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Sample records for lymantria testis ecdysiotropin

  1. Pyrrolidonyl and pyridyl alkaloids in Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deml, Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence and metabolism of nicotine and related N-containing compounds in body fluids of the gipsy moth were addressed. Thin layer chromatographic studies clearly showed the simultaneous presence of GABA and 2-pyrrolidone but not of GABamide in the larval haemolymph and osmeterial secretion of Lymantria dispar as well as in the corresponding body fluids of the saturniids, Saturnia pavonia and Attacus atlas. Furthermore, feeding and injection experiments using alkylated precursors and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence of the transformation of 2-pyrrolidone to nicotine and of nicotinic acid to nicotinamide in caterpillars of L. dispar. Based on these results, on the earlier described variation of the secondary-compound patterns of L. dispar during its development, and on literature data, metabolic pathways for the hitherto detected pyridyl and pyrrolidonyl alkaloids in Lymantriidae (and possibly Saturniidae) are proposed.

  2. Control of Lymantria dispar L. by biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGuo-cai; WANGYue-jie; YANGXiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    The experiment on control of Lymantria dispar L by using different kinds of biological measures, including nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of Lymantria dispar L., BtMP-342, sex-attractant as well as botanical insecticide, was carried out in the forest regions of Inner Mongolia in 2003. Two concentrations (2.632×106 PIB·ml-1 and 2.632×107 PIB·ml-1) of Lymantria dispar L. NPV were sprayed on the 2rd-instar-larvae of L. dispar and 70% and 77.8% control effect were obtained respectively. BtMP0-342 was applied to the 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae and the control effect was around 80%. The sex-attractant provided by Canada Pacific Forestry Research Center also showed a good result in trapping L. dispar adults. The self-produced botanical insecticide, which was extracted from a kind of poisonous plant distributed in Daxing'an Mountains, China, exhibited a good control result in controlling the larvae of L. dispar, and 82% mortality was observed when spraying primary liquid of the botanical insecticide on the 3rd-5th-instar-larvae in lab.

  3. Descent of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M.; Thorup, Jørgen M.; Beasley, Spencer W.

    This book provides a state of the art overview of all aspects of testicular descent and cryptorchidism, including the mechanisms of descent and the causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of undescended testis. The advances in understanding that have been achieved over the past two decades...

  4. The undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikraman, Jaya; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili

    2016-01-01

    Undescended testes (UDT), where one or both testes fail to migrate to the base of the scrotum, can be congenital (2-5% of newborn males) or acquired (1-2% of males). The testis may be found in any position along its usual line of descent. Cryptorchidism affects the developing testicular germ cell...

  5. Electroporation of the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Kentaro

    The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

  6. Potential improvement of Lymantria dispar L. management by quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić-Mataruga Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar, a polyphagous insect pest, copes with a wide variety of host-specific allelochemicals. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are important for catalyzing detoxification in L. dispar. Larval mortality, GST activity in midgut tissue and mass of L. dispar with different trophic adaptations (originating from two forests with a suitable host, Quercus robur, and an unsuitable host, Robinia pseudoacacia, differed after feeding on quercetin supplemented diets (2% or 5% w/w. Quercetin inhibited GST most potently in oak forest larvae that were less adapted to flavonoids in their diet. The larvicidal effect of quercetin on L. dispar larvae depended on the host-use history. We believe this is important in strategies for sustainable control of insect pests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  7. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C; Hamelin, Richard C; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    .... The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species...

  8. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E

    2014-01-01

    limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. METHODS: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were...

  9. 2-Methyl-(Z)-7-Octadecene - the sex pheromone of allopatric Lymantria serva and Lymantria lucescens: two potential invasive species in the Orient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul W. Schaefer; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries; Yasutomo Higashiura; Yi-Bin Fan

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the sex pheromones of two allopatric Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): (1) L. serva (Fabricius) in Taiwan whose larvae attack and occasionally defoliate Ficus spp. and (2) L. lucescens (Fabricius) in Honshu, Japan, whose larvae feed on Quercus...

  10. Undescended testis in Spigelian hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are uncommon in children. We report a 3-year-old boy with right spigelian hernia and right undescended testis. The hernial sac contained the testis, which is a rare presentation. The repair of the large defect with a prosthetic mesh and a concomitant orchidopexy were performed uneventfully.

  11. Genomic sequencing and analyses of Lymantria xylina multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Chu-Fang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of the casuarina moth, Lymantria xylina Swinehoe (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae, which is a very important forest pest in Taiwan, have occurred every five to 10 years. This moth has expanded its range of host plants to include more than 65 species of broadleaf trees. LyxyMNPV (L. xylina multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus is highly virulent to the casuarina moth and has been investigated as a possible biopesticide for controlling this moth. LdMNPV-like virus has also been isolated from Lymantria xylina larvae but LyxyMNPV was more virulent than LdMNPV-like virus both in NTU-LY and IPLB-LD-652Y cell lines. To better understand LyxyMNPV, the nucleotide sequence of the LyxyMNPV DNA genome was determined and analysed. Results The genome of LyxyMNPV consists of 156,344 bases, has a G+C content of 53.4% and contains 157 putative open reading frames (ORFs. The gene content and gene order of LyxyMNPV were similar to those of LdMNPV, with 151 ORFs identified as homologous to those reported in the LdMNPV genome. Two genes (Lyxy49 and Lyxy123 were homologous to other baculoviruses, and four unique LyxyMNPV ORFs (Lyxy11, Lyxy19, Lyxy130 and Lyxy131 were identified in the LyxyMNPV genome, including a gag-like gene that was not reported in baculoviruses. LdMNPV contains 23 ORFs that are absent in LyxyMNPV. Readily identifiable homologues of the gene host range factor-1 (hrf-1, which appears to be involved in the susceptibility of L. dispar to NPV infection, were not present in LyxyMNPV. Additionally, two putative odv-e27 homologues were identified in LyxyMNPV. The LyxyMNPV genome encoded 14 bro genes compared with 16 in LdMNPV, which occupied more than 8% of the LyxyMNPV genome. Thirteen homologous regions (hrs were identified containing 48 repeated sequences composed of 30-bp imperfect palindromes. However, they differed in the relative positions, number of repeats and orientation in the genome compared to LdMNPV. Conclusion The gene

  12. Classification, genetic variation and pathogenicity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates from Asia, Europe, and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Harrison; Melody A. Keena; Daniel L. Rowley

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) has been formulated and applied to control outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To classify and determine the degree of genetic variation among isolates of L. dispar NPVs from different parts of the range of the gypsy moth, partial sequences of the

  13. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  14. Toward a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., introduced from Europe in the 19th century, has become ...

  15. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  16. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  17. Outcomes of Testis Sparing Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Özcan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim was to review the indications and results of partial orchidectomy. Material and Method: We retrospectively investigated pathologic and demographic features of patients who underwent partial orchidectomy between February 2005 and December 2011. Results: Partial orchidectomy was performed on 7 patients aged between 2 and 30 years. Partial orchidectomy was performed for testicular tumour/mass on solitary testis, bilateral testicular tumour, trauma on 3,2,1 patients respectively. Pathologic examination of the patient who was undergone partial orchiectomy for testicular trauma revealed a mixed germ cell tumour that was detected incidentally. Discussion: Testis sparing surgery is a treatment option in selected cases with the davantages of fertility preservation and avoiding the need for long-term hormone replacement therapy.

  18. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  19. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ testis (CIS) is known as the precursor of germ cell cancer of the testis. International guidelines on diagnosis and treatment are inconsistent. Some countries offer routine biopsies of the contralateral testicle in relation to orchidectomy for testicular cancer, whereas other...

  20. Temporal analysis and spatial mapping of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus transcripts and in-vitro translation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles

    1991-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus LdNPV) is being used as a biopesticide against the gypsy moth. We are attempting to enhance the potency of the LdNPV through recombinant DNA technology. As a prerequisite to genetic manipulation, we have characterized LdNPV gene expression in cell culture through the generation of transcription and...

  1. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  2. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison Robert L.; Daniel L. Rowley; Melody A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Aba624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054...

  3. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  4. Interaction between a Nosema sp. (Microspora: Nosematidae) and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infecting the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Joseph V. Maddox; Michael L. McManus

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential per os inoculations of gypsy moth larvae with the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) and a Nosema sp. from Portugal demonstrated that the interaction of two pathogens during coinfection was variable, ranging from synergistic to antagonistic. Susceptibility of gypsy...

  5. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  6. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Testis Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott M; Lowrance, William T

    2015-08-01

    Testis cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in young men. Most cases represent sporadic occurrences. Most commonly it presents at an early stage (clinical stage I) and is highly curable with radical orchiectomy. Even more advanced stages of testicular cancer are curable with a multimodality treatment approach. There are no widely accepted screening strategies for germ cell tumors. This article discusses the known risk factors and epidemiology of testis cancer, the presentation, and work up for new patients, and the prognosis and cure rates based on the staging and current treatment modalities for testis cancer patients.

  7. Seminoma in the testis presenting as hemospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia....

  8. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Metastasis of Prostate Adenocarcinoma to the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campara, Zoran; Simic, Dejan; Aleksic, Predrag; Spasic, Aleksandar; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed carcinoma in the male population. The most typical places of the metastases are pelvic lymphatic glands, bones and lungs, and very rarely it metastasizes into a testis. The prognostic importance of testicular metastasis of prostate cancer is not yet well-known, due to a very few published cases. According to the known facts, it is certain that a metastasis of the prostate carcinoma into a testis is a sign of an advanced disease. Case report: This work presents a 48-year-old patient, to whom an adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been proven by the pathohistological finding of transrectal biopsy, performed due to the elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Nine years after the initial diagnosis, due to a gradual rise of PSA and tumorous enlargement of the left testis, left inguinal orchectomy and right orchectomy were performed. Metastatic dissemination of prostate adenocarcinoma into a testis was determined by a pathohistological analysis of the left testis. Conclusion: The metastasis of the prostate carcinoma into a testis, as a rare localization of the metastatic dissemination, after additionally performed orchectomy along with further oncological therapy, can provide a continuation of a good life quality as well as a control of the disease in a longer time period. PMID:27703299

  10. The pheromonal gland of Lymantria dispar: morphology and evidence for its innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Marianna; Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Solari, Paolo; Melis, Tiziana; Del Fiacco, Marina

    2009-04-01

    The morphological features of the glandular epithelium that secretes pheromone in the polyphagous pest gypsy moth Lymantria dispar are described by light and electron microscopy. The monolayered gland cells are covered by the folded cuticle of the intersegmental membrane between the 8th and 9th abdominal segments showing neither sites of discontinuity nor distinct openings on its external surface. The cells bear a large, often irregularly shaped nucleus, and contain granules of variable amount and electron-density. These granules are mostly located in the basal compartment of the cytoplasm, in a labyrinthine zone laying on a basement membrane. The apical membrane of the gland cells bear microvilli and cell-cell contact is established by different junctional structures. Nerve fibers enwrapped in glia are found beneath the basement membrane, in close contact with the secretory cells. This latter finding represents the first evidence of the innervation of the pheromonal gland in L. dispar.

  11. Analysis of correlation structure in Lymantria dispar L. larvae from locally adapted populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of allelochemical stress and population origin on the patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations among life history traits and digestive enzyme activities were investigated in larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae. Thirty-two full-sib families from oak (suitable host plant, Quercus population, and twenty-six full-sib families from locust-tree (unsuitable host plant, Robinia population forests were reared on an artificial diet, with or without a 5% tannic acid supplement. Comparison of correlation matrices revealed significant similarity between the two populations in the structure of phenotypic and genetic correlations of life history traits and of digestive enzyme activities. The patterns of correlations of the examined traits, within each of the two locally adapted populations and in the presence of allelochemical stress, remained stabile despite the different selection pressures that mold these traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  12. The influence of increased rearing density on medial protocerebral neurosecretory neurons of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijin Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric changes of A1, A1' and A2 protocerebral dorsomedial neurosecretory neurons, total brain protein content and brain protein profiles were analyzed in 4th instar Lymantria dispar larvae under elevated rearing density, i.e. under intense stress when 5 larvae were kept in a petri dish (V = 80 ml, less intense stress when 5 larvae were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300 ml. In the control samples the larvae were reared in isolated conditions. Protein pattern changes in the brain were observed. Proteins with the following molecular masses: 30, 14, 10 and 3.4-2.5 kD were detected in the experimental groups. The size and cytological characteristics of protocerebral dorsomedial neurosecretory neurons were changed under elevated rearing density.

  13. De verworven niet-scrotale testis bij jongens: Een onderschat fenomeen [Acquired undescended testis in boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, W.W.M.; Hirasing, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To differentiate undescended testis into a congenital and an acquired form using earlier information on testis position. Design. Descriptive. Setting. Paediatric outpatients' clinic, Medical Centre Alkmaar, the Netherlands. Method. In a 3-year period (1991-1994), 77 boys were referred to

  14. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... involvement of the paratesticular tissue, testis and the kidney are ... coma of the left testis, paratesticular tissue and right kidney was made by histology and .... ated muscles.1,9 Histologically, the embryonal and alveolar.

  15. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  16. Carcinoma in situ in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis is a common precursor of germ-cell tumours in adults and adolescents, with the exception of spermatocytic seminoma. This article reviews existing knowledge on the pathobiology, genetic aspects and epidemiology of CIS, discusses current hypotheses concerning...

  17. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  18. Microvascular pressure distribution in the hamster testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, T E; Rozum, J S; Desjardins, C; Gore, R W

    1991-05-01

    Convective transport is a critical element in the regulation of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis. Steroid hormones are distributed to their target cells within seminiferous tubules via interstitial fluid. The movement of interstitial fluid and lymph, which transports protein hormones and many of the substrates required for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, is driven by capillary filtration. Despite the importance of convective transport in testicular function, however, the mechanisms regulating transvascular exchange in the testis are unknown. As a first step in understanding this process, we measured directly the microvascular hydrostatic pressure distribution in the hamster testis (pentobarbital sodium, 70 mg/kg ip). Using a servo-null transducer, intravascular pressure was measured in all vessel types accessible beneath the surface of the testis of 19 animals. Systemic arterial pressure averaged 89 +/- 2 (SE) mmHg. The most significant observations were that mean capillary pressure was extremely low (10.1 +/- 0.8 mmHg) and remarkably constant (range 8.2-13.3 mmHg), despite a 45 mmHg range in systemic mean arterial pressure among the animals observed. The maintenance of a low hydrostatic pressure in testicular capillaries may serve to sustain fluid filtration at a rate that prevents washout of essential solutes while preserving convective transport. Unfortunately, the anatomical and functional characteristics that determine this unique microvascular environment may also expose the testis to significant pathological risks. For example, the large pre- to postcapillary resistance ratio observed suggests that testicular capillaries must be highly susceptible to increases in venous pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I.; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C.; Hamelin, Richard C.; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a “molecular key” (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3’ region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the “FS1” nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  20. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C; Hamelin, Richard C; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a "molecular key" (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3' region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the "FS1" nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS.

  1. Specificity of Developmental Resistance in Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) to two DNA-Insect Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelli Hoover; Michael J. Grove

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae displayed marked developmental resistance within an instar to L. dispar M nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) regardless of the route of infection (oral or intrahemocoelic) in a previous study, indicating that in gypsy moth, this resistance has a systemic component. In this study, gypsy moth larvae challenged with the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) showed developmental resistance within the fourth instar to oral, but not intrahemocoelic, inoculation. In general, gypsy moth is considered refractory to oral challenge with AMEV, but in this study, 43% mortality occurred in newly molted fourth instars fed a dose of 5×106 large spheroids of AMEV; large spheroids were found to be more infectious than small spheroids when separated by a sucrose gradient. Developmental resistance within the fourth instar was reflected by a 2-fold reduction in mortality (18%-21%) with 5×106 large spheroids in larvae orally challenged at 24, 48 or 72 h post-molt. Fourth instars were highly sensitive to intrahemocoelic challenge with AMEV; 1PFU produced approximately 80% mortality regardless of age within the instar. These results indicate that in gypsy moth, systemic developmental resistance may be specific to LdMNPV, reflecting a co-evolutionary relationship between the baculovirus and its host.

  2. Transcriptome of the Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Sparks

    Full Text Available Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which 838, 1,248 and 3,305 were respectively partitioned into high-, mid- and low-quality tiers on the basis of homology information. Digital gene expression profiles suggested genes differentially expressed at 24 hours post infection, and qRT-PCR analyses were performed for verification. The differentially expressed genes primarily associated with digestive function, including α-amylase, lipase and carboxypeptidase; immune response, including C-type lectin 4; developmental genes such as arylphorin; as well as a variety of binding proteins: cellular retinoic acid binding protein (lipid-binding, insulin-related peptide binding protein (protein-binding and ovary C/EBPg transcription factor (nucleic acid-binding. This is the first study conducted to specifically investigate gypsy moth response to a bacterial infection challenge using large-scale sequencing technologies, and the results highlight important genes that could be involved in biopesticide resistance development or could serve as targets for biologically-based control mechanisms of this insect pest.

  3. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the testis and epididymis of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, A; Joshi, P; Kumar, M V; Panda, J N; Singh, L N

    1984-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity has been reported in testis and epididymis of seven different animal species. Among all the species, the mouse testis and epididymis showed the highest converting enzyme activity followed by rat testis and epididymis. The lowest activity was detected in buffalo testis and rabbit epididymis. Most of the testicular enzyme was found concentrated in the 107,00 X g sediment while the epididymal enzyme was equally distributed between sediment and supernatant. ACE levels of different regions of the rat testis and epididymis was analyzed. The gradient of ACE was found increasing from caput to cauda. A major fraction of testicular and epididymal ACE activity was found in their respective fluid. ACE appeared only in mature rats, rabbits and mice testis and epididymis. Sexually stimulated rabbits showed significant ACE increase in the testis. In vitro characterization studies were conducted.

  4. Host Specificity of Microsporidia (Protista: Microspora) from European Populations of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Indigenous North American Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solter; Maddox; McManus

    1997-03-01

    Results of traditional laboratory bioassays may not accurately represent ecological (field) host specificity of entomopathogens but, if carefully interpreted, may be used to predict the ecological host specificity of pathogens being considered for release as classical biological control agents. We conducted laboratory studies designed to evaluate the physiological host specificity of microsporidia, which are common protozoan pathogens of insects. In these studies, 49 nontarget lepidopteran species indigenous to North America were fed five biotypes of microsporidia that occur in European populations of Lymantria dispar but are not found in North American populations of L. dispar. These microsporidia, Microsporidium sp. from Portugal, Microsporidium sp. from Romania, Microsporidium sp. from Slovakia, Nosema lymantriae, and Endoreticulatus sp. from Portugal, are candidates for release as classical biological control agents into L. dispar populations in the United States. The microsporidia produced a variety of responses in the nontarget hosts and, based on these responses, the nontarget hosts were placed in the following categories: (1) no infection (refractory), (2) atypical infections, and (3) heavy infections. Endoreticulatus sp. produced patent, host-like infections in nearly two-thirds of the nontarget hosts to which it was fed. Such generalist species should not be recommended for release. Infections comparable to those produced in L. dispar were produced in 2% of the nontarget hosts fed Microsporidium sp. from Portugal, 19% of nontarget hosts fed Microsporidium sp. from Romania, 13% fed spores of Microsporidium sp. from Slovakia, and 11% of nontarget species fed N. lymantriae. The remaining nontarget species developed infections that, despite production of mature spores, were not typical of infection in L. dispar. We believe it is very unlikely that these atypical infections would be horizontally transmitted within nontarget insect populations in the United

  5. Normal and varicocele testis in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Santoro; C. Romeo

    2001-01-01

    The authors reviewed the results of their research on the structure and composition of normal and varicocele seminiferous tubules in adolescents. They give new evidences of normal structure of adolescent testis and demonstrate, for the first time, the ultrastructural and immunohistochemical modifications of the lamina propria and basal lamina in the adolescent varicocele patients, which are similar to those observed in adults, but less severe, and of the adherence junctions in seminiferous tubules. They also report the presence of oxidative stress in adolescents limited to testis and not generalised as in the adults. These data are well correlated to different clinical studies that support the hypothesis of a progressive course of varicocele and the need for surgical treatment in adolescent varicocele patients.

  6. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria with undescended testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis pathway that are characterized by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions, or both. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP is an extremely rare disease with a mutation in the gene that codes for uroporphyrinogen III synthase leading to accumulation of porphyrin in different tissues and marked cutaneous photosensitivity. We report a case of CEP with infancy onset blistering, photosensitivity, red colored urine, and teeth along with scarring. Examination revealed an undescended testis of the left side. Mutation analysis revealed mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS resulting in c. 56 A > G (Tyr19Cys. The presence of undescended testis with a rare mutation in a case of CEP which itself is an extremely rare condition make the case interesting.

  7. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria with Undescended Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Harith, Arun Kumar; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis pathway that are characterized by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions, or both. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an extremely rare disease with a mutation in the gene that codes for uroporphyrinogen III synthase leading to accumulation of porphyrin in different tissues and marked cutaneous photosensitivity. We report a case of CEP with infancy onset blistering, photosensitivity, red colored urine, and teeth along with scarring. Examination revealed an undescended testis of the left side. Mutation analysis revealed mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS) resulting in c. 56 A > G (Tyr19Cys). The presence of undescended testis with a rare mutation in a case of CEP which itself is an extremely rare condition make the case interesting.

  8. Phantom testis syndrome: prevalence, phenomenology and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Kliesch, Sabine; Evers, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Chronic phantom pain has been found in up to 78% of limb amputees and is a major complication of limb amputation. Less is known about phantom phenomena after the amputation of other, i.e. visceral, parts of the body. In a retrospective design, we identified 539 patients in whom one testis was removed between 1995 and 2005. The operative technique was a unilateral standard radical inguinal orchiectomy. The underlying pathology in all cases was a testicular germ cell tumour. All patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence of phantom testis pain (pain felt in the removed testis), phantom testis sensations (non-painful sensations as if the removed testis was still intact) and hallucinations (illusionary perceptions on the removed testis). Furthermore, we asked about the occurrence and clinical presentation of pain before and after surgery and about pre-operative testicular pain. Out of 238 respondents, 125 patients (53%) reported any kind of phantom experience. The prevalence of phantom testis pain was 25% (60/238), non-painful phantom sensations 16% (37/238) and male gonad hallucinations 12% (28/238). Patients with phantom symptoms reported pre-operative pain in the removed testis more often than patients without phantom symptoms. This study presents first data on the clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of the phantom testis syndrome after surgical removal of one testis.

  9. Benign Testis Mass After Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Hurtt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of viral associated orchitis and subsequent testis masses concerning for malignancy both on physical exam and scrotal ultrasound. In both cases, the patients underwent radical orchiectomy after a discussion of management options. Both pathologic analyses were negative for malignancy, and our literature search revealed no other similar case reports. We review our two cases specifically, as well as briefly review orchitis and discuss possible management strategies of similar cases.

  10. Benign Testis Mass After Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, Robbie; Pound, Charles; Bean, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    We present two cases of viral associated orchitis and subsequent testis masses concerning for malignancy both on physical exam and scrotal ultrasound. In both cases, the patients underwent radical orchiectomy after a discussion of management options. Both pathologic analyses were negative for malignancy, and our literature search revealed no other similar case reports. We review our two cases specifically, as well as briefly review orchitis and discuss possible management strategies of similar cases.

  11. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  12. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs. Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in humans and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis.

  13. Thyroid hormone function in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eGao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are emerging regulators of testicular function since Sertoli, germ and Leydig cells are found to express thyroid hormone receptors. These testicular cells also express deiodinases which are capable of converting the pro-hormone T4 to the active thyroid hormone T3, or inactivating T3 or T4 to a non-biologically active form. Furthermore, thyroid hormone transporters are also found in the testis. Thus, the testis is equipped with the transporters and the enzymes necessary to maintain the optimal level of thyroid hormone in the seminiferous epithelium, as well as the specific thyroid hormone receptors to execute thyroid hormone action in response to different stages of the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Studies using genetic models and/or goitrogens (e.g., PTU (propylthiouracil have illustrated a tight physiological relationship between thyroid hormone and testicular function, in particular Sertoli cell differentiation status, mitotic activity, gap junction function and blood-testis barrier (BTB assembly. These findings are briefly summarized and discussed herein.

  14. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  15. Effects of pathogen exposure on life history variation in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J.; Fleming-Davies, Arietta E.; Dwyer, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Investment in host defenses against pathogens may lead to tradeoffs with host fecundity. When such tradeoffs arise from genetic correlations, rates of phenotypic change by natural selection may be affected. However, genetic correlations between host survival and fecundity are rarely quantified. To understand tradeoffs between immune responses to baculovirus exposure and fecundity in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we estimated genetic correlations between survival probability and traits related to fecundity, such as pupal weight. In addition, we tested whether different virus isolates have different effects on male and female pupal weight. To estimate genetic correlations, we exposed individuals of known relatedness to a single baculovirus isolate. To then evaluate the effect of virus isolate on pupal weight, we exposed a single gypsy moth strain to 16 baculovirus isolates. We found a negative genetic correlation between survival and pupal weight. In addition, virus exposure caused late-pupating females to be identical in weight to males, whereas unexposed females were 2–3 times as large as unexposed males. Finally, we found that female pupal weight is a quadratic function of host mortality across virus isolates, which is likely due to tradeoffs and compensatory growth processes acting at high and low mortality levels, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that fecundity costs may strongly affect the response to selection for disease resistance. In nature, baculoviruses contribute to the regulation of gypsy moth outbreaks, as pathogens often do in forest-defoliating insects. We therefore argue that tradeoffs between host life-history traits may help explain outbreak dynamics. PMID:26201381

  16. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown and th...... and the aetiology is possibly multifactorial. Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis.......The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...

  17. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V.; Meachem, S.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.

    2008-01-01

    , carcinoma in situ (CIS), seminoma, non-seminoma and gonadotropin-deprived human testis. ActRIIA mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: ALK2, ALK4 and ActRIIB proteins were observed in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and some spermatocytes within normal and gonadotropin-suppressed adult human...... testis; all three receptor subunits were also detected in CIS, seminoma and non-seminoma cells. ActRIIA immunoreactivity was faint to absent in the normal testis and in CIS and non-seminoma cells, whereas some seminoma cells displayed a strong signal. Also in contrast to the normal testis, a majority...

  18. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (114). Rupture of the right testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttarak, M; Thinyu, S; Lojanapiwat, B

    2007-03-01

    A 22-year-old man, who was kicked in the scrotum during Thai kickboxing, presented with a painful swelling of the right hemiscrotum. Scrotal ultrasonography (US) showed an enlarged right testis with heterogeneous echogenicity and irregular contours. Colour Doppler US showed vascularity in the upper pole of the right testis and avascularity in the lower pole. Emergency exploration of the right hemiscrotum revealed laceration of the lower pole of the right testis. Debridement and repair of the right testis were performed. The clinical manifestations, role of US and US findings of scrotal trauma are discussed.

  19. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  20. Genetic parameters of cryptorchidism and testis size in Friesian colts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, Anouk; Jong, de Adrianne; Nooij, de Hans R.; Hellinga, Ids; Ducro, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    In males with cryptorchidism, one or both testes do not descend into the scrotum thereby affecting among other things fertility. Testis size has been suggested to contribute to cryptorchidism. Therefore, the aim of our study was to estimate genetic parameters of cryptorchidism and testis size in

  1. An oncological view on the blood-testis barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J; Groen, HJM; van der Graaf, WTA; Hollema, H; Hendrikse, NH; Vaalburg, W; Sleijfer, DT; de Vries, EGE

    The function of the blood-testis barrier is to protect germ cells from harmful influences; thus, it also impedes the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the testis. The barrier has three components: first, a physicochemical barrier consisting of continuous capillaries, Sertoli cells in the tubular

  2. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  3. Cancer of the undescended or maldescended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Hilaris, B S; Tokita, N; Grabstald, H

    1976-02-01

    An analysis of 45 cryptorchids (by history or examination) with a testicular cancer treated at Memorial Hospital, between 1934 and 1973, is presented. Twenty-five patients had the cryptorchid state repaired at ages four to 27 years, either spontaneously or by orchiopexy or hormonal therapy. Ipsilateral (24) or contralateral (one) intrascrotal testis tumors developed four to 47 years later. Twenty cryptorchid patients presented with ipsilateral inguinal (eleven), abdominal (seven), or contralateral intrascrotal (two) tumors. There were 18 pure seminomas, 17 embryonal carcinomas, nine teratocarcinomas, and one reticulum cell sarcoma. Five year survival rates as estimated by the product-limit method were 60% for the unrepaired cases and 41% for the repaired cases. The survival seems to follow histologic type and anatomical stage, whether the testis is within the scrotum or not. Five year survival similarly estimated was 78% in the seminomas and 29% in the other tumors. Twelve of thirteen survivors (including nine with seminoma) received postoperative irradiation to the regional lymphatics and eleven were without recurrent tumor for periods ranging from six to 28 years.

  4. Phenology of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), male flight and the effect of moth dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnière, J.; Sharov, Alexei

    A model of Lymantria dispar development was assembled from the published literature and used to predict the period of male moth flight in the United States. Model predictions were compared with observations made with pheromone traps in several locations throughout the United States but especially in Virginia, West Virginia and North Carolina between 1995 and 1996. The model was found to provide accurate and unbiased forecasts of the dates of 5%, 50% and 95% cumulative trap catch, particularly at lower elevations. In areas of high topographic diversity (such as West Virginia), deviations between model output and observations were minimized by basing predictions of 5% and 50% cumulative catch on minimum elevation within neighborhoods of 25-81 km2. This model of L. dispar male flight phenology can be used to time the deployment and retrieval of pheromone traps in intensive or extensive monitoring programs. However, a better understanding of moth movement is needed to fully explain the patterns of local trap catch.

  5. Transcription profiling of 12 asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) cytochrome P450 genes in response to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Zhiying; Zou, Chuanshan; Cao, Chuanwang

    2014-04-01

    As the main group of detoxification enzymes, cytochrome P450 monoxygenases (P450s) catalyse an extremely diverse range of reactions that play an important role in the detoxification of foreign compounds. Transcription profiling of 12 Lymantria dispar P450 genes from the CYP6 subfamily believed to be involved in insecticide metabolism was performed in this study. Life-stage transcription profiling of CYP6 genes revealed significant variations between eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult males and females. Exposure of larvae to sublethal doses of deltamethrin, omethoate, and carbaryl enhanced the transcription of most of the CYP6 P450 genes, with induction peaking between 24 and 72 h after exposure. Transcription profiles were dependent on the levels of insecticide exposure and the various developmental stages.

  6. Characterization of the transcriptome of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar identifies numerous transcripts associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, ChuanWang; Sun, LiLi; Wen, RongRong; Shang, QingLi; Ma, Ling; Wang, ZhiYing

    2015-03-01

    Although the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar causes extensive forest damage worldwide, little is known regarding the genes involved in its development or response to insecticides. Accordingly, characterization of the transcriptome of L. dispar larvae would promote the development of toxicological methods for its control. RNA-seq analysis of L. dispar larvae messenger RNA (mRNA) generated 62,063 unigenes with N50 of 993 bp, from which 23,975 unique sequences (E-value insecticide targets, or proteins involved in the metabolism of insecticides. Reads per kilobase of unigene length per million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis identified 39 high abundance transcripts, of which 27 exhibited significantly altered expression patterns across the egg, larvae, pupae, male and female adult stages. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic sequence resource for L. dispar, which will form the basis for future identification of candidate insecticide resistance genes in L. dispar.

  7. Testis Transcriptome Modulation in Klinefelter Patients with Hypospermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Aurora, Marco; Ferlin, Alberto; Garolla, Andrea; Franchi, Sara; D’Onofrio, Laura; Trubiani, Oriana; Palka, Giandomenico; Foresta, Carlo; Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    The main genetic cause of male infertility is represented by the Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), a condition accounting for 3% of all cases of infertility and up to15% of cases of azoospermia. KS is generally characterized by azoospermia; approximately 10% of cases have severe oligozoospermia. Among these, the 30–40% of patients show hypospermatogenesis. The mechanisms leading to adult testis dysfunctions are not completely understood. A microarray transcriptome analysis was performed on testis biopsies obtained from three KS patients with hypospermatogenesis and three control subjects. KS testis showed a differential up- and down-regulation of 303 and 747 transcripts, respectively, as compared to controls. The majority of down-regulated transcripts were involved in spermiogenesis failure and testis morphological defects, whereas up-regulated genes were responsible for testis apoptotic processes. Functional analysis of the transcriptionally altered genes indicated a deregulation in cell death, germ cell function and morphology as well as blood-testis-barrier maintenance and Leydig cells activity. These data support a complex scenario in which spermatogenic impairment is the result of functional and morphological alterations in both germinal and somatic components of KS testis. These findings could represent the basis for evaluating new markers of KS spermatogenesis and potential targets of therapeutic intervention to preserve residual spermatogenesis. PMID:28361989

  8. Identification of glutamate transporters and receptors in mouse testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hua HU; Na YANG; Ying-hua MA; Jie JIANG; Jin-fu ZHANG; Jian FEI; Li-he GUO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of glutamate transporters and receptors in mouse testis. METHODS: Glutamate uptake analysis was performed to study the function of glutamate transporters in mouse testis. Comparative RT-PCR technique and sequencing analysis were used to study the expression of glutamate receptors and transporters in mouse testis. RESULTS: Mouse testis possessed glutamate uptake capacity with sodium-dependence. Vmax value of glutamate uptake was (1.60 ± 0.21) pmol/min per mg protein and Km value of glutamate uptake was (11.0±1.6) μmol/L in mouse testis according to saturation analysis. Furthermore, the uptake activity could be inhibited by DHK (GLT1 selective inhibitor) and THA (glutamate uptake inhibitor). In addition, RT-PCR results revealed that glutamate transporters (GLT1 and EAAC1) and ionotropic glutamate receptors (NR1, NR2B, GluR6 and KA2) were expressed in mouse testis. CONCLUSION: Glutamate transporters and receptors do exist in mouse testis.

  9. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and complete loss in lobular structure with degenerating spermatozoa in some carps. .... according to the germ cell types present and .... Testis (20x) of carp exposed to 1000 µg/L of BPA showing testicular organization; slightly reduced lobular.

  10. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docal, I.; Crespo, C.; Pardo, A.; Prieto, A.; Alonso, P. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain); Calzada, J. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is an uncommon benign tumour, with an overall incidence of 1-2 % of all resected testicular masses. When imaging findings suggest that an intratesticular mass is likely to be an epidermoid cyst, conservative management (enucleation with testicular preservation) can be performed rather than orchidectomy. This case report records an epidermoid cyst in a 12-year-old boy in whom the US findings allowed testis-sparing surgery instead of orchidectomy. (orig.)

  11. Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Denes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment of the cryptorchid testicle is justified due to the increased risk of infertility and malignancy as well as the risk of testicular trauma and psychological stigma on patients and their parents. Approximately 20% of cryptorchid testicles are nonpalpable. In these cases, the videolaparoscopic technique is a useful alternative method for diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present data concerning 90 patients submitted to diagnostic laparoscopy for impalpable testicles. Forty-six patients (51.1% had intra-abdominal gonads. In 25 testicles of 19 patients, we performed a two stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. The other 27 patients underwent primary laparoscopic orchiopexy, in a total of 29 testicles. RESULTS: We obtained an overall 88% success rate with the 2 stage Fowler-Stephens approach and only 33% rate success using one stage Fowler-Stephens surgery with primary vascular ligature. There was no intraoperative complication in our group of patients. In the laparoscopic procedures, the cosmetic aspect is remarkably more favorable as compared to open surgeries. Hospital stay and convalescence were brief. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric age group, the laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible. Furthermore, the laparoscopic orchiopexy presents excellent results in terms of diagnosis and therapy of the impalpable testis, which is why this technique has been routinely incorporated in our Department.

  12. The Lymantria dispar IPLB-Ld652Y Cell Line Transcriptome Comprises Diverse Virus-Associated Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced viral susceptibility of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar-derived IPLB-Ld652Y cell line has made it a popular in vitro system for studying virus-related phenomena in the Lepidoptera. Using both single-pass EST sequencing and 454-based pyrosequencing, a transcriptomic library of 14,368 putatively unique transcripts (PUTs was produced comprising 8,476,050 high-quality, informative bases. The gene content of the IPLB-Ld652Y transcriptome was broadly assessed via comparison with the NCBI non‑redundant protein database, and more detailed functional annotation was inferred by comparison to the Swiss-Prot subset of UniProtKB. In addition to L. dispar cellular transcripts, a diverse array of both RNA and DNA virus-associated transcripts was identified within the dataset, suggestive of a high level of viral expression and activity in IPLB-Ld652Y cells. These sequence resources will provide a sound basis for developing testable experimental hypotheses by insect virologists, and suggest a number of avenues for potential research.

  13. Foliage maturity of Quercus ilex affects the larval development of a Croatian coastal population of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar is one of the most important forest pests in the world. Numerous previous studies focused only on different host tree species, but small number of them on foliage age. Since recent genetic analyses showed that there are significant differences between Croatian continental and coastal population we investigated coastal population since there was no previous research. For this research juvenile and mature foliage of Holm oak (Quercus ilex was used. Larval development was investigated in two laboratory experiments. One experiment involved rearing trials consisting of 50 individual larvae per treatment while a parallel experiment investigated gregarious feeding conditions using 120 larvae in a rearing treatment. Larval mortality was lower and development time shorter for individuals reared on juvenile foliage. High pupation success in both the individual and group rearing experiment for larvae reared on juvenile foliage was also observed. To conclude, our results showed high mortality, poor larval development and low pupation success in larvae reared on mature foliage. This research is significant because in the aspect of ongoing climate changes there is a possibility that gypsy moth will move to the north and shift its distribution by expanding into new climatic area.

  14. ETUDE DU DEVELOPPEMENT DE Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae SUR QUELQUES ESPECES VEGETALES ASSOCIEES AU CHENE-LIEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L OUAKID

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae est un important ravageur du chêne-liège dans la région d’El Tarf (Algérie. Son cycle de développement a déjà été précisé. Lors du retard de débourrement des chênes, espèces végétales préférentielles du ravageur, les chenilles envahissent et consomment d’autres plantes du sous-bois. Différentes espèces végétales ont été testées comme substrat alimentaire des chenilles: le chêne-liège (Quercus suber, le chêne-zeen (Q. faginea, l’aubépine (Crataegus oxyacanta et le garou (Daphne gnidium. Nos résultats montrent que les chenilles ne consomment pas le garou et que les larves des premiers stades (L1, L2 manifestent une préférence alimentaire pour l’aubépine. Les larves des stades avances (L3 à L5 se développent relativement mieux sur le chêne. Toutefois, le chêne-liège demeure l’aliment le plus consommé. Il assure au ravageur les meilleures performances biologiques.

  15. Identification of a dendritic cell population in normal testis and in chronically inflamed testis of rats with autoimmune orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Claudia; Lustig, Livia; Iosub, Radu; Guazzone, Vanesa A; Schneider, Eva; Meinhardt, Andreas; Fijak, Monika

    2006-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in the rat is the primary chronic animal model for the investigation of one of the main causes of male infertility, viz., testicular inflammation. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a fundamental role in autoimmune disease. We investigated the number of DC in normal testis and examined whether DC infiltrated the testis during the development of EAO. EAO was induced by active immunization with testis homogenate and adjuvants in two strains of rat (Wistar and Sprague Dawley). The presence of DC in testis was determined, 50 and 80 days after the first immunization, by immunohistochemical staining with specific antibodies (OX-62 and CD11c), and then the total number of DC was measured by stereological analysis. Labeled cells were found only in the interstitial compartment and within granulomas of EAO animals. The number of DC in EAO testes increased compared with control rats in both strains, whereas the number of OX-62+ and CD11c+ cells in adjuvant controls remained unchanged compared with untreated rats. Interspecies variations in the quantity of DC were found, with the total number of DC per testis in untreated and adjuvant control Sprague-Dawley rats being about three times higher than that seen in Wistar rats. Moreover, the increase in DC numbers at 80 days was less prominent in EAO testes of Sprague-Dawley rats than in the Wistar strain in which EAO was more severe and showed a higher number of granulomae. Thus, we have identified the DC population in normal and chronically inflamed testis. The increase in DC observed in EAO suggests that, under inflammatory conditions, the modified action(s) of these cells is a factor in the induction of the autoimmune response in testis.

  16. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  17. Pluripotent male germline stem cells from goat fetal testis and their survival in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2 × 10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins.

  18. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  19. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  20. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh Mahla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water buffalo is an economically important livestock species and about half of its total world population exists in India. Development of stem cell technology in buffalo can find application in targeted genetic modification of this species. Testis has emerged as a source of pluripotent stem cells in mice and human; however, not much information is available in buffalo. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Pou5f1 (Oct 3/4 is a transcription factor expressed by pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, in the present study, expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was examined in testes of both young and adult buffaloes by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Further, using the testis transplantation assay, a functional assay for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, stem cell potential of gonocytes/spermatogonia isolated from prepubertal buffalo testis was also determined. RESULTS: Expression of POU5F1 transcript and protein was detected in prepubertal and adult buffalo testes. Western blot analysis revealed that the POU5F1 protein in the buffalo testis exists in two isoforms; large (∼47 kDa and small (∼21 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that POU5F1 expression in prepubertal buffalo testis was present in gonocytes/spermatogonia and absent from somatic cells. In the adult testis, POU5F1 expression was present primarily in post-meiotic germ cells such as round spermatids, weakly in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and absent from elongated spermatids. POU5F1 protein expression was seen both in cytoplasm and nuclei of the stained germ cells. Stem cell potential of prepubertal buffalo gonocytes/spermatogonia was confirmed by the presence of colonized DBA-stained cells in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings strongly indicate that gonocytes/spermatogonia, isolated for prepubertal buffalo testis can

  1. Identification of a novel testis-specific gene and its potential roles in testis development/spermatogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Lan Yin; Jian-Min Li; Zuo-Min Zhou; Jia-Hao Sha

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To identify and characterize a novel gene with potential roles in testis development and spermatogenesis.Methods: A cDNA microarray was constructed from a human testis large insert cDNA library and hybridized with probes of human or mouse adult and fetal testes. Differentially expressed genes were isolated and sequenced. RT-PCR was used to test the tissue distribution of the genes of interest and in situ hybridization was performed to localize the gene expression in the mouse testis. A range of bioinformatical programs including Gene Runner, SMART, NCBI Blast and Emboss CpGPlot were used to characterize the new gene's feature. Results: A novel testis-specific gene,NYD-SP5, was differentially expressed in fetal and adult testes. The deduced protein structure of NYD-SP5 was found to contain an IQ motif (a short calmodulin-binding motif containing conserved Ile and Gln residues), a Carbamate kinase-like domain, a Zn-dependent exopeptidase domain and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) C-terminal-like domain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that NYD-SP5 was predominantly expressed in the testis but not in other 15 tissues examined. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR examinations revealed that the expression of NYD-SP5 was confined in the male germ cell but not present in the somatic cell in the testes. Conclusion: NYD-SP5 is a newly found testisspecific gene with potential roles in testis development and spermatogenesis through a calmodulin-activated enzyme.

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  12. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  2. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  5. MONITORING OF REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE LEVELS AFTER TESTIS TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNXuc-Dong; XIAWen-Jia; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    The reproductive hormones in blood were measured by radioirnmunoassay (RIA) including FSH, interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH or LH) and testosterone (T) in 6 patients (average age 24.0±3.4, ranged 20-30 years old) before testis

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  7. Surgical treatment and follow up on undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D.

    2009-01-01

    a common etiologic antenatal factor is associated with infertility and/or testicular malignancy is supported by the finding of the influence of maternal lifestyle factors on fertility, a relative cancer risk of OR: 2.0 in contralateral descended testis of unilateral cryptorchidism, impaired germ cell...

  8. Cadmium and high temperature effects on brain and behaviour of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars originating from polluted and less-polluted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Petković, Branka; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Dronjak Čučaković, Slađana; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena

    2017-10-01

    Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C). The insects originated from two forests, one close to "Nikola Tesla" thermoelectric power plant, Obrenovac (polluted population), and the other Kosmaj mountain (less-polluted population, far from any industrial region). The Cd BF was higher in the less-polluted than in the polluted population especially at the high ambient temperature. AChE activity and dopamine content were changed in the brains of L. dispar from both populations in the same manner. Hsp70 concentration in caterpillar brains showed opposite trends, a decrease in the less-polluted and an increase in the polluted population. Locomotor activity was modified in both Lymantria dispar populations, but the pattern of changes depended on the stressors and their combined effect. ACh activity and dopamine content are sensitive parameters to Cd exposure, regardless of pollutant experience, and might be promising biomarkers in monitoring forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  10. Morphology of the Testis and Epididymis of Large White Boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gbadebo Olukole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The testis and epididymis of twenty five adult Large White boars were used to investigate the biometric and histomorphometric parameters of the testis and epididymis of the boars. The aim of the study was to provide information which could be useful in the comparative regional anatomy of the male reproductive organs of domestic animals and thus an improved assessment of breeding soundness and fertility potential in boars. The average weight of the animals was 71.3 ± 10.7 kg. The average weights of the right and left testes were 170 ± 0.7.60 g and 179±6.48g, respectively with no significant dif¬ference. The average weights of the right and left epididymis were 40.9 ± 6.81 g and 43.7 ± 8.55 g, respectively, with no significant difference. The relative testicular and epididymal weights were 0.49% and 0.12%, respectively. This study shows that the testis is about four times the size of the epididymis. The ductal diameter of the head, body and tail of the epididymis were 418 ± 22.6 µm, 432 ± 20.3 µm and 939 ± 50.6 µm, respectively. The mean relative volume of the germinal epithelium, interstitium and lumen of the seminiferous tubules of the boars rats were 68.4 ± 3.46%, 5.5 ± 0.66% and 78.0 ± 4.81%, respectively. It can be concluded that the morphology of the testis and epididymis of the Large White boar are similar to those of most mammals. This work provides information the testis and epididymis of the Large White boar which could be useful in the comparative regional anatomy of the male reproductive organs of domestic animals and thus an improved assessment of breeding soundness and fertility potential in boars.

  11. In Vitro Spermatogenesis in Explanted Adult Mouse Testis Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Katagiri, Kumiko; Kojima, Kazuaki; Komeya, Mitsuru; Yao, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Research on in vitro spermatogenesis is important for elucidating the spermatogenic mechanism. We previously developed an organ culture method which can support spermatogenesis from spermatogonial stem cells up to sperm formation using immature mouse testis tissues. In this study, we examined whether it is also applicable to mature testis tissues of adult mice. We used two lines of transgenic mice, Acrosin-GFP and Gsg2-GFP, which carry the marker GFP gene specific for meiotic and haploid cells, respectively. Testis tissue fragments of adult GFP mice, aged from 4 to 29 weeks old, which express GFP at full extension, were cultured in medium supplemented with 10% KSR or AlbuMAX. GFP expression decreased rapidly and became the lowest at 7 to 14 days of culture, but then slightly increased during the following culture period. This increase reflected de novo spermatogenesis, confirmed by BrdU labeling in spermatocytes and spermatids. We also used vitamin A-deficient mice, whose testes contain only spermatogonia. The testes of those mice at 13-21 weeks old, showing no GFP expression at explantation, gained GFP expression during culturing, and spermatogenesis was confirmed histologically. In addition, the adult testis tissues of Sl/Sld mutant mice, which lack spermatogenesis due to Kit ligand mutation, were cultured with recombinant Kit ligand to induce spermatogenesis up to haploid formation. Although the efficiency of spermatogenesis was lower than that of pup, present results showed that the organ culture method is effective for the culturing of mature adult mouse testis tissue, demonstrated by the induction of spermatogenesis from spermatogonia to haploid cells.

  12. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  13. Derivation of sperm from xenografted testis cells and tissues of the peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Junior, Paulo Henrique Almeida; Costa, Guilherme Mattos Jardim; Avelar, Gleide Fernandes; Lacerda, Samyra Maria Santos Nassif; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos; Barcelos, Lucíola Silva; Jorge, Erika Cristina; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de França, Luiz Renato

    2014-03-01

    Because the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) has a peculiar Leydig cell cytoarchitecture, this species represents a unique mammalian model for investigating testis function. Taking advantage of the well-established and very useful testis xenograft technique, in the present study, testis tissue and testis cell suspensions from immature collared peccaries (n=4; 3 months old) were xenografted in SCID mice (n=48) and evaluated at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months after grafting. Complete spermatogenesis was observed at 6 and 8 months after testis tissue xenografting. However, probably due to de novo testis morphogenesis and low androgen secretion, functionally evaluated by the seminal vesicle weight, a delay in spermatogenesis progression was observed in the testis cell suspension xenografts, with the production of fertile sperm only at 8 months after grafting. Importantly, demonstrating that the peculiar testicular cytoarchitecture of the collared peccary is intrinsically programmed, the unique Leydig cell arrangement observed in this species was re-established after de novo testis morphogenesis. The sperm collected from the xenografts resulted in diploid embryos that expressed the paternally imprinted gene NNAT after ICSI. The present study is the first to demonstrate complete spermatogenesis with the production of fertile sperm from testis cell suspension xenografts in a wild mammalian species. Therefore, due to its unique testicular cytoarchitecture, xenograft techniques, particularly testis cell suspensions, may represent a new and very promising approach to evaluate testis morphogenesis and to investigate spermatogonial stem cell physiology and niche in the collared peccary.

  14. Testicular microlithiasis in a unilateral undescended testis: a rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Manchanda, V; Gupta, R

    2013-12-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a rare benign condition with presence of multiple small microcalcifications in the seminiferous tubules. Though the aetiology is unknown, TM has been described in association with a variety of urological conditions. We report the clinico-pathological features of a 12-year-old male child who underwent orchidectomy for undescended testis. Histopathological examination of the excised testis showed multiple small intratubular calcifications without any evidence of testicular neoplasia. TM is an unusual phenomenon that should be kept in mind while evaluating testicular biopsies. Though it behaves in a benign manner in most of the cases, patients with positive family history of testicular cancer should be followed-up for testicular tumour.

  15. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  16. [Fibrous pseudotumor of the vaginalis testis: report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Guessous, H; Benjelloun, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the authors have reported a case of a benign fibrous pseudotumor of the tunica vaginalis testis in a 24-year old man who was admitted with a left scrotal mass. Scrotal ultrasound and surgical investigation demonstrated the presence of a left testicular tumor; radical orchiectomy was performed by inguinal route. Microscopic examination revealed a pseudotumor of the testicular tunica vaginalis. As this is an uncommon lesion and preoperative diagnosis is difficult, unnecessary radical orchidectomy is often carried out.

  17. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression in the Prepubertal Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5′ heterogeneity, editing, and 3′ nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis. PMID:21206922

  18. Analysis of microRNA expression in the prepubertal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchold, Gregory M; Coarfa, Cristian; Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Matzuk, Martin M

    2010-12-29

    Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5' heterogeneity, editing, and 3' nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis.

  19. Analysis of microRNA expression in the prepubertal testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Buchold

    Full Text Available Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5' heterogeneity, editing, and 3' nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis.

  20. Hypomethylation of DNA in meiotic and postmeiotic rooster testis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocamora, N; Mezquita, C

    1984-11-05

    To study whether changes in methylation of DNA are related to the structural and functional changes that chromatin undergoes throughout rooster spermatogenenis, we analyzed, by high-performance liquid chromatography, the 5-methylcytosine content of DNA purified from rooster testis cell nuclei at successive stages of the cell differentiation process. The DNA of meiotic and postmeiotic cells appears partially under-methylated, containing approximately 30% less methylcytosines than the DNA obtained from premeiotic and somatic cells.

  1. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis.

  2. Histologic changes in the mouse testis after bilateral vasectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShioKumarSingh; SumanaChakravarty

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of vasectomy on histological appearance of the testis. Methods: Parkes strain mice were used as the animal model; they were bilaterally vasectomized (Vx) or sham-operated (So) and killed at intervals of 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after the operation. Testes were excised from 5 Vx and 5 So mice at each interval and processed for histological examination. Results: Testes of So mice showed normal histological features. By contrast, marked alterations were observed in the seminiferous tubules in testes of Vx mice, except in those killed 4 months after the operation. The seminiferous epithelium in the tubules was only 2 - 3 layers thick and showed much depletion of germ cells; in severe cases, the epithelium consisted of only a thin layer of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and a few spermatocytes. Exfoliation of germ cells, occurrence of multinucleated giant cells and vacuolated appearance of the epithelium were of common features in the tubules. Furthermore, lumen of the rete testis in Vx mice was greatly dilated and showed accumulation of spermatozoa with immature germ cells; in mice vasectomized for 6 - 12 months, several macrophages ingesting spermatozoa were often observed in the lumen of the rete testis. Spermatic granuloma was also sometimes noticed in corpus or in cauda regions of the epididymis in mice vasectomized for 6 - 12 months. Conclusion: We suggest that consequences of vasectomy should be thoroughly understood in order to make this method rather more popular as a reversible method of male contraception.

  3. Murine Asb-17 expression during mouse testis development and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kye-Seong; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2004-05-01

    In this study we isolated a murine mAsb-17 from mouse testis by RT-PCR using primers designed based on the sequences from the GenBank database. The sequence analysis showed that mAsb-17 encodes a 295 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa containing two ankyrin repeats and one SOCS box. The amino acid sequence of mASB-17 showed 87.5%, 98.3% and 92.9% identity with that of human, rat and dog, respectively. Interestingly, northern blot analysis showed that mAsb-17 was expressed only in the testis. The expression analysis by RT-PCR for mAsb-17 in mouse indicates that mAsb-17 is expressed from the fourth week after birth to adult, with the highest expression in round spermatids. Both northern blot and RT-PCR analyses suggest that mASB-17 may play essential roles in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  4. Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Cytotoxic Effect in Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khaki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent belonging to the family of fluoroquinolones with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially Gram-negative infectious diseases, that has been approved in more than 100 countries world-wide. The aim of this study was to see histopathological and cytotoxic effects of ciprofloxacin after inducement in rat testis. Materials & Methods: The twenty male wistar rat were selected and randomly divided into two groups; control (n=10 and test (n=10. The test group was received 12.5mg/kg (PO ciprofloxacin daily for sixty day; however the control group just received plate. On sixtieth day the testis tissue of rat in both groups were removed and were prepared for light microscopy and cytotoxic studies. Results: Study about cytotoxic effects was indicated that absorption of radiation rate after five day in control group was increased when as compared with experimental group, (Control: 92.8±1.5 & Test: 65±6, P<0.05 and the studies of testis tissue slices of test group showed many changes such as necrosis in spermatocyt I cells plus diameter of nuclei in spermatocyt I, was increased, (P<0.01. Conclusion: Since in our study ciprofloxacin had cytotoxic side effect on spermatocyt I cells, and rate of cell death may be increased in this cells then consequently ciprofloxacin inducement is harmful for sperm health ability parameters and due decrease fertility rates in human.

  5. Laparoscopic Fowler Stephens orchidopexy for intra-abdominal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papparella A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors reported their experience in the laparoscopic orchidopexy for intra-abdominal testis (IAT. Since 2003, 173 laparoscopy for NPT were performed for a total of 181 testicular units. In 75 patients cord structures entering the inguinal ring were observed, and 43 had an inguinal exploration. In 34 patients a blind ending vas and vessels were observed and 8 showed testicular agenesis: these patients were managed by laparoscopy only. In 62 cases an intra-abdominal testes (IAT were found: 42 had a primary orchidopexy and 22, with high IAT, were managed by a laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens (FS procedure. In 12 testes we performed a two stage procedure while 10 had one stage. There were no differences in hospitalisation and early surgical complications were not recorded. Follow up ranged from 1 to 5 years. Of 22 patients who underwent FS orchidopexy, testicular atrophy developed in 4; the remaining are in scrotal position, with normal consistency and well perfused at color doppler ultrasound. Laparoscopy is essential in the surgical and therapeutic management of non-palpable testis. FS orchidopexy is reserved to high intra-abdominal testes that have a distance more than 3 cm from the internal inguinal ring. There were no differences between the group managed by one or two step FS. The minimal morbidity with an high success rate prove to be a significant contribution to the intra-abdominal testis management.

  6. Epidermal growth factor mediates spermatogonial proliferation in newt testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abé Shin-ichi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the EGF receptors, ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4, in the testis. RT-PCR showed that all the receptors cloned were expressed in both Sertoli and germ cells at the spermatogonial stage. In the organ cultures with inhibitors for the EGF receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, the EGF-induced spermatogonial proliferation was suppressed. Furthermore, when the organ culture was exposed to EGF, the expressions of stem cell factor (SCF, immunoglobulin-like domain containing neuregulin1 (Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4 mRNA were increased. These results suggested that, since the spermatogonia are sequestered within cysts by the blood-testis barrier consisted of Sertoli cells, EGF possibly mediates spermatogonial proliferation in an endocrine manner through the receptors including ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4 expressed on Sertoli cells via activation of MAPK cascade or/and PI3K cascade by elevating the expressions of SCF, Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4.

  7. Mutations of t-complex testis expressed gene 5 transcripts in the testis of sterile t-haplotype mutant mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibing Han; Xue-Xiong Song; Huai-Liang Feng; Che-Kwok Cheung; Po-Mui Lam; Chi-Chiu Wang; Christophe John Haines

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the possible roles of the t-complex testis expressed gene 5 (Tctex5) on sperm functions, the full-length sequence of mRNA was studied and compared in the testis between the normal wild-type and the sterile t-haplotype mutant mice. Methods: We applied rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Northern blot and reverse tran-scription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the full length of Tctex5 mRNAs isolated from testes of the wild-type and the t-haplotype mice. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to semi-quantitatively compare expression of Tctex5 transcripts in the 16 tissues and 9.5 day stage embryos in the wild-type mice. E-translation was applied to estimate the amino acid sequences. Results: One long and one short transcript of Tctex5 mRNA were discovered in mouse testis of wild-type (Tctex5long-+ and Tctex5short-+) and t-haplotype(Tctex5long-t and Tctex5short-t)mice,respectively. Being enhanced only in the testis, Tctex5long-t had 17 point mutations and one 15-bp-deletion in the exon 1 region, comparing with the Tctex5long-+, whereas the Tctex5short-t was similar to the Tctex5short-+. The short isoforms of Tctex5 rnRNAs in the two models encoded exactly the same peptides, but the long isoforms did not. The estimated peptide encoded by Tctex5long-t had significant mutations on putative sites of phosphorylation and PP1 binding.Conclusion: We established that mutations that occur in the Tctex5 long transcript of the t-haplotype mice are important for normal sperm function, whereas the short transcript of Tctex5 might have a conserved function among different tissues.

  8. TSGA10, as a Cancer/Testis gene: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Rahmani Rad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer/Testis antigens (CTAs as a group of tumor antigens are the novel subjects for developing cancer vaccine and immunotherapy approaches. They aberrantly express in tumors with highest normal expression in testis, and limited or no expression in normal tissues. There are important similarities between the processes of germ-cell and cancer cell development Spermatogenesis begins at puberty when expression of novel cell-surface antigens occurs when the immune system has been refined the ability to distinguish self from non-self. Whereas macrophage and lymphocytes are commonly found within interstitial spaces of the testis, these antigen-presenting cells are rarely seen within the seminiferous tubules. These observations have led to the concept of the immune privileged site for testis. Localized normal expression of the CT genes in testis that makes them immunogenic for immune system, in one side, and their abnormal expression in different kinds of cancer cells, in the other side, has make them as promising target for developing cancer vaccines and new cancer therapeutics approaches. In malignancies, gene regulation is disrupted which results aberrant expression of CT antigen in a proportion of tumors of various types. For some CTAs, data support their fundamental role in tumorigenesis. Several authors believe it is not clear whether they have an essential role in tumorigenesis or they are by-products of chromatin variations in cancer. There is a growing list of CTAs within them advanced clinical trials are running by using some of them in cancers like lung cancer, malignant melanoma and neuroblastoma. In this review we discuss the gene TSGA10 as an example of CT genes. TSGA10 expresses in its highest levels in elongating spermatids and localized in the fibrous sheath of mature sperm. This gene is proposed as a serological biomarker in cutaneous lymphoma. Its abnormal expression has been reported in different cancers such as acute lymphoblastic

  9. The vitamin D receptor localization and mRNA expression in ram testis and epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Huang, Yang; Jin, Guang; Xue, Yanrong; Qin, Xiaowei; Yao, Xiaolei; Yue, Wenbing

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of present study were to investigate the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in testis and epididymis of ram by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to locate VDR in testis and epididymis by immunohistochemistry and to compare difference of VDR expression between testis and epididymis before and after sexual maturation by Real time-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that VDR exists in the testis and epididymis of ram while VDR protein in testis and epididymis was localized in Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells and principal cells. For the adult ram, the amounts of VDR mRNA and VDR protein were less (p ram, the result showed the same trend (p 0.05) between adult and prepubertal. In conclusion, VDR exists in testis and epididymis of ram, suggesting 1α,25-(OH)(2)VD(3) may play a role in ram reproduction.

  10. Prevention of H2O2 Induced Oxidative Damages of Rat Testis by Thymus algeriensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatma Guesmi; Hamida Beghalem; Amit K Tyagi; Manel Ben Ali; Ramla Ben Mouhoub; Houda Bellamine; Ahmed Landoulsi

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveWe evaluate the effects ofThymus algeriensis (TEO) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity on body and testis weight, testis sperm count, testis lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. MethodsRats were treated with low (LD) and high dose (HD) of H2O2 (0.1 and 1 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of TEO (150 mg/kg). ResultsThe results exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and testis weight, in total sperm number decrease (P ConclusionH2O2 has the ability to alter the sperm function, characteristics and development of testis. However, TEO is an efficient natural agent, which can prevent the testis from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rats.

  11. Expression of lactate dehydrogenases A and B during chicken spermatogenesis: characterization of testis specific transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, W M; Mezquita, C; Mezquita, J

    2000-07-19

    The substrates required for glycolysis change markedly at successive stages of spermatogenesis suggesting a considerable plasticity in the expression of glycolytic enzymes. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes, LDH-A and LDH-B, are expressed in premeiotic, meiotic cells, and early spermatids, both in avian and mammalian spermatogenesis. Highly polyadenylated forms, particularly of LDH-A, were detected in chicken testis. While mammals and columbid birds express the testis specific LDH-C gene in meiotic and postmeiotic cells, several LDH-B testis specific transcripts were detected in the corresponding cells during chicken spermatogenesis. These testis specific transcripts and the mRNA of mammalian LDH-C show several properties in common, such as temporal correlation of expression, mRNA stability, and repression of premature translation. These observations suggest that the testis specific transcripts could perform during chicken spermatogenesis the functions of the LDH-C mRNA in mammalian testis. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Phosphorylated testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 4 may phosphorylate Crem at Ser-117.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guolong; Wei, Youheng; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Long

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the internal existence status of testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 4 (Tssk4) and the interaction of Tssk4 and Cre-responsive element modulator (Crem). The internal existence status of Tssk4 in testis of mice was detected using western blotting and dephosphorylation method. The interaction of Tssk4 and Crem was analyzed by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assays, and in vitro kinase assay. The results revealed that Tssk4 existed in testis both in phosphorylation and unphosphorylation status by a temporal manner with the development of testis. Immunofluorescence results showed that Tssk4 had identical distribution pattern with Crem in testis, which was utterly different to the localization of Cre-responsive element binding (Creb). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that phosphorylated Tssk4 might participate in testis genes expressions by phosphorylating Crem at Ser-117.

  13. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  14. EPAS1 Is Required for Spermatogenesis in the Postnatal Mouse Testis1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michaela Gruber; Lijoy K. Mathew; Anja C. Runge; Joseph A. Garcia; M. Celeste Simon

    2010-01-01

    .... A complex system in the testis, including endocrine signaling, physical interactions between germ and somatic cells, spermatocyte meiosis, and timely release of spermatozoa, controls this cycle...

  15. Structural and Functional Difference of Pheromone Binding Proteins in Discriminating Chemicals in the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria Dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Yu, Fei Ma, Yixia Cao, Junhua Zhang, Yongan Zhang, Shengnan Duan, Yadong Wei, Shuifang Zhu, Naizhong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal, Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl adipate (Bis, L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074. The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+-Disparlure ((+-D, and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1 was 0.68±0.01μM, for (+-D was 5.32±0.11μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+-D were 1.88±0.02μM and 5.54±0.04μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than (+-D at p

  16. Response of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar to Transgenic Poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, Expressing Fusion Protein Gene of the Spider Insecticidal Peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ω?-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ω?-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The...

  17. The undescended testis: Clinical management and scientific advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Jaya; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jorgen

    2016-08-01

    Undescended testes (UDT), where one or both testes fail to migrate to the base of the scrotum, can be congenital (2-5% of newborn males) or acquired (1-2% of males). The testis may be found in any position along its usual line of descent. Cryptorchidism affects the developing testicular germ cells and increases the risk of infertility and malignancy. Clinical management aims to preserve spermatogenesis and prevent the increased risk of seminoma. Examination to document the testicular position will guide the need for imaging, medical management and the surgical approach to orchidopexy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  19. Testis Scintigraphy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Şencan Eren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a pediatric malignancy associated with remissions and relapses. Common relapsing sitesare meninges, testis and ovary. Testicular scintigraphy is a highly specific modality used mainly in the differential diagnosis of testicular torsion and epidydimitis/epidydimo-orchitis. There is only one interesting image on leukemic infiltration with scrotal scintigraphy in the literature. The aim of this case presentation is to report that although the scintigraphic appearance of testicular torsion was observed in a patient with the diagnosis of ALL, testicular ALL infiltration was revealed in pathologic examination.

  20. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways...... as the testis matured. There may be interactions between MAPK, STAR and growth factors during specific periods. In conclusion, pathways for neurogenesis, morphological pathways and several transcripts for growth factors, which have known modulating effects on steroidogenesis and gonadotropins in humans...

  1. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low...

  2. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...

  3. The effect of constant photoperiod on testis weight and the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assumed that male broiler breeders respond in a similar manner to females, it would be ... that birds with large ornaments are expressing higher reproductive fitness. .... v erag e testis w eig h t (g. ) Figure 2 Ave testis weights at 165d of birds on ...

  4. Assessment of testis development during induced spermatogenesis in the European eel Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Kofoed, Tanja; Pedersen, Jes S.

    2011-01-01

    for histological analysis of spermatogenesis. Testis development was followed over 18 weeks, during which the males continued to develop spermatocytes and produce spermatozoa. The SMI describes testis development from estimation of the area fractions of various tissue categories characterized by progressive gamete...

  5. Heterologous expression of rat testis GABAA receptor βt variant in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-FengLi; Yu-GuangChen; Yuan-ChangYan; Yi-PingLi

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the characteristics and possible retention functionof specific sequence in the 5'-end of rat testis GABAA receptor β 3t variant, Methods: Rat testis GABAA receptor β 3t variant cDNA was cloned and inserted into two eukaryotic expression vectors of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-C1 respectively, which have EGFP reporter gene.

  6. High expression of NPY receptors in the human testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Meike; Waser, Beatriche; Thalmann, George N; Reubii, Jean Claude

    2011-04-30

    NPY receptors represent novel molecular therapeutic targets in cancer and obesity. However, the extent of NPY receptor expression in normal human tissues is poorly investigated. Based on the role of NPY in reproductive functions, the NPY receptor expression was studied in 25 normal human testes and, additionally, 24 testicular tumors using NPY receptor autoradiography. In the normal testis, Leydig cells strongly expressed NPY receptor subtype Y2, and small arterial blood vessels Y1. Y2 receptors were found to be functional with agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding autoradiography. Full functional integrity of the NPY system was further suggested by the immunohistochemical detection of NPY peptide in nerve fibers directly adjacent to Leydig cells and arteries. Germ cell tumors expressed Y1 and Y2 on tumor cells in 33% and Y1 on intratumoral blood vessels in 50%. Based on its strong NPY receptor expression in Leydig cells and blood vessels, the normal human testis represents a potentially important physiological and pharmalogical NPY target.

  7. [Focal surgery in testis cancer: current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Giuseppe; Antonucci, Michele; Recupero, Salvatore Marco; Fiorillo, Alessandro; Vittori, Matteo; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Gulino, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Radical orchiectomy is the standard treatment of testicular neoplasia causing androgen insufficiency, infertility and psychological stress. Focal surgery allows the preservation of fertility, endocrine function and integrity of the genital anatomy, with preservation of the image of the male body. The EAU guidelines suggest focal surgery in case of synchronous bilateral tumors, metachronous contralateral tumours, tumour in solitary testis with normal pre-operative testosterone levels, when the tumor volume less than 30% of the testicular volume. There are two focal surgical techniques: tumorectomy and polar resection, followed by biopsies and frozen section of the resection bed. In case of benign tumours, the treatment is often curative. In case of malignancy, carcinoma in situ is frequently found in the surrounding tissues. Adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy is performed with a fair success rate. These adjuvant treatments reduce or delete the functional benefits achieved by conservative surgery. The evidence of the literature suggests that focal surgery is a valid option for all patients with testicular tumours that are not palpable and small sized, with the advantage of avoiding unnecessary radical orchiectomy in most cases. Therefore, the selection criteria for focal surgery are the mass size (less than 25 mm) and a safety distance of the tumor from the rete testis, in order to preserve testicular vascularization. A close follow-up with ultrasound, testicular markers and radiological examinations is mandatory in case of germ cell neoplasia treated conservatively in patients with indications for conservative surgery.

  8. Biology of the Sertoli Cell in the Fetal, Pubertal, and Adult Mammalian Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Zarzycka, Marta; Mruk, Dolores D

    A healthy man typically produces between 50 × 10(6) and 200 × 10(6) spermatozoa per day by spermatogenesis; in the absence of Sertoli cells in the male gonad, this individual would be infertile. In the adult testis, Sertoli cells are sustentacular cells that support germ cell development by secreting proteins and other important biomolecules that are essential for germ cell survival and maturation, establishing the blood-testis barrier, and facilitating spermatozoa detachment at spermiation. In the fetal testis, on the other hand, pre-Sertoli cells form the testis cords, the future seminiferous tubules. However, the role of pre-Sertoli cells in this process is much less clear than the function of Sertoli cells in the adult testis. Within this framework, we provide an overview of the biology of the fetal, pubertal, and adult Sertoli cell, highlighting relevant cell biology studies that have expanded our understanding of mammalian spermatogenesis.

  9. Structural, cellular and molecular aspects of immune privilege in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eLi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The testis presents a special immunological environment, considering its property of immune privilege that tolerates allo- and auto-antigens. Testicular immune privilege was once believed to be mainly based on the sequestration of antigens from the immune system by the blood-testis barrier in the seminiferous epithelium. Substantial evidence supports the view that the combination of physical structure, testicular cells, and cytokines controls immune responses in the testis to preserve the structural and functional integrity of testicular immune privilege. Both systemic immune tolerance and local immunosuppression help maintain the immune privilege status. Constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory factors in testicular cells is critical for local immunosuppression. However, the testis locally generates an efficient innate immune system against pathogens. Disruption of these mechanisms may lead to orchitis and impair fertility. This review article highlights the current understanding of structural, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the unique immune environment of the testis, particularly its immune privilege status.

  10. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  11. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2013-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

  12. The right sided syndrome, congenital absence of kidney and testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral renal agenesis (URA is a developmental defect associated with ano-malies of the genitourinary system. The associations vary from absence of testis alone to high anorectal anomalies in other patients. We present two interesting patients with URA, encountered recently. Our first case was diagnosed with URA at the age of 11 years, which was detected on sonography, when he presented with pain abdomen. The presence of an epididymal cyst masked the absence of ipsilateral testes leading to delay in the diagnosis. Our second case was diagnosed with URA during the neonatal period when he presented with anorectal agenesis. He underwent abdomino-anal pull-through operation and later clinical course was complicated by recurrent cystitis, secondary vesicoureteral reflux and hydroureteronephrosis of solitary kidney, progressing to chronic kidney disease.

  13. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Beatriz Frungieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  14. Neonatal orchitis mimicking cystic dysplasia of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George L; Cassell, Ian L S; deMello, Daphne E; Ritchey, Michael L

    2010-12-01

    Neonatal orchitis is an extremely rare disease, usually related to a congenital genitourinary anomaly. We present a 36 weeks' gestation infant who presented at 3 days old with a firm and enlarged right testicle. Testicular US revealed a heterogeneous right testicle with numerous cystic spaces as well as decreased testicular blood flow. The clinical concerns included testicular tumor and cystic dysplasia of the testis because of concurrent renal dysplasia. The scrotal/testicular area was without tenderness or overlying erythema. Radical inguinal orchiectomy revealed diffuse gram-negative orchitis.This case represents an atypical presentation of orchitis. This entity should be added to the differential diagnoses of testicular mass in the neonate even in the absence of physical findings suggestive of infection.

  15. Skin, ear and testis--unusual sites of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Cătălina Elena; Toma, Claudia; Belaconi, Ionela; Dumitrache-Rujinski, Stefan; Jipa, Daniela; Tudor, Adrian; Leonte, Diana; Bogdan, Miron Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary localization is the most common site of tuberculosis (TB)and the most contagious form. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis with the rarest and most unexpected localizations represents a significant proportion of all cases of tuberculosis and remains an important public health problem. We report three unusual TB locations: skin, ear and testis occurred in three immunocompetent patients. In the case of skin and testicular lesions, diagnosis was based on pathological confirmation of granulomas with caseous necrosis. In the third case the diagnosis was made possible by identification of positive Acid-Fast Bacilli smear and positive culture from othic drainage fluid. The outcome at all three patients was good with antituberculous treatment. These unusual localization of tuberculosis also highlight the possibility of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis in many common diseases.

  16. Testis cancer. Ichthyosis constitutes a significant risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, G; Bennett, P; Lykkesfeldt, A E

    1991-01-01

    Testis cancer and ichthyosis are both relatively rare diseases. Hence the finding of six individuals with both these conditions in a small population with testicular cancer is highly conspicuous and indicates some kind of connection among such persons. Despite the identical clinical appearances...... of their ichthyoses, three of the ichthyotic subjects had no measurable activity of the enzyme, steroid sulfatase (STS) in leucocytes, a distinct characteristic of recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). However, the remaining three subjects had normal STS activity, a strong indicator of autosomal dominant ichthyosis...... (ADI). The STS activity in patients with testicular cancer who do not have ichthyosis (N = 30) was also within the normal range. The patients with testicular cancer with no skin disease had elevated serum levels of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone...

  17. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Roberto Iglesias [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant' Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall' Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel [Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described.

  18. Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, G; Bellier, Alexandre; Marnas, G; Boisson, B; Robert, Y; Rabattu, P Y; Chaffanjon, P

    2017-07-31

    The anatomy of gubernaculum testis (GT) is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament (SL) is rarely described. Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis, epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in 56.0% of cases. Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment (28.0%), whereas no cases of testis attachment was found. Distally, there are more variations with scrotal attachment (12%) and cremaster attachment (12.0%). We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in 16.0% of cases too. Finally, in 15 cases (57.7%) an attachment is present between testis and epididymis, as it is commonly described. In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free. So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments".

  19. Dynamic regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 gene expression in rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixiong Liu; Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) produces γ-amino-butyric acid,the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult mammalian brain.Previous experiments,per-formed in brain,showed that GAD65 gene possesses two TATA-less promoters,although the significance is unknown.Here,by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method,two distinct GAD65 mRNA isoforms transcribed from two independent clusters of transcription start sites were identified in post-natal rat testis.RT-PCR results revealed that the two mRNA isoforms had distinct expression patterns during post-natal testis maturation,suggesting that GAD65 gene expression was regulated by alternative promoters at the transcription level.By using GAD65-speciflc antibodies,western blotting analysis showed that the 58-kDa GAD65,N-terminal 69 amino acids truncated form of full-length GAD65 protein,was developmentally expressed during post-natal testis matu-ration,suggesting that GAD65 gene expression in testis may also be regulated by post-translational processing.Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that GAD65 protein was presented in Leydig cells of Day 1 testis,primary spermatocytes and spermatids of post-natal of Day 90 testis.The above results suggested that GAD65 gene expression is dynamically regulated at mul-tiple levels during post-natal testis maturation.

  20. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  1. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

  2. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene dietary intake to antioxidative enzymes of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae from unpolluted and polluted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Anja; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Vlahović, Milena; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Matić, Dragana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic activity in industrial development has imposed great threats to the environment and wildlife in the form of persistent organic pollutants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) tend to accumulate in vegetation foliage which is the main food source of polyphagous insect species Lymantria dispar L. Origin and multigenerational adaptation of L. dispar population to environmental challenges strongly condition the enzymes' sensitivity to pollutants. In this study, our aim was to investigate response of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) to the chronic dietary exposure of benzo[a]pyrene in the midgut tissues and hemolymph of two L. dispar populations originating from unpolluted and polluted forest habitat. Midgut tissue of the larvae from the polluted forest showed significant increase in SOD, CAT and GST activity, while in unpolluted forest's larvae SOD and CAT showed elevated activities in hemolymph. L. dispar populations adapted to different level of pollution in their environment and expressed distinct tissue-dependent antioxidative enzyme sensitivity to benzo[a]pyrene diet, implying high potential for further elucidation of these enzymes as molecular biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... of cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  4. A novel method for repair of testis rupture after gunshot trauma: repair with Tutoplast processed pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Seyfettin; Ozkul, Bahattin; Ustuner, Murat; Nagihanlnan; Culha, Mustafa Melih

    2014-12-01

    Gunshot wound injury to the external genitalia is relatively uncommon. However, if a testis isaffected in such a case, early surgical exploration should be carried out. A 16-year-old boy presented with right testicular rupture. Tunica albugineal defect could not be closed primarily. We used a Tutoplast® processed bovine pericardium to repair the defect of tunica albuginea. At his 3-month follow-up visit, there was no complication. Doppler blood flow of testis was normal. In this case, preservation of testis tissue was obtained with early exploration and repair of the big tunica albugineal defect with Tutoplast® processed pericardium.

  5. Simple intratesticular cyst: A rare finding amenable to testis-sparing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Jackson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple intratesticular cysts (SIC are rare in infancy. There is a paucity of data with regards to management. Concern for malignancy often prompts the pediatric urologist to perform a radical orchiectomy which may impact endocrine function and fertility potential later in life. Recently, there has been a movement towards testis-sparing surgery for SIC. Herein, we describe a case of a 7-month-old infant who presented to pediatric urology clinic with left intraparenchymal SIC that was treated with a testis-sparing approach. In summary, this case report supports the use of testis-sparing surgery for management of preoperatively well-defined SIC.

  6. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zepeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4 in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions . Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.

  7. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples: a model used to investigate activin treatment effects in a preserved niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, A; Young, J; Nielsen, J E; Joensen, U N; Toft, B G; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Loveland, K L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Testicular germ cell tumours of young adults, seminoma or non-seminomas, are preceded by a pre-invasive precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS), understood to arise through differentiation arrest of embryonic germ cells. Knowledge about the malignant transformation of germ cells is currently limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. Methods: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were cultured in ‘hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. Results: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis. Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. Conclusions: Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche. PMID:24781282

  8. Serum inhibin B values in boys with unilateral vanished testis or unilateral cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik

    2015-01-01

    differed between boys with unilateral vanished testis and those with unilateral cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples from 297 boys 1.5 to 5 years old were included, of whom 222 had unilateral cryptorchidism, 29 had unilateral vanished testis and 46 had undergone unilateral orchiopexy 1 year...... previously. Serum inhibin B levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit and were compared to normal range. RESULTS: Serum inhibin B levels in boys with unilateral vanished testis were not different from those with unilateral cryptorchidism. Serum inhibin B values were above the normal...... median in 43% of boys previously operated on for unilateral cryptorchidism, compared to 17% at surgery (p = 0.0003). The percentage of patients with inhibin B levels below normal range was 14% in those with unilateral vanished testis, 23% in those with unilateral cryptorchidism and 11% in those who had...

  9. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  10. Nuclear protein of the testis midline carcinoma masquerading as a primary mediastinal seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Sayapina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT midline carcinomas are rare aggressive carcinomas characterized by chromosomal rearrangements that involve the gene encoding the NUT. This article reviews the clinicopathologic features and the differential diagnosis of these malignancies.

  11. Do blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels on inguinal exploration always indicate a vanishing testis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Kaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In nonpalpable testis cases, laparoscopically blind-ending vas deferens and testicular vessels prior to entering the internal ring is sufficient to diagnose a “vanishing” testis, which requires no further exploration. Laparoscopic identification of cord structures entering the internal ring is required the exploration of the inguinal canal to find a testis or to rule out a “vanishing” testis".However, the need for further investigation in cases that identified the blindending cord structures on inguinal canal is questioned. Herein, we present a case of the scrotal nubbin along with blind ending cord structures during inguinal exploration.

  12. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  13. ZNT7 and Zn2+ are present in different cell populations in the mouse testis

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Wan-Yu; Gao, Hui-Ling; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Liping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of the spatial distribution between ZNT7 and chelatable zinc ions in the mouse testis. Immunohistochemical results demonstrated a wide distribution of ZNT7 in both seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues of the testis. The spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules showed strong ZNT7 immunoreactivity whereas zinc autometallographic (AMG) staining was absent. Spermatozoa showed a high level...

  14. ATLANTE ON-LINE DI GEOGRAFIA: FACILITAZIONE DI TESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baccella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Al centro di questo lavoro vi è la proposta di un intervento di facilitazione su un testo di geografia contenuto nell'Atlante online Unimondo, un sito che si rivolge a studenti delle scuole primarie e secondarie. Obiettivo di questo lavoro è individuare quelle che sono in generale le criticità dei testi disciplinari e gli ostacoli che essi pongono dinnanzi a uno studente straniero (e non solo, proponendo in seguito alcuni interventi didattici mirati ad accompagnare il discente nella comprensione del testo e nello sviluppo della lingua dello studio. Dopo aver presentato brevemente le due opzioni della semplificazione e della facilitazione e aver fatto alcune considerazioni sulla preferibilità dell’una piuttosto che dell’altra, si è preso in esame il testo in questione. Ad una dettagliata analisi linguistica delle principali difficoltà ivi contenute, segue la proposta di un percorso di facilitazione mediante attività tese a permettere allo studente un approccio di successo con il testo autentico. Obiettivo della proposta è presentare un modello applicabile ad altri testi dello stesso tipo, mirato allo sviluppo da parte dello studente di una sempre maggiore consapevolezza circa i propri processi cognitivi e le strategie di lettura che può mettere in atto, puntando verso una sempre maggiore autonomia.   Online Geography Atlas: facilitation of texts This paper focuses on the proposal to facilitate use of a geography text contained in the online Unimondo Atlas. This site caters to primary and secondary school students. This paper aims to identify the critical aspects of disciplinary texts and the obstacles they pose to foreign students (and not only, proposing some educational interventions aimed at accompanying the student in understanding the text and in developing the language of study. After a brief presentation of two ways to simplify and facilitate the materials, and a discussion of how one or the other might be preferable, we

  15. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered 25 or 50 μg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil per d for 45 d.The testis was isolated, blotted free of blood and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a dose-dependent significantlyhigher lipid peroxidation in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice than in the controls. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, total and reduced ascorbic acid, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/d per animal; orally) pretreatment significantly ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation which could be due to higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone. Conclusion: Vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxininduced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

  16. HSL-knockout mouse testis exhibits class B scavenger receptor upregulation and disrupted lipid raft microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, María Emilia; Huerta, Lydia; Ortiz, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Crespo, Mirian; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Kraemer, Fredric B; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Busto, Rebeca; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia

    2012-12-01

    There is a tight relationship between fertility and changes in cholesterol metabolism during spermatogenesis. In the testis, class B scavenger receptors (SR-B) SR-BI, SR-BII, and LIMP II mediate the selective uptake of cholesterol esters from HDL, which are hydrolyzed to unesterified cholesterol by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). HSL is critical because HSL knockout (KO) male mice are sterile. The aim of the present work was to determine the effects of the lack of HSL in testis on the expression of SR-B, lipid raft composition, and related cell signaling pathways. HSL-KO mouse testis presented altered spermatogenesis associated with decreased sperm counts, sperm motility, and infertility. In wild-type (WT) testis, HSL is expressed in elongated spermatids; SR-BI, in Leydig cells and spermatids; SR-BII, in spermatocytes and spermatids but not in Leydig cells; and LIMP II, in Sertoli and Leydig cells. HSL knockout male mice have increased expression of class B scavenger receptors, disrupted caveolin-1 localization in lipid raft plasma membrane microdomains, and activated phospho-ERK, phospho-AKT, and phospho-SRC in the testis, suggesting that class B scavenger receptors are involved in cholesterol ester uptake for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis.

  17. The Effect of D-Aspartate on Spermatogenesis in Mouse Testis.

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    Tomita, Keiji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Susumu; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Wada, Akinori; Murai, Ryosuke; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Hanada, Eiki; Agata, Yasutoshi; Kawauchi, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Spermatogenesis is controlled by hormonal secretions from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, by factors produced locally in the testis, and by direct interaction between germ cells and Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. Although the mammalian testis contains high levels of D-aspartate (D-Asp), and D-Asp is known to stimulate the secretion of testosterone in cultured Leydig cells, its role in testis is unclear. We describe here biochemical, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric studies designed to elucidate developmental changes in testicular D-Asp levels and the direct effect of D-Asp on germ cells. We found that the concentration of D-Asp in mouse testis increased with growth and that fluctuations in D-Asp levels were controlled in part by its degradative enzyme, D-aspartate oxidase expressed in Sertoli cells. In vitro sperm production studies showed that mitosis in premeiotic germ cells was strongly inhibited by the addition of D-Asp to the culture medium. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that d-Asp accumulated in the differentiated spermatids, indicating either transport of D-Asp to spermatids or its de novo synthesis in these cells. Such compartmentation seems to prevent premeiotic germ cells in mouse testis from being exposed to the excess amount of D-Asp. In concert, our results indicate that in mouse testis, levels of D-Asp are regulated in a spatiotemporal manner and that D-Asp functions as a modulator of spermatogenesis.

  18. Mesothelioma of the testis and nephrotic syndrome: a case report

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    Bacchetta Justine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies are rare manifestations of neoplastic disease to be distinguished from iatrogenic renal damage. Solid tumors are preferentially associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal change disease. Case presentation We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis who, secondary to this, also presented with a nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease. In the present case, the paraneoplastic etiology of the nephrotic syndrome can be discussed on four unusual elements: minimal change lesions were found; the glomerulopathy was very sensitive to corticosteroids; the nephrotic syndrome occurred 11 months after the diagnosis of the primary malignancy, but concomitantly with the recurrence; and the nephrotic syndrome did not decrease with tumor control and did not recur when the mesothelioma escaped treatment. No other etiologies could nevertheless explain this phenomenon. Conclusion Paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is often associated with membranous nephropathy in patients with solid tumors, especially in patients with lung and gastrointestinal tract neoplasia. The management of these patients is associated with a symptomatic treatment such as sodium and water restriction, diuretics and ACE inhibitors and a prophylaxis of specific complications of nephrotic syndrome including thromboembolism, infections and lipid abnormalities. Treatment of neoplasia must be undertaken rapidly, treatments must be regularly analyzed and drugs binding to albumin may be used with precaution.

  19. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

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    Bremmer Felix

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA, and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335

  20. Ibuprofen results in alterations of human fetal testis development

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    Ben Maamar, Millissia; Lesné, Laurianne; Hennig, Kristin; Desdoits-Lethimonier, Christèle; Kilcoyne, Karen R.; Coiffec, Isabelle; Rolland, Antoine D.; Chevrier, Cécile; Kristensen, David M.; Lavoué, Vincent; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Mitchell, Rod T.; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Jégou, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Among pregnant women ibuprofen is one of the most frequently used pharmaceutical compounds with up to 28% reporting use. Regardless of this, it remains unknown whether ibuprofen could act as an endocrine disruptor as reported for fellow analgesics paracetamol and aspirin. To investigate this, we exposed human fetal testes (7–17 gestational weeks (GW)) to ibuprofen using ex vivo culture and xenograft systems. Ibuprofen suppressed testosterone and Leydig cell hormone INSL3 during culture of 8–9 GW fetal testes with concomitant reduction in expression of the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and HSD17B3, and of INSL3. Testosterone was not suppressed in testes from fetuses younger than 8 GW, older than 10–12 GW, or in second trimester xenografted testes (14–17 GW). Ex vivo, ibuprofen also affected Sertoli cell by suppressing AMH production and mRNA expression of AMH, SOX9, DHH, and COL2A1. While PGE2 production was suppressed by ibuprofen, PGD2 production was not. Germ cell transcripts POU5F1, TFAP2C, LIN28A, ALPP and KIT were also reduced by ibuprofen. We conclude that, at concentrations relevant to human exposure and within a particular narrow ‘early window’ of sensitivity within first trimester, ibuprofen causes direct endocrine disturbances in the human fetal testis and alteration of the germ cell biology. PMID:28281692

  1. Identification and in vitro derivation of spermatogonia in beagle testis.

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    Kyung Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs is important for exploration of SSCs self-renewal, differentiation, and manipulation. There are several reports on rodent SSC cultures; however, data on SSC cultures in domestic animals are limited. To provide basic scientific information on canine SSC cultures, we report canine testes development, and the development of spermatogonia-derived colonies (SDCs for in vitro cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Testes from 2-, 3-, and 12-month-old beagles were used for histology, immunohistochemistry, in vitro culture, immunocytochemistry, and PCR. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5-positive spermatogonia, both single and paired, were found to be abundant in the testes of 2-month-old beagles. stempro-34 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 5% fetal bovine serum provided as useful substrates for culture of SDCs, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF played a key role in colony formation. Colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and anti-PGP9.5 staining. The early spermatogonia and stem cell markers such as octamer binding protein 4 (Oct4, Nanog homeobox (Nanog, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF, PGP9.5, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1 were expressed in the colonies at higher levels than in the testis tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Testes of the 2-month-old beagles had abundant single and paired spermatogonia, which can be used for derivation of SDCs, and FGF was important for colony formation.

  2. Aquaporin water channels in the canine gubernaculum testis.

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    Arrighi, Silvana; Aralla, Marina; Fracassetti, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2013-07-01

    The jelly-like gubernaculum testis (GT) is a hydrated structure consisting of a concentric sheath of dense connective tissue around a loose mesenchymal core, with two cords of skeletal muscle cells asymmetrically placed alongside. Expansion of the GT occurs during the transabdominal phase of testicular descent, linked to cell proliferation together with modifications of the hydric content of the organ. The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically the presence of aquaporins (AQPs), integral membrane proteins permitting passive transcellular water movement, in the canine GTs. Samples (n=15) were obtained from pregnancies of 9 medium sized bitches and dissected from healthy fetuses. Five fetuses were aged 35-45 days of gestation, 10 fetuses from 46 days of gestation to delivery, thus offering us the opportunity to study the progressive maturation of the gubernacula. The presence of AQP3, 4, 7, 8 and -9 was assessed in the muscular components of the GT, some of them (AQP3, AQP4, AQP7) with increasing intensity through the second half of pregnancy up to term. AQP1 was localized in the capillary and venous endothelia in the younger fetuses, also in the artery adventitia and in the nerve perineurium in progressively older fetuses. These data demonstrate the potential importance and contribution of AQP-mediated water flux in hydration and volume modification of the growing GT in a canine model.

  3. Integrative discovery of epigenetically derepressed cancer testis antigens in NSCLC.

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    Chad A Glazer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our screening approach found 290 significant genes from the over 47,000 transcripts incorporated in the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 expression array. Of the top 55 candidates, 10 showed both differential overexpression and promoter region hypomethylation in NSCLC. Surprisingly, 6 of the 10 genes discovered by this approach were CTAs. Using a separate cohort of primary tumor and normal tissue, we validated NSCLC promoter hypomethylation and increased expression by quantitative RT-PCR for all 10 genes. We noted significant, coordinated coexpression of multiple target genes, as well as coordinated promoter demethylation, in a large set of individual tumors that was associated with the SCC subtype of NSCLC. In addition, we identified 2 novel target genes that exhibited growth-promoting effects in multiple cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coordinated promoter demethylation in NSCLC is associated with aberrant expression of CTAs and potential, novel candidate protooncogenes that can be identified using integrative discovery techniques. These findings have significant implications for discovery of novel CTAs and CT antigen directed immunotherapy.

  4. Differential expression of Prx I and II in mouse testis and their up-regulation by radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keesook; Park, Ji-Sun; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Soo Lee, Yong Soo; Sook Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Dae-Joong; Park, Eun-Mi; Park, Young-Mee

    2002-08-16

    Testis is one of the most sensitive organs to ionizing radiation. The present study was designed to unravel the possible role of antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I and II (Prx I and II) in the testis. Our results show that Prx I and II are constitutively expressed in the testis and their expression levels are decreased to some extent as the testis develops. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a preferential expression of Prx I and II in Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively. Neither Prx I nor Prx II expression was obvious in the testicular germ cells including spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Ionizing radiation exerted oxidative stress on the testis and induced apoptosis primarily in the germ cells. When the irradiated testis was examined, the Prx system was found to be transiently up-regulated. Taken together, we suggest that the relative radiation-resistance of Leydig and Sertoli cells could be attributed in part to the antioxidant function of the Prx system in these cells.

  5. TORSION TESTIS : ROLE OF COLOR DOPPLER : A STUDY OF 50 CASES

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    Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T orsion testis is one of the catast r ophic conditions in children and young a d u lts. Traditionally the diagnosis was made clinical presentation and suspicion. Critical decision making is essential to save the testis . OBJECTIVE: To study the usefu lness and efficacy of Doppler ultrasound in correctly diagnosing acute scrotal conditions in children and young adults to save the testis and to avoid negative explorations. METHODS: Over a period of two years 50 patients with acute scrotum were admitted i n general surgery department who underwent Doppler ultrasound scrotum and its efficacy in correctly diagnosing the pathology was analysed. RESULTS: 50 patients with age group <25 years were included in study. Scrotal pain was the most frequent presenting s ymptom of acute scrotum (98% followed by Swelling of the hemiscrolum on the involved side present in 86% of the patients. Doppler ultrasound showed torsion of testis in 18 patients. On Scrotal exploration, torsion of spermatic cord was confirmed in 16 pat ients, one patient had torsion of appendix of testis and the other had Epididymo - orchitis. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for testicular torsion was 86.9% and 92.6% respectively. 2 patients with equivocal Doppler findings, but strong clinical suspicion of testicular torsion were explored, and testis was found to be torsed in both two patients. Doppler ultrasonography showed Epididymo - orchitis in 22 patients, torsion of testicular appendage in 2 patients, Idiopathic scrotal edema in one, and in 5 pts no significant pathology found. All twenty patients of epididymo - orchitis, two patients of torsion of testicular appendage, and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema were managed conservatively. At three weeks follow up, all th e patients were free of symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for epididymo - orchitis was 95% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: color

  6. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis.

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    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Lopez, Carolina; Ferguson, Lydia; Myhr, Courtney; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells (FLC) are substituted by adult Leydig cells (ALC) during perinatal testis development. The mechanisms influencing this process are unclear. We used mice with a retinoid acid receptor 2 promoter-Cre recombinase transgene (Rarb-cre) expressed in embryonic FLC precursors, but not in postnatal testis, and a dual fluorescent Cre recombinase reporter to label FLC and ALC in vivo. All FLC in newborn testis had the recombinant, whereas the majority of LC in adult testis had the nonrecombinant reporter. Primary LC cultures from adult testis had either recombinant (20%) or nonrecombinant (80%) cells, demonstrating that the FLC survive in adult testis and their ontogeny is distinct from ALC. Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor (AR) allele using the Rarb-cre transgene resulted in a 50% increase of AR-negative LC in adult testis. The mutant males became infertile with age, with all LC in older testis showing signs of incomplete differentiation, such as a large number of big lipid droplets, an increase of finger-like protrusions, and a misexpression of steroidogenic or FLC- and ALC-specific genes. We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation.

  7. Chronic Intake of Green Propolis Negatively Affecting the Rat Testis

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    Severi-Aguiar, Grasiela Dias de Campos; Pinto, Suellen Josine; Capucho, Cristina; Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Barbieri, Renata; Predes, Fabrícia Souza; Dolder, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human and animal evidence suggests that environmental toxicants may have an adverse impact on male reproductive health, reducing the population's reproductive output. Owing to the renewed attraction for natural products, some of them constitute effective alternatives to mitigate these effects. Propolis is a candidate for this use because of its intrinsic properties. In many situations, it improved the testicular damage and alleviated the toxic effects induced by environmental contaminant exposure. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible alterations of testicular parameters and certify if its use is really advantageous to the testis, since this could affect rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (Co = control, T1 = 3 mg propolis/kg/day, T2 = 6 mg/kg/day, T3 = 10 mg/kg/day) and were exposed during 56 days. The testes were assessed with morphometrical, stereological, and ultrastructural analyses. Cell proliferation and death were diagnosed, respectively, by immunocytochemistry. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and N-cadherin transcript levels were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Increased cell proliferation and Leydig cell volume were observed in T2, and in contrast, Cx43 upregulation and cell death were observed in T3. Both T2 and T3 showed ultrastructural abnormalities in testicular parenchyma. Conclusion: We recommend a cautious intake of propolis to avoid deleterious effects. SUMMARY Chronic intake of Brazilian green propolis induced N.-cadherin downregulation and decreased on seminiferous tubule volumeIncrease on connexin 43 expression and cell death and decrease in Leydig cell.(LC) number/testis with the concentration of 10 mg/kg/day were observedIncrease on cell proliferation, cytoplasmic proportion, and volume of LC with the concentration of 6 mg/kg/day was detectedThe presence of empty spaces between spermatids and malformed

  8. Radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis

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    A Yoney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : After orchiectomy in stage I seminoma the standard is adjuvant radiation therapy. We analyzed the patients retrospectively to evaluate the contributions of the treatment volume and dosage to treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods : Between January 1999 and December 2005, 91 stage I seminoma patients with a median age 36 (range;22-62 applied to our center, who were treated using anterior-posterior parallel opposed fields with linear accelerator or Co60 after orchiectomy. Twenty-five (27.5% patients received irradiation to the paraaortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodes, and 66 (62.5% patients only received to paraaortic nodes. Results : With a follow up time of median 57 months (range; 27-104, paraaortic nodes treated group had 4 relapses (6% - 3 of them pelvic, one of them both pelvic and paraaortic. Both paraaortic and ipsilateral nodes irradiated patients had only one relapse (4% (P = 0.726. While the 5 year overall survival (OS is 98.8%, it is 100% in the dog-leg group and 98.4% in the paraaortic group (P = 0.548. Univariate analyses of OS and Disease Free Survival (DFS showed that there is no statistically significant difference related to factors as age, histologic subgroup, tumor size, rete testis involvement, radiotherapy (RT fields, dose ranges and the therapy device. Conclusion : Adjuvant RT approach is the preferred for non-compliant low risk patients as well as intermediate and high risk patient in stage I seminoma. 20 Gy/ 10 fractions/ 2 weeks RT is the adequate treatment.

  9. Magnetization transfer imaging of normal and abnormal testis: preliminary results

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    Tsili, Athina C.; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Maliakas, Vasilios; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Stavrou, Sotirios [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University Hospital of Ioannina, Leoforos S. Niarchou, Department of Urology, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    The aim was to determine the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal testes, possible variations with age and to assess the feasibility of MTR in characterizing various testicular lesions. Eighty-six men were included. A three-dimensional gradient-echo MT sequence was performed, with/without an on-resonance binomial prepulse. MTR was calculated as: (SIo-SIm)/(SIo) x 100 %, where SIm and SIo refers to signal intensities with and without the saturation pulse, respectively. Subjects were classified as: group 1, 20-39 years; group 2, 40-65 years; and group 3, older than 65 years of age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least significant difference test was used to assess variations of MTR with age. Comparison between the MTR of normal testis, malignant and benign testicular lesions was performed using independent-samples t testing. ANOVA revealed differences of MTR between age groups (F = 7.51, P = 0.001). Significant differences between groups 1, 2 (P = 0.011) and 1, 3 (P < 0.001) were found, but not between 2, 3 (P = 0.082). The MTR (in percent) of testicular carcinomas was 55.0 ± 3.2, significantly higher than that of benign lesions (50.3 ± 4.0, P = 0.02) and of normal testes (47.4 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). MTR of normal testes decreases with age. MTR might be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of testicular lesions. (orig.)

  10. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

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    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  11. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

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    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  12. Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery

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    Luca Leone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%. Testicular Angiofibroma (AF is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. Case report: A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. Conclusion: We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable.

  13. Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase is expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pikas☆

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    Wang, Duowei; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Rao, Xinfeng; Qi, Xinzhang; Wang, Xiaojun; Ma, Benyuan

    2013-01-01

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate with lactate. In mammals the, Ldh-c gene was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), belonging to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living at 3000–5000 m above sea levelon the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the expression pattern of six LDH isoenzymes in the somatic tissues of female and male plateau pikas to be the same as those in testis and sperm, suggesting that LDH-C4 was expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pika. Here we report the detection of LDHC in the somatic tissues of plateau pika using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that Ldh-c mRNA is transcribed in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle and testis. In somatic tissues LDHC was translated in the cytoplasm, while in testis it was expressed in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. The third band from cathode to anode in LDH isoenzymes was identified as LDH-C4. The finding that Ldh-c is expressed in both somatic tissues and testis of plateau pika provides important implications for more in-depth research into the Ldh-c function in mammals. PMID:23772382

  14. Correlation of expression of preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone and receptor with rat testis development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臻; 张远强; 刘新平; 许若军

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression regulation of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and TRH receptor (TRH-R), and their role in the development of rat testis.Methods Oligonucleotide primers were designed from the sequences of rat hypothalamus prepro TRH (ppTRH) and pituitary TRH-R cDNA for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific fragments of ppTRH and TRH-R cDNA were cloned and sequenced. Expression plasmids containing ppTRH and TRH-R genes were then constructed, and expression was found in E.coli DH5-α. ppTRH and TRH-R mRNA in the testis was quantitated in RNA samples prepared from rats at different developmental stages by real time quantitative RT-PCR.Results The quantitative analyses demonstrated that no ppTRH and TRH mRNA could be detected at the earliest stage (day 8). ppTRH and TRH mRNA signals were detected on day 15 and increased progressively on days 20, 35, 60 and 90. Conclusion Our results suggest that rat testis could specifically express TRH and TRH-R, and the transcriptions of ppTRH and TRH-R genes in the rat testis were development-dependent. The acquirement of expressed products for ppTRH and TRH-R can be used for further research on the physiological significance of TRH and TRH-R expression in rat testis.

  15. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  16. Study on changes of sperm count and testis tissue in black mouse after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; Seo, Won Sook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa Young [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    For the purpose of the biological effect in black mouse by neutron irradiation, mice were irradiated with 16 or 32 Gy neutron (flux: 1.036739E+09) by lying flat pose at BNCT facility on HANARO Reactors. And 90 days later of irradiation, physical changes of testis and testis tissue were examined. There were no weight changes but a little bit volume changes and sperm counts in the tests. Atrophy of seminiferous tubules irradiated with 32 Gy neutron is increased in number and severity and those in stage VI showed depletion of spermatogonia and pachytene spermatocytes compared to the non-irradiated control group. Testis damage of black mouse was not recovered after long time by 32 Gy neutron irradiation.

  17. A case of highly aggressive anaplastic seminoma of the testis presenting as fungating scrotal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Creta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic seminoma (AS is an uncommon histological variant of classical seminoma of the testis and account for 5%-15% of cases. It is poorly described in the scientific literature. We present the case of a 50-years-old homeless man presenting with fever, marked left scrotal hardness and a fungating left scrotal lesion. He underwent left orchiopexy 40 years before. A computed tomography with contrast media showed a suspect testis cancer with scrotal involvment, extensive intralesional necrosis and multiple systemic metastases. A wide excision of the left hemiscrotum including the testis was performed in order to prevent severe local and systemic infectious complications. Histological examination revealed an AS. General conditions showed a rapid deterioration and the patient died on post operative day 10.

  18. Genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of mouse testis-specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bernett TK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes are not randomly distributed on a chromosome as they were thought even after removal of tandem repeats. The positional clustering of co-expressed genes is known in prokaryotes and recently reported in several eukaryotic organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. In order to further investigate the mode of tissue-specific gene clustering in higher eukaryotes, we have performed a genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of the mouse testis-specific genes. Results Our computational analysis shows that a large proportion of testis-specific genes are clustered in groups of 2 to 5 genes in the mouse genome. The number of clusters is much higher than expected by chance even after removal of tandem repeats. Conclusion Our result suggests that testis-specific genes tend to cluster on the mouse chromosomes. This provides another piece of evidence for the hypothesis that clusters of tissue-specific genes do exist.

  19. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  20. Several novel transcripts of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expressed in adult chicken testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Pau, M; Mezquita, C

    1998-10-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in addition to being a classic glycolytic enzyme, is a multifunctional protein involved in relevant cell functions such as DNA replication, DNA repair, translational control of gene expression, and apoptosis. Although the multifunctional nature of GAPDH suggests versatility in the mechanisms regulating its expression, no major qualitative changes and few quantitative changes in the GAPDH transcripts have been reported. While studying the expression of GAPDH during spermatogenesis, we detected alternative initiations to TATA box and alternative splicings in the 5' region of the pre-mRNA, resulting in at least six different types of mRNAs. The amount and the polyadenylation of the GAPDH transcripts increased in mature testis in relation to immature testis and further increased when cell suspensions from mature testis were exposed to heat shock. These results suggest that alternative initiation, alternative splicing, and polyadenylation could provide the necessary versatility to the regulation of the expression of this multifunctional protein during spermatogenesis.

  1. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Andrea; Aguayo, Luis G.; Fuentealba, Jorge; Figueroa, Carolina; Acevedo, Alejandro; Salgado, Perla; Calaf, Gloria M.; Farías, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4) in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. PMID:23213351

  2. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about

  3. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  4. Transgenic characterization of two testis-specific promoters in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Bi, H; Chen, R; Aslam, A F M; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; Huang, Y; Tan, A

    2015-04-01

    Sex-specific regulatory elements are key components for developing insect genetic sexing systems. The current insect genetic sexing system mainly uses a female-specific modification system whereas little success was reported on male-specific genetic modification. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance, a transgene-based, female-specific lethality system has been established based on sex-specific alternative splicing factors and a female-specific promoter BmVgp (vitellogenin promoter) has been identified. However, no male-specific regulatory elements have yet been identified. Here we report the transgenic identification of two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in a testis-specific manner in B. mori. Putative promoter sequences from the B. mori Radial spoke head 1 gene (BmR1) and beta-tubulin 4 gene (Bmβ4) were introduced using piggybac-based germline transformation. In transgenic silkworms, expression of the reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) directed by either BmR1 promoter (BmR1p) or Bmβ4p showed precisely testis-specific manners from the larval to adult stage. Furthermore, EGFP expression of these two transgenic lines showed different localization in the testis, indicating that BmR1p or Bmβ4p might be used as distinct regulatory elements in directing testis-specific gene expression. Identification of these testis-specific promoters not only contributes to a better understanding of testis-specific gene function in insects, but also has potential applications in sterile insect techniques for pest management.

  5. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a late recurrence of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, AJH; Gietema, JA; Hoekstra, HJ

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a well-defined entity in the female genital tract. In the male genital tract, a single case of PSTT in the testis of a young boy has been reported. Despite its very rare occurrence, PSTT of the testis has been incorporated in the latest WHO classification

  6. Cancer testis antigens in newly diagnosed and relapse multiple myeloma: Prognostic markers and potential targets for immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Mark); A. Broyl (Annemiek); Y. de Knegt (Yvonne); H. Goldschmidt (Hartmut); P.G. Richardson (Paul); B. van der Holt (Bronno); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); D. Joseph-Pietras (Debora); G. Mulligan (George); R. Neuwirth (Rachel); S.S. Sahota (Surinder); P. Sonneveld (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground In multiple myeloma, expression of cancer testis antigens may provide prognostic markers and potential targets for immunotherapy. Expression at relapse has not yet been evaluated for a large panel of cancer testis antigens which can be classified by varying expression in norma

  7. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a late recurrence of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, AJH; Gietema, JA; Hoekstra, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a well-defined entity in the female genital tract. In the male genital tract, a single case of PSTT in the testis of a young boy has been reported. Despite its very rare occurrence, PSTT of the testis has been incorporated in the latest WHO classification

  8. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...

  9. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation of microsomes and mitochondria from rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, M B; Catalá, A

    2006-04-01

    The testis is a remarkably active metabolic organ; hence it is suitable not only for studies of lipid metabolism in the organ itself but also for the study of lipid peroxidation processes in general. The content of fatty acids in testis is high with a prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which renders this tissue very susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of alpha-tocopherol in vitro on ascorbate-Fe(++) lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria. Chemiluminescence and fatty acid composition were used as an index of the oxidative destruction of lipids. Special attention was paid to the changes produced on the highly PUFA [C20:4 n6] and [C22:5 n6]. Lipid peroxidation of testis microsomes or mitochondria induced a significant decrease of both fatty acids. Total chemiluminescence was similar in both kinds of organelles when the peroxidized without (control) and with ascorbate-Fe(++) (peroxidized) groups were compared. Arachidonic acid was protected more efficiently than docosapentaenoic acid at all alpha-tocopherol concentrations tested when rat testis microsomes or mitochondria were incubated with ascorbate-Fe(++). The maximal percentage of inhibition in both organelles was approximately 70%; corresponding to an alpha-tocopherol concentration between 1 and 0.25 mM. IC50 values from the inhibition of alpha-tocopherol on the chemiluminescence were higher in microsomes (0.144 mM) than mitochondria (0.078 mM). The protective effect observed by alpha-tocopherol in rat testis mitochondria was higher compared with microsomes, associated with the higher amount of [C20:4 n6]+[C22:5 n6] in microsomes that in mitochondria. It is proposed that the vulnerability to lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria is different because of the different proportion of PUFA in these organelles The peroxidizability index (PI) was positively correlated with the level of long chain fatty acids. The

  10. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in both children and adolescents representing 40% of such tumours in North America and more than 50% in Africa. The involvement of the paratesticular tissue, testis and the kidney are generally rare and more so when it is occurring synchronously. We present a case of 22 year old male with inguinoscrotal swelling, fever and abdominal distention who was diagnosed as having obstructed left inguinoscrotal hernia and a right renal mass. The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the left testis, paratesticular tissue and right kidney was made by histology and immunohistochemistry.

  11. Diversification of CDK11 transcripts during chicken testis development and regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, Victor P; Mezquita, Jovita

    2005-11-01

    CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11, formerly known as PITSLRE) is a serine/threonine kinase that associates with the cyclin L2 regulatory partner. CDK11 catalytic activity has been associated with apoptosis, transcription, and RNA processing. Here, we identify novel chicken testis CDK11 transcripts that differ in their 5'UTR, 3'UTR, splicing of the exon 6, and polyadenylation. We have also characterized the differential expression of CDK11 in somatic tissues, during testis development and upon testicular regression by diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment. The heterogeneity of CDK11 transcripts presented in this study suggests new possibilities for post-transcriptional regulation.

  12. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed.

  13. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  14. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  15. L’accademia dei morti viventi.Parte terza: i testi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [Segue da Parte seconda: il fantasma dell'autore] La rete fa interagire i testi tramite i link. Li fa interagire fra loro ma soprattutto con il lettore e fra i lettori. Gli autori scrivono frasi, i tipografi stampano pagine, mentre i libri sono fatti dai rilegatori. Le loro proprietà formali non derivano dalla stampa, ma dalla [...

  16. Hydatid cyst of testis: An unusual presentation of hydatid disease - case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldev Singh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hvdatid disease is a parasitic disease usually caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It usually presents with liver involvement and uncommonly lungs and rarely other organs are involved. A rare case of hydatid testis is reported that was provisionally diagnosed as testicular tumor.

  17. Comparison of ex vivo DSP and in vitro MBP Exposures on Fetal Testis Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to di‐butyl phthalate (DBP) during sex differentiation reduces androgen production and produces a characteristic profile of gene expression changes in the fetal testis. The DPB metabolite mono‐butyl phthalate (MBP) is hypothesized to produce these changes by ...

  18. Expression of 5α-Reductase Type 2 Gene in Human Testis, Epididymis and Vas Deferens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德瑜; 吴燕婉; 罗宏志; 张桂元

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the expression pattern of 5α-reductase type 2 gene in human malereproductive organsMethods The expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 gene inhuman testis, epididymisand vas deferens tissues was determined by in situ hybridization using Digoxin labeled5α-reductase type 2 cRNA probe.Results The brown granules of hybridizing signals distributed in the cytoplasm ofSertoli and Leydig cells of the testis, the principle cells of epididymis and the epithe-lial cells of vas deferens, but there was no positive signal in the nuclei of above-men-tioned cells. No positive signal was observed in germ cells, basement of the testis,interstium of epididymis and basement, as well as smooth muscle of vas deferens.Conclusion This study confirmed that the 5α-reductase type 2 gene expressed in Ser-toli, Leydig cells of the testis, and the principle cells of epididymis. The expressionpattern of the gene in these cells in human was similar to that of rat and monkey. Thepresence of 5a-reductase type 2 gene in epithelial cells of the vas deferens suggested itmight possess an important physiological role in human reproduction.

  19. Targeting cancer testis antigens for biomarkers and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer: Current status and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil; Suri; Nirmala; Jagadish; Shikha; Saini; Namita; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks third among the estimatedcancer cases and cancer related mortalities in United States in 2014. Early detection and efficient therapy remains a significant clinical challenge for this disease. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel tumor asso-ciated molecules to target for biomarker development and immunotherapy. In this regard, cancer testis antigens have emerged as a potential targets for developing novel clinical biomarkers and immunotherapy for various malignancies. These germ cell specific proteins exhibit aberrant expression in cancer cells and contribute in tumorigenesis. Owing to their unique expression profile and immunogenicity in cancer patients, cancer testis antigens are clinically referred as the most promising tumor associated antigens. Several cancer testis antigens have been studied in colorectal cancer but none of them could be used in clinical practice. This review is an attempt to address the promising cancer testis antigens in colorectal cancer and their possible clinical implications as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets with particular focus on challenges and future interventions.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiling of carcinoma in situ cells of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Guy Wayne; Belling, Kirstine Christensen; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram

    2012-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours, seminoma (SE) and non-seminoma (NS), of young adult men develop from a precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS), which resembles foetal gonocytes and retains embryonic pluripotency. We used microarrays to analyse microRNA (miRNA) expression in 12 human testis samples...

  1. Multiple epidermoid cysts in the testis of a New Zealand White rabbit: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple epidermoid cysts were observed microscopically in the testis of a New Zealand White rabbit. The cysts were lined by stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium and filled with concentric layers of keratin. Testicular epidermoid cysts have been described in men but are very rare in animals.

  2. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  3. Comparison of ex vivo DSP and in vitro MBP Exposures on Fetal Testis Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to di‐butyl phthalate (DBP) during sex differentiation reduces androgen production and produces a characteristic profile of gene expression changes in the fetal testis. The DPB metabolite mono‐butyl phthalate (MBP) is hypothesized to produce these changes by ...

  4. Zona occludens-2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianliang; Anuar, Farhana; Ali, Safiah Mohamed; Ng, Mei Yong; Phua, Dominic C Y; Hunziker, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Tight junction integral membrane proteins such as claudins and occludin are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton by adaptor proteins, notably the closely related zonula occludens (ZO) proteins ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3. All three ZO proteins have recently been inactivated in mice. Although ZO-3 knockout mice lack an obvious phenotype, animals deficient in ZO-1 or ZO-2 show early embryonic lethality. Here, we rescue the embryonic lethality of ZO-2 knockout mice by injecting ZO-2(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells into wild-type blastocysts to generate viable ZO-2 chimera. ZO-2(-/-) ES cells contribute extensively to different tissues of the chimera, consistent with an extraembryonic requirement for ZO-2 rather than a critical role in epiblast development. Adult chimera present a set of phenotypes in different organs. In particular, male ZO-2 chimeras show reduced fertility and pathological changes in the testis. Lanthanum tracer experiments show a compromised blood-testis barrier. Expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-3, claudin-11, and occludin are not apparently affected. ZO-1 and occludin still localize to the blood-testis barrier region, but claudin-11 is less well restricted and the localization of connexin-43 is perturbed. The critical role of ZO-2 for male fertility and blood-testis barrier integrity thus provides a first example for a nonredundant role of an individual ZO protein in adult mice.

  5. Expression and localization of N- and E-cadherin in the human testis and epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Edvardsen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    Cellular interactions in the testis and epididymis are an important prerequisite for spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, and involve a well-developed complex of intercellular junctions. Cadherins are cell surface proteins which mediate intercellular Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion and are believed...

  6. Structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific histone variant TSH2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urahama, Takashi; Horikoshi, Naoki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi, E-mail: kurumizaka@waseda.jp [Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan)

    2014-03-25

    The crystal structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific TSH2B variant has been determined. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, and induces a local structural difference between TSH2B and H2B in nucleosomes. The human histone H2B variant TSH2B is highly expressed in testis and may function in the chromatin transition during spermatogenesis. In the present study, the crystal structure of the human testis-specific nucleosome containing TSH2B was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. A local structural difference between TSH2B and canonical H2B in nucleosomes was detected around the TSH2B-specific amino-acid residue Ser85. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, but in the canonical nucleosome the H2B Asn84 residue (corresponding to the TSH2B Ser85 residue) forms water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the H4 Arg78 residue. In contrast, the other TSH2B-specific amino-acid residues did not induce any significant local structural changes in the TSH2B nucleosome. These findings may provide important information for understanding how testis-specific histone variants form nucleosomes during spermatogenesis.

  7. Role of LM23 in cell proliferation and apoptosis and its expression during the testis development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Ya-Juan Song; Li-Jun Meng; Fen Hu; Li-Xia Gou; Chang-Hong Jia; Hong-Mei Tang

    2013-01-01

    LM23,a gene expressed specifically in the testis in a stage-specific manner,has a diverse range of functions that are important in both the life and death of spermatogenic cells.The aim of this study was to further investigate the expression of LM23 in the developing rat testis and the biological function of LM23 in proliferation and antiapoptosis in vitro.Semiquantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time PCR were used to examine the expression of LM23 in testis at different developmental stages.The results suggested that LM23 mRNA levels in the testis increased progressively after birth.The role of LM23 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8 (CCK8),colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and flow cytometry assays.The results indicated that ectopic expression of LM23 in 293T cells significantly promoted cell proliferation by increasing cell numbers in S phase.Several methods were used,including CCK8,annexin V and propidium iodide staining and western blotting,to determine the role of LM23 in apoptosis.The results showed that LM23 played a protective role in H202-induced apoptosis of 293T cells,mediated at least in part through the Akt/Pl3K signal pathway.Taken together,these results provide new insights into the role of LM23 in the development of the testes and spermatogenesis.

  8. Testis-specific Protein Kinases TSSK1 and TSSK2 in Mouse Spermiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Shang (Peng)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis, author systematically studied two testis-specific protein kinases TSSK1 and TSSK2 in mouse spermiogenesis. By building a double knockout mouse model with the absence of Tssk1 and Tssk2 genes, it was demonstrated that TSSK1 and TSSK2 are essential for

  9. EFFECT OF MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDH (GTW) ON RAT TESTIS, HEART, LIVER AND KIDNEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULan-Fang; LEIHai-Peng

    1989-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were given GTW orally at 50 rag/kg or 20 mg / kg for 4 or 5 weeks. Control animals were given the vehicle only. ARer treatment, testis, heart, liver and kidney were removed and examined. The scminiferous tubules of the treated

  10. The function of oestradiol and its receptor in the rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M.O. van Beurden-Lamers (Wilma)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractThe testis consists of 2 different tissues i.e. the interstitial tissue, which is the site of steroidogenesis, and seminiferous tubules where spermatogenesis occurs. Testosterone production takes place in the Leydig cells of the interstitial tissue and is under the influence of the tropi

  11. Heterologous Expression of Rat Testis GABAA Receptor β3t Splicing Variant in CHO Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-feng LI; Yu-guang CHEN; Yuan-chang YAN; Yi-ping LI

    2004-01-01

    Objective To characterize a possible retention function of unique sequence in the 5'end of rat testis GABAA receptor β3t splicing variantMethods Rat testis GABAA receptor β3t splicing variant cDNA was cloned and two eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmids of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-C1 were constructed respectively by fusing green fluorescent protein to the N or C-terminus of β3t isoform. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into CHO cells by calcium phosphate co-precipitation method. Fluorescence microscope and laser confocal microscope were used to analyze localization of β3t in the transfected cells. ConA-Texas-Red was used to label cell ER and the localization of rat testis β3t splicing variant in CHO cells was determined.Results When rat testis β3t splicing variant was expressed in CHO cells, two expression patterns were delineated, the distributions of uniform and mainly discrete intracellular compartments respectively. The chimera product failed to be translocated into the cell surface when expressed in CHO cells; whereas the β3 subunit of rat brain was incorporated into the plasma membrane.Conclusion The inability of β3t to target into the ER may be a consequence of the unique 25 specific amino acid segments in the N terminus.

  12. Second primary germ cell tumors in patients with seminoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, A G; Vugrin, D; Batata, M; Hajdu, S; Whitmore, W F

    1983-08-01

    In a review of our experience with seminoma 9 cases of bilateral primary testis germ cell tumors were encountered, including 2 simultaneous and 7 successive. Of the 9 cases 6 were bilateral seminomas and 7 were stage I, contributing to the good survival experience. Treatment policy is specified and discussed.

  13. Evolution of cadmium effects in the testis and sperm of the tropical fish Gymnotus carapo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilio, C S; Moreira, R V; Carvalho, C E V; Melo, E J T

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the testis and sperm morphology of the tropical fish Gymnotus carapo after exposure to increasing CdCl2 concentrations (5-40 μM) for 24 and 96 h. The treatments induced Cd accumulation in the testis and a decrease in the gonadosomatic index from a 10 μM. Cd induced alterations in testis since 24h; however the extension and severity of damages increased after 96 h in all tested concentrations. Marked variations in the cysts size, proliferation of the interstitial tissue, infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis, reduction of germ cells and sperm aggregation was observed in 96 h treated fishes. In this time, there was a complete absence of germ cells in the testis of fish treated with 40 μM. The ultrastructural analysis allowed for the visualization of the initial damages over germ cells, such as the presence of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Exposed fish (20 μM for 24 and 96 h) had alterations in sperm number and morphology. These results are important for establishing a direct correlation between the Cd accumulation and incidence of damages and can help characterize the mechanism of Cd-induced pathogenesis in the male reproductive system.

  14. CD99 and CD106 (VCAM—1) in human testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VeraE; LaatoM

    2002-01-01

    Aim:The expression of the cytokines Il-2,IL-6,IL-10,IFN-γ and TNF-α and the adhesion proteins CD99 and CD106 was studied in the human testis at the protein level.Methods:The expression of the cytokines and the adhesion proteins was assessed using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.Results:None of the cytokines studied was present in the human testis,but CD99 and CD106(VCAM-1) strongly were expressed in all the testes investigated.CD99 was present in the interstitial tissue of the human testis as well as in the Sertoli cells.The identity of the CD99+ interstitial cells is unclear.CD106(VCAM-1) was present in Leydig cells as well as the basal parts of the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules.In immunoblotting,CD99 was demonstrated at molecular ratios of 46-57(kD).This is a novel isoform of the molecule.Conclusion:The human testis produces both CD99 and CD106 and as CD106 mediates cell binding to lymphocytes,it is possible that the human Leydig cells adhere to lymphocytes like the rodent Leydig cells.

  15. An original procedure for balanus repair with transposition of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kurbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the unique clinical experience of successful sexual rehabilitation of a patient who has undergone penile amputation for cancer. Complex reconstruction of all parts of the lost organ, by using known methods and those proposed for the first time in global practice (balanus repair with transposition of the testis, was performed in the patient.

  16. Penghambatan Proliferasi Limfosit Mencit Balb/c oleh Ekstrak Testis Sapi Bali: Peran TGF-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Depamede

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Testis extract (ET of several animals such as rats, mice, boars, and bulls, has been reported able to suppress lymphocyte proliferation. In order to elucidate if ET of bali cattle has the suppressive activity, the present study was conducted. ET was isolated aseptically from the testis of bali cattle slaughtered at a slaughter house in Mataram, Lombok. After decapsulating, the testis were minced, homogenized (1 g tissue per 3 ml phosphate buffered saline, PBS, pH 7.2. The ET (40, 20, and 10µg/ml was added on to lymphocytes isolated from Balb/c spleen, then cultured for 72 hours in RPMI media containing 10% foetal bovine serum in 96 well plates with the concentration of 250,000 cells per well, with- or without concanavalin A (10 µg/ml, or IL-2 (0.2 ng/ml. After 72 h of culture, cell proliferation was examined by colorimetric assay. The results showed that bali cattle ET were able to suppress the proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro through the process of apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that bali cattle ET contain TGF-β1. The suppression effects of the ET were eliminated by anti-TGF-β1 antibody. It can be concluded that ET of bali cattle expressed TGF-β which inhibited lymphocyte proliferation through an apoptotic cell mechanism. The actual roles of TGF-β in the bali cattle testis need to be elucidated further.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

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    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  18. Immunohistopathology of the contralateral testis of rats undergoing experimental torsion of the spermatic cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo G. Rodriguez; Claudia Rival; María S. Theas; Livia Lustig

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the immunohistopathological changes in the contralateral testis of rats after an experimental spermatic cord torsion. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats of 45-50 days old were subjected to a 720° unilateral spermatic cord torsion for 10, 30 and 80 days (experimental group, E), respectively or sham operation (control group, C). Histopathology of the contralateral testis as well as germ cell apoptosis were studied using the Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique. The number of testicular lymphocytes, mast cells and macrophages, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its receptor (TNFR 1) in testicular cells of the contralateral testis were quantified by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.TNF-o concentration in testicular fluid was determined by ELISA. Results: In the contralateral testis of rats from the E group, the maximal degree of damage of the germinal epithelium was seen 30 days after torsion. At this time we observed in the E group vs. The C group increases: (I) the number of testicular T-lymphocytes; (ii) the number of testicular mast cells and macrophages; (iii) the percentage of macrophages expressing TNF-α; (iv) TNF-α concentration in testicular fluid; (v) the number of apoptotic germ cells; and (vi) the number of TNFR1 + germ cells. Conclusion:Experimental spermatic cord torsion induces, in the contralateral testis, a focal damage of seminiferous tubules characterized by apoptosis and sloughing of germ cells. Results suggest humoral and cellular immune mediated testicular cell damage in which macrophages and mast cells seem to be involved in the induction of germ cell apoptosis through the TNF-α/TNFR1 system and in the modulation of the inflammatory process.

  19. The gut microbiota and developmental programming of the testis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al-Asmakh

    Full Text Available Nutrients and environmental chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, have been incriminated in the current increase in male reproductive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest surface area exposed to our environment and thereby plays a key role in connection with exposure of internal organs to exogenous factors. In this context the gut microbiome (all bacteria and their metabolites have been shown to be important contributors to body physiology including metabolism, cognitive functions and immunity. Pivotal to male reproduction is a proper development of the testis, including the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB that encapsulates and protects germ cells from stress induced environmental cues, e.g. pathogenic organisms and xenobiotics. Here we used specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ-free (GF mice to explore whether gut microbiota and/or their metabolites can influence testis development and regulation of BTB. Lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules, which coincides with the development of the BTB was delayed in the testes of GF mice at 16 days postpartum. In addition, perfusion experiments (Evans blue demonstrated increased BTB permeability in these same mice. Reduced expressions of occludin, ZO-2 and E-cadherin in GF testis suggested that the microbiota modulated BTB permeability by regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT, which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. Moreover, the GF mice exhibited lower serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH than the SPF group. In addition, the intratesticular content of testosterone was lower in GF compared to SPF or CBUT animals. Thus, the gut microbiome can modulate the permeability of the BTB and might play a role in the regulation of endocrine functions of the testis.

  20. The Gut Microbiota and Developmental Programming of the Testis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed; Anuar, Farhana; Strand, Mona-Lisa; Hedin, Lars; Pettersson, Sven; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Nutrients and environmental chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, have been incriminated in the current increase in male reproductive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest surface area exposed to our environment and thereby plays a key role in connection with exposure of internal organs to exogenous factors. In this context the gut microbiome (all bacteria and their metabolites) have been shown to be important contributors to body physiology including metabolism, cognitive functions and immunity. Pivotal to male reproduction is a proper development of the testis, including the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that encapsulates and protects germ cells from stress induced environmental cues, e.g. pathogenic organisms and xenobiotics. Here we used specific pathogen free (SPF) mice and germ-free (GF) mice to explore whether gut microbiota and/or their metabolites can influence testis development and regulation of BTB. Lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules, which coincides with the development of the BTB was delayed in the testes of GF mice at 16 days postpartum. In addition, perfusion experiments (Evans blue) demonstrated increased BTB permeability in these same mice. Reduced expressions of occludin, ZO-2 and E-cadherin in GF testis suggested that the microbiota modulated BTB permeability by regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT), which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. Moreover, the GF mice exhibited lower serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) than the SPF group. In addition, the intratesticular content of testosterone was lower in GF compared to SPF or CBUT animals. Thus, the gut microbiome can modulate the permeability of the BTB and might play a role in the regulation of endocrine functions of the testis. PMID:25118984

  1. Germ cell dynamics in the testis of the postnatal common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S; Ehmcke, J; Wistuba, J; Eildermann, K; Behr, R; Schlatt, S; Gromoll, J

    2010-11-01

    The seminiferous epithelium in the nonhuman primate Callithrix jacchus is similarly organized to man. This monkey has therefore been used as a preclinical model for spermatogenesis and testicular stem cell physiology. However, little is known about the developmental dynamics of germ cells in the postnatal primate testis. In this study, we analyzed testes of newborn, 8-week-old, and adult marmosets employing immunohistochemistry using pluripotent stem cell and germ cell markers DDX4 (VASA), POU5F1 (OCT3/4), and TFAP2C (AP-2γ). Stereological and morphometric techniques were applied for quantitative analysis of germ cell populations and testicular histological changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) of testicular mRNA was applied using 16 marker genes establishing the corresponding profiles during postnatal testicular development. Testis size increased during the first 8 weeks of life with the main driver being longitudinal outgrowth of seminiferous cords. The number of DDX4-positive cells per testis doubled between birth and 8 weeks of age whereas TFAP2C- and POU5F1-positive cells remained unchanged. This increase in DDX4-expressing cells indicates dynamic growth of the differentiated A-spermatogonial population. The presence of cells expressing POU5F1 and TFAP2C after 8 weeks reveals the persistence of less differentiated germ cells. The mRNA and protein profiles determined by qRT-PCR and western blot in newborn, 8-week-old, and adult marmosets corroborated the immunohistochemical findings. In conclusion, we demonstrated the presence of distinct spermatogonial subpopulations in the primate testis exhibiting different dynamics during early testicular development. Our study demonstrates the suitability of the marmoset testis as a model for human testicular development.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Testis and Ovary Transcriptomes in Zebrafish by Combining Experimental and Computational Tools

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    Laszlo Orban

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the zebrafish model have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the zebrafish is still limited. Here we provide an analysis on the gene sets expressed in the adult zebrafish testis and ovary in an attempt to identify genes with potential role in (zebrafish gonad development and function. We produced 10 533 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from zebrafish testis or ovary and downloaded an additional 23 642 gonad-derived sequences from the zebrafish EST database. We clustered these sequences together with over 13 000 kidney-derived zebrafish ESTs to study partial transcriptomes for these three organs. We searched for genes with gonad-specific expression by screening macroarrays containing at least 2600 unique cDNA inserts with testis-, ovary- and kidney-derived cDNA probes. Clones hybridizing to only one of the two gonad probes were selected, and subsequently screened with computational tools to identify 72 genes with potentially testis-specific and 97 genes with potentially ovary-specific expression, respectively. PCR-amplification confirmed gonad-specificity for 21 of the 45 clones tested (all without known function. Our study, which involves over 47 000 EST sequences and specialized cDNA arrays, is the first analysis of adult organ transcriptomes of zebrafish at such a scale. The study of genes expressed in adult zebrafish testis and ovary will provide useful information on regulation of gene expression in teleost gonads and might also contribute to our understanding of the development and differentiation of reproductive organs in vertebrates.

  3. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract.

  4. Effective Delivery of Male Contraceptives Behind the Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) - Lesson from Adjudin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Xia, Weiliang; Bonanomi, Michele; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, Chuen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. It divides the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, the functional unit of the testis, where spermatogenesis takes place, into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Functionally, the BTB provides a unique microenvironment for meiosis I/II and post-meiotic spermatid development which take place exclusively in the apical compartment, away from the host immune system, and it contributes to the immune privilege status of testis. However, the BTB also poses major obstacles in developing male contraceptives (e.g., adjudin) that exert their effects on germ cells in the apical compartment, such as by disrupting spermatid adhesion to the Sertoli cell, causing germ cell exfoliation from the testis. Besides the tight junction (TJ) between adjacent Sertoli cells at the BTB that restricts the entry of contraceptives from the microvessels in the interstitium to the adluminal compartment, drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), are also present that actively pump drugs out of the testis, limiting drug bioavailability. Recent advances in drug formulations, such as drug particle micronization (contraceptives via considerable increase in solubility. Herein, we discuss development in drug formulations using adjudin as an example. We also put emphasis on the possible use of nanotechnology to deliver adjudin to the apical compartment with multidrug magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles. These advances in technology will significantly enhance our ability to develop effective non-hormonal male contraceptives for men.

  5. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

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    Tie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05 for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05 for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075, 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424, and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336 respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  6. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus: Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis

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    Haroon Ali Yousef Hussein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral orchidectomy (UO is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05. The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I (where the scrotum was left opened revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The testis showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  7. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THYAGARAJU K.; HEMAVATHI B.; VASUNDHARA K.; RAO A.D.; DEVI K.N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Y3 and Yδ in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or 3-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Yδ ofπclass was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of α class and Y3 of μ class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and 13-methylcholanthrene stress.

  8. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and beta-methylcholanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraju, K; Hemavathi, B; Vasundhara, K; Rao, A D; Devi, K N

    2005-08-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and b-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Ybeta and Ydelta in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or beta-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Ydelta of pi class was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of alpha class and Ybeta of mu class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and beta-methylcholanthrene stress.

  9. Comparative study on glutathione transferases of rat brain and testis under the stress of phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraju, K.; Hemavathi, B.; Vasundhara, K.; Rao, A.D.; Devi, K.N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the tissue specific expression of glutathione transferases (GST) in brain and testis after exposure of rat to phenobarbitol (PB) and β-methylcholanthrene (MC). Glutathione transferases, a family of multifunctional proteins are involved in intracellular transport processes and in detoxication of electrophilic xenobiotics by catalyzing reactions such as conjugation, isomerization, reduction and thiolysis. On purification, the yield of GST proteins by affinity chromatography was 39% in testis and 32% in brain. The affinity purified testis GSTs were resolved by chromatofocusing into six anionic and four cationic isozymes, and in brain glutathione transferases were resolved into four anionic and three cationic isozymes, suggesting the presence of multiple isozymes with Yc, Yb, Yβ and Yδ in both of them. In testis and brain, these isozymes at identical pI values showed variable functions with a battery of substrates and the cationic isozymes of brain and testis showed identical properties in CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) at pH values of above 7.0. Substrate specificity studies and immunoblot analysis of testis and brain proteins revealed that they play a predominant role in the detoxication of phenobarbitol or β-methylcholanthrene. Expression of the isozymes in testis and brain on exposure to PB and MC indicated elevated subunit variation. In both testis and brain, Yδ of π class was expressed on PB treatment and Yc of α class and Yβ of μ class was expressed in MC treated testis and only Yc was predominantly expressed in MC treated brain. Thus these subunits expression is considered as markers for carcinogenesis and specific to chemical toxicity under phenobarbitol and β-methylcholanthrene stress. PMID:16052709

  10. Expression of a novel pyridoxal kinase mRNA splice variant, PKH-T, in human testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XingFang; Zuo-MinZhou; LiLu; Lan-LanYin; Jian-MinLi; YinZhen; HuiWang; Jia-HaoSha

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify the genes specifically expressed in human adult and fetal testes and spermatozoa.Methods: A human testis cDNA microarray was established. Then mRNAs of human adult and fetal testis and spermatozoa were purified and probes were prepared by a reverse transcription reaction with mRNA as the template.The microarray was hybridized with probes of adult and fetal testes and spermatozoa. The nucleic acid sequences of differentially expressed genes were determined and homologies were searched in the databases of GenBank. Results:A novel human testis-specific gene, PKH-T, was identified by hybridizing adult and fetal testis and spermatozoa probes with a human testis cDNA microarray. The cDNA of PKH-T was 1069 bp in length. The cDNA sequence of this clone was deposited in the Genbank (AY303972) and PKH-T was also determined as Interim GenSymbol (Unigene,HS.38041). PKH-T contained most PKH conserved motif. The 239 amino acid sequences deduced from the 719 bp open reading frame (ORF) had a homology with the gene PKH (U89606). PKH-T was specifically and strongly expressed in the testis. Comparison of the differential expressions of PKH and PKH-T in testes of different develop-mental stages indicated that PKH-T was expressed in the adult testis and spermatozoa, while PKH, in the adult, fetal and aged testes. PKH-T had no expression in the testis of Sertoli cell only and partially spermatogenic arrest patients.Conclusion: PKH-T is a gene highly expressed in adult human testis and spermatozoa. It may play an important role in spermatogenesis and could be related to male infertility.

  11. 杧果毒蛾和莲雾毒蛾幼虫头宽、体长和摄食量测定及其增长规律的研究%A Survey on the Head wide, Body Length, Feed Quantity and the Growth of the Larva of Lymantria marginata Walke and Cifuna sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎

    2003-01-01

    @@ 杧果毒蛾(Lymantria marginata Walke)、莲雾毒蛾(Cifuna sp.)分别是热带果树杧果和莲雾上的重要食叶害虫.近年来,笔者对这两种害虫的生物学习性和室内种群特性作了较为系统的研究.

  12. Studies on Expression of P1 Protamine Gene in Rat and Mouse Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费仁仁; 纪林; 吴小芳; 陈晖; 陈惠琼; 李建国; 王一飞; 闫月敏; 王莎丽; 陈啸梅; 薛社普

    1999-01-01

    Protamine is a kind small,basic protein rich in arginine residues and found to be complexed with DNA in spermatozoa. We have cloned a 150 bp cDNA encoding the rat protamine (rP) by RT-PCR technique.Dig-labelled cDNA for rP was used for Northern blot analysis to study the expression of P1 protamine gene in rat and mouse.P1 protamine mRNA was detected only in rat testis,no hybridization signals were de-tected in rat brain and lever.In addition,the presence of P1 protamine mRNA was detected not only in rat testis,but also in mouse testis.Dig-labelled cDNA for mouse protamine 1 (mP1) was used to study the expression of mP1 gene during the process of sexual maturation of mouse.7-8 d after birth,no mP1 mRNA could be detected.At d 24-26,mP1 mRNA was detectable migrating as a homogeneous band at 580 nu-cleotides,whereas in sexually mature animals,a heterogeneous mixture of RNAs ranging from 450-580 bases in length was observed.Histological studies revealed that in the testis of 7-8-day-old mouse, spermatogenesis has developed to the sperma-tocyte stage, whereas round spermatids (Rs) were present in the testis of the mice with 24-26 d age and elongating spermatids(Es)were present in the testis of sexually mature animals. Electrophoresis of total nuclear basic proteins(TNBP)revealed that the Rs could possess the somatic histones,while Es was found to have protamine and less histone.These results indicate that the P1 protamine gene is tissues-specifically ex-pressed and the P1 protamine is showing to be conservative in evolution.During the process of sexual maturation,along with morphological changes,mP1 gene was tran-scribed in Rs and translated in Es.The mechanism of protamine gene expression was discussed.

  13. Menaquinone-4 enhances testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohsaki Yusuke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K is essential for the posttranslational modification of various Gla proteins. Although it is widespread in several organs, including the testis, the function of vitamin K in these organs is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the function of vitamin K in the testis and analyzed its role in steroidogenesis. Methods Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with menaquinone-4 (MK-4, 75 mg/kg diet, one of the predominant K2 vitamins present in the testis, for 5 weeks. In vivo testosterone levels of the rats' plasma and testes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in vitro testosterone levels of testis-derived tumor cells (I-10 cells maintained in Ham's F-10 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum were measured following treatment with MK-4 (0 to 100 μM at several time points. Testosterone and cellular protein levels were analyzed with respect to their effects on steroidogenesis. Results Testosterone levels in the plasma and testes of MK-4-fed rats were significantly increased compared to those of control rats, with no obvious differences in plasma luteinizing hormone levels. Secreted testosterone levels from I-10 cells were elevated by MK-4, but not by vitamin K1, in a dose-dependent manner independent of cAMP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in steroidogenesis, and phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA and the cAMP response element-binding protein were all stimulated by the presence of MK-4. Enhancement of testosterone production was inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, but not by warfarin, an inhibitor of γ-glutamylcarboxylation. Conclusions MK-4 stimulates testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells via activation of PKA. MK-4 may be involved in steroidogenesis in the testis, and its supplementation could reverse the downregulation of testosterone production in

  14. Paracetamol, aspirin and indomethacin display endocrine disrupting properties in the adult human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, O; Desdoits-Lethimonier, C; Lesné, L; Legrand, A; Guillé, F; Bensalah, K; Dejucq-Rainsford, N; Jégou, B

    2013-07-01

    Do mild analgesics affect the endocrine system of the human adult testis? Mild analgesics induce multiple endocrine disturbances in the human adult testis in vitro. Mild analgesics have recently been incriminated as potential endocrine disruptors. Studies of the effects of these widely used molecules on the androgenic status of men are limited and somewhat contradictory. This prompted us to investigate whether these compounds could alter the adult human testicular function. We therefore assessed in parallel the effects of paracetamol, aspirin and indomethacin on organo-cultured adult human testis and on the NCI-H295R steroid-producing human cell line. Adult human testis explants or NCI-H295R adrenocortical human cells were cultured with 10(-4) or 10(-5) M paracetamol, aspirin or indomethacin for 24-48 h. The effect of 10(-5) M ketoconazole, used as an anti-androgenic reference molecule, was also assessed. Testes were obtained from prostate cancer patients, who had not received any hormone therapy. The protocol was approved by the local ethics committee of Rennes, France and informed consent was given by the donors. Only testes displaying spermatogenesis, as assessed by transillumination, were used in this study. Hormone levels in the culture media were determined by radioimmunoassay (testosterone, insulin-like factor 3), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (inhibin B) or Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay [prostaglandin (PG) D2, and PGE2]. Tissues were observed and cells counted using classical immunohistochemical methods. The three mild analgesics caused multiple endocrine disturbances in the adult human testis. This was particularly apparent in the interstitial compartment. Effective doses were in the same range as those measured in blood plasma following standard analgesic treatment. The production of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 by Leydig cells was altered by exposure to all these drugs. Inhibin B production by Sertoli cells was marginally affected by aspirin

  15. Effects of estradiol and FSH on maturation of the testis in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayhew Terry M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypogonadal (hpg mouse is widely used as an animal model with which to investigate the endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis. Chronic treatment of these GnRH-deficient mice with estradiol is known to induce testicular maturation and restore qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. The aim of the current studies was to investigate whether these effects of estradiol are direct effects in the testis, or indirect actions via paradoxical stimulation of FSH secretion from the pituitary gland. Methods Initially, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse tissues from hpg mice to identify potential sites of action of estradiol. In the main study, hpg mice were treated for 50 days with either an estradiol implant or daily injections of recombinant human FSH, or a combination of both, to determine whether estradiol would have an additive or synergistic effect with FSH on testis development, as assessed by histological analysis and stereological quantification of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cell proliferation. Results Western blot analysis revealed ERα immunoreactive bands of appropriate molecular weight in extracts of testis and pituitary glands from hpg mice, and immunohistochemical studies confirmed ERα in nuclei of anterior pituitary cells and Leydig and peritubular cells in hpg mice. Histological and morphometric analyses revealed that estradiol treatment alone was as effective as FSH in promoting Sertoli cell production and proliferation of the seminiferous epithelium, resulting in the production of elongating spermatids. Combined estradiol and FSH treatment did not produce a greater effect than either treatment alone, though an increased dose of FSH significantly increased seminiferous tubule volume and testis weight and increase Sertoli cell numbers further within the same time frame. In contrast, estradiol caused substantial increases in the wet weight of the seminal vesicles, whereas FSH was without effect on

  16. The measurement of rectal and testis temperature in conscious mice, with observations on the effect of direct heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairnie, A B; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L F; Harding, R K; Zuker, M

    1980-03-01

    The application of Newton's law of cooling to freshly killed mice was found not to measure accurately their rectal or testis temperature. Improvements in the fitting process gave satisfactory results for rectal temperature only. A diffusion model was applied to testis cooling but was of no avail. Finally a satisfactory correction factor was determined empirically. This method was applied to conscious mice whose hindquarters were immersed in a stirred oilbath at 34 to 42 degrees C for 1 h, and to controls. It was found that both rectal and testis temperatures increased with bath temperature, producing a graph with a slope of only 0.5, indicating a regulatory capacity. Conscious mice, but not anaesthetised, can maintain a testis temperature of 39 degrees C in a bath at 42 degrees C.

  17. Hormonal control of gubernaculum development during testis descent: gubernaculum outgrowth in vitro requires both insulin-like factor and androgen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Emmen (Judith); A. McLuskey; I.M. Adham; W. Engel; J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe gubernaculum connects the gonad to the inguinoscrotal region and is involved in testis descent. It rapidly develops in the male fetus, whereas development in the female fetus is lacking. Possible factors involved in gubernaculum development are androgens

  18. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance

  19. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M;

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...... testicular biopsy from the patient in whom nonseminoma was noted at followup showed Sertoli cells only. We recommend that testicular biopsy be performed at operation for undescended testis in boys with abnormal sex chromosomes, particularly 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and in those with abnormal external genitalia....... The pattern of Sertoli cells only in biopsies from boys does not preclude the occurrence of testicular cancer in adulthood....

  20. Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Medwyn Hutson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3-9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of CIS and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy

  1. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  2. Testis cancer: role of radiotherapy in 2003; Cancer du testicule: place de la radiotherapie en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clippe, S. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France); Flechon, A.; Droz, J.P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Cancerologie Medicale, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-11-01

    Germ-cell minors of the testis are rare tumors of the young adult. Half of them are seminoma. The majority of patients have disease limited to the testis. Radiotherapy still remains the standard treatment of these patients. Almost all patients are cured by orchidectomy and radiotherapy on the lomboaortic area extended to homolateral iliac area. The dose is 24 to 30 Gy in a standard fractionation. Different studies are ongoing to reduce the irradiation field (omission of the pelvic irradiation), to decrease irradiation dose (to 20 Gy). Other treatment options are strict surveillance and adjuvant carbo-platin based chemotherapy. None of these options are standard treatments. A strict attention must be directed on controlateral germ-cell tumors and second cancers. (author)

  3. Testis of the lizard Mabuya carinata: a light microscopic and ultrastructural seasonal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, I; Bhagya, M; Yajurvedi, H N

    2006-01-01

    Histomorphology and ultrastructure of the testis during breeding and nonbreeding phases of the reproductive cycle of the lizard Mabuya carinata are studied. Observations of the ultrastructural features of the testis during breeding and nonbreeding phases of the reproductive cycle reveal a prenuptial type of spermatogenesis and a clearcut discontinuous spermatogenic cycle. Seminiferous tubules are enlarged and there is active spermatogenesis as shown by the presence of all the stages of spermatogenesis (spermatogonia to spermatids) and spermatozoa during the breeding phase (November). During the nonbreeding phase (April) only spermatogonia and Sertoli cells are seen in the shrunken seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells and Sertoli cells show distinct changes in the morphological appearance with hypertrophy of the cells in breeding phase and atrophy of the cells in the nonbreeding phase of the reproductive cycle. The present study suggests that Sertoli cells and Leydig cells functions are synchronous in the lizard M. carinata.

  4. Expression of CD1d protein in human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Abdelwahed Hussein, Mahmoud-Rezk

    2011-05-01

    CD1d is a member of CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which represent antigen-presenting molecules. Immunofluorescent staining methods were utilized to examine expression pattern of CD1d in human testicular specimens. In testis showing normal spermatogenesis, a strong CD1d cytoplasmic expression was seen the Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and Leydig cells. A moderate expression was observed in the spermatocytes. In testes showing maturation arrest, CD1d expression was strong in the Sertoli cells and weak in spermatogonia and spermatocytes compared to testis with normal spermatogenesis. In Sertoli cell only syndrome, CD1d expression was strong in the Sertoli and Leydig cells. This preliminary study displayed testicular infertility-related changes in CD1d expression. The ultrastructural changes associated with with normal and abnormal spermatogenesis are open for further investigations.

  5. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    on immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis of human adult testis and 32 testicular tumours to examine the differential expression and abundance of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 in relation to cell type, proliferation, differentiation, and malignancy. In normal testis, the cell type-restricted expression patterns were...... D2 but not D1 or D3, while the invasive testicular tumours showed variable positivity for cyclins D2 and D3, but rarely D1. An unexpected correlation with differentiation rather than proliferation was found particularly for cyclin D3 in teratomas, a conceptually significant observation confirmed...... by massive up-regulation of cyclin D3 in the human teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2/D1 induced to differentiate along the neuronal lineage. These results suggest a possible involvement of cyclin D2 in the early stages of testicular oncogenesis and the striking examples of proliferation-independent expression...

  6. Localization of the chromatin remodelling protein, ATRX in the adult testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Paisu; Argentaro, Anthony; Pask, Andrew J; O'Donnell, Liza; Marshall-Graves, Jennifer; Familari, Mary; Harley, Vincent R

    2011-06-01

    Mutations in ATRX (alpha-thalassaemia and mental retardation on the X-chromosome) can give rise to ambiguous or female genitalia in XY males, implying a role for ATRX in testicular development. Studies on ATRX have mainly focused on its crucial role in brain development and α-globin regulation; however, little is known about its function in sexual differentiation and its expression in the adult testis. Here we show that the ATRX protein is present in adult human and rat testis and is expressed in the somatic cells; Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular myoid cells, and also in germ cells; spermatogonia and early meiotic spermatocytes. The granular pattern of ATRX staining is consistent with that observed in other cell-types and suggests a role in chromatin regulation. The findings suggest that ATRX in humans may play a role in adult spermatogenesis as well as in testicular development.

  7. Rat Testis Damage Caused by Lead Sulfide Nanoparticles After Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanhua; Wang, Dong; Li, Qingzhao; Deng, Hongliang; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Guoying; Sun, Miao

    2016-03-01

    Lead sulfide nanoparticals (PbS NPs) is an important semiconductor material due to its unique physical and chemical properties, but its potential health hazard to reproductive system is not clear. In the current study, we systematically explored the reproductive toxicity of PbS NPs in rats by measuring the body weight and testicular coefficient, testing serum testosterone levels, and studying the sperm survival rate and sperm abnormality rate. Furthermore, in order to study the toxic mechanism we performed lead contents measurements in testis, and investigated the pathology in testis. Our results confirmed that PbS NPs showed high reproductive toxicity due to PbS NPs in rats' testicular tissue by the establishment of PbS NPs chronic exposure model.

  8. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria Recutita on the Hormonal Pituitary-Testis Axis and Testis Tissue Changes of Mature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Hatami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Matricaria recutita is one of the most ancient and well- known medicinal plants, and its role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases has been studied . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Matricaria recutita on spermatogenesis and the pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult rats.   Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, the animals were divided into two groups: the control group, which received 1 ml of distilled water orally, and the experimental group, which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita extract via gavage feeding once daily for an 8-week period. After the treatment period, several fertility indices such as the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, sperm motility and vitality, and testis histological changes as well as blood serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, FSH, and LH were measured.   Results: Our statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, and blood testosterone in the group which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita hydroalcholic extract .   Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that hydroalcholic extract of Matricaria recutita could increase the function of the hormonal pituitary-testis axis and spermatogenesis in male rats.  

  9. Antibacterial and antiviral roles of a fish β-defensin expressed both in pituitary and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yan Jin

    Full Text Available Defensins are a group of cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized a β-defensin from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides. Interestingly, the β-defensin was shown to be dominantly expressed in pituitary and testis by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and its transcript level is significantly upregulated in reproduction organs from intersexual gonad to testis during the natural and artificial sex reversal. Promoter sequence and the responsible activity region analyses revealed the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site and testis-specific SRY responsible site, and demonstrated that the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site that locates between -180 and -208 bp is the major responsible region of grouper β-defensin promoter activity. Immunofluorescence localization observed its pituicyte expression in pituitary and spermatogonic cell expression in testis. Moreover, both in vitro antibacterial activity assay of the recombinant β-defensin and in vivo embryo microinjection of the β-defensin mRNA were shown to be effective in killing gram-negative bacteria. And, its antiviral role was also demonstrated in EPC cells transfected with the β-defensin construct. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was sensitive to concentrations of Na(+, K(+, Ca(2+ and Mg(2+. The above intriguing findings strongly suggest that the fish β-defensin might play significant roles in both innate immunity defense and reproduction endocrine regulation.

  10. Acidic glycosphingolipids of cock testis elucidated by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, D P; Iga, S; Larsson, T; Angström, J; Soussi, B; Rakotonirainy, O; Miller-Podraza, H

    1998-12-01

    The main acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) of cock testis were identified as GalCer I3-sulfate and gangliosides GM4, GM3, GD3 and GT3. They contained N-acetylneuraminic acid as the major sialic acid, and ceramides composed mainly of sphingosine (dl8:1) and C18-24 non-hydroxy fatty acids. Appreciable amounts of hydroxy fatty acids were detected only in the GM4 preparation.

  11. The Blood-testis-barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    dependent male infertility is characterized by a significant reduction in numbers and quality of functional sperm. The mechanism(s) underlying this...during the terminal endstage procedures. Under my direction , Ryan has been responsible for performing all animal surgeries listed under the first...term effects on the blood-testis-barrier as a mechanism underlying male infertility following spinal cord injury. Goals/Milestones (Example) CY12/13

  12. Somatic expression of the testis-specific PDHA2 gene : mechanisms of activation/silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Ana Sofia da Costa, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Farmácia (Biologia Celular e Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2012 During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo a complex process of cell differentiation and morphological restructuring, which depends on the coordinated expression of different genes. Some vital examples are those involved in cell energy metabolism, namely the genes encoding the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: the somatic PDHA1 (X-linked) and the testis-specific P...

  13. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Joachimiak Ewa; Kotwica Joanna; Bebas Piotr; Giebultowicz Jadwiga M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm ...

  14. Temperature-induced elevation of basal metabolic rate does not affect testis growth in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-07-01

    The timing of reproduction varies from year to year in many bird species. To adjust their timing to the prevailing conditions of that year, birds use cues from their environment. However, the relative importance of these cues, such as the initial predictive (e.g. photoperiod) and the supplemental factors (e.g. temperature), on the seasonal sexual development are difficult to distinguish. In particular, the fine-tuning effect of temperature on gonadal growth is not well known. One way temperature may affect timing is via its strong effect on energy expenditure as gonadal growth is an energy-demanding process. To study the interaction of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal development, we first exposed 35 individually housed male great tits (Parus major) to mid-long days (after 6 weeks of 8 h L:16 h D at 15 degrees C, photoperiod was set to 13 h L:11 h D at 15 degrees C). Two weeks later, for half of the males the temperature was set to 8 degrees C, and for the other half to 22 degrees C. Unilateral laparotomies were performed at weeks 5 (i.e one week before the birds were transferred to mid-long days), 8 and 11 to measure testis size. Two measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were performed at the end of the experiment (weeks 11 and 12). Testis size increased significantly during the course of the experiment, but independently of the temperature treatment. BMR was significantly higher in birds exposed to the cold treatment. These results show that temperature-related elevation of BMR did not impair the long-day-induced testis growth in great tits. As a consequence, temperature may not be a crucial cue and/or constraint factor in the fine-tuning of the gonadal recrudescence in male great tits, and testis growth is not a high energy-demanding seasonal process.

  15. Dose- and time-related effects of caffeine on the testis in immature male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeman; Choi, Hyeonhae; Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

    2017-01-27

    We previously showed that prepubertal chronic caffeine exposure adversely affected the development of the testes in male rats. Here we investigated dose- and time-related effects of caffeine consumption on the testis throughout sexual maturation in prepubertal rats. A total of 80 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: controls and rats fed 20, 60, or 120 mg caffeine/kg/day, respectively, via gavage for 10, 20, 30, or 40 days. Preputial separation was monitored daily before the rats were sacrificed. Terminal blood samples were collected for hormone assay, and testes were grossly evaluated and weighed. One testis was processed for histological analysis, and the other was collected to isolate Leydig cells. Caffeine exposure significantly increased the relative weight of the testis in a dose-related manner after 30 days of exposure, whereas the absolute testis weight tended to decrease at the 120 mg dose of caffeine. The mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and height of the germinal epithelium significantly decreased in the caffeine-fed groups after 40 days of caffeine exposure, which was accompanied by a reduced BrdU incorporation rate in germ cells. In addition, caffeine intake significantly reduced in vivo and ex vivo testosterone production in a dose-related manner. Our results demonstrate that caffeine exposure during sexual maturation alter the testicular microarchitecture and also slow germ cell proliferation even at the 20 mg dose level. Furthermore, caffeine may act directly on Leydig cells and interfere with testosterone production in a dose-related manner, consequently delaying onset of sexual maturation.

  16. Burned-out tumor of the testis presenting as supraclavicular lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebapci, Mahmut; Aslan, Ozgur [Dept. of Radiology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Can, Cavit [Department of Urology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Isiksoy, Serap; Oner, Ulku [Department of Pathology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    Burned-out tumor of the testis is a rare clinical entity. It generally presents with metastases and is nonpalpable in testicular palpation. We present a case of testicular burned-out tumor having supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. Imaging findings of such tumors have insufficiently been documented in radiology literature. Scrotal sonography is crucial in detecting the regressed tumors especially in patients with extragonadal metastasis of a testicular primary. (orig.)

  17. Differential expression of PRAMEL1, a cancer/testis antigen, during spermatogenesis in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh V Mistry

    Full Text Available PRAME belongs to a group of cancer/testis antigens (CTAs that are characterized by their restricted expression in normal gametogenic tissues and a variety of tumors. The PRAME family is one of the most amplified gene families in the mouse and other mammalian genomes. Members of the PRAME gene family encode leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins functioning as transcription regulators in cancer cells. However, the role of PRAME in normal gonads is unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial expression of the mouse Pramel1 gene, and to determine the cellular localization of the PRAMEL1 protein during the mouse spermatogenesis. Our results indicated that the mouse Pramel1 was expressed in testis only. The mRNA and protein expression level was low in the newborn testes, and gradually increased from 1- to 3-week-old testes, and then remained constant after three weeks of age. Immunofluorescent staining on testis sections with the mouse PRAMEL1 antibody revealed that PRAMEL1 was localized in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and the acrosomal region of round, elongating and elongated spermatids. Further analyses on the testis squash preparation and spermatozoa at a subcellular level indicated that the protein localization patterns of PRAMEL1 were coordinated with morphological alterations during acrosome formation in spermatids, and were significantly different in connecting piece, middle piece and principal piece of the flagellum between testicular and epididymal spermatozoa. Collectively, our results suggest that PRAMEL1 may play a role in acrosome biogenesis and sperm motility.

  18. The B-type lamin is required for somatic repression of testis-specific gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelyov, Y. Y.; Lavrov, S. A.; Mikhaylova, L. M.; Nurminsky, I. D.; Kulathinal, R. J.; Egorova, K. S.; Rozovsky, Y. M.; Nurminsky, D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Large clusters of coexpressed tissue-specific genes are abundant on chromosomes of diverse species. The genes coordinately misexpressed in diverse diseases are also found in similar clusters, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms regulate expression of large multigenic regions both in normal development and in its pathological disruptions. Studies on individual loci suggest that silent clusters of coregulated genes are embedded in repressed chromatin domains, often localized to the nuclear periphery. To test this model at the genome-wide scale, we studied transcriptional regulation of large testis-specific gene clusters in somatic tissues of Drosophila. These gene clusters showed a drastic paucity of known expressed transgene insertions, indicating that they indeed are embedded in repressed chromatin. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the major role for the B-type lamin, LamDmo, in repression of large testis-specific gene clusters, showing that in somatic cells as many as three-quarters of these clusters interact with LamDmo. Ablation of LamDmo by using mutants and RNAi led to detachment of testis-specific clusters from nuclear envelope and to their selective transcriptional up-regulation in somatic cells, thus providing the first direct evidence for involvement of the B-type lamin in tissue-specific gene repression. Finally, we found that transcriptional activation of the lamina-bound testis-specific gene cluster in male germ line is coupled with its translocation away from the nuclear envelope. Our studies, which directly link nuclear architecture with coordinated regulation of tissue-specific genes, advance understanding of the mechanisms underlying both normal cell differentiation and developmental disorders caused by lesions in the B-type lamins and interacting proteins. PMID:19218438

  19. Identification and expression of a novel human testis-specific gene by digital differential display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 卢光琇

    2004-01-01

    Background Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male infertility is accumulating. This study was designed to identify a novel testis-specific gene related to spermatogenesis by a new strategy of digital differential display (DDD).Methods Based on the generation of expressed sequenced tags (ESTs), comparing the testis libraries with other tissue or cell line libraries by the DDD program, we identified a new contig of the ESTs which were derived from testis libraries and represented a novel gene. Multi-tissue RT-PCR was performed to analyse its tissue-specific expression. The full-length cDNA of the new gene was obtained using the BLAST program. Sequencing was performed and the result was analysed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Northern blot analyseis of mRNA from differential normal tissues were performed to clarify the expression pattern of the new gene. The sequence of the opening reading frame was integrated into the pQE-30 vector expressed in Escherichia coil strain M15(pREP4). With IPTG induction, the target protein was detected.Conclusions DDD can be confirmed by SPATA12 as a novel computational biology-based approach for identification of the testis-specific expression genes. SPATA12 may function as a testicular germ cell associated gene that plays some roles in spermatogenesis. Moreover, a great amount of SPATA12 protein could be obtained by the gene recombination technique, thus providing a reliable foundation for investigating the biological function of this new protein.

  20. Identification and Characteristics of a Novel E1 Like Gene nUBE1L in Human Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui ZHU; Jia-Hao SHA; Zuo-Min ZHOU; Ran HUO; Xiao-Yan HUANG; Li LU; Min LIN; Li-Rong WANG; Ya-Dong ZHOU; Jian-Min LI

    2004-01-01

    A gene,presumably involved in spermatogenesis,was identified and characterized by using cDNA microarray.Hybridization intensity was 2.13 fold higher in adult testis than that in fetal testis.The full length of this gene was 4288 bp and it encoded a 578 amino acid protein.Conserved structure and amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the protein contained 1 Thif-domain,2 UBACT-domains,and a functional active site cysteine lay upstream of UBACT domain,all of them also existed in ubiquitinactivating enzyme E1 and E1 like proteins.So we named this gene as a novel ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 like gene(nUBE1L).Expression profile showed that nUBEIL was predominantly expressed in testis.Comparison of the expression of nUBE1L in different developmental stages of testis indicated that it was highly expressed in adult testis.In conclusion,nUBE1L is a novel human E1 like gene highly expressed in adult testis,which plays key role in ubiquitin system,and accordingly influences spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  1. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

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    Wang, Xuanchun [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Jiang, Haowen [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Zhou, Wenbai; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Yang, Zhihong [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Yong [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Bin [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Xiang [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Ding, Qiang, E-mail: dingqiangd@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: renminghu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2010-03-26

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  2. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

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    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  3. Identification and expression of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Haixiong Liu; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and GABAB receptors are involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone or GABA. Here,we report the presence of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa.Full-length complementary DNA encoding the ρ1,ρ2 and ρ3 subunits of GABAc receptor were cloned from rat testis;their sequences are identical to those of rat GABAc receptor in retina.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that during the development of rat testis,the transcript levels of the ρ1 and ρ2 subunits showed little change,while the expression of ρ3 was gradually up-regulated.Immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-ρ1 antibody revealed that GABAc receptor exists on the elongated spermatid and sperm.Using a chlortetracycline assay,we found that N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside, a GABAc receptor agonist,triggered rat sperm acrosome reaction;whereas(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid,a GABAc receptor antagonist, inhibited the ability of N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside to induce acrosome reaction.These results suggested that GABAc receptors are also involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction.

  4. Distribution of the sex chromosome during mouse spermatogenesis in testis tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Kosuke; Hiradate, Yuuki; Kobayashi, Norio; Shirakata, Yoshiki; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cells undergo mitotic division and are subsequently divided into haploid spermatids by meiotic division, but the dynamics of sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis are unclear in vivo. To gain insight into the distribution of sex chromosomes in the testis, we examined the localization of sex chromosomes before and after meiosis in mouse testis sections. Here, we developed a method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes for the X and Y chromosomes to obtain their positional information in histological testis sections. FISH analysis revealed the sex chromosomal position during spermatogenesis in each stage of seminiferous epithelia and in each spermatogenic cell. In the spermatogonia and leptotene spermatocytes, sex chromosomes were distantly positioned in the cell. In the zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes at prophase I, X and Y chromosomes had a random distribution. After meiosis, the X and Y spermatids were random in every seminiferous epithelium. We also detected aneuploidy of sex chromosomes in spermatogenic cells using our developed FISH analysis. Our results provide further insight into the distribution of sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis, which could help to elucidate a specific difference between X and Y spermatids and sex chromosome-specific behavior.

  5. Acute cadmium intoxication: influence of cyproterone acetate on the testis and epididymis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; Moscardelli, S; Francavilla, F; Casasanta, N; Properzi, G; Martini, M; Santiemma, V

    1981-02-01

    The changes resulting from treatment with cadmium were studied following the histological changes, the modification of both vascular permeability to vital dyes and of alkaline phosphatase activity in rat testis and epididymis. The testicular extravasation of acriflavine started 90 min following parenteral injection of cadmium and increased thereafter synchronous with an increase in testicular and epididymal weights due to edema. At 14 and 24 hr a striking decrease of interstitial fluorescence and tubular degeneration were noted in testis and caput epididymis due to thrombosis of the microvascular circulation. The barrier noted at 8 hr following cadmium injection. No changes of alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in testicular and epididymal blood vessels after cadmium injection. Previous treatment with cyproterone acetate accelerated the appearance of such alterations. The interstitial nuclear staining with acriflavine appeared in the testis at 1 hr and was diffuse at 90 and 120 min. cyproterone acetate seemed to accelerate the appearance of tubular degeneration at 8 hr after cadmium injection. The changes of the male rat gonad following cadmium treatment were characterized by an increased vascular permeability and generalized thrombosis. An inbalance of androgen stimulation seems to increase the blood vessels susceptibility to cadmium.

  6. Histopathological evaluation of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio testis following exposure to methyl paraben

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    Nasrin Hassanzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl paraben (MP is widely used as a preservative in various products. It frequently enters into aquatic environment and renders potential threat to fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive toxicity of MP on zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Male zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of MP (0.001, 0.01, 1, and 10 mg L-1 for 21 days in semi-static condition. Changes in mean length, mean weight, gonadosomatic index (GSI and histology of testis were studied. Treatment at 0.001 to 10 mg L-1 MP had no significant effect on the survival, mean length and mean weight of fish. But, GSI decreased in a dose dependent manner and the decrease was significant in the group that received the highest dose. Histological alteration of testis consisted of general testicular atrophy, multi-nucleated gonocytes (MNGs, impaired germ cell, spermatogonial proliferation, Leydig cell hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis of Sertoli cells. It was concluded that sub-chronic exposures of MP could adversely affect GSI, disrupt the histology of testis and produce estrogenic and antispermatogenic activity in male zebra fish.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of a new gene, GON-SJTU1 in the rat testis

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    Tian Geng G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is a complex process involving cell development, differentiation and apoptosis. This process is governed by a series of genes whose expressions are highly regulated. Male infertility can be attributed to multiple genetic defects or alterations that are related to spermatogenesis. The discovery, cloning and further functional study of genes related to spermatogenesis is of great importance to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis. It is also physiologically and pathologically significant to the therapy of male infertility. Methods GON-SJTU1 was identified and cloned from rat testis by cDNA library screening and 3'-and 5'-RACE. The products of GON-SJTU1 were assessed by Northern and Western blotting. The expression of GON-SJTU1 was also examined by In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results Here we identified and cloned a new gene, GON-SJTU1, with the biological process of spermatogenesis. GON-SJTU1 is highly expressed in the testis from day 1 to 15 and then decreased, suggesting that GON-SJTU1 might be a time-related gene and involved in the early stage of spermatogenesis. And the expression of GON-SJTU1 in the testis occurred in some male germ cells, particularly in gonocytes and spermatogonial stem cells. Conclusion GON-SJTU1 may play a role in the biological process of spermatogenesis.

  8. Expression of anti-Mullerian hormone receptor on the appendix testis in connection with urological disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kornél Kistamás; Olga Ruzsnavszky; Andrea Telek; Lívia Kosztka; Ilona Kovács; Beatrix Dienes; László Csernoch

    2013-01-01

    The female internal sex organs develop from the paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct.In male embryos,the regression of the Mullerian duct is caused by the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH),which plays an important role in the process of testicular descent.The physiological remnant of the Mullerian duct in males is the appendix testis (AT).In our previous study,we presented evidence for the decreased incidence of AT in cryptorchidism with intraoperative surgery.In this report,the expression of the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type 2 (AMHR2),the specific receptor of AMH,on the AT was investigated in connection with different urological disorders,such as hernia inguinalis,torsion of AT,cysta epididymis,varicocele,hydrocele testis and various forms of undescended testis.The correlation between the age of the patients and the expression of the AMHR2 was also examined.Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the receptor's mRNA and protein levels,respectively.We demonstrate that AMHR2 is expressed in the ATs.Additionally,the presence of this receptor was proven at the mRNA and protein levels.The expression pattern of the receptor correlated with neither the examined urological disorders nor the age of the patients;therefore,the function of the AT remains obscure.

  9. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma.

  10. Intravaginal testicular torsion in newborns. To fix or not to fix the contralateral testis?

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    G. Bordin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal swelling suggesting testicular torsion is a rare urological emergency which requires a clinical urgent evaluation and most of the times must be managed surgically. In newborns it can occur in the postnatal period, usually within the twenty-eighth day of life, or more frequently in utero, during the descent of the testis into the scrotum. Usually its poor fixedness allows the testis an abnormal mobility inside the scrotum, configuring the framework of extravaginal torsion. On the contrary during the perinatal period a twist that takes place inside the tunica vaginalis, known as intravaginal torsion, is extremely uncommon and only few cases are well documented in the literature. Authors present a rare case of intravaginal testicular torsion occurred in perinatal period. In this situation only the early surgical exploration of the scrotum may allow the rescue of the gonad, although in rare cases. Timing of surgical treatment and need for contralateral testicular fixation remain controversial. However since the anatomical defect of the tunica vaginalis can be bilateral the surgical fixation even of the contralateral testis is important, now or later, in order to prevent any future torsion of this gonad. The authors also present a brief review of recent literature on the subject.

  11. Down-Regulation of Lipocalin 2 Expression in Mouse Testis after Exposure to Electromagnetic Field

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    Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of electromagnetic field (EMF onreproductive system have been of critical concern for a longtime. It has been shown that the EMF can adversely affect testicularcells and tissue and decrease male fertility. The mostimportant determinants of male fertility are sperm developmentand motility, which are affected by changes in several factorsincluding lipocalin 2 proteins. In the present study, we investigatedthe effects of exposure to EMF on testis tissue and expressionof lipocalin 2 gene.Methods: Male BALB/c mice (8 weeks old were exposed to 3mT EMF for 8 weeks, 4 hours/day. Control group (10 micedid not receive EMF exposure. After the experimental period,the mice were sacrificed, and their testis tissues were examinedby using light microscopy after hematoxylin-eosin staining.Additionally, total RNA and proteins were extracted from testistissue and used to study the lipocalin 2 expression by realtime RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.Results: The histological changes observed in the testes of experimentalgroup included increased number of spermatocytesand Leydig cells, and increased thickness of basement membranecompared with the control group. The mRNA and proteinstudies showed that expression of lipocalin 2 gene wasdown regulated in testes of the mice exposed to EMF.Conclusion: Our study showed that EMF down regulates theexpression of lipocalin 2, a cytoprotective molecule, in testis tissue.This down regulation can be one of the mechanisms that contributeto the decreased fertility observed after exposure to EMF

  12. Erdosteine protects rat testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, A; Ickin, M; Uzun, O; Bakar, C; Balbay, E Gulec; Balbay, O

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on testis morphology and the effects of erdosteine on testis tissue. Caspase-3 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry. Adult male Wistar rats were placed in a hypobaric hypoxic chamber. Rats in the erdosteine group were exposed to the same conditions and treated orally with erdosteine (20 mg kg(-1) daily) at the same time from the first day of hypoxic exposure for 2 weeks. The normoxia group was evaluated as the control. The hypoxia group showed decreased height of spermatogenic epithelium in some seminiferous tubules, vacuolisation in spermatogenic epithelial cells, deterioration and gaps in the basal membrane and an increase in blood vessels in the interstitial area. The erdosteine group showed amelioration of both epithelial cell vacuolisation and basal membrane deterioration. Numbers of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-immunostained Sertoli and Leydig cells were significantly higher in the hypoxia group than in the erdosteine group. The number of seminiferous tubules with caspase-3-immunostained germ cells was highest in the hypoxia group and decreased in the erdosteine and normoxia groups respectively. Based on these observations, erdosteine protects testis tissue from hypoxic injury by reducing apoptotic cell death.

  13. Serum Hormone and Cellular Proliferation Changes of Testis in Rats with Experimental Orchitis Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of serum male hormone,androgen binding protein (ABP) expression as well as the proliferation of testicular cells in rats with experimental orchitis induced by bacterial lipoplysaccharide (LPS) in vivo and to elucidate the putative mechanism of LPS on Spermatogenesis of testis.Methods The serum testosterone(T),luteinizing hormone(LH) levels were detected with magnetic enzyme immunoassay.The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ABP expression at mRNA level of testis were studied with immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybrydization respectively.Results The serum T level in rats with experimental orchitis was significantly higher than that in the rats of control(P<0.05)and ABP mRNA expression in Sertoli cells of testis was significantly increased (P<0.05) while PCNA expression in seminiferous epithelium in experimental rats significantly was decreased as compared with that of the control(P<0.05).No significant change in serum LH level was seen between experimental orchitis and control groups (P>0.05).Conclusion The serum level of T and ABP expression significantly increased in rats with experimental aspecific orchitis induced by LPS,and at the same time inhibition of cellular proliferation of seminiferous epithelium can be detected,which may be the possible mechanism of male infertility in inflammatory process.

  14. Immunolocalisation of ghrelin and obestatin in human testis, seminal vesicles, prostate and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, E; Vindigni, C; Tripodi, S A; Mazzi, L; Nuti, R; Figura, N; Collodel, G

    2014-01-01

    The role of ghrelin and obestatin in male reproduction has not completely been clarified. We explored ghrelin and obestatin localisation in the male reproductive system. Polyclonal antibodies anti-ghrelin and anti-obestatin were used to detect the expression of these hormones in human testis, prostate and seminal vesicles by immunocytochemistry, while in ejaculated and swim up selected spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Sertoli cells were positive for both peptides and Leydig cells for ghrelin; germ cells were negative for both hormones. Mild signals for ghrelin and obestatin were observed in rete testis; efferent ductules were the most immune reactive region for both peptides. Epididymis was moderately positive for ghrelin; vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed intense obestatin and moderate ghrelin labelling; prostate tissue expressed obestatin alone. Ejaculated and selected spermatozoa were positive for both peptides in different head and tail regions. This study confirms ghrelin localisation in Leydig and Sertoli cells; the finding that ghrelin is expressed in rete testis, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles is novel, as well as the localisation of obestatin in almost all tracts of the male reproductive system. This research could offer insights for stimulating other studies, particularly on the role of obestatin in sperm physiology, which is still obscure.

  15. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  16. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

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    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  17. Adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on the foetal testis development: focus on the phthalates.

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    Catherine Pairault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are great concerns about the increasing incidence of abnormalities in male reproductive function. Human sperm counts have markedly dropped and the rate of testicular cancer has clearly augmented over the past four decades. Moreover, the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are also probably increasing. It has been hypothesized that all these adverse trends in male reproduction result from abnormalities in the development of the testis during foetal and neonatal life. Furthermore, many recent epidemiological, clinical and experimental data suggest that these male reproductive disorders could be due to the effects of xenobiotics termed endocrine disruptors, which are becoming more and more concentrated and prevalent in our environment. Among these endocrine disruptors, we chose to focus this review on the phthalates for different reasons: 1 they are widespread in the environment; 2 their concentrations in many human biological fluids have been measured; 3 the experimental data using rodent models suggesting a reprotoxicity are numerous and are the most convincing; 4 their deleterious effects on the in vivo and in vitro development and function of the rat foetal testis have been largely studied; 5 some epidemiological data in humans suggest a reprotoxic effect at environmental concentrations at least during neonatal life. However, the direct effects of phthalates on human foetal testis have never been explored. Thus, as we did for the rat in the 1990s, we recently developed and validated an organ culture system which allows maintenance of the development of the different cell types of human foetal testis. In this system, addition of 10-4 M MEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, the most produced phthalate, had no effect on basal or LH-stimulated production of testosterone, but it reduced the number of germ cells by increasing their apoptosis, without modification of their proliferation. This is the first experimental demonstration

  18. Histological evaluation of the testicular nubbins in patients with nonpalpable testis: assessment of etiology and surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Haluk; Ayik, Bekir; Eliçevik, Mehmet; Büyükünal, Cenk; Danişmend, Nur; Dervişoğlu, Sergülen; Söylet, Yunus

    2007-01-01

    There is a controversy in the literature whether testicular nubbins carry malignancy risk and excision of the nubbin is necessary in patients with nonpalpable testis. It is also controversial whether vanishing testis has the same etiopathogenesis and risk with true undescended testis. The aim of this study is to investigate the histological findings of testicular nubbins in patients with nonpalpable testis and to question etiology and surgical indications for vanishing testis. We reviewed the histopathological results of 44 testicular nubbins in 40 patients (mean age: 4.1 years, range 1-13 years) with nonpalpable testis between 1992 and 2004, retrospectively. Exploration revealed 5 intraabdominal and 39 inguinal testicular nubbins. Of 44 specimens only 5 (11.3%) from inquinal testicular nubbins were found to have seminiferous tubules. Two of the five had seminiferous tubule structures with viable germ cells showing maturation correlating with age. The other two with scarce seminiferous tubules were seen on only a single area and one had Sertoli cells only. None of the excised tissue had malignant degeneration. The vas deferens was identified in 23 (52.2%), vessels in 26 (59%), calcification in 14 (31.8%) and hemosiderin in 12 (27.2%) of excised tissue. Presence of calcification in one-third of the nubbins supports vascular accident thesis in the etiopathogenesis of vanishing testis. The possibility for the presence of seminiferous tubules and viable germ cells in the testicular nubbin is low. These facts decrease theoritical risk of malingnancy. Therefore, an inguinal exploration for testicular nubbin in patients with vas deferens and vessels entering into the inquinal canal diagnosed at laparoscopy can be postponed untill testicular prosthesis implantation and the nubbin can be removed at this operation.

  19. Effect of methoxychlor on the antioxidant system in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumycandane, C; Mathur, P P

    2002-07-01

    Methoxychlor, an environmental contaminant, which is widely used as a pesticide in many countries, has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats. The precise nature and mechanism of action of methoxychlor on the male reproductive system is not clear. In the present study, we have sought to investigate the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of rat after exposure to methoxychlor. Methoxychlor (1, 10, and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight per day) was administered orally to the rats for 45 days. After 24 h of the last treatment the animals were killed using anesthetic ether. The body weight of the animals administered with methoxychlor did not show any significant change. The weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate decreased significantly in 100 mg dose but remained unchanged in 1 and 10 mg doses. Mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of the testis were obtained by the method of differential centrifugation. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly in the animals treated with methoxychlor in a dose-dependent manner in the mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. The levels of hydrogen peroxide generation (H(2)O(2)) and lipid peroxidation increased in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of the testis of the rats treated with methoxychlor. The results suggested that the low to medium doses of methoxychlor elicit depletion of antioxidant enzymes and concomitant increase in the levels of H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation differentially in mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of rat testis. In conclusion, the adverse effect of methoxychlor on male reproduction could be due to the induction of oxidative stress in testis.

  20. Activation of GPER-1 estradiol receptor downregulates production of testosterone in isolated rat Leydig cells and adult human testis.

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    Laurent Vaucher

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Estradiol (E2 modulates testicular functions including steroidogenesis, but the mechanisms of E2 signaling in human testis are poorly understood. GPER-1 (GPR30, a G protein-coupled membrane receptor, mediates rapid genomic and non-genomic response to estrogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPER-1 expression in the testis, and its role in estradiol dependent regulation of steroidogenesis in isolated rat Leydig cells and human testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated Leydig cells (LC from adult rats and human testicular tissue were used in this study. Expression and localization studies of GPER-1 were performed with qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Luteinizing Hormone (LH -stimulated, isolated LC were incubated with estradiol, G-1 (GPER-1-selective agonist, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Testosterone production was measured with radioimmunoassay. LC viability after incubation with G-1 was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS assay. RESULTS: GPER-1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat LC and human testis. Co-localization experiments showed high expression levels of GPER-1 protein in LC. E2-dependent activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone production in isolated rats LCs and in human testis, with statistically and clinically significant drops in testosterone production by 20-30% as compared to estradiol-naïve LC. The exposure to G-1 does not affect viability of isolated LCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that activation of GPER-1 lowers testosterone levels in the rat and human testis. The expression of GPER-1 in human testis, which lack ERα, makes it an exciting target for developing new agents affecting testosterone production in men.

  1. 俄罗斯远东地区南部枫首毒蛾及其种群增长%Lymantria mathura Moore and an Increase of its Population in the South of the Far East of Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GNINENKO Yuri I

    2006-01-01

    枫首毒蛾在普里莫尔斯基地区南部林区严重危害栎树.该虫取食多种树木.在试验室用栎树、桦树和椴树树叶及人工饲料饲养幼虫,结果表明该虫幼虫不取食俄罗斯中部地区树种的叶子.文章介绍了枫首毒蛾种群动态并描述了蛹的形态特征.%The pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura Moore,is one of the most dangerous oak pests in woods in southern part of Primorsky region. Here its larvae feed on several tree species. Experimentally in laboratory its larvae were fed on foliage of oak, birch, lime and artificial nutrients. It was found that larvae didn' t consume foliage of tree species from central regions of Russia. Data on pink gypsy moth population dynamics is given. Pupae structure description is available.

  2. Characterization of unique truncated prolactin receptor transcripts, corresponding to the intracellular domain, in the testis of the sexually mature chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J N; Burnside, J; Li, L; Tang, J; Davolos, C; Cogburn, L A

    1999-03-01

    We have examined expression of the chicken PRL receptor (cPRLR) gene in different tissues of the chicken by Northern blot analysis. Most tissues examined (ovary, testis, oviduct, kidney, and fat) possess a prominent full-length (4.6-kb) cPRLR transcript. A larger (11.7-kb) transcript is also detected in ovary, oviduct, testis, and kidney after longer exposure. A unique pattern of cPRLR expression was found in the testis of sexually mature chickens, which have an unusually high abundance of three small transcripts (1.2, 1.7, and 2 kb) in addition to the 4.6-kb transcript found in other tissues. Three domain-specific complementary DNA (cDNA) probes were constructed that correspond to the first and second ligand-binding regions in the extracellular domain and the transmembrane-intracellular domain. With these probes, Northern blot analysis of polyadenylated RNA prepared from the testes of a mature (22-week-old) chicken indicates that the highly abundant (1.2- and 1.7-kb) and less abundant (2.0-kb) cPRLR transcripts in testis hybridize only to the intracellular domain probe. Two types of truncated testis-specific cPRLR transcripts were identified using 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis of polyadenylated RNA from the testis of a 22-week-old chicken. The predominant truncated cDNA sequence contains the highly conserved box 1 motif [(+)box 1 cDNA] and diverges (at nucleotide 1396) from that of the cPRLR cDNA, just downstream of the transmembrane domain. The other truncated cDNA lacks the box 1 motif [(-)box 1 cDNA], which is replaced by 39 bases that could encode a hydrophobic N-terminus with a putative 5'-untranslated region of 131 bases. Young chickens predominately express the full-length cPRLR messenger RNA (4.6 kb) in the testis. At the onset of sexual maturity, there is a dramatic increase in abundance of the testis-specific (+)box 1 transcript, whereas expression of the full-length cPRLR is depressed. The presence of truncated [(+) or (-)box 1] c

  3. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  4. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms′ tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result.

  5. High-resolution 3D imaging of whole organ after clearing: taking a new look at the zebrafish testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétaud, Maxence; Rivière, Laurie; Job, Élodie De; Gay, Stéphanie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Affaticati, Pierre; Thermes, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have focused on 2D images, which is time consuming and implies extrapolation of results. Three-dimensional imaging of whole organs recently became an important challenge to better understand their architecture and allow cell enumeration. Several protocols have thus been developed to enhance sample transparency, a limiting step for imaging large biological samples. However, none of these methods has been applied to the zebrafish testis. We tested five clearing protocols to determine if some of them could be applied with only small modifications to the testis. We compared clearing efficiency at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. CUBIC and PACT were suitable for an efficient transparency, an optimal optical penetration, the GFP fluorescence preservation and avoiding meaningful tissue deformation. Finally, we succeeded in whole testis 3D capture at a cellular resolution with both CUBIC and PACT, which will be valuable in a standard workflow to investigate the 3D architecture of the testis and its cellular content. This paves the way for further development of high content phenotyping studies in several fields including development, genetic or toxicology. PMID:28211501

  6. The effects of carvedilol on ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Parlaktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the oxidative damage and histopathological alterations caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury and ameliorative effects of carvedilol (CVD in the rat testis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one male rats were randomized into 3 groups as follows: Group I (n = 7; control (sham group, Group II (n = 7; I/R group, in which I/R injury was performed by torsing the left testis 720º clockwise for 2 hours and detorsing for 2 hours. Group III (n = 7; CVD treatment group; in addition to I/R process, one-dose of CVD was administered (2mg/kg, i.p 30 min. before detorsion. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl (PC were determined in testicular tissues and serum of rats. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically and Johnsen scores were determined. Results: Activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum and testicular tissues were increased by I/R, but administration of CVD decreased these levels (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001. Significantly increased MDA levels in serum and testicular tissues were decreased by CVD treatment (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001. Concerning PC levels in serum and testicular tissues, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.989 and p = 0.428. There was not a statistically significant difference in terms of mean Johnsen scores between the groups (p = 0.161. Conclusions: Administration of CVD decreased oxidative damage biochemically in the rat testis caused by I/R injury, but histopathologically no change was observed between all of the groups.

  7. Survey of Growth Hormone Effects on Methotrexate Side Effects in Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khaki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Methotrexate (MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent that used for the treatment of a variety of tumors and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was planed to see the role of human growth hormone (hGH on testis recovery after treatment with MTX in rat. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the fifty male wistar rat were selected and randomly divided into five groups; control (n=10 and test (n=40. Hormone grope was received 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for 28 consequence day, drug group was received 1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for four consequence week, protective group was received 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for 28 consequence day plus1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for four consequence week and treatment group was received 1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for two consequence week with 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for14 consequence day, however the control group just received vehicle (IP. In 14 and 28 day the testis tissue of rat in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis then prepared for analysis. The statically analysis was ANOVA test. Results: This study was confirmed MTX had destructive effects in testis germinal cells and rate of spermatogenesis was decreased (P<0.05 as compared with control group, and HGh had treatment effects in degenerative seminiferous epithelium and improve spermatogenesis (P<0.05 as compared in other groups.Conclusion: Since in our study hGH had recovery effect on spermatogenesis cycle after treatment with MTX, and it can not have useful effect if only prescript in chemotherapy period than consequently hGH inducement is suitable for sperm health ability parameters after chemotherapy in patient.

  8. DUX4 binding to retroelements creates promoters that are active in FSHD muscle and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Young

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human double-homeodomain retrogene DUX4 is expressed in the testis and epigenetically repressed in somatic tissues. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is caused by mutations that decrease the epigenetic repression of DUX4 in somatic tissues and result in mis-expression of this transcription factor in skeletal muscle. DUX4 binds sites in the human genome that contain a double-homeobox sequence motif, including sites in unique regions of the genome as well as many sites in repetitive elements. Using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq on myoblasts transduced with DUX4 we show that DUX4 binds and activates transcription of mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons (MaLRs, endogenous retrovirus (ERVL and ERVK elements, and pericentromeric satellite HSATII sequences. Some DUX4-activated MaLR and ERV elements create novel promoters for genes, long non-coding RNAs, and antisense transcripts. Many of these novel transcripts are expressed in FSHD muscle cells but not control cells, and thus might contribute to FSHD pathology. For example, HEY1, a repressor of myogenesis, is activated by DUX4 through a MaLR promoter. DUX4-bound motifs, including those in repetitive elements, show evolutionary conservation and some repeat-initiated transcripts are expressed in healthy testis, the normal expression site of DUX4, but more rarely in other somatic tissues. Testis expression patterns are known to have evolved rapidly in mammals, but the mechanisms behind this rapid change have not yet been identified: our results suggest that mobilization of MaLR and ERV elements during mammalian evolution altered germline gene expression patterns through transcriptional activation by DUX4. Our findings demonstrate a role for DUX4 and repetitive elements in mammalian germline evolution and in FSHD muscular dystrophy.

  9. Hormonal changes in relation to lunar periodicity in the testis of the forktail rabbitfish, Siganus argenteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Morita, Masaya; Takemura, Akihiro; Takano, Kazunori

    2003-05-01

    Correlation of hormonal changes in the testis and the lunar periodicity was studied using the forktail rabbitfish, Siganus argenteus, which spawns synchronously around the last quarter moon. Weekly change in sperm motility peaked around the last quarter moon. The pH and osmolality in the seminal fluid increased and decreased around the same lunar phase, respectively. These results suggest that the testis of this species develops toward the specific lunar phase. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated in vitro production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in the testicular fragments around the full moon. When the testicular fragments and the sperm preparations were incubated, respectively, with testosterone (T) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), conversion of T to 11-KT in the testicular fragments decreased and, alternatively, that of 17alpha-OHP to 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) in the sperm preparations increased from the full moon to the last quarter moon. Administration of the fish with hCG or DHP prior to the predicted spawning lunar day resulted in increases in the sperm motility and the seminal fluid pH. Plasma level of DHP, but not T and 11-KT, increased after hCG injection. These results indicate that gonadotropin (GtH) and DHP are related to the final stage of testicular maturation, and that GtH acts through production of DHP in the testis. Moreover, the present study shows that use of the lunar cue(s) in the rabbitfish occurs in the higher part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  10. Involvement of soluble Fas Ligand in germ cell apoptosis in testis of rats undergoing autoimmune orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, Patricia Verónica; Fass, Mónica; Pérez, Cecilia Valeria; Jarazo-Dietrich, Sabrina; Lustig, Livia; Theas, María Susana

    2012-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of chronic inflammation and infertility useful for studying immune and germ cell (GC) interactions. EAO is characterized by severe damage of seminiferous tubules (STs) with GCs that undergo apoptosis and sloughing. Based on previous results showing that Fas-Fas Ligand (L) system is one of the main mediators of apoptosis in EAO, in the present work we studied the involvement of Fas and the soluble form of FasL (sFasL) in GC death induction. EAO was induced in rats by immunization with testis homogenate and adjuvants; control (C) rats were injected with adjuvants; a group of non-immunized normal (N) rats was also studied. Activation of Fas employing an anti-Fas antibody decreased viability (trypan blue exclusion test) and induced apoptosis (TUNEL) of GCs from STs of N and EAO rats, an effect more pronounced on GCs from EAO STs. By Western blot we detected an increase in sFasL content in the testicular fluid of rats with severe EAO compared to N and C rats. By intratesticular injection of FasL conjugated to Strep-Tag molecule (FasL-Strep, BioTAGnology) and its immunofluorescent localization, we demonstrated that sFasL is able to enter the adluminal compartment of the STs. Moreover, FasL-Strep induced GC apoptosis in testicular fragments of N rats. By flow cytometry, we detected an increase in the number of membrane FasL-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in testis during EAO development but no expression of FasL by macrophages. Our results demonstrate that sFasL is locally produced in the chronically inflamed testis and that this molecule is able to enter the adluminal compartment of STs and induce apoptosis of Fas-bearing GCs.

  11. Is testis-sparing surgery safe in small testicular masses? Results of a multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Murat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Yalcin, Serdar; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Kibar, Yusuf; Tuygun, Can; Onder, Evrim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Yildirim, Asif; Ozkanli, Sidika Seyma; Kandemir, Olcay; Kargi, Taner; Sar, Mehmet; Tugcu, Volkan; Resorlu, Berkan; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sarikaya, Selcuk; Boylu, Ugur; Cicek, Ali Fuat; Basar, Halil; Tuncel, Altug; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to evaluate benign and malignant lesions and testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in the neighbouring normal-appearing testis tissue in men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular mass with a pathologic tumour size of ≤3cm. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre study, data of 252 patients from 11 different institutions were included. Patients were divided into three groups based on tumour size: Group 1 (0–1 cm; n=35), Group 2 (1.1–2cm; n=99), and Group 3 (2.1–3 cm; n=118). Benign lesions and TIN were sought in the neighbouring testicular tissue and compared between groups. Results Mean patient age was 32.3 years. Benign lesions were reported in 54.3%, 33.3%, and 14.4% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 3). Multifocality was detected in 8.6%, 4%, and 0% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p0.05 for Group 1 vs. Group 2). A tumour cutoff size of 1.5 cm was found to be significant for detecting benign tumour. TIN and multifocality rates were similar in patients with a tumour size of ≤1.5 vs. >1.5 cm (p>0.05). Conclusions Benign lesions and TIN in the neighbouring testis were significantly decreased and multifocality was increased in patients with a tumour mass size of ≤1 cm. Testis-sparing surgery should be performed with caution and a safety rim of normal tissue should also be excised.

  12. Extreme divergence of Wolbachia tropism for the stem-cell-niche in the Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michelle E; Frydman, Horacio M

    2014-12-01

    Microbial tropism, the infection of specific cells and tissues by a microorganism, is a fundamental aspect of host-microbe interactions. The intracellular bacteria Wolbachia have a peculiar tropism for the stem cell niches in the Drosophila ovary, the microenvironments that support the cells producing the eggs. The molecular underpinnings of Wolbachia stem cell niche tropism are unknown. We have previously shown that the patterns of tropism in the ovary show a high degree of conservation across the Wolbachia lineage, with closely related Wolbachia strains usually displaying the same pattern of stem cell niche tropism. It has also been shown that tropism to these structures in the ovary facilitates both vertical and horizontal transmission, providing a strong selective pressure towards evolutionary conservation of tropism. Here we show great disparity in the evolutionary conservation and underlying mechanisms of stem cell niche tropism between male and female gonads. In contrast to females, niche tropism in the male testis is not pervasive, present in only 45% of niches analyzed. The patterns of niche tropism in the testis are not evolutionarily maintained across the Wolbachia lineage, unlike what was shown in the females. Furthermore, hub tropism does not correlate with cytoplasmic incompatibility, a Wolbachia-driven phenotype imprinted during spermatogenesis. Towards identifying the molecular mechanism of hub tropism, we performed hybrid analyses of Wolbachia strains in non-native hosts. These results indicate that both Wolbachia and host derived factors play a role in the targeting of the stem cell niche in the testis. Surprisingly, even closely related Wolbachia strains in Drosophila melanogaster, derived from a single ancestor only 8,000 years ago, have significantly different tropisms to the hub, highlighting that stem cell niche tropism is rapidly diverging in males. These findings provide a powerful system to investigate the mechanisms and evolution of

  13. Carcinoma in situ of the testis. Some ultrastructural characteristics of germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M H; Skakkebaek, N E;

    1982-01-01

    The two cytoplasmic organelles, dense-cored vesicles and "nuages" have been considered to allow positive identification of primordial germ cells in rodents, but no use of these potential markers has been applied to human material. We have observed dense-cored vesicles and "nuages" in the abnormal...... germ cells of carcinoma in situ of the testis and thus brought further evidence for the germ cell origin of this lesion. These organelles may be useful cytoplasmic markers in the study of germ cell tumors....

  14. Changes in testosterone concentration in the fetal rabbit testis after removal of the hypothalamus (encephalectomy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proshlyakova, E.V.; Rumyantseva, O.N.; Mitskevich, M.S.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain direct data on the role of the hypothalamus in regulation of the adrogen function of the testes in rabbit fetuses. Testosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Changes in testostereone concentration in rabbit fetal testis after encephalectomy and after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) into encephalectomized fetuses is shown. Results obtained are evidence that the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes in the rabbit aged 23-25 days of prenatal development constitute a single functional system. It is concluded that in both rabbit and hog fetuses, the hypothalamus begins to regulate pituitary gonadotrophic activity after LHRH can be detected in the hypothalamus itself.

  15. Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder to the Testis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kozak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old gentleman presented with onset of gross hematuria in September 2010. Follow-up investigations revealed T1 superficially invasive, poorly differentiated, papillary urothelial carcinoma. He subsequently had GreenLight laser for BPH and bladder neck contracture on two occasions. He developed a right hydrocele 16 months after initial presentation and during his hydrocelectomy, a rock-hard right epididymis and testicle were discovered. Pathology revealed metastatic urothelial carcinoma replacing nearly the entire testis with lymphovascular invasion.

  16. Discovery of ZIP transporters that participate in cadmium damage to testis and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It has been known for decades that cadmium (Cd) must enter the cell to cause damage, but there was no mechanism to explain genetic differences in response to Cd toxicity until 2005. Starting with the mouse Cdm locus associated with differences in Cd-induced testicular necrosis between inbred strains, a 24.6-centiMorgan region on chromosome 3 was reduced ultimately to 880 kb; in this segment is the Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 Zn2+/HCO3− symporter. In endothelial cells of the testis vasc...

  17. Cancer-testis genes as candidates for immunotherapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Shamsi, Roshanak; Seifi-Alan, Mahnaz; Javaheri, Mona; Tabarestani, Sanaz

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are tumor-associated antigens attracting immunologists for their possible application in the immunotherapy of cancer. Several clinical trials have assessed their therapeutic potentials in cancer patients. Breast cancers, especially triple-negative cancers are among those with significant expression of CT genes. Identification of CT genes with high expression in cancer patients is the prerequisite for any immunotherapeutic approach. CT genes have gained attention not only for immunotherapy of cancer patients, but also for immunoprevention in high-risk individuals. Many CT genes have proved to be immunogenic in breast cancer patients suggesting the basis for the development of polyvalent vaccines.

  18. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Hu, Yan-Jun [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tan, Fu-Qing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang, Wan-Xi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We identified P. trituberculatus MT-1 and MT-2 complete cDNA sequence. •We analyzed the protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic trees of MT-1 and MT-2. •RT-PCR analysis the tissue expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA. •The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA during spermiogenesis. •Testis MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression are dramatically affected after the cadmium exposure. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 196 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 328 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H and E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase

  19. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary...... to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers...

  20. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  1. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial lipase (EL, LIPG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein expression in normal human testis and testicular germ cell tumours (GCT). Both EL and LPL were expressed in normal seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial compartment. EL m....... The results suggest that both EL and LPL participate in the supply of nutrients and steroidogenesis in the testes, and that especially EL may be important for the supply of cholesterol for testosterone production in the Leydig cells. The partial cellular separation of the expression of the two lipases...

  2. Stem cells derived from testis show promise for treating a wide variety of medical conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karim Nayernia

    2007-01-01

    @@ The continuation of the spermatogenic process throughout life relies on a proper regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of germline testis stem cells,the spermatogonial stem cells.These are single cells situated on the basal membrane of the seminiferous epithelium.Only 0.03%of all germ cells are spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs)[1-3].To maintain spermatogenesis,the processes of self-renewal and differentiation of SSCS must be precisely regulated by intrinsic gene expression in the stem cells and extrinsic signals,including soluble factors or adhesion molecules from the surrounding microenvironment,the stem cell niche.

  3. Germ cell differentiation-dependent and stage-specific expression of LANCL1 in rodent testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Hansen, Martin Asser; Jørgensen, Marianne;

    2003-01-01

    , the establishment of an impermeable blood-testis barrier occurs between day 10-16 post natal (pn). Differential display analysis showed that the expression level of LANCL1 mRNA in mouse testes was very low until day 16 pn, but increased gradually from day 16 pn to reach a maximum on days 22-24 pn followed...... 18 and 20 pn, verifying the expression profile determined by differential display. LANCL1 mRNA level remained high in the meiotic division phase and in early round spermatids, but was down regulated in elongating spermatids and it was undetectable in step 9 elongating spermatids in stage IX (as...

  4. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. Case report: A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn’t have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Discussion: Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. Conclusion: We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the

  5. The testis of the mice C57/BL6 offspring in adulthood have alterations due to maternal caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Silveira; Aiceles, Verônica; Moraes, Diana de Freitas Serapião; Alves-Pereira, Jorge Luiz; Faria, Tatiane Silva; Ramos, Cristiane da Fonte

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (pcaffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.

  6. Dynamics of Notch pathway expression during mouse testis post-natal development and along the spermatogenic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta, Daniel; Batista, Marta; Silva, Elisabete; Trindade, Alexandre; Henrique, Domingos; Duarte, António; Lopes-da-Costa, Luís

    2013-01-01

    The transcription and expression patterns of Notch pathway components (Notch 1-3, Delta1 and 4, Jagged1) and effectors (Hes1, Hes2, Hes5 and Nrarp) were evaluated (through RT-PCR and IHC) in the mouse testis at key moments of post-natal development, and along the adult spermatogenic cycle. Notch pathway components and effectors are transcribed in the testis and expressed in germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells, and each Notch component shows a specific cell-type and time-window expression pattern. This expression at key testis developmental events prompt for a role of Notch signaling in pre-pubertal spermatogonia quiescence, onset of spermatogenesis, and regulation of the spermatogenic cycle.

  7. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  8. In utero exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB 153 and PCB 118 disrupts fetal testis development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogenæs, Anette K; Ropstad, Erik; Gutleb, Arno C; Hårdnes, Nina; Berg, Vidar; Dahl, Ellen; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are environmental pollutants linked to adverse health effects including endocrine disruption and disturbance of reproductive development. This study aimed to determine whether exposure of pregnant sheep to three different mixtures of PCB 153 and PCB 118 affected fetal testis development. Ewes were treated by oral gavage from mating until euthanasia (d 134), producing three groups of fetuses with distinct adipose tissue PCB levels: high PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 13), high PCB 118/low PCB 153 (n = 14), and low PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 14). Fetal testes and blood samples were collected for investigation of testosterone, testis morphology, and testis proteome. The body weight of the offspring was lower in the high PCB compared to the low PCB group, but there were no significant differences in testis weight between groups when corrected for body weight. PCB exposure did not markedly affect circulating testosterone. There were no significant differences between groups in number of seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cell only tubules, and ratio between relative areas of seminiferous tubules and interstitium. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteomic alterations in the high exposed groups relative to low PCB 153/low PCB 118 group. Twenty-six significantly altered spots were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. Changes in protein regulation affected cellular processes as stress response, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton regulation. The study demonstrates that in utero exposure to different environmental relevant PCB mixtures exerted subtle effects on developing fetal testis proteome but did not significantly disturb testis morphology and testosterone production.

  9. Cancer-testis antigen expression in digestive tract carcinomas: frequent expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Panarelli, Nicole C; Piotti, Kathryn C; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2014-05-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are attractive tumor antigens for cancer immunotherapy. They comprise a group of proteins normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of human cancers. The protein expression of eight cancer-testis antigens [MAGEA, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGEC1 (CT7), MAGEC2 (CT10), CT45, SAGE1, and NXF2] was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 61 esophageal carcinomas (40 adenocarcinoma and 21 squamous cell carcinoma), 50 gastric carcinomas (34 diffuse and 16 intestinal type), and 141 colorectal carcinomas. The highest frequency of expression was found in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas: Positive staining for MAGEA, CT45, CT7, SAGE1, GAGE, NXF2, NY-ESO-1, and CT10 was observed in 57%, 38%, 33%, 33%, 29%, 29%, 19%, and 14% of squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Similar staining patterns were observed in squamous dysplasias. Expression frequencies of cancer-testis antigens were seen in 2% to 24% of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and were not significantly different between adenocarcinomas of the stomach versus the esophagus, or between diffuse and intestinal types of gastric adenocarcinomas. Colorectal cancers did not express NY-ESO-1, CT7, CT10, or GAGE, and only infrequently expressed SAGE1 (0.7%) MAGEA (1.4%), CT45 (3.5%), and NXF2 (8.5%). We conclude that cancer-testis antigens are frequently expressed in esophageal squamous neoplasms. Although cancer-testis antigens are generally considered to be expressed later in tumor progression, they are found in squamous dysplasias, suggesting a potential diagnostic role for cancer-testis antigens in the evaluation of premalignant squamous lesions.

  10. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThere is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian s

  11. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThere is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian

  12. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    cells of mature seminiferous epithelium, but present in Sertoli cell-only tubules in Klinefelter syndrome testis. Peritubular cells in atrophic testis produce overly long cilia. Furthermore cultures of growth-arrested immature mouse Leydig cells express primary cilia that are enriched in components...

  13. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169, Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  14. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  15. ACTIONS OF THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR METHOXYCHLOR AND ITS ESTROGENIC METABOLITE ON IN VITRO EMBRYONIC RAT SEMINIFEROUS CORD FORMATION AND PERINATAL TESTIS GROWTH. (R827405)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe current study examines the actions of methoxychlor and its estrogenic metabolite, 2, 2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (HPTE), on seminiferous cord formation and growth of the developing rat testis. The developing testis in the embryonic and ...

  16. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  17. SOX9 regulates microRNA miR-202-5p/3p expression during mouse testis differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N; Jorgensen, Joan S; Kim, Youngha;

    2013-01-01

    . Expression of the primary transcript of miR-202-5p/3p remained low in XY gonads in a conditional Sox9-null mouse model, suggesting that pri-miR-202 transcription is downstream of SOX9, a transcription factor that is both necessary and sufficient for male sex determination. We identified the pri-miR-202...... findings indicate that expression of the conserved gonad microRNA, miR-202-5p/3p, is downstream of the testis-determining factor SOX9, suggesting an early role in testis development....

  18. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  19. Diagnostic value of cancer-testis antigen mRNA in peripheral blood from hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the diagnostic value of cancer-testis antigen(CTA) mRNA in peripheral blood samples from hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) patients.METHODS:Peripheral blood samples were taken from 90 patients with HCC before operation.Expression of melanoma antigen-1(MAGE-1),synovial sarcoma X breakpoint-1(SSX-1),and cancer-testis-associated protein of 11 kDa(CTp11) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) was tested by nested reverse transcriptspolymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Serum α-fetoprotein(AFP)...

  20. Histological alterations in liver and testis of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina Marques dos Santos*

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of acute exposition to zinc (Zn on histology of the liver and testes of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus. The exposure consisted of six concentrations of Zn (0, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L for 96 hours of exposure. Fragments of liver and testis were routinely processed and embedded in plastic resin based on glycol methacrylate. Fragments of bones, muscles, liver and testis were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption levels of Zn in the tissue. Acute exposure to concentrations above 10mg/L has produced structural changes in the liver and gonads. The changes found in the liver were vascular congestion; decrease of cellular volume; displacement of the hepatocyte nucleus; necrosis; disarrangement of cordon structure; leukocyte infiltrate and vacuolization. The changes found in the gonads were ruptured cyst, delayed development of germ cells, pyknotic nucleus, cell cluster, displacement of cyst wall and vacuolization. The histological changes observed were compatible with the increasing concentration of zinc in environment, compromising liver and reproductive functions, because there was an increase in relative frequency of hepatocytes and reduced sperm production

  1. Profiling of androgen response in rainbow trout pubertal testis: relevance to male gonad development and spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine D Rolland

    Full Text Available The capacity of testicular somatic cells to promote and sustain germ cell differentiation is largely regulated by sexual steroids and notably androgens. In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. Here we studied the influence of androgens on testicular gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males with physiological doses of testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone, 418 genes that exhibit changes in expression were identified. Interestingly, the activity of testosterone appeared stronger than that of 11-ketotestosterone. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed androgens to mainly affect gene expression in somatic cells. Furthermore, specific clusters of genes that exhibit regulation coincidently with changes in the natural circulating levels of androgens during the reproductive cycle were highlighted, reinforcing the physiological significance of these data. Among somatic genes, a phylogenetic footprinting study identified putative androgen response elements within the proximal promoter regions of 42 potential direct androgen target genes. Finally, androgens were also found to alter the germ line towards meiotic expression profiles, supporting the hypothesis of a role for the somatic responsive genes in driving germ cell fate. This study significantly increases our understanding of molecular pathways regulated by androgens in vertebrates. The highly cyclic testicular development in trout together with functions associated with regulated genes reveal potential mechanisms for androgen actions in tubule formation, steroid production, germ cell development and sperm secretion.

  2. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramyar Molania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P<0.05. Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC.

  3. From testis to teratomas: a brief history of male germ cells in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felici, Massimo; Dolci, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    In antiquity, many theories were advanced on reproduction and the functions of the gonads. The male genitalia were called "testes" probably from the Latin word "testis" that originally meant "witnesses", because they provide evidence of virility. Through the first dissection of the seminipherous tubules by Renier de Graaf (1668), the discovery of spermatozoa by Antonj van Leeuwenhoek (1677) and in vitro fertilization by Spallanzani (1780) and later by George Newport and George Vines Ellis (1854), it was only in the early part of the XIX century when it was realized that testes produce spermatozoa and that they are essential for egg fertilization and subsequent embryo development. In the period between the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, scientists such as Albert von Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Enrico Sertoli and Gustaf Retzius (1842-1919) did microscopic observations of testis that marked the history of male germ cells and established the bases for the development of contemporary in vitro culture and molecular studies that are revealing the deeper secrets of male germ cells. Among these, those by Leroy Stevens on embryonal carcinoma cells in the early 1950s led to the present concepts that germ cells and cancer cells share several characteristics and that a close relationship exists between germ cells and stem cells, these being two pillars of modern developmental biology.

  4. US of the tunica vaginalis testis: anatomic relationships and pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Victoria; Serrano, Angel; Marin, Anna; Medrano, Santiago; Roson, Nuria; Pruna, Xavier

    2009-11-01

    Extratesticular lesions are common incidental findings at ultrasonography (US) among men and boys. Most lesions originate from or depend on the tunica vaginalis, a mesothelium-lined sac with a visceral layer and a parietal layer. The tunica vaginalis is formed when the superior portion of the processus vaginalis closes during embryologic development. Abnormal closure of the processus vaginalis leads to congenital anomalies of the tunica vaginalis, such as complete or partial patency of the processus vaginalis, spermatic cord hydrocele, and inguinoscrotal hernia. The proximity of the visceral layer to the testis explains the reactive involvement seen in epididymo-orchitis, with resultant pyocele or abscess formation. The tunica vaginalis also may be affected by inflammatory and traumatic disorders such as scrotal calculi, fibrous pseudotumor, or hematocele. These lesions manifest as solid or heterogeneous tumorlike masses. Lesions of mesothelial origin, such as adenomatoid tumor, tunica cyst, and mesothelioma, may involve the tunica vaginalis. Entrapped mesenchymal cells can lead to lipoma, leiomyoma, or sarcoma, although these tumors are uncommon in the tunica vaginalis. US is not useful for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors; however, some characteristic findings may help in planning the best surgical approach. Knowledge of the embryologic development, anatomic relationships, and pathologic disorders of the tunica vaginalis is essential to narrow the differential diagnosis of an extratesticular lesion. In most cases, US findings in combination with clinical assessment can indicate whether nonsurgical management or testis-sparing surgery is warranted.

  5. Protective effect of sildenafil citrate on contralateral testis injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yíldíz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate prevention of contralateral testicular injury with sildenafil citrate after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. METHODS: Thirty-seven adult male rats were divided into four groups: sham operated (group 1, n = 7, torsion/detorsion + saline (group 2, n = 10, torsion/detorsion + 0.7 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 3, n = 10 and torsion/detorsion + 1.4 mg of sildenafil citrate (group 4, n = 10. Unilateral testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720º in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. After torsion (2 h and detorsion (2 h periods, rats were killed. RESULTS: The level of reduced glutathion (GSH (p0.05. Histopathological changes were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that biochemically and histologically torsion/detorsion injury occurs in the contralateral testis following 2-h torsion and 2-h detorsion and that administration of low-dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular tissue.

  6. Toxic effects of cadmium on testis of birds and mammals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marettová, E; Maretta, M; Legáth, J

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals, cadmium (Cd) causes various damages to different organs and tissues of the body. This review presents a comprehensive overview on the effect of Cd on the structure of seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and blood vessels in the testis. The main observation of the effect of Cd is destruction of the seminiferous tubules with severe necrotic areas. Damage is to all stages of developing germ cells by inducing their structural changes and the apoptotic cell death. Sertoli supporting cells are considered the most vulnerable cells. Their damage results in cytoplasmic rearrangement and disruption of inter-Sertoli tight junctions resulting in increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier, structural changes in the Leydig cells and decreased testosterone secretion. After long time of Cd exposure an increase of the amount of interstitial connective tissue occurs. In blood vessels Cd exposure causes various morphological and physiological changes in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. In humans and other mammals, the range of effect depends on the dose, route, ways, and duration of exposure. After necrosis of the sensitive cells Cd produced lesions in surrounding tissue and activate free cells. Atrophy of the seminiferous tubules is followed by Leydig cell regeneration and interstitial revascularization. In birds, spermatogenic cells underwent irreversible degeneration or atrophy of seminiferous tubules in the absence of significant vascular lesions.

  7. Protection of Pentoxifylline against Testis Injury Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH and unveil the underlying mechanism, experimental animals were assigned to Control, IHH+Vehicle, and IHH+PTX groups and exposed to 4 cycles of 96 h of hypobaric hypoxia followed by 96 h of normobaric normoxia for 32 days. PTX was administered for 32 days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 7 days thereafter. Serum malondialdehyde levels were used to assess lipid peroxidation; ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were assessed to determine antioxidant capacity in various samples. Testis histopathology was assessed after hematoxylin-eosin staining by Johnsen’s testicular scoring system. Meanwhile, testosterone synthase and vimentin amounts were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Sperm count, motility, and density were assessed to determine epididymal sperm quality. IHH treatment induced significant pathological changes in testicular tissue and enhanced serum lipid peroxide levels, while reducing serum FRAP, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone synthase expression. Moreover, IHH impaired epididymal sperm quality and vimentin structure in Sertoli cells. Oral administration of PTX improved the pathological changes in the testis. IHH may impair spermatogenesis function of testicular tissues by inducing oxidative stress, but this impairment could be attenuated by administration of PTX.

  8. Activin Bioactivity Affects Germ Cell Differentiation in the Postnatal Mouse Testis In Vivo1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithraprabhu, Sridurga; Mendis, Sirisha; Meachem, Sarah J.; Tubino, Laura; Matzuk, Martin M.; Brown, Chester W.; Loveland, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligand activin A controls juvenile testis growth by stimulating Sertoli cell proliferation. Testicular levels are highest in the first postnatal week, when Sertoli cells are proliferating and spermatogonial stem cells first form. Levels decrease sharply as Sertoli cell proliferation ceases and spermatogenic differentiation begins. We hypothesized that changing activin levels also affect germ cell maturation. We detected an acute and developmentally regulated impact of activin on Kit mRNA in cocultures of Sertoli cells and germ cells from Day 8, but not Day 4, mice. Both stereological and flow cytometry analyses identified an elevated spermatogonium:Sertoli cell ratio in Day 7 testes from InhbaBK/BK mice, which have decreased bioactive activin, and the germ cell markers Sycp3, Dazl, and Ccnd3 were significantly elevated in InhbaBK/BK mice. The flow cytometry measurements demonstrated that surface KIT protein is significantly higher in Day 7 InhbaBK/BK germ cells than in wild-type littermates. By Day 14, the germ cell:Sertoli cell ratio did not differ between genotypes, but the transition of type A spermatogonia into spermatocytes was altered in InhbaBK/BK testes. We conclude that regulated activin signaling not only controls Sertoli cell proliferation, as previously described, but also influences the in vivo progression of germ cell maturation in the juvenile testis at the onset of spermatogenesis. PMID:20130270

  9. Preventive effect of zinc against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Garrel, Catherine; Guiraud, Pascale; Douki, Thierry; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Favier, Alain; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant role of zinc (Zn) in the Cd-exposed testes of Wistar rats. Subchronic exposure to Cd (CdCl(2), 40 mg/l, per os) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in growth rate (-11%) and relative weights of testes (-36%) and seminal vesicles (-80%). Treated rats displayed a decrease in testicular and plasma testosterone levels, respectively (-70%, Pspermatozoa motility (-35%, PZinc supplementation (ZnCl(2), 40 mg/l, per os) in the Cd-exposed rats restored the activities of GPx, CuZn-SOD, and Mn-SOD in the testes to the levels of the control group. Moreover, zinc administration was capable of reducing the elevated levels of malondialdehyde in the testis. Interestingly, zinc supplementation attenuated DNA oxidation induced by Cd in the gonad and restored the testosterone level and sperm count to the levels of the control group. Zinc administration minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by Cd in the rat testis.

  10. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

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    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  11. Cancer/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and "brain-storming" session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenpreisa Jekaterina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer/ Testis associated genes – CTA have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of genome destabilisation in the process of tumorigenesis?, or maybe activation of these genes is not quite random but instead related to some programme giving tumours a survival advantage? This review collates most of the recent information available about CTAs expression, function, and regulation. The data suggests a programme related to ontogenesis, mostly to gametogenesis. In the "brain-storming" part, facts in conflict with the hypothesis of random CTA gene activation are discussed. We propose a programme borrowed from organisms phylogenetically much older than humans, which existed before the differentiation of sexes. It is a programme that has served as a life cycle with prominent ploidy changes, and from which, as we know, the germ-cell ploidy cycle – meiosis – has evolved. Further work may show whether this hypothesis can lead to a novel anti-tumour strategy.

  12. Expression profiling of long noncoding RNAs in neonatal and adult mouse testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, advancements in genome-wide analyses of the mammalian transcriptome have revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs is pervasively transcribed in the genome and an increasing number of studies have demonstrated lncRNAs as a new class of regulatory molecules are involved in mammalian development (Carninci et al. (2005; Fatica and Bozzoni (2014, but very few studies have been conducted on the potential roles of lncRNAs in mammalian testis development. To get insights into the expression patterns of lncRNA during mouse testis development, we investigated the lncRNAs expression profiles of neonatal and adult mouse testes using microarray platform and related results have been published (Sun et al., PLoS One 8 (2013 e75750.. Here, we describe in detail the experimental system, methods and validation for the generation of the microarray data associated with our recent publication (Sun et al., PLoS One 8 (2013 e75750.. Data have been deposited to the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database repository with the dataset identifier GSE43442.

  13. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Weskott, H.P. [Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah , Hannover (Germany); Romanini, L. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); Grazhdani, H. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Passamonti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Lodi (Italy); Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Isidori, A. [Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Meloni, F.M. [Dipartimento servizi diagnostici, Ospedale Valduce, Como (Italy); Calliada, F. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments.

  14. Effects of Elevated β-Estradiol Levels on the Functional Morphology of the Testis - New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Myles; Trottmann, Matthias; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Stief, Christian; Freitag, Benjamin; Baugh, John; Spagnoli, Giulio; Kölle, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Elevated estradiol levels are correlated with male infertility. Causes of hyperestrogenism include diseases of the adrenal cortex, testis or medications affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of estradiol treatment on testicular cellular morphology and function, with reference to the treatment regimen received. Testes samples (n = 9) were obtained post-orchiectomy from male-to-female transsexuals within the age range of 26–52 years. Each patient had a minimum of 1–6 years estradiol treatment. For comparison, additional samples were obtained from microscopically unaltered testicular tissue surrounding tumors (n = 7). The tissues obtained were investigated by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. Our studies revealed that estradiol treatment significantly decreased the diameter of the seminiferous tubules (p estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Both Sertoli and Leydig cells showed morphological alterations and glycoprotein accumulations. These results demonstrate that increased estradiol levels drastically impact the human testis. PMID:28045098

  15. Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for unilateral palpable testis: A randomised controlled study

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    Almoutaz A. Eltayeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bianchi and Squire introduced single high trans-scrotal incision for mobilisation of palpable undescended testes to decrease the potential morbidity of the traditional inguinal approach. This incision has not gained widespread acceptance and there is still a considerable debate about its efficacy. This study evaluated the outcome of high single scrotal incision in comparison to the classic inguinal exploration for unilateral palpable testes regardless to its pre-operative location to assure its validity and safety. Patients and Methods: This was a randomised controlled study conducted on seventy males with palpable unilateral undescended testicles from November 2009 to October 2013. They were divided into two equal groups; group I had high single scrotal incision and group II had the classic inguinal approach. The comparative parameters between both groups were the operative time, intra-and post-operative complications, post-operative pain and scar. Results: There was statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the operative time (P < 0.001. The high scrotal approach (Group I was not completed in three cases and were converted to the classic inguinal approach. No statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the post-operative complications. Conclusions: Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is safe, has shorter operative time but may not be suitable for proximally lying testis.

  16. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies.

  17. Escargot Restricts Niche Cell to Stem Cell Conversion in the Drosophila Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Voog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs and germline stem cells (GSCs and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg. Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP, which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  18. [Traumatic luxation of the testis due to self-mutilation: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibiki, Yuji; Matsumura, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with traumatic luxation of right testis due to self-mutilation with a retractable knife on Apr. 20, 2004. He had been followed as temporal lobe epilepsy and suspicions of gender identify disorder by a pediatrician. He was fully oriented with a clear sensory and normal perception, but had no memory of what he had done. His parents were free of psychiatric disease, and he was the youngest in siblings of two older brothers. The laboratory examination showed no abnormal findings. Under general anesthesia, right testis was replaced in the scrotum and the scrotal wound was closed at the emergency operation. He had an attack of epilepsy and recovered by itself on the next day. He was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. After the operation, no recurrence has been seen until now. To our knowledge, this is the 37th case of male genital self-mutilation reported in the Japanese literature.

  19. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J. [Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); INSERM, U566, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to {gamma}-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  20. Transcription and Splicing Factor TDP-43: Role in Regulation of Gene Expression in Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Prabhakara P

    2017-03-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding Protein of 43 kD) is a transcription factor and RNA-binding protein with diverse functions. We cloned TDP-43 from the mouse testis in a screen for promoter-binding proteins and showed that it functions as a transcriptional repressor. TDP-43 plays a role in maintaining the precise pattern of spatiotemporal expression of the spermatid-specific Acrv1 gene during spermatogenesis by facilitating RNA polymerase II pausing at the promoter. We also showed that TDP-43 plays a partial role in preventing somatic cell expression of the Acrv1 gene by acting as an insulator-binding protein. Since the discovery of a causative link to several neurodegenerative diseases 10 years ago, TDP-43 has emerged as a protein of major human health relevance. Aberrant posttranslational modifications, nuclear exit, and cytoplasmic aggregate formation contribute to loss of neuronal function in patients. Interestingly, aberrant TDP-43 expression has also been reported in the testis and sperm of infertile men. Finally, our unpublished work shows that TDP-43 is indispensable for sperm formation and male fertility. The potential role of TDP-43 in male germ cells and fertility is discussed in this review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  2. Protective effects of propolis on methotrexate-induced testis injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Çilenk, Kübra Tuğçe; Karabulut, Derya; Ünalmış, Sunay; Deligönül, Erkan; Öztürk, İsmet; Kaymak, Emin

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is an adhesive substance which is collected and used by honeybees. Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This study was designed to determine whether propolis could protect against dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by methotrexate-induced injury in rat testis. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1 was the untreated control. On the eighth day of the experiment, groups 2 and 3 received single intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (MTX) at 20mg/kg. Groups 3 and 4 received 100mg/kg/day propolis (by oral gavage) for 15 days by the first day of the experimental protocol. Then the rats were decapitated under anesthesia, and their testes were removed. The histopathological and biochemical analysis along with apoptosis assessment of testis tissues were compared. Immunohistochemical analysis of Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) were performed. The phenolic characterization of propolis was performed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methotrexate caused tended to increase in malondialdehyde level and in the number of apoptotic cells; it also caused a decrease in MSTD and JTBS, PCNA and HSP-70 expression and xanthine oxidase levels in group 2. Propolis prevented the rise in malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase levels and HSP-70 expression and improved testicular morphology and JTBS. It was found that, methorexate gives rise to serious damage in the testes and propolis is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing testicular injury.

  3. The cloning and expression characterization of the centrosome protein genes family (centrin genes) in rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Xiaodong(孙晓冬); GE; Yehua(葛晔华); MA; Jing(马静); YU; Zuoren(俞作仁); LI; Sai(李赛); WANG; Yongchao(王永潮); XUE; Shepu(薛社普); HAN; Daishu(韩代书)

    2002-01-01

    Centrins are members of the centrosome protein family, which is highly conserved during revolution. The homologous genes of centrin in many organisms had been cloned, but the sequences of the rat centrin genes were not reported yet in GenBank. We cloned the cDNA fragments of centrin-1, -2 and -3 from the rat testis by RT-PCR, and analyzed the homology of the deduced amino acid sequences. The expression characterization of centrin genes in rat spermatogenesis was carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results show that the homology of the corresponding centrin proteins in human, mouse and rat is high. The expression of centrin-1 is testis-specific, spermatogenic cell-specific and developmental stage-related. Centrin-1 begins to be transcribed when the meiosis occurs, and its mRNA level reaches the peak in round spermatids. Centrin-2 and centrin-3 are highly expressed in spermatogonia and their mRNA level decreases markedly when meiosis occurs. These results suggest that centrin-1 may play roles in meiosis and spermiogenesis, and centrin-2 and centrin-3 may be related to mitosis.

  4. Protective effects of estrogens and caloric restriction during aging on various rat testis parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Hamden; Dorothee Silandre; Christelle Delalande; Abdelfattah ElFek; Serge Carreau

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2), Peganum harmala extract (PHE) and caloric restriction (CR) on various testis parameters during aging. Methods: Twelve-month-old male rats were treated for 6 months with either E2 or PHE, or submitted to CR (40%). Results: Our results show that estrogens and CR are able to protect the male gonad by preventing the decrease of testosterone and E2 levels as well as the decrease of aromatase and estrogen receptor gene expressions. Indeed, E2, PHE and CR treatments induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase activities and decreased the activity of testicular enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate deshydrogenase as well as the aspartate and lactate transaminases in aged animals. In addition, the testicular catalase and gluthatione peroxidase activities were enhanced in E2, PHE and CR-treated rats compared to untreated animals at 18 months of age. Moreover, the positive effects of estradiol, PHE and CR were further supported by a lower level of lipid peroxidation. Recovery of spermatogenesis was recorded in treated rats. Conclusion: Besides a low caloric diet which is beneficial for spermatogenesis, a protective antioxydant role of estrogens is suggested. Estrogens delay testicular cell damage, which leads to functional senescence and, therefore, estrogens are helpful in protecting the reproductive functions from the adverse effects exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in large quanti-ties in the aged testis.

  5. Pseudoephedrine induces sperm abnormalities, lower sperm counts and increased apoptosis in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudmamud-Thanoi, Sutisa; Thanoi, Samur

    2012-08-01

    Pseudoephedrine, an over-the-counter drug, is commonly used for the treatments of asthma, nasal congestion, and obesity. Furthermore, it can be used as a psychostimulant drug if taken in large doses; however, there have been no reports on its effects on reproduction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of pseudoephedrine administration on sperm morphology, sperm concentration and apoptotic activity in the rat testis. Rats were administered intraperitoneally (IP) with pseudoephedrine at 120 mg/kg for the acute group and 80 mg/kg, IP, once daily for 15 days for the chronic group, while a control group was treated with vehicle. The percentages of normal sperm morphology were significantly decreased in both acute and chronic groups when compared with controls while the total sperm count was significantly decreased in the acute group. Apoptotic activities were increased significantly in both pseudoephedrine-treated groups. The results indicate that pseudoephedrine can induce sperm abnormalities, decrease sperm numbers and increase apoptotic activity in the testis of rats if taken at high doses. The results of this study suggest that the users of pseudoephedrine in medical treatments need to be aware of its potential toxicity involving spermatogenesis.

  6. discs large regulates somatic cyst cell survival and expansion in Drosophila testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fani Papagiannouli; Bernard M Mechler

    2009-01-01

    Gonad development requires a coordinated snma-germline interaction that ensures renewal and differentiation of germline and somatic stem cells to ultimately produce mature gametes. The Drosophila tumour suppressor gene discs sion, and formation of neuromuscular junctions. Here, we report the role of dig in testis development and its critical function in somatic cyst cells (SCCs). In these cells dig is primarily required for their survival and expansion, and contributes to spermatocyte cyst differentiation. Cell death primarily occurred in SCCs at the end of spermatogo-nial amplification at a time when Dig becomes restricted in wild-type (wt) testes to the distal somatic cells capping the growing spermatocyte cysts. RNAi depletion of dig transcripts in early SCCs fully prevented testis development, whereas depletion in late SCCs resulted in a breakdown of spermatocyte cyst structure and germ cell individualiza-tion. Specific dig expression in SCCs resulted in developmental rescue of dig mutant testes, whereas its expression in germ cells exerted no such effect, dig overexpression in wt testes led to spermatocyte cyst expansion at the expense of spermatogonial cysts. Our data demonstrate that dig is essentially required in SCCs for their survival, expansion, and differentiation, and for the encapsulation of the germline cells.

  7. Novel transcripts of carbonic anhydrase II in mouse and human testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, P; Mezquita, C; Mezquita, J

    1999-03-01

    Intracellular and extracellular sources of bicarbonate are essential for sperm motility, sperm binding to the zona pellucida and the acrosome reaction. Carbonic anhydrase II, catalysing the synthesis of bicarbonate within spermatozoa, must play a significant role in these mechanisms. We report here the expression of carbonic anhydrase II during mouse spermatogenesis and the primary structure of testicular transcripts coding for carbonic anhydrase II isolated from adult mouse and human testes. The mouse carbonic anhydrase II (Car2) mRNA displays a 5' untranslated region (UTR) larger than the corresponding somatic sequence. The additional 5' sequence contains the 'TATA box' used in somatic tissues and other promoter sequences, suggesting the use of testis-specific promoters further upstream with read-through of downstream promoters. The 3'UTR of the Car2 mRNA is shorter in mature testicular cells than in somatic cells. Polysomal gradient analysis of carbonic anhydrase II transcripts isolated from adult mouse testis and kidney revealed different translation potential: most of the testicular transcripts were present in the non-polysomal fractions, whereas a considerable fraction of kidney transcripts were polysome-associated. These results suggest that specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate the expression of carbonic anhydrase II during mammalian spermatogenesis.

  8. Ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and the testis in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuş, I; Sarsilmaz, M; Ogetürk, M; Yilmaz, B; Keleştimur, H; Oner, H

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and testis was evaluated in the rat. Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups I and II were sham-orchidectomized and orchidectomized rats, respectively. Rats in group III were orchidectomized and daily injected with testosterone propionate (TP) for 1 month. Groups IV and V were sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized, respectively. Group VI was pinealectomized and daily injected with melatonin for 2 months. All animals were anesthetized with ketamine for fixation by vascular perfusion. Pineal glands of groups I, II, and III and the testes of groups IV, V, and VI were removed and weighed. All specimens were examined by electron microscopy. Orchidectomy caused an increase of lipid droplets, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and lysosomes. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were extensive in the cytoplasm. TP administration to orchidectomized rats resulted in formation of less extensive lipid droplets and mitochondria. In pinealectomized rats, golgi complex, mitochondria, and enlarged smooth endoplasmic reticulum were extensive in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. Formation of cytoplasmic secretory granules and osmiophilic bodies was observed. Testicular weight increased compared to group IV. Melatonin decreased testicular weight in comparison to group V and prevented ultrastructural changes. Pinealectomy and orchidectomy caused hyperactivity in Leydig cells and pinealocytes, respectively, which suggests a mutual relationship between the pineal gland and testis in the rat.

  9. Cancer/Testis Antigen MAGE-C1/CT7: New Target for Multiple Myeloma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs are a promising class of tumor antigens that have a limited expression in somatic tissues (testis, ovary, fetal, and placental cells. Aberrant expression of CTAs in cancer cells may lead to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. CTAs are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and acetylation of histones and are attractive targets for immunotherapy in cancer because the gonads are immune privileged organs and anti-CTA immune response can be tumor-specific. Multiple myeloma (MM is an incurable hematological malignancy, and several CTAs have been detected in many MM cell lines and patients. Among CTAs expressed in MM we must highlight the MAGE-C1/CT7 located on the X chromosome and expressed specificity in the malignant plasma cells. MAGE-C1/CT7 seems to be related to disease progression and functional studies suggests that this CTA might play a role in cell cycle and mainly in survival of malignant plasma cells, protecting myeloma cells against spontaneous as well as drug-induced apoptosis.

  10. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Testis-specific Protease 50 and Characterization of Antibody Specificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Testis-specific protease 50 (TSP50) is a testis-specific oncogene, which is abnormally activated in most tested patients with breast cancer. This property makes it an attractive molecular marker and a promising target for the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer. In order to obtain the protective and specific polyclonal antibodies for further research, TSP50 cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR from normal human testicular tissue, and inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1. Rabbit anti-TSP50 polyclonal antibodies were prepared by means of intramuscular injection of pcDNA3.1-TSP50 into the rabbits. Titers of the anti-sera were measured by ELISA and Western blotting with the E. coli cell lysate containing the induced GST-TSP50 fusion protein as an antigen. In addition, we examined the expression of TSP50 in both breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and breast cancer tissue by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemistry analysis.

  11. The biology of cancer testis antigens: putative function, regulation and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratta, Elisabetta; Coral, Sandra; Covre, Alessia; Parisi, Giulia; Colizzi, Francesca; Danielli, Riccardo; Nicolay, Hugues Jean Marie; Sigalotti, Luca; Maio, Michele

    2011-04-01

    Cancer testis antigens (CTA) are a large family of tumor-associated antigens expressed in human tumors of different histological origin, but not in normal tissues except for testis and placenta. This tumor-restricted pattern of expression, together with their strong in vivo immunogenicity, identified CTA as ideal targets for tumor-specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prompted the development of several clinical trials of CTA-based vaccine therapy. Driven by this practical clinical interest, a more detailed characterization of CTA biology has been recently undertaken. So far, at least 70 families of CTA, globally accounting for about 140 members, have been identified. Most of these CTA are expressed during spermatogenesis, but their function is still largely unknown. Epigenetic events, particularly DNA methylation, appear to be the primary mechanism regulating CTA expression in both normal and transformed cells, as well as in cancer stem cells. In view of the growing interest in CTA biology, the aim of this review is to provide the most recent information on their expression, regulation and function, together with a brief summary of the major clinical trials involving CTA as therapeutic agents. The pharmacologic modulation of CTA expression profiles on neoplastic cells by DNA hypomethylating drugs will also be discussed as a feasible approach to design new combination therapies potentially able to improve the clinical efficacy of currently adopted CTA-based immunotherapeutic regimens in cancer patients.

  12. Human fetal testis Leydig cell disruption by exposure to the pesticide dieldrin at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Abramovich, David R; Haites, Neva E; Cash, Phillip; Groome, Nigel P; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Murray, Tessa J; Lea, Richard G

    2007-11-01

    Declining human reproductive health over the last 60 years has been proposed to be due to effects of environmental chemicals, especially endocrine disrupting compounds, on fetal development. We investigated whether a model pesticide, dieldrin, at concentrations within both maternal circulation and environmental ranges (1 pmol/l = 0.0004 p.p.b. = 380.9 pg/l), could disrupt the human fetal testis. Human fetal testes were collected during the second trimester, a critical period of male sexual differentiation (development and masculinization). Testis explants were cultured for 24 h in the presence and absence of LH (10-1000 IU LH/l) and dieldrin (1 pmol and 1 nmol/l). Endocrine, immunohistological and proteome characteristics of the tissues were investigated. Exposure to dieldrin reduced LH-induced testosterone secretion (P Dieldrin altered proteins associated with cancer, apoptosis, transcription and development. Wnt-2b was reduced 3-fold and immunolocalized to Leydig and Sertoli cells. Dieldrin also reversed some LH-induced changes in protein expression, supporting the conclusion that Leydig cell function is at risk from environmental chemicals. Our findings indicate that exposure to very low, biologically relevant, concentrations of environmental chemicals could affect the fetal human Leydig cell, reducing testosterone secretion and potentially leading to subtle dysregulation of reproductive development and adult fecundity.

  13. GETTING TESTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATT; YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    Chinese labs begin R&D for Big Pharma and other biotech companies It came down to three countries for Bridge Pharmaceuticals' new animal testing lab: India, Singapore and China. In the process India fell out of the equation. "India doesn't have primates or dogs," said Glenn Rice, the Menlo Park, California-based company's president and CEO. India is a great place for small molecule manufacturing but not for toxicology testing on animals because the right breeders are not available there, Rice

  14. Torsion of the Testis or the Appendix Testis in Children:A Report of 17 Cases%小儿睾丸扭转和睾丸附件扭转(附17例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚以榜; 匡风梧

    1983-01-01

    Torsion of the testis or the appendix testis is thought rare and often overlooked by doctors.Misdiagnosed as orchitis,epididymitis,or inguinal lymphadenitis,it might result in gangarene of the testis owing to delayed treatment.17 cases are reported here to demonstrate the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.Painful mass in the inguinal region or the upper part of the scrotum,especially in infants,is highly suggestive of the condition.Although manual reduction is possible,yet surgical exploration presents the best chance to save the testis from danger of strangulation.%@@ 睾丸扭转,过去被认为是少见病,虽陆续见有报导(1、2,但未引起足够重视.近年来,我们对此加以注意,诊断病例即显著增多.而住院患儿多因病期较长,睾丸多已失去生机.

  15. Histologi dan Histomorfometri Testis dan Epididimis Muncak (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak pada Periode Ranggah Keras (HISTOLOGY AND HISTOMORPHOMETRY OF THE TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS OF MUNTJAC (MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK MUNTJAK DURING HARD ANTLER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the histology and histomorphometry of testis and epididymisof muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak during hard antler period. The tissues of the testis and epididymisof an adult male muntjac were processed for histological examination and stained with haematoxylineosine(HE. The parenchyma of muntjac’s testis during hard antler period showed tubuli seminiferi waslined with germinal epithelium: spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid that differentiated intospermatozoa. Sertoli cells were found among the germinal cells. In addition, Leydig cells were foundaround the blood vessel of interstitial tissue along with macrophages. Diameter of the seminiferous tubuleand epithelial thickness were 176,60±7,06 ?m and 50,27±3,62 ?m respectively. The epididymal duct wassubdivided into three segments: caput, corpus and cauda. They were lined predominantly withpseudostratified columnar epithelium which was varied in its thickness. The largest diameter of epididymalduct was found in cauda region (324,26±25,79 ?m, while caput epididymidis had the thickest of epithelialcell (62,21±4,21 ?m and tended to ce thinner in corpus (49,53±3,01 ?m and cauda epididymidis(16,30±2,27?m. The density of spermatozoa was observed the most in the lumen of cauda region comparedto caput and corpus epididymidis. In conclusion, the structure of histology and histomorphometry of theseminiferous tubule of testis and epididymal duct of muntjac were similar with small ruminants andother Cervidae during hard antler period.

  16. Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Food Utilization and Detoxifying Enzymes and Acetylcholinesterase of Lymantria dispar%毒死蜱对舞毒蛾食物利用和解毒酶及AChE活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 严善春; 王志英; 葛士林; 曹传旺

    2011-01-01

    采用质量法和酶活性测定法研究了毒死蜱对舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar)3龄幼虫食物利用的影响,并测定了其毒力及解毒酶、乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)的活性.用亚致死浓度(1.5 mg·L-1)毒死蜱处理小黑杨叶片,饲喂舞毒蛾3龄幼虫,其幼虫生长率(RGR)、食物利用率(ECI)和食物转化率(ECD)均显著低于对照,而近似消化率(AD)显著高于对照,相对取食量(RCR)处理和对照间差异不显著.毒死蜱对舞毒蛾幼虫24 h致死中浓度(LC50)为5.86 mg·L-1,其毒力低于三氟氯氰菊酯而高于氧化乐果.毒死蜱对舞毒蛾3龄幼虫体内羧酸酯酶(CarE)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)和AChE均有抑制作用,抑制程度为CarE>AChE>GSTs.毒死蜱通过影响舞毒蛾食物利用和抑制酶活性而表现出杀虫活性,为一种有效防治舞毒蛾的有机磷杀虫剂.%The effects of sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on food utilization of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar,as well as CPF toxicity and enzyme activities of carboxylesterase ( CarE ), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in the 3rd-instar gypsy moth larvae using gravimetric method and measuring enzyme activities. Relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of the conversion of ingested food (ECI) and efficiency of the conversion of digested food (ECD) of 3rd-instar larvae fed on poplar leaves treated by sublethal concentration of CPF were significantly lower than thosc fed on normal polar leaves. However, approximate digestibility (AD) of the treatment was significantly higher than that of control. The relative consumption rate (RCR) of the treatment and control groups were not significantly different. The 24 h LC50 of CPF to the gypsy moth 3rd-instar larvae was 5.86 mg · L-1, which was higher than that of omethoate but lower than that of cyhalothrin. In vitro inhibition assay indicated that the activities of AChE, CarE and GSTs were inhibited by CPF depended on concentrations

  17. Purification of Vip3Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1 and its contribution to toxicity of HD-1 to spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Ross; Liu, Yuehong; Gauthier, Debbie; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2008-10-01

    We developed a protocol for obtaining high yields (10-15 mg per 1100 ml of culture supernatant) of highly purified (up to 95%) Vip3Aa protein from HD-1 cultures. The protocol is based on acetone precipitation of supernatant protein, followed by HPLC fractionation (DEAE-5PW column) and several concentration steps. Our protocol resulted in higher yields and purity of Vip3Aa than a previously published method [Estruch, J.J., Warren, G.W., Mullins, M.A., Nye, G.J., Craig, J.A., Koziel, M.G., 1996. Vip3A, a 353 novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of 354 activities against lepidopteran insects. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 5389-5394.]. This was achieved by using acetone rather than ammonium sulfate for precipitation of proteins from culture supernatants, and a shallow rather than a steep NaCl gradient for elution of the toxin, and by conducting all the purification steps at low temperature to prevent toxin degradation. In bioassays of the purified protein, Choristoneura fumiferana and Lymantria dispar larvae were less susceptible than Spodopteraexigua (10- and approximately 100-fold, respectively). A B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain HD-1 from which the vip3Aa gene had been deleted (EG12414) showed reduced toxicity to S. exigua relative to the unmodified parental strain (EG2001), but not to L. dispar or C. fumiferana. We interpret these results as indicating that the Vip3Aa toxin does not contribute measurably to pathogenicity of HD-1 in these species.

  18. Establishment of Optimum Reaction System of Carboxylesterase from Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar)%舞毒蛾羧酸酯酶最佳反应体系的确立1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莉; 胡春祥

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the optimum reaction system of carboxylesterase (CarE) from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we used orthogonal experiment to measure the effects of the concentrations of carboxylesterase and substrate , pH, reaction temperature and reaction time to the activity of CarE .Through analyzing the data from orthogonal experiment with range analy-sis and analysis of variance , the optimum reaction system of carboxylesterase was ultimately determined as 0.2 beetle· mL-1 of carboxylesterase concentration , 0.2 mmol· L-1 of substrate concentration , 7.5 of pH, 45℃of reaction temperature , and 10 min of reaction time .%为了确定舞毒蛾(Lymantrai dispar)羧酸酯酶(CarE)活性的最佳反应体系,运用正交试验测定了反应体系中酶浓度、底物浓度、pH值、反应温度和反应时间5个因素对CarE活性的影响。极差分析和方差分析显示,舞毒蛾CarE的最优反应体系为酶浓度0.2头· mL-1,底物浓度0.2 mmol· L-1,pH=7.5,反应温度45℃,反应时间10 min。

  19. Response of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar to transgenic poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, expressing fusion protein gene of the spider insecticidal peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ω-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ω-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The growth and development of L. dispar were significantly affected by continually feeding on the transgenic poplar, with the larval instars displaying significantly shorter developmental times than those fed on nontransgenic poplar, but pupation was delayed. Mortality was higher in populations fed transgenic poplar leaves, than for larvae fed nontransgenic poplar leaves. The cumulative mortality during all stages of larvae fed transgenic leaves was 92% compared to 16.7% of larvae on nontransgenic leaves. The highest mortality observed was 71.7% in the last larval instar stage. A two-choice test showed that fifth-instar larvae preferred to feed on nontransgenic leaves at a ratio of 1:1.4. Feeding on transgenic leaves had highly significant negative effects on relative growth of larvae, and the efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food. Activity of major midgut proteinases was measured using substrates TAME and BTEE showed significant increases in tryptase and chymotrypsinlike activity (9.2- and 9.0-fold, respectively) in fifth-instar larvae fed on transgenic leaves over control. These results suggest transgenic poplar is resistant to L. dispar, and the mature L. dispar may be weakened by the transgenic plants due to Bt protoxins activated by elevated major midgut proteinase activity. The new transgenic poplar expressing fusion protein genes of Bt and a new spider insecticidal peptide are good candidates for managing gypsy moth.

  20. Identification and Localization of the Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase 10A in Bovine Testis and Mature Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Serge; Maréchal, Loïze; El Hajj, Hassan; Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Richard, François J.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) is known to play highly important roles in sperm motility and acrosomal exocytosis. It is known to act through protein phosphorylation via PRKA and through the activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors like EPAC. Sperm intracellular cAMP levels depend on the activity of adenylyl cyclases, mostly SACY, though transmembrane-containing adenylyl cyclases are also present, and on the activity of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) whose role is to degrade cAMP into 5’-AMP. The PDE superfamily is subdivided into 11 families (PDE1 to 11), which act on either cAMP or cGMP, or on both cAMP and cGMP although with different enzymatic properties. PDE10, which is more effective on cAMP than cGMP, has been known for almost 15 years and is mostly studied in the brain where it is associated with neurological disorders. Although a high level of PDE10A gene expression is observed in the testis, information on the identity of the isoforms or on the cell type that express the PDE10 protein is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify the PDE10A isoforms expressed in the testis and germ cells, and to determine the presence and localization of PDE10A in mature spermatozoa. As a sub-objective, since PDE10A transcript variants were reported strictly through analyses of bovine genomic sequence, we also wanted to determine the nucleotide and amino acid sequences by experimental evidence. Using RT-PCR, 5’- and 3’-RACE approaches we clearly show that PDE10A transcript variants X3 and X5 are expressed in bovine testis as well as in primary spermatocytes and spermatids. We also reveal using a combination of immunological techniques and proteomics analytical tools that the PDE10A isoform X4 is present in the area of the developing acrosome of spermatids and of the acrosome of mature spermatozoa. PMID:27548062

  1. A simple procedure for the isolation and purification of protamine messenger ribonucleic acid from trout testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamu, L; Iatrou, K; Dixon, G H

    1978-06-01

    Preparation of milligram quantities of purified poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) protamine mRNA from trout testis tissue was accomplished by a simple procedure using gentle conditions. This involves chromatography of the total nucleic acids isolated by dissociation of polyribosomes with 25 mM-EDTA to release messenger ribonucleoprotein particles and deproteinization of the total postmitochondrial supernatant with 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate in 0.25 M-NaCl by binding it to a DEAE-cellulose column. Total RNA was bound under these conditions, and low-molecular-weight RNA, lacking 18S and 28S RNA, could be eluted with 0.5 M-NaCl and chromatographed on oligo(dT)-cellulose columns to select for poly(A)+ RNA. Further purification of both the unbound poly(A)- RNA and the bound poly(A)+ mRNA on sucrose density gradients showed that both 18S and 28S rRNA were absent, being removed during the DEAE-cellulose chromatography step. Poly(A)- RNA sedimented in the 4S region whereas the bound poly(A)+ RNA fraction showed a main peak at 6S [poly(A+) protamine mRNA] and a shoulder in the 3-4S region. Analysis of the main peak and the shoulder on a second gradient showed that most of the main peak sedimented at 6S, whereas the shoulder sedimented slower than 4S. The identity of the poly(A)+ protamine mRNA was established by the following criteria: (1) purified protamine mRNA migrated as a set of four bands on urea/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis; (2) analysis of the polypeptides synthesized in the wheat-germ extract by starch-gel electrophoresis showed a single band of radioactivity which co-migrated exactly with the carrier trout testis protamine standard; and (3) chromatography of the polypeptide products on CM-cellulose (CM-52) showed the presence of three or four radioactively labelled protamine components that were co-eluted with the unlabelled trout testis protamine components added as carrier. The availability of large quantities of purified protamine mRNA should now permit a more

  2. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    inhibitors has been proposed as an attractive strategy to increase the expression of cancer/testis antigens in tumors before immunotargeting; however, neither ADAM2, CALR3 nor SAGE1 could be significantly induced in lung and breast cancer cell lines using this strategy. Our results suggest that ADAM2, CALR3...

  3. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J.V.; Jonker, M.J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have de

  4. The type 3 deiodinase is a critical determinant of appropriate thyroid hormone action in the developing testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, M.E. (M. Elena); Karaczyn, A. (Aldona); Stohn, J.P. (J. Patrizia); Donnelly, W.T. (William T.); Croteau, W. (Walburga); R.P. Peeters (Robin); V.A. Galton (Valerie Anne); D. Forrest (Douglas); Germain, D.S. (Donald ST.); Hernandez, A. (Arturo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTimely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little is

  5. The Type 3 Deiodinase is a Critical Determinant of Appropriate Thyroid Hormone Action in the Developing Testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Martinez, M. (Elena); A. Karaczyn, A. (Aldona); J. Stohn, J. (Patrizia); W. Donnelly, W. (William); W. Croteau, W. (Walburga); P. Peeters, P. (Robin); V.A. Galton (Valerie Anne); D. Forrest (Douglas); D.L. St Germain (Donald); A. Hernandez (Arturo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTimely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little

  6. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  7. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    by single and double immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: We found that GAGE was expressed in the primordial germ cells of the gonadal primordium, whereas MAGE-A1 and NY-ESO-1 were first detected in germ cells of both testis and ovary after sexual differentiation was initiated. The number of positive germ...

  8. Role of ghrelin on testosterone secretion and the mRNA expression of androgen receptors in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Fang, Fugui; Li, Yunsheng; Zhang, Yunhai; Pu, Yong; Zhang, XiaoYong

    2011-06-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin on in vivo and in vitro secretion of testosterone (T) and the expression of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA in the adult rat testis. The distribution of growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R(1a)) in the testis was also investigated. GHS-R(1a) immunoreactivity presented mainly in Sertoli and Leydig cells, primary spermatocytes, and secondary spermatocytes. Adult rats that were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administrated different dosages (1 nmol and 3 nmol) of ghrelin could significantly inhibit the secretion of T. The experession of AR mRNA in the testis was also notably reduced with 3 nmol ghrelin. Additionaly, in vitro exposure of the Leydig cells to increasing concentrations of ghrelin resulted in no obvious changes of T secretion in the culture media and AR mRNA expression of Leydig cells. Overall, our data demonstrate that the i.c.v. injection of ghrelin plays a physiological role in T secretion and AR mRNA expression in the testis, further confirming the reproductive role of ghrelin.

  9. Expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal testis development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Wen Wu; Ru-Yao Wang; Qiang-Su Guo; Chen Xu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the expression pattern of the retinoic acid metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26bl during mouse postnatal testis development at both mRNA and protein levels. Methods: Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the relative quantity of RALDH2 and CYP26bl at both mRNA and protein levels at postnatal day 1, 5, 10, 20, and in adult mice (70 days testes). Testicular localization of RALDH2 and CYP26bl during mouse postnatal development was examined using immunohistochemistry assay. Results: Aldhla 2 transcripts and its protein RALDH2 began to increase at postnatal day 10, and remained at a high level through postnatal day 20 to adulthood. Cyp26bl transcripts and CYP26bl protein did not change significantly during mouse postnatal testis development. RALDH2 was undetectable in the postnatal 1, 5 and 10 day testes using immunohis- tochemistry assay. At postnatal day 20 it was detected in pachytene spermatocytes. Robust expression of RALDH2 was restricted in round spermatids in the adult mouse testis. In the developing and adult testis, CYP26bl protein was confined to the peritubular myoepithelial cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate that following birth, the level of retinoic acid in the seminiferous tubules might begin to increase at postnatal day 10, and maintain a high level through postnatal day 20 to adulthood. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 569-576)

  10. Search for Conditions to Detect Epigenetic Marks and Nuclear Proteins in Immunostaining of the Testis and Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Ideno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of nuclear proteins and modified histone tails changes during cell differentiation at the tissue as well as at the cellular level. Immunostaining in paraffin sections is the most powerful approach available to evaluate protein localization. Since nuclear proteins are sensitive to fixation, immunohistochemical conditions should be optimized in light of the particular antibodies and tissues employed. In this study, we searched for optimal conditions to detect histone modification at histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9 and H3K9 methyltransferase G9a in the testis and cartilage in paraffin sections. In the testis, antigen retrieval (AR was indispensable for detecting H3K9me1 and me3, G9a, and nuclear protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. With AR, shorter fixation times yielded better results for the detection of G9a and PCNA. Without AR, H3K9me2 and H3K9ac could be detected at shorter fixation times in primary spermatocytes of the testis. In contrast to the testis, all antibodies tested could detect their epitopes irrespective of AR application in the growth plate cartilage. Thus, conditions for the detection of epigenetic marks and nuclear proteins should be optimized in consideration of fixation time and AR application in different tissues and antibodies.

  11. Anatomical relationships between testis and epididymis during the fetal period in humans (10-36 weeks postconception)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favorito, LA; Sampaio, FJB

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anatomy of the epididymis and its relationship with the testis during the fetal period in normal individuals. Methods: We studied bilaterally 146 testes and epididymides taken from 73 normal fresh human fetuses ranging in age from 10 to 36 weeks postconception. The epidid

  12. Male-biased genes in catfish as revealed by RNA-Seq analysis of the testis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyue Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish.

  13. Male-Biased Genes in Catfish as Revealed by RNA-Seq Analysis of the Testis Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fanyue; Liu, Shikai; Gao, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Yanliang; Perera, Dayan; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Chao; Sun, Luyang; Zhang, Jiaren; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY) sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female) allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. Conclusion/Significance We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish. PMID:23874634

  14. Induction of oxidative stress in the rat testis after short-term exposure to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchoumycandane, C; Mathur, P P

    2002-12-01

    Methoxychlor is one of the environmental contaminants that has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats. The mechanism of action of methoxychlor on the male reproductive system remains unclear. In the present study we have sought to investigate whether short-term administration of methoxychlor induces oxidative stress in the testis of adult rats. Methoxychlor (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight per day) was administered orally for 1, 4, or 7 days. The animals were killed using anesthetic ether on the day following the last dosing. The weights of epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate decreased after 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg per day for 7 days but remained unchanged after 1 and 4 days of treatment. The production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide increased in the animals that received methoxychlor for 4 and 7 days. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase decreased, while the level of lipid peroxidation increased in the testis after 4 or 7 days of treatment. The results indicated that short-term exposure to methoxychlor induces oxidative stress in the testis by decreasing antioxidant enzymes and increasing lipid peroxidation, possibly by inducing reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the adverse effect of methoxychlor on the male reproduction could be due to induction of oxidative stress in testis.

  15. Prospective study on the expression of cancer testis genes and antibody responses in 100 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischo, A.; Kubuschok, B.; Ertan, K.; Preuss, K.D.; Romeike, B.; Regitz, E.; Schormann, C.; Bruijn, D.R.H. de; Wadle, A.; Neumann, F.; Schmidt, W.; Renner, C.; Pfreundschuh, M.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the expression of cancer testis (CT) genes and antibody responses in a nonselected population of patients with primary breast cancer, we investigated the composite expression of 11 CT genes by RT-PCR in fresh biopsies of 100 consecutive cases of primary breast carcinoma and by immunohis

  16. [Relationship between testis volume and types of spermatogenic cells from testicular biopsy in patients with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Zhang; Tang, Yun-Ge; Liu, Huang; Tang, Li-Xin; Wen, Ren-Qian

    2010-01-01

    To study the relationship between the testis volume and types of spermatogenic cells derived from testicular biopsy in patients with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. We collected testicular pathological biopsies from 492 infertile patients with azoospermia or cryptozoospermia reported in our hospital, classified them according to the testicular histological classification methods in WHO Manual for Standardized Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Male, and analyzed the relationship of the testis volume with the results of semen analyses and testicular histology. Of the 492 cases, 90.5% (445/492) were azoospermia and 9.5% (47/492) cryptozoospermia; mature spermatozoa were present in the seminiferous tubules in 17.9% (88/492) but absent in 42.9% (211/492), and Sertoli cell-only syndrome indicated in 39.2% (193/492); the testis volume was biopsy, and it may exist even if the testis volume is significantly below the reference value. The indications for testicular biopsy should not be improperly expanded. The WHO testicular histological classification methods have provided a convenient and effective guidance for further clinical examinations and establishment of a protocol.

  17. 5α—reductase type 2 gene expression in human testis,epididymis and vas deferens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDY; WuYW

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression patterm of 5-α-reductase type 2 gene in human male reproductive organs.Methods:The expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 gene in human testis,epididymis and vas deferens tissues was determined by in situ hybridization using a digoxin-labeled 5α-reductase type 2 cRNA probe.Results:The brown granules of hybridizing signals distributed in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testis,the principle cells of epididymis and the epithelial cells of vas deferens,but there was no positive signal in the nuclei of these cellsNo positive signal was observed in the germ cells,basement of the testis, interstium of the epididymis and basement and the smooth muscle cells of vas deferens.conclusion:This study confirmed that the 5α-reductase type 2 gene expressed in the Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testis and the principle cells of the epididymis.The expression pattern of the gene in these cells in the human was similar to that in the rat and monkey.The presence of 5α-reductase type 2 gene in the epithelial cells of the vas deferens suggests that it may play a physiological role in human reproduction.

  18. A novel, testis-specific mRNA transcript encoding an NH2-terminal truncated nitric-oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Goligorsky, M S; Lin, M; Wilcox, J N; Marsden, P A

    1997-04-25

    mRNA diversity represents a major theme of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) gene expression in somatic cells/tissues. Given that gonads often express unique and biologically informative variants of complex genes, we determined whether unique variants of nNOS are expressed in the testis. Analysis of cDNA clones isolated from human testis identified a novel, testis-specific nNOS (TnNOS) mRNA transcript. A predicted 3294-base pair open reading frame encodes an NH2-terminal truncated protein of 1098 amino acids. Measurement of calcium-activated L-[14C]citrulline formation and nitric oxide release in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with the TnNOS cDNA indicates that this protein is a calcium-dependent nitric-oxide synthase with catalytic activity comparable to that of full-length nNOS. TnNOS transcripts exhibit novel 5' mRNA sequences encoded by two unique exons spliced to exon 4 of the full-length nNOS. Characterization of the genomic structure indicates that exonic regions used by the novel TnNOS are expressed from intron 3 of the NOS1 gene. Although lacking canonical TATA and CAAT boxes, the 5'-flanking region of the TnNOS exon 1 contains multiple putative cis-regulatory elements including those implicated in testis-specific gene expression. The downstream promoter of the human nNOS gene, which directs testis-specific expression of a novel NH2-terminal truncated nitric-oxide synthase, represents the first reported example in the NOS gene family of transcriptional diversity producing a variant NOS protein.

  19. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  20. Cancer-testis antigen expression in synovial sarcoma: NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Harimaya, Katsumi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is regarded as a relatively chemosensitive sarcoma, but the prognosis of advanced SSs remains poor. Here we identified highly expressed cancer-testis antigens that could be promising immunotherapy targets for SS, using a previously conducted cDNA microarray, and we assessed the clinicopathological or prognostic relationships of these antigens in SS. We compared the gene expression profiles of 11 SSs with those of 3 normal adipose tissues. Among the up-regulated cancer-testis antigens, we analyzed PRAME, MAGEA1, and MAGEA4 and another cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) together, by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 108 SSs. Immunohistochemically, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1 were positive in 66 (61%), 93 (86%), 89 (82%), and 16 (15%) of 108 SSs, respectively, and 104 (96%) of 108 SSs showed the immunohistochemical expression of at least 1 of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4. Moreover, the high expression of at least 1 of these 3 antigens was observed in 83% of the SSs. High expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA4 was significantly correlated with the presence of necrosis and advanced clinical stage. The immunohistochemical expression of these cancer-testis antigens was not correlated with prognosis, but the coexpression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 was significantly associated with adverse prognosis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results were closely related to the immunohistochemical results: NY-ESO-1 (P = .0019), PRAME (P = .039), MAGEA4 (P = .0149), and MAGEA1 (P = .0766). These data support the potential utility of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 as immunotherapy targets and ancillary prognostic parameters, suggesting the possible benefit of the combined use of these cancer-testis antigens as an SS immunotherapy target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  2. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  3. Minor abnormalities of testis development in mice lacking the gene encoding the MAPK signalling component, MAP3K1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Warr

    Full Text Available In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

  4. Identiifcation of novel and differentially expressed microRNAs in ovine ovary and testis tissues using solexa sequencing and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Wei-hua; ZHANG Yong; CHENG Zhang-rui; ZHAO Xing-xu; WANG Juan-hong; MA You-ji; HU Jun-jie; ZHANG Quan-wei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are smal , single stranded, non-coding RNA molecules, about 19–25 nucleotides in length, which regulate the development and functions of reproductive system of mammal. To discover novel miRNAs and identify the differential expression of them in ovine ovary and testis tissues, the study constructed two libraries by using next-generation sequencing technologies (Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique). As a result, 9 321 775 and 9 511 538 clean reads were obtained from the ovary and testis separately, which included 130 562 (90 genes of ovary) and 56 272 (85 genes of testis) of known miRNAs and 486 potential novel miRNAs reads. In this study, a total of 65 conserved miRNAs were sig-niifcantly differential y expressed (P<0.01) between the two samples. Among them, 28 miRNAs were up-regulated and 3 miRNAs were down-regulated on ovary compared with testis. In addition, the known miRNAs with the highest expression level (5 miRNAs) and 30 novel miRNAs with the functions related to reproduction were validated using the real-time quan-titative RT-PCR. Moreover, the gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that differential y expressed miRNAs were involved in ovary and testis physiology, including signal transduction, gonad development, sex differentiation, gematogenesis, fertilization and embryo development. The results wil be helpful to facilitate studies on the regulation of miRNAs during ruminant reproduction.

  5. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  6. Effect of overdose zinc on mouse testis and its relation with sperm count and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Günfer; Abban, Gülcin; Turgut, Sabahat; Take, Gülnur

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of excessive zinc intake on the testes and on sperm count and motility in mice. Thirty Balb c mice were divided randomly into 3 groups of 10 animals in each. Group I acted as controls; group II was supplied with drinking water containing 1.5 g/100 mL Zn, and group III was supplied with drinking water containing 2.5 g/100 mL Zn. The animals were sacrificed after 3 wk supplementation and the epididymis and testis were quickly excised. A negative correlation between Zn dose and sperm count and motility was found. The sperm count in group III was significantly lower than in groups II and I (psperm motility in group III was significantly lower than in the controls (pzinc significantly alter sperm motility.

  7. Pseudogenization of testis-specific Lfg5 predates human/Neanderthal divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Marco; Smith, Temple F; Sudmant, Peter H; Goldberger, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Recent reviews discussed the critical roles of apoptosis in human spermatogenesis and infertility. These reviews highlight the FasL-induced caspase cascade in apoptosis lending importance to our discovery of the pseudogene status of the Lfg5 gene in modern humans, Neanderthal and the Denisovan. This gene is a member of the ancient and highly conserved apoptosis Lifeguard family. This pseudogenization is the result of a premature stop codon at the 3'-end of exon 8 not found in any other ortholog. With the current exception of the domesticated bovine and buffalo, Lfg5's expression in mammals is testis-specific. A full analysis of this gene, its phylogenetic context and its recent hominin changes suggest its inactivation was likely under selection in human evolution.

  8. TCF21 is related to testis growth and development in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Na, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Li; Wang, Ning; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Hui

    2017-02-24

    Large amounts of fat deposition often lead to loss of reproductive efficiency in humans and animals. We used broiler chickens as a model species to conduct a two-directional selection for and against abdominal fat over 19 generations, which resulted in a lean and a fat line. Direct selection for abdominal fat content also indirectly resulted in significant differences (P growth and development. Of the nine candidate genes identified with database mining, a significant association was confirmed for one gene, TCF21, based on mRNA expression analysis. Gene expression analysis of the TCF21 gene was conducted again across 30 G19 individuals (15 individuals from each line) and the results confirmed the findings on the G16 animals. This study revealed that the TCF21 gene is related to testis growth and development in male broilers. This finding will be useful to guide future studies to understand the genetic mechanisms that underlie reproductive efficiency.

  9. Torsion of undescended testis in a 14-month-old child refusing to bear weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ryan M; Cuenca, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    In this report, we discuss a case of a 14-month-old male presenting in the emergency department with refusal to bear weight on his left leg. Plain radiographic studies revealed no evidence of effusion, fracture, or dislocation. Laboratory studies were significant for an elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Further studies included unremarkable ultrasound of the left hip and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both hips. An incidental finding on MRI was a left inguinal mass concerning an incarcerated hernia. Ultrasound of this mass demonstrated a left undescended testis within the inguinal canal and possible incarcerated paratesticular inguinal hernia. The final pathologic diagnosis of a torsed gangrenous left testicle within the inguinal canal was confirmed during surgery.

  10. CDH1, a Novel Surface Marker of Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Sheep Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; WU Sachula; LUO Fen-hua; Baiyinbatu; LIU Lin-hong; HU Tian-yuan; YU Bo-yang; LI Guang-peng; WU Ying-ji

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are unique stem cells in adult body that can transmit genetic information to the next generation. They have self-renewal potential and can continuously support spermatogenesis throughout life of a male animal. However, the SSC population is extremely small, isolation and puriifcation of the SSCs is challenging, especially for livestock animals. It has been conifrmed that CDH1 (cadherin-1, also known as E-cadherin) can be expressed in undifferentiated SSCs of mouse and rats, but it has not been veriifed in sheep. Here, CDH1 was found as a novel surface marker for sheep SSCs. In this paper, sheep anti-CDH1 polyclonal antibodies were prepared and its activity was checked. Using the obtained antibodies and immunohistochemistry analysis, we conifrmed that CDH1 can be expressed by SSCs in sheep testis.

  11. Short duration radiotherapy in Stage I seminoma of the testis: preliminary results of a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, G.; Johnston, R.J. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with Stage 1 seminoma of the testis, treated between November 1989 and December 1991, received short duration radiotherapy (2000 cGy in 8 fractions) to the para-aortic area only. The treatment was well tolerated and, after a median follow-up time of 34 months (minimum 15 months), no patient has relapsed in the abdomen. One patient developed an apparently solitary distant metastasis from a latent teratoma and is disease free after chemotherapy. This form of radiotherapy would appear to be well-tolerated with a low relapse rate. It offers the advantage of a simpler and shorter technique compared with conventional therapy and avoids the necessity of intensive surveillance to detect relapse. (author).

  12. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Bacillus testis strain SIT10 sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cimmino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus testis strain SIT10 (= CSUR P1492 = DSMZ 101190 is the new type strain collected from stool from a 2-year-old boy from Senegal during a culturomics study. This Gram-positive bacterium is a facultative anaerobic rod and a member of the Bacillaceae family. We describe here the features of this bacterium, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3 987 349 bp long genome (one chromosome but no plasmid with 42.8% GC content contains 4005 protein-coding and 171 sRNA genes, including 19 5S rRNA gene, 15 16S rRNA genes and ten 23S rRNA genes.

  13. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons......, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45......% reduction; P = 0.025) and seminal vesicle weight (a biomarker of androgen exposure; 18% reduction; P = 0.005) in castrate host mice bearing human fetal testis xenografts, whereas acetaminophen exposure for just 1 day did not alter either parameter. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations (at 1 hour after...

  14. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  15. Ectopic expression of cancer/testis antigen SSX2 induces DNA damage and promotes genomic instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Katrine Buch Vidén; Lindgreen, Jonas; Terp, Mikkel Green

    2015-01-01

    replication stress translates into mitotic defects and genomic instability. Arrest of cell growth and induction of DNA double-strand breaks was also observed in MCF7 breast cancer cells in response to SSX2 expression. Additionally, MCF7 cells with ectopic SSX2 expression demonstrated typical signs......SSX cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in melanoma tumors and represent attractive targets for immunotherapy, but their role in melanoma tumorigenesis has remained elusive. Here, we investigated the cellular effects of SSX2 expression. In A375 melanoma cells, SSX2 expression resulted...... of SSX2 expression in melanoma cell lines demonstrated that SSX2 supports the growth of melanoma cells. Our results reveal two important phenotypes of ectopic SSX2 expression that may drive/support tumorigenesis: First, immediate induction of genomic instability, and second, long-term support of tumor...

  16. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages in Drosophila testis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIR GUPTA; KRISHANU RAY

    2017-06-01

    Spermatogenesis, involving multiple transit amplification divisions and meiosis, occurs within an enclosure formed bytwo somatic cells. As the cohort of germline cells divide and grow, the surface areas of the somatic cells expandmaintaining a tight encapsulation throughout the developmental period. Correlation between the somatic cell growthand germline development is unclear. Here, we report standardization of a quantitative assay developed for estimatingthe somatic roles of target molecules on germline division and differentiation in Drosophila testis. Using the assay, westudied the somatic roles of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). It revealed that the expression of PI3KDN is likelyto facilitate the early germline development at all stages, and an increase in the somatic PI3K activity during the earlystages delays the transition to spermatocyte stage. Together, these results suggest that somatic cell growth plays animportant role in regulating the rate of germline development.

  17. Testis-Specific Histone Variant H3t Gene Is Essential for Entry into Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ueda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes. Thus, by incorporating H3t into the genome during spermatogonial differentiation, male germ cells are able to enter meiosis and beyond.

  18. Late neurological complications after irradiation of malignant tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Marianne; Bentzen, Søren M.; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    To identify and describe late neurological complications in a Danish testis cancer cohort treated by radiotherapy. Clinical retrospective material of 94 consecutive patients with malignant testicular tumours treated at Aarhus County Hospital from 1964 to 1973. The irradiated dose in the paraaortic...... paresis in the lower limbs and absence of sphincter disturbances or sensory symptoms. High spinal cord dose was related to increased risk of neurological damage. During follow-up19 patients developed another primary cancer in the radiation field; nine patients were diagnosed with severe arteriosclerosis...... field varied from 27 to 55 Gy given 5 or 6 days a week, from the back and front alternately. The biological equivalent dose of the spinal cord was calculated using the linear-quadratic model. Median follow-up was 25 years, range 7 to 33 years. Seven patients were identified with late neurological...

  19. Detection of Leishmania parasites in the testis of a dog affected by orchitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Laura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission of canine leishmaniasis (CanL, a severe infection caused by L. infantum, usually occurs through the sand fly bite to the vertebrate host. A venereal route of transmission has also been suggested, but this issue is still controversial. Findings Here, we report a case of a dog affected by orchitis showing a clinical profile of L. infantum infection. By exploiting a real-time PCR assay, we detected a significantly higher DNA load of the parasite in the lymph node and testis than in blood and urine samples collected from the dog. Conclusions Our results suggest that: 1 L. infantum infection can be associated with testicular lesions in naturally infected dogs; 2 genital involvement could result in shedding of the parasites in the semen, favoring venereal transmission of the disease.

  20. Targeting Tumor Initiating Cells through Inhibition of Cancer Testis Antigens and Notch Signaling: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michela; Mirandola, Leonardo; Reidy, Adair; Suvorava, Natallia; Konala, Venu; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Grizzi, Fabio; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Nugyen, Diane D; Dalhbeck, Scott; Cobos, Everardo; Figueroa, Jose A; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) differ from normal stem cells (SCs) in their ability to initiate tumorigenesis, invasive growth, metastasis and the acquisition of chemo and/or radio-resistance. Over the past years, several studies have indicated the potential role of the Notch system as a key regulator of cellular stemness and tumor development. Furthermore, the expression of cancer testis antigens (CTA) in TICs, and their role in SC differentiation and biology, has become an important area of investigation. Here, we propose a model in which CTA expression and Notch signaling interacts to maintain the sustainability of self-replicating tumor populations, ultimately leading to the development of metastasis, drug resistance and cancer progression. We hypothesize that Notch-CTA interactions in TICs offer a novel opportunity for meaningful therapeutic interventions in cancer.

  1. Analysis of gene expression in normal and neoplastic human testis: new roles of RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, G W; Nielsen, J E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2007-01-01

    with regulation from the RNA interference pathway, may cause misinterpretations when trying to base conclusions from expression data derived from studies at the mRNA level. With HLXB9, PRM1, DICER and E2F1 as examples, we here show a range of situations that can occur when investigating gene expression, and give...... of miRNAs targeting the mRNA. Additionally, we show through cloning the presence of both known and new miRNAs in the testis emphasizing the necessity for following up mRNA expression data by investigating expression at the protein level.......Large-scale methods for analysing gene expression, such as microarrays, have yielded a wealth of information about gene expression at the mRNA level. However, expression of alternative transcripts, together with the presence of a wide range of largely undescribed RNA transcripts combined...

  2. Pure yolk sac tumor of testis in a 50 years old : A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan M Pagaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumor (YST is most common in infants and children in age range of 3-8 years in pure form; however in adults, YST rarely occurs in pure form, but commonly occurs in association with other germ cell tumors as mixed forms. Less than 10 adult testicular pure YSTs have been reported in literature. We report a 50-year-old male with testicular neoplasm involving the left testis, with pain following trauma. Alpha-fetoprotein was markedly raised 5726 IU/ml, and on histopathology, characteristic features of YST with abundant Schiller–Duval bodies associated with reticular and microcystic pattern, and focal solid areas of nests and trabeculae of cuboidal cells, with prominent nucleoli and mitotic figures, were noted, and extensive histopathological search did not reveal presence of any other type of tumor.

  3. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  4. Identification of live germ-cell desquamation as a major mechanism of seasonal testis regression in mammals: a study in the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Rajesh K; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Real, Francisca M; Lupiañez, Darío G; Ortega, Esperanza; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    In males of seasonally breeding species, testes undergo a severe involution at the end of the breeding season, with a major volume decrease due to massive germ-cell depletion associated with photoperiod-dependent reduced levels of testosterone and gonadotropins. Although it has been repeatedly suggested that apoptosis is the principal effector of testicular regression in vertebrates, recent studies do not support this hypothesis in some mammals. The purpose of our work is to discover alternative mechanisms of testis regression in these species. In this paper, we have performed a morphological, hormonal, ultrastructural, molecular, and functional study of the mechanism of testicular regression and the role that cell junctions play in the cell-content dynamics of the testis of the Iberian mole, Talpa occidentalis, throughout the seasonal breeding cycle. Desquamation of live, nonapoptotic germ cells has been identified here as a new mechanism for seasonal testis involution in mammals, indicating that testis regression is regulated by modulating the expression and distribution of the cell-adhesion molecules in the seminiferous epithelium. During this process, which is mediated by low intratesticular testosterone levels, Sertoli cells lose their nursing and supporting function, as well as the impermeability of the blood-testis barrier. Our results contradict the current paradigm that apoptosis is the major testis regression effector in vertebrates, as it is clearly not true in all mammals. The new testis regression mechanism described here for the mole could then be generalized to other mammalian species. Available data from some previously studied mammals should be reevaluated.

  5. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis.

  6. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  7. Is prnt a Pseudogene? Identification of Ram Prt in Testis and Ejaculated Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Jorge; Domingos, Ana; Santos, Pedro; Marques, Carla C.; Cantante, Cátia; Santos, Ana; Barbas, João P.; Baptista, Maria C.; Horta, António E. M.; Viegas, Aldino; Mesquita, Patrícia; Gonçalves, João; Fontes, Carlos A.; Prates, José A. M.; Pereira, Rosa M. L. N.

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), expressed by the prion gene (prnp), into an abnormally folded isoform (PrPSc) with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel), and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific - Prt) with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho) genes, constitute the “prion gene complex”. Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA) immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated with its

  8. Expression analysis of HSP70 in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ling-Li; Han, Ying-Li; Sheng, Zhang; Du, Chen; Wang, You-Fa; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2015-09-01

    The gene encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified in Octopus tankahkeei by homologous cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA (2471 bp) consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (89 bp), a 3'-UTR (426 bp), and an open reading frame (1956 bp) that encodes 651 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 71.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment, this cDNA is a member of cytoplasmic hsp70 subfamily of the hsp70 family and was designated as ot-hsp70. Tissue expression analysis showed that HSP70 expression is highest in the testes when all examined organs were compared. Immunohistochemistry analysis, together with hematoxylin-eosin staining, revealed that the HSP70 protein was expressed in all spermatogenic cells, but not in fibroblasts. In addition, O. tankahkeei were heat challenged by exposure to 32 °C seawater for 2 h, then returned to 13 °C for various recovery time (0-24 h). Relative expression of ot-hsp70 mRNA in the testes was measured at different time points post-challenge by quantitative real-time PCR. A clear time-dependent mRNA expression of ot-hsp70 after thermal stress indicates that the HSP70 gene is inducible. Ultrastructural changes of the heat-stressed testis were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We suggest that HSP70 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and testis protection against thermal stress in O. tankahkeei.

  9. Expression Analysis of ARMC3, a Testis-Specific Gene, in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Zare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. Biomarkers that are expressed in tumors play a pivotal role in diagnosis and treatment. Cancer-testis (CT antigens are predominantly expressed in the testis and also have inappropriate expression in various tumor types. In the case of expression in tumors, they will be used as immunotherapy targets. Objectives Expression of ARMC3, a CT antigen, was analyzed to determine its potential as a tumor marker for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Eighty samples including 40 tumor samples and 40 normal adjacent tissue samples, were gathered from the ICBC biobank. RNA extraction was carried out on all samples. The extracted RNA was treated by DNaseI, after which cDNA was synthesized. Expression of ARMC3 with ACTB (internal control was studied using Real-Time PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Results Overall, 43.6% of tumors and 25.6% of normal adjacent tissues expressed ARMC3. ARMC3 was overexpressed in 41% of tumor samples (P = 0.00 and showed decreased expression in 46.2% (P = 0.00. Also, the expression of this gene in 12.8% of tumors was unchanged, which was statistically significant. It should be noted that all samples expressed ACTB gene. Conclusions Expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples and normal adjacent tissue is very important. The expression of this gene in tumor-adjacent tissue may be associated with the stage of cancer; it may be that these tissues are affected by epigenetic and oncogenic changes of breast cancer. Accordingly, aberrant expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples may be an attractive candidate for use as a tumor marker.

  10. IL PROCESSO DI PRODUZIONE SCRITTA: LA COESIONE VERBALE IN TESTI DI SCUOLA PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rosi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Una delle principali difficoltà che incontrano i bambini della scuola primaria nella produzione scritta riguarda la coesione verbale, ovvero il mantenimento lungo il testo della dimensione temporale inizialmente selezionata per riportare gli eventi. L’articolo esamina questo specifico tipo di competenza testuale negli alunni di sei classi del secondo ciclo della scuola primaria, tre delle quali hanno partecipato alla sperimentazione educativa sulla produzione di testi scritti “Osservare l’interlingua”. Il confronto fra i dati raccolti all’inizio e alla fine dell’anno scolastico mostra una riduzione dei salti immotivati da un tempo verbale all’altro, definiti shift temporali, nei testi prodotti nelle classi del campione sperimentale in misura maggiore rispetto a quelle di controllo e sottolinea gli effetti positivi, a breve e lungo termine, di una didattica task-based condotta con approccio inclusivo, cooperativo ed attivo.  The process of writing: verb cohesion in primary school textsOne of principal difficulties in producing written texts for primary school pupils concerns verb cohesion, i.e. maintaining the temporal dimension initially chosen for expressing events throughout the text. The paper examines this specific textual competence in pupils from six classes within second cycle of primary school. Three of these classes were involved in the “Observing interlanguage” project focused on written production. The comparison of data collected at the beginning and the end of school year shows a decrease in temporal shifts (transitions from one verb tense to another in the texts produced by the students involved in the project with regard to the control group. These findings highlight the positive effects, both short-term and long-term, of task-based teaching through an inclusive, cooperative and active approach. 

  11. Cancer/Testis antigens as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trock Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs are an important group of proteins that are typically restricted to the testis in the normal adult but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers. As a result of their restricted expression patterns, the CTAs could serve as unique biomarkers for cancer diagnosis/prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify promising CTAs that are associated with prostate cancer (PCa recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP. Methods The expression of 5 CTAs was measured by quantitative multiplex real-time PCR using prostate tissue samples obtained from 72 patients with apparently clinically localized PCa with a median of two years follow-up (range, 1 to 14 years. Results The expression of CTAs namely, CEP55, NUF2, PBK and TTK were significantly higher while PAGE4 was significantly lower in patients with recurrent disease. All CTAs with the exception of TTK were significantly correlated with the prostatectomy Gleason score, but none were correlated with age, stage, or preoperative PSA levels. In univariate proportional hazards models, CEP55 (HR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.50-8.60, p = 0.004; NUF2 (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.11-4.67, p = 0.024; and PAGE4 (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.93, p = 0.031 were significantly associated with the risk of PCa recurrence. However, the results were no longer significant after adjustment for prostatectomy Gleason score. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify CTAs as biomarkers that can differentiate patients with recurrent and non-recurrent disease following RP and underscores its potential impact on PCa prognosis and treatment.

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Selenium on Seminiferous Tubules of Immature Mice Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kushki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The freezing of immature testis tissue and then the transplant of it can be considered as a major step in fertility preservation for young boys with cancer, the survival of animal generation exposed to extinction and cloning animalistic desirable species. One of the most prevalent of damages in during the freezing-thawing process is oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of selenium compound (Na2SeO3 on rate of seminiferous tubules injury in during of cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 BALB/c immature male mice (6 - 8 days old were randomly selected, and the testes removed surgically (n = 16. The testes divided into 2 groups: experimental group, control group (opposite testes. For each of the two experimental and control groups, two types of soluble (freezing solution and thawing solution were prepared. These solutions, which contain 2 mg/mL solution of Na2SeO3 and control solution, were prepared in the DMEM (Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium base medium. Of each group were 4 testes into fast freezing-thawing procedure and 4 testes were into slow freezing-thawing procedure. Then this testis for analyzing injury, after preparatory process, was stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results: At the slow freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared to control group. At the fast freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared with of control group. Conclusions: It seems that Se due to its antioxidant properties, the harmful effects of freezing-thawing process reduces and protects seminiferous tubules from oxidative injury.

  13. Comparison of micromorphometric testis tissue structures in antenatal fetuses and patients with congenital cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Bunkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of paired organs, testicles in particular, in the antenatal period as compared to congenital cryptorchidism in the context of interrelationship can objectively approach the consideration of the whole set of physiological and pathological processes in them, by taking into account histophysiological identity. The paper gives the results of micromorphometric examinations of the units of a communication system (cellular populations and the areas of parenchymatous and stromal structures (intertubular connective tissue, convoluted seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic epithelium in two groups: 1 34 antenatal (ANT fetuses at 20–41 weeks' gestation and 2 46 children with congenital unilateral cryptorchidism (CR, in whom testis tissue biopsy specimens were examined at the age of 1 to 14 years. Determination of the similarity of micromorphometric structures (the number of cellular population in the intertubular connective tissue, convoluted seminiferous tubules, and the areas of intertubular connective tissue, spermatogenic epithelium, and capillary lumens was analyzed to discover an identity in the testes tissues of the ANT fetuses versus the children with congenital unilateral CR, by considering the position and site of testicles. The findings indicate that there are synchronous changes of individual similar structures between the right and left testicle during its natural descent into the scrotum in the ANT fetuses and in the patients with congenital CR, which is suggestive of the symmetry and relationship between the contralateral sex glands in different ontogenetic groups. This may testify that there are similar processes occurring between the testis tissues in the children with congenital CR and in the ANT fetuses. The findings may become a ground for further consideration of congenital CR in the context of not only the micromorphometry, but also functional activity of tests tissue structures when comparatively analyzing these

  14. Testicular prosthesis: Patient satisfaction and sexual dysfunctions in testis cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied patient satisfaction about sexual activity after prosthesis implantation using validated questionnaires with the aim to discover if testicular prosthesis could be responsible of sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 67 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and a silicon testicular prosthesis implantation from January 2008 to June 2014 at our Hospital. These patients completed 5 validated questionnaires the day before orchiectomy and 6 months after surgery: the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the Body Exposure during Sexual Activities Questionnaire (BESAQ, the Body-Esteem Scale and the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. We also evaluated 6 months after surgery any defects of the prosthesis complained by the patients. Results: The questionnaires completed by patients didn’t show statistically significant changes for erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05 and premature ejaculation (p > 0.05. On the contrary the psychological questionnaires showed statistically significant change for the BESAQ (p < 0.001 and the Body Esteem Scale (p < 0.001, but not for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (p > 0,05. A total of 15 patients (22.37% were dissatisfied about the prosthesis: the most frequent complaint (8 patients; 11.94% was that the prosthesis was firmer than the normal testis. Conclusions: Testicular prosthesis implantation is a safe surgical procedure that should be always proposed before orchiectomy for cancer of the testis. The defects complained by patients with testicular prosthesis are few, they don’t influence sexual activity and they aren’t able to cause erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

  15. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW). The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW) for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT), seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD), Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI), meiotic index (MI), and mononuclear immune cells (MICs) in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05). RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5), RJ (13.4±0.3), D (7.8±0.6) and D+R (12.4±0.7) groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property. PMID:27679827

  16. Extra-oviductal expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 in mouse: Detection in testis, epididymis and ovary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANIYA LAHERI; DEEPAK MODI; PURVI BHATT

    2017-03-01

    Oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1), also called oviductin, is an oviduct-specific protein and is suggested to play a rolein fertilization. Traditionally, Ovgp1 has been shown to be exclusively expressed by the oviduct; however, recentstudies have demonstrated its expression in some cancers. This observation led us to hypothesize that Ovgp1 mighthave some extra-oviductal expression. In the current study, we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of Ovgp1in normal reproductive tissues of male and female mice. For the first time, we demonstrate that beyond the oviduct,Ovgp1 mRNA is expressed in the testis, epididymis and ovary, but not in the uterus, cervix, vagina, breast, seminalvesicles and prostate gland. In the testis, Ovgp1 mRNA was localized in the cells at the base of seminiferous tubules(most likely, Sertoli cells), while the protein was detected in the round and elongating spermatids. In the epididymis,Ovgp1 transcripts were localized in epididymal epithelium of the caput but not the corpus and cauda; OVGP1 proteinwas, however, not detected in any of the segments but was present in the epididymal sperm. In the ovary, Ovgp1transcripts and protein were detected in the surface epithelium, granulosa cells of the preantral and the antral folliclesand corpus luteum. In both, the ovary and oviduct, the expression of Ovgp1 was found to be higher at estrus stage thanat diestrus stage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the extra-oviductal expression ofOvgp1. Our data suggests that, beyond fertilization, Ovgp1 might have specific roles in gonadal physiology.

  17. Hypothalamus-pituitary axis: an obligatory target for endocannabinoids to inhibit steroidogenesis in frog testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2014-09-01

    Endocannabinoids - primarily anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) - are lipophilic molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). They affect neuroendocrine activity inhibiting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and testosterone production in rodents, through a molecular mechanism supposed to be hypothalamus dependent. In order to investigate such a role, we choose the seasonal breeder, the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, an experimental model in which components of the endocannabinoid system have been characterized. In February, at the onset of a new spermatogenetic wave, we carried out in vitro incubations of frog testis with AEA, at 10(-9)M dose. Such a treatment had no effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (cyp17) nor 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD), key enzymes of steroidogenesis. To understand whether or not the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis could be essential to support the role of endocannabinoids in steroidogenesis, frogs were injected with AEA, at 10(-8)M dose. Differently from in vitro experiment, the in vivo administration of AEA reduced the expression of cyp17 and 3β-HSD. Whereas the effect on 3β-HSD was counteracted by SR141716A (Rimonabant) - a selective antagonist of CB1, thus indicating a CB1 dependent modulation - the effect on cyp17 was not, suggesting a possible involvement of receptors other than CB1, probably the type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), since AEA works as an endocannabinoid and an endovanilloid as well. In conclusion our results indicate that endocannabinoids, via CB1, inhibit the expression of 3β-HSD in frog testis travelling along the hypothalamus-pituitary axis.

  18. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  19. High expression level of Tra2-β1 is responsible for increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the testis of SMA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chia; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Yuo, Chung-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease caused by deletion or mutation of SMN1 gene. All SMA patients carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene, which produces low level of SMN protein due to mRNA exon 7 exclusion. Previously, we found that the testis of SMA mice (smn-/- SMN2) expresses high level of SMN2 full-length mRNA, indicating a testis-specific mechanism for SMN2 exon 7 inclusion. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we established primary cultures of testis cells from SMA mice and analyzed them for SMN2 exon 7 splicing. We found that primary testis cells after a 2-hour culture still expressed high level of SMN2 full-length mRNA, but the level decreased after longer cultures. We then compared the protein levels of relevant splicing factors, and found that the level of Tra2-β1 also decreased during testis cell culture, correlated with SMN2 full-length mRNA downregulation. In addition, the testis of SMA mice expressed the highest level of Tra2-β1 among the many tissues examined. Furthermore, overexpression of Tra2-β1, but not ASF/SF2, increased SMN2 minigene exon 7 inclusion in primary testis cells and spinal cord neurons, whereas knockdown of Tra2-β1 decreased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in primary testis cells of SMA mice. Therefore, our results indicate that high expression level of Tra2-β1 is responsible for increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the testis of SMA mice. This study also suggests that the expression level of Tra2-β1 may be a modifying factor of SMA disease and a potential target for SMA treatment.

  20. Mechanism of Gonadal Precocity in Cultured Large Yellow Croaker,Pseudosciaena Crocea: A Study of Microstructure and Submicrostructure of Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell in Testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yongqiang; Weng Youzhu; Zhou Jing; Xie Fangjing; Liu Jiafu

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure and submicrostructure of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell in the testis of gonadal precocity and immaturation in cultured large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, are studied using histology and electron microscopic technique. The results indicate that the fine structure of the two kinds of cells in different development stages presents an obvious difference. The smooth endoplasmic reticular and tubular mitochondria of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell are well developed in the testis of gonadal precocity, but poorly developed in the testis of immaturation. We suggest that the reason for gonadal precocity in the large yellow croaker may be related to the earlier development and maturation of Leydig cell and Sertoli cell.

  1. Characterizing Transcriptional Networks in Male Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) that Regulate Testis Development over a Complete Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2016-01-01

    Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation. Regression analysis determined that the proportion of spermatozoa versus spermatocytes in all stages of development (R2 ≥ 0.58) were inversely related; however this was not the case when males were in the post-spawning period. Gene networks that were specific to the transition from developing to pre-spawning stages included nitric oxide biosynthesis, response to wounding, sperm cell function, and stem cell maintenance. The pre-spawning to spawning transition included gene networks related to amino acid import, glycogenesis, Sertoli cell proliferation, sperm capacitation, and sperm motility. The spawning to post-spawning transition included unique gene networks associated with chromosome condensation, ribosome biogenesis and assembly, and mitotic spindle assembly. Lastly, the transition from post-spawning to recrudescence included gene networks associated with egg activation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, membrane fluidity, and sperm cell adhesion. Noteworthy was that there were a significant number of gene networks related to immune system function that were differentially expressed throughout reproduction, suggesting that immune network signalling has a prominent role in the male testis. Transcripts in the testis of post-spawning individuals showed patterns of expression that were most different for the majority of transcripts

  2. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  3. Structural Changes of the Testis and Changes in Semen Quality Parameters Caused by Intraperitoneal and Peroral Administration of Selenium in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Cabaj; Róbert Toman; Mária Adamkovičová; Peter Massányi; Svätoslav Hluchý; Norbert Lukáč; Jozef Golian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the structural changes in the testis and semen quality parameters of rat after a singleintraperitoneal and repeated peroral selenium administration. Rats were killed 36 hours following the intraperitonealadministration of selenium selenite (2 mg.kg-1 b.w.; 98% purity) and after 90 days of the peroral repeatedadministration of selenium in drinking water (5 mg.l-1). Testis samples were evaluated by histological andmorphometrical methods in light microscopy. Eva...

  4. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer....... This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...... cell biology. When expressed in tumor cells, GAGE proteins can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses, indicating that they are appropriate targets for cancer immunotherapy. The potential use of GAGE proteins in cancer immunotherapy, including possible limitations, is also discussed....

  5. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  6. Multiplex shRNA Screening of Germ Cell Development by in Vivo Transfection of Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Y. Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatozoa are one of the few mammalian cell types that cannot be fully derived in vitro, severely limiting the application of modern genomic techniques to study germ cell biology. The current gold standard approach of characterizing single-gene knockout mice is slow as generation of each mutant line can take 6–9 months. Here, we describe an in vivo approach to rapid functional screening of germline genes based on a new nonsurgical, nonviral in vivo transfection method to deliver nucleic acids into testicular germ cells. By coupling multiplex transfection of short hairpin RNA (shRNA constructs with pooled amplicon sequencing as a readout, we were able to screen many genes for spermatogenesis function in a quick and inexpensive experiment. We transfected nine mouse testes with a pilot pool of RNA interference (RNAi against well-characterized genes to show that this system is highly reproducible and accurate. With a false negative rate of 18% and a false positive rate of 12%, this method has similar performance as other RNAi screens in the well-described Drosophila model system. In a separate experiment, we screened 26 uncharacterized genes computationally predicted to be essential for spermatogenesis and found numerous candidates for follow-up studies. Finally, as a control experiment, we performed a long-term selection screen in neuronal N2a cells, sampling shRNA frequencies at five sequential time points. By characterizing the effect of both libraries on N2a cells, we show that our screening results from testis are tissue-specific. Our calculations indicate that the current implementation of this approach could be used to screen thousands of protein-coding genes simultaneously in a single mouse testis. The experimental protocols and analysis scripts provided will enable other groups to use this procedure to study diverse aspects of germ cell biology ranging from epigenetics to cell physiology. This approach also has great promise as an

  7. Activin A balances Sertoli and germ cell proliferation in the fetal mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Sirisha H S; Meachem, Sarah J; Sarraj, Mai A; Loveland, Kate L

    2011-02-01

    Activin affects many aspects of cellular development, including those essential for reproductive fitness. This study examined the contribution of activin A to murine fetal testicular development, revealing contrasting outcomes of activin actions on Sertoli cells and gonocytes. Shortly after sex determination, from Embryonic Day 12.5 (E12.5) through to birth (0 dpp), the activin A subunit transcript (Inhba) level rises in testis but not ovary, followed closely by the Inha transcript (encoding the inhibitory inhibin alpha subunit). Activin receptor transcript levels also change, with Acvr1 (encoding ALK2) and Acvr2b (ActRIIB) significantly higher and lower, respectively, at 0 dpp compared with E13.5 and E15.5. Transcripts encoding the signaling mediators Smad1, Smad3, and Smad4 were higher at 0 dpp compared with E13.5 and E15.5, whereas Smad2, Smad5, and Smad7 were lower. Detection of phosphorylated (P-)SMAD2/3 in nearly all testis cell nuclei indicated widespread transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) and/or activin ligand signaling activity. In contrast to wild-type littermates, activin betaA subunit knockout (Inhba(-/-)) mice have significantly smaller testes at birth, attributable to a 50% lower Sertoli cell number and decreased Sertoli cell proliferation from E13.5. Inhba(-/-) testes contained twice the normal gonocyte number at birth, with some appearing to bypass quiescence. Persistence of widespread P-SMAD2/3 in Inhba(-/-) cells indicates other TGFB superfamily ligands are active in fetal testes. Significant differences in Smad and cell cycle regulator transcript levels correlating to Inhba gene dosage correspond to differences in Sertoli and germ cell numbers. In Inhba(-/-) testes, Cdkn1a (encoding p21(cip1)), identified previously in fetal gonocytes, was lower at E13.5, whereas Cdkn1b (encoding p(27kip1) in somatic cells) was lower at birth, and cyclin D2 mRNA and protein were lower at E15.5 and 0 dpp. Thus, activin A dosage contributes to establishing the

  8. Cloning of a novel inhibin alpha cDNA from rhesus monkey testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodruff Teresa K

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibins are dimeric gonadal protein hormones that negatively regulate pituitary FSH synthesis and secretion. Inhibin B is produced by testicular Sertoli cells and is the primary circulating form of inhibin in most adult male mammals. Inhibin B is comprised of the inhibin alpha subunit disulfide-linked to the inhibin/activin betaB subunit. Here we describe the cloning of the cDNAs encoding these subunits from adult rhesus monkey testis RNA. Methods The subunit cDNAs were cloned by a combination of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE RT-PCR from adult rhesus monkey testis RNA. Results Both the inhibin alpha and betaB subunit nucleotide and predicted protein sequences are highly conserved with other mammalian species, particularly with humans. During the course of these investigations, a novel inhibin alpha mRNA isoform was also identified. This form, referred to as rhesus monkey inhibin alpha-variant 2, appears to derive from both alternative transcription initiation as well as alternative splicing. rmInhibin alpha-variant 2 is comprised of a novel 5' exon (exon 0, which is spliced in-frame with exon 2 of the conventional inhibin alpha isoforms (variant 1. Exon 1 is skipped in its entirety such that the pro-alpha and part of the alpha N regions are not included in the predicted protein. rmInhibin alpha -variant 2 is of relatively low abundance and its biological function has not yet been ascertained. Conclusion The data show that the predicted inhibin B protein is very similar between monkeys and humans. Therefore, studies in monkeys using recombinant human inhibins are likely to reflect actions of the homologous ligands. In addition, we have observed the first inhibin alpha subunit mRNA variant. It is possible that variants will be observed in other species as well and this may lead to novel insights into inhibin action.

  9. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  10. Protein expression and preparation of polydonal antibody of AD-004 and study on its expression in the adrenal and testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔洁

    2006-01-01

    Objective To prepare rabbit antibody against mouse AD-004 by AD-004 expressed in the prokaryotic expression system and to identify its distribution in the testis and adrenal. Methods The full-length cDNA of mouse AD-004 was cloned into PET28 plasmid, and the protein was induced in E. coli BL21 bacteria by adding IPTG and then purified by Ni2+ -NTA column. The purified protein was used as an immunogene to prepare polyclonal

  11. MRI findings of bilateral juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis in a newborn presenting as intraabdominal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yikilmaz, Ali [Erciyes Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gevher Nesibe Hospital, Kayseri (Turkey); Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the testis is a rare benign tumor that typically presents as a relatively small (<2 cm) unilateral scrotal mass in neonates or infants. Bilateral JGCT of the testes presenting as large intraabdominal masses in the neonate is very rare. Utilizing preoperative MRI findings, we report a rare case of bilateral JGCT of the testes presenting as large multiseptated abdominal masses originating from undescended intraabdominal testes in a neonate. (orig.)

  12. Novel human testis-specific cDNA: molecular cloning, expression and immunobiological effects of the recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, R; Naz, R K

    2001-09-01

    A differential display-polymerase chain reaction was employed to obtain a testis-specific cDNA fragment. On screening the human testis-(lambda)gt10-cDNA library with testis-specific cDNA fragment, a novel cDNA encoding for a sperm antigen, designated TSA-1, was obtained. It has a novel open reading frame (ORF) of 471 base pairs encoding for 156 amino acids. The computer generated translated protein has a calculated molecular mass of 17.4 kDa and contains a potential N-glycosylation site at amino acids 122-124. The hydrophilicity analysis of the amino acid sequence suggested that this protein is a membrane-anchored peptide. Extensive analysis for tissue-specificity by Northern blots and RT-PCR-Southern blot procedures using various human tissues indicated that TSA-1 was specifically expressed only in the human testis. Based on the results of in vitro transcription and translation experiments, the TSA-1 (ORF) was subcloned into pGEX-6P-3 vector and expressed using the glutathione S-transferase gene fusion system. Antibodies (Ab) against the purified recombinant protein specifically recognized the approximately 17 kDa recombinant TSA-1, and a approximately 24 kDa band in human sperm extract in the Western blot procedure. The recombinant TSA-1 Ab recognized the acrosomal, equatorial, mid-piece, and tail regions of human sperm cell in indirect immunofluorescence, bound to live human sperm in the immunobeads binding technique (IBT) and caused a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of human sperm acrosome reaction. These findings indicate that the novel sperm-specific recombinant TSA-1 has a role in sperm function and may have applications in the development of a contraceptive vaccine, and in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  13. Protective effects of acupuncture and electroacupuncture on oxidative stress and inflammation due to testis torsion/detorsion in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    PorfÃrio Cezar Passos Acioli

    2014-01-01

    The efects of acupuncture (Ac) and Electroacupuncture (EAc) were evaluated using an experimental rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) of the testis. In Traditonal Chinese Medicine, these forms of therapies are used in the promotion of organic equilbrium, through stimulation of specifc neurotransmiters producing nerve pathways, resulting in a analgesic and anti-nflammatory autonomic regulatory. response. In the study, 30 male Wistar rats, 279.6g average weight (230-30 g) were ...

  14. The Role of Cremaster Muscle as a Cause of Ascending Testis after Inguinal Hernia/Hydrocele Repair

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    Amrollah Salimi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ascending testis (AT is one of the rare but serious complication that may occurs following inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair. We aimed to review our more than 7 years’ experience and discuss the possible mechanism through which the AT possibly occurs following inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of 7,212 boys who had undergone inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair between March 2009 and April 2016 was conducted. Exclusion criteria were: undescended testis, misdiagnosed AT, and retractile testis. Two types of surgical procedures were performed based on the medical records: (1 transection of the hernia sac and processus vaginalisalone and (2 isolation of the vas deferens and testicular vessels and a global transection of the remaining structures. Subsequently, post-operative incidence of AT was compared across variables extracted from the medical records. Results Sixteen (0.22% patients were diagnosed with AT post operatively. AT incidence after inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair was reported in approximately 0.19% of the entire patient sample (in the 8491 hernia/hydrocele repairs. Comparison of AT incidence with the age at initial operation showed significant increase at the age of one year or less (P =0.017. In addition, AT incidence was significantly higher in the patients for whom only the sac/processus vaginalis was transected rather than the patients who underwent hernia/hydrocele repair with isolation of the vas deferens and testicular vessels (0.06% vs. 0.27%, respectively, P =0.023. Other subgroup analyses remained non-significant. Conclusion We conclude that transection of the cremaster muscle might decrease the incidence of ascending testis following inguinal hernia/ hydrocele repair.

  15. The effect of vitamin E and L-carnitine against methotrexate-induced injury in rat testis

    OpenAIRE

    YÜNCÜ, MEHMET; BÜKÜCÜ, NEZAHAT; BAYAT, NURAY; SENCAR, LEMAN; Tarakçioğlu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Methotrexate (MTX), used commonly as an antimetabolite drug in cancer therapy, leads to acute toxic side effects in tissues or organs containing rapidly dividing cells, such as bone marrow, gastrointestinal mucosa, and seminiferous tubules. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of vitamin E and L-carnitine against MTX-induced injury in rat testis. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups, including the control group. The study took 17 days and th...

  16. Apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (ApoER2) mediates selenium uptake from selenoprotein P by the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gary E; Winfrey, Virginia P; Nagdas, Subir K; Hill, Kristina E; Burk, Raymond F

    2007-04-20

    Selenium is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of normal spermatozoa. The selenium-rich plasma protein selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is required for maintenance of testis selenium and for fertility of the male mouse. Sepp1 trafficking in the seminiferous epithelium was studied using conventional methods and mice with gene deletions. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that Sepp1 is present in vesicle-like structures in the basal region of Sertoli cells, suggesting that the protein is taken up intact. Sepp1 affinity chromatography of a testicular extract followed by mass spectrometry-based identification of bound proteins identified apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) as a candidate testis Sepp1 receptor. In situ hybridization analysis identified Sertoli cells as the only cell type in the seminiferous epithelium with detectable ApoER2 expression. Testis selenium levels in apoER2(-/-) males were sharply reduced from those in apoER2(+/+) males and were comparable with the depressed levels found in Sepp1(-/-) males. However, liver selenium levels were unchanged by deletion of apoER2. Immunocytochemistry did not detect Sepp1 in the Sertoli cells of apoER2(-/-) males, consistent with a defect in the receptor-mediated Sepp1 uptake pathway. Phase contrast microscopy revealed identical sperm defects in apoER2(-/-) and Sepp1(-/-) mice. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated an interaction of testis ApoER2 with Sepp1. These data demonstrate that Sertoli cell ApoER2 is a Sepp1 receptor and a component of the selenium delivery pathway to spermatogenic cells.

  17. Expression Patterns of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Cell Derivatives Indicate Lineage Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Nadya Lifantseva; Anna Koltsova; Tatyana Krylova; Tatyana Yakovleva; Galina Poljanskaya; Olga Gordeeva

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various lineages but undergo genetic and epigenetic changes during long-term cultivation and, therefore, require regular monitoring. The expression patterns of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6, -A8, -B2, and GAGE were examined in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells, their differentiated derivatives, teratocarcinoma (hEC) cells, and cancer cell lines of neuroectodermal and mesodermal origin. Undifferentiated hES ce...

  18. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A; Falco, Geppino; Piao, Yulan; Poosala, Suresh; Becker, Kevin G; Zonderman, Alan B; Longo, Dan L; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru SH

    2008-01-01

    Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL) feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR). Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months), whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary. PMID:18522719

  19. Mouse RING finger protein Rnf133 is a testis-specific endoplasmic reticulum-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Nian; Chunsheng Han; Wei Zhang; Hexin Shi; Qingzhen Zhao; Qi Xie; Shangying Liao; Yan Zhang; Zhuqiang Zhang; Chen Wang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Spermatogenesis, the process by which sperms are generated within the male gonads, involves a number of events that occur only in the testis. Examples include the nucleus condensation as a result of histone sequential replacement by transition proteins 1, 2 and protamin, the formation of sperm-specific organelles such as acrosomes and sperm tails, and the shedding of majority of the cytoplasm as residual bodies.

  20. Semen apoptotic M540 body levels correlate with testis abnormalities: a study in a cohort of infertile subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Lotti F; Tamburrino L; Marchiani S; Muratori M; Corona G; Fino MG; Degl'innocenti S; Forti G; Maggi M; Baldi E.

    2012-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are the associations between semen apoptotic M540 bodies and other parameters of semen quality and sonographic alterations of the male genital tract in a cohort of infertile subjects? SUMMARY ANSWER: In infertile subjects, semen M450 bodies are highly correlated with ultrasound and clinical signs of testis abnormalities but not with alterations of other parts of the male genital tract, suggesting a testicular origin of M540 bodies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:...

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Spermatogenically Regressed, Recrudescent and Active Phase Testis of Seasonally Breeding Wall Lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Gautam; Amitabh Mathur; Meraj Alam Khan; Majumdar, Subeer S.; Umesh Rai

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during r...

  2. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxide levels in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus Jalili; Mohammad Reza Salahshoor; Tahere Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm dysfunction is one of the main causes of male infertility. Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) is a member of umbelliferae family that contains different vitamins and minerals and has numerous therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate P. crispum effect on sperm parameters, testis tissue and serum nitric oxid levels in mice. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of P. crispum was prepared and administered intraperitoneally (0,100, 150 and 200 mg...

  3. Dual Functions in Response to Heat Stress and Spermatogenesis: Characterization of Expression Profile of Small Heat Shock Proteins 9 and 10 in Goat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins 9 and 10 (HSPB9 and HSPB10 are two testis-specific expressed sHsps. The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression profile of HSPB9 and HSPB10 in goat testis among the different seasons, ages, and environmental temperatures. Allocation of the two sHsps was also performed by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the transcript levels of HSPB9 and HSPB10 were extremely high in the testis (P<0.01. The relative expression of HSBP9 and HSPB10 in testis showed a tendency to increase with age and then is maintained at the constant level after sexual maturity. HSPB9 and HSPB10 have significantly higher expression in the breeding season  (P<0.05 and hot season (P<0.01. Both HSPB9 and HSPB10 were found to be upregulated by high-temperature stress in testis (P<0.05, and the expressions of Hsp70 and Hsp90 were also increased simultaneously (P<0.01. Immunohistochemistry analysis localized HSPB9 expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids and HSPB10 expressed in the elongate spermatids. In epididymis, strongly staining signal of HSPB10 was detected in pseudostratified columnar epithelium. In conclusion, the two testis-specific sHsps are closely related to male reproduction and heat tolerance. The results could provide valuable data for the further studies on HSPB9 and HSPB10.

  4. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

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    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  5. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

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    Khan Shafiq A

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  6. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

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    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  7. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  8. Establishment of testis-specific SOX9 activation requires high-glucose metabolism in mouse sex differentiation.

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    Matoba, Shogo; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Harikae, Kyoko; Kawakami, Hayato; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2008-12-01

    In mouse sex differentiation, SRY promotes Sertoli cell differentiation via SOX9 action, resulting in testis formation. SRY/SOX9 also initiates various testis-specific morphogenic events including glycogenesis in pre-Sertoli cells, suggesting the importance of glucose storage for certain SRY/SOX9-downstream events in gonadal sex determination. However, it remains unclear which cell types and what molecular/cellular events require sex-dimorphic high-energy metabolic rate. Here we show that the establishment of SOX9 activation itself is a metabolically active process with sex-dimorphic high-energy requirements in gonadal sex differentiation. The glucose-deprivation and metabolic rescue experiments using genital ridge cultures of the XY/XX-wildtype and XX/Sry transgenic embryos demonstrated that, among the various somatic cell types, pre-Sertoli cells are the most sensitive to glucose starvation despite the differences between XX/Sry and XY genotypes. Moreover, our data showed that, in developing pre-Sertoli cells, the high-glucose metabolic state is required for the establishment of SOX9 expression through an ECM (extracellular matrix)-mediated feed-forward pathway. In contrast, the expression of SRY, SF1/Ad4Bp, GATA4 and WT1, as well as initiation of early SOX9 expression, is properly maintained in the glucose-deprived condition. Therefore, our results imply the metabolic importance of the high-glucose condition for the establishment of SOX9 activation in testis differentiation.

  9. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

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    Majid Naghdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day; Fc-treated (200 mg/kg; and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA.

  10. Comparative study of the effects of gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin and ofloxacin antibiotics on sperm parameters and testis apoptosis in rats.

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    Khaki, Arash; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Nouri, Mohammad; Sanati, Ehsan; Nikmanesh, Mahdad

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones on testis apoptosis and sperm parameters in rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 40) groups. The experimental groups subdivided into four groups often. Each received 5 mg kg(-1) (IP) gentamicin, 50 mg kg(-1) (IP) neomycin, 40 mg kg(-1) (IP) streptomycin and 72 mg kg(-1) (IP) ofloxacin daily for 14 days, respectively; however, the control group just received vehicle (IP). In the fourteenth day, rats were killed and sperm analyzed for sperm parameters. Testis tissues were also prepared for TUNEL assay for detection of apoptosis. There was a significant decrease in sperm count, viability and motility in all of experimental groups when compared with control group. Although in streptomycin group these parameters were less decreased than in the other experimental groups. The apoptotic cells were significantly increased in all experimental groups when compared with those seen in the controlled group. Gentamicin, neomycin and streptomycin and ofloxacin have negative effects on sperm parameters and testis apoptosis in rats. However, these side effects are less seen in the streptomycin group. Therefore, it is recommended that usage of this drug have fewer side effects on male fertility.

  11. Expression of a novel dipeptidyl peptidase 8 (DPP8) transcript variant, DPP8-v3, in human testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhu; Zuo-Min Zhou; Li Lu; Min Xu; Hui Wang; Jian-Min Li; Jia-Hao Sha

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of a novel dipeptidyl peptidase 8 transcript variant (DPP8-v3) gene in testis development and/or spermatogenesis. Methods: A human testis cDNA microarray was hybridized with mRNA of human adult and fetal testes. Differentially expressed clones were sequenced and characterized and their expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern-blot analysis. Results: A new transcript variant of the human dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP8), exhibiting a 5-fold higher expression level in human adult than that in fetal testes, was cloned and was named DPP8 variant 3 (DPP8-v3). The full-length sequence of DPP8-v3was 3,030 bp, encoding a protein of 898 amino acids. Conclusion: DPP8-v3 is a novel human DPP8 transcript variant highly expressed in the adult testis. Similar to DPPⅣ, DPP8-v3 may play a key role in the immunoregulation of testes and accordingly may influence spermatogenesis and male fertility.

  12. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Tan Fuqing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Junquan [Faculty of Life Science and Bioengineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhou Hong [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587 bp MT cDNA contains: an 80 bp 5 Prime untranslated region, a 333 bp 3 Prime untranslated region, and a 174 bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution.

  13. Coordinate regulation of stem cell competition by Slit-Robo and JAK-STAT signaling in the Drosophila testis.

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    Rachel R Stine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells in tissues reside in and receive signals from local microenvironments called niches. Understanding how multiple signals within niches integrate to control stem cell function is challenging. The Drosophila testis stem cell niche consists of somatic hub cells that maintain both germline stem cells and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs. Here, we show a role for the axon guidance pathway Slit-Roundabout (Robo in the testis niche. The ligand Slit is expressed specifically in hub cells while its receptor, Roundabout 2 (Robo2, is required in CySCs in order for them to compete for occupancy in the niche. CySCs also require the Slit-Robo effector Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl to prevent over-adhesion of CySCs to the niche, and CySCs mutant for Abl outcompete wild type CySCs for niche occupancy. Both Robo2 and Abl phenotypes can be rescued through modulation of adherens junction components, suggesting that the two work together to balance CySC adhesion levels. Interestingly, expression of Robo2 requires JAK-STAT signaling, an important maintenance pathway for both germline and cyst stem cells in the testis. Our work indicates that Slit-Robo signaling affects stem cell function downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway by controlling the ability of stem cells to compete for occupancy in their niche.

  14. POTE, a highly homologous gene family located on numerous chromosomes and expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, placenta, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tapan K; Zimonjic, Drazen B; Popescu, Nicholas C; Sathyanarayana, Bangalore K; Kumar, Vasantha; Lee, Byungkook; Pastan, Ira

    2002-12-24

    We have identified a gene located on chromosomes 21 that is expressed in normal and neoplastic prostate, and in normal testis, ovary, and placenta. We name this gene POTE (expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta). The POTE gene has 11 exons and 10 introns and spans approximately equal 32 kb of chromosome 21q11.2 region. The 1.83-kb mRNA of POTE encodes a protein of 66 kDa. Ten paralogs of the gene have been found dispersed among eight different chromosomes (2, 8, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, and 22) with preservation of ORFs and splice junctions. The synonymous:nonsynonymous ratio indicates that the genes were duplicated rather recently but are diverging at a rate faster than the average for other paralogous genes. In prostate and in testis, at least five different paralogs are expressed. In situ hybridization shows that POTE is expressed in basal and terminal cells of normal prostate epithelium. It is also expressed in some prostate cancers and in the LnCAP prostate cancer cell line. The POTE protein contains seven ankyrin repeats between amino acids 140 and 380. Expression of POTE in prostate cancer and its undetectable expression in normal essential tissues make POTE a candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. The existence of a large number of closely related but rapidly diverging members, their location on multiple chromosomes and their limited expression pattern suggest an important role for the POTE gene family in reproductive processes.

  15. Diurnal rhythm in expression and release of yolk protein in the testis of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

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    Kotwica, Joanna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Polanska, Marta A; Majewska, Magdalena M; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Bebas, Piotr

    2011-04-01

    Circadian clocks (oscillators) regulate multiple life functions in insects. The circadian system located in the male reproductive tract of Lepidoptera is one of the best characterized peripheral oscillators in insects. Our previous research on the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, demonstrated that this oscillator controls the rhythm of sperm release from the testis and coordinates sperm maturation in the upper vas deferens (UVD). We demonstrated previously that a protein that functions as yolk protein in females is also produced in cyst cells surrounding sperm bundles in the testis, and is released into the UVD. Here, we investigated the temporal expression of the yolk protein 2 (yp2) gene at the mRNA and protein level in the testis of S. littoralis, and inquired whether their expression is regulated by PER-based molecular oscillator. We describe a circadian rhythm of YP2 accumulation in the UVD seminal fluid, where this protein interacts with sperm in a circadian fashion. However, we also demonstrate that yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein levels within cyst cells show only a diurnal rhythm in light/dark (LD) cycles. These rhythms do not persist in constant darkness (DD), suggesting that they are non-circadian. Interestingly, the per gene mRNA and protein levels in cyst cells are rhythmic in LD but not in DD. Nevertheless, per appears to be involved in the diurnal timing of YP2 protein accumulation in cyst cells.

  16. Photoperiodic regulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and steroidogenesis in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Photoperiodic modulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression in testis has never been reported for any seasonal breeder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of MT1R in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis in a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic conditions i.e. critical- (CP; 12.5L:11.5D); short-day- (SD; 8L:16D) and long-day- (LD; 16L:8D) for 10 weeks wherein testicular steroidogenesis, local melatonin synthesis and the expression of MT1R were analyzed. SD induced melatonin suppressed testicular steroidogenesis as evident from regressed testicular histoarchitecture, decreased expression of AR, StAR, LH-R, P₄₅₀SCC and enzyme activities of 3β- and 17β-HSD. Differential photoperiodic regulation of MT1R expression in testis suggests its involvement in photoperiodic signal transduction for seasonal adjustment of reproduction. Increased S-NAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase) activity and local testicular melatonin under SD condition suggest an inhibitory effect of the local melatonergic system on testicular steroidogenesis. Completely opposite responses were recorded for all the parameters analyzed when hamsters were exposed to CP or LD conditions. In conclusion, we may suggest that photoperiod via regulating circulatory and local melatonin level as well as MT1R expression in testes fine tunes the steroidogenesis and thereby, the reproductive status of male golden hamster.

  17. Coordinate regulation of stem cell competition by Slit-Robo and JAK-STAT signaling in the Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Rachel R; Greenspan, Leah J; Ramachandran, Kapil V; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-11-01

    Stem cells in tissues reside in and receive signals from local microenvironments called niches. Understanding how multiple signals within niches integrate to control stem cell function is challenging. The Drosophila testis stem cell niche consists of somatic hub cells that maintain both germline stem cells and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show a role for the axon guidance pathway Slit-Roundabout (Robo) in the testis niche. The ligand Slit is expressed specifically in hub cells while its receptor, Roundabout 2 (Robo2), is required in CySCs in order for them to compete for occupancy in the niche. CySCs also require the Slit-Robo effector Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) to prevent over-adhesion of CySCs to the niche, and CySCs mutant for Abl outcompete wild type CySCs for niche occupancy. Both Robo2 and Abl phenotypes can be rescued through modulation of adherens junction components, suggesting that the two work together to balance CySC adhesion levels. Interestingly, expression of Robo2 requires JAK-STAT signaling, an important maintenance pathway for both germline and cyst stem cells in the testis. Our work indicates that Slit-Robo signaling affects stem cell function downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway by controlling the ability of stem cells to compete for occupancy in their niche.

  18. Histological alterations in the structure of the testis in tench (Tinca tinca) after exposure to 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, A L; Jiménez, B; Gil, M C; Osswald, J; Fallola, C; Pula, H J; Cuesta, J M; Gómez, L

    2014-10-01

    Environmental pollution with synthetic estrogens may pose a serious threat to reproduction of aquatic wildlife species. The current study describes the effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2 ) on the structure of the testis in tench (Tinca tinca). Adult male tench were exposed to sublethal doses of EE2 (50, 100, and 500 μg/Kg t.w.) under semistatic conditions for a period of 30 days. The condition factor (CF), testicular somatic index (TSI), and histology (including a morphometric analysis) of the testis were examined. No consistent differences were observed in the CF of EE2 -exposed tench when compared with nonexposed fish. A significant decrease in TSI could only be observed at a 50 μg/Kg t.w. EE2 dose (p < 0.05) when compared with the control group. The histopathology of the testis was associated with loss of normal tubular structure with increased doses of exposure, decrease of tubule number, degeneration in Sertoli and Leydig cells, increase in necrotic testicular cells including formation of syncytia structures and, finally, a high incidence of fish with early primary oocytes at 100 and 500 μg/Kg t.w. EE2 . These results indicate that long-term exposure to EE2 may produce clear negative effects on testicular structure in tench.

  19. Does bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transfusion prevent antisperm antibody production after traumatic testis rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamir, Seyyed Mohammad Kazem; Salavati, Alborz; Yousefie, Reza; Tootian, Zahra; Ghazaleh, Noushin; Jamali, Mostafa; Azimi, Pourya

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether transfusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could prevent humoral immune response and autoimmunization against sperms after traumatic testis rupture. Immunomodulatory properties of MSCs have been evaluated by a prospective cohort on 50 adult BALB/c mice. In each interventional arms of study, controlled testis rupture and surgical repair were exerted. In addition to tissue repair, single dose of 5×10(5) MSCs labeled by green fluorescent protein was delivered intravenously to 20 cases (cell therapy group). After euthanizing, seroconversion of antisperm antibody (ASA) was compared between 2 interventional groups as response of humoral immune system. Lung and testis tissues were examined for green fluorescent protein-positive cells to assess whether presence of stem cells is correlated with seroconversion rates. Six cases had been lost during the study. Fourteen of 16 mice in cell therapy control group formed ASA (87.5%) but 6 of 18 mice (33.3%) in cell therapy group were immunized and formed ASA (P=.002). Transplanted cells were traced in lungs of 55% (n=10) of cell therapy group and none were found in trauma site. Small volume of mice blood was our main limitation to trace seroconversion or quantitative measurement of ASA in each case. In this in vivo model of autoimmune infertility, bone marrow-derived MSC transfusion showed immunosuppressive effects on antibody production. Considering immunomodulatory properties of MSCs even in allogeneic settings, novel clinical application should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel expression of resistin in rat testis: functional role and regulation by nutritional status and hormonal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Barreiro, M Luz; Caminos, Jorge E; Gaytán, Francisco; Suominen, Janne S; Navarro, Victor M; Casanueva, Felipe F; Aguilar, Enrique; Toppari, Jorma; Diéguez, Carlos; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Resistin, a recently cloned adipose-secreted factor, is primarily involved in the modulation of insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation. However, additional metabolic or endocrine functions of this molecule remain largely unexplored. In this study, a series of experiments were undertaken to explore the potential expression, regulation and functional role of this novel adipocytokine in rat testis. Resistin gene expression was demonstrated in rat testis throughout postnatal development, with maximum mRNA levels in adult specimens. At this age, resistin peptide was immunodetected in interstitial Leydig cells and Sertoli cells within seminiferous tubules. Testicular expression of resistin was under hormonal regulation of pituitary gonadotropins and showed stage-specificity, with peak expression values at stages II-VI of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. In addition, testicular resistin mRNA was down-regulated by the selective agonist of PPARgamma, rosiglitazone, in vivo and in vitro. Similarly, fasting and central administration of the adipocyte-derived factor, leptin, evoked a significant reduction in testicular resistin mRNA levels, whereas they remained unaltered in a model of diet-induced obesity. From a functional standpoint, resistin, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly increased both basal and choriogonadotropin-stimulated testosterone secretion in vitro. Overall, our present results provide the first evidence for the expression, regulation and functional role of resistin in rat testis. These data underscore a reproductive facet of this recently cloned molecule, which may operate as a novel endocrine integrator linking energy homeostasis and reproduction.