermatic cord. In the intact dogs, the residual radioactivities in the testis (5 dogs) were 53.5 +- 13.25, 41.6 +- 7.80 and 26.3 +- 5.66% at 2, 4 and 24 hours post injection. After ligation of spermatic cord, the residual activities in the testis were 95.0 +- 3.33, 86.4 +- 6.49 and 74.2 +- 6.28% at corresponding intervals post injection. Paraaortic nodes and liver were visualized in the abdominal images 1 hour after injection in the intact animals but only poorly seen in dogs following ligation. /sup 99m/Tc antimony colloid was used similarly in 5 patients who had severe lymphedema and abnormal pelvic lymphoscintigraphy following bipedal injection. With intratesticular injection, paraaortic lymph nodes and liver were visualized in 7 studies between 3 to 5 hours. Poor visualization was noted in two studies in patients who had previous radiation to the abdomen. The findings suggest that this simple technic can aid in the assessment of testicular lymphatic drainage and help to select patients for appropriate surgical intervention

  17. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  18. Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Jospeh; Kinney, Greg; Slimp, Jefferson; Lee, Gi Soo; Oliaei, Sepehr; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2009-10-01

    Establish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. Retrospective study in which patients were clinically followed for at least 6 months postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics (i.e., size, stage, location) were recorded. Operative notes revealed surgical techniques, findings, and complications. Preoperative, short-/long-term postoperative facial nerve function was standardized using the House-Brackmann Classification. Mapping was done prior to incision by percutaneously stimulating the facial nerve and its branches and recording the motor responses. Intraoperative monitoring and mapping were accomplished using a four-channel, free-running EMG. Neurophysiologists continuously monitored EMG responses and blindly analyzed intraoperative findings and final EMG interpretations for abnormalities. Seven patients collectively underwent 8 lymphatic malformation surgeries. Median age was 30 months (2-105 months). Lymphatic malformation diagnosis was recorded in 6/8 surgeries. Facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade I in 8/8 cases preoperatively. Facial nerve was abnormally elongated in 1/8 cases. EMG monitoring recorded abnormal activity in 4/8 cases--two suggesting facial nerve irritation, and two with possible facial nerve damage. Transient or long-term facial nerve paresis occurred in 1/8 cases (House-Brackmann grade II). Preoperative facial nerve mapping combined with continuous intraoperative EMG and mapping is a successful method of identifying the facial nerve course and protecting it from injury during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations involving the facial nerve.

  19. Multidetector CT Evaluation of Food Stasis in Remnant Stomach and Body Fat Change after Subtotal Gastrectomy by Laparoscopic versus Open Abdominal Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Yu, Jeong Sik; Choi, Seung Ho; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    This study aimed to compare the degree of gastric food stasis and following body fat changes after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LSTG) versus open subtotal gastrectomy (OSTG). For 284 consecutive gastric cancer patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy (213 LSTG and 71 OSTG), the one-year follow-up CT images were reviewed retrospectively. The characteristics of gastric stasis was divided into 5 degrees (0, no residue; 1, small secretion; 2, poorly-defined amorphous food; 3, well-delineated measurable food; 4, bezoar-like food). The residual food volume was calculated for the patients with degree 3 or 4 gastric stasis. Postoperative visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat changes were measured on CT and were correlated with the residual food volume. The LSTG group showed higher degrees of gastric stasis [degree 3 (LSTG, 15.0%; OSTG, 9.9%), degree 4 (LSTG, 6.5%; OSTG, 2.8%)] (p = 0.072). The mean residual food volume of the LSTG group was larger than that of the OSTG group (13779 cc versus 6295 cc) (p = 0.059). Postoperative abdominal fat change was not significantly different between the 2 groups and was not correlated with the residual food volume. LSTG tends to develop gastric stasis more frequently compared with OSTG, but gastric stasis might hardly affect the postoperative body fat status.

  20. Lymphatic endothelial cells are a replicative niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Russell, Matthew R.G.; Borel, Sophie; Diedrich, Collin R.; Rohde, Manfred; Wainwright, Helen; Collinson, Lucy M.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph nodes of patients with tuberculosis. In cultured primary human LECs (hLECs), we determined that M. tuberculosis replicates both in the cytosol and within autophagosomes, but the bacteria failed to replicate when the virulence locus RD1 was deleted. Activation by IFN-γ induced a cell-autonomous response in hLECs via autophagy and NO production that restricted M. tuberculosis growth. Thus, depending on the activation status of LECs, autophagy can both promote and restrict replication. Together, these findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for hLECs and autophagy in tuberculosis pathogenesis and suggest that hLECs are a potential niche for M. tuberculosis that allows establishment of persistent infection in lymph nodes. PMID:26901813

  1. Lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. Examination using RI lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Katayama, Kanji; Sawa, Toshiharu

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach was examined using lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m colloid in 98 patients with gastric cancer and 4 patients with esophageal cancer. The colloidal Tc-99m was injected into the submucosa of stomach 12 hr before operation with the aid of endoscopy. Each lymph node dissected from the specimens was measured by scintillation counter. Lymph nodes located along the left gastric, splenic and left inferior phrenic arteries were mainly involved in the lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. There was strong relationship between the cardia and the node of number 16. The lymphatics was also present in the mediastinum. These results suggest the necessities of the complete removal of the gastropancreatic mesenteriolum including the left inferior phrenic artery and the extirpation of the regional lymph nodes around the aorta above and below the left renal artery, in addition to the removal of both pancreas and spleen in cases of cardia tumors. Furthermore, in cases of squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes, it seems necessary to extirpate the complete mediastinal lymph nodes. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of benthic community stasis in the very deep sea (>1500 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Martin A.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Culver, Stephen J.; Hayward, Bruce W.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    An enigma of deep-sea biodiversity research is that the abyss with its low productivity and densities appears to have a biodiversity similar to that of shallower depths. This conceptualization of similarity is based mainly on per-sample estimates (point diversity, within-habitat, or α-diversity). Here, we use a measure of between-sample within-community diversity (β1H) to examine benthic foraminiferal diversity between 333 stations within 49 communties from New Zealand, the South Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the Norwegian Sea, and the Arctic. The communities are grouped into two depth categories: 200–1500 m and >1500 m. β1H diversity exhibits no evidence of regional differences. Instead, higher values at shallower depths are observed worldwide. At depths of >1500 m the average β1H is zero, indicating stasis or no biodiversity gradient. The difference in β1H-diversity explains why, despite species richness often being greater per sample at deeper depths, the total number of species is greater at shallower depths. The greater number of communities and higher rate of evolution resulting in shorter species durations at shallower depths is also consistent with higher β1H values.

  3. Chromosomal stasis in distinct families of marine Percomorpharia from South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Fabilene Gomes; Almeida, Leandro Aragão da Hora; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Oliveira, Claudio; Diniz, Débora

    2017-01-01

    The weakness of physical barriers in the marine environment and the dispersal potential of fish populations have been invoked as explanations of the apparent karyotype stasis of marine Percomorpha, but several taxa remain poorly studied cytogenetically. To increase the chromosomal data in this fish group, we analyzed cytogenetically three widespread Atlantic species from distinct families: Chaetodipterus faber Broussonet, 1782 (Ephippidae), Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lutjanidae) and Rypticus randalli Courtenay, 1967 (Serranidae). The three species shared a karyotype composed of 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes, single nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) and reduced amounts of centromeric heterochromatin. A single NOR-bearing pair was identified in all species by physical mapping of 18S rDNA while non-syntenic 5S rRNA genes were located at centromeric region of a single pair. The similar karyotypic macrostructure observed in unrelated groups of Percomorpharia reinforces the conservative karyoevolution of marine teleosteans. Nonetheless, the species could be differentiated based on the pair bearing ribosomal cistrons, revealing the importance of microstructural analyses in species with symmetric and stable karyotypes.

  4. Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome Score and Cardioankle Vascular Index in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Ho Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis syndrome (BSS in traditional Asian medicine has been considered to correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis, which can be estimated using the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Here, the diagnostic utility of CAVI in predicting BSS was examined. The BSS scores and CAVI were measured in 140 stroke patients and evaluated with respect to stroke risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CAVI for the diagnosis of BSS. The BSS scores correlated significantly with CAVI, age, and systolic blood pressure (SBP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that CAVI was a significant associate factor for BSS (OR 1.55, P=0.032 after adjusting for the age and SBP. The ROC curve showed that CAVI and age provided moderate diagnostic accuracy for BSS (area under the ROC curve (AUC for CAVI, 0.703, P<0.001; AUC for age, 0.692, P=0.001. The AUC of the “CAVI+Age,” which was calculated by combining CAVI with age, showed better accuracy (0.759, P<0.0001 than those of CAVI or age. The present study suggests that the CAVI combined with age can clinically serve as an objective tool to diagnose BSS in stroke patients.

  5. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S

    2017-10-03

    Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents. In primates, meningeal lymphatics display a typical panel of lymphatic endothelial markers by immunohistochemistry. This discovery holds promise for better understanding the normal physiology of lymphatic drainage from the central nervous system and potential aberrations in neurological diseases.

  6. Lymphographic criteria of lymphatic edema of the limbs in terms of microsurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Krylov, V.S.; Milanov, N.O.; Lein, A.P.; Ermakov, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Based on the assessment of the results of 126 lymphographic studies, performed on patients with lymphatic edema of the limbs of various genesis, an important role has been assigned to lymphography as the criterion for establishing indications and contra-indications for microsurgical lymphovenous anastomosis. A special technique of pre-operation lymphophlebographic examination of patients with lymphatic edema of the limbds has been developed. A working scheme of primary lymphatic edemas, as well as the detailed interpretation of lymphographic appearance of primary and secondary lymphatic edemas are also provided

  7. A New Technique to Map the Lymphatic Distribution and Alignment of the Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liu Yan; Qiang, Pan Fu; Ling, Tao; Wei, Zhang Yan; Long, Zhang Yu; Shan, Meng; Rong, Li Shi; Li, Li Hong

    2015-08-01

    The present study was to examine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis of normal adult males, which could provide an anatomical basis for improvement of incisions in penile lengthening surgery, and may also help to prevent postoperative refractory edema. Thirteen normal adult male volunteers were recruited for this study. Contrast agent was injected subcutaneously in the foreskin of the penis, and after two minutes magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) was performed. The acquired magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the changes in the number and diameter of lymphatic vessels in different parts of the penis. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and materializes interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) were applied to analyze the overall distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the lymphatic vessels were in conspicuous contrast with surrounding tissues and could be clearly identified. Penile lymphatic vessels were clearly visible in the root of the penis. At the junction of the penis and the abdominal wall, all lymphatic vessels were found to be concentrated in the dorsal part of the penis. MIP two-dimensional reconstruction showed that the overall distribution of relatively large lymphatic vessels in the dorsal and ventral parts of the penis could be seen clearly on bilateral 45° position, but not inside the abdominal wall because some of lymphatic vessels were overlapped by other tissues in the abdomen. MIMICS three-dimensional reconstruction was able to reveal the overall spatial distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis from any angle. The reconstruction results showed that there were 1-2 main lymphatic vessels on the root of dorsal penis, which coursed along the cavernous to the first physiological curvature of the penis. Lymphatic vessels merged on both sides of the ventral penis. At the root of the penis, lymphatic vessels gradually coursed to the dorsal surface

  8. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-04-18

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells' functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response.

  9. The interaction between the meningeal lymphatics and blood-brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Abdurashitov, A.; Dubrovsky, A.; Pavlov, A.; Shushunova, N.; Maslyakova, G.; Navolokin, N.; Bucharskaya, A.; Tuchin, V.; Kurths, J.

    2018-02-01

    Here we show the interaction between the meningeal lymphatic system and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. In normal state, the meningeal lymphatic vessels are invisible on optical coherent tomography (OCT), while during the opening of the BBB, meningeal lymphatic vessels are clearly visualized by OCT in the area of cerebral venous sinuses. These results give a significant impulse in the new application of OCT for the study of physiology of meningeal lymphatic system as well as sheds light on novel strategies in the prognosis of the opening of the BBB related with many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, brain trauma, Alzheimers disease, etc.

  10. The potential role of perivascular lymphatic vessels in preservation of kidney allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimoto, Akihiro; Nakano, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Shoko; Masutani, Kosuke; Matsukuma, Yuta; Eriguchi, Masahiro; Nagata, Masaharu; Nishiki, Takehiro; Kitada, Hidehisa; Tanaka, Masao; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangiogenesis occurs in diseased native kidneys and kidney allografts, and correlates with histological injury; however, the clinical significance of lymphatic vessels in kidney allografts is unclear. This study retrospectively reviewed 63 kidney transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin, and were classified according to their location as perivascular or interstitial lymphatic vessels. The associations between perivascular lymphatic density and kidney allograft function and pathological findings were analyzed. There were no significant differences in perivascular lymphatic densities in kidney allograft biopsy specimens obtained at 0 h, 3 months and 12 months. The groups with higher perivascular lymphatic density showed a lower proportion of progression of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy grade from 3 to 12 months (P for trend = 0.039). Perivascular lymphatic density was significantly associated with annual decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate after 12 months (r = -0.31, P = 0.017), even after adjusting for multiple confounders (standardized β = -0.30, P = 0.019). High perivascular lymphatic density is associated with favourable kidney allograft function. The perivascular lymphatic network may be involved in inhibition of allograft fibrosis and stabilization of graft function.

  11. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  12. Granulomatosis de Wegener Semejando Cáncer Epidermoide de Nasofaringe y Metástasis Pulmonares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Martín Small

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La granulomatosis de Wegener (GW es una enfermedad idiopática, con posible componente autoinmune, que aparece generalmente en la quinta década de vida, caracterizándose por lesiones granulomatosas necrotizantes y vasculitis en vías aéreas y riñón. Paciente femenino de 54 años, quien desde Noviembre del 2008, presenta rinorrea, prurito y eritema en borde nasal inferior izquierdo, recibe antibióticos sin mejoría de los síntomas. En las radiografías torácicas, se observan dos radiopacidades redondeadas, de 4 cm de diámetro, sugestivas de lesiones tumorales en ambos campos pulmonares. La biopsia reporta cáncer epidermoide de alto grado, sospechándose primario en nasofaringe. Es remitida, por deterioro de condiciones, al Servicio de Neumonología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas el 18/03/2009, presentando disnea, tos productiva, placas purpúricas dolorosas en manos y pies, hipoacusia, hiperpigmentación del paladar duro, leucoplaquias y lesiones costrosas en lengua, insuficiencia renal (creatinina en 6,11 mg/dL y trombocitopenia. En TAC de tórax, se evidencian tumores mayores de 5 cm de diámetro, algunos con bordes bien definidos y otros mal delimitados con broncograma aéreo. Diagnostico definitivo de GW por serología. La GW con su afectación sistémica puede simular otras entidades como neoplasias de cabeza y cuello con metástasis pulmonares. Cuando las manifestaciones sistémicas son floridas debe sospecharse GW como diagnóstico diferencial. Palabras claves: Wegener, Granulomatosis, Vasculitis, Cáncer epidermoide.

  13. Dynamic MR cholangiography after fatty meal loading. Cystic contractility and dynamic evaluation of biliary stasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Takayuki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Kotake, Fumio; Mizokami, Yuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Abe, Kimihiko

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic MR cholangiography was conducted on patients with cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis who had consumed a fatty test meal (Molyork) and the cystic contractility and dynamics of biliary stasis was evaluated. The subjects were 25 with intracystic cholelithiasis, 10 with choledocholithiasis and 10 normal controls. For an imaging sequence, the rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) method was employed and imaging was conducted for 40 min (every 30 s following Molyork administration) without breath-holding. The gallbladder contraction ratio was computed and the contractile ratio for the common bile duct was calculated. To determine the bile flow to the duodenum, the high-intensity signal, indicating the flow from the lower common bile duct, and perfusion of the duodenum were observed in dynamic mode on the monitor with the naked eye and interpreted as positive bile flow. The frequency of this flow was visually monitored. The gallbladder contractile ratio was significantly reduced in patients with cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis compared with the controls. In a comparison with the normal controls, no sequential changes were noted in the mean contractile ratio of the common bile duct of the patients with cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis. The mean frequency of bile flow observed for each 40 min period was 13±2.4, 6±2.2, and 4±1.3 times for the controls, those with intracystic cholelithiasis, and those with choledocholithiasis, respectively. Compared with the controls, the latter two patient groups showed evident reductions in the frequency of bile flow to the duodenum (p<0.001). Dynamic MRC combined with Molyork loading makes it possible to compute cystic contractile ratios and perform a dynamic examination of bile flow under non-invasive, near-physiological conditions. (author)

  14. Anuran amphibians as comparative models for understanding extreme dehydration tolerance: a negative feedback lymphatic mechanism for blood volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S

    2018-06-06

    Anurans are the most terrestrial order of amphibians. Couple the high driving forces for evaporative loss in terrestrial environments and their low resistance to evaporation, dehydration is an inevitable stress on their water balance. Anurans have the greatest tolerances for dehydration of any vertebrate group, some species can tolerate evaporative losses up to 45% of their standard body mass. Anurans have remarkable capacities to regulate blood volume with hemorrhage and dehydration compared to mammals. Stabilization of blood volume is central to extending dehydration tolerance, since it avoids both the hypovolemic and hyperviscosity stresses on cardiac output and its consequential effects on aerobic capacity. Anurans, in contrast to mammals, seem incapable of generating a sufficient pressure difference, either oncotically or via interstitial compliance, to move fluid from the interstitium into the capillaries. Couple this inability to generate a sufficient pressure difference for transvascular uptake to a circulatory system with high filtration coefficients and a high rate of plasma turnover is the consequence. The novel lymphatic system of anurans is critical to a remarkable capacity for blood volume regulation. This review summarizes what is known about the anatomical and physiological specializations which are involved in explaining differential blood volume regulation and dehydration tolerance involving a true centrally mediated negative feedback of lymphatic function involving baroreceptors as sensors and lymph hearts, AVT, pulmonary ventilation and specialized skeletal muscles as effectors.

  15. Immmunohistochemical study of the blood and lymphatic vasculature and the innervation of mouse gut and gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B; von Wasielewski, R; Lindenmaier, W; Dittmar, K E J

    2007-02-01

    The blood and lymphatic vascular system of the gut plays an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, nutrient absorption and immune surveillance. To obtain a better understanding of the anatomic basis of these functions, the blood and lymphatic vasculature of the lower segment of mouse gut and several constituents of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) including Peyer's patch, specialized lymphoid nodules in the caecum, small lymphoid aggregates and lymphoid nodules in the colon were studied by using confocal microscopy. Additionally, the innervation and nerve/immune cell interactions in the gut and Peyer's patch were investigated by using cell surface marker PGP9.5 and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In the gut and Peyer's patch, the nerves have contact with B cell, T cell and B220CD3 double-positive cells. Dendritic cells, the most important antigen-presenting cells, were closely apposed to some nerves. Some dendritic cells formed membrane-membrane contact with nerve terminals and neuron cell body. Many fine nerve fibres, which are indirectly detected by GFAP, have contact with dendritic cells and other immune cells in the Peyer's patch. Furthermore, the expression of Muscarinic Acetylcholine receptor (subtype M2) was characterized on dendritic cells and other cell population. These findings are expected to provide a route to understand the anatomic basis of neuron-immune regulation/cross-talk and probably neuroinvasion of prion pathogens in the gut and GALT.

  16. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  17. Imagery of the abdominal reticulo-histiocytary system [lymphatic nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, Y.; Begon, D.

    1996-01-01

    Radiography and ultrasonography used together provide useful help in the clinical exploration of spleen and of abdominal lymphatic node abnormalities. These organs are difficult to examine by other techniques. Examination by radiography and ultrasonography often allows the abnormality to be localized and described, to visualize its spread and to observe its extension to other organs. Although these examinations do not allow this aspect they are invaluable in effective diagnosis. The information provided by these studies should avoid some exploratory laparotomies, to prepare for future surgical operations, to help in the prognostic (observation of metastasis,..), even to complete direct visual pre-operation examination (intra-hepatic metastasis)

  18. Survival of Lymphatic Cells after X-Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, O. [Medical Biological Laboratory, National Defense Research Organization TNO, Ruswuk, Z.H. (Netherlands)

    1967-07-15

    Lymphatic tissues are generally classified among the most radiosensitive tissues of the body. The main reason for this is that histologically extensive destruction is found within a few hours after irradiation. We tried to estimate the degree of cellular degeneration by making cell suspensions from lymph nodes and thymus of mice at different times after X-irradiation with 800 R or at 24 h after radiation with different doses. The numbers of normal viable cells we obtained were expressed as percentages of the cells recovered from unirradiated control mice.

  19. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

  20. IL-20 activates human lymphatic endothelial cells causing cell signalling and tube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Troels; Tritsaris, Katerina; Hübschmann, Martin V

    2009-01-01

    IL-20 is an arteriogenic cytokine that remodels collateral networks in vivo, and plays a role in cellular organization. Here, we investigate its role in lymphangiogenesis using a lymphatic endothelial cell line, hTERT-HDLEC, which expresses the lymphatic markers LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Upon stimul...

  1. Macrophage-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis: The Emerging Role of Macrophages as Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Sophia; Montgomery, Kyle E.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is accompanied by macrophage transition from an anti-tumor to a pro-tumorigenic type. The latter is characterized by high expression of factors that activate endothelial cells, suppress immune response, degrade extracellular matrix, and promote tumor growth. Cumulatively, these products of TAMs promote tumor expansion and growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels that facilitate metastatic spread. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies induce the formation of new lymphatic vessels (i.e., lymphangiogenesis) that leads to lymphatic and subsequently, to distant metastasis. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that TAMs significantly promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through paracrine and cell autonomous modes. The paracrine effect consists of the expression of a variety of pro-lymphangiogenic factors that activate the preexisting lymphatic vessels. The evidence for cell-autonomous contribution is based on the observed tumor mobilization of macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP) that integrate into lymphatic vessels prior to sprouting. This review will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage-dependent growth of new lymphatic vessels with specific emphasis on an emerging role of macrophages as lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP)

  2. Erratum: PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, R.H.; Bjorndahl, M.A.; Religa, P.

    2006-01-01

    This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45.......This corrects the article "PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis", Cancer Cell, 2004, vol. 6(4), pg 333-45....

  3. Anatomy and physiology of lymphatic drainage of the breast from the perspective of sentinel node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system is helpful when considering a particular sentinel node biopsy technique. The delicate balance between internal and external pressures in a lymphatic channel can be influenced by the injection volume and by massage in a negative or

  4. Development and validation of a custom made indocyanine green fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Olivia J.; van Zanten, Malou; McEwen, Mark; Burrow, Lynne; Beesley, Jack; Piller, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic progressive condition often producing significant morbidity. An in-depth understanding of an individual's lymphatic architecture is valuable both in the understanding of underlying pathology and for targeting and tailoring treatment. Severe lower limb injuries resulting in extensive loss of soft tissue require transposition of a flap consisting of muscle and/or soft tissue to close the defect. These patients are at risk of lymphoedema and little is known about lymphatic regeneration within the flap. Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble dye, has proven useful for the imaging of lymphatic vessels. When injected into superficial tissues it binds to plasma proteins in lymph. By exposing the dye to specific wavelengths of light, ICG fluoresces with near-infrared light. Skin is relatively transparent to ICG fluorescence, enabling the visualization and characterization of superficial lymphatic vessels. An ICG fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager was manufactured to excite ICG and visualize real-time fluorescence as it travels through the lymphatic vessels. Animal studies showed successful ICG excitation and detection using this imager. Clinically, the imager has assisted researchers to visualize otherwise hidden superficial lymphatic pathways in patients postflap surgery. Preliminary results suggest superficial lymphatic vessels do not redevelop in muscle flaps.

  5. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  6. Osteopatía hipertrófica secundaria a metástasis pulmonar de carcinoma mamario

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Salgado, Ricardo Andrés; Giraldo Villegas, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Propósitos: este artículo pretende reportar los hallazgos de un caso clínico de osteopatía hipertrófica. Tema: la osteopatía hipertrófica es un raro desorden paraneoplásico, asociado con el sobrecrecimiento doloroso del periostio de los huesos largos, normalmente desencadenado por neoplasias primarias o metastásicas de pulmón. Desarrollo: se presenta el caso de un rottweiler, de 12 años, con osteopatía hipertrófica asociada con metástasis pulmonar de un carcinoma mamario. Conclusiones: se com...

  7. [Study of Chinese herbal medicine in treating ascites and their mechanism in regulating lymphatic stomata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Li, J C; Mao, L G

    2001-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in treating ascites to elucidate its mechanism in regulating the lymphatic stomata and promoting the absorption of ascites from the peritoneal cavity. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and computerized image processing and quantitative analysis assays, the CHM extract consisting of Atractylodes macrocephala, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Codonopsis pilosula, Alismatis orientale and Leonurus heterophyllus were studied. Intraperitoneal injection of nitric oxide (NO) supplier or CHM administration could cause the average area of lymphatic stomata obviously enlarged (P inverted obviously, i.e. the average area and the density of lymphatic stomata were markedly reduced (P < 0.01). CHM might treat ascites through increasing the endogenous NO concentration to open the lymphatic stomata and in turn to conduct the peritoneal water through lymphatic path.

  8. Lymphatic drainage and sentinel node location in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.F.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Roberts, J.; Renwick, S.; Gillett, D.; Neische, F.; Ramsay-Stewart, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Mammary lymphoscintigraphy using small volume (0.1-0.2 ml) peritumoral injections of 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid provided a map of the lymph drainage of a breast cancer to its draining sentinel lymph nodes in 92 of 102 patients (over 90%). Non-migration of tracer is reduced by post-injection massage for 5 min but may occur especially if the lymphatics are blocked by metastases. Drainage included the axilla in 92%, internal mammary nodes in 43%, supraclavicular nodes in 12% and intramammary interval nodes in 10% of patients. One patient drained to an interpectoral node. Drainage across the centre-line of the breast occurred in 46% of patients but direct drainage to the contralateral side of the patient was not seen. Lymphatic drainage occurred to 1 node field in 52 patients, 2 node fields in 34 patients and 3 node fields in 6 patients, so that 43% of patients had multiple draining node fields. Drainage to non-axillary sites occurred in 51% of patients. In conclusion, mammary lymphoscintigraphy accurately maps sentinel node location in breast cancer. Approximately half of the patients will have sentinel nodes outside the axilla. To achieve complete lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer, it is logical to biopsy these non-axillary sentinel nodes as well as the sentinel nodes in the axilla. Failure to do so will potentially understage the node status in 50% of patients

  9. Histopathologic aspects of radiation effects on lymphatic tissues and malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Swartzendruber, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Morphologic study with the light microscope remains our most facile and rapid means of tissue identification, diagnosis and staging of diseases, and demonstration of radiation-induced and other toxic effects. The inadequacy of its use alone, however, for the solution of biologic problems is nowhere better illustrated than in such studies on lymphatic tissues as are reported in this symposium. Nearly every classical concept concerning lymphocyte biology and disease derived by morphologic methods has been challenged or disproved in recent years by applications of nonmorphologic technologies. Studies with light and electron microscopy in combination with cell-labeling techniques, histochemical methodology, virology, immunology, and radiation biology have corrected many of our misconceptions and provided unifying concepts of lymphatic-tissue structure and function which explain anew our observations of the past. For example, nearly everyone now accepts the biologic role of viruses in what once were considered radiation-caused neoplasms in rodents, although whether the role of radiation and other physical and chemical insults in human carcinogenesis is direct or indirect is still to be elucidated. Also, the exact relations that obtain between radiation and cancer induction via viruses even in well-studied rodent systems remain to be determined; and here morphologic studies continue to play an important integrating role for the multidisciplinary studies that are required

  10. [The mantle zone in lymphatic follicles and its stratification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, B

    1993-04-01

    Ten inguinal lymph nodes and spleens from autopsies were chosen according to age decades in order to get an idea about usual appearance of follicular structures. The group was complemented by 4 palatine tonsils from routine biopsies. Phenotype was ascertained by using about 30 standard markers and results were compared with a basic histocytological picture. The appearance of lymphatic tissue was quite different according to location and age categories, nevertheless, there were common immunophenotypic and structural features of follicular mantle in younger persons. It mostly comprised four cellular layers, more conspicuous at the upper pole of the follicle. An innermost layer was small-celled blastic, MB 2 and IgD positive, the next B monocytoid layer had medium sized cells of a similar phenotype but more alc, phosphatase positive. An inconstant plasmacytoid layer and a clarocellular layer used to be incomplete. It was cytostructurally characteristic but immunohistologically non-standard (faint CD 19 et CD 20 positivity). T 4 lymphocytes and perhaps some other elements leaving germinal centres were admixed into the inner mantle layer. Various small lymphoid cells, especially T 8 lymphocytes and sometimes litoral cells, were admixed into mantle periphery. Mutual exchange of lymphatic cells between the germinal and mantle zones was very scant. The mantle zone is presumed therefore to be independent from the structural and functional point of view as well.

  11. A series of parapharyngeal glial heterotopia mimicking lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloob, Nora; Pepper, Christopher; Hartley, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Otolaryngologists will most frequently encounter extra-cranial glial tissue within the nasal cavity, where it is known as a 'nasal glioma', and may communicate with the dura. However, glial tissue can also present extra-nasally in the form of a neck mass with no intracranial connection. In these rare cases, they can present soon after birth as an enlarging neck mass, causing compressive symptoms with airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. In this way, it is often initially misdiagnosed as a more common lesion such as a lymphatic malformation, teratoma, branchial anomaly or vascular malformation. As with many congenital head and neck masses, offering the most the appropriate management relies heavily on radiological imaging and, where possible, histopathology from a diagnostic biopsy. Once the diagnosis of extra-nasal glial heterotopia has been confirmed, the gold standard management is complete surgical excision. We review three cases of extra-nasal glial heterotopia presenting to our institution over an eleven year period as a large neck mass, which mimicked other congenital neck lumps, and discuss them in the context of those in the literature. We highlight how their clinical and radiological features can easily be confused with lymphatic malformations, and the potential implications of misdiagnosis. Raising awareness of this diagnostic confusion will highlight the need for management of these cases within an appropriate paediatric multidisciplinary setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations in children: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Paige; Otal, Damanjot; Pemberton, Julia; Ali, Abdullah; Flageole, Helene; Walton, J Mark

    2011-05-01

    This scoping review assesses the literature and summarizes the current evidence on sclerotherapy for the treatment of lymphatic malformations in pediatric patients. A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature was conducted using multiple databases. Title, abstract, and full-text screening was conducted by 2 independent clinicians. All discrepancies were resolved during consensus meetings. A total of 182 articles were retrieved. Forty-four articles were removed as duplicates, and 11 articles were added after reviewing prominent studies. After full-text abstraction, 44 articles and 2 conference proceedings (N = 882 patients) were included in the final results. Twelve articles were classified as level II and 34 articles as level IV evidence. Picibanil (OK-432) was the primary agent used in most included studies. Postinjection symptoms with OK-432 were primarily fever, swelling, and erythema at the site. Life-threatening complications were uncommon and involved postinjection swelling of cervical lesions causing airway compromise. The literature regarding sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations is of a low level of evidence and suffers from a lack of standardization. Randomized clinical trials focused on OK-432, bleomycin, or alcoholic solution of zein; standardized dosing protocols; and consistent and reliable outcome reporting will be necessary for further development of treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wun-Jae

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most bladder cancer patients experience lymphatic metastasis in the course of disease progression, yet the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis is not well known. The aim of this study is to elucidate underlying mechanisms of how expanded lymphatic vessels and tumor microenvironment interacts each other and to find effective therapeutic options to inhibit lymphatic metastasis. Results The orthotopic urinary bladder cancer (OUBC model was generated by intravesical injection of MBT-2 cell lines. We investigated the angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and CD11b+/CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM by using immunofluorescence staining. OUBC displayed a profound lymphangiogenesis and massive infiltration of TAM in primary tumor and lymphatic metastasis in lymph nodes. TAM flocked near lymphatic vessels and express higher levels of VEGF-C/D than CD11b- cells. Because VEGFR-3 was highly expressed in lymphatic vascular endothelial cells, TAM could assist lymphangiogenesis by paracrine manner in bladder tumor. VEGFR-3 expressing adenovirus was administered to block VEGF-C/D signaling pathway and clodronate liposome was used to deplete TAM. The blockade of VEGF-C/D with soluble VEGF receptor-3 markedly inhibited lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in OUBC. In addition, the depletion of TAM with clodronate liposome exerted similar effects on OUBC. Conclusion VEGF-C/D are the main factors of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer. Moreover, TAM plays an important role in these processes by producing VEGF-C/D. The inhibition of lymphangiogenesis could provide another therapeutic target to inhibit lymphatic metastasis and recurrence in patients with invasive bladder cancer.

  14. Lymphatic endothelial cells efferent to inflamed joints produce iNOS and inhibit lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage in TNF-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qianqian; Ju, Yawen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Wensheng; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Li; Xu, Hao; Wood, Ronald W; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F; Wang, Yongjun; Xing, Lianping

    2016-03-12

    In this study, we sought to determine the cellular source of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the effects of iNOS on lymphatic smooth muscle cell (LSMC) function and on the development of arthritis in TNF-transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice, and whether iNOS inhibitors improve lymphatic function and reduce joint destruction in inflammatory erosive arthritis. We used quantitative polymerase chain reactions, immunohistochemistry, histology, and near-infrared imaging to examine (1) iNOS expression in podoplanin + LECs and lymphatic vessels from wild-type (WT) and TNF-Tg mice, (2) iNOS induction by TNF in WT LECs, (3) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on expression of functional muscle genes in LSMCs, and (4) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage, as well as the severity of arthritis, in TNF-Tg mice. LECs from TNF-Tg mice had eight fold higher iNOS messenger RNA levels than WT cells, and iNOS expression was confirmed immunohistochemically in podoplanin + LECs in lymphatic vessels from inflamed joints. TNF (0.1 ng/ml) increased iNOS levels 40-fold in LECs. LSMCs cocultured with LECs pretreated with TNF had reduced expression of functional muscle genes. This reduction was prevented by ferulic acid, which blocked nitric oxide production. Local injection of L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine 5-tetrazole-amide into inflamed paws of TNF-Tg mice resulted in recovery of lymphatic vessel contractions and drainage. Treatment of TNF-Tg mice with ferulic acid reduced synovial inflammation as well as cartilage and bone erosion, and it also restored lymphatic contraction and drainage. iNOS is produced primarily by LECs in lymphatic vessel efferent from inflamed joints of TNF-Tg mice in response to TNF and inhibits LSMC contraction and lymph drainage. Ferulic acid represents a potential new therapy to restore lymphatic function and thus improve inflammatory

  15. Herpes simplex type 1 pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuehl, Miriam; Imhof, Alexander; Klarer, Alexander

    2017-11-23

    Pulmonary pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus type 1 in patients in intensive care without classic immunosuppression as well as the necessity of antiviral treatment in the case of herpes simplex virus detection in respiratory specimens in these patients is controversial. We present a case of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with stable chronic lymphatic leukemia not requiring treatment, in whom we diagnosed herpes simplex virus type 1 bronchopneumonitis based on herpes simplex virus type 1 detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and clinical response to antiviral treatment. A 72-year-old white man presented with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection. His medical history was significant for chronic lymphatic leukemia, which had been stable without treatment, arterial hypertension, multiple squamous cell carcinomas of the scalp, and alcohol overuse. Community-acquired pneumonia was suspected and appropriate broad-spectrum antibacterial treatment was initiated. Within a few hours, rapid respiratory deterioration led to cardiac arrest. He was successfully resuscitated, but developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, he remained febrile and inflammation markers remained elevated despite antibacterial treatment. Polymerase chain reaction from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and viral culture from tracheobronchial secretions tested positive for herpes simplex virus type 1. We initiated antiviral treatment with acyclovir. Concomitantly we further escalated the antibacterial treatment, although no bacterial pathogen had been isolated at any point. Defervescence occurred rapidly and his C-reactive protein and leukocyte levels decreased. He was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation, transferred to the ward, and eventually discharged to home. Herpes simplex virus should be considered a cause for lower respiratory tract infection in critically ill patients, especially in the setting of an underlying disease.

  16. Tolerogenic properties of lymphatic endothelial cells are controlled by the lymph node microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarish N Cohen

    Full Text Available Peripheral self-tolerance eliminates lymphocytes specific for tissue-specific antigens not encountered in the thymus. Recently, we demonstrated that lymphatic endothelial cells in mice directly express peripheral tissue antigens, including tyrosinase, and induce deletion of specific CD8 T cells via Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1. Here, we demonstrate that high-level expression of peripheral tissue antigens and PD-L1 is confined to lymphatic endothelial cells in lymph nodes, as opposed to tissue (diaphragm and colon lymphatics. Lymphatic endothelial cells in the lymph node medullary sinus express the highest levels of peripheral tissue antigens and PD-L1, and are the only subpopulation that expresses tyrosinase epitope. The representation of lymphatic endothelial cells in the medullary sinus expressing high-level PD-L1, which is necessary for normal CD8 T cell deletion kinetics, is controlled by lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling and B cells. Lymphatic endothelial cells from neonatal mice do not express high-level PD-L1 or present tyrosinase epitope. This work uncovers a critical role for the lymph node microenvironment in endowing lymphatic endothelial cells with potent tolerogenic properties.

  17. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels at the implant interface in a rat model of osteoporotic fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Susanne Lips

    Full Text Available Insertion of bone substitution materials accelerates healing of osteoporotic fractures. Biodegradable materials are preferred for application in osteoporotic patients to avoid a second surgery for implant replacement. Degraded implant fragments are often absorbed by macrophages that are removed from the fracture side via passage through veins or lymphatic vessels. We investigated if lymphatic vessels occur in osteoporotic bone defects and whether they are regulated by the use of different materials. To address this issue osteoporosis was induced in rats using the classical method of bilateral ovariectomy and additional calcium and vitamin deficient diet. In addition, wedge-shaped defects of 3, 4, or 5 mm were generated in the distal metaphyseal area of femur via osteotomy. The 4 mm defects were subsequently used for implantation studies where bone substitution materials of calcium phosphate cement, composites of collagen and silica, and iron foams with interconnecting pores were inserted. Different materials were partly additionally functionalized by strontium or bisphosphonate whose positive effects in osteoporosis treatment are well known. The lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against podoplanin. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels were detected in the granulation tissue filling the fracture gap, surrounding the implant and growing into the iron foam through its interconnected pores. Significant more lymphatic capillaries were counted at the implant interface of composite, strontium and bisphosphonate functionalized iron foam. A significant increase was also observed in the number of lymphatics situated in the pores of strontium coated iron foam. In conclusion, our results indicate the occurrence of lymphatic vessels in osteoporotic bone. Our results show that lymphatic vessels are localized at the implant interface and in the fracture gap where they might be involved in the removal of

  18. Podoplanin Immunopositive Lymphatic Vessels at the Implant Interface in a Rat Model of Osteoporotic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Katrin Susanne; Kauschke, Vivien; Hartmann, Sonja; Thormann, Ulrich; Ray, Seemun; Kampschulte, Marian; Langheinrich, Alexander; Schumacher, Matthias; Gelinsky, Michael; Heinemann, Sascha; Hanke, Thomas; Kautz, Armin R.; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian; Alt, Volker; Kilian, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of bone substitution materials accelerates healing of osteoporotic fractures. Biodegradable materials are preferred for application in osteoporotic patients to avoid a second surgery for implant replacement. Degraded implant fragments are often absorbed by macrophages that are removed from the fracture side via passage through veins or lymphatic vessels. We investigated if lymphatic vessels occur in osteoporotic bone defects and whether they are regulated by the use of different materials. To address this issue osteoporosis was induced in rats using the classical method of bilateral ovariectomy and additional calcium and vitamin deficient diet. In addition, wedge-shaped defects of 3, 4, or 5 mm were generated in the distal metaphyseal area of femur via osteotomy. The 4 mm defects were subsequently used for implantation studies where bone substitution materials of calcium phosphate cement, composites of collagen and silica, and iron foams with interconnecting pores were inserted. Different materials were partly additionally functionalized by strontium or bisphosphonate whose positive effects in osteoporosis treatment are well known. The lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against podoplanin. Podoplanin immunopositive lymphatic vessels were detected in the granulation tissue filling the fracture gap, surrounding the implant and growing into the iron foam through its interconnected pores. Significant more lymphatic capillaries were counted at the implant interface of composite, strontium and bisphosphonate functionalized iron foam. A significant increase was also observed in the number of lymphatics situated in the pores of strontium coated iron foam. In conclusion, our results indicate the occurrence of lymphatic vessels in osteoporotic bone. Our results show that lymphatic vessels are localized at the implant interface and in the fracture gap where they might be involved in the removal of lymphocytes, macrophages

  19. Low lymphatic vessel density associates with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkainen, A; Seppälä, M; Renkonen, J; Renkonen, R; Hagstrő M, J; Huhtala, H; Rautiainen, M; Myller, J; Paavonen, T; Ranta, A; Torkkeli, T; Toppila-Salmi, S

    2017-06-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP) and antrochoanal polyps (ACP) are different upper airway inflammation phenotypes with different pathomechanisms. In order to understand the development of tissue edema, the present study aimed to evaluate lymphatic vessel density in CRSsNP, CRSwNP and ACP. 120 retrospective nasal and maxillary sinus specimens were stained immunohistochemically with a von Willebrand factor polyclonal antibody recognizing vascular and lymphatic endothelium, and with a podoplanin monoclonal antibody recognizing lymphatic endothelium. Vessels were studied by microscopy in a blinded fashion, and the vessel density and the relative density of lymphatic vessels were calculated. Patient characteristic factors and follow-up data of in average 9 years were collected from patient records. In the nasal cavity, the low absolute and relative density of vessels and of lymphatic vessels was associated with CRSwNP and ACP tissues compared to control inferior turbinate. This was observed also in the inflammatory hotspot area. In the maxillary sinus, lower absolute and relative density of lymphatic vessels associated with the CRSwNP phenotype. High lymphatic vessel density in polyp tissue associated with the need for revision CRS-surgery. As a conclusion, low density of lymphatic vessels distinguished patients with CRSwNP not only in the hotspot area of polyp tissue, but also in maxillary sinus mucosa. Yet, higher lymphatic vessel density seems to associate with polyp recurrence. Further studies are still needed to explore if formation of nasal polyps could be diminished by intranasal therapeutics affecting lymphangiogenesis.

  20. Fallopian tube cancer: incidence and role of lymphatic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Re, E; Grosso, G; Raspagliesi, F; Baiocchi, G

    1996-08-01

    Lymphatic spread pattern in 17 cases of adenocarcinoma of fallopian tube is reported. Median age of the patients was 48 years. All patients underwent surgical staging including total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy omentectomy, and appendectomy. Systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy was feasible in 15 cases. Majority of the patients (11 of 17 cases, 64%) had advanced disease and showed serous adenocarcinoma (83%). Lymph nodes were involved in 10 of 17 cases (59%). Node metastases rate increased significantly (P < 0.01) with intraperitoneal stage of disease and with grading. Interestingly, positive nodes were also found in 2 cases (33%) of 6 patients with disease still limited to fallopian tube. Overall, patients with negative nodes had a median survival of 76 months, compared with only 33 months if node metastases were found. In conclusion, combined pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy seems to be necessary for staging and perhaps for prognosis of this disease.

  1. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  2. Efficacy and safety of OK-432 immunotherapy of lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark C; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Burke, Diane K; Bauman, Nancy M; Sato, Yutaka; Smith, Richard J H

    2009-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of the immunostimulant OK-432 (Picibanil) as a treatment option in the management of children with cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. A prospective, randomized, multi-institutional phase II clinical trial at 27 U.S. academic medical centers. 182 patients with lymphatic malformations (LM) were enrolled between January 1998 and November 2004. Of the 151 patients with complete case report forms, 117 patients were randomized into immediate or delayed treatment groups; 34 patients were nonrandomized and assigned to the open-label group. Treatment consisted of a four-dose intralesional injection series of OK-432 at eight-week intervals. Patients randomized into the delayed treatment group served as observational controls for spontaneous regression. Response to therapy was measured radiographically by quantitating change in lesion size and graded as complete (90%-100%), substantial (60%-89%), intermediate (20%-59%), or none (<20%). Of 117 patients randomized with intent-to-treat, 68% demonstrated a complete or substantial response to OK-432 immunotherapy. Response data for macrocystic LM were higher, with a complete or substantial response in 94% of patients; 63% of patients with mixed macrocystic-microcystic LM responded to treatment; no patients with microcystic LM responded to treatment. Spontaneous resolution occurred in less than 2% of patients. Median follow-up of 2.9 years demonstrated a 9% recurrence rate. Major adverse effects related to therapy occurred in 11 patients. As compared to historical surgical data on LM, OK-432 immunotherapy is more effective (P < .001) and has a lower morbidity (P < .001). OK-432 immunotherapy is an effective, safe, and simple treatment option for the management of macrocystic cervicofacial LM. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010452.

  3. Antenatal hemorrhage of a cervical lymphatic malformation presenting as a draining neck mass: An unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, R N; Nawaz, M; Bettolli, M; Ferretti, E

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic malformations in the neck can present as large fetal neck masses causing airway obstructions with potential perinatal demise and can pose a therapeutic challenge. We present a rare case of prenatally diagnosed large fetal neck mass with features of lymphatic malformation with intralesional hemorrhage of uncertain origin. Postnatal evaluation showed a complex cystic-solid lesion eroding through the skin with an open wound that made it clinically hard to differentiate from a teratoma. Given that malignancy could not be completely ruled out, surgery was favored. Final pathology showed a complex lymphatic malformation with intralesional hemorrhage, despite having no associated capillary, venous or arterial malformations.

  4. Normal anatomy of the lymphatic system in the CT-image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Peters, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate a pathologic process of a lymphatic node, detailed knowledge is required of the normal anatomy of the lumphatic system in an axial CT image. The anatomy is demonstrated in a comparative study before and after lymphography with CT-scans of patients with normal lymphadenographs. Hereby it appears that with the high-resolution scanning method and favourable imaging conditions even small lymphatic nodes can be differentiated without a lymphographic contrast technique. However, nerves and vessels cannot be differentiated. The extreme variability in the size of normal lymphatic nodes makes the differentiation of pathologic processes very difficult. (orig.) [de

  5. Short report: documentation of iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren: implication for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, M J; Streit, T G; Houston, R; May, W A; Addiss, D G; Lammie, P J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we documented unexpected moderate-to-severe iodine deficiency in Haitian schoolchildren although they live in a coastal community where presumably they have access to iodine-containing seafood. This fact combined with the lack of an iodized salt supply and endemic lymphatic filariasis makes community distribution of diethylcarbamazine-fortified, iodized salt an attractive strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and iodine deficiency disorders in this area of Haiti. Combining lymphatic filariasis elimination with other public health interventions is one strategy to increase its public health benefit and maximize the impact of limited public health resources.

  6. The Interstitial Lymphatic Peritoneal Mesothelium Axis in Portal Hypertensive Ascites: When in Danger, Go Back to the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension induces a splanchnic and systemic low-grade inflammatory response that could induce the expression of three phenotypes, named ischemia-reperfusion, leukocytic, and angiogenic phenotypes.During the splanchnic expression of these phenotypes, interstitial edema, increased lymph flow, and lymphangiogenesis are produced in the gastrointestinal tract. Associated liver disease increases intestinal bacterial translocation, splanchnic lymph flow, and induces ascites and hepatorenal syndrome. Extrahepatic cholestasis in the rat allows to study the worsening of the portal hypertensive syndrome when associated with chronic liver disease. The splanchnic interstitium, the mesenteric lymphatics, and the peritoneal mesothelium seem to create an inflammatory pathway that could have a key pathophysiological relevance in the production of the portal hypertension syndrome complications. The hypothetical comparison between the ascitic and the amniotic fluids allows for translational investigation. From a phylogenetic point of view, the ancestral mechanisms for amniotic fluid production were essential for animal survival out of the aquatic environment. However, their hypothetical appearance in the cirrhotic patient is considered pathological since ultimately they lead to ascites development. But, the adult human being would take advantage of the potential beneficial effects of this “amniotic-like fluid” to manage the interstitial fluids without adverse effects when chronic liver disease aggravates.

  7. La llamada depresión mayor en el curso de la enfermedad de cáncer diseminado con metástasis numerosas

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek,Tomasz Ros

    2004-01-01

    Muchos autores demuestran sobre los ejemplos de sus pacientes que Sertralina es una medicación más eficaz y mejor tolerada en el tratamiento de la "depresión mayor" en el curso de las enfermedades de cáncer con metástasis. Presentamos el caso de una entrenadora de gimnasia.

  8. Treatment of Lymphatic Malformations With OK-432 (Picibanil) : Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poldervaart, Michelle T.; Breugem, Corstiaan C.; Speleman, Lucienne; Pasmans, Suzanne

    Introduction: Lymphatic malformations (LM) are benign structural defects that call cause serious complications because of their size and location. Traditionally surgical removal was the first treatment modality, but this Could be associated with many complications and risks. Since Ogita introduced

  9. Evaluation of electromechanical coupling parameters of piezoelectric materials by using piezoelectric cantilever with coplanar electrode structure in quasi-stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuejun; Zhu, Yuankun; Liu, Xun; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Based on Timoshenko beam theory, a principle model is proposed to establish the relationship between electric charge and excitation acceleration, and in quasi-stasis we apply the direct piezoelectric effect of multilayer cantilever with coplanar electrode structure to evaluate the piezoelectric strain coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling coefficient k15. They are measured as 678 pC/N and 0.74 for the commercial piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT-51) bulk specimen and 656 pC/N and 0.63 for the lead magnesium niobate (PMN) bulk specimen, and they are in agreement with the calibration and simulation values. The maximum of relative errors is less than 4.2%, so the proposed method is reliable and convenient.

  10. [Effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis on carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Tao

    2014-03-01

    To explore the effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis (CDABCRBS) on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events. By using open and control method, effect of 4 groups of platelet antagonists, platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin +CDABCRBS on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events of 90 cerebral infarction patients were analyzed. Through survival analysis, there was no statistical difference in the effect of the 4 interventions on the variation of carotid stenosis rates or ischemic cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). The occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular events could be postponed by about 4 months in those treated with platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS and platelet antagonists + atorvastatin +CDABCRBS. By multivariate Logistic analysis, age, hypertension, and clopidogrel were associated with stenosis of extracranial carotid arteries (P cerebrovascular accidents (P cerebrovascular events. CDABCRBS could effectively prolong the occurrence time of ischemic cerebrovascular events.

  11. Effect of wine processing and acute blood stasis on the serum pharmacochemistry of rhubarb: a possible explanation for processing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Fu, Jinfeng; Lv, Mengying; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Song, Rui; Zhang, Zunjian

    2014-09-01

    As a specific item mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can fulfill different requirements of therapies. Crude and wine-processed rhubarbs are used as drastic and mild laxatives, respectively. In this study, a practical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to screen and analyze multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in the serum of both normal and acute blood stasis rats after oral administration of crude or wine-processed rhubarbs. A total of 16 compounds, mainly including phase II metabolites, were tentatively identified. Possible explanations for the processing-induced changes in pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines were first explored at serum pharmacochemistry level. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Weapons of Maths Instruction: A Thousand Years of Technological Stasis in Arrowheads from the South Scandinavian Middle Mesolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevan Edinborough

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results from my doctoral research into the evolution of bow-arrow technology using archaeological data from the south Scandinavian Mesolithic (Edinborough 2004. A quantitative approach is used to describe the morphological variation found in samples taken from over 3600 armatures from nine Danish and Swedish lithic assemblages. A linked series of statistical techniques determines the two most significant metric variables across the nine arrowhead assemblages in terms of the cultural transmission of arrowhead technology. The resultant scatterplot uses confidence ellipses to reveal highly distinctive patterns of morphological variation that are related to population-specific technological traditions. A population-level hypothesis of a socially constrained transmission mechanism is presented that may explain the unusually long period of technological stasis demonstrated by six of the nine arrowhead phase-assemblages.

  13. The presence and absence of lymphatic vessels in the adult human intervertebral disc: relation to disc pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliskey, Karolina; Williams, Kelly; Yu, J.; Urban, Jill; Athanasou, Nick; Jackson, David

    2009-01-01

    Although the normal adult human intervertebral disc is considered to be avascular, vascularised cellular fibrous tissue can be found in pathological conditions involving the disc such as disc herniation. Whether lymphatics vessels form a component of this reparative tissue is not known as the presence or absence of lymphatics in herniated and normal disc tissue is not known. We examined spinal tissues and discectomy specimens for the presence of lymphatics. The examination used immunohistochemistry to identify the specific lymphatic endothelial cell markers, podoplanin and LYVE1. Lymphatic vessels were not found in the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus of intact, non-herniated lumbar and thoracic discs but were present in the surrounding ligaments. Ingrowth of fibrous tissue was seen in 73% of herniated disc specimens of which 36% contained LYVE1+/podoplanin + lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels were not seen in the sacrum and coccyx or biopsies of four sacrococcygeal chordomas, but they were noted in surrounding extra-osseous fat and fibrous tissue at the edge of the infiltrating tumour. Our findings indicate that lymphatic vessels are not present in the normal adult intervertebral disc but that, when there is extrusion of disc material into surrounding soft tissue, there is ingrowth of reparative fibrous tissue containing lymphatic vessels. Our findings also indicate that chordoma, a tumour of notochordal origin, spreads to regional lymph nodes via lymphatics in para-spinal soft tissues. (orig.)

  14. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1981-02-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.

  15. Lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourdrain, Alex; Lafitte, Sophie; Iquille, Jules; De Dominicis, Florence; Havet, Eric; Peltier, Johann; Bagan, Patrick; Berna, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Although peribronchial lymphatic drainage of the lung has been well characterized, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura is less well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura. Adult, European cadavers were examined. Cadavers with a history of pleural or pulmonary disease were excluded. The cadavers had been refrigerated but not embalmed. The lungs were surgically removed and re-warmed. Blue dye was injected into the subpleural area and into the first draining visceral pleural lymphatic vessel of each lung segment. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males and 14 females; mean age 80.9 years) were dissected an average of 9.8 day postmortem. A total of 380 dye injections (in 95 lobes) were performed. Lymphatic drainage of the visceral pleura followed a segmental pathway in 44.2% of the injections (n = 168) and an intersegmental pathway in 55.8% (n = 212). Drainage was found to be both intersegmental and interlobar in 2.6% of the injections (n = 10). Lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura followed an intersegmental pathway in 22.8% (n = 13) of right upper lobe injections, 57.9% (n = 22) of right middle lobe injections, 83.3% (n = 75) of right lower lobe injections, 21% (n = 21) of left upper lobe injections, and 85.3% (n = 81) of left lower lobe injections. In the lung, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura appears to be more intersegmental than the peribronchial pathway is-especially in the lower lobes. The involvement of intersegmental lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura should now be evaluated during pulmonary resections (and especially sub-lobar resections) for lung cancer.

  16. Podoplanin-expressing Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Play a Crucial Role in Postnatal Lymphatic Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Changwon; Cho, Yong Pil; Lee, Eugine; Kim, Hyongbum; Kim, Pilhan; Yun, Seok H.; Yoon, Young-sup

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence has suggested a contribution of bone marrow (BM) cells to lymphatic vessel formation; however, the exact phenotype of the cells with lymphatic endothelial progenitor cell (LEPC) function has yet to be identified. Here we investigate the identity of BM-derived LEPCs and their role in lymphatic neovascularization. Methods and Results Culture of BM-mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the presence of VEGFA, VEGFC and EGF resulted in expression of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers. Among these cells, podoplanin+ cells were isolated by magnetic-labeled cell separation system (MACS) and characterized by FACS and immunocytochemistry. These podoplanin+ cells highly express markers for LECs, hematopoietic lineages, and stem/progenitor cells, and upon further cultivation, generate LECs. We further confirmed that podoplanin+ cells exist in small numbers in BM and peripheral blood (PB) of normal mice, but are significantly (15 fold) augmented upon lymphangiogenic stimuli such as tumor implantation. Next, to evaluate the potential of podoplanin+ cells for the formation of new lymphatic vessels in vivo, we injected culture-isolated or freshly isolated BM-derived podoplanin+ cells into wound and tumor models. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the injected cells were incorporated into the lymphatic vasculature, displayed LEC phenotypes, and increased lymphatic vascular density in tissues, suggesting lymphvasculogenesis. Podoplanin+ cells also expressed high levels of lymphangiogenic cytokines and increased proliferation of LECs during co-culture, suggesting a lymphangiogenic or paracrine role. Conclusions Our results provide compelling evidence that BM-derived podoplanin+ cells, a previously unrecognized cell type, function as LEPCs and participate in postnatal lymphatic neovascularization through both lymphvasculogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:20855662

  17. Lymphatic deletion of calcitonin receptor–like receptor exacerbates intestinal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Reema B.; Kechele, Daniel O.; Blakeney, Elizabeth S.; Pawlak, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatics play a critical role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis and in the absorption of dietary lipids, yet their roles in intestinal inflammation remain elusive. Given the increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, we investigated whether lymphatic vessels contribute to, or may be causative of, disease progression. We generated a mouse model with temporal and spatial deletion of the key lymphangiogenic receptor for the adrenomedullin peptide, calcitonin receptor–like receptor (Calcrl), and found that the loss of lymphatic Calcrl was sufficient to induce intestinal lymphangiectasia, characterized by dilated lacteals and protein-losing enteropathy. Upon indomethacin challenge, Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice demonstrated persistent inflammation and failure to recover and thrive. The epithelium and crypts of Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice exhibited exacerbated hallmarks of disease progression, and the lacteals demonstrated an inability to absorb lipids. Furthermore, we identified Calcrl/adrenomedullin signaling as an essential upstream regulator of the Notch pathway, previously shown to be critical for intestinal lacteal maintenance and junctional integrity. In conclusion, lymphatic insufficiency and lymphangiectasia caused by loss of lymphatic Calcrl exacerbates intestinal recovery following mucosal injury and underscores the importance of lymphatic function in promoting recovery from intestinal inflammation. PMID:28352669

  18. Investigating the Lymphatic System by Dual-Color Elemental Mass Spectrometry Imaging

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    Ann-Christin Niehoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary lymphedema accompanied with strong restrictions in quality of life is still major side effects in cancer therapy. Therefore, dedicated diagnostic tools and further investigation of the lymphatic system are crucial to improve lymphedema therapy. In this pilot study, a method for quantitative analysis of the lymphatic system in a rat model by laser ablation (LA with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging (ICP-MSI is presented. As a possible lymph marker, thulium(III(1R,4R,7R,10R-α,α′,α′′,α′′′-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (Tm-DOTMA is introduced and compared to the clinically used magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium(III2,2′,2′′-(10-((2R,3S-1,3,4-trihydroxybutan-2-yl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyltriacetate (Gd-DO3A-butrol. Gadobutrol functioned as standard contrast media in MRI lymphangiography to detect lymphatic flow qualitatively. Thus, Tm-DOTMA was investigated as lymphatic marker to detect lymphatic flow quantitatively. Both contrast agents were successfully used to visualize the lymphatic flow in successive lymph nodes in LA-ICP-MS due to lower limits of detection compared to MRI. Furthermore, the distribution of contrast agents by multicolored imaging showed accumulation in specific areas (sectors of the lymph nodes after application of contrast agents in different areas.

  19. Correlation between blood and lymphatic vessel density and results of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Walasek, Tomasz; Ryś, Janusz; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a novel technique used for detection of tumour vascularity by imaging the moment in which contrast, delivered to the lesion by blood vessels, leaks out of them, and flows out through lymphatic vessels. In our study, we included 174 women for whom spectral mammography was performed for diagnostic purposes. The relationship between enhancement in CESM and blood vessel density (BVD), lymphatic vessel density (LVD) or the percentage of fields with at least one lymphatic vessel (distribution of podoplanin-positive vessels - DPV) and other related parameters was assessed in 55 cases. BVD, LVD and DPV were assessed immunohistochemically, applying podoplanin and CD31/CD34 as markers of lymphatic and blood vessels, respectively. The sensitivity (in detection of malignant lesions) of CESM was 100%, while its specificity - 39%. We found a significant positive correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and BVD (p = 0.007, r = 0.357) and a negative correlation between the intensity of enhancement in CESM and DPV (p = 0.003, r = -0.390). Lesions with the highest enhancement in CESM showed a high number of blood vessels and a low number of lymphatics. 1) CESM is a method characterized by high sensitivity and acceptable specificity; 2) the correlation between CESM results and blood/lymphatic vessel density confirms its utility in detection of tissue angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis.

  20. Comparison of the Blood and Lymphatic Microvessel Density of Pleomorphic Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenoma

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    Andresa Borges Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland, while basal cell adenoma (BCA is an uncommon neoplasm. Blood and lymphatic vessels are crucial for tumor metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and lymphatic vascular density and vascular and endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in PA and BCA tumors. In addition, cell proliferation was evaluated in these tumors. Methods Blood and lymphatic vessel content, VEGF expression, and cell proliferation were analyzed in 30 cases of PA and 13 cases of BCA by immu-nohistochemistry using antibodies for CD34, CD105, D2-40, VEGF, and Mcm -2. Results Regarding CD34 and CD105 expression, PA demonstrated a high vascularity and a low number of positive vessels, respectively. D2-40-positive lymphatic vessels were mainly located in the tumor capsules, with small intratumoral lymphatic vessels observed occasionally. VEGF expression revealed a remarkably heterogeneous immunoreactivity, alternating from weak or negative to positive or intense. BCA presented significantly higher CD34, CD34, CD105, D2-40, and VEGF expression compared to PA. No significant difference was found in cell proliferation between the tumors. Conclusion Although PA and BCA are considered part of the same spectrum of differentiation, this study showed that the blood and lymphatic vascularization of these tumors is different.

  1. Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling induced by filarial parasites: implications for pathogenesis.

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    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of an adaptive immune system in murine models, lymphatic dilatation and dysfunction occur in filarial infections, although severe irreversible lymphedema and elephantiasis appears to require an intact adaptive immune response in human infections. To address how filarial parasites and their antigens influence the lymphatics directly, human lymphatic endothelial cells were exposed to filarial antigens, live parasites, or infected patient serum. Live filarial parasites or filarial antigens induced both significant LEC proliferation and differentiation into tube-like structures in vitro. Moreover, serum from patently infected (microfilaria positive patients and those with longstanding chronic lymphatic obstruction induced significantly increased LEC proliferation compared to sera from uninfected individuals. Differentiation of LEC into tube-like networks was found to be associated with significantly increased levels of matrix metalloproteases and inhibition of their TIMP inhibitors (Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases. Comparison of global gene expression induced by live parasites in LEC to parasite-unexposed LEC demonstrated that filarial parasites altered the expression of those genes involved in cellular organization and development as well as those associated with junction adherence pathways that in turn decreased trans-endothelial transport as assessed by FITC-Dextran. The data suggest that filarial parasites directly induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic differentiation and provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the pathology seen in lymphatic filariasis.

  2. Lymphatic filariasis: a method to identify subclinical lower limb change in PNG adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susan; Melrose, Wayne; Warner, Jeffrey; Buttner, Petra; Ward, Leigh

    2011-07-01

    Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity.

  3. Lymphatic Filariasis: A Method to Identify Subclinical Lower Limb Change in PNG Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susan; Melrose, Wayne; Warner, Jeffrey; Buttner, Petra; Ward, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity. PMID:21811644

  4. Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Alejandra; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Serasinghe, Madhavika; Verma, Akanksha; Muller, James; Chaluvadi, V Sai; Dustin, Michael L; Hla, Timothy; Elemento, Olivier; Chipuk, Jerry E; Schwab, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    Effective adaptive immune responses require a large repertoire of naive T cells that migrate throughout the body, rapidly identifying almost any foreign peptide. Because the production of T cells declines with age, naive T cells must be long-lived. However, it remains unclear how naive T cells survive for years while constantly travelling. The chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides T cell circulation among secondary lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, where T cells search for antigens. The concentration of S1P is higher in circulatory fluids than in lymphoid organs, and the S1P 1 receptor (S1P 1 R) directs the exit of T cells from the spleen into blood, and from lymph nodes and Peyer's patches into lymph. Here we show that S1P is essential not only for the circulation of naive T cells, but also for their survival. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells support the survival of T cells by secreting S1P via the transporter SPNS2, that this S1P signals through S1P 1 R on T cells, and that the requirement for S1P 1 R is independent of the established role of the receptor in guiding exit from lymph nodes. S1P signalling maintains the mitochondrial content of naive T cells, providing cells with the energy to continue their constant migration. The S1P signalling pathway is being targeted therapeutically to inhibit autoreactive T cell trafficking, and these findings suggest that it may be possible simultaneously to target autoreactive or malignant cell survival.

  5. Temperature-dependent modulation of regional lymphatic contraction frequency and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela; Moriondo, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Lymph drainage and propulsion are sustained by an extrinsic mechanism, based on mechanical forces acting from the surrounding tissues against the wall of lymphatic vessels, and by an intrinsic mechanism attributable to active spontaneous contractions of the lymphatic vessel muscle. Despite being heterogeneous, the mechanisms underlying the generation of spontaneous contractions share a common biochemical nature and are thus modulated by temperature. In this study, we challenged excised tissues from rat diaphragm and hindpaw, endowed with spontaneously contracting lymphatic vessels, to temperatures from 24°C (hindpaw) or 33°C (diaphragmatic vessels) to 40°C while measuring lymphatic contraction frequency ( f c ) and amplitude. Both vessel populations displayed a sigmoidal relationship between f c and temperature, each centered around the average temperature of surrounding tissue (36.7 diaphragmatic and 32.1 hindpaw lymphatics). Although the slope factor of the sigmoidal fit to the f c change of hindpaw vessels was 2.3°C·cycles -1 ·min -1 , a value within the normal range displayed by simple biochemical reactions, the slope factor of the diaphragmatic lymphatics was 0.62°C·cycles -1 ·min -1 , suggesting the added involvement of temperature-sensing mechanisms. Lymph flow calculated as a function of temperature confirmed the relationship observed on f c data alone and showed that none of the two lymphatic vessel populations would be able to adapt to the optimal working temperature of the other tissue district. This poses a novel question whether lymphatic vessels might not adapt their function to accommodate the change if exposed to a surrounding temperature, which is different from their normal condition. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates to what extent lymphatic vessel intrinsic contractility and lymph flow are modulated by temperature and that this modulation is dependent on the body district that the vessels belong to, suggesting a possible

  6. Mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer in Scottish coastal towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.Ll.; Macdonald, J.; Lloyd, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Using annual Scottish registration data, the authors have been examining mortality from cancers including all leukaemias, classified within malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue, from 1969/73. The results showed: (1) Coastal burghs had a higher standardised mortality than did inland burghs; (2) the SMRs in communities of the east coast as a whole were consistently higher than those in west-coast communities, whether small burghs, large burghs, or cities were considered; (3) all segments of the eastern coastline, other than the open coastline stretching from Aberdeenshire to Angus, showed relatively high SMRs; (4) on the west coast, the highest SMRs (of only 100) were in Ayrshire and Glasgow; (5) in terms of statistical significance at the level p<=0.5, mortality in inland burghs was significantly low, while in east-coast burghs, in Edinburgh, and in Aberdeen it was significantly high. The geographical distribution cannot be explained in terms of nuclear power stations, and differs importantly from that given by registration data for leukaemia alone (Heasman et al, May 26, p.1188). (U.K.)

  7. Nanoradioliposomes molecularly modulated to study the lung deep lymphatic drainage

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    Maria Filomena Rabaça Roque Botelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung deep lymphatic drainage (LDLD plays an important role in the removal of foreign materials from lungs being alveolar macrophages the first line of phagocytic defence with high affinity for pathogenic microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a well-known genome- decoded saprophyte of the human respiratory tract used in research and in the biotechnology industry.Lung deep lymphatic chains (LDLC constitute one of the first sites of lung tumours’ dissemination. In this work we intended to develop and validate a non-invasive method for assessing LDLC by nanoradioliposomes aerosolised modulated on the Bacillus subtilis spore wall. The final goal was to produce a nanoradioliposome formulation that can mimics the dynamics of preferential removal of spores by LDLD and present the ideal properties as a tracer for molecular imaging studies.Seven different liposomal formulations were tested, and the formulation-F demonstrated physicochemical and radiopharmaceutical properties that make it an ideal candidate as an in vivo probe for molecular imaging studies of the LDLC.Nanoradioliposomes of the formulation-F after labelling with 99mTc-HMPAO were administered as aerosols to 20 Sus scrofa. Hilar and interpulmonary communications were visualized in first 5 minutes post-inhalation, infradiaphragmatic chains between 10 and 20 minutes, the ganglia of the aortic chain at 20 minutes and those of the renal hilar region at 30 minutes. Conclusion: the proposed method enables visualization of deep lymphatic lung network and lymph nodes. Besides, this technique involving the modulation of nanoradioliposomes targeting specific organs or tissues may be an important tool for diagnostic or even for therapeutic purposes. Resumo: A drenagem linfática pulmonar profunda (DLPP desempenha um papel importante na remoção de materiais estranhos, constituindo os macrófagos alveolares a primeira linha de defesa fagocitária, dada a grande afinidade para

  8. [Cytostructure of the mantle zone in lymphatic tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednár, B

    1993-04-01

    Four cellular layers of the follicular mantle zone in palatine tonsil lymphatic tissue were studied by electron microscopy after simultaneous immunophenotypical investigation. The first layer of the mantle zone consisting of small blastic cells was analogous to the small (centrocytoid) blastic layer of germinal centres. The second B monocytoid layer was lacking analogy in basic series of lymphocytes and seemed to be an independent morphological and probably functional unit. Plasmacytoid and clarocellular elements in outer layers of follicular mantle zone were in a way similar to T plasmacytoid and clarocellular components of Sézary syndrome infiltrates but considering transitional forms they had a local origin from incompletely transformed elements of B monocytoid layer. Inner follicular mantle zone was discussed as a source of incompletely transformed B lymphocytes for further mantle layers where their immunophenotypical modulation is taking place according to actual need. Outer mantle layers are aggressive against damaged epithelial and litoral structures and may be instrumental in a common reaction of B and T components.

  9. Improvement and application of an acute blood stasis rat model aligned with the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) of humane animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yin-Ye; Shang, Ming-Ying; Wang, Chao-Qun; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-12-23

    To establish a novel cardiocentesis method for withdrawing venous blood from the right atrium, and to improve an acute blood stasis rat model using an ice bath and epinephrine hydrochloride (Epi) while considering the 3Rs (reduction, refinement, and replacement) of humane animal experimentation. An acute blood stasis model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection (s.c.) Epi (1.2 mg/kg) administration at 0 h, followed by a 5-min exposure to an ice-bath at 2 h and s.c. Epi administration at 4 h. Control rats received physiological saline. Rats were fasted overnight and treated with Angelicae Sinensis Lateralis Radix (ASLR) and Pheretima the following day. Venous blood was collected using our novel cardiocentesis method and used to test whole blood viscosity (WBV), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. The rats survived the novel cardiocentesis technique; WBV value returned to normal while hematological parameters such as hemoglobin level and red blood cell count were restored to >94% of the corresponding values in normal rats following a 14-day recovery. Epi (1.2 mg/kg, s.c.) combined with a 5-min exposure to the ice bath replicated the acute blood stasis rat model and was associated with the highest WBV value. In rats showing acute blood stasis, ASLR treatment [4 g/(kg·d) for 8 days] decreased WBV by 9.98%, 11.09%, 9.34%, 9.00%, 7.66%, and 7.03% (P<0.05), while Pheretima treatment [2.6 g/(kg·d), for 8 days] decreased WBV by 25.49%, 25.94%, 16.28%, 17.76%, 11.07%, and 7.89% (P<0.01) at shear rates of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, and 180 s -1 , respectively. Furthermore, Pheretima treatment increased APTT significantly (P<0.01). We presented a stable, reproducible, and improved acute blood stasis rat model, which could be applied to screen drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis.

  10. Immunohistochemical Examination on the Distribution of Cells Expressed Lymphatic Endothelial Marker Podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the Mouse Tongue Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuya; Amano, Ikuko; Hata, Minoru; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The clinical study for lingual disease requires the detailed investigation of the lingual lymphatic network and lymphatic marker-positive cells. Recently, it has been reported that several tissue cells and leukocytes express lymphatic markers, LYVE-1 and podoplanin. This study was aimed to clarify the lingual distribution of cells expressing LYVE-1 and podoplanin. In the mouse tongue, podoplanin is expressed in nerve sheaths, lingual gland myoepithelial cells, and lymphatic vessels. LYVE-1 is expressed in the macrophage marker Mac-1-positive cells as well as lymphatic vessels, while factor-VIII was detected in only blood endothelial cells. α-SMA was detected in vascular smooth muscle and myoepithelial cells. Therefore, identification of lymphatic vessels in lingual glands, the combination of LYVE-1 and factor-VIII, or LYVE-1 and Mac-1 is useful because myoepithelial cells express podoplanin and α-SMA. The immunostaining of factor-VIII on lymphatic vessels was masked by the immunostaining to LYVE-1 or podoplanin because lymphatic vessels express factor-VIII to a far lesser extent than blood vessels. Therefore, except for the salivary glands, the combination of podoplanin and α-SMA, or factor-VIII is useful to identify lymphatic vessels and blood vessels with smooth muscle, or blood capillaries. PMID:20514293

  11. Human Lymphatic Mesenteric Vessels: Morphology and Possible Function of Aminergic and NPY-ergic Nerve Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Vito; Panarese, Alessandra; Taurone, Samanta; Coppola, Luigi; Cavallotti, Carlo; Artico, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The lymphatic vessels have been studied in different organs from a morphological to a clinical point of view. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the catecholaminergic control of the lymphatic circulation is still incomplete. The aim of this work is to study the presence and distribution of the catecholaminergic and NPY-ergic nerve fibers in the whole wall of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels in order to obtain knowledge about their morphology and functional significance. The following experimental procedures were performed: 1) drawing of tissue containing lymphatic vessels; 2) cutting of tissue; 3) staining of tissue; 4) staining of nerve fibers; 5) histofluorescence microscopy for the staining of catecholaminergic nerve fibers; 6) staining of neuropeptide Y like-immune reactivity; 7) biochemical assay of proteins; 8) measurement of noradrenaline; 9) quantitative analysis of images; 10) statistical analysis of data. Numerous nerve fibers run in the wall of lymphatic vessels. Many of them are catecholaminergic in nature. Some nerve fibers are NPY-positive. The biochemical results on noradrenaline amounts are in agreement with morphological results on catecholaminergic nerve fibers. Moreover, the morphometric results, obtained by the quantitative analysis of images and the subsequent statistical analysis of data, confirm all our morphological and biochemical data. The knowledge of the physiological or pathological mechanism regulating the functions of the lymphatic system is incomplete. Nevertheless the catecholaminergic nerve fibers of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels come from the adrenergic periarterial plexuses of the mesenterial arterial bed. NPY-ergic nerve fibers may modulate the microcirculatory mesenterial bed in different pathological conditions.

  12. Detección de micrometástasis de carcinoma de colon en ganglios linfáticos

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    A. Roma

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available En el carcinoma colorrectal la diseminación a los ganglios linfáticos es un factor pronóstico reconocido. La presencia de ganglios linfáticos con micrometástasis en muchos casos no puede ser detectada por técnicas rutinarias. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 162 ganglios linfáticos de 30 pacientes con carcinoma de colon, los cuales según los resultados de las técnicas rutinarias fueron clasificados como Dukes A (2, Dukes B (19 y Dukes C (9. Un paciente con enfermedad colónica benigna se uso como control negativo. Todos los ganglios se seccionaron en mitades, una de las cuales se almacenó en nitrógeno líquido para su ulterior estudio por técnicas de biología molecular, mediante la expresión del antígeno carcinoembrionario (CEA. La otra mitad fue fijada en formaldehído e incluida en parafina para su estudio anatomopatológico e inmunohistoquímico. Del total de los casos se detectó un aumento del 50% de la sensibilidad en la detección de micrometástasis mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR para los Dukes A-B y se detectó la expresión de dicho antígeno en el total de los casos Dukes C. Estos resultados evidencian una mayor sensibilidad en la detección de micrometástasis utilizando RT-PCR en comparación con las técnicas rutinarias, incluyendo la inmunohistoquímica.Dissemination of lymph nodes is a known prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma. Micrometastases in lymph nodes can be missed when studied by routine techniques. We analyzed 162 lymph nodes from 30 patients with colonic carcinoma and using routine techniques, they were classified as follows: two Dukes A; nineteen Dukes B; and nine Dukes C. A patient with benign colon disease served as negative control. Lymph nodes were all sectioned in halves, with one of the halves stored in liquid nitrogen for molecular biology examination by carcinoembryonic antigen expression. The other formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded

  13. Mammary gland-specific nuclear factor activity is positively regulated by lactogenic hormones and negatively by milk stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Ney, M; Happ, B; Hofer, P; Hynes, N E; Groner, B

    1992-12-01

    The mammary gland-specific nuclear factor (MGF) is a crucial contributor to the regulation of transcription from the beta-casein gene promoter. The beta-casein gene encodes a major milk protein, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells during lactation and can be induced by lactogenic hormones in the clonal mammary epithelial cell line HC11. We have investigated the specific DNA-binding activity of MGF in mammary epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Comparison of MGF in HC11 cells and mammary gland cells from lactating mice revealed molecules with identical DNA-binding properties. Bandshift and UV cross-linking experiments indicated that MGF in HC11 cells has a higher mol wt than MGF found in mice. Little MGF activity was detected in nuclear extracts from HC11 cells cultured in the absence of lactogenic hormones. Lactogenic hormone treatment of HC11 cells led to a strong induction of MGF activity. The induction of MGF activity as well as utilization of the beta-casein promoter were suppressed when epidermal growth factor was present in the tissue culture medium simultaneously with the lactogenic hormones. In lactating animals, MGF activity is regulated by suckling, milk stasis, and systemic hormone signals. The mammary glands from maximally lactating animals, 16 days postpartum, contain drastically reduced MGF activity after removal of the pups for only 8 h. The down-regulation of MGF by pup withdrawal was slower in early lactation, 6 days postpartum. We also investigated the relative contributions of local signals, generated by milk stasis, and systemic hormone signals to the regulation of MGF activity. The access to one row of mammary glands of lactating mothers was denied to the pups for 24 h. High levels of MGF were found in the accessible mammary glands, and intermediate levels of MGF were found in the inaccessible glands of the same mouse. Very low MGF levels were detected when the pups were removed from the dams for 24 h. We conclude that systemic as

  14. Regeneració i homeòstasi a les planàries: gens i vies de senyalització implicats en l'organogènesi

    OpenAIRE

    González Sastre, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    [cat] En aquesta tesi, titulada “Regeneració i homeòstasi a les planàries: gens i vies de senyalització implicats en l'organogènesi”, s’aprofundeix en l’estudi dels processos responsables de l’organogènesi a la planària d’aigua dolça Schmidtea mediterranea, tant durant la regeneració com durant l’homeòstasi. La planària d’aigua dolça Schmidtea mediterranea presenta una extraordinària capacitat de regeneració, gràcies a la presència d’una elevada quantitat de cèl·lules mare, els neoblasts, qu...

  15. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improving the bioavailability of huperzine A by lymphatic uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (Hup-A is a poorly water-soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. A self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS was used to enhance the oral bioavailability and lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A. A single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP technique and a chylomicron flow-blocking approach were used to study its intestinal absorption, mesenteric lymph node distribution and intestinal lymphatic uptake. The value of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC of Hup-A SMEDDS was significantly higher than that of a Hup-A suspension (P<0.01. The absorption rate constant (Ka and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for Hup-A in different parts of the intestine suggested a passive transport mechanism, and the values of Ka and Papp of Hup-A SMEDDS in the ileum were much higher than those in other intestinal segments. The determination of Hup-A concentration in mesenteric lymph nodes can be used to explain the intestinal lymphatic absorption of Hup-A SMEDDS. For Hup-A SMEDDS, the values of AUC and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of the blocking model were significantly lower than those of the control model (P<0.05. The proportion of lymphatic transport of Hup-A SMEDDS and Hup-A suspension were about 40% and 5%, respectively, suggesting that SMEDDS can significantly improve the intestinal lymphatic uptake and transport of Hup-A.

  16. The effect of cisterna chyli ablation combined with thoracic duct ligation on abdominal lymphatic drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Gretchen K; Waller, Ken R; McAnulty, Jonathan F

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of cisterna chyli ablation (CCA) and thoracic duct ligation (TDL) on abdominal lymphatic drainage in normal dogs. Experimental study. Nine female beagle dogs. TDL was performed in 3 dogs and was combined with CCA (CCA-TDL) and local omentalization in 6 dogs. Contrast lymphangiography was attempted in all dogs immediately before and after TDL. Dogs were reanesthetized at 31-37 days for lymphatic studies by new methylene blue (NMB) injection into a mesenteric lymph node and by contrast lymphangiography. In 6 CCA-TDL dogs, 2 had direct shunting of contrast from the lymphatic system into major abdominal veins, 3 had contrast material that dissipated into abdominal vessels within the mesenteric root, and 1 had shunting into the azygous vein. NMB was not observed within the omental pedicle after CCA-TDL. Chylous drainage was by the azygous vein in all 3 TDL dogs. CCA-TDL disrupted chylous drainage to the thoracic duct and resulted in direct intraabdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses identified by shunting of lymphatic flow directly into the abdominal vasculature in 5 of 6 CCA-TDL dogs. Omentalization of the cisternal ablation site was not beneficial in augmenting extrathoracic lymphatic drainage and is not recommended with CCA-TDL. CCA-TDL represents a novel approach to surgical redirection of chylous drainage to the venous circulation outside of the thorax and may be useful in the treatment of spontaneous chylothorax in the dog.

  17. PEGylation of polylysine dendrimers improves absorption and lymphatic targeting following SC administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; Kota, Jagannath; McLeod, Victoria M; Kelly, Brian D; Karellas, Peter; Porter, Christopher Jh

    2009-12-03

    Polylysine dendrimers have potential as highly flexible, biodegradable nanoparticular carriers that may also promote lymphatic transport. The current study was undertaken to determine the impact of PEGylation on the absorption and lymphatic transport of polylysine dendrimers modified by surface derivatisation with PEG (200, 570 or 2000Da) or 4-benzene sulphonate following SC or IV dosing. PEGylation led to the PEG(200) derived dendrimer being rapidly and completely absorbed into the blood after SC administration, however only 3% of the administered dose was recovered in pooled thoracic lymph over 30h. Increasing the PEG chain length led to a systematic decrease in absorption into the blood and an enhancement of the proportion recovered in the lymphatics (up to 29% over 30h). For the PEG(570) and PEG(2000) derived dendrimers, indirect access to the lymph via equilibration across the capillary beds also appeared to play a role in lymphatic targeting after both IV and SC dosing. In contrast, the anionic benzene sulphonate-capped dendrimer was not well absorbed from the SC injection site (26% bioavailability) into either the blood or the lymph. The data suggest that PEGylated poly-L-lysine dendrimers are well absorbed from SC injection sites and that the extent of lymphatic transport may be enhanced by increasing the size of the PEGylated dendrimer complex.

  18. Prediction of melanoma metastasis by the Shields index based on lymphatic vessel density

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    Metcalfe Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma usually presents as an initial skin lesion without evidence of metastasis. A significant proportion of patients develop subsequent local, regional or distant metastasis, sometimes many years after the initial lesion was removed. The current most effective staging method to identify early regional metastasis is sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB, which is invasive, not without morbidity and, while improving staging, may not improve overall survival. Lymphatic density, Breslow's thickness and the presence or absence of lymphatic invasion combined has been proposed to be a prognostic index of metastasis, by Shields et al in a patient group. Methods Here we undertook a retrospective analysis of 102 malignant melanomas from patients with more than five years follow-up to evaluate the Shields' index and compare with existing indicators. Results The Shields' index accurately predicted outcome in 90% of patients with metastases and 84% without metastases. For these, the Shields index was more predictive than thickness or lymphatic density. Alternate lymphatic measurement (hot spot analysis was also effective when combined into the Shields index in a cohort of 24 patients. Conclusions These results show the Shields index, a non-invasive analysis based on immunohistochemistry of lymphatics surrounding primary lesions that can accurately predict outcome, is a simple, useful prognostic tool in malignant melanoma.

  19. Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria

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    Iboh Cletus I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1% were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P  0.05. The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 μl. There was a significant variation (P  Conclusions The National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme should intervene by expanding the distribution of albendazole and ivermectin to all endemic areas including Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.

  20. Study on correspondence between prescription and syndrome and the essence of phlegm and blood stasis syndrome in coronary heart disease based on metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-yan; Xu, Hao; Li, Geng; Zhao, Tie

    2014-01-01

    Studying the essence of a syndrome has been a key challenge in the field of Chinese medicine. Until now, due to limitations of the methods available, the progress towards understanding such complicated systems has been slow. Metabonomics encompasses the dynamics, composition and analysis of metabolites, enabling the observation of changes in the metabolic network of the human body associated with disease. Being from the point of view of the whole organism, metabonomics provides an opportunity to study the essence of a syndrome to an unprecedented level. Phlegm and blood stasis syndrome is the main syndrome associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), which bring difficulties in clinical treatment due to difficulties associated with differentiation of symptoms and signs. The fundamental differences of material between the two also need to be interpreted. The authors consider that we can use the method of combining a disease (in this case CHD) with associated syndromes (phlegm and blood stasis syndrome) to select patients with phlegm and blood stasis syndrome of CHD, and utilize metabonomics to explore the essence of the syndrome by difference analysis of metabolite spectra. Meanwhile, we can study the syndrome in CM, observe the change regularity of metabolism spectra after the treatment of corresponding and non-corresponding prescription and syndrome, in order to validate the material fundament in the progress of syndrome formation and their differences. This will not only have great significance in enhancing the ability to identify syndrome of phlegm and blood stasis in CHD and to establish the clinical curative criteria, but will also offer a new approach of studying the essence for a syndrome using metabonomics.

  1. A Metabonomics Profiling Study on Phlegm Syndrome and Blood-Stasis Syndrome in Coronary Heart Disease Patients Using Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

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    Linlin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A metabonomics approach based on liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS was utilized to obtain potential biomarkers of coronary heart disease (CHD patients and investigate the ZHENG types differentiation in CHD patients. The plasma samples of 20 CHD patients with phlegm syndrome, 20 CHD patients with blood-stasis syndrome, and 16 healthy volunteers were collected in the study. 26 potential biomarkers were identified in the plasma of CHD patients and 19 differential metabolites contributed to the discrimination of phlegm syndrome and blood-stasis syndrome in CHD patients (VIP>1.5; P<0.05 which mainly involved purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, and arachidonic acid metabolism. This study demonstrated that metabonomics approach based on LC-MS was useful for studying pathologic changes of CHD patients and interpreting the differentiation of ZHENG types (phlegm and blood-stasis syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM.

  2. Effects of blood-activating and stasis-removing drugs combined with VEGF gene transfer on angiogenesis in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Hui; Wu, Ya-Ling; Ye, Jian-Hong; Ning, Ya-Gong; Yu, Hai-Ying; Peng, Zhong-Jie; Luan, Xiao-Wen

    2009-09-01

    To observe the promoting effects of blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer on angiogenesis in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. Forty Japanese giant-ear rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a Chinese drug group, a gene group, and a combined group. After 8 weeks of treatment, the rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the synovium of the femoral head was measured using the immunohistochemical method, and the number of blood vessels in the femoral head was measured by digital subtraction angiography. The rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the model group was significantly lower than that in the Chinese drug group (P 0.05). Either the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer can promote the angiogenesis and building of collateral circulation for femoral head ischemic necrosis, and the combined therapy with Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer may show a better therapeutic effect. The present study provides an experimental basis for clinical application of the combined therapy with the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs and VEGF gene transfer.

  3. [Intervention of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis patients in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis methods: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yi; Zhang, Yin-qiang; Liu, Yan-ling; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Chun-mei

    2013-11-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of treating chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis (CHBLF) in different stages by syndrome typing and different activating blood removing stasis methods (ABRSM). Totally 100 CHBLF patients of vital qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome (VQDBSS) treated at the Department of Liver Diseases, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from July 2008 to December 2011, were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each group. Those in the treatment group were treated by self-formulated decoctions for activating blood nourishing blood (ABNB), activating blood removing stasis (ABRS), and activating blood softening hard mass (ABSHM) according to their stages of disease conditions (mild, moderate, and severe). Those in the control group were treated with Compound Biejia Ruangan Tablet (CBRT). Integrals of Chinese medical syndromes, liver functions [mainly including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin/globulin (A/ G)], ultrasonographic examinations of liver (mainly including echoes of liver, width of spleens, width of portal vein), four indicators of serum hepatic fibrosis [including serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type IV collagen (IV-C), type III collagen peptide (P-III-P)] were statistically analyzed. The therapeutic course was 6 months for all. Compared with before treatment in the same group, the integrals of Chinese medical syndromes both decreased after treatment in the two groups (P serum biochemical indicators.

  4. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  5. Classification of the lymphatic drainage status of a primary tumor: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.L.; Maza, S.; Ivancevic, V.; Geworski, L.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Creation of a classification of the lymphatic drainage status of a primary tumour. It shall enable comparison of different approaches, standardisation and quality control. Methods: Identification and topographic localisation of the sentinel node(s) using lymphatic radionuclide gamma camera imaging and/or gamma probe detection and/or vital dye mapping. Results: A classification comprising four classes (D-Class I-IV) and distinct subclasses (A-E) proved to be simply to be learned and applicable as well as reliably reproducible. It is based on the number of sentinel lymph nodes and their locations and can be combined with the pathological and molecular biological lymph node status. D-classes/subclasses obtained in 420 patients with malignant melanoma of the skin are presented. Conclusions: The classification is applicable to different approaches. Its diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic value should be studied prospectively in those primary tumours which preferably metastasise via their draining lymphatic vessels. (orig.) [de

  6. Treatment of lymphatic nodes metastasis in advanced cancer with interventional chemotherapy combined radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shian; Guo Weijian; Wu Guohua; Lin Qing; Jiang Mawei; Yao Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of treatment with interventional chemotherapy combined radiotherapy for lymphatic nodes metastasis in advanced cancer. Methods: Treated with interventional chemotherapy for 27 cases of lymphatic rode metastasis once a month with average 2-3 times totally. Simultaneously treated with linear accelerator radiotherapy with average dose of 40-50 Gy/20-25 times/4-5 weeks. Results: To evaluate the clinical effects after finished the whole treatment program two months later. CR + PR reached 77.8% (24/27). All patients showed tolerance to accept the treatment. Conclusion: Treatment for lymphatic node metastasis in advanced cancer with interventional chemotherapy combined radiation therapy seems to be a valuable way

  7. Application of trans-lymphatic interventional bio-chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingfan; Jiang Zhaohui; Miao Jianliang; Lu Xuehua; Yang Sheng

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of intralymphatic infusion of anticancerous and biologic agents in the treatment of malignancy. Methods: Forty-one patients suffering from advanced metastatic cancers and 2 patients with primary lymphoma, resistant to standard therapies or intra-arterial chemotherapy, were treated with lymphatic injections of anticancerous drugs or combined with biochemotherapy. Results: Follow-up about one month after the therapy, comparison was made based on the findings of lymphatic radiography and CT, decrease in size of lymph-odes was demonstrated in all 40 cases. Conclusion: This therapeutic approach proved to be an effective and safe method for the palliative treatment of advanced lymphatic metastases and lymphomas. The procedure was feasible without serious complications

  8. Network-Based Biomarkers for Cold Coagulation Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effects of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction in Rats

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    Shulan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P<0.05. The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  9. Molecular insights into species phylogeny, biogeography, and morphological stasis in the ancient spider genus Hypochilus (Araneae: Hypochilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, M C

    2001-02-01

    The spider genus Hypochilus is currently restricted to cool, moist microhabitats in three widely separated montane regions of North America, providing an opportunity to study both deep (i.e., continental level) and shallow (within montane region) biogeographic history. Members of the genus also retain many plesiomorphic morphological characteristics, inviting the study of comparative rates of morphological evolution. In this paper, Hypochilus phylogeny and associated evolutionary problems are addressed using both new molecular (28S nDNA and CO1 mtDNA) and previously published (K. M. Catley, 1994, Am. Mus. Nov. 3088, 1-27) morphological data. Although the molecular data provide limited resolution of root placement within Hypochilus, most analyses are at least consistent with morphology-supported montane relationships of (Rockies (California, Appalachian)). The monophyly of Hypochilus species distributed in the California mountains is ambiguous, with several analyses indicating that this fauna may be paraphyletic with respect to a monophyletic Appalachian lineage. The montane regions differ in consistent ways in depths of both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic divergence. Molecular clock analyses, in combination with arthropod-based mtDNA rate calibrations, suggest that the regional faunas are of different ages and that speciation in all faunas likely occurred prior to the Pleistocene. Limited intraspecific sampling reveals extraordinarily high levels of mtDNA cytochrome oxidase sequence divergence. These extreme divergences are most consistent with morphological stasis at the species level, despite preliminary evidence that Hypochilus taxa are characterized by fragmented population structures. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Chinese Medicine Diagnosis Scale of Phlegm and Blood Stasis Syndrome in Coronary Heart Disease: A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Qi; Peng, Dan-Hong; Wang, Yan-Ping; Xie, Rong; Chen, Xin-Lin; Yu, Chun-Quan; Li, Xian-Tao

    2018-05-03

    Phlegm and blood stasis syndrome (PBSS) is one of the main syndromes in coronary heart disease (CHD). Syndromes of Chinese medicine (CM) are lack of quantitative and easyimplementation diagnosis standards. To quantify and standardize the diagnosis of PBSS, scales are usually applied. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CM diagnosis scale of PBSS in CHD. Six hundred patients with stable angina pectoris of CHD, 300 in case group and 300 in control group, will be recruited from 5 hospitals across China. Diagnosis from 2 experts will be considered as the "gold standard". The study design consists of 2 phases: pilot test is used to evaluate the reliability and validity, and diagnostic test is used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the scale, including sensitivity, specififi city, likelihood ratio and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. This study will evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CM diagnosis scale of PBSS in CHD. The consensus of 2 experts may not be ideal as a "gold standard", and itself still requires further study. (No. ChiCTR-OOC-15006599).

  11. Metabolomic profiling reveals distinct patterns of tricarboxylic acid disorders in blood stasis syndrome associated with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Chang, Hong; Lu, Ling-Hui; Qiu, Qi; Ouyang, Yu-Lin; Yu, Jun-da; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the underlying metabolomic profifiling of coronary heart disease (CHD) with blood stasis syndrome (BSS). CHD model was induced by a nameroid constrictor in Chinese miniature swine. Fifteen miniature swine were randomly divided into a model group (n=9) and a control group (n=6), respectively according to arandom number table. After 4 weeks, plasma hemorheology was detected by automatic hemorheological analyzer, indices including hematocrit, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity, rigidity index and erythrocyte sedimentation rate; cardiac function was assessed by echocardiograph to detect left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVED), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and other indicators. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and bioinformatics were applied to analyze spectra of CHD plasma with BSS. The results of hemorheology analysis showed signifificant changes in viscosity, with low shear whole blood viscosity being lower and plasma viscosity higher in the model group compared with the control group. Moreover, whole blood reduction viscosity at high shear rate and whole blood reduction viscosity at low shear rate increased signifificantly (P patterns involved were associated with dysfunction of energy metabolism including glucose and lipid disorders, especially in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, galactose metabolism and adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. Glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism disorders were the major contributors to the syndrome classifification of CHD with BSS.

  12. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control) and from cirrhotic livers (LC) (Child A-LC and Child C-LC). Immunohistochemical (IHC), Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver. PMID:21059220

  13. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

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    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  14. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An; Olivera, Gustavo; Somlo, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribs and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk

  15. Molecular Signature for Lymphatic Invasion Associated with Survival of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, E Sun; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Choi, Chel Hun

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to develop molecular classifier that can predict lymphatic invasion and their clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. We analyzed gene expression (mRNA, methylated DNA) in data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To identify molecular signatures for lymphatic invasion, we found differentially expressed genes. The performance of classifier was validated by receiver operating characteristics analysis, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM). We assessed prognostic role of classifier using random survival forest (RSF) model and pathway deregulation score (PDS). For external validation,we analyzed microarray data from 26 EOC samples of Samsung Medical Center and curatedOvarianData database. We identified 21 mRNAs, and seven methylated DNAs from primary EOC tissues that predicted lymphatic invasion and created prognostic models. The classifier predicted lymphatic invasion well, which was validated by logistic regression, LDA, and SVM algorithm (C-index of 0.90, 0.71, and 0.74 for mRNA and C-index of 0.64, 0.68, and 0.69 for DNA methylation). Using RSF model, incorporating molecular data with clinical variables improved prediction of progression-free survival compared with using only clinical variables (p < 0.001 and p=0.008). Similarly, PDS enabled us to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk group, which resulted in survival difference in mRNA profiles (log-rank p-value=0.011). In external validation, gene signature was well correlated with prediction of lymphatic invasion and patients' survival. Molecular signature model predicting lymphatic invasion was well performed and also associated with survival of EOC patients.

  16. Mapping the distinctive populations of lymphatic endothelial cells in different zones of human lymph nodes.

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    Saem Mul Park

    Full Text Available The lymphatic sinuses in human lymph nodes (LNs are crucial to LN function yet their structure remains poorly defined. Much of our current knowledge of lymphatic sinuses derives from rodent models, however human LNs differ substantially in their sinus structure, most notably due to the presence of trabeculae and trabecular lymphatic sinuses that rodent LNs lack. Lymphatic sinuses are bounded and traversed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. A better understanding of LECs in human LNs is likely to improve our understanding of the regulation of cell trafficking within LNs, now an important therapeutic target, as well as disease processes that involve lymphatic sinuses. We therefore sought to map all the LECs within human LNs using multicolor immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize the distribution of a range of putative markers. PROX1 was the only marker that uniquely identified the LECs lining and traversing all the sinuses in human LNs. In contrast, LYVE1 and STAB2 were only expressed by LECs in the paracortical and medullary sinuses in the vast majority of LNs studied, whilst the subcapsular and trabecular sinuses lacked these molecules. These data highlight the existence of at least two distinctive populations of LECs within human LNs. Of the other LEC markers, we confirmed VEGFR3 was not specific for LECs, and CD144 and CD31 stained both LECs and blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs; in contrast, CD59 and CD105 stained BECs but not LECs. We also showed that antigen-presenting cells (APCs in the sinuses could be clearly distinguished from LECs by their expression of CD169, and their lack of expression of PROX1 and STAB2, or endothelial markers such as CD144. However, both LECs and sinus APCs were stained with DCN46, an antibody commonly used to detect CD209.

  17. Site-specific induction of lymphatic malformations in a rat model for image-guided therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Robert F.; Shiels, William E. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Radiological Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Sferra, Thomas J. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Gastroenterology, The Columbus Children' s Research Institute, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Nicol, Kathleen K. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Schofield, Minka; Wiet, Gregory J. [Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Otolaryngology, Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Lymphatic malformation is a common benign mass in children and adults and is representative of a derangement in lymphangiogenesis. These lesions have high recurrence rates and significant morbidity associated with surgery. Several sclerotherapy regimens have been developed clinically to treat lymphatic malformations; however, an animal model has not been developed that is adequate to test the efficacy of image-guided therapeutic interventions. To develop an animal model suitable for evaluation of percutaneous treatments of lymphatic malformations. Male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) received two US-guided injections of Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) over a 2-week period. All nine rats were injected twice into the peritoneum (IP); a subgroup (n = 3) received additional injections into the neck. Three animals that received IP injections of saline were used as controls. The injection sites were monitored for the development of lesions by high-resolution ultrasonography at 2-week intervals for 100 days. High-resolution (4.7 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging was then performed on two animals noted to have developed masses. The rats were sacrificed and histologic examination of the identified lesions was performed, including immunohistochemical staining for vascular (CD31) and lymphatic (Flt-4 and Prox-1) endothelium. All animals injected with IFA developed cystic lesions. The three animals injected at dual sites were noted to have both microcystic and macrocystic malformations in the neck and microcystic plaque-like lesions in the peritoneum. The macrocystic malformations ({>=}5 mm) in the neck were detected by ultrasonography and grossly later during necropsy. Histopathologic analysis revealed the cystic spaces to be lined by lymphatic endothelium supported by a connective tissue stroma. Control animals did not exhibit detectable lesions with either ultrasonography or necropsy. This model represents a promising tool for translational development of image

  18. Intravital two-photon microscopy of immune cell dynamics in corneal lymphatic vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Steven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of lymphatic vessels in tissue and organ transplantation as well as in tumor growth and metastasis has drawn great attention in recent years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now developed a novel method using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to simultaneously visualize and track specifically stained lymphatic vessels and autofluorescent adjacent tissues such as collagen fibrils, blood vessels and immune cells in the mouse model of corneal neovascularization in vivo. The mouse cornea serves as an ideal tissue for this technique due to its easy accessibility and its inducible and modifiable state of pathological hem- and lymphvascularization. Neovascularization was induced by suture placement in corneas of Balb/C mice. Two weeks after treatment, lymphatic vessels were stained intravital by intrastromal injection of a fluorescently labeled LYVE-1 antibody and the corneas were evaluated in vivo by two-photon microscopy (TPM. Intravital TPM was performed at 710 nm and 826 nm excitation wavelengths to detect immunofluorescence and tissue autofluorescence using a custom made animal holder. Corneas were then harvested, fixed and analyzed by histology. Time lapse imaging demonstrated the first in vivo evidence of immune cell migration into lymphatic vessels and luminal transport of individual cells. Cells immigrated within 1-5.5 min into the vessel lumen. Mean velocities of intrastromal corneal immune cells were around 9 µm/min and therefore comparable to those of T-cells and macrophages in other mucosal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge we here demonstrate for the first time the intravital real-time transmigration of immune cells into lymphatic vessels. Overall this study demonstrates the valuable use of intravital autofluorescence two-photon microscopy in the model of suture-induced corneal vascularizations to study interactions of immune and subsequently tumor cells with lymphatic vessels under close as possible

  19. Site-specific induction of lymphatic malformations in a rat model for image-guided therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Robert F.; Shiels, William E.; Sferra, Thomas J.; Nicol, Kathleen K.; Schofield, Minka; Wiet, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    Lymphatic malformation is a common benign mass in children and adults and is representative of a derangement in lymphangiogenesis. These lesions have high recurrence rates and significant morbidity associated with surgery. Several sclerotherapy regimens have been developed clinically to treat lymphatic malformations; however, an animal model has not been developed that is adequate to test the efficacy of image-guided therapeutic interventions. To develop an animal model suitable for evaluation of percutaneous treatments of lymphatic malformations. Male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) received two US-guided injections of Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) over a 2-week period. All nine rats were injected twice into the peritoneum (IP); a subgroup (n = 3) received additional injections into the neck. Three animals that received IP injections of saline were used as controls. The injection sites were monitored for the development of lesions by high-resolution ultrasonography at 2-week intervals for 100 days. High-resolution (4.7 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging was then performed on two animals noted to have developed masses. The rats were sacrificed and histologic examination of the identified lesions was performed, including immunohistochemical staining for vascular (CD31) and lymphatic (Flt-4 and Prox-1) endothelium. All animals injected with IFA developed cystic lesions. The three animals injected at dual sites were noted to have both microcystic and macrocystic malformations in the neck and microcystic plaque-like lesions in the peritoneum. The macrocystic malformations (≥5 mm) in the neck were detected by ultrasonography and grossly later during necropsy. Histopathologic analysis revealed the cystic spaces to be lined by lymphatic endothelium supported by a connective tissue stroma. Control animals did not exhibit detectable lesions with either ultrasonography or necropsy. This model represents a promising tool for translational development of image

  20. Lymphatic drainage pathways from the cervix uteri: implications for radical hysterectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraima, A C; Derks, M; Smit, N N; Van Munsteren, J C; Van der Velden, J; Kenter, G G; DeRuiter, M C

    2014-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for early-stage cervical cancer. Wertheim's original technique has been often modified, mainly in the extent of parametrectomy. Okabayashi's technique is considered as the most radical variant regarding removal of the ventral parametrium and paracolpal tissues. Surgical outcome concerning recurrence and survival is good, but morbidity is high due to autonomic nerve damage. While the autonomic network has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system is less understood. This study describes the lymphatic drainage pathways of the cervix uteri and specifically the presence of lymphatics in the vesico-uterine ligament (VUL). A developmental series of 10 human female fetal pelves was studied. Paraffin embedded blocks were sliced in transverse sections of 8 or 10 μm. Analysis was performed by staining with antibodies against LYVE-1 (lymphatic endothelium), S100 (Schwann cells), alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (smooth muscle cells) and CD68 (macrophages). The results were three-dimensionally represented. Two major pathways drained the cervix uteri: a supra-ureteral pathway, running in the cardinal ligament superior to the ureter, and a dorsal pathway, running in the utero-sacral ligament towards the rectal pillars. No lymph vessels draining the cervix uteri were detected in the VUL. In the paracolpal parametrium lymph vessels draining the upper vagina fused with those from the bladder. The VUL does not contain lymphatics from the cervix uteri. Hence, the favorable survival outcomes of the Okabayashi technique cannot be explained by radical removal of lymphatic pathways in the ventrocaudal parametrium. © 2013.

  1. Prolonged lymphatic leak after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Katherine M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent lymphatic drainage following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular tumor is an uncommon complication. Case presentation We describe a 21-year old man of Caucasian origin who had metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis, and underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, nephrectomy and partial inferior vena cava excision for a residual mass. The patient subsequently developed persistent lymphatic drainage causing foot drop that eventually responded to conservative medical and surgical measures. Conclusion This postoperative condition usually responds well to conservative measures but has the potential for serious morbidity if it is not managed appropriately.

  2. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Central Hospital Randers; Municipal Hospital Aarhus

    1981-01-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value. (orig.) [de

  3. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for

  4. Lymphatic endothelial cell line (CH3) from a recurrent retroperitoneal lymphangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, D; Hendrix, M; Witte, M; Witte, C; Nagle, R; Davis, J

    1987-09-01

    An endothelial cell line derived from a massive recurrent chyle-containing retroperitoneal lymphangioma was isolated in monolayer culture. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry confirmed a close resemblance to blood vascular endothelium with typical cobblestone morphology, positive immunofluorescence staining for endothelial marker Factor VIII-associated antigen and fibronectin, and prominent Weibel-Palade bodies. The endothelial cells also exhibited other ultrastructural features characteristic of lymphatic endothelium, including sparse microvillous surface projections, overlapping intercellular junctions, and abundant intermediate filaments. This endothelial cell line represents a new source of proliferating lymphatic endothelium for future study, including structural and functional comparison to blood vascular endothelium.

  5. Direct lymphangiography as treatment option of lymphatic leakage: Indications, outcomes and role in patient's management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana, E-mail: tgruberrouh@googlemail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Lehnert, Thomas; Harth, Marc; Thalhammer, Axel; Beeres, Martin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Tsaur, Igor [Department of Urology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hammersting, Renate; Wichmann, Julian L.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Jacobi, Volkmar [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of lymphography as a minimally invasive treatment option of lymphatic leakage in terms of local control and to investigate which parameters influence the success rate. Method: This retrospective study protocol was approved by the ethic committee. Patient history, imaging data, therapeutic options and follow-up were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. Between June 1998 and February 2013, 71 patients (m:w = 42:29, mean age, 52.4; range 42–75 years) with lymphatic leakage in form of lymphatic fistulas (n = 37), lymphocele (n = 11), chylothorax (n = 13) and chylous ascites (n = 10) underwent lymphography. Sixty-four patients (90.1%) underwent successful lymphography while lymphography failed in 7 cases. Therapeutic success was evaluated and correlated to the volume of lymphatic leakage and to the volume of the applied iodized oil. Result: Signs of leakage or contrast extravasation were directly detected in 64 patients. Of 64 patients, 45 patients (70.3%) were treated and cured after lymphography. Based on the lymphography findings, 19 patients (29.7%) underwent surgical intervention with a completely occlusion of lymphatic leakage. The lymphatic leak could be completely occluded in 96.8% of patients when the lymphatic drainage volume was less than 200 mL/day (n = 33). Even when lymphatic drainage was higher than 200 mL/day (n = 31), therapeutic lymphography was still successful in 58.1% of the patients. Conclusion: Lymphography is an effective, minimally invasive method in the detection and treatment of lymphatic leakage. The volume of lymphatic drainage per day is a significant predictor of the therapeutic success rate.

  6. Direct lymphangiography as treatment option of lymphatic leakage: Indications, outcomes and role in patient's management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Naguib, Nagy N.N.; Lehnert, Thomas; Harth, Marc; Thalhammer, Axel; Beeres, Martin; Tsaur, Igor; Hammersting, Renate; Wichmann, Julian L.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Jacobi, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of lymphography as a minimally invasive treatment option of lymphatic leakage in terms of local control and to investigate which parameters influence the success rate. Method: This retrospective study protocol was approved by the ethic committee. Patient history, imaging data, therapeutic options and follow-up were recorded and retrospectively analyzed. Between June 1998 and February 2013, 71 patients (m:w = 42:29, mean age, 52.4; range 42–75 years) with lymphatic leakage in form of lymphatic fistulas (n = 37), lymphocele (n = 11), chylothorax (n = 13) and chylous ascites (n = 10) underwent lymphography. Sixty-four patients (90.1%) underwent successful lymphography while lymphography failed in 7 cases. Therapeutic success was evaluated and correlated to the volume of lymphatic leakage and to the volume of the applied iodized oil. Result: Signs of leakage or contrast extravasation were directly detected in 64 patients. Of 64 patients, 45 patients (70.3%) were treated and cured after lymphography. Based on the lymphography findings, 19 patients (29.7%) underwent surgical intervention with a completely occlusion of lymphatic leakage. The lymphatic leak could be completely occluded in 96.8% of patients when the lymphatic drainage volume was less than 200 mL/day (n = 33). Even when lymphatic drainage was higher than 200 mL/day (n = 31), therapeutic lymphography was still successful in 58.1% of the patients. Conclusion: Lymphography is an effective, minimally invasive method in the detection and treatment of lymphatic leakage. The volume of lymphatic drainage per day is a significant predictor of the therapeutic success rate

  7. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  8. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  9. Co-localization of lymphoid aggregates and lymphatic networks in nose- (NALT) and lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrberg, Melanie; Pabst, Reinhard; Wilting, Jörg

    2018-01-25

    The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with the lymphatics has remained unknown although the mouse is the most often used species in immunology. Here, we studied the association of nasal and nasolacrimal duct lymphatics with lymphoid aggregates in 14-day-old and 2-month-old mice. We performed paraffin sectioning of whole, decalcified heads, and immunostaining with the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. Most parts of the nasal mucous membrane do not contain any lymphatics. Only the region of the inferior turbinates contains lymphatic networks, which are connected to those of the palatine. Nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is restricted to the basal parts of the nose, which contain lymphatics. NALT is continued occipitally and can be found at both sides along the sphenoidal sinus, again in close association with lymphatic networks. Nasal lymphatics are connected to those of the ocular region via a lymphatic network along the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). By this means, lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) has a dense supply with lymphatics. NALT and LDALT play a key role in the immune system of the mouse head, where they function as primary recognition sites for antigens. Using the dense lymphatic networks along the NLD described in this study, these antigens reach lymphatics near the palatine and are further drained to lymph nodes of the head and neck region. NALT and LDALT develop in immediate vicinity of lymphatic vessels. Therefore, we suggest a causative connection of lymphatic vessels and the development of lymphoid tissues.

  10. Effect of Physical Methods of Lymphatic Drainage on Postexercise Recovery of Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Trybulski, Robert; Roczniok, Robert; Marcol, Wieslaw

    2017-08-16

    Physical methods are reported to be important for accelerating skeletal muscle regeneration, decreasing muscle soreness, and shortening of the recovery time. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the physical methods of lymphatic drainage (PMLD) such as manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), the Bodyflow (BF) therapy, and lymphatic drainage by deep oscillation (DO) on postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. Eighty MMA athletes aged 27.5 ± 6.4 years were allocated to 4 groups: MLD, the BF device, DO therapy, and the control group. Blood flow velocity in the cephalic vein was measured with the ultrasound Doppler velocity meter. Maximal strength of the forearm muscles (Fmax), muscle tissue tension, pain threshold, blood lactate concentration (LA), and activity of creatine kinase were measured in all groups at rest, after the muscle fatigue test (post-ex) and then 20 minutes, 24, and 48 hours after the application of PMLD. The muscle fatigue test reduced Fmax in all subjects, but in the groups receiving MLD, DO, and BF significantly higher Fmax was observed at recovery compared with post-ex values. The application of MDL reduced the postexercise blood LA and postexercise muscle tension. The lymphatic drainage methods, whether manual or using electro-stimulation and DO, improve postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of MMA athletes. The methods can be an important element of therapeutic management focused on optimizing training effects and reducing the risk of injuries of the combat sports athletes.

  11. Hobnail hemangioma reclassified as superficial lymphatic malformation: a study of 52 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Felicidade; Kutzner, Heinz; Tellechea, Óscar; Requena, Luis; Colmenero, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Hobnail hemangioma (HH) is currently classified as a benign vascular tumor, although it is not well understood whether this lesion differentiates toward blood or lymphatic endothelial cells. Immunostaining with the endothelial marker Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) helps distinguish between vascular neoplasms and malformations, being positive in the former and negative in the latter. We sought to investigate WT1, human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen, D2-40, and Ki-67 immunoprofile in HH, to gain further insight into its histogenesis. We evaluated 52 HHs collected in Dermatohistopathologische Gemeinschaftslabor, Friedrichshafen, Germany. Immunohistochemical expression of WT1 was performed in all cases. Ten of 52 lesions were also studied for D2-40 and Ki-67 staining and 12 lesions were stained for human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen. All 52 HHs were completely negative for WT1 immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry performed in 10 HHs showed diffuse and strong positive staining for D2-40 in 8 lesions and focal positivity in two. All cases tested showed negative staining for Ki-67 and human herpesvirus 8 latent nuclear antigen. There are no limitations. Although the exact histogenesis of HH is unknown, most of the performed immunohistochemical studies support a lymphatic line of differentiation. However, on the basis of the WT1 negativity, we believe that HH is better considered as a lymphatic malformation rather than a lymphatic neoplasm. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indirect measurement of lymphatic absorption with inulin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Koomen, G. C.; Boeschoten, E. W.; vd Reijden, H. J.; Arisz, L.

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the importance of possible trapping of macromolecules in peritoneal tissue on the calculation of peritoneal lymphatic drainage, we compared the transport of inulin administered i.v. and i.p. in nine continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients on two separate days. In the

  13. IL-27 inhibits lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation by STAT1-regulated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sebastian Rune; Hammer, Troels; Gibson, Josefine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: IL-27 belongs to the IL-12 family of cytokines and is recognized for its role in Th cell differentiation and as an inhibitor of tumor-angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-27 on proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells to gain insight into the ...

  14. Lymphangiography: Forgotten Tool or Rising Star in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Postoperative Lymphatic Vessel Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Sebastian; Haueisen, Harald; Lachmund, Ulrich; Roeren, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Since the advent of computed tomography, numbers and expertise in Lymphangiography (LAG) have markedly dropped. The intention of our study was to demonstrate the persisting diagnostic and therapeutic impact of LAG on the postoperative patient with known or suspected lymphatic vessel leakage. Between May 1, 1999, and April 30, 2006, we investigated pedal lipiodol-LAGs (18 monopedal, 2 bipedal) on 22 patients (16 male, 6 female) with known or suspected postoperative chylothorax, chylaskos, lymphocele, or lymphatic fistula. Ages varied from 26 to 81 years. The spectrum of operative procedures was broad: 6 thoracic, 5 abdominal, and 11 peripheral operations were performed. In 20 patients who underwent mono- or bipedal LAG for lymphatic vessel injury, we were able to demonstrate the specific site of leakage in 15 cases (75%) and found signs of extravasation in 5 patients (25%). Furthermore, in 11 patients (55%) we were able to avoid surgery because of closure of the leak after LAG. As the conservative therapeutic approach usually takes 2-3 weeks to reveal its therapeutic effects, 73.3% (11/15) of the patients who were not reoperated before this hallmark was passed did not need any further operation. Our study clearly demonstrates that even in the decades of modern cross-sectional imaging, classic LAG is a powerful and highly reliable tool to visualize and even assist occlusion of the postoperatively damaged lymphatic vessel and may thereby avoid the need for reoperation

  15. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyub Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  16. Impact of Surgical Route in Influencing the Risk of Lymphatic Complications After Ovarian Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Montanelli, Luca; Di Donato, Violante; Infantino, Carmelo; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Lymphatic complications are a common occurrence after staging surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer (eEOC). We investigated whether the introduction of minimally invasive surgery influences the risk of developing lymphoceles and lymphorrhea in patients undergoing staging for eEOC. For this purpose, data of consecutive patients affected by eEOC undergoing staging surgery between January 1980 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Review. Among 341 patients included in the present study, 47 severe postoperative complications occurred (13.7%), including 40 lymphatic complications: 31 symptomatic lymphoceles (9%) and 9 cases of lymphorrhea (2.6%), respectively. Laparoscopic staging correlated with a lower risk of developing any severe lymphatic complications in comparison with open surgery (p = .02). In particular, the laparoscopic approach and para-aortic node involvement were associated with a trend toward lower lymphoceles (odds ratio, .13; 95% confidence interval, .07-2.20; p = .05) and a trend toward higher risk of lymphorrhea developing (odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval, .93-17.3; p = .06), respectively. In conclusion, the implementation of a minimally invasive approach might result in a slight reduction of lymphatic complications after eEOC staging. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  18. [Value of CT lymphangiography in the detection of lymphatic leakage: a report of nine cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, K; Aouaifia, A; Oudjit, A; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Riquet, M; Legmann, P

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of CT lymphangiography to detect lymphatic leakage, especially at the thoracic level, prior to therapeutic intervention. Between 2004 and 2008, nine patients underwent lymphangiography, followed by CT for the evaluation of intractable lymphatic leakage in spite of optimal medical management. Patients included seven females and two males, with age ranging between 25 and 58 years. Lymphangiography was performed after unilateral or bilateral foot injection(s) of Lipiodol ultrafluid followed by standard radiographs of the chest and abdomen and CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. The images were reviewed by two experienced radiologists. Lipiodol leakage was observed in six patients, while three patients showed evidence of lymphangiectasia of the abdominal and/or thoracic lymphatics. Spontaneous resolution of leakage after lymphangiography occurred in three cases. CT lymphangiography allows direct evaluation of lymphatics, from pelvis to chest, in order to detect the site of leakage at the origin of a chylous effusion and assist in its management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of a triple-drug regimen for global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: A modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); Smith, M.E. (Morgan E); S.V. Subramanian; B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); G.J. Weil (Gary); E. Michael (Edwin); T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen

  20. Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to define endpoints for lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Brian K.; Deming, Michael; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached...

  1. A Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematode, Rumenfilaria andersoni (Filarioidea; Splendidofilariinae), is an emerging parasite in Finnish cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background-Recent studies revealed expansion of filarioid nematodes into the northern Finland. In addition to Setaria tundra, unidentified and very abundant filarioids, representing Rumenfilaria andersoni, were found inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of reindeer. Our study explores the biology and d...

  2. Mechanisms of edema formation in myxedema--increased protein extravasation and relatively slow lymphatic drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Hansen, J M; Nielsen, S L

    1979-01-01

    of generalized edema (P less than 0.05). All variables returned to normal during l-thyroxine treatment. The extravascular accumulation of albumin, and presumably of all other plasma proteins, is important in the generalized edema typically found in myxedema. Inadequate lymphatic drainage may also explain...

  3. A Proteomic Approach for the Diagnosis of ‘Oketsu’ (blood stasis, a Pathophysiologic Concept of Japanese Traditional (Kampo Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinami Matsumoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Oketsu’ is a pathophysiologic concept in Japanese traditional (Kampo medicine, primarily denoting blood stasis/stagnant syndrome. Here we have explored plasma protein biomarkers and/or diagnostic algorithms for ‘Oketsu’. Sixteen rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients were treated with keishibukuryogan (KBG, a representative Kampo medicine for improving ‘Oketsu’. Plasma samples were diagnosed as either having an ‘Oketsu’ (n = 19 or ‘non-Oketsu’ (n = 29 state according to Terasawa's ‘Oketsu’ scoring system. Protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS and hierarchical clustering and decision tree analyses were performed. KBG treatment for 4 or 12 weeks decreased the ‘Oketsu’ scores significantly. SELDI protein profiles gave 266 protein peaks, whose expression was significantly different between the ‘Oketsu’ and ‘non-Oketsu’ states. Hierarchical clustering gave three major clusters (I, II, III. The majority (68.4% of ‘Oketsu’ samples were clustered into one cluster as the principal component of cluster I. The remaining ‘Oketsu’ profiles constituted a minor component of cluster II and were all derived from patients cured of the ‘Oketsu’ state at 12 weeks. Construction of the decision tree addressed the possibility of developing a diagnostic algorithm for ‘Oketsu’. A reduction in measurement/pre-processing conditions (from 55 to 16 gave a similar outcome in the clustering and decision tree analyses. The present study suggests that the pathophysiologic concept of Kampo medicine ‘Oketsu’ has a physical basis in terms of the profile of blood proteins. It may be possible to establish a set of objective criteria for diagnosing ‘Oketsu’ using a combination of proteomic and bioinformatics-based classification methods.

  4. VIPAR, a quantitative approach to 3D histopathology applied to lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerling, René; Drees, Dominik; Scherzinger, Aaron; Dierkes, Cathrin; Martin-Almedina, Silvia; Butz, Stefan; Gordon, Kristiana; Schäfers, Michael; Hinrichs, Klaus; Ostergaard, Pia; Vestweber, Dietmar; Goerge, Tobias; Mansour, Sahar; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Mortimer, Peter S; Kiefer, Friedemann

    2017-08-17

    Lack of investigatory and diagnostic tools has been a major contributing factor to the failure to mechanistically understand lymphedema and other lymphatic disorders in order to develop effective drug and surgical therapies. One difficulty has been understanding the true changes in lymph vessel pathology from standard 2D tissue sections. VIPAR (volume information-based histopathological analysis by 3D reconstruction and data extraction), a light-sheet microscopy-based approach for the analysis of tissue biopsies, is based on digital reconstruction and visualization of microscopic image stacks. VIPAR allows semiautomated segmentation of the vasculature and subsequent nonbiased extraction of characteristic vessel shape and connectivity parameters. We applied VIPAR to analyze biopsies from healthy lymphedematous and lymphangiomatous skin. Digital 3D reconstruction provided a directly visually interpretable, comprehensive representation of the lymphatic and blood vessels in the analyzed tissue volumes. The most conspicuous features were disrupted lymphatic vessels in lymphedematous skin and a hyperplasia (4.36-fold lymphatic vessel volume increase) in the lymphangiomatous skin. Both abnormalities were detected by the connectivity analysis based on extracted vessel shape and structure data. The quantitative evaluation of extracted data revealed a significant reduction of lymphatic segment length (51.3% and 54.2%) and straightness (89.2% and 83.7%) for lymphedematous and lymphangiomatous skin, respectively. Blood vessel length was significantly increased in the lymphangiomatous sample (239.3%). VIPAR is a volume-based tissue reconstruction data extraction and analysis approach that successfully distinguished healthy from lymphedematous and lymphangiomatous skin. Its application is not limited to the vascular systems or skin. Max Planck Society, DFG (SFB 656), and Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence EXC 1003.

  5. Lymphatic Vessel Density as Prognostic Factor in Breast Carcinoma: Relation to Clinico pathologic Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendi, S.; Abdel-Hadi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are essential for breast cancer growth and progression. This study aimed at investigating lymphatic micro vessel density (LVD) and microvessel density (MVD) as prognostic markers in breast carcinoma. Forty breast carcinomas were immuno stained for D2-40, CD31 and VEGF. Median lymphatic and blood micro vessel densities, as well as VEGF expression, were related to each other and to clinico pathologic parameters including lymph node (Ln) status. The efficacy of haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) in detecting lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) compared to D2-40 immunostaining was also investigated. D2-40 stained normal lymphatic endothelium and myoepithelial cells, but with different staining patterns. D2-40 LVD related significantly to CD31 counts (r=0.470; p=0.002), and LN metastasis (Mann-Whitney U=101.500; p=0.043); however, it did not relate to age, tumor grade, tumor size or LVI. D2-40 identified LVI in 3 more cases (7.5%) than those detected by H and E. VEGF was expressed in 85% of cases, and was significantly related to CD31 and D2-40 counts (p=0.033 and 0.007, respectively). In conclusion, D2-40 LVD showed a significant association with LN metastasis, and can be considered to segregate patients with positive from those with negative LNs. D2-40 enhances the detection of LVI relative to H and E staining reflecting a potential for lymphatic metastatic spread and possible poor prognosis

  6. Lymphatic pump treatment mobilizes leukocytes from the gut associated lymphoid tissue into lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lisa M; Bearden, Melissa K; Schander, Artur; Huff, Jamie B; Williams, Arthur; King, Hollis H; Downey, H Fred

    2010-06-01

    Lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) are used clinically by osteopathic practitioners for the treatment of edema and infection; however, the mechanisms by which LPT enhances lymphatic circulation and provides protection during infection are not understood. Rhythmic compressions on the abdomen during LPT compress the abdominal area, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into the lymphatic circulation. This study is the first to document LPT-induced mobilization of leukocytes from the GALT into the lymphatic circulation. Catheters were inserted into either the thoracic or mesenteric lymph ducts of dogs. To determine if LPT enhanced the release of leukocytes from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) into lymph, the MLN were fluorescently labeled in situ. Lymph was collected during 4 min pre-LPT, 4 min LPT, and 10 min following cessation of LPT. LPT significantly increased lymph flow and leukocytes in both mesenteric and thoracic duct lymph. LPT had no preferential effect on any specific leukocyte population, since neutrophil, monocyte, CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, IgG+B cell, and IgA+B cell numbers were similarly increased. In addition, LPT significantly increased the mobilization of leukocytes from the MLN into lymph. Lymph flow and leukocyte counts fell following LPT treatment, indicating that the effects of LPT are transient. LPT mobilizes leukocytes from GALT, and these leukocytes are transported by the lymphatic circulation. This enhanced release of leukocytes from GALT may provide scientific rationale for the clinical use of LPT to improve immune function.

  7. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  8. Octreotide in Intestinal Lymphangiectasia: Lack of a Clinical Response and Failure to Alter Lymphatic Function in a Guinea Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Makhija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lymphangiectasia, which can be classified as primary or secondary, is an unusual cause of protein-losing enteropathy. The main clinical features include edema, fat malabsorption, lymphopenia and hypoalbuminemia. Clinical management generally includes a low-fat diet and supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. A small number of recent reports advocate the use of octreotide in intestinal lymphangiectasia. It is unclear why octreotide was used in these studies; although octreotide can alter splanchnic blood flow and intestinal motility, its actions on lymphatic function has never been investigated. A case of a patient with intestinal lymphangiectasia who required a shunt procedure after failing medium chain triglycerides and octreotide therapy is presented. During the management of this case, all existing literature on intestinal lymphangiectasia and all the known actions of octreotide were reviewed. Because some of the case reports suggested that octreotide may improve the clinical course of intestinal lymphangiectasia by altering lymphatic function, a series of experiments were undertaken to assess this. In an established guinea pig model, the role of octreotide in lymphatic function was examined. In this model system, the mesenteric lymphatic vessels responded to 5-hydroxytryptamine with a decrease in constriction frequency, while histamine administration markedly increased lymphatic constriction frequency. Octreotide failed to produce any change in lymphatic function when a wide range of concentrations were applied to the mesenteric lymphatic vessel preparation. In conclusion, in this case, octreotide failed to induce a clinical response and laboratory studies showed that octreotide did not alter lymphatic function. Thus, the mechanisms by which octreotide induced clinical responses in the cases reported elsewhere in the literature remain unclear, but the present study suggests that it does not appear to act via increasing

  9. Investigation of intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics expressed by podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the hybridoma-induced tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, RC; Eshita, Y; Kato, S

    2007-01-01

    Tumour-associated lymphatics contribute to a key component of metastatic spread, however, the biological interaction of tumour cells with intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics (ITLs and PTLs) has remained unclear. To address this important issue, we have focused on the morphological and molecular aspects of newly formed lymphatics (lymphangiogenesis) and pre-existing lymphatics in the intratumoural and peritumoural tissues by using a hybridoma-induced tumour model. In the present study, ITLs with very high vessel density within the tumour mass showed small and flattened contours that varied from non-solid-to-solid tumours, whereas PTLs were relatively disorganized and tortuous, and packed with a cluster of tumour cells at the tumour periphery. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) both in ITLs and PTLs were expressed with LYVE-1 and podoplanin in various tumour tissues, in which initial lymphatics were extremely extended and dilated. The tumour cells were frequently detected adhering to or penetrating lymphatic walls, especially near the open junctions. In the metastatic tissues, lymphangiogenic vasculatures occurred within the tumour matrix, and collecting PTLs represented abnormal twisty valve leaflets. The Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed local variations of LEC proliferating potentials and lymphatic involvement in metastasis by a distinct profile of the protein and mRNA expression by LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-3 (VEGFR-3). These findings indicated that both ITLs and PTLs, including enlarged pre-existing and newly formed lymphatics, may play a crucial role in metastasis with an active tumour cell adhesion, invasion, migration and implantation. PMID:17696907

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Seven Major Bio-Active Components in Normal and Blood Stasis Rats after Oral Administration of Herb Pair Danggui-Honghua by UPLC-TQ/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility between Danggui (Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Honghua (Carthami Flos is a known herb pair, which could activate blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis effects. In this paper, we quantified seven main bio-active components (hydroxysafflor yellow A, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic acid, 3-n-butylphthalide, and ligustilide in plasma samples in vivo by UPLC-TQ/MS method and investigatedwhether the pharmacokinetic (PK behaviors of the seven components could be altered in blood stasis rats after oral administration of the Gui-Hong extracts. It was found that the Cmax and AUC0-t of these components in blood stasis rats had increasing tendency compared with normal rats. Most components in model and normal rats had significant difference in some pharmacokinetic parameters, which indicated that the metabolism enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism and disposition of these bio-active componentsmay bealtered in blood stasis rats. This study was the first report about the pharmacokinetic investigation between normal and blood stasis rats after oral administrationof Gui-Hong extracts, and these results are important and valuable for better clinical applications of Gui-Hong herb pair and relatedTCM formulae.

  11. Influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sha Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis. Methods: A total of 60 infertile patients with endometriosis were randomly divided into observation group (30 cases and control group (30 cases. Observation group: promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy; control group: patients were treated only by laparoscopy. Recording and comparing the levels of MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones before and after treatment. Results: (1 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum MCP-1, RANTES, AOPP, MDA, SOD, levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum RANTES, AOPP, MDA levels of the two groups were significantly lower, the serum SOD level of the two groups were significantly higher, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. (2 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum FSH, LH, E2, P, PRL levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum FSH, LH, P, PRL levels of the two groups were significantly higher, the serum E2 level of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy for infertile patients with endometriosis can reduce the levels of serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress, hormones and be beneficial to protect their uterine function.

  12. Metástasis mandibular de adenocarcinoma gástrico: Presentación de un caso Mandibular metastases of gastric adenocarcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferreras Granado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores malignos de la cavidad oral y mandíbula representan aproximadamente un 5% de todas las neoplasias malignas del cuerpo, y sólo entre el 1 y el 4% son consideradas como metástasis. Tienen su localización más frecuente a nivel de la mandíbula (80%, fundamentalmente en la región molar. Las metástasis mandibulares, cuando aparecen, suelen tener su origen en tumores primarios que asientan en la mama, pulmón, riñón, tiroides, intestinos y próstata; y con menor frecuencia en el estómago, testículos y vesícula biliar. Suelen afectar a pacientes de edad avanzada (4ª-7ª décadas de la vida sin predilección por el sexo. El tratamiento en general es paliativo y pasa por el uso de la radioterapia, quimioterapia y hormonoterapia, reservando la cirugía para casos aislados. Describimos un caso de metástasis mandibular en un paciente adulto como primera manifestación clínica de un adenocarcinoma gástrico.Malignant tumors of the mouth and jaws represents approximately 5% of all malignant neoplasms in the body, and only 1-4% are considered to be metastatic. They are most frequently located in the mandible (80%, fundamentally in the molar region. Metastases to the jaws are usually from breast, lung, kidney, thyroid gland, intestines, and prostate gland; and less frequently from stomach, testes, and bladder. They are more frequent in elderly patients (between 4th and 7th decades with no gender differences. Treatment is usually palliative and based on the use of radiotherapy, chemotherapy andhormonal therapy. Surgery is only used in selected cases. A case of mandibular metastases as first sign of malignant disease of gastric adenocarcinoma is reported.

  13. [Retrospective analysis of risk factors in 900 patients with ischemic cerebral stroke of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome and qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome in Wuhan District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin; Wang, Kai-xin; Chen, Guo-hua

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the correlation between risk factors and ischemic cerebral stroke of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome and qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome. Totally 900 patients of the two syndrome types were recruited. Risk factors correlated to ischemic cerebral stroke such as gender, age, time of onset, site of infarction, tongue proper, tongue fur, pulse picture, hypertension, diabetes, past stroke history, hyperlipidemia, hematocrit, smoking, drinking, genetic factor, blood type, complications were analyzed using Chi-square test and non-conditional Logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance existed between the two syndrome types in age (X2 = 8.2392, P = 0.0413), hyperlipidemia (X2 = 4.8386, P = 0.0278), tongue proper (X2 = 7.9470, P = 0.0048), and tongue fur (X2 = 4.3298, P = 0.0375). Statistical significance existed between the two syndrome types in hyperlipidemia, tongue proper, and tongue fur, and their OR value was 0.699 (P = 0.0282), 0.332 (P =0.0071), and 0.667 (P = 0.0382) respectively. The OR value of the past stroke history was 3.226 (P = 0.0314), that of complications 0.203 (P = 0.0705), and that of anterior circulation infarction 0.214 (P = 0.0098). Among different ages groups, the constituent ratio of qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome was obviously higher than that of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome. Besides, patients of qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome were liable to suffer from hyperlipidemia, anterior circulation infarction, and complications. The age, blood lipid levels, site of infarction, complications are closely correlated with Chinese syndrome types of ischemic cerebral stroke, which can provide objective indices for typing ischemic cerebral stroke.

  14. Size and shape stasis in late Pleistocene mammals and birds from Rancho La Brea during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Syverson, Valerie J.; Raymond, Kristina R.; Madan, Meena; Molina, Sarah; Fragomeni, Ashley; DeSantis, Sylvana; Sutyagina, Anastasiya; Gage, Gina L.

    2012-11-01

    Conventional neo-Darwinian theory views organisms as infinitely sensitive and responsive to their environments, and considers them able to readily change size or shape when they adapt to selective pressures. Yet since 1863 it has been well known that Pleistocene animals and plants do not show much morphological change or speciation in response to the glacial-interglacial climate cycles. We tested this hypothesis with all of the common birds (condors, golden and bald eagles, turkeys, caracaras) and mammals (dire wolves, saber-toothed cats, giant lions, horses, camels, bison, and ground sloths) from Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California, which preserves large samples of many bones from many well-dated pits spanning the 35,000 years of the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle. Pollen evidence showed the climate changed from chaparral/oaks 35,000 years ago to snowy piñon-juniper forests at the peak glacial 20,000 years ago, then back to the modern chaparral since the glacial-interglacial transition. Based on Bergmann's rule, we would expect peak glacial specimens to have larger body sizes, and based on Allen's rule, peak glacial samples should have shorter and more robust limbs. Yet statistical analysis (ANOVA for parametric samples; Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric samples) showed that none of the Pleistocene pit samples is statistically distinct from the rest, indicating complete stasis from 35 ka to 9 ka. The sole exception was the Pit 13 sample of dire wolves (16 ka), which was significantly smaller than the rest, but this did not occur in response to climate change. We also performed a time series analysis of the pit samples. None showed directional change; all were either static or showed a random walk. Thus, the data show that birds and mammals at Rancho La Brea show complete stasis and were unresponsive to the major climate change that occurred at 20 ka, consistent with other studies of Pleistocene animals and plants. Most explanations for such

  15. La llamada depresión mayor en el curso de la enfermedad de cáncer diseminado con metástasis numerosas

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek, Tomasz Ros

    2004-01-01

    Muchos autores demuestran sobre los ejemplos de sus pacientes que Sertralina es una medicación más eficaz y mejor tolerada en el tratamiento de la "depresión mayor" en el curso de las enfermedades de cáncer con metástasis. Presentamos el caso de una entrenadora de gimnasia. Many authors prove through the examples of their patients that Sertraline is a most efficient drug best accepted in the treatment of the "major depression" while patient has the cancer with multiple metastases. We prese...

  16. Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Kuo; Jiang, Li-Jie; Hu, Jing-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS) as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses) for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures. Results: The total of 1,056 high-quality IHD-associated genes were integrated and evaluated. In addition, eight IHD disease modules (the PPI sub-networks significantly relevant to IHD) were identified, in which two disease modules were relevant to PSCS syndrome (i.e., two PSCS syndrome modules). These two modules had enriched pathways on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway (hsa04620) and Renin-angiotensin system (hsa04614), with the molecular functions of angiotensin maturation (GO:0002003) and response to bacterium (GO:0009617), which had been validated by classical Chinese herbal formulas-related targets, IHD-related drug targets, and the phenotype features derived from human phenotype ontology (HPO) and published biomedical literatures. Conclusion: A network medicine

  17. Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated.Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures.Results: The total of 1,056 high-quality IHD-associated genes were integrated and evaluated. In addition, eight IHD disease modules (the PPI sub-networks significantly relevant to IHD were identified, in which two disease modules were relevant to PSCS syndrome (i.e., two PSCS syndrome modules. These two modules had enriched pathways on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway (hsa04620 and Renin-angiotensin system (hsa04614, with the molecular functions of angiotensin maturation (GO:0002003 and response to bacterium (GO:0009617, which had been validated by classical Chinese herbal formulas-related targets, IHD-related drug targets, and the phenotype features derived from human phenotype ontology (HPO and published biomedical literatures.Conclusion: A network medicine

  18. Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Kuo; Jiang, Li-Jie; Hu, Jing-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS) as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses) for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures. Results: The total of 1,056 high-quality IHD-associated genes were integrated and evaluated. In addition, eight IHD disease modules (the PPI sub-networks significantly relevant to IHD) were identified, in which two disease modules were relevant to PSCS syndrome (i.e., two PSCS syndrome modules). These two modules had enriched pathways on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway (hsa04620) and Renin-angiotensin system (hsa04614), with the molecular functions of angiotensin maturation (GO:0002003) and response to bacterium (GO:0009617), which had been validated by classical Chinese herbal formulas-related targets, IHD-related drug targets, and the phenotype features derived from human phenotype ontology (HPO) and published biomedical literatures. Conclusion: A network medicine

  19. Metástasis cutánea de carcinoma mamario: cáncer de mama en coraza. Revisión de la literatura y presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Torres Aja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En la evolución clínica de los tumores malignos, entre el 1 y el 10,4 % de estos se presentan metástasis cutáneas, por lo que se considera su presencia sinónimo de enfermedad rápidamente progresiva con bajos índices de supervivencia. En los varones, el tumor que más suele producirlas es el de pulmón y en las mujeres, el de mama. Es poco frecuente que la metástasis en la piel sea la primera manifestación del tumor, y es el carcinoma de mama el que con mayor frecuencia da lugar a esta eventualidad. En el caso que se presenta fue la metástasis en la piel la primera manifestación del tumor primario de mama subyacente.

  20. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  1. Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Absorption Are Related and Increased in Chronic Kidney Failure, Independent of Exposure to Dialysis Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, Carmen A.; de Graaff, Marijke; Aten, Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2015-01-01

    Increased lymphatic absorption might contribute to ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Lymphangiogenesis develops during PD, but little is known about the relationship between its morphologic and functional parameters. The relationships between lymph vessel density, the effective

  2. Model for the radionuclide measurement of ascitic fluid volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, W.D.; Davis, M.A.; Uren, R.F.; Wisotsky, T.; LaTegola, M.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m phytate colloids formed in vitro and in vivo were examined as radioindicators for estimation of the volume of third-space fluid in an ovarian ascites model using C3HeB/FeJ mice. In double-label experiments, the accuracy of the colloids for dilution analysis was found to be equal or superior to that of I-125 HSA. Sampling times 3 to 5 min after intraperitoneal administration were found to produce the best volume estimates. Four needle-stopcock assemblies inserted sequentially into the quadrants of the peritoneal cavity were used for administration and sampling of the radioindicators. The stopcocks could be closed to prevent leakage of ascitic fluid during the procedure. In contrast to radiolabeled albumin, Tc-99m phytate colloids have clinical use for simultaneous imaging of radiotracer migration to assess potential occlusion of diaphragmatic lymphatics by neoplastic cells, and for dilution analysis to estimate volume of ascitic fluid

  3. Development of a Tissue-Engineered Lymphatic Graft Using Nanocomposite Polymer for the Treatment of Secondary Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapathy, Muholan; Kalaskar, Deepak; Mosahebi, Afshin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Damage of the lymphatic vessels, commonly due to surgical resection for cancer treatment, leads to secondary lymphedema. Tissue engineering approach offers a possible solution to reconstruct this damage with the use of lymphatic graft to re-establish the lymphatic flow, hence preventing lymphedema. The aim of this study is to develop a tissue-engineered lymphatic graft using nanocomposite polymer and human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). A nanocomposite polymer, the polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), which has enhanced mechanical, chemical, and physical characteristics, was used to develop the lymphatic graft. POSS-PCU has been used clinically for the world's first synthetic trachea, lacrimal duct, and is currently undergoing clinical trial for coronary artery bypass graft. Two designs and fabrication methods were used to manufacture the conduits. The fabrication method, the mechanical and physical properties, as well as the hydraulic conductivity were tested. This is followed by in vitro cell culture analysis to test the cytocompatibility of HDLEC with the polymer surface. Using the casted extrusion method, the nanocomposite lymphatic graft demonstrates desirable mechanical property and hydraulic conductivity to re-establish the lymphatic flow. The conduit has high tensile strength (casted: 74.86 ± 5.74 MPa vs. coagulated: 31.33 ± 3.71 MPa; P nanocomposite polymer. It displays excellent mechanical property and cytocompatibility to HDLECs, offering much promise for clinical applications and as a new treatment option for secondary lymphedema. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Study Regarding the Effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the Case of Patients with Breast Cancer that Present Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru MIOC; Corina PANTEA

    2013-01-01

    Lymphedema is defined as a persistent increase of tissue volume caused by the blocked or absent lymphatic drainage. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of lymphatic drainage in the treatment of lymphedema after a mastectomy, with the aim of reducing the volume of the lymphedema and improving overall symptomatology, as well as providing information regarding the impact of this treatment on quality-of-life and the physical limitations of these patients. With these objectiv...

  5. [Warming acupuncture combined with conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guoqing; Ye, Ting; Sun, Zhongren

    2018-03-12

    To compare the clinical efficacy differences between warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis. A total of 64 patients were randomly divided into a warming acupuncture group and a conventional acupuncture group, 32 cases in each one. Based on basic treatment of blood glucose regulation, warming acupuncture was applied at Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Zusanli (ST 36), Chongyang (ST 42), Quchi (LI 11) and Hegu (LI 4) in the warming acupuncture group, while acupuncture was applied at the identical acupoints in the conventional acupuncture group. Both the treatments were given once a day with an interval of one day every six days; totally the treatment was given for 4 weeks. The TCM symptom score, Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) before and after treatment were compared in the two groups. After treatment, the TCM symptom scores in the two groups were significantly reduced (both P nervus peroneus communis, as well as sensory nerve of tibial nerve and sural nerve was improved in the warming acupuncture group (all P 0.05). Warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture could both increase TCM symptom score, improve NCV in patients of DPN with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis; warming acupuncture has advantage in symptom improvement.

  6. La teoría de la alóstasis como mecanismo explicativo entre los apegos inseguros y la vulnerabilidad a enfermedades crónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonia Lemos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El vínculo de apego ha mostrado ser un factor de vulnerabilidad para las enfermedades crónicas. El presente artículo busca clarificar esta relación mediante la teoría de la alóstasis. La teoría de la alóstasis hace referencia a la regulación de los procesos fisiológicos corporales complejos en el tiempo mediante una respuesta sistémica que mantiene la estabilidad fisiológica cuando se confronta la persona con cambios o retos. Los apegos inseguros confrontan a los niños desde sus primeros años con eventos estresantes, al no brindar al niño la seguridad sentida, finalidad fundamental del apego. De esta forma los apegos inseguros podrían tener impacto en la calibración del sistema de estrés en la edad temprana y serían factores de aumento de la carga alostática mediante mayores eventos vitales estresantes que las personas con apego seguro, una valoración cognitiva de amenaza que lleva al desarrollo de la hipervigilancia y el impacto en los sistemas de regulación del estrés en el cuerpo.

  7. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.

  8. Lymphatic compensation during the postoperative period after breast cancer treatment with axillary dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maia Freire de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer causes physical and psychological morbidity and compromises quality of life. The objective of this literature review was to study lymphatic compensation after surgery for breast cancer and the factors that influence this process, with a view to understanding the etiopathogenesis of lymphedema. Articles indexed on Pubmed published from 1985 to 2012 were reviewed. According to the literature, lymphangiogenesis reduces damage to lymph vessels; there is little evidence that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is elevated in women with lymphedema; lymphovenous communications can be observed 60 days after surgery; women without lymphedema have acquired alternative mechanisms for removal of proteins from the interstitial space; and active exercise stimulates lymphatic and venous pumping. Health professionals should teach these patients about the risk factors for lymphedema. The effects of lymphangiogenesis, proteolysis and lymphovenous communications on development of lymphedema should be studied, since these events are intimately related.

  9. Effects of lymphatic drainage and cryotherapy on indirect markers of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Jedlicka, Diana; Mester, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    Muscle enzymes are cleared from the extracellular space by the lymphatic system, while smaller proteins enter the bloodstream directly. We investigated if manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), local cryotherapy (CRY), and rest (RST) differently affect the time course of creatine kinase (CK, 84 kDa) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP, 15 kDa) in the blood. Randomized controlled trial. After 4x20 unilateral, eccentric accentuated knee extensions (with one-third of the maximal isometric force) 30 sports students randomly received either a 30 min MLD, CRY or they rested (RST) for the same amount of time. CK, h-FABP, neutrophil granulocytes, and the perceived muscle soreness were assessed before, immediately after, and 1 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours after the exercise. All measures increased significantly (Psports physicians and conditioning specialists who use biochemical muscle damage markers to adjust the training load and volume of athletes.

  10. Twin infant with lymphatic dysplasia diagnosed with Noonan syndrome by molecular genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Deepan; Somashekar, Santhosh; Navarrete, Cristina; Rodriguez, Maria M

    2014-08-01

    Noonan Syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, dysmorphic facial features and occasional lymphatic dysplasias. The features of Noonan Syndrome change with age and have variable expression. The diagnosis has historically been based on clinical grounds. We describe a child that was born with congenital refractory chylothorax and subcutaneous edema suspected to be secondary to pulmonary lymphangiectasis. The infant died of respiratory failure and anasarca at 80 days. The autopsy confirmed lymphatic dysplasia in lungs and mesentery. The baby had no dysmorphic facial features and was diagnosed postmortem with Noonan syndrome by genomic DNA sequence analysis as he had a heterozygous mutation for G503R in the PTPN11 gene.

  11. Role of the paraventricular nucleus in the reflex diuresis to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rishabh Charan; Sharma, Ravindra Kumar; Gulati, Kavita; Ravi, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The changes in urine flow and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) due to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction (PLO) were examined in anesthetized, artificially ventilated New Zealand white rabbits. PLO was produced by pressurizing an isolated pouch created in the right external jugular vein at the points of entry of the right lymphatic ducts. During this maneuver, urine flow increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 mL/10 min to 12 ± 0.5 mL/10 min (P acid microinjections into the PVN. The results show that (i) neurons in the PVN are an important relay site in the reflex arc, which is activated by PLO; and (ii) this activation is regulated by glutamatergic and partly by GABAergic input to the PVN.

  12. Use of Magnetic Nanoparticles to Visualize Threadlike Structures inside Lymphatic Vessels of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Min Johng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles was made to visualize a new tissue which had not been detectable by using simple stereomicroscopes. This unfamiliar threadlike structure inside the lymphatic vessels of rats was demonstrated in vivo by injecting nanoparticles into lymph nodes and applying magnetic fields on the collecting lymph vessels so that the nanoparticles were taken up by the threadlike structures. Confocal laser scanning microscope images of cryosectioned specimens exhibited that the nanoparticles were absorbed more strongly by the threadlike structure than by the lymphatic vessels. Further examination using a transmission electron microscope revealed that the nanoparticles had been captured between the reticular fibers in the extracellular matrix of the threadlike structures. The emerging technology of nanoparticles not only allows the extremely elusive threadlike structures to be visualized but also is expected to provide a magnetically controllable means to investigate their physiological functions.

  13. Semaphorin 3G Provides a Repulsive Guidance Cue to Lymphatic Endothelial Cells via Neuropilin-2/PlexinD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyi; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Fukushima, Yoko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Hirashima, Masanori

    2016-11-22

    The vertebrate circulatory system is composed of closely related blood and lymphatic vessels. It has been shown that lymphatic vascular patterning is regulated by blood vessels during development, but its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the artery-derived ligand semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) and the endothelial cell receptor PlexinD1 play a role in lymphatic vascular patterning. In mouse embryonic back skin, genetic inactivation of Sema3G or PlexinD1 results in abnormal artery-lymph alignment and reduced lymphatic vascular branching. Conditional ablation in mice demonstrates that PlexinD1 is primarily required in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In vitro analyses show that Sema3G binds to neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), which forms a receptor complex with PlexinD1. Sema3G induces cell collapse in an Nrp2/PlexinD1-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on a molecular mechanism by which LECs are distributed away from arteries and form a branching network during lymphatic vascular development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Autoradiographic investigations on the prednisolone-induced atrophy and on interdependent reactions in different lymphatic tissues of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigueber, F.

    1980-01-01

    Under the application of 3 H-thymidine the method of organ extirpation (thymectomy and appendectomy) was combined with the cell labeling technique. By autoradiographic evaluation of histologic specimens the content of labelled lymphocytes in the examined tissues was determined. Thymus, appendix, subcutaneous lymphatic nodes and spleen were examined. In the thymus the application of prednisolone induced organ atrophy. Appendectomy leads in the thymic marrow to an increase of the mitotic activity. In the appendix the application of prednisolone causes the emptying of basal lymphatic follicles. Thymectomy induces a large increase of the mitotic activity of the lymphatic tissue. Not all lymphatic nodes show identical changes after organ extirpation and after prednisolone application, but considerable differences. Only a decreased proliferation of labled lymphocytes, occuring under prednisolone application, can be detected in the marrow of the mesenteric lymphatic nodes and of the red splenic pulp in the animal with thymectomy. This result is also valid for the marrow of the remaining deep lymphatic nodes, after thymectomy and appendectomy. The lymphocyte counting in the peripheral blood done during prednisolone treatment, does not indicate that the lymphocyte values depend to a notable extent on the previous surgical treatment of the animals. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Wang,1 Lei Yuan,1 Yongchuan Wang,2 Baizhi Yang,1 Xiaohong Dong,1 Zhaowang Gao3 1Department of Urology, Shouguang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shouguang, 2Department of Urology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, 3Department of Urology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for chronic prostatitis (CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes.Methods: An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software.Results: Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001 and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: -1.08, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.81, P<0.00001. Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of -1.39 (95% CI: -1.87 to -0.92, P<0.00001. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: -0.23, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06. The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34 and less than that

  16. Understanding the functions and relationships of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louveau, Antoine; Plog, Benjamin A; Antila, Salli

    2017-01-01

    to the peripheral (CNS-draining) lymph nodes. We speculate on the relationship between the two systems and their malfunction that may underlie some neurological diseases. Although much remains to be investigated, these new discoveries have changed our understanding of mechanisms underlying CNS immune privilege...... and CNS drainage. Future studies should explore the communications between the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatics in CNS disorders and develop new therapeutic modalities targeting these systems....

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity.

  18. Biodistribution and Lymphatic Tracking of the Main Neurotoxin of Micrurus fulvius Venom by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vergara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the Eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius can cause respiratory paralysis in the bitten patient, which is attributable to β-neurotoxins (β-NTx. The aim of this work was to study the biodistribution and lymphatic tracking by molecular imaging of the main β-NTx of M. fulvius venom. β-NTx was bioconjugated with the chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA and radiolabeled with the radionuclide Gallium-67. Radiolabeling efficiency was 60%–78%; radiochemical purity ≥92%; and stability at 48 h ≥ 85%. The median lethal dose (LD50 and PLA2 activity of bioconjugated β-NTx decreased 3 and 2.5 times, respectively, in comparison with native β-NTx. The immune recognition by polyclonal antibodies decreased 10 times. Biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga in rats showed increased uptake in popliteal, lumbar nodes and kidneys that was not observed with 67Ga-free. Accumulation in organs at 24 h was less than 1%, except for kidneys, where the average was 3.7%. The inoculation site works as a depot, since 10% of the initial dose of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga remains there for up to 48 h. This work clearly demonstrates the lymphatic system participation in the biodistribution of β-NTx-DTPA-67Ga. Our approach could be applied to analyze the role of the lymphatic system in snakebite for a better understanding of envenoming.

  19. [Neck lymphatic metastasis, surgical methods and prognosis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L S; Zhou, F T; Han, C B; He, X P; Zhang, Z X

    2018-02-09

    Objective: To investigate the different pattern of neck lymph node metastasis, the choice of surgical methods and prognosis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A total of 157 patients with early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the pattern of lymph node metastasis, to determine the best surgical procedure and to analyze the prognosis. Results: The occurrence of cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 31%(48/157). Neck lymphatic metastasis was significantly related to tumor size ( P= 0.026) and histology differentiation type ( P= 0.022). The rate of metastasis was highest in level Ⅱ [33% (16/48)]. In level Ⅳ, the incidence of lymph node metastasis was 5%(7/157), and there was no skip metastases. The possibility of level Ⅳ metastasis was higher, when level Ⅱ ( P= 0.000) or Ⅲ ( P= 0.000) involved. The differentiation tumor recurrence, neck lymphatic metastasis and adjuvant radiotherapy were prognostic factors ( Psquamous cell carcinoma, simultaneous glossectomy and neck dissection should be performed. Level Ⅳ metastasis rate is extremely low, so supraomohyoid neck dissection is sufficient for most of the time. The histology differentiation type, neck lymphatic metastasis and adjuvant radiotherapy are independent prognostic factors.

  20. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid......% and 45%, respectively). However, the recovery of exogenous 18:1 n-9 was higher after a single bolus of MLM compared with a bolus of LLL in rats on the MLM diet (40% and 24%, respectively, P = 0.009). The recovery of lymphatic 18:1 n-9 of the LLL bolus tended to depend on the diet triacylglycerol...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  1. Refinements of the radiographic cadaver injection technique for investigating minute lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suami, Hiroo; Taylor, G Ian; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Ren

    2007-07-01

    The authors previously reported a new technique with which to delineate the lymphatic vessels, using hydrogen peroxide to identify them and a lead oxide suspension to demonstrate them on radiographs. This technique provided excellent studies of the lymph vessels in human cadavers, but there was still room for improvement. Lymph collecting vessels run superficially in some regions, where they may be damaged while the surgeon is attempting to find them. Vessels smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter could not be cannulated with a 30-gauge needle, which was the smallest the authors had available, and the lead oxide suspension often blocked this cannula. The authors also encountered problems holding the cannula steady. The authors solved these problems by using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ink to better identify the lymphatics, an extruded glass tube instead of a metal needle to cannulate them, an agate pestle and mortar to grind the lead oxide into finer particles, powdered milk to suspend the lead oxide, and a micromanipulator to facilitate accurate and steady cannulation of the vessels. This study developed these modifications to focus on tributaries of the collecting lymphatic channels that are smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter.

  2. Manual lymphatic drainage therapy in patients with breast cancer related lymphoedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Helena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphoedema is a common and troublesome condition that develops following breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the treatment of postmastectomy lymphoedema in order to reduce the volume of lymphoedema and evaluate the improvement of the concomitant symptomatology. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial in 58 women with post-mastectomy lymphoedema. The control group includes 29 patients with standard treatment (skin care, exercise and compression measures, bandages for one month and, subsequently, compression garnments. The experimental group includes 29 patients with standard treatment plus Manual Lymphatic Drainage. The therapy will be administered daily for four weeks and the patient's condition will be assessed one, three and six months after treatment. The primary outcome parameter is volume reduction of the affected arm after treatment, expressed as a percentage. Secondary outcome parameters include: duration of lymphoedema reduction and improvement of the concomitant symptomatology (degree of pain, sensation of swelling and functional limitation in the affected extremity, subjective feeling of being physically less atractive and less feminine, difficulty looking at oneself naked and dissatisfaction with the corporal image. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage and its impact on the quality of life and physical limitations of these patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT01152099

  3. Understanding the three-dimensional anatomy of the superficial lymphatics of the limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    There are minimal data in the current literature regarding the depth of the superficial lymphatic collectors of the limbs in relation to the various subcutaneous tissue layers. Injection, microdissection, radiographic, and histologic studies of the superficial lymphatics and the subcutaneous tissues of 32 limbs from 15 human cadavers were performed. Five layers were consistently identified in the integument of all the upper and lower limb specimens: (1) skin, (2) subcutaneous fat, (3) superficial fascia, (4) loose areolar tissue, and (5) deep fascia. Layer 2 was further divided into superficial (2a) and deep (2c) compartments by a thin, transparent, horizontal septum (layer 2b). The main superficial veins and the superficial nerves coursed in layer 4. The lymphatic collectors were found at layer 2c and layer 4. The use of consistent nomenclature to describe the subcutaneous tissue layers facilitates a greater understanding and discussion of the anatomy. In lymphovenous anastomosis for the treatment of lymphedema, indocyanine green lymphography is an unreliable method for identification of the superficial collectors of the thigh. The medial proximal leg, the dorsum of the wrist over the anatomical snuffbox, and the volar proximal forearm provide suitable areas for locating superficial collectors with nearby matching size veins. In vertical medial thigh lift, choosing a dissection plane superficial to the great saphenous vein is unlikely to preserve the collectors of the ventromedial bundle.

  4. Endoscopically observable white nodule caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread of rectal cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura Ayako

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a case of rectal cancer with endoscopically observable white nodules caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread. A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with frequent diarrhea and hemorrhoids. Computed tomography showed bilateral ovarian masses and three hepatic tumors diagnosed as rectal cancer metastases, and also showed multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was preoperatively diagnosed with stage IV rectal cancer. Colonoscopy demonstrated that primary rectal cancer existed 15 cm from the anal verge and that there were multiple white small nodules on the anal side of the primary tumor extending to the dentate line. Biopsies of the white spots were performed, and they were identified as adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent Hartmann’s procedure because of the locally advanced primary tumor. The white nodules were ultimately diagnosed as being caused by intramural lymphatic spreading because lymphatic permeation was strongly positive at the surrounding area. Small white nodules near a primary rectal cancer should be suspected of being intramural spreading. Endoscopic detection of white nodules may be useful for the diagnosis of distal intramural spread.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding lymphatic filariasis: study on systematic noncompliance with mass drug administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, antigenic profile, perceptions, attitudes and practices of individuals who have been systematically non-compliant in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns targeting lymphatic filariasis, in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioenvironmental demographics, perceptions of lymphatic filariasis and MDA, and reasons for systematic noncompliance with treatment. A rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT was performed during the survey to screen for filariasis. It was found that the survey subjects knew about filariasis and MDA. Filariasis was identified as a disease (86.2% and 74.4% associated it with the presence of swelling in the legs. About 80% knew about MDA, and the main source of information was healthcare workers (68.3%. For men the main reasons for systematic noncompliance with MDA were that “the individual had not received the medication” (p=0.03 and for women “the individual either feared experiencing adverse reactions”. According to the ICT, the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis was 2%. The most important causes of systematic noncompliance were not receiving the drug and fear of side-effects. For successful implementation of MDA programs, good planning, educational campaigns promoting the benefits of MDA, adoption of measures to minimize the impact of adverse effects and improvement of drug distribution logistics are needed.

  6. Low-cost microcontroller platform for studying lymphatic biomechanics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A; Nipper, Matthew E; Dixon, J Brandon

    2013-01-04

    The pumping innate to collecting lymphatic vessels routinely exposes the endothelium to oscillatory wall shear stress and other dynamic forces. However, studying the mechanical sensitivity of the lymphatic endothelium remains a difficult task due to limitations of commercial or custom systems to apply a variety of time-varying stresses in vitro. Current biomechanical in vitro testing devices are very expensive, limited in capability, or highly complex; rendering them largely inaccessible to the endothelial cell biology community. To address these shortcomings, the authors propose a reliable, low-cost platform for augmenting the capabilities of commercially available pumps to produce a wide variety of flow rate waveforms. In particular, the Arduino Uno, a microcontroller development board, is used to provide open-loop control of a digital peristaltic pump using precisely timed serial commands. In addition, the flexibility of this platform is further demonstrated through its support of a custom-built cell-straining device capable of producing oscillatory strains with varying amplitudes and frequencies. Hence, this microcontroller development board is shown to be an inexpensive, precise, and easy-to-use tool for supplementing in vitro assays to quantify the effects of biomechanical forces on lymphatic endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute exposure to space flight results in evidence of reduced lymph Transport, tissue fluid Shifts, and immune alterations in the rat gastrointestinal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, W. E.; Zawieja, D. C.

    2018-05-01

    Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc.). Additionally, morphology of the lymphatic vessels in the tissue suggested a collapsed state at time of harvest and there was a profound change in the retention of lipid in the villi of the ileum. Contrary to our assumptions there was a reduction in tissue fluid volume likely associated with other fluid shifts described. The reduction of tissue fluid volume in the colon and ileum is a likely contributing factor to the state of the lymphatic vessels and lipid transport issues observed. There were also associated changes in the number of MHC-II+ immune cells in the colon tissue, which along with reduced lymphatic competence would favor immune dysfunction in the tissue. These findings help expand our understanding of the effects of space flight on various organ systems. It also points out potential issues that have not been closely examined and have to potential for the need of countermeasure development.

  8. PEGylated polylysine dendrimers increase lymphatic exposure to doxorubicin when compared to PEGylated liposomal and solution formulations of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma M; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Bulitta, Jürgen B; McIntosh, Michelle P; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-11-28

    Improved delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the lymphatic system has the potential to augment outcomes for cancer therapy by enhancing activity against lymph node metastases. Uptake of small molecule chemotherapeutics into the lymphatic system, however, is limited. Nano-sized drug carriers have the potential to promote access to the lymphatics, but to this point, this has not been examined in detail. The current study therefore evaluated the lymphatic exposure of doxorubicin after subcutaneous and intravenous administration as a simple solution formulation or when formulated as a doxorubicin loaded PEGylated poly-lysine dendrimer (hydrodynamic diameter 12 nm), a PEGylated liposome (100 nm) and various pluronic micellar formulations (~5 nm) to thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats. Plasma and lymph pharmacokinetics were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic modelling in S-ADAPT, and Berkeley Madonna software was used to predict the lymphatic exposure of doxorubicin over an extended period of time. The micelle formulations displayed poor in vivo stability, resulting in doxorubicin profiles that were similar to that observed after administration of the doxorubicin solution formulation. In contrast, the dendrimer formulation significantly increased the recovery of doxorubicin in the thoracic lymph after both intravenous and subcutaneous dosing when compared to the solution or micellar formulation. Dendrimer-doxorubicin also resulted in increases in lymphatic doxorubicin concentrations when compared to the liposome formulation, although liposomal doxorubicin did increase lymphatic transport when compared to the solution formulation. Specifically, the dendrimer formulation increased the recovery of doxorubicin in the lymph up to 30 h post dose by up to 685 fold and 3.7 fold when compared to the solution and liposomal formulations respectively. Using the compartmental model to predict lymphatic exposure to longer time periods suggested that doxorubicin exposure to

  9. Relationship between free fatty acid spectrum, blood stasis score, and macroangiopathy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Liang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to investigate the correlation between free fatty acid (FFA spectrum, blood stasis (BS score, and macroangiopathy in type 2 diabetic patients with or without BS, as well as the possible relationship between BS and lipotoxicity. Methods: A total of 50 type 2 diabetes (T2D patients with or without BS were enrolled from June to December 2014 in Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Hospital, with 25 patients allocated to each of two groups. Basic information, BS score, blood glucose, blood lipids, etc., were measured for each patient. In addition, we tested the levels of interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and IL-18 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The macroangiopathy status of patients in the two groups was examined by color ultrasound and all factors related to BS scores were analyzed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to explore the difference in the serum FFA spectra between the two different groups. In addition, the relationship between FFA spectra, BS scores, and macroangiopathy was analyzed. Results: BS scores, total cholesterol (TC, total triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, carotid and femoral artery plaque, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque area, and femoral artery plaque area were all significantly increased in T2D patients with BS syndrome (P < 0.05. A positive correlation was observed between age, duration of diabetes, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque area, femoral artery plaque area, and BS score (P < 0.05. A total of 21 fatty acids were found in the serum, and total FFA (TFFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA, lauric acid (C12:0, palmitic acid (16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, arachidonic acid (C20:4n6, behenic acid (C22:0, and lignoceric acid (C24:0 scores were all found to contribute to the difference between FFA spectrums of the two groups; of the fatty acids, C12:0, C16:0, C18:0, C22:0, TFFA, and SFA positively

  10. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, W.; Glass, D.M.; Bradley, D.; Peters, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m- labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99m Tc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99m Tc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99m Tc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99m Tc-HIG compared with 99m Tc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99m Tc-HIG was significantly higher (P 99m Tc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not sinificantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99m Tc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per minute for

  11. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  12. Surface modification of solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of curcumin: Improvement of bioavailability through enhanced cellular uptake, and lymphatic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin has been reported to exhibit potent anticancer effects. However, poor solubility, bioavailability and stability of curcumin limit its in vivo efficacy for the cancer treatment. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are a promising delivery system for the enhancement of bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. However, burst release of drug from SLN in acidic environment limits its usage as oral delivery system. Hence, we prepared N-carboxymethyl chitosan (NCC) coated curcumin-loaded SLN (NCC-SLN) to inhibit the rapid release of curcumin in acidic environment and enhance the bioavailability. The NCC-SLN exhibited suppressed burst release in simulated gastric fluid while sustained release was observed in simulated intestinal fluid. Furthermore, NCC-SLN exhibited increased cytotoxicity and cellular uptake on MCF-7 cells. The lymphatic uptake and oral bioavailability of NCC-SLN were found to be 6.3-fold and 9.5-fold higher than that of curcumin solution, respectively. These results suggest that NCC-SLN could be an efficient oral delivery system for curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seventh meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: reaching the vision by scaling up, scaling down, and reaching out

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the 7th meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF), Washington DC, November 18–19, 2012. The theme, “A Future Free of Lymphatic Filariasis: Reaching the Vision by Scaling Up, Scaling Down and Reaching Out”, emphasized new strategies and partnerships necessary to reach the 2020 goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public-health problem. PMID:24450283

  14. Finding an optimal method for imaging lymphatic vessels of the upper limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Susan; Purushotham, Arnie D.; Rose, Sarah L.; Chilvers, Alison J.; Ballinger, James R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, A. Michael; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy involves interstitial injection of radiolabelled particulate materials or radioproteins. Although several variations in the technique have been described, their place in clinical practice remains controversial. Traditional diagnostic criteria are based primarily on lymph node appearances but in situations such as breast cancer, where lymph nodes may have been excised, these criteria are of limited use. In these circumstances, lymphatic vessel morphology takes on greater importance as a clinical endpoint, so a method that gives good definition of lymphatic vessels would be useful. In patients with breast cancer, for example, such a method, used before and after lymph node resection, may assist in predicting the development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. The aim of this study was to optimise a method for the visualisation of lymphatic vessels. Subcutaneous (sc) and intradermal (id) injection sites were compared, and technetium-99m nanocolloid, a particulate material, was compared with 99m Tc-human immunoglobulin (HIG), which is a soluble macromolecule. Twelve normal volunteers were each studied on two occasions. In three subjects, id 99m Tc-HIG was compared with sc 99m Tc-HIG, in three id 99m Tc-nanocolloid was compared with sc 99m Tc-nanocolloid, in three id 99m Tc-HIG was compared with id 99m Tc-nanocolloid and in three sc 99m Tc-HIG was compared with sc 99m Tc-nanocolloid. Endpoints were quality of lymphatic vessel definition, the time after injection at which vessels were most clearly visualised, the rate constant of depot disappearance (k) and the systemic blood accumulation rate as measured by gamma camera imaging over the liver or cardiac blood pool. Excellent definition of lymphatic vessels was obtained following id injection of either radiopharmaceutical, an injection route that was clearly superior to sc. Differences between radiopharmaceuticals were less clear, although after id injection, 99m Tc-HIG gave images that were

  15. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  16. Protective effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula NaoShuanTong capsule on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Peng, Yao-Yao; Liang, Feng-Yin; Chen, Si; Li, Pei-Bo; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zhong-Zheng; Xie, Cheng-Shi; Long, Chao-Feng; Su, Wei-Wei

    2014-01-02

    NaoShuanTong capsule (NSTC), an oral traditional Chinese medicine formula, is composed of Pollen Typhae , Radix Paeoniae Rubra , Rhizoma Gastrodiae , Radix Rhapontici and Radix Curcumae . It has been widely used to treat ischemic stroke in clinic for many years in China. In addition to neuronal apoptosis, haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders also play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of ischemic stroke. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis. Sixty specific pathogen-free sprague-dawley rats, male only, were randomly divided into six groups (control group, model group, aspirin (100 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC low-dose (400 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC intermediate-dose (800 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC high-dose (1600 mg/kg/d) group) with 10 animals in each. The rats except those in the control group were placed in ice-cold water (0-4 °C) for 5 min during the time interval (4 h) of two adrenaline hydrochloride injections (0.8 mg/kg) to induce blood stasis. After treatment, whole blood viscosity at three shear rates, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate significantly decreased in NSTC intermediate- and high-dose groups; erythrocyte aggregation index and red corpuscle electrophoresis index significantly decreased in all the three dose NSTC groups. Moreover, treatment with high-dose NSTC could significantly improve Na + -K + adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca 2+ ATPase activity, as well as lower lactic acid level in brain tissues. These results demonstrated the protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders, which may provide scientific information for the further understanding of mechanism(s) of NSTC as a clinical treatment for ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the protective effects of activating blood circulation as observed in this study might create valuable

  17. Comparison of three quality of life instruments in lymphatic filariasis: DLQI, WHODAS 2.0, and LFSQQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis and manage morbidity in people currently living with the disease. A component of morbidity management is improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients. Measurement of HRQoL in current management programs is varied because of the lack of a standard HRQoL tool for use in the lymphatic filariasis population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the psychometric properties of three health status measures were compared when used in a group of lymphatic filariasis patients and healthy controls. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, and the Lymphatic Filariasis Quality of Life Questionnaire (LFSQQ were administered to 36 stage II and stage III lymphatic filariasis subjects and 36 age and sex matched controls in Kerala, India. All three tools yielded missing value rates lower than 10%, suggesting high feasibility. Highest internal consistency was seen in the LFSQQ (α = 0.97. Discriminant validity analysis demonstrated that HRQoL was significantly lower in the LF group than in controls for the WHODAS 2.0, DLQI, and LFSQQ, but total HRQoL scores did not differ between stage II and stage III lymphedema subjects. The LFSQQ total score correlated most strongly with the WHODAS 2.0 (r = 0.91, p<0.001 and DLQI (r = 0.81, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The WHODAS 2.0, DLQI, and LFSQQ demonstrate acceptable feasibility, internal consistency, discriminate validity, and construct validity. Based on our psychometric analyses, the LFSQQ performs the best and is recommended for use in the lymphatic filariasis population.

  18. The Score Model Containing Chinese Medicine Syndrome Element of Blood Stasis Presented a Better Performance Compared to APRI and FIB-4 in Diagnosing Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore a useful noninvasive assessment containing TCM syndrome elements for liver fibrosis in CHB patients. The demographic, clinical, and pathological data were retrospectively collected from 709 CHB patients who had ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal from April 2009 to October 2012. Logistical regression and area under receiver-operator curve (AUROC were used to determine the diagnostic performances of simple tests for advanced fibrosis (Scheuer stage, F ≥ 3. Results showed that the most common TCM syndrome element observed in this CHB population was dampness and Qi stagnation, followed by blood stasis, by heat, and less by Qi deficiency and Yin deficiency. The logistical regression analysis identified AST ≥ 35 IU/L, PLT ≤ 161 × 109/L, and TCM syndrome element of blood stasis as the independent risk factors for advanced fibrosis. Therefore, a score model containing these three factors was established and tested. The score model containing blood stasis resulted in a higher AUC (AUC = 0.936 compared with APRI (AUC = 0.731 and FIB-4 (AUC = 0.709. The study suggested that the score model containing TCM syndrome element of blood stasis could be used as a useful diagnostic tool for advanced fibrosis in CHB patients and presented a better performance compared to APRI and FIB-4.

  19. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  20. Perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention and control of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Bernard L; Barry, Aboulaye; Heitz-Tokpa, Kathrin; Krauth, Stefanie J; Goépogui, Andre; Baldé, Mamadou S; Barry, Oumar; Niamey, Marie L; Bockarie, Moses J; Koudou, Benjamin G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people's general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected through in-depth interviews with 85 respondents. Quantitative data related to strategies for prevention and the knowledge of the causes of the disease were collected by interviewing 429 people. A total of 514 individuals (313 females and 201 males), aged 10-84 years, participated. Most participants were well aware of lymphatic filariasis and they recognized the disease mainly by its disfiguring manifestation, collectively termed "elephantiasis" or "leg-swelling disease". Morbidity patterns due to filarial infection showed an increase with age (from 30 to 50 years) independent of sex. Most patients with lymphatic filariasis abandoned their jobs (73.9%) or sought other work (21.7%). The main perceived causes of acquiring lymphatic filariasis were of supernatural origin (as stated by 8.7% of patients and 5.7% of healthy subjects), while mosquito bites were mentioned by fewer participants (4.3% of patients and 4.2% of healthy subjects). A number of other causes were reported that relate to both medical and non-medical conceptions. The study also identified socioeconomic impairments and stigmatization due to elephantiasis. Taken together, community perception of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry is influenced by sociocultural conceptions. Appropriate health education campaigns aimed at enhancing community understanding of the transmission of lymphatic filariasis are required to increase the success of mass drug

  1. An evidence-based analysis of epidemiologic associations between lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers and occupational exposure to gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, J J; Gaffney, S; Gross, S A; Ronk, C J; Paustenbach, D J; Galbraith, D; Kerger, B D

    2013-10-01

    The presence of benzene in motor gasoline has been a health concern for potential increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia and perhaps other lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers for approximately 40 years. Because of the widespread and increasing use of gasoline by consumers and the high exposure potential of occupational cohorts, a thorough understanding of this issue is important. The current study utilizes an evidence-based approach to examine whether or not the available epidemiologic studies demonstrate a strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers. Among 67 epidemiologic studies initially identified, 54 were ranked according to specific criteria relating to the relevance and robustness of each study for answering the research question. The 30 highest-ranked studies were sorted into three tiers of evidence and were analyzed for strength, specificity, consistency, temporality, dose-response trends and coherence. Meta statistics were also calculated for each general and specific lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer category with adequate data. The evidence-based analysis did not confirm any strong and consistent association between occupational exposure to gasoline and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers based on the epidemiologic studies available to date. These epidemiologic findings, combined with the evidence showing relatively low occupational benzene vapor exposures associated with gasoline formulations during the last three decades, suggest that current motor gasoline formulations are not associated with increased lymphatic/hematopoietic cancer risks related to benzene.

  2. Ginsenoside Rg1 enhances lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica via VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling in silicotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Mao, Lijun; Guan, Li; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2016-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rg1, extracted mainly from Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert strong pro-angiogenic activities in vivo. But it is unclear whether ginsenoside Rg1 could promote lung lymphangiogenesis to improve lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica in silicotic rats. Here we investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica during experimental silicosis, and found that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment significantly raised the silicon content in tracheobronchial lymph nodes and serum to reduce the silicon level in lung interstitium, meanwhile increased pulmonary lymphatic vessel density by enhancing the protein and mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The stimulative effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on lymphatic transport of silica was actively correlated with its pro-lymphangiogenic identity. And VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 blocked these above effects of ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 exhibits good protective effect against lung burden of silica during experimental silicosis through improving lymphatic transport of intrapulmonary silica, which is potentially associated with the activation of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of lymphatic metastasis based on gene expression profile analysis after brachytherapy for early-stage oral tongue carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mogushi, Kaoru; Miura, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Noda, Shuhei; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The management of lymphatic metastasis of early-stage oral tongue carcinoma patients is crucial for its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of lymphatic metastasis after brachytherapy (BRT) for early-stage tongue carcinoma based on gene expression profiling. Patients and methods: Pre-therapeutic biopsies from 39 patients with T1 or T2 tongue cancer were analyzed for gene expression signatures using Codelink Uniset Human 20K Bioarray. All patients were treated with low dose-rate BRT for their primary lesions and underwent strict follow-up under a wait-and-see policy for cervical lymphatic metastasis. Candidate genes were selected for predicting lymph-node status in the reference group by the permutation test. Predictive accuracy was further evaluated by the prediction strength (PS) scoring system using an independent validation group. Results: We selected a set of 19 genes whose expression differed significantly between classes with or without lymphatic metastasis in the reference group. The lymph-node status in the validation group was predicted by the PS scoring system with an accuracy of 76%. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling using 19 genes in primary tumor tissues may allow prediction of lymphatic metastasis after BRT for early-stage oral tongue carcinoma

  4. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  5. The lymphoscintigraphic manifestation of (99m)Tc-dextran lymphatic imaging in primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhe; Tong, Guansheng; Liu, Yong; Meeks, Jacqui K; Ma, Daqing; Yang, Jigang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the imaging characteristics of (99m)Tc-dextran ((99m)Tc-DX) lymphatic imaging in the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL). Forty-one PIL patients were diagnosed as having PIL with the diagnosis being subsequently confirmed by laparotomy, endoscopy, biopsy, or capsule colonoscopy. Nineteen patients were male and 22 were female. A whole-body (99m)Tc-DX scan was performed at 10 min, 1 h, 3 h, and 6 h intervals after injection. The 10 min and 1 h postinjection intervals were considered the early phase, the 3 h postinjection interval was considered the middle phase, and the 6 h postinjection interval was considered the delayed phase. The imaging characteristics of (99m)Tc-DX lymphatic imaging in PIL were of five different types: (i) presence of dynamic radioactivity in the intestine, associated with radioactivity moving from the small intestine to the ascending and transverse colon; (ii) presence of delayed dynamic radioactivity in the intestine, no radioactivity or little radioactivity distributing in the intestine in the early phase, or significant radioactivity distributing in the intestine in the delayed phase; (iii) radioactivity distributing in the intestine and abdominal cavity; (iv) radioactivity distributing only in the abdominal cavity with no radioactivity in the intestines; and (v) no radioactivity distributing in the intestine and abdominal activity. (99m)Tc-DX lymphatic imaging in PIL showed different imaging characteristics. Caution should be exercised in the diagnosis of PIL using lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy is a safe and accurate examination method and is a significant diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of PIL.

  6. Global abnormalities in lymphatic function following systemic therapy in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, S K; Peters, A M; Zammit, C; Ryan, N; Ballinger, J; Glass, D M; Allen, S; Stanton, A W B; Mortimer, P S; Purushotham, A D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a result of interaction between several pathophysiological processes, and is not simply a 'stopcock' effect resulting from removal of axillary lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a constitutional 'global' lymphatic dysfunction in patients who develop BCRL. Lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 30 women who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection at least 3 years previously, of whom 15 had BCRL and 15 did not. No patient had any clinical abnormality of the lower limb. The control group comprised 24 women with no history of cancer or lower-limb lymphoedema. (99m) Tc-Nanocoll was injected subcutaneously into the first webspace of each foot, followed by whole-body imaging. Scans were reported as abnormal if there was delay in lymph transport or rerouting through skin or deep system. Quantification was expressed as the percentage injected activity accumulating in ilioinguinal nodes. Mean(s.d.) ilioinguinal nodal accumulation at 150 min was significantly lower in women with BCRL than in those without (2·7(2·5) versus 5·9(4·8) per cent respectively; P = 0·006). Abnormal findings on lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy were observed in 17 of the 30 patients: ten of the 15 women who had BCRL and seven of the 15 who did not. None of the 24 control subjects had abnormal scan findings. Women with BCRL had reduced lower-limb lymph drainage, supporting the hypothesis of a predisposition to BCRL. A surprisingly high proportion of patients with breast cancer also demonstrated lymphatic dysfunction, despite clinically normal lower limbs. Possible explanations could be a systemic effect of breast cancer or its treatment, or an unidentified association between breast cancer and lymphatic dysfunction. ISRCTN84866416 ( http://www.isrctn.com). © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pdgfrb-Cre targets lymphatic endothelial cells of both venous and non-venous origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvmar, Maria H; Martinez-Corral, Ines; Stanczuk, Lukas; Mäkinen, Taija

    2016-06-01

    The Pdgfrb-Cre line has been used as a tool to specifically target pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Recent studies showed additional targeting of cardiac and mesenteric lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by the Pdgfrb-Cre transgene. In the heart, this was suggested to provide evidence for a previously unknown nonvenous source of LECs originating from yolk sac (YS) hemogenic endothelium (HemEC). Here we show that Pdgfrb-Cre does not, however, target YS HemEC or YS-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). Instead, a high proportion of ECs in embryonic blood vessels of multiple organs, as well as venous-derived LECs were targeted. Assessment of temporal Cre activity using the R26-mTmG double reporter suggested recent occurrence of Pdgfrb-Cre recombination in both blood and lymphatic ECs. It thus cannot be excluded that Pdgfrb-Cre mediated targeting of LECs is due to de novo expression of the Pdgfrb-Cre transgene or their previously established venous endothelial origin. Importantly, Pdgfrb-Cre targeting of LECs does not provide evidence for YS HemEC origin of the lymphatic vasculature. Our results highlight the need for careful interpretation of lineage tracing using constitutive Cre lines that cannot discriminate active from historical expression. The early vascular targeting by the Pdgfrb-Cre also warrants consideration for its use in studies of mural cells. genesis 54:350-358, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lymphatic Expression of CLEVER-1 in Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aula Ammar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanisms regulating breast cancer lymph node metastasis are unclear. Staining of CLEVER-1 (common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1 in human breast tumors was used, along with in vitro techniques, to assess involvement in the metastatic process. Methods: 148 sections of primary invasive breast cancers, with 10 yr follow-up, were stained with anti-CLEVER-1. Leukocyte infiltration was assessed, along with involvement of specific subpopulations by staining with CD83 (mature dendritic cells, mDC, CD209 (immature DC, iDC and CD68 (macrophage, M&phis;. in vitro expression of CLEVER-1 on lymphatic (LEC and blood endothelial cells (BEC was examined by flow cytometry. Results: in vitro results showed that although both endothelial cell types express CLEVER-1, surface expression was only evident on LEC. In tumour sections CLEVER-1 was expressed in blood vessels (BV, 61.4% of samples, lymphatic vessels (LV, 18.2% of samples and in M&phis;/DCs (82.4% of samples. However, only CLEVER-1 expression in LV was associated with LN metastasis (p = 0.027 and with M&phis; indices (p = 0.021. Although LV CLEVER-1 was associated with LN positivity there was no significant correlation with recurrence or overall survival, BV CLEVER-1 expression was, however, associated with increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.049. The density of inflammatory infiltrate correlated with CLEVER-1 expression in BV (p < 0.001 and LV (p = 0.004. Conclusions: The associations between CLEVER-1 expression on endothelial vessels and macrophage/leukocyte infiltration is suggestive of its regulation by inflammatory conditions in breast cancer, most likely by macrophage-associated cytokines. Its upregulation on LV, related surface expression, and association with LN metastasis suggest that it may be an important mediator of tumor cell metastasis to LN.

  9. Will mass drug administration eliminate lymphatic filariasis? Evidence from northern coastal Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Allen, Tim

    2013-07-01

    This article documents understandings and responses to mass drug administration (MDA) for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among adults and children in northern coastal Tanzania from 2004 to 2011. Assessment of village-level distribution registers, combined with self-reported drug uptake surveys of adults, participant observation and interviews, revealed that at study sites in Pangani and Muheza districts the uptake of drugs was persistently low. The majority of people living at these highly endemic locations either did not receive or actively rejected free treatment. A combination of social, economic and political reasons explain the low uptake of drugs. These include a fear of treatment (attributable, in part, to a lack of trust in international aid and a questioning of the motives behind the distribution); divergence between biomedical and local understandings of lymphatic filariasis; and limited and ineffective communication about the rationale for mass treatment. Other contributory factors are the reliance upon volunteers for distribution within villages and, in some locations, strained relationships between different groups of people within villages as well as between local leaders and government officials. The article also highlights a disjuncture between self-reported uptake of drugs by adults at a village level and the higher uptake of drugs recorded in official reports. The latter informs claims that elimination will be a possibility by 2020. This gives voice to a broader problem: there is considerable pressure for those implementing MDA to report positive results. The very real challenges of making MDA work are pushed to one side - adding to a rhetoric of success at the expense of engaging with local realities. It is vital to address the kind of issues raised in this article if current attempts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in mainland coastal Tanzania are to achieve their goal.

  10. DEGRO practical guidelines: radiotherapy of breast cancer III - radiotherapy of the lymphatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L.; Sedlmayer, F.; Fussl, C.; Budach, W.; Dunst, J.; Feyer, P.; Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R.; Harms, W.; Piroth, M.D.; Souchon, R.; Wenz, F.; Haase, W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to update the practical guidelines for adjuvant radiotherapy of the regional lymphatics of breast cancer published in 2008 by the breast cancer expert panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). A comprehensive survey of the literature concerning regional nodal irradiation (RNI) was performed using the following search terms: ''breast cancer'', ''radiotherapy'', ''regional node irradiation''. Recent randomized trials were analyzed for outcome as well as for differences in target definition. Field arrangements in the different studies were reproduced and superimposed on CT slices with individually contoured node areas. Moreover, data from recently published meta-analyses and guidelines of international breast cancer societies, yielding new aspects compared to 2008, provided the basis for defining recommendations according to the criteria of evidence-based medicine. In addition to the more general statements of the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines updated in 2012, this paper addresses indications, targeting, and techniques of radiotherapy of the lymphatic pathways after surgery for breast cancer. International guidelines reveal substantial differences regarding indications for RNI. Patients with 1-3 positive nodes seem to profit from RNI compared to whole breast (WBI) or chest wall irradiation alone, both with regard to locoregional control and disease-free survival. Irradiation of the regional lymphatics including axillary, supraclavicular, and internal mammary nodes provided a small but significant survival benefit in recent randomized trials and one meta-analysis. Lymph node irradiation yields comparable tumor control in comparison to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), while reducing the rate of lymph edema. Data concerning the impact of 1-2 macroscopically affected sentinel node (SN) or microscopic metastases on prognosis are conflicting. Recent data suggest that the current restrictive use of RNI should be

  11. Manual lymphatic drainage and therapeutic ultrasound in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty post-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. B. Masson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy in the plastic surgery post-operative (PO is essential to provide means for an adequate and fast recovery as it restores function through the use of physiotherapeutic procedures. Aim: The aim of the following study is to verify the effects of the association between the manual lymphatic drainage and the therapeutic ultrasound on pain, oedema and the tissue fibrosis in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty PO. Design: This is a clinical trial prospective. Materials and Methods: Eighteen women aged between 18 and 60 years participated in this study, in the late PO period following lipoabdominoplasty or liposuction in the abdomen, flanks and lower trunk, which showed tissue fibrosis of the flanks and abdomen regions. They were divided into two groups: Liposuction group and lipoabdominoplasty group. A total of twelve sessions of therapeutic ultrasound followed by the manual lymphatic drainage were performed. The patients were assessed with regard to pain, oedema and tissue fibrosis in different moments: Initial assessment, during assessment and final assessment through the application of the protocol of evaluation of cysts fibrosis levels. Statistical Analysis: The test of equality for two proportions and the confidence interval test for mean to evaluate the distribution of variables. The significance level adopted for statistical tests was 5% (P < 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of pain, swelling and tissue fibrosis in both groups. Conclusion: the association between manual lymphatic drainage and the therapeutic ultrasound reduced the swelling and the tissue fibrosis and made pain disappear in liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty PO period.

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in endometrial cancer-Feasibility, safety and lymphatic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Céline; Bollino, Michele; Persson, Jan

    2018-03-01

    To compare the rate of lymphatic complications in women with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy versus a full pelvic and infrarenal paraaortic lymphadenectomy, and to examine the overall feasibility and safety of the former. A prospective study of 188 patients with endometrial cancer planned for robotic surgery. Indocyanine green was used to identify the sentinel lymph nodes. In low-risk patients the lymphadenectomy was restricted to removal of sentinel lymph nodes whereas in high-risk patients also a full lymphadenectomy was performed. The impact of the extent of the lymphadenectomy on the rate of complications was evaluated. The bilateral detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes was 96% after cervical tracer injection. No intraoperative complication was associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy per se. Compared with hysterectomy alone, the additional average operative time for removal of sentinel lymph nodes was 33min whereas 91min were saved compared with a full pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy alone resulted in a lower incidence of leg lymphedema than infrarenal paraaortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy (1.3% vs 18.1%, p=0.0003). The high feasibility, the absence of intraoperative complications and the low risk of lymphatic complications supports implementing detection of sentinel lymph nodes in low-risk endometrial cancer patients. Given that available preliminary data on sensitivity and false negative rates in high-risk patients are confirmed in further studies, we also believe that the reduction in lymphatic complications and operative time strongly motivates the sentinel lymph node concept in high-risk endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox...

  15. Lymphatic Fatty Acid Absorption Profile During 24 Hours After Administration of Triglycerides to Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine Charlotte; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1999-01-01

    In this study we determined in rats the complete 24-h lymphatic fatty acid profile after administration of either rapeseedoil (RO) or rapeseed oil interesterified with 10:0 (RO/C10) with special emphasis on the transition from absorptive topostabsorptive phase. Rats were subjected to cannulation......:0), and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) together witholeic acid (18:1 n-9) after RO had not returned to the transport at baseline. In contrast, the transport of decanoic acid(10:0) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) returned to baseline values between 12 and 15 h. This indicated that theabsorption of purely exogenous...

  16. Spontaneous and α-adrenoceptor-induced contractility in human collecting lymphatic vessels require chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Majgaard, Jens; Telinius, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    - with the impermeant anion aspartate and inhibition of Cl- transport and channels with the clinical diuretics furosemide and bendroflumethiazide, as well as DIDS and NPPB. The molecular expression of calcium-activated chloride channels was investigated by RT-PCR and proteins localized using immunoreactivity....... Spontaneous and norepinephrine-induced contractility in human lymphatic vessels was highly abrogated after Cl- substitution with aspartate. 100‒300µM DIDS or NPPB inhibited spontaneous contractile behavior. Norepinephrine-stimulated tone was furthermore markedly abrogated by 200µM DIDS. Furosemide lowered...

  17. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  18. Biofluid mechanics of special organs and the issue of system control. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop, March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Mair; Moore, James E; Fujioka, Hideki; Gaver, Donald P

    2010-03-01

    In the field of fluid flow within the human body, focus has been placed on the transportation of blood in the systemic circulation since the discovery of that system; but, other fluids and fluid flow phenomena pervade the body. Some of the most fascinating fluid flow phenomena within the human body involve fluids other than blood and a service other than transport--the lymphatic and pulmonary systems are two striking examples. While transport is still involved in both cases, this is not the only service which they provide and blood is not the only fluid involved. In both systems, filtration, extraction, enrichment, and in general some "treatment" of the fluid itself is the primary function. The study of the systemic circulation has also been conventionally limited to treating the system as if it were an open-loop system governed by the laws of fluid mechanics alone, independent of physiological controls and regulations. This implies that system failures can be explained fully in terms of the laws of fluid mechanics, which of course is not the case. In this paper we examine the clinical implications of these issues and of the special biofluid mechanics issues involved in the lymphatic and pulmonary systems.

  19. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  20. Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance causes alterations in cellular bioenergetics and activation of inflammatory signaling in lymphatic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang; Fluckey, James D; Chakraborty, Sanjukta; Muthuchamy, Mariappan

    2017-07-01

    Insulin resistance is a well-known risk factor for obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and associated cardiovascular diseases, but its mechanisms are undefined in the lymphatics. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels from MetSyn or LPS-injected rats exhibited impaired intrinsic contractile activity and associated inflammatory changes. Hence, we hypothesized that insulin resistance in lymphatic muscle cells (LMCs) affects cell bioenergetics and signaling pathways that consequently alter contractility. LMCs were treated with different concentrations of insulin or glucose or both at various time points to determine insulin resistance. Onset of insulin resistance significantly impaired glucose uptake, mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption rates, glycolysis, lactic acid, and ATP production in LMCs. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia also impaired the PI3K/Akt while enhancing the ERK/p38MAPK/JNK pathways in LMCs. Increased NF-κB nuclear translocation and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 and VCAM-1 levels in insulin-resistant LMCs indicated activation of inflammatory mechanisms. In addition, increased phosphorylation of myosin light chain-20, a key regulator of lymphatic muscle contraction, was observed in insulin-resistant LMCs. Therefore, our data elucidate the mechanisms of insulin resistance in LMCs and provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia promote insulin resistance and impair lymphatic contractile status by reducing glucose uptake, altering cellular metabolic pathways, and activating inflammatory signaling cascades.-Lee, Y., Fluckey, J. D., Chakraborty, S., Muthuchamy, M. Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance causes alterations in cellular bioenergetics and activation of inflammatory signaling in lymphatic muscle. © FASEB.

  1. The muscle contraction mode determines lymphangiogenesis differentially in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles by modifying local lymphatic extracellular matrix microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiwe, L; Vinck, M; Suhr, F

    2016-05-01

    Lymphatic vessels are of special importance for tissue homeostasis, and increases of their density may foster tissue regeneration. Exercise could be a relevant tool to increase lymphatic vessel density (LVD); however, a significant lack of knowledge remains to understand lymphangiogenesis in skeletal muscles upon training. Interestingly, training-induced lymphangiogenesis has never been studied in the heart. We studied lymphangiogenesis and LVD upon chronic concentric and chronic eccentric muscle contractions in both rat skeletal (Mm. Edl and Sol) and cardiac muscles. We found that LVD decreased in both skeletal muscles specifically upon eccentric training, while this contraction increased LVD in cardiac tissue. These observations were supported by opposing local remodelling of lymphatic vessel-specific extracellular matrix components in skeletal and cardiac muscles and protein levels of lymphatic markers (Lyve-1, Pdpn, Vegf-C/D). Confocal microscopy further revealed transformations of lymphatic vessels into vessels expressing both blood (Cav-1) and lymphatic (Vegfr-3) markers upon eccentric training specifically in skeletal muscles. In addition and phenotype supportive, we found increased inflammation (NF-κB/p65, Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Tnf-α and MPO(+) cells) in eccentrically stressed skeletal, but decreased levels in cardiac muscles. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into lymphangiogenic processes in skeletal and cardiac muscles upon chronic muscle contraction modes and demonstrate that both tissues adapt in opposing manners specifically to eccentric training. These data are highly relevant for clinical applications, because eccentric training serves as a sufficient strategy to increase LVD and to decrease inflammation in cardiac tissue, for example in order to reduce tissue abortion in transplantation settings. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Correlation between theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage and lymphoscintigraphy findings during sentinel node detection in head and neck melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Monica; Ruiz, Diana Milena [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Paredes, Pilar; Pons, Francesca [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Torres, Ferran [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Statistical of Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    In the diagnosis of head and neck melanoma, lymphatic drainage is complex and highly variable. As regional lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors, lymphoscintigraphy can help map individual drainage patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the results of lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection with theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage based on the location of the primary tumour lesion in patients with head and neck melanoma. We also determined the percentage of discrepancies between our lymphoscintigraphy and the theoretical location of nodal drainage predicted by a large lymphoscintigraphic database, in order to explain recurrence and false-negative SLN biopsies. In this retrospective study of 152 patients with head and neck melanoma, the locations of the SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy and detected intraoperatively were compared with the lymphatic drainage predicted by on-line software based on a large melanoma database. All patients showed lymphatic drainage and in all patients at least one SLN was identified by lymphoscintigraphy. Of the 152 patients, 4 had a primary lesion in areas that were not described in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database, so agreement could only be evaluated in 148 patients. Agreement between lymphoscintigraphic findings and the theoretical lymphatic drainage predicted by the software was completely concordant in 119 of the 148 patients (80.4 %, 95 % CI 73.3 - 86 %). However, this concordance was partial (some concordant nodes and others not) in 18 patients (12.2 %, 95 % CI 7.8 - 18.4 %). Discordance was complete in 11 patients (7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.2 - 12.8 %). In melanoma of the head and neck there is a high correlation between lymphatic drainage found by lymphoscintigraphy and the predicted drainage pattern and basins provided by a large reference database. Due to unpredictable drainage, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is essential to accurately detect the SLNs in head and

  3. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  4. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Nagahata, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However

  5. Increased extravasation and lymphatic return rate of albumin during diuretic treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schlichting, P

    1981-01-01

    During steady state the overall lymphatic return rate of albumin equals the transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] provided local back-transport is negligible, as previously substa......), indicating a net transport of albumin from the peritoneal cavity to the plasma during diuretic treatment. The results suggest an increased lymphatic drainage of albumin during diuretic treatment, which may play a role in amelioration of cirrhotic ascites....

  6. Factors influencing drug uptake during mass drug administration for control of lymphatic filariasis in rural and urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisoka, William J.; Simonsen, Paul Erik; Malecela, Mwelecele N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interrupt......BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission...

  7. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  9. Lymphatic filarial species differentiation using evolutionarily modified tandem repeats: generation of new genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Murugan, Vadivel; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-05-01

    Polymerase chain reaction based methods are promising tools for the monitoring and evaluation of the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. The currently available PCR methods do not differentiate the DNA of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi by a single PCR and hence are cumbersome. Therefore, we designed a single step PCR strategy for differentiating Bancroftian infection from Brugian infection based on a newly identified gene from the W. bancrofti genome, abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2), which is abundantly expressed. The difference in PCR product sizes generated from the presence or absence of evolutionarily altered tandem repeats in alt-2 intron-3 differentiated W. bancrofti from B. malayi. The analysis was performed on the genomic DNA of microfilariae from a number of patient blood samples or microfilariae positive slides from different Indian geographical regions. The assay gave consistent results, differentiating the two filarial parasite species accurately. This alt-2 intron-3 based PCR assay can be a potential tool for the diagnosis and differentiation of co-infections by lymphatic filarial parasites. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  11. A pilot study on the status of lymphatic filariasis in a rural community of Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, V N R; Siddiqui, N A; Kumar, N; Verma, N; Verma, R B; Dinesh, D S; Kar, S K; Das, P

    2006-03-01

    A pilot study of lymphatic filariasis was conducted in two contiguous villages of Patna district in Bihar situated at the side of the river Ganges, known to be endemic for lymphatic filariasis, to study present status of transmission parameters of filariasis. Of the 1872 persons examined, 8.4% were found asymptomatic but microfilaraemic. Morbidity pattern due to filarial infection showed an increase with advancement of age and significantly high in males as compared to female (p < 0.001). Acute and chronic filarial disease was observed as 0.5% and 9% respectively. Microfilaria was found in 10% of acute and 11.2% of chronic filarial cases. The Mf rate was found to be 9.9% in males and 9.0% in females respectively. The parasite species was identified as W. bancrofti. The vector fauna surveyed show highest prevalence of vector species of Cx. quinquefasciatus (43%) in both domestic as well as predomestic area in the community. Other species like Cx. vishnui and Ma. uniformis were also seen. Each household and predomestic area was searched for mosquito fauna at night. The infection rate in vectors was found to be 14% and infectivity rate (L3) was 8%. The filariasis cases detected in the study were treated with 12 days course of DEC 6 mg/kg body weight.

  12. Lymphatic vessel density in vocal cord carcinomas assessed with LYVE-1 receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, Walter J.; Bono, Petri; Leivo, Ilmo; Vaheri, Antti; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Joensuu, Heikki

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Early stage vocal cord carcinomas are usually cured by radiation therapy despite the use of portals that exclude the cervical lymph nodes. We investigated whether the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) of vocal cord carcinomas differs from that of other head and neck carcinomas. Patients and methods: Deparaffinized tissue from tumors of 60 patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were immunostained for LYVE-1, a novel lymphatic vessel marker. Twenty-two had vocal cord carcinoma. Tumor blood vessel density (BVD) was assessed using immunostaining for CD31. Results: Tumor overall LVD, including both intra- and peritumoral lymph vessels, was 10-fold lower than the BVD (5 counts/mm 2 vs. 52 mm -2 , respectively). A high LVD was associated with a high BVD (P=.002), but neither was associated with the tumor size. Both tumor LVD and BVD were lower in vocal cord carcinomas than in HNSCCs arising at other sites (median, 0 vs. 7 mm -2 , P=.016; and median, 36 vs. 52 mm -2 , P=.006, respectively). Only one vocal cord carcinoma was associated with a regional metastasis at the time of the diagnosis. Among the rest of the cases tumor size was a better predictor for the presence of regional metastases than tumor BVD or LVD in a logistic regression model (odds ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5). Conclusion: Vocal cord carcinomas have a low lymph vessel density as compared with HNSCCs arising at other sites

  13. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma with Marked Lymphatic Involvement: A Report of Two Autopsy Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Ideguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report two cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma with marked lymphangiosis. The patients included a 68-year-old man and a 67-year-old man who both had a history of exposure to asbestos. Computed tomography (CT on admission showed pleural effusion with pleural thickening. In both cases, a histopathological examination of the pleura confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma. They received chemotherapy, but the treatment was only palliative. The chest CT assessments during admission revealed marked pleural effusion and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. CT also showed a consolidative mass with bronchovascular bundle and septal thickening in the lungs suggesting pulmonary parenchymal involvement and the lymphangitic spread of the tumor. These CT findings mimicked lung cancer with pleuritis and lymphangitic carcinomatosis. Autopsy was performed in both cases. Macroscopically, the tumor cells infiltrated the lung with the marked lymphatic spread of the tumor. Microscopy also revealed that the tumor had invaded the pulmonary parenchyma with the marked lymphatic spread of the tumor. Although this growth pattern is unusual, malignant pleural mesothelioma should be considered as the differential diagnosis, especially in patients with pleural lesions.

  14. Facial nerve conduction after sclerotherapy in children with facial lymphatic malformations: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Lin, Jan-You; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2007-04-01

    Surgical excision is thought to be the standard treatment of choice for lymphatic malformations. However, when the lesions are limited to the face only, surgical scar and facial nerve injury may impair cosmetics and facial expression. Sclerotherapy, an injection of a sclerosing agent directly through the skin into a lesion, is an alternative method. By evaluating facial nerve conduction, we observed the long-term effect of facial lymphatic malformations after intralesional injection of OK-432 and correlated the findings with anatomic outcomes. One 12-year-old boy with a lesion over the right-side preauricular area adjacent to the main trunk of facial nerve and the other 5-year-old boy with a lesion in the left-sided cheek involving the buccinator muscle were enrolled. The follow-up data of more than one year, including clinical appearance, computed tomography (CT) scan and facial nerve evaluation were collected. The facial nerve conduction study was normal in both cases. Blink reflex in both children revealed normal results as well. Complete resolution was noted on outward appearance and CT scan. The neurophysiologic data were compatible with good anatomic and functional outcomes. Our report suggests that the inflammatory reaction of OK-432 did not interfere with adjacent facial nerve conduction.

  15. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  16. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  17. Lymphatic Filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation and Treatment Care of Patients with Lymphedema, Elephantiasis or Hydrocele Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates ... with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called ...

  18. Lymphatic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Generic and Brand Natural Products, Search Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News Strict Gun Laws Spare Young Lives: Study 'Smart Dresser' Might Help Alzheimer's Patients Clothe Themselves AHA: ...

  19. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP. The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome. Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α -pinene (3.07%), β -pinene (2.0%), β -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ -terpinen (9.53%), α -terpinolene (1.80%), α -terpineol (2.02%), β -bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test. The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α -pinene (3.07%), β -pinene (2.0%), β -myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%),

  20. Development of models for classification of action between heat-clearing herbs and blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs based on theory of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Cao, Yanfeng; He, Shuaibing; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Action (" gongxiao " in Chinese) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the high recapitulation for therapeutic and health-preserving effects under the guidance of TCM theory. TCM-defined herbal properties (" yaoxing " in Chinese) had been used in this research. TCM herbal property (TCM-HP) is the high generalization and summary for actions, both of which come from long-term effective clinical practice in two thousands of years in China. However, the specific relationship between TCM-HP and action of TCM is complex and unclear from a scientific perspective. The research about this is conducive to expound the connotation of TCM-HP theory and is of important significance for the development of the TCM-HP theory. One hundred and thirty-three herbs including 88 heat-clearing herbs (HCHs) and 45 blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs (BAHRHs) were collected from reputable TCM literatures, and their corresponding TCM-HPs/actions information were collected from Chinese pharmacopoeia (2015 edition). The Kennard-Stone (K-S) algorithm was used to split 133 herbs into 100 calibration samples and 33 validation samples. Then, machine learning methods including supported vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and deep learning methods including deep belief network (DBN), convolutional neutral network (CNN) were adopted to develop action classification models based on TCM-HP theory, respectively. In order to ensure robustness, these four classification methods were evaluated by using the method of tenfold cross validation and 20 external validation samples for prediction. As results, 72.7-100% of 33 validation samples including 17 HCHs and 16 BASRHs were correctly predicted by these four types of methods. Both of the DBN and CNN methods gave out the best results and their sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy were all 100.00%. Especially, the predicted results of external validation set showed that the performance of deep learning methods (DBN, CNN) were better

  1. Effects and mechanisms of Shaofu-Zhuyu decoction and its major bioactive component for Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Su, Shulan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Sha, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Kavin Yue; Guo, Jianming; Yu, Li; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-06-20

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medical sciences in clinical application. The Chinese herbal formula, Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD), is considered as an effective prescription for treating Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis (CSBS) primary dysmenorrhea. The previous studies showed the SFZYD exhibited significant anti-inflammation and analgesic effect. In this present study the metabolomics of CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats and the cytokine transcription in PHA stimulated-PBMC were investigated to explore the effects and mechanisms. Explore a valuable insight into the effects and mechanisms of SFZYD on Cold - Stagnation and Blood - Stasis primary dysmenorrhea rats. We established CSBS primary dysmenorrhea diseased rats according the clinical symptoms. A targeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based metabolomic platform was used to evaluate the metabolic profiling changes and the intervention effects by SFZYD. The PBMC cell was adopted to explore the mechanisms by analyzing the signaling pathway evaluated by expression of inflammatory cytokines, c-jun and c-fos and corresponding phosphorylation levels. Estradiol, oxytocin, progesterone, endothelin, β-endorphin and PGF2α were restored back to the normal level after the treatment of SFZYD. Total twenty-five metabolites (10 in plasma and 15 in urine), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified. These identified biomarkers underpinning the metabolic pathway including pentose and glucuronate interconversions, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism are disturbed in model rats. Among these metabolites, twenty one potential biomarkers were regulated after SFZYD treated. The compound of paeoniflorin, a major bioactive compound in SFZYD, was proved to regulate the MAPK signaling pathway by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, INFγ, c-jun and c-fos in PHA stimulated-PBMC. These findings

  2. The use of 113mIn-MAA infusion lung imaging in treatment of C. O. P. D with 'invigorating the circulation of blood and reducing stasis' method for observing therapeutic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinghua; Guo Yiqin; Li Zhuanfu

    1990-01-01

    In this study 100 cases of C. O. P. D were classified according to dialectical method of traditional Chinese Medicine. By infusion lung imaging it was shown that 76 cases were abnormal in blood supply in which the category of 'fei xin qi xu' ('weak in heart and lung breath') got the first place and followed by the category of II order 'fei qi xu' ('weak in lung breath'). It was considered that the change in lung infusion imagings were the evidence of 'fei xu zheng' ('weak-lunged symptom') 'xin xue yu zu' ('stasis of heart blood') and might be used to guide the treatment and to observe the efficiency of 'huo xue hua yu' ('invigorating blood circulation and eliminating stasis') therapy

  3. National Characteristics of Lymphatic Malformations in Children: Inpatient Estimates and Trends in the United States, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey; Liu, Beiyu; Farjat, Alfredo E; Routh, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    With ever increasing demands to manage finite resources for health care utilization, we performed an investigation to identify inpatient clinical characteristics and trends in children with lymphatic malformations using the Kids' Inpatient Database, years 2000 to 2009, to help identify populations best suited for resource deployment. Subjects included children 18 years and below with International Classification of Diseases (ICD), ninth revision code: 228.1-lymphangioma, any site. In the United States, between 2000 and 2009, inpatient pediatric patients with lymphatic malformations most commonly affected children aged 3 years and younger, urban hospital locations, and the South and West regions. There was no significant change in age of children with lymphatic malformations or the distribution of their age from year to year, P=0.948 and 0.4223, respectively. No significant evidence for seasonal variation or effect on inpatient admission was identified, P=0.7071. A great majority of admissions (>96%) were in urban locations across each year. There was also no significant change in breakdown of admissions by geographic location, P=0.7133. Further investigation may help to elucidate how to improve access to multidisciplinary vascular anomalies teams to optimize care for these children with unique and complex lymphatic malformations.

  4. Structured triglyceride vehicles for oral delivery of halofantrine: examination of intestinal lymphatic transport and bioavailability in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Müllertz, Anette; Kristensen, Henning G; Charman, William N

    2002-09-01

    To compare the influence of triglyceride vehicle intramolecular structure on the intestinal lymphatic transport and systemic absorption of halofantrine in conscious rats. Conscious, lymph cannulated and nonlymph cannulated rats were dosed orally with three structurally different triglycerides; sunflower oil, and two structured triglycerides containing different proportion and position of medium-(M) and long-chain (L) fatty acids on the glycerol backbone. The two structured triglycerides were abbreviated MLM and LML to reflect the structural position on the glycerol. The concentration of halofantrine in blood and lymph samples was analyzed by HPLC. Both the lymphatic transport and the total absorption of halofantrine were enhanced by the use the MLM triglyceride. The estimated total absorption of halofantrine in the lymph cannulated animals was higher than in the nonlymph cannulated animals, and this was most pronounced for the animals dosed with the structured triglycerides. Using MLM as vehicle increases the portal absorption of halofantrine and results in similar lymphatic transport levels when compared to sunflower oil. Total absorption when assessed as absorption in the blood plus lymphatic transport for halofantrine after administration in the MLM triglyceride was higher than after administration in sunflower oil.

  5. Community members' perceptions of mass drug administration for control of lymphatic filariasis in rural rural and urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisoka, William J.; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general...

  6. Cerebrofacial venous metameric syndrome (CVMS) 3: Sturge-Weber syndrome with bilateral lymphatic/venous malformations of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Sachet, M.; Bao, C.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present a case of Sturge-Weber syndrome with a bilateral lymphatic/venous malformation of the mandible. Modern biology suggests an explanation for such a case. The classification of cerebrofacial venous metameric syndromes (CVMS) enables us to recognise this lesion as involving the most caudal of the cranial metamere (CVMS 3). (orig.)

  7. Pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical findings and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibi, Daniela; Pipitone, Giulia; Porcasi, Rossana; Ingrao, Sabrina; Benza, Ignazio; Porrello, Calogero; Cajozzo, Massimo; Giannone, Antonino Giulio

    2017-08-15

    Pleural angiosarcoma is a rare tumor that causes diffuse pleural thickening and effusion, mimicking mesothelioma. Immunohistochemistry is needed to highlight endothelial differentiation. We describe the first case of pleural angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation following radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma. A 50-year-old man showed diffuse pleural thickening and effusion. Nine years earlier, he underwent thyroidectomy and radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor consisted of a solid proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells and anastomosed vascular spaces, lacking of red blood cells and containing Alcian blue positive material. The tumor showed positive immunostaining for Vimentin, CD31, CK7, D2-40, c-MYC, Ki67, focal positivity for PanCK, and negative immunostaining for Factor VIII, CD34, WT1, CK5/6, Calretinin, EMA, HBME-1, CEA, p63, EpCAM, Bcl-2, TTF1 and Thyroglobulin. CD99 showed a granular/paranuclear pattern of positivity. The histological and immunohistochemical features were consistent with "pleural angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation, epithelioid variant". Epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation is very rare and aggressive. Moreover, the positivity for c-MYC suggests the relationship with radiometabolic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural c-MYC-positive angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation reported in the literature and the first one arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma.

  8. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of massive macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the face and neck using fibrin glue with OK-432 and bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W-l; Huang, Z-q; Chai, Q; Zhang, D-m; Wang, Y-y; Wang, H-j; Wang, L; Fan, S

    2011-06-01

    Picibanil (OK-432) and bleomycin have been used as alternative sclerosing agents for lymphatic malformations. This study evaluated the clinical curative effect of sclerotherapy using fibrin glue combined with OK-432 and bleomycin for the treatment of macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the face and neck. Fifteen paediatric patients (6 males; 9 females, aged 13 months to 14 years) who had received percutaneous sclerotherapy for massive macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the face and neck were retrospectively reviewed. Affected regions included the neck, parotid region and parapharynx, mouth floor, face and cheek, and orbital regions. All patients showed preoperative symptoms of space-occupying lesions between 4 cm × 5 cm and 12 cm × 16 cm in size. Fibrin glue with OK-432 and bleomycin was injected under general anaesthesia. All patients received preoperative and follow-up CT scans. Outcomes were assessed by three surgeons. All patients exhibited mid-facial swelling for 3-4 weeks after surgery, but no major complications. Follow-up periods ranged from 8 to 16 months. Eight lesions were completely involuted, five were mostly involuted, and two were partially involuted. Percutaneous sclerotherapy using fibrin glue with OK-432 and bleomycin provided a simple, safe, and reliable alternative treatment for massive macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the face and neck. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Debulking surgery for elephantiasis nostras with large ectatic podoplanin-negative lymphatic vessels in patients with lipo-lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Schönlebe, Jaqueline; Nowak, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo-lymphedema. While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery. We present 2 cases of advanced lipo-lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed. The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed. It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo-lymphedema. Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing. Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas.

  10. Three-dimensional computer-assisted dissection of pancreatic lymphatic anatomy on human fetuses: a step toward automatic image alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardol, T; Subsol, G; Perez, M-J; Genevieve, D; Lamouroux, A; Antoine, B; Captier, G; Prudhomme, M; Bertrand, M M

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth cause of death by cancer worldwide. Lymph node (LN) involvement is known to be the main prognostic factor. However, lymphatic anatomy is complex and only partially characterized. The aim of the study was to study the pancreatic lymphatic system using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD) technique and also to update CAAD technique by automatizing slice alignment. We dissected three human fetuses aged from 18 to 34 WA. 5-µm serial sections of duodeno-pancreas and spleen blocks were stained (hematoxylin-eosin, hematoxylin of Mayer and Masson trichrome), scanned, aligned and modeled in three dimensions. We observed a rich, diffuse but not systematized lymphatic network in the peri-pancreatic region. There was an equal distribution of LNs between the cephalic and body-tail portions. The lymphatic vascularization appeared in continuity from the celiac trunk to the distal ends of its hepatic and splenic arterial branches parallel to the nerve ramifications of the celiac plexus. We also observed a continuity between the drainage of the pancreatic head and the para-aortic region posteriorly. In view of the wealth of peri-pancreatic LNs, the number of LNs to harvest could be increased to improve nodal staging and prognostic evaluation. Pancreatic anatomy as described does not seem to be compatible with the sentinel LN procedure in pancreatic surgery. Finally, we are now able to offer an alternative to manual alignment with a semi-automated alignment.

  11. Anatomy of the transverse colon revisited with respect to complete mesocolic excision and possible pathways of aberrant lymphatic tumor spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzner, Sigmar; Hohenberger, Werner; Weber, Klaus; West, Nicholas P; Witzigmann, Helmut; Wedel, Thilo

    2016-02-01

    Although lymph node metastases to pancreatic and gastroepiploic lymph node stations in transverse colon cancer have been described, the mode of lymphatic spread in this area remains unclear. This study was undertaken to describe possible pathways of aberrant lymphatic spread in the complex anatomic area of the proximal superior mesenteric artery and vein, the greater omentum, and the lower pancreatic border. Abdominal specimens obtained from four cadaveric donors were dissected according to the principles of complete mesocolic excision. The vascular architecture of the transverse colon was scrutinized in search of possible pathways of lymphatic spread to the pancreatic and gastroepiploic lymph nodes. Vascular connections between the transverse colon and the greater omentum at the level of both the hepatic and the splenic flexures could be identified. In addition, small vessels running from the transverse mesocolon to the lower pancreatic border in the area between the middle colic artery and the inferior mesenteric vein were demonstrated. Moreover, venous tributaries to the gastrocolic trunk could be exposed to highlight its surgical importance as a guiding structure for complete mesocolic excision. The technical feasibility to clearly separate embryologic compartments by predefined tissue planes in complete mesocolic excision was confirmed. However, the vicinity of all three endodermal intestinal segments (foregut, midgut, and hindgut) obviously gives way to vascular connections that might serve as potential pathways for lymphatic metastatic spread of transverse colon cancer.

  12. Expression and lymphatic microvessel density in primary tumors of node-neagtive colorectal cancer patients predict disease recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, F.S.; Morreau, H.; de Bock, G.H.; Speetjens, F.M.; Dekker-Ensink, N.G.; Putter, H.; vand e Velde, C.J.H.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Kuppen, P.J.K.; Sialyl lewis, X.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 30% of curatively resected colorectal cancer patients with tumor-negative lymph nodes, show disease recurrence. We assessed whether these high-risk patients can be identified by examining primary tumors for the following blood and lymphatic vasculature markers: A) sialyl Lewis X (sLeX),

  13. Study Regarding the Effectiveness of Manual Lymphatic Drainage in the Case of Patients with Breast Cancer that Present Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MIOC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is defined as a persistent increase of tissue volume caused by the blocked or absent lymphatic drainage. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of lymphatic drainage in the treatment of lymphedema after a mastectomy, with the aim of reducing the volume of the lymphedema and improving overall symptomatology, as well as providing information regarding the impact of this treatment on quality-of-life and the physical limitations of these patients. With these objectives in mind, a series of articles evaluating the effectiveness of manual lymphatic drainage in the case of patients with breast cancer and lymphedema have been studied. The parameters under observation were: duration of lymphedema reduction and improved symptomatology (pain, a feeling of swelling of the upper limb, functional limitation, and patient dissatisfaction towards their body image. Following this analysis, one can conclude that the association of manual lymphatic drainage to physical exercise and physiotherapy has produced changes in the volume of the limb affected by the lymphedema; however, its isolated use has not resulted in significant changes.

  14. Lymphatic-targeted therapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a promising strategy for lymph node-positive breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghao; Yao, Qing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Juliang; Wang, Ting; Lv, Yonggang; Han, Zenghui; Wang, Ling

    2015-07-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly used to downstage breast cancer prior to surgery recently. However, in some cases, it was observed that despite sufficient regression of primary tumors, the metastatic lymph nodes remained nonresponsive. In this study, we applied lymphatic-targeted strategy to evaluate its efficacy and safety for patients presenting refractory nodes following systemic chemotherapy. A total of 318 breast cancer patients were demonstrated with lymph node metastasis by needle biopsy and given neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two cycles later, 72 patients were observed with responsive tumors but stable nodes, 42 of which received a subcutaneous injection of lymphatic-targeted pegylated liposomal doxorubicin during the third cycle, while the remaining 30 patients were continued with former neoadjuvant therapeutic pattern and regarded as the control. Lymphatic-targeted treatment substantially increased both clinical and pathological node response rate [62 % (26/42) vs. 13 % (4/30) and 12 % (5/42) vs. 0 (0/30), respectively], and induced a higher apoptosis level of metastatic cells (median, 41 vs. 6 %), compared with the control. Moreover, a higher disease-free survival was observed after a median follow-up of 4 years (69 vs. 56 %). Inflammatory reaction surrounding injection sites was the most common side effect. Lymphatic chemotherapy has reliable efficacy and well-tolerated toxicity for breast cancer patients presenting refractory lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. Mathematical models for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: Challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliannagounder Krishnamoorthy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models developed for describing the dynamics of transmission, infection, disease and control of lymphatic filariasis (LF gained momentum following the 1997 World Health Assembly resolution and the launching of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF in 2000. Model applications could provide valuable inputs for making decisions while implementing large scale programmes. However these models need to be evaluated at different epidemiological settings for optimization and fine-tuning with new knowledge and understanding on infection/disease dynamics. Discussion EPIFIL and LYMFASIM are the two mathematical simulation models currently available for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control. Both models have been used for prediction and evaluation of control programmes under research settings. Their widespread application in evaluating large-scale elimination programmes warrants validation of assumptions governing the dynamics of infection and disease in different epidemiological settings. Furthermore, the predictive power of the models for decision support can be enhanced by generating knowledge on some important issues that pose challenges and incorporating such knowledge into the models. We highlight factors related to the efficacy of the drugs of choice, their mode of action, and the possibility that drug resistance may develop; the role of vector-parasite combinations; the magnitude of transmission thresholds; host-parasite interactions and their effects on the dynamics of infection and immunity; parasite biology, and progression to LF-associated disease. Summary The two mathematical models developed offer potential decision making tools for transmission and control of LF. In view of the goals of the GPELF, the predictive power of these models needs to be enhanced for their wide-spread application in large scale programmes. Assimilation and translation of new information into the models is

  16. Possible role of the cavernous sinus veins in cerebrospinal fluid absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Lena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption pathways. To achieve this, Microfil (a coloured silastic material was infused into the subarachnoid space (cisterna magna of sheep post mortem, and the relevant tissues examined macroscopically and microscopically. The Microfil was taken up by an extensive network of extracranial lymphatic vessels in the olfactory turbinates. In addition however, Microfil also passed consistently through the dura at the base of the brain. Microfil was noted in the spaces surrounding the venous network that comprises the cavernous sinus, in the adventitia of the internal carotid arteries and adjacent to the pituitary gland. Additionally, Microfil was observed within the endoneurial spaces of the trigeminal nerve and in lymphatic vessels emerging from the epineurium of the nerve. These results suggest several unconventional pathways by which CSF may be removed from the subarachnoid space. The movement of CSF to locations external to the cranium via these routes may lead to its absorption into veins and lymphatics outside of the skull. The physiological importance of these pathways requires further investigation.

  17. Validation of ALFIA: a platform for quantifying near-infrared fluorescent images of lymphatic propulsion in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Bautista, Merrick; Tan, I.-Chih; Adams, Kristen E.; Aldrich, Melissa; Marshall, Milton V.; Fife, Caroline E.; Maus, Erik A.; Smith, Latisha A.; Zhang, Jingdan; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-02-01

    Recently, we demonstrated near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging for quantifying real-time lymphatic propulsion in humans following intradermal injections of microdose amounts of indocyanine green. However computational methods for image analysis are underdeveloped, hindering the translation and clinical adaptation of NIR fluorescent lymphatic imaging. In our initial work we used ImageJ and custom MatLab programs to manually identify lymphatic vessels and individual propulsion events using the temporal transit of the fluorescent dye. In addition, we extracted the apparent velocities of contractile propagation and time periods between propulsion events. Extensive time and effort were required to analyze the 6-8 gigabytes of NIR fluorescent images obtained for each subject. To alleviate this bottleneck, we commenced development of ALFIA, an integrated software platform which will permit automated, near real-time analysis of lymphatic function using NIR fluorescent imaging. However, prior to automation, the base algorithms calculating the apparent velocity and period must be validated to verify that they produce results consistent with the proof-of-concept programs. To do this, both methods were used to analyze NIR fluorescent images of two subjects and the number of propulsive events identified, the average apparent velocities, and the average periods for each subject were compared. Paired Student's t-tests indicate that the differences between their average results are not significant. With the base algorithms validated, further development and automation of ALFIA can be realized, significantly reducing the amount of user interaction required, and potentially enabling the near real-time, clinical evaluation of NIR fluorescent lymphatic imaging.

  18. Do no-take reserves benefit Florida's corals? 14 years of change and stasis in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L. T.; van Woesik, R.; Murdoch, T. J. T.; Smith, S. R.; Ogden, J. C.; Precht, W. F.; Aronson, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    With coral populations in decline globally, it is critical that we tease apart the relative impacts of ecological and physical perturbations on reef ecosystems to determine the most appropriate management actions. This study compared the trajectories of benthic assemblages from 1998 to 2011 in three no-take reserves and three sites open to fishing, at 7-9 and 15-18 m depth in the Florida Keys. We evaluated temporal changes in the benthic assemblage to infer whether fisheries bans in no-take reserves could have cascading effects on the benthos in this region. Coral cover declined significantly over time at our sites and that trend was driven almost exclusively by decline of the Orbicella (formerly Montastraea) annularis species complex. Other coral taxa showed remarkable stasis and resistance to a variety of environmental perturbations. Protection status did not influence coral or macroalgal cover. The dynamics of corals and macroalgae in the 15 years since the reserves were established in 1997 suggest that although the reserves protected fish, they were of no perceptible benefit to Florida's corals.

  19. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species' delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica-two taxa currently considered as synonyms-and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  20. Hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers in relatives of patients with infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Askling, Johan

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young adults with a history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis have an increased risk for Hodgkin's lymphoma. EBV is detected in Hodgkin's lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cells from some patients, but in young adult patients, it is detected at a relatively low...... frequency in these cells. Hodgkin's lymphoma and infectious mononucleosis are both associated with high social class, and unknown confounding factors that are also associated with socioeconomic status might explain or contribute to the apparent association between these diseases. To indirectly assess...... the importance of socioeconomic status on the association between these diseases, we determined the risk for hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers in first-degree relatives of patients with confirmed EBV-related infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: We identified parents, siblings, and offspring of 17,045 persons...

  1. Venous anastomosis procedure for treatment of lymphatic malformation in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kato, M.D.

    2017-05-01

    We previously reported that lymphatic venous anastomosis (LVA may be a safe and effective procedure for reducing the size of micro cystic type LM by decreasing the intra cystic lymph [3]. We treated a case of KTS in a 9-year-old boy who had improvement of lower abdominal swelling and penile pain after a single LVA. The method involved is to make a bypass, from the afferent lymph-collecting vessel to subcutaneous veins. However, to apply LVA to LM, it is sometimes problematic to detect the afferent flow in combined vascular malformations, such as KTS. Therefore, we performed VA making a bypass directly from LM, instead. We classify two types of LVA methods for LM: afferent lymph vessel LMVA (A-LMVA, and sidewall LMVA (S-LMVA. S-LMVA has more merits than the previously reported A-LMVA.

  2. SPECIFIC ROLE OF LYMPHATIC MARKER PODOPLANIN IN RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, S.; Garcia, M.; Zhang, H.; Chen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small transmembrane glycoprotein widely known to be a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells. In this study, we identify a novel localization of podoplanin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a cellular monolayer critically involved in the visual process. Using a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing approach, we have also demonstrated, for the first time, that podoplanin depletion in human RPE cells leads to a marked reduction of cell aggregates and tight junctions. Additionally, the podoplanin-depleted cells also exhibit a significantly lower rate of proliferation. These data together indicate that podoplanin plays a crucial role in RPE cell functions. Further investigation on this factor may reveal novel mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for RPE-related eye diseases, such as proliferative retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:21226415

  3. Radiologic appearance of primary anomalies of lung lymphatics. Review and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Jacobi, V.; Stein, A.; Berkefeld, J.; Thalhammer. A.; Kollath, J.

    1997-01-01

    Congenital disorders of the lymphatics of the lung are rare. On the basis of a literature review and our own experiences the disorders are divided into four groups and their radiographic findings are described. Pulmonary lymphangiectasia shows not typical signs. As an expression of the underlying pathophysiologic processes CT shows thickening of interlobular septs, interstitial edema and pleural effusions. Neither architectural distraction nor thickening of intralobular septs was seen. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis shows rather typical findings with multiple thin-walled bullae. In contrast to the opinion that architectural distraction is not seen in LAM we sometimes found signs of fibrosis. Disseminated pulmonary lymphangioma is characterised by proliferation of lymph vessels. CT-findings of this disorder have not been described before. CT shows multiple disseminated nodules of up to 2.5 cm accompanied by multiple bullae of similar distribution and size. (orig.) [de

  4. Data base management system for lymphatic filariasis--a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Nelaturu, Sarat Chandra Babu

    2012-01-01

    Researchers working in the area of Public Health are being confronted with large volumes of data on various aspects of entomology and epidemiology. To obtain the relevant information out of these data requires particular database management system. In this paper, we have described about the usages of our developed database on lymphatic filariasis. This database application is developed using Model View Controller (MVC) architecture, with MySQL as database and a web based interface. We have collected and incorporated the data on filariasis in the database from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The importance of this database is to store the collected data, retrieve the information and produce various combinational reports on filarial aspects which in turn will help the public health officials to understand the burden of disease in a particular locality. This information is likely to have an imperative role on decision making for effective control of filarial disease and integrated vector management operations.

  5. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.

  6. Albumin uptake by renal lymphatics with and without obstruction of the renal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Threefoot, S.A.; Pearson, J.E. Jr.; Georgiardis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments involving injection of radio-iodinated albumin into the left renal arteries or left ureters of dogs indicate that the renal lymphatics are capable of a major contribution in returning to the circulation albumin (or other large molecules) escaping from renal capillaries. I-131-albumin was injected into the jugular vein of controls or into the left renal artery or in retrograde manner into the left ureter of female dogs. Experimental groups included those with no obstruction, occlusion of left renal veins or left renal lymphatics, or both. Collections were made from the right femoral artery, both renal veins, thoracic duct and both ureters at frequent intervals for 2 to 4 hours. Data analysis included I-131 concentration, specific activity, rate of recovery and selected ratios. After renal arterial injection, the percentage of I131 recovered in thoracic duct lymph of dogs without renal venous obstruction was 5 to 10 times that recovered in those that received injections into the jugular vein. In dogs with renal venous obstruction, recovery from the thoracic duct was 10 to 1,000 times that in control dogs. Most of the differences occurred during the first hour, after which time as recirculation and redistribution occurred the rates of appearance in thoracic duct lymph in each group were similar. The differences in the ratios of concentration in thoracic duct lymph to concentration in femoral arterial blood were also much greater when the renal vein was obstructed than in dogs with no obstruction. The greater return of albumin through the thoracic duct in those with impeded renal venous outflow was probably related to both sequestered concentration and increased intrarenal pressure

  7. Using kernel density estimates to investigate lymphatic filariasis in northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Zulma; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Netto, Maria José Evangelista; Vasconcellos, Lucia; Ribeiro, Liany; Portugal, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    After more than 10 years of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) in Brazil, advances have been seen, but the endemic disease persists as a public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of lymphatic filariasis in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil. An epidemiological survey was conducted in the municipality, and positive filariasis cases identified in this survey were georeferenced in point form, using the GPS. A kernel intensity estimator was applied to identify clusters with greater intensity of cases. We examined 23 673 individuals and 323 individuals with microfilaremia were identified, representing a mean prevalence rate of 1.4%. Around 88% of the districts surveyed presented cases of filarial infection, with prevalences of 0–5.6%. The male population was more affected by the infection, with 63.8% of the cases (P<0.005). Positive cases were found in all age groups examined. The kernel intensity estimator identified the areas of greatest intensity and least intensity of filarial infection cases. The case distribution was heterogeneous across the municipality. The kernel estimator identified spatial clusters of cases, thus indicating locations with greater intensity of transmission. The main advantage of this type of analysis lies in its ability to rapidly and easily show areas with the highest concentration of cases, thereby contributing towards planning, monitoring, and surveillance of filariasis elimination actions. Incorporation of geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques constitutes an important tool for use within the GPELF. PMID:22943547

  8. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of pediatric lymphatic malformations: experience and outcomes according to the agent used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Herrero, C; Navarro Cutillas, V

    Analyze statistically the success, number of sessions required and complete duration of treatment of agents used in pediatric percutaneous sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformations, to determine the most suitable. Retrospective study based on outcomes from percutaneous sclerotherapy performed on lymphatic malformations of 56 patients conducted by pediatric interventional radiologist for 14 years. As first approach, the procedure consists of ultrasound-guided introduction of sclerosing agent. Sessions were repeated until clinical resolution. Success, number of sessions and the duration of treatment were recorded and statistical treatment of the data was performed to obtain further conclusions. Lost patients in follow up and other minority agents used were excluded from the data. Eventually, 52 patients treated with OK432 (n=29), Ethibloc (n=5) and combination therapy (n=18) were included. The average number of sessions and duration in months of treatment was respectively 2.38 and 8.6 for OK432, 1.4 and 5.6 for Ethibloc, and 1.83 and 2.30 for dual therapy. The results were statistically significant for the difference in duration between OK432 and dual therapy. Also, 60-80% of patients reached proper results related to success, but the difference was no significant among the agents. Other demographic and anatomical variables were analyzed, not showing any difference, which supports the homogeneity of the sample. Despite of no significant difference in success and number of sessions among agents, longer duration of treatment with OK432 than dual therapy could mean greater health costs and probably greater disturb for patient and family. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Sampling versus systematic full lymphatic dissection in surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaxouzidis, Georgios; Karagkiouzis, Grigorios; Konstantinou, Marios; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2013-04-22

    The extent of mediastinal lymph node assessment during surgery for non-small cell cancer remains controversial. Different techniques are used, ranging from simple visual inspection of the unopened mediastinum to an extended bilateral lymph node dissection. Furthermore, different terms are used to define these techniques. Sampling is the removal of one or more lymph nodes under the guidance of pre-operative findings. Systematic (full) nodal dissection is the removal of all mediastinal tissue containing the lymph nodes systematically within anatomical landmarks. A Medline search was conducted to identify articles in the English language that addressed the role of mediastinal lymph node resection in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Opinions as to the reasons for favoring full lymphatic dissection include complete resection, improved nodal staging and better local control due to resection of undetected micrometastasis. Arguments against routine full lymphatic dissection are increased morbidity, increase in operative time, and lack of evidence of improved survival. For complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer, many authors recommend a systematic nodal dissection as the standard approach during surgery, and suggest that this provides both adequate nodal staging and guarantees complete resection. Whether extending the lymph node dissection influences survival or recurrence rate is still not known. There are valid arguments in favor in terms not only of an improved local control but also of an improved long-term survival. However, the impact of lymph node dissection on long-term survival should be further assessed by large-scale multicenter randomized trials.

  10. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  11. Radionuclide studies of the lymphatic systems and their particular role in the assessment of the lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakkou, E.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic radionuclide studies of the lymphatic system are used to measure the length of time required for the tracer to transit the upper and lower extremities as well as to determine, for any given point of time, the transportation and storage capacities of lymph vessels and nodes, respectively. Secondary lymphoedemas of more substantial proportions can reliably be diagnosed and classified on the basis of degrees of severity. The presence of those lymphoedemas is typically indicated by dermal back flow at circulatory bottlenecks, delays or marked delays (by more than 15 min) in transit and durations of transit beyond the measurable range. Further characteristic signs are passive dilatation of the prefacial bundle of lymph vessels (which is likely to be a first degree dilatation, if seen in late scintigrams and a second or third degree dilatation in cases escaping scintigraphic detection) and wide-spread inhibitions of activity over the entire extremity examined. Combined oedematous changes of lymph vessels and veins can only be predicted from lymph circulation disorders. This method permits an immediate diagnosis of any conditions precluding the use of endolymphatic therapy in malignant melanomas, thus sparing the patient the discomforts of treatment and helping to avoid unnecessary expenditure. Dynamic scintigraphy offers advantages over lymphography in that it has a greater discriminating power in diagnostic evaluations of active or passive dilatation of the bundle of lymph vessels, dermal back flow as well as the functional performance of damaged lymph vessels and also in that it permits a more precise visualisation of the superfacial and deep vessels of the lymphatic systems. (TRV) [de

  12. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node detection in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.L.; Du, Q.Q.; Shi, H.C.; Chen, J.X.; Wang, H.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To localize sentinel lymph node (SLN) and to test the hypothesis that the histologic characteristics of the SLN can predict the histologic characteristic of the remaining lymph nodes along the lymphatic chain. To calculate the absorbed dose of patients, doctors and nurses. Methods: Seventy-one patients with early-stage breast cancer underwent SLN localization using filtered technetium-99m labeled sulfur colloid, blue dye, or combination of them. SLN was identified as a blue lymph node and/or a 'hot lymph node' detected by ex vivo gamma probe. A 'hot lymph node' is the lymph node the radioactivity of which was 10 times higher than that of background. Pathological examination was performed with all resected lymph nodes. The approximate absorbed dose of the patients, doctors and nurses was calculated by using MIRD techniques. Results: For patients who were injected with only blue dye, the sensitivity, accuracy and false negative rate was 80.0%, 90.7% and 20.0% respectively. For patients who were injected with only radioactive colloids, the sensitivity, accuracy and false negative rate was 100%, 100% and 0% respectively. For patients who were injected with both blue dye and radioactive colloids, the sensitivity, accuracy and false negative rate was 100%, 100% and 100% respectively. The absorbed dose of breast tissue was 26.52 rad. The absorbed dose of nuclear medicine doctors, surgeons, nurses and pathologists was 1.9x10 -2 rad, 9.6x10 -3 rad, 3.8x10 -4 rad and 9.6x10 -3 rad respectively. Conclusions: Lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy were the most effective when a combination of blue dye and radio-labeled sulfur colloid was used. Radio-labeled sulfur colloid was safe to patients and the medical staff. SLN biopsy had the potential value for avoiding unnecessary axillary lymph nodes resection for patients with early-stage breast cancer

  13. Lymphatic absorption of hypolipidemic compound, 1-O-[p-(myristyloxy)-alpha-methylcinnamoyl] glycerol (LK-903).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, J; Furuuchi, S

    1988-02-01

    The intestinal absorption process of 1-O-[p-(myristyloxy)-alpha-methylcinnamoyl] glycerol (LK-903), a new hypolipidemic compound, was studied in rats. When 3H-LK-903 or 3H-LKA [3H-p- (myristyloxy)-alpha-methyl cinnamic acid], labeled at the cinnamic acid moiety, or 14C-LK-903, labeled at the glycerol moiety, were administered orally to thoracic duct-cannulated rats at a dose of 0.233 mmol/kg, 31.1, 6.7 and 18.1% of the dose, respectively, appeared in the lymph within 24 h. In this case, radioactive compounds in the lymph lipids consisted of LKA (radioactivity was not detected in the fraction of LKA with 14C-LK-903), LK-903, diglyceride analogues and triglyceride analogues. The percentages of the triglyceride analogues were the highest, followed by the diglyceride analogues. On the other hand, when doubly labeled LK-903 (3H/14C = 1, corrected ratio) was administered orally, the values of 3H/14C for the monoglyceride, diglyceride and triglyceride analogues in the lymph were 1.2-1.5, 1.7-1.9 and 1.9-2.7, respectively. The lymphatic absorption of LK-903 was stimulated by the presence of lecithin but inhibited by a high dose of triolein. The results indicated that (1) LK-903 formed micelles in the intestine, (2) a large part of LK-903 was absorbed as such, (3) a part of LK-903 was hydrolyzed in the intestinal mucosa, and (4) a part of LKA formed by hydrolysis was again utilized to synthesize the higher glycerides and absorbed via the lymphatic absorption route for lipids.

  14. Morbidity management and disability prevention for lymphatic filariasis in Sri Lanka: Current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Nilmini; Premaratna, Ranjan; Gunaratna, Indeewarie E; de Silva, Nilanthi R

    2018-05-01

    Sri Lanka was acknowledged to have eliminated lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem in 2016, largely due to its success in Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to interrupt disease transmission. Analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the national Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention (MMDP) program, the other pillar of the LF control program, was carried out with the objective of evaluating it and providing recommendations to optimize the use of available resources. A situation analysis of the MMDP activities provided by the state health sector was carried out using published records, in-depth interviews with key informants of the Anti Filariasis Campaign, site-visits to filariasis clinics with informal discussions with clinic workforce and personal communications to identify strengths and weaknesses; and opportunities to overcome weaknesses and perceived threats to the program were explored. The principal strength of the MMDP program was the filariasis clinics operational in most endemic districts of Sri Lanka, providing free health care and health education to clinic attendees. The weaknesses identified were the low accessibility of clinics, incomplete coverage of the endemic region and lack of facilities for rehabilitation. The perceived threats were diversion of staff and resources for control of other vector-borne infections, under-utilization of clinics and non-compliance with recommended treatment. Enhanced high level commitment for MMDP, wider publicity and referral systems, integration of MMDP with other disease management services and collaboration with welfare organizations and research groups were identified as opportunities to overcome weaknesses and challenges. The recommended basic package of MMDP was functional in most of the LF-endemic region. The highlighted weaknesses and challenges, unless addressed, may threaten program sustainability. The identified opportunities for improvement of the

  15. Lymphatic fiariasis: Surveillance action among immigrants from endemic areas, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineide Valentin Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the positivity of Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti in immigrants who entered the country through Rio Branco, reducing the risk of introduction of parasites into new areas and endemic areas of the past. Methods: It was realized a descriptive study. The AD12-ICT card test was applied on all immigrants living temporarily in the Chacara Alliance shelter, located in the metropolitan area of Rio Branco-AC, Brazil. For the positive patients, 10 mL of venous blood was collected between 11:00 pm and 1:00 am. About 4 mL of venous blood was collected to detect the presence of microfilariae in circulation in the tube using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and 6 mL of venous blood was collected to obtain blood serum for the Og4C3-ELISA, antibody Bm-14 and DNA-W. bancrofti tests. Results: The present study evaluated 415 individuals in September 2014 by circulating filarial antigen for W. bancrofti using the AD12-ICT card test. A total of 15/415 (3.61% positive cases were found, all from Haiti. Night blood collection and serum were performed on 1/14 for confirmation the infection of W. bancrofti, which presented 34 microfilariae/mL, antigen, antibodies and PCR positives. Conclusions: This surveillance action reveals, in a pioneering and unequivocal manner, that Brazil is an influx of immigrants carrying lymphatic filariasis and there is an urgent need to step up surveillance at the main entry point for immigrants. Active surveillance may prevent the reintroduction of lymphatic filariasis in areas under control, or prevent its introduction into other states of Brazil.

  16. Assessment of the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.lohrmann@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Foeldi, Etelka, E-mail: foeldi@foeldiklinik.de [Foeldi Clinic for Lymphology, Hinterzarten, Roesslehofweg 2-6, D-79856 Hinterzarten (Germany); Langer, Mathias, E-mail: mathias.langer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, D-79106 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To assess the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: 15 patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging. Three locations were examined: first, the lower leg and foot region; second, the upper leg and the knee region; and third, the pelvic with retroperitoneal and abdominal region. For magnetic resonance lymphangiography a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo and a T2-weighted 3D-TSE sequence was used. Results: The size of the genital lymphangiomas, which were revealed in all patients, varied between 5 and 83 mm. In 47% of the patients lymphangiomas were detected at the level of the lower legs, and in 87% of the patients at the level of the upper leg and retroperitoneum. Furthermore, lymphangiomas were seen in the inguinal and pelvic region in 100% and intraabdominally in 40% of the patients. The lymphangiomas extended into the abdominal wall in 93% of the examined patients. A chylous pleural effusion was revealed in 20% and a chylous ascites in 13% of patients. 93% of patients suffered due to the diffuse lymphangiomatous pathologies from a lymphedema of the lower extremities, while a generalized lymphedema of the trunk was found in 87% of the patients. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging is a safe and accurate minimal-invasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis. Since the localization and extension of the lymphangiomas are important prognostic factors, it is crucial to perform a safe radiologic evaluation with a high resolution for the patient's therapeutic planning.

  17. Real-time MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of low-flow head and neck lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population - a stepwise approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partovi, Sasan; Vidal, Lorenna; Lu, Ziang; Nakamoto, Dean A.; Buethe, Ji; Clampitt, Mark; Coffey, Michael; Patel, Indravadan J. [University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Real-time MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy is a novel and evolving treatment for congenital lymphatic malformations in the head and neck. We elaborate on the specific steps necessary to perform an MRI-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy of lymphatic malformations including pre-procedure patient work-up and preparation, stepwise intraprocedural interventional techniques and post-procedure management. Based on our institutional experience, MRI-guided sclerotherapy with a doxycycline-gadolinium-based mixture as a sclerosant for lymphatic malformations of the head and neck region in children is well tolerated and effective. (orig.)

  18. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  19. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  20. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  1. Prediction of occult lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx using peritumoral Prospero homeobox protein 1 lymphatic nuclear quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermod, Maxime; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Petrova, Tatiana V; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Simon, Christian; Tolstonog, Genrich; Monnier, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The use of lymphatic vessel density as a predictor of occult lymph node metastasis (OLNM) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has never been reported. Staining of the specific lymphatic endothelial cells nuclear marker, PROX1, as an indicator of lymphatic vessel density was determined by counting the number of positive cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx with clinically negative necks. Correlation with histopathological data was established. Peritumoral PROX1 lymphatic nuclear count significantly correlated with the detection of OLNM in multivariate analysis (p oral cavity and the oropharynx allows accurate prediction of occult lymph node metastasis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1407-1415, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Conjugation of 10 kDa Linear PEG onto Trastuzumab Fab' Is Sufficient to Significantly Enhance Lymphatic Exposure while Preserving in Vitro Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Linda J; Ascher, David B; Yadav, Rajbharan; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Williams, Charlotte C; Porter, Christopher J H; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-04-04

    The lymphatic system is a major conduit by which many diseases spread and proliferate. There is therefore increasing interest in promoting better lymphatic drug targeting. Further, antibody fragments such as Fabs have several advantages over full length monoclonal antibodies but are subject to rapid plasma clearance, which can limit the lymphatic exposure and activity of Fabs against lymph-resident diseases. This study therefore explored ideal PEGylation strategies to maximize biological activity and lymphatic exposure using trastuzumab Fab' as a model. Specifically, the Fab' was conjugated with single linear 10 or 40 kDa PEG chains at the hinge region. PEGylation led to a 3-4-fold reduction in binding affinity to HER2, but antiproliferative activity against HER2-expressing BT474 cells was preserved. Lymphatic pharmacokinetics were then examined in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing at 2 mg/kg, and the data were evaluated via population pharmacokinetic modeling. The Fab' displayed limited lymphatic exposure, but conjugation of 10 kDa PEG improved exposure by approximately 11- and 5-fold after intravenous (15% dose collected in thoracic lymph over 30 h) and subcutaneous (9%) administration, respectively. Increasing the molecular weight of the PEG to 40 kDa, however, had no significant impact on lymphatic exposure after intravenous (14%) administration and only doubled lymphatic exposure after subcutaneous administration (18%) when compared to 10 kDa PEG-Fab'. The data therefore suggests that minimal PEGylation has the potential to enhance the exposure and activity of Fab's against lymph-resident diseases, while no significant benefit is achieved with very large PEGs.

  3. Foot skin depots of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose do not enable PET/CT lymphography of the lower extremity lymphatic system in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Lonsdale, Markus

    2013-01-01

    consecutive PET scans of the same region.Blood activity increased faster and to a greater extent in the great saphenous veins compared to the medial cubital vein. PET/CT images showed activity in the superficial and deep veins of the lower extremities. No lymphatic collectors or nodes were visualized....... CONCLUSION: Neither subcutaneous nor intradermal injection of 18F-FDG allows imaging of the lower extremity lymphatic system in man....

  4. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  5. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  6. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  7. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  8. Incongruence between morphotypes and genetically delimited species in the coral genus Stylophora: phenotypic plasticity, morphological convergence, morphological stasis or interspecific hybridization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flot Jean-François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphological data suggest that, unlike most other groups of marine organisms, scleractinian corals of the genus Stylophora are more diverse in the western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea than in the central Indo-Pacific. However, the morphology of corals is often a poor predictor of their actual biodiversity: hence, we conducted a genetic survey of Stylophora corals collected in Madagascar, Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia in an attempt to find out the true number of species in these various locations. Results A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial ORF and putative control region concurs with a haploweb analysis of nuclear ITS2 sequences in delimiting three species among our dataset: species A and B are found in Madagascar whereas species C occurs in Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia. Comparison of ITS1 sequences from these three species with data available online suggests that species C is also found on the Great Barrier Reef, in Malaysia, in the South China Sea and in Taiwan, and that a distinct species D occurs in the Red Sea. Shallow-water morphs of species A correspond to the morphological description of Stylophora madagascarensis, species B presents the morphology of Stylophora mordax, whereas species C comprises various morphotypes including Stylophora pistillata and Stylophora mordax. Conclusions Genetic analysis of the coral genus Stylophora reveals species boundaries that are not congruent with morphological traits. Of the four hypotheses that may explain such discrepancy (phenotypic plasticity, morphological stasis, morphological convergence, and interspecific hybridization, the first two appear likely to play a role but the fourth one is rejected since mitochondrial and nuclear markers yield congruent species delimitations. The position of the root in our molecular phylogenies suggests that the center of origin of Stylophora is located in the western Indian Ocean, which probably

  9. Structured triglyceride vehicles for oral delivery of halofantrine: examination of intestinal lymphatic transport and bioavailability in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Müllertz, Anette

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the influence of triglyceride vehicle intramolecular structure on the intestinal lymphatic transport and systemic absorption of halofantrine in conscious rats. METHODS: Conscious, lymph cannulated and nonlymph cannulated rats were dosed orally with three structurally different...... triglycerides; sunflower oil, and two structured triglycerides containing different proportion and position of medium-(M) and long-chain (L) fatty acids on the glycerol backbone. The two structured triglycerides were abbreviated MLM and LML to reflect the structural position on the glycerol. The concentration...... animals, and this was most pronounced for the animals dosed with the structured triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Using MLM as vehicle increases the portal absorption of halofantrine and results in similar lymphatic transport levels when compared to sunflower oil. Total absorption when assessed as absorption...

  10. DEGRO practical guidelines: radiotherapy of breast cancer III - radiotherapy of the lymphatic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L. [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sedlmayer, F.; Fussl, C. [LKH Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Budach, W. [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Dunst, J. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany); Feyer, P. [Klinikum Neukoelln, Berlin (Germany); Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Harms, W. [St. Clara Hospital, Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Piroth, M.D. [Helios-Klinikum Wuppertal, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Wuppertal (Germany); Souchon, R. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Wenz, F. [University Hospital Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Haase, W.

    2014-04-15

    The purpose of this work is to update the practical guidelines for adjuvant radiotherapy of the regional lymphatics of breast cancer published in 2008 by the breast cancer expert panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). A comprehensive survey of the literature concerning regional nodal irradiation (RNI) was performed using the following search terms: ''breast cancer'', ''radiotherapy'', ''regional node irradiation''. Recent randomized trials were analyzed for outcome as well as for differences in target definition. Field arrangements in the different studies were reproduced and superimposed on CT slices with individually contoured node areas. Moreover, data from recently published meta-analyses and guidelines of international breast cancer societies, yielding new aspects compared to 2008, provided the basis for defining recommendations according to the criteria of evidence-based medicine. In addition to the more general statements of the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines updated in 2012, this paper addresses indications, targeting, and techniques of radiotherapy of the lymphatic pathways after surgery for breast cancer. International guidelines reveal substantial differences regarding indications for RNI. Patients with 1-3 positive nodes seem to profit from RNI compared to whole breast (WBI) or chest wall irradiation alone, both with regard to locoregional control and disease-free survival. Irradiation of the regional lymphatics including axillary, supraclavicular, and internal mammary nodes provided a small but significant survival benefit in recent randomized trials and one meta-analysis. Lymph node irradiation yields comparable tumor control in comparison to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), while reducing the rate of lymph edema. Data concerning the impact of 1-2 macroscopically affected sentinel node (SN) or microscopic metastases on prognosis are conflicting. Recent data

  11. Microemulsions containing long-chain oil ethyl oleate improve the oral bioavailability of piroxicam by increasing drug solubility and lymphatic transportation simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiao; Song, Jia; You, Xiuhua; Xu, Dongling; Wang, Kexin; Song, Jiaqi; Guo, Qin; Li, Pengyu; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-09-25

    Drug solubility and lymphatic transport enhancements are two main pathways to improve drug oral bioavailability for microemulsions. However, it is not easy to have both achieved simultaneously because excipients used for improving lymphatic transport were usually insufficient in forming microemulsions and solubilizing drugs. Our research is to explore whether ethyl oleate, an oil effective in developing microemulsions with desired solubilizing capability, could increase bioavailability to a higher extent by enhancing lymphatic transport. As a long-chain oil, ethyl oleate won larger microemulsion area than short-chain tributyrin and medium-chain GTCC. In contrast, long-chain soybean oil failed to prepare microemulsions. The solubility of piroxicam in ethyl oleate microemulsions (ME-C) increased by about 30 times than in water. ME-C also won significantly higher AUC0-t compared with tributyrin microemulsions (ME-A) and GTCC microemulsions (ME-B). Oral bioavailability in ME-C decreased by 38% after lymphatic transport was blocked by cycloheximide, severer than those in ME-A and ME-B (8% and 34%). These results suggest that improving lymphatic transport and solubility simultaneously might be a novel strategy to increase drug oral bioavailability to a higher extent than increasing solubility only. Ethyl oleate is a preferred oil candidate due to its integrated advantages of high solubilizing capability, large microemulsion area and effective lymphatic transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of optical coherence tomography for in vivo monitoring of the meningeal lymphatic vessels during opening of blood-brain barrier: mechanisms of brain clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Dubrovsky, Alexander; Bragin, Denis; Bragina, Olga; Shushunova, Nataliya; Maslyakova, Galina; Navolokin, Nikita; Bucharskaya, Alla; Tuchin, Valery; Kurths, Juergen; Shirokov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    The meningeal lymphatic vessels were discovered 2 years ago as the drainage system involved in the mechanisms underlying the clearance of waste products from the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a gatekeeper that strongly controls the movement of different molecules from the blood into the brain. We know the scenarios during the opening of the BBB, but there is extremely limited information on how the brain clears the substances that cross the BBB. Here, using the model of sound-induced opening of the BBB, we clearly show how the brain clears dextran after it crosses the BBB via the meningeal lymphatic vessels. We first demonstrate successful application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of the lymphatic vessels in the meninges after opening of the BBB, which might be a new useful strategy for noninvasive analysis of lymphatic drainage in daily clinical practice. Also, we give information about the depth and size of the meningeal lymphatic vessels in mice. These new fundamental data with the applied focus on the OCT shed light on the mechanisms of brain clearance and the role of lymphatic drainage in these processes that could serve as an informative platform for a development of therapy and diagnostics of diseases associated with injuries of the BBB such as stroke, brain trauma, glioma, depression, or Alzheimer disease.

  13. Systematic review of efficacy for manual lymphatic drainage techniques in sports medicine and rehabilitation: an evidence-based practice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Giampietro L; Miller, Sayers John; McBrier, Nicole M; Buckley, William E

    2009-01-01

    Manual therapists question integrating manual lymphatic drainage techniques (MLDTs) into conventional treatments for athletic injuries due to the scarcity of literature concerning musculoskeletal applications and established orthopaedic clinical practice guidelines. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide manual therapy clinicians with pertinent information regarding progression of MLDTs as well as to critique the evidence for efficacy of this method in sports medicine. We surveyed English-language publications from 1998 to 2008 by searching PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus databases using the terms lymphatic system, lymph drainage, lymphatic therapy, manual lymph drainage, and lymphatic pump techniques. We selected articles investigating the effects of MLDTs on orthopaedic and athletic injury outcomes. Nine articles met inclusion criteria, of which 3 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We evaluated the 3 RCTs using a validity score (PEDro scale). Due to differences in experimental design, data could not be collapsed for meta-analysis. Animal model experiments reinforce theoretical principles for application of MLDTs. When combined with concomitant musculoskeletal therapy, pilot and case studies demonstrate MLDT effectiveness. The best evidence suggests that efficacy of MLDT in sports medicine and rehabilitation is specific to resolution of enzyme serum levels associated with acute skeletal muscle cell damage as well as reduction of edema following acute ankle joint sprain and radial wrist fracture. Currently, there is limited high-ranking evidence available. Well-designed RCTs assessing outcome variables following implementation of MLDTs in treating athletic injuries may provide conclusive evidence for establishing applicable clinical practice guidelines in sports medicine and rehabilitation.

  14. A comparison of the observed and the expected cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1976-12-01

    Data are given about the cases of cancers of the haematopoietic and lymphatic systems among workers at Windscale Works, BNFL during the period 1950 to 1974. The number of cancers of these types expected to occur in the working population at Windscale has been estimated for the same period. For none of these types is the observed number of cancers significantly different at the 95% confidence level from that expected. (author)

  15. Data reporting constraints for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration activities in two districts in Ghana: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Baaba da-Costa Vroom

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Timely and accurate health data are important for objective decision making and policy formulation. However, little evidence exists to explain why poor quality routine health data persist. This study examined the constraints to data reporting for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration programme in two districts in Ghana. This qualitative study focused on timeliness and accuracy of mass drug administration reports submitted by community health volunteers. Methods: The study is nested within a larger study focusing on the feasibility of mobile phone technology for the lymphatic filariasis programme. Using an exploratory study design, data were obtained through in-depth interviews (n = 7 with programme supervisors and focus group discussions (n = 4 with community health volunteers. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Reasons for delays in reporting were attributed to poor numeracy skills among community health volunteers, difficult physical access to communities, high supervisor workload, poor adherence reporting deadlines, difficulty in reaching communities within allocated time and untimely release of programme funds. Poor accuracy of data was mainly attributed to inadequate motivation for community health volunteers and difficulty calculating summaries. Conclusion: This study has shown that there are relevant issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the quality of lymphatic filariasis treatment coverage reports. Some of the factors identified are problems within the health system; others are specific to the community health volunteers and the lymphatic filariasis programme. Steps such as training on data reporting should be intensified for community health volunteers, allowances for community health volunteers should be re-evaluated and other non-monetary incentives should be provided for community health volunteers.

  16. Socio-cultural aspects of lymphatic filariasis and the role of communities in its control in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Gyapong, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is one of the worlds most debilitating and disfiguring tropical diseases. The World Health Organization estimates that there are about one billion people at risk in about 80 countries worldwide. It is the world’s second leading cause of permanent long-term disability and its prevalence continues to increase. The World Bank development report indicates that the global burden for the disease was estimated at 850,000 DALY’s lost which represents only 0.23...

  17. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, C.; Lindsay, S.W.; Chitnis, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between th...

  18. Oral bioavailability assessment and intestinal lymphatic transport of Org 45697 and Org 46035, two highly lipophilic novel immunomodulator analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliph, Suzanne M; Faassen, W A Fried; Vogel, Gerard M; Porter, Christopher J H

    2009-08-01

    Org 45697 (MW 600.7, clogP 7.92, soybean oil solubility 50 mg/g) and Org 46035 (MW 601.6, clog P 8.46, soybean oil solubility 40 mg/g) are two poorly water soluble ( 5 fold) after oral administration in a long chain triglyceride lipid (olive oil) formulation. Subsequent studies have explored the potential for solubilising formulations, including lipid-based formulations, to enhance the oral bioavailability of Org 45697 and Org 46035 and secondly to explore the potential contribution of intestinal lymphatic transport to intestinal absorption. The experimental data show that solubilising formulations may provide for significant increases in oral bioavailability for Org 45697 and Org 46035 and that after co-administration with lipid, 35-50% of the absorbed dose may be transported to the systemic circulation via the intestinal lymph. Interestingly, the lymphatic transport of the less lipid soluble analogue, Org 46035 was approximately 40% lower than that of Org 45697 suggesting that relatively subtle differences in lipid solubility can have significant impact on the extent of lymphatic transport.

  19. Efficacy of complete decongestive therapy and manual lymphatic drainage on treatment-related lymphedema in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Rashmi; Dufan, Tarek; Russell, Catherine; Guenther, Wanda; Nugent, Zoan; Sun Xuyan; Cooke, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of combined decongestive therapy and manual lymphatic drainage in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Methods and Materials: The data from 250 patients were reviewed. The pre- and posttreatment volumetric measurements were compared, and the correlation with age, body mass index, and type of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy was determined. The Spearman correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon two-sample test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 250 patients, 138 were included in the final analysis. The mean age at presentation was 54.3 years. Patients were stratified on the basis of the treatment modality used for breast cancer management. Lymphedema was managed with combined decongestive therapy in 55%, manual lymphatic drainage alone in 32%, and the home program in 13%. The mean pretreatment volume of the affected and normal arms was 2929 and 2531 mL. At the end of 1 year, the posttreatment volume of the affected arm was 2741 mL. The absolute volume of the affected arm was reduced by a mean of 188 mL (p < 0.0001). The type of surgery (p = 0.0142), age (p = 0.0354), and body mass index (p < 0.0001) were related to the severity of lymphedema. Conclusion: Combined decongestive therapy and manual lymphatic drainage with exercises were associated with a significant reduction in the lymphedema volume

  20. Heterogeneity of Mesenchymal Markers Expression—Molecular Profiles of Cancer Cells Disseminated by Lymphatic and Hematogenous Routes in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Książkiewicz, Magdalena; Seroczyńska, Barbara; Skokowski, Jarosław; Szade, Jolanta; Wełnicka-Jaśkiewicz, Marzena; Zaczek, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancers can metastasize via hematogenous and lymphatic routes, however in some patients only one type of metastases are detected, suggesting a certain proclivity in metastatic patterns. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer dissemination it would be worthwhile to find if a specific profile of EMT gene expression exists that is related to either lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination. Our study aimed at evaluating gene expression profile of EMT-related markers in primary tumors (PT) and correlated them with the pattern of metastatic spread. From 99 early breast cancer patients peripheral blood samples (N = 99), matched PT (N = 47) and lymph node metastases (LNM; N = 22) were collected. Expression of TWIST1, SNAI1, SNAI2 and VIM was analyzed in those samples. Additionally expression of CK19, MGB1 and HER2 was measured in CTCs-enriched blood fractions (CTCs-EBF). Results were correlated with each other and with clinico-pathological data of the patients. Results show that the mesenchymal phenotype of CTCs-EBF correlated with poor clinico-pathological characteristics of the patients. Additionally, PT shared more similarities with LNM than with CTCs-EBF. Nevertheless, LNM showed increased expression of EMT-related markers than PT; and EMT itself in PT did not seem to be necessary for lymphatic dissemination

  1. Oral cancer cells with different potential of lymphatic metastasis displayed distinct biologic behaviors and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhang; Jian, Pan; Longjiang, Li; Bo, Han; Wenlin, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes in the early stage. Better understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread of oral cancer cells is important for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. We established the cell line LNMTca8113 by repeated injections in foot pads of nude mice, which had a much higher lymphatic metastasis rate than its parental cell line Tca8113. Then, we compared the biologic behaviors of cancer cells between them. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them were also compared, and a panel of differential genes was validated using real-time-PCR. In contrast to Tca8113 cells, LNMTca8113 cells were more proliferative and resistant to apoptosis in the absence of serum, and had enhanced ability of inducing capillary-like structures. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them identified 1341 genes involved in cell cycle, cell adhesion, lymphangiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, and so on. Some genes dedicating to the metastatic potential, including JAM2, TNC, CTSC, LAMB1, VEGFC, HAPLN1, ACPP, GDF9 and FGF11, were upregulated in LNMTca8113 cells. These results suggested that LNMTca8113 and Tca8113 cells were proper models for lymphatic metastasis study because there were differences in biologic behaviors and metastasis-related genes between them. Additionally, the differentially expressed gene profiles in cancer progression may be helpful in exploring therapeutic targets and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OSCC.

  2. ADAMTS1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis by attenuating phosphorylation of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific VEGF receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Junko; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Hiroko; Asano, Keiichi; Faruk Hatipoglu, Omer; Zeynel Cilek, Mehmet; Obika, Masanari; Ohtsuki, Takashi [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Hofmann, Matthias [Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Kusachi, Shozo [Department of Medical Technology, Okayama University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Ninomiya, Yoshifumi [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Hirohata, Satoshi, E-mail: hirohas@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); International Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play roles in malignant tumor progression, dissemination, and metastasis. ADAMTS1, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is known to inhibit angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS1 was shown to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. We investigated whether ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in the present study. We examined cell proliferation and cell migration in normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) transduced with or without adenoviral human ADAMTS1 gene therapy. We then examined the VEGFC/VEGFR3 signal transduction pathway in ADAMTS1-transduced HMVEC-dLy. Cell proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel were significantly lower with transduced ADAMTS1 than with control (non-transduced HMVEC-dLy). The phosphorylation of VEGFR3 was also attenuated by ADAMTS1 gene therapy in HMVEC-dLy. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ADAMTS1 formed a complex with VEGFC. Our results demonstrated that ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro. The data highlight the new function of ADAMTS1 in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and the therapeutic potential of ADAMTS1 in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • ADAMTS1 significantly inhibited tube formation and cell proliferation in HMVEC-dLy. • Reduced lymph endothelial cell migration in ADAMTS1 transduced co-culture systems. • VEGFC-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR3 is attenuated by ADAMTS1. • Reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in ADAMTS1 treated HMVEC-dLy. • ADAMTS1 binds directly to VEGFC.

  3. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Teng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  4. Lymphatic absorption of structured triglycerides vs. physical mix in a rat model of fat malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, P; Lee, T; Demichele, S J

    1999-08-01

    Comparison was made between the intestinal absorption and lymphatic transport of a randomly interesterified fish oil and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) structured triglycerides (STG) vs. the physical mix in rat small intestine following ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Under halothane anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was occluded for 20 min and then reperfused in I/R rats. The SMA was isolated but not occluded in control rats. In both treatment groups, the mesenteric lymph duct was cannulated and a gastric tube was inserted. Each treatment group received 1 ml of the fish oil-MCT STG or physical mix (7 rats/group) through the gastric tube followed by an infusion of PBS at 3 ml/h for 8 h. Lymph was collected hourly for 8 h. Lymph triglyceride, cholesterol, and decanoic and eicosapentaenoic acids increased rapidly and maintained a significantly higher output (P triglyceride output decreased 50% compared with control. Gastric infusion of STG significantly improved lipid transport by having a twofold higher triglyceride, cholesterol, and decanoic and eicosapentaenoic acids output to lymph compared with its physical mix (P < 0.01). We conclude that STG is absorbed into lymph significantly better than physical mix by both the normal intestine and the intestine injured by I/R.

  5. ADAMTS1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis by attenuating phosphorylation of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific VEGF receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Junko; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Hiroko; Asano, Keiichi; Faruk Hatipoglu, Omer; Zeynel Cilek, Mehmet; Obika, Masanari; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Hofmann, Matthias; Kusachi, Shozo; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Hirohata, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play roles in malignant tumor progression, dissemination, and metastasis. ADAMTS1, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is known to inhibit angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS1 was shown to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. We investigated whether ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in the present study. We examined cell proliferation and cell migration in normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) transduced with or without adenoviral human ADAMTS1 gene therapy. We then examined the VEGFC/VEGFR3 signal transduction pathway in ADAMTS1-transduced HMVEC-dLy. Cell proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel were significantly lower with transduced ADAMTS1 than with control (non-transduced HMVEC-dLy). The phosphorylation of VEGFR3 was also attenuated by ADAMTS1 gene therapy in HMVEC-dLy. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ADAMTS1 formed a complex with VEGFC. Our results demonstrated that ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro. The data highlight the new function of ADAMTS1 in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and the therapeutic potential of ADAMTS1 in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • ADAMTS1 significantly inhibited tube formation and cell proliferation in HMVEC-dLy. • Reduced lymph endothelial cell migration in ADAMTS1 transduced co-culture systems. • VEGFC-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR3 is attenuated by ADAMTS1. • Reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in ADAMTS1 treated HMVEC-dLy. • ADAMTS1 binds directly to VEGFC

  6. [Treatment with the use of microcurrent lymphatic drainage physiotherapy during the postoperative period following rhinoplastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, T A; Kazantsev, E V

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined treatment of the patients who had undergone either primary or secondary rhinoplastic surgery with the use of photo- and magnetic therapy in comparison with the effectiveness of phototherapy in the combination with microcurrent therapy. The patients were divided into four groups depending on the type of the surgical intervention and the mode of the combined physiotherapeutic treatment. All the patients were given combined physiotherapeutic treatment in addition to the standard pharmacotherapy starting from the second day of the postoperative period. The patients of groups 1 and 3 received phototherapy in the combination with magnetic therapy while those in groups 2 and 4 were treated by phototherapy in the combination with microcurrent lymphatic drainage physiotherapy. It was shown that the different combinations of physiotherapeutic modalities during the postoperative period following primary «closed» rhinoplasty were not different significantly in terms of effectiveness. After secondary «closed» rhinoplasty, the combination of phototherapy with the application of microcurrents looks more preferable. It is concluded that microcurrent lymphdraining physiotherapy should be regarded as the priority component of the combined physiotherapeutic treatment during the postoperative period following secondary «closed» rhinoplasty.

  7. Orofacial lymphatic malformation: management with a three steps diode laser protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Simona; Tempesta, Angela; Limongelli, Luisa; Caporusso, Concetta; Di Venere, Daniela; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lacaita, Mariagrazia; Maiorano, Eugenio; Favia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic Malformation (LM) according to ISSVA Classification, is a rare benign disorder with unknown aetiology. LM may grow slowly over years or develop rapidly over the course of days becoming a bulky lump, infected or bleeding. We propose our three steps Diode Laser protocol for LM management, based on its persistent vascular blood component. 1. Histological and cytological examination, to evaluate the vascular blood component (10-40%), shows mature lymphocytes with red blood cells and endothelial cells. 2. Diode Laser Photocoagulation (DLP) in pulsed mode (on 100ms / off 400ms) at 10W and 800nm with a 300μm fibre kept 2-3mm from the tissues, to reduce the lesion. 3. Diode Laser surgical excision in pulsed mode (on 50ms / off 200ms) at 8W and 800nm with a 300 μm fibre in close contact with tissues, and histological intraoperative margins control on frozen sections. Even if it has inconstant results (lesions decreasing rate is 10% to 40% proportionally to vascular blood component), DLP simplifies the last and the most important step. Use of Diode Laser also in surgical excision reduces intra and postoperatory complications.

  8. Persistent 'hotspots' of lymphatic filariasis microfilaraemia despite 14 years of mass drug administration in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Yikpotey, Paul; Marfo, Benjamin K; Odoom, Samuel; Mensah, Ernest O; Asiedu, Odame; Alomatu, Bright; Hervie, Edward T; Yeboah, Abednego; Ade, Serge; Hinderaker, Sven G; Reid, Anthony; Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Koudou, Benjamin; Koroma, Joseph B

    2016-12-01

    Among the 216 districts in Ghana, 98 were declared endemic for lymphatic filariasis in 1999 after mapping. Pursuing the goal of elimination, WHO recommends annual treatment using mass drugs administration (MDA) for at least 5 years. MDA was started in the country in 2001 and reached national coverage in 2006. By 2014, 69 districts had 'stopped-MDA' (after passing the transmission assessment survey) while 29 others remained with persistent microfilaraemia (mf) prevalence (≥1%) despite more than 11 years of MDA and were classified as 'hotspots'. An ecological study was carried out to compare baseline mf prevalence and anti-microfilaria interventions between hotspot and stopped-MDA districts. Baseline mf prevalence was significantly higher in hotspots than stopped-MDA districts (photspot districts, but it was still higher than in stopped-MDA districts. The number of MDA rounds was slightly higher in hotspot districts (photspots and stopped-MDA districts was a high baseline mf prevalence. This finding indicates that the recommended 5-6 rounds annual treatment may not achieve interruption of transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Effects of Methylphenidate Administration on the Histological Alterations of the Lymphatic System in the Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Louei Monfared

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The lymphatic system as a key component in the organism's body can be affected by used drugs. Methylphenidate or Ritalin is widely used for treatment of behavioral disorders in children and some depressed people. This study carried out to examine the immunotoxic effects of Ritalin. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 healthy adult female mice were selected and randomly divided into a control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received Ritalin as 0.5,5 and 50 mg/kg body weight and control groups received distillated water by gavage method for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, the structure and function of the lymphoid organs were evaluated. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s test (p<0.05. Results: Significant alterations including a reduction in the size and number of lymphoid follicles, increasing in the megakaryocytes numbers as well as spleen capsular thickens were seen following Ritalin administration. The atrophy of the lymph nodes together with significant reduction in the number and size of lymph follicles but an increasing in the parenchyma hyperemia were seen. Also lymphocyte numbers increased while the monocytes numbers decreased (p<0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of Ritalin could be exerted detrimental effects on the lymphoid organs in the mouse model.

  10. Near-infrared laparoscopy for real-time intra-operative arterial and lymphatic perfusion imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-01

    Multimodal laparoscopic imaging systems possessing the capability for extended spectrum irradiation and visualization within a unified camera system are now available to provide enhanced intracorporeal operative anatomic and dynamic perfusion assessment and potentially augmented patient outcome. While ultraviolet-range energies have limited penetration and hence are probably more useful for endoscopic mucosal interrogation, the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum is of greater potential utility for the purposes of examining inducible fluorescence in abdominopelvic tissue that can be achieved by administration of specific tracer agents, either directly into the circulation (e.g. for anastomotic perfusion assessment at the time of stapling) or into the lymphatic system (e.g. for lymph basin road-mapping and\\/or focussed target nodal assessment). This technology is also capable of supplementing anatomic recognition of the biliary system while implantable fibres can also be inserted intraoperatively for the purpose of safeguarding vital structures such as the oesphagus and ureters especially in difficult reoperations. It is likely that this technological capability will find a clear and common indication in colorectal specialist and general surgical departments worldwide in the near future.

  11. Sclerotherapy with picibanil (OK-432) for congenital lymphatic malformation in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M W; Lee, D W; Kim, D Y; Lee, S J; Hwang, C H; Park, S W; Kim, K H

    2001-08-01

    Congenital lymphatic malformations of the head and neck (LMHN) present special challenges to the otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon. Recently, a number of sclerotherapy trials have shown promising results. In this study, we present our experiences with picibanil (OK-432) sclerotherapy for this lesion. Retrospectively review. We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who have undergone sclerotherapy with picibanil for LMHN. Satisfactory response with complete or nearly complete shrinkage of the lesions was observed in 15 cases after repeated sclerotherapy (average, two times). We did not observe any significant morbidity or complications in the patients treated with picibanil. Reduction in size of the mass was achieved in weeks to months. Some of the patients who had not had any other previous treatment showed remarkable reductions in size even after the first therapy. When we used picibanil sclerotherapy as a primary treatment for the LMHN, most of our patients showed satisfactory results regardless of the size or location of the lesions. Given with our experience and the reports that failure of picibanil sclerotherapy does not hinder subsequent surgical salvage procedures, we recommend trying picibanil sclerotherapy as a primary treatment for the LMHN and performing surgical excision as a secondary modality if the response to the sclerotherapy is not satisfactory.

  12. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A

    2015-10-01

    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Human Papilloma Virus: Prevalence, distribution and predictive value to lymphatic metastasis in penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluizio Goncalves da Fonseca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the prevalence, distribution and association of HPV with histological pattern of worse prognosis of penile cancer, in order to evaluate its predictive value of inguinal metastasis, as well as evaluation of other previous reported prognostic factors. Material and Methods Tumor samples of 82 patients with penile carcinoma were tested in order to establish the prevalence and distribution of genotypic HPV using PCR. HPV status was correlated to histopathological factors and the presence of inguinal mestastasis. The influence of several histological characteristics was also correlated to inguinal disease-free survival. Results Follow-up varied from 1 to 71 months (median 22 months. HPV DNA was identified in 60.9% of sample, with higher prevalence of types 11 and 6 (64% and 32%, respectively. There was no significant correlation of the histological characteristics of worse prognosis of penile cancer with HPV status. Inguinal disease-free survival in 5 years did also not show HPV status influence (p = 0.45. The only independent pathologic factors of inguinal metastasis were: stage T ≥ T1b-T4 (p = 0.02, lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.04 and infiltrative invasion (p = 0.03. conclusions HPV status and distribution had shown no correlation with worse prognosis of histological aspects, or predictive value for lymphatic metastasis in penile carcinoma.

  14. Data base management system for lymphatic filariasis--a neglected tropical disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanaryana Murty Upadhyayula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers working in the area of Public Health are being confronted with large volumes of data on various aspects of entomology and epidemiology. To obtain the relevant information out of these data requires particular database management system. In this paper, we have described about the usages of our developed database on lymphatic filariasis. METHODS: This database application is developed using Model View Controller (MVC architecture, with MySQL as database and a web based interface. We have collected and incorporated the data on filariasis in the database from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. CONCLUSION: The importance of this database is to store the collected data, retrieve the information and produce various combinational reports on filarial aspects which in turn will help the public health officials to understand the burden of disease in a particular locality. This information is likely to have an imperative role on decision making for effective control of filarial disease and integrated vector management operations.

  15. Infusion sclerotherapy of microcystic lymphatic malformation: Clinico-radiological mid-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Seok Jong; Chung, Ho Yun; Huh, Seung; Kim, Hyung Kee [Dept. of urgery, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A new sclerotherapy technique by slow mechanical infusion of sclerosant was validated for treatment of microcystic lymphatic malformation (mLM). Seventeen consecutive patients with mLM in extremities, cervicofacial area, and trunk were included (21.8 ± 21.5 years old, male:female = 5:12). All patients diagnosed as mLM were included. A total 4-32 mL 20-38% OK-432 solution was mechanically infused at the rate of 10 mL/hour into the mLM lesions. The treatment effect was estimated clinic-radiologically at the 4-month follow-up. Repeated sclerotherapy followed in the 6th month, if required. The therapeutic effect was evaluated using quantitative ultrasonographic examination including soft tissue thickness, cyst size and number. In 17 patients, total 31 infusion sclerotherapy sessions were performed and monitored for 425 ± 266 days. Fifteen patients (88%) showed improvement in all symptoms, signs, and ultrasonographic findings. In all cases, at least one finding presented improvement. The maximal number of cysts per ultrasonographic window and maximal diameter of the largest cyst decreased by 57 ± 57% and 51 ± 67%, respectively (p = 0.102, 0.004). The soft tissue thickness decreased by 18 ± 15% (p < 0.01). No significant complications such as distal lymphedema or skin necrosis occurred. Infusion sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment technique for microcystic LM, with improved outcome.

  16. Craniofacial CT findings of Gorham-Stout disease and generalized lymphatic anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Ozeki, Michio; Fukao, Toshiyuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to assess the craniofacial CT imaging features for differentiating between Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) and generalized lymphatic anomaly (GLA). Seven patients with GSD and four patients with GLA were included in this study. All patients underwent CT examinations that encompassed the craniofacial bones. The presence, distribution, and type of craniofacial osteolysis were assessed. The clinical symptoms that were associated with craniofacial osteolysis were also reviewed. Craniofacial osteolysis including cranial osteolysis was seen in four of seven (57 %) patients with GSD and in three of four (75 %) patients with GLA. Facial osteolysis was seen in two (29 %) patients with GSD, but this was not observed in patients with GLA. Among patients with craniofacial osteolysis, those with GSD showed diffuse involvement, whereas those with GLA showed multifocal involvement. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD could be classified into three patterns: medullary involvement, thinning bone, and disappearing bone. The clinical symptoms of craniofacial osteolysis were observed in all patients with GSD but were not present in patients with GLA. Craniofacial involvement was observed in both groups. The craniofacial osteolysis of GSD showed diffuse involvement with clinical symptoms, whereas that of GLA showed multifocal involvement without clinical symptoms. (orig.)

  17. Microparticle image velocimetry approach to flow measurements in isolated contracting lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaris, Konstantinos N; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Zawieja, David C; Moore, James; Black, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development of an optical flow visualization method for resolving the flow velocity vector field in lymphatic vessels in vitro. The aim is to develop an experimental protocol for accurately estimating flow parameters, such as flow rate and shear stresses, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previous studies in situ have relied on lymphocytes as tracers, but their low density resulted in a reduced spatial resolution whereas the assumption that the flow was fully developed in order to determine the flow parameters of interest may not be valid, especially in the vicinity of the valves, where the flow is undoubtedly more complex. To overcome these issues, we have applied the time-resolved microparticle image velocimetry (μ -PIV) technique, a well-established method that can provide increased spatial and temporal resolution that this transient flow demands. To that end, we have developed a custom light source, utilizing high-power light-emitting diodes, and associated control and image processing software. This paper reports the performance of the system and the results of a series of preliminary experiments performed on vessels isolated from rat mesenteries, demonstrating, for the first time, the successful application of the μ -PIV technique in these vessels.

  18. A simple isocentric technique for irradiation of the breast, chest wall and peripheral lymphatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorsak, E.B.; Gosselin, M.; Pla, M.; Kim, T.H.; Freeman, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The major problem with the standard technique for irradiation of the breast or chest wall and peripheral lymphatics is field matching at the junction between the supraclavicular and tangential fields. Overdosing or underdosing across the junctions is unavoidable because of beam divergence. Various techniques using a half-blocked supraclavicular field in conjunction with special tangential fields have been introduced recently to eliminate the junction problem; they are, however, complicated, involving couch motions and machine isocentre repositioning when changing from the supraclavicular to the tangential fields. The breast treatment technique used by the authors over the past twelve months utilises a supraclavicular half-blocked field, two tangential half-blocked fields and an optional posterior axillary field. The technique is simple and easy to set up since the same machine isocentre is used for all treatment fields and no couch movement or patient repositioning is required. The same half-block collimator used to define the caudad border of the supraclavicular field is used to define the cephalad edges of the two tangential fields. The margin of error of treatment is reduced and the dose measurements demonstrate excellent dose homogeneity through the entire treatment volume with no overdose or underdose at the field junction. (author)

  19. The Distribution of Culex spp (Diptera: Culicidae in Selected Endemic Lymphatic Filariasis Villages in Bandung District West Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Data entomologis terkait aspek bionomik dan distribusi nyamuk vektor lymphatic filariasis di Kabupaten Bandung masih sangat sedikit meskipun kabupaten ini sudah mengimplementasikan POPM Filariasis dari tahun 2009. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengindentifikasi spesies nyamuk potensial penular lymphatic filariasis dan habitatnya di wilayah endemis filariasis yaitu Kecamatan Majalaya, Kabupaten Bandung. Survei dilaksanakan selama 2 bulan yaitu September – Oktober 2013 di dua desa Kecamatan Majalaya. Kegiatannya adalah pencidukan larva (termasuk plotting habitat, salinitas, temperatur air, pH, penangkapan nyamuk dewasa menggunakan metode human landing (dalam dan luar rumah serta resting (dinding rumah dan kandang ternak. Hasil penangkapan nyamuk memperoleh enam spesies yang berhasil diidentifikasi. Culex quinquefasciatus dan Cx. tritaeniorhynchus adalah nyamuk yang dominan tertangkap dengan puncak gigitan antara jam 21.00-01.00 WIB. Terdapat lima tempat perkembangbiakan potensial yang teramati disekitar desa tersebut yang terdiri dari kolam ikan yang terbengkalai dan persawahan dengan salinitas 0‰, temperatur air 28,5-29°C, pH 6-7. Meskipun MHD dan MBR vektor filariasis yaitu Cx. quinquefasciatus di wilayah tersebut relatif rendah, penularan masih dapat terjadi karena didukung dengan kondisi lingkungan dan keberadaan nyamuk vektor tersebut di wilayah iniKata kunci: lymphatic filariasis; tempat perkembangbiakan; Cx. quinquefasciatus; kepadatan, BandungAbstract. Bandung district has been implemented mass drug administration (MDA program since 2009, but little is known about entomological data especially about bionomic aspects and distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF mosquito vectors. This study was aimed to identify potential LF mosquito species and its potential breeding sites in two LF endemic villages in Majalaya, Bandung district. The observational study was conducted in September-October 2013. Mosquito larvae were collected by a

  20. Caracterización de los componentes celulares y moleculares del microambiente inflamatorio y su implicación en el desarrollo de metástasis en el cáncer de mama

    OpenAIRE

    Eiró Díaz, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    Existe la hipótesis de que la inflamación participa en la promoción de las condiciones que conducen al cáncer. Las interacciones entre las células inflamatorias y las células tumorales afectan directamente a la progresión tumoral. De hecho, las células inflamatorias y los factores inmunomoduladores presentes en el microambiente tumoral influyen en la progresión tumoral y el desarrollo de metástasis. Se ha considerado que el infiltrado leucocitario era un mecanismo de defensa intrínseca contra...

  1. Patrón de alteraciones genético-moleculares en los carcinomas epidermoides de laringe y faringe y en sus correspondientes metástasis linfáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Guervós, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Los carcinomas epidermoides de cabeza y cuello (CECC) ocupan el octavo lugar entre las neoplasias del sexo masculino, presentando el Principado de Asturias una de las tasas de incidencia más altas de España. Aunque se han realizado importantes avances en su diagnóstico y tratamiento, la supervivencia se ha modificado poco en los últimos años debido a que se diagnostican en estadios avanzados. El desarrollo de metástasis en los ganglios linfáticos cervicales es el factor que más influye en la ...

  2. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  3. Lymphoscintigraphy detecting alterations of upper limb lymphatic flow following early sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarri AJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Almir Jose Sarri,1 Eduardo Tinois da Silva,2 Rene Aloisio da Costa Vieira,3 Katia Hiromoto Koga,2 Pedro Henrique Moriguchi Cação,4 Vitor Coca Sarri,5 Sonia Marta Moriguchi2 1Department of Physical Therapy, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, Sao Paulo, 2Department of Tropical Diseases and Diagnostic Imaging, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University – UNESP, Botucatu, 3Department of Mastology and Reconstructive Surgery, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, 4Department of Radiology – Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP, 5Medical School, University of Franca, Sao Paulo, Brazil Purpose: To evaluate early variations in lymphatic circulation of the arm pre- and post-sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB and conservative breast surgery by lymphoscintigraphy (LS.Patients and methods: Between 2005 and 2012, 15 patients underwent LS before and after the SLNB (total=30 studies. The pre-SLNB study was considered the control. Early images within twenty minutes (dynamic and static images and delayed images within ninety minutes of arms and armpits were acquired using a gamma camera. The LS images before and after the SLNB of each patient were paired and compared to each other, evaluating the site of lymphatic flow (in the early phase and identifying the number of lymph nodes (in the late phase. These dynamic images were subjected to additional quantitative analysis to assess the lymphatic flow rate using the slope assessed by the angular coefficient of the radioactivity × time curves in areas of interest recorded in the axillary region. The variations of lymphatic flow and the number of lymph nodes in the post-SLNB LS compared to the pre-SLNB LS of each patient were classified as decreased, sustained or increased. The clinical variables analyzed included the period between performing the SLNB and the subsequent LS imaging, age, body mass index, number of removed lymph nodes, type of surgery and whether immediate oncoplastic

  4. How much will it cost to eradicate lymphatic filariasis? An analysis of the financial and economic costs of intensified efforts against lymphatic filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randee J Kastner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF, a neglected tropical disease (NTD preventable through mass drug administration (MDA, is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable. Previously we developed one LF elimination scenario, which assumes MDA scale-up to continue in all countries that have previously undertaken MDA. In contrast, our three previously developed eradication scenarios assume all LF endemic countries will undertake MDA at an average (eradication I, fast (eradication II, or instantaneous (eradication III rate of scale-up. In this analysis we use a micro-costing model to project the financial and economic costs of each of these scenarios in order to provide evidence to decision makers about the investment required to eliminate and eradicate LF.Costing was undertaken from a health system perspective, with all results expressed in 2012 US dollars (USD. A discount rate of 3% was applied to calculate the net present value of future costs. Prospective NTD budgets from LF endemic countries were reviewed to preliminarily determine activities and resources necessary to undertake a program to eliminate LF at a country level. In consultation with LF program experts, activities and resources were further reviewed and a refined list of activities and necessary resources, along with their associated quantities and costs, were determined and grouped into the following activities: advocacy and communication, capacity strengthening, coordination and strengthening partnerships, data management, ongoing surveillance, monitoring and supervision, drug delivery, and administration. The costs of mapping and undertaking transmission assessment surveys and the value of donated drugs and volunteer time were also accounted for. Using previously developed scenarios and deterministic estimates of MDA duration, the financial and economic costs of interrupting LF transmission under varying rates of MDA scale-up were then modelled using a micro-costing approach. The

  5. How much will it cost to eradicate lymphatic filariasis? An analysis of the financial and economic costs of intensified efforts against lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Randee J; Sicuri, Elisa; Stone, Christopher M; Matwale, Gabriel; Onapa, Ambrose; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2017-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) preventable through mass drug administration (MDA), is one of six diseases deemed possibly eradicable. Previously we developed one LF elimination scenario, which assumes MDA scale-up to continue in all countries that have previously undertaken MDA. In contrast, our three previously developed eradication scenarios assume all LF endemic countries will undertake MDA at an average (eradication I), fast (eradication II), or instantaneous (eradication III) rate of scale-up. In this analysis we use a micro-costing model to project the financial and economic costs of each of these scenarios in order to provide evidence to decision makers about the investment required to eliminate and eradicate LF. Costing was undertaken from a health system perspective, with all results expressed in 2012 US dollars (USD). A discount rate of 3% was applied to calculate the net present value of future costs. Prospective NTD budgets from LF endemic countries were reviewed to preliminarily determine activities and resources necessary to undertake a program to eliminate LF at a country level. In consultation with LF program experts, activities and resources were further reviewed and a refined list of activities and necessary resources, along with their associated quantities and costs, were determined and grouped into the following activities: advocacy and communication, capacity strengthening, coordination and strengthening partnerships, data management, ongoing surveillance, monitoring and supervision, drug delivery, and administration. The costs of mapping and undertaking transmission assessment surveys and the value of donated drugs and volunteer time were also accounted for. Using previously developed scenarios and deterministic estimates of MDA duration, the financial and economic costs of interrupting LF transmission under varying rates of MDA scale-up were then modelled using a micro-costing approach. The elimination scenario