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Sample records for lymantria dispar electronic

  1. Inheritance of female flight in Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Keena; P.S. Grinberg; W.E. Wallner

    2007-01-01

    A clinal female fight polymorphism exists in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, L., where female flight diminishes from east to west across Eurasia. A Russian population where females are capable of sustained ascending flight and a North American population with females incapable of flight were crossed: parentals, reciprocal F1,...

  2. Potential improvement of Lymantria dispar L. management by quercetin

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    Perić-Mataruga Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar, a polyphagous insect pest, copes with a wide variety of host-specific allelochemicals. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are important for catalyzing detoxification in L. dispar. Larval mortality, GST activity in midgut tissue and mass of L. dispar with different trophic adaptations (originating from two forests with a suitable host, Quercus robur, and an unsuitable host, Robinia pseudoacacia, differed after feeding on quercetin supplemented diets (2% or 5% w/w. Quercetin inhibited GST most potently in oak forest larvae that were less adapted to flavonoids in their diet. The larvicidal effect of quercetin on L. dispar larvae depended on the host-use history. We believe this is important in strategies for sustainable control of insect pests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  3. Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): Field studies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leellen F. Solter; Daniela K. Pilarska; Michael L. McManus; Milan Zubrik; Jan Patocka; Wei-Fone Huang; Julius. Novotny

    2010-01-01

    Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we...

  4. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of geographic variants of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, reveals a previously undescribed genotypic entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., is one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. While the subspecies established in North America is the European gypsy moth (L. dispar dispar), whose females are flightless, the two Asian subspecies, L. dispar asiatica and L. dispar japonica, have flig...

  5. The reconstruction of Lymantria dispar outbreaks by dendrochronological methods in the South Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergei Kucherov

    1991-01-01

    Interest in investigating the influence of extreme ecological factors on the radial growth of oak (Quercus robur L.) is bound up with oak dieback in the South Urals during the last decade. Factors contributing to this problem in the study area are hard winter frosts, late spring frosts, and Lymantria dispar L. outbreaks. To...

  6. Inheritance and world variation in thermal requirements for egg hatch in Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Mode of inheritance of hatch traits in Lymantria dispar L. was determined by crossing populations nearly fixed for the phenotypic extremes. The nondiapausing phenotype was inherited via a single recessive gene and the phenotype with reduced low temperature exposure requirements before hatch was inherited via a single dominant gene. There was no...

  7. Contributions of immune responses to developmental resistance in Lymantria dispar challenged with baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McNeil; Diana Cox-Foster; James Slavicek; Kelli. Hoover

    2010-01-01

    How the innate immune system functions to defend insects from viruses is an emerging field of study. We examined the impact of melanized encapsulation, a component of innate immunity that integrates both cellular and humoral immune responses, on the success of the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in its...

  8. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  9. Effects of Lymantria dispar feeding and mechanical wounding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plants and L. dispar. The plants used were poplar (P. ... relative humidity and an average temperature of 24°C. Fully expanded leaves were treated by feeding and .... transition rate of 0.1°C s-1 to generate a melting curve. All samples were also electrophoresed in agarose ...

  10. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  11. Disease-parasitoid relationships in natural populations of Lymantria dispar [Lep.: Lymantriidae] in the northeastern United States

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    R.C. Reardon; J.D. Podgwaite

    1976-01-01

    Immature Lymantria dispar L. were collected from 6 geographically distinct populations over 2 years to determine correlations between parasitoid and disease incidences. Incidence of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus disease (NPV) was found to be positively correlated with incidences of the parasitoids Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg...

  12. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

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    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  13. A comparison of the adaptations of strains of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus to hosts from spatially isolated populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.V. Martemyanov; J.D. Podgwaite; I.A. Belousova; S.V. Pavlushin; J.M. Slavicek; O.A. Baturina; M.R. Kabilov; A.V. Ilyinykh

    2017-01-01

    The adaptation of pathogens to either their hosts or to environmental conditions is the focus of many current ecological studies. In this work we compared the ability of six spatially-distant Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) strains (three from eastern North America and three from central Asia) to induce acute...

  14. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The influence of increased rearing density on medial protocerebral neurosecretory neurons of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars

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    Ilijin Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric changes of A1, A1' and A2 protocerebral dorsomedial neurosecretory neurons, total brain protein content and brain protein profiles were analyzed in 4th instar Lymantria dispar larvae under elevated rearing density, i.e. under intense stress when 5 larvae were kept in a petri dish (V = 80 ml, less intense stress when 5 larvae were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300 ml. In the control samples the larvae were reared in isolated conditions. Protein pattern changes in the brain were observed. Proteins with the following molecular masses: 30, 14, 10 and 3.4-2.5 kD were detected in the experimental groups. The size and cytological characteristics of protocerebral dorsomedial neurosecretory neurons were changed under elevated rearing density.

  16. Analysis of correlation structure in Lymantria dispar L. larvae from locally adapted populations

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of allelochemical stress and population origin on the patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations among life history traits and digestive enzyme activities were investigated in larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae. Thirty-two full-sib families from oak (suitable host plant, Quercus population, and twenty-six full-sib families from locust-tree (unsuitable host plant, Robinia population forests were reared on an artificial diet, with or without a 5% tannic acid supplement. Comparison of correlation matrices revealed significant similarity between the two populations in the structure of phenotypic and genetic correlations of life history traits and of digestive enzyme activities. The patterns of correlations of the examined traits, within each of the two locally adapted populations and in the presence of allelochemical stress, remained stabile despite the different selection pressures that mold these traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  17. A pheromone analogue affects the evaporation rate of (+)-disparlure in Lymantria dispar.

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    Sollai, Giorgia; Murgia, Sergio; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo; Cerboneschi, Anna; Masala, Carla; Liscia, Anna; Crnjar, Roberto; Solari, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. is a widespread pest that causes economic damage to cork oak forests. Females produce the sex pheromone (+)-(7R,8S)-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane, known as (+)-disparlure [(+)D], for long-distance attraction of conspecific males. A (+)D analogue, 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro[2.2]pentane (OXP-01), neither stimulating nor attractive by itself, causes short-time inhibition of male response in a 1:1 blend with (+)D. The authors investigated whether and how the biological activity of the natural pheromone is affected by OXP-01 on a long-time basis (up to 16 days), also by looking at possible physicochemical reciprocal interactions. Blending of (+)D with OXP-01 decreased, under low evaporation rate, the pheromone effectiveness, as assessed by electroantennogram recordings. In male trappings, within the first 24 h, OXP-01 decreased and later enhanced the blend attractiveness, but only under high evaporation rate. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicates that quantitative retrieval of (+)D from blend cartridges is higher than for pure pheromone, and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements show that OXP-01 produces, possibly by Van der Waals interactions, a bimolecular entity with pheromone causing retention and lengthening of its attractiveness over time. The biological and physicochemical interactions between (+)D and OXP-01 may provide valuable information for the optimisation of pheromone-based control strategies for gypsy moths. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus few polyhedra mutants: Mutations in the 25K FP gene may be caused by DNA replication errors

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    David S. Bischoff; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that polyhedron formation (PF) mutants arise at a high frequency during serial passage of the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in the L. dispar 652Y cell line (J.M. Slavicek, N. Hayes-Plazolles, and M.E. Kelly, Biol. Control 5:251-261, 1995). Most of these PF mutants...

  19. Cloning, Site-Directed Mutagenesis, and Functional Analysis of Active Residues in Lymantria dispar Chitinase.

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    Fan, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Chang; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds in chitin, the major structural polysaccharide presented in the cuticle and gut peritrophic matrix of insects. Two aspartate residues (D143, D145) and one tryptophan (W146) in the Lymantria dispar chitinase are highly conserved residues observed within the second conserved motif of the family 18 chitinase catalytic region. In this study, a chitinase cDNA, LdCht5, was cloned from L. dispar, and the roles of the three residues were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and substituting them with three other amino acids. Seven mutant proteins, D143E, D145E, W146G, D143E/D145E, D143E/W146G, D145E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G, as well as the wild-type enzyme, were produced using the baculovirus-insect cell line expression system. The enzymatic and kinetic properties of these mutant enzymes were measured using the oligosaccharide substrate MU-(GlcNAc) 3 . Among the seven mutants, the D145E, D143E/D145E, and D145E/W146G mutations kept some extant catalytic activity toward MU-(GlcNAc) 3 , while the D143E, W146G, D143E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G mutant enzymes were inactivated. Compared with the mutant enzymes, the wild-type enzyme had higher values of k cat and k cat / K m . A study of the multiple point mutations in the second conserved catalytic region would help to elucidate the role of the critical residues and their relationships.

  20. Antifeeding Activity of Several Plant Extracts Against Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Larvae

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    Sonja Gvozdenac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. is the most devastating polyphagous pest of deciduous forests, orchardsand urban greenery. To prevent damages that L. dispar larvae cause in forestry, agriculture andhorticulture, mechanical measures and the use of biological insecticides are the most frequentlyapplied practices. However, the use of conventional insecticides is inevitable in crop protectionand forest management on smaller areas, especially in gradation years. However, inadequateuse of these chemicals has led to disturbance of biocoenotic balance, outbreaks of somepreviously less harmful organisms and pesticide residues in soil and watercourses in someregions. To mitigate these consequences it is necessary to harmonize L. dispar control withintegrated management principles by applying selective and less toxic insecticides. Therefore,the potential of botanical insecticides and antifeeding substances is gaining in importance.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ethanol extracts (1, 2 and 5% of Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Daucus carota L., Morus alba L. and Aesculus hippocastanumL. on the feeding intensity of L. dispar larvae, i.e. to evaluate their antifeeding activity underthe conditions of “no-choice” test. Ten larvae per repetition were placed in Petri dishes andoffered oak leaf slices (2 x 9 cm2/repetition previously dipped in plant extract or ethanol (1, 2,and 5% for the control. Feeding intensity, expressed as a percentage of consumed leaf area (%,was measured after 48 h. For assessing the antifeeding activity of plant extracts AFI was calculatedand the extracts were classified according to scale: no antifeeding activity, slight antifeedingactivity, moderate antifeeding activity and strong antifeeding activity. Data were analyzedusing a two-way ANOVA and Duncan`s multiple range test. The results indicate that plantspecies, i.e. the origin of extracts, had a significant influence on the feeding intensity of L

  1. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

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    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  2. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with [ 14 C]-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera

  3. Comparing the Expression of Olfaction-Related Genes in Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar Adult Females and Larvae from One Flightless and Two Flight-Capable Populations

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    Andrea Clavijo McCormick

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In insects, flight and sophisticated olfactory systems go hand in hand and are essential to survival and evolutionary success. Females of many Lepidopteran species have secondarily lost their flight ability, which may lead to changes in the olfactory capabilities of both larval and adult stages. The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, an important forest pest worldwide, is currently undergoing a diversification process with three recognized subspecies: the Asian gypsy moth (AGM, Lymantria dispar asiatica; the Japanese gypsy moth (JGM, Lymantria dispar japonica; and the European gypsy moth (EGM, Lymantria dispar dispar. Females of EGM populations from North America have lost their flight capacity whereas the JGM and AGM females are flight capable, making this an ideal system to investigate the relationship between flight and olfaction. We used next-generation sequencing to obtain female antennal and larval head capsule transcriptomes in order to (i investigate the differences in expression of olfaction-related genes among populations; (ii identify the most similar protein sequences reported for other organisms through a BLAST search, and (iii establish the phylogenetic relationships of these sequences with respect to other insect species. Using this approach, we identified 115 putative chemosensory genes belonging to five families of olfaction-related genes. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the gene-expression patterns of female antennal transcriptomes from different subspecies were more similar to one another than to the larval head capsules of their respective subspecies supporting strong chemosensory differences between the two developmental stages. An analysis of the shared and exclusively expressed genes for three populations shows no evidence that loss of flight affects the number or type of genes being expressed. These results indicate either (a that loss of flight does not impact the olfactory gene repertoire or (b that the

  4. Cadmium and high temperature effects on brain and behaviour of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars originating from polluted and less-polluted forests.

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    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Petković, Branka; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Dronjak Čučaković, Slađana; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena

    2017-10-01

    Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C). The insects originated from two forests, one close to "Nikola Tesla" thermoelectric power plant, Obrenovac (polluted population), and the other Kosmaj mountain (less-polluted population, far from any industrial region). The Cd BF was higher in the less-polluted than in the polluted population especially at the high ambient temperature. AChE activity and dopamine content were changed in the brains of L. dispar from both populations in the same manner. Hsp70 concentration in caterpillar brains showed opposite trends, a decrease in the less-polluted and an increase in the polluted population. Locomotor activity was modified in both Lymantria dispar populations, but the pattern of changes depended on the stressors and their combined effect. ACh activity and dopamine content are sensitive parameters to Cd exposure, regardless of pollutant experience, and might be promising biomarkers in monitoring forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the potential of genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify the geographic origins of intercepted gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) specimens: A proof-of-concept study

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    Sandrine Picq; Melody Keena; Nathan Havill; Don Stewart; Esther Pouliot; Brian Boyle; Roger C. Levesque; Richard C. Hamelin; Michel Cusson

    2018-01-01

    Forest invasive alien species are a major threat to ecosystem stability and can have enormous economic and social impacts. For this reason, preventing the introduction of Asian gypsy moths (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica and L. d. japonica) into North America has been identified as a top priority by North American authorities....

  6. Life history traits and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Lymantria dispar L. (lepidoptera, lymantriidae) larvae exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

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    Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2015-11-01

    Increased presence of benzo[a]pyrene in the environment underlines the need for development of sensitive biomarkers for monitoring. Antioxidative enzymes could be used as early-warning signals because of their sensitivity and applicability. The activity of 2 antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were measured in midgut tissues of fifth instar Lymantria dispar larvae exposed to different concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: 2 ng, 10 ng, 20 ng, 100 ng, 200 ng, and 2000 ng benzo[a]pyrene/g dry food weight. Larval development, larval mass, and relative growth rate were also monitored. The authors detected prolonged larval development, as well as reduced larval mass and relative growth rate in larvae exposed to all benzo[a]pyrene concentrations. The L. dispar midgut SOD activity was significantly increased, and 2 SOD isoforms were detected on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the control group had only 1 isoform. Catalase activity was significantly increased in all benzo[a]pyrene-treated larvae. Native gel electrophoresis showed that a switch in active CAT isoforms occurred after benzo[a]pyrene treatment. Thus, SOD and CAT in polyphagous herbivorous L. dispar larvae are very sensitive to low concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene. Therefore, they could be used as biomarkers for exposure and effects of this toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Susceptibility of larvae of nun moth, Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera), to the entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu and Soper (Entomophthorales) under laboratory and field conditions

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    Daniela Pilarska; Ann E. Hajek; Melody Keena; Andreas Linde; Manana Kereselidze; Georgi Georgiev; Margarita Georgieva; Plamen Mirchev; Danail Takov; Slavimira. Draganova

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lymantria monacha larvae to Entomophaga maimaiga was investigated under laboratory and field conditions, using larvae of the natural host, Lymantria dispar, as positive controls. In laboratory bioassays, L. monacha and L. dispar were injected with...

  8. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

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    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

  9. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  10. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of [ 35 S]-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early α phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate β phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late γ phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with [ 3 H]-mannose, [ 3 H]-N-acetyl-glucosamine or [ 32 P]-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter

  11. A comparison of electrophysiologically determined spectral responses in six subspecies of Lymantria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Hibbard, Emily L; Mastro, Victor C

    2014-04-01

    The spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in three gypsy moth species from six different geographical regions (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij [Asian gypsy moth], Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky [Japanese gypsy moth], and Lymantria dispar dispar L. [North American gypsy moth]) was tested electrophysiologically in the wavelength region 300-700 nm. For all moths examined, a maximum response occurred in the 480-520-nm range (blue-green region) with a shoulder peak occurring at 460 nm. A smaller, secondary peak was observed for both sexes at the 340-380-nm range, which is in the region considered behaviorally maximal in night-flying insects. No peaks in sensitivity were observed between 520 and 700 nm (red region) for any of the moths tested. Based on our retinal recording data, a short wavelength blocking filter with a transition wavelength near 500 nm should reduce gypsy moth attraction to artificial lighting sources. This would help reduce the number of Lymantria-infested ships traveling to and from foreign ports.

  12. Improving Service Coordination and Reducing Mental Health Disparities Through Adoption of Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Brian; Mack, Dominic; Wrenn, Glenda; Shim, Ruth S; Holden, Kisha; Satcher, David

    2015-09-01

    Despite widespread support for removing barriers to the use of electronic health records (EHRs) in behavioral health care, adoption of EHRs in behavioral health settings lags behind adoption in other areas of health care. The authors discuss barriers to use of EHRs among behavioral health care practitioners, suggest solutions to overcome these barriers, and describe the potential benefits of EHRs to reduce behavioral health care disparities. Thoughtful and comprehensive strategies will be needed to design EHR systems that address concerns about policy, practice, costs, and stigma and that protect patients' privacy and confidentiality. However, these goals must not detract from continuing to challenge the notion that behavioral health and general medical health should be treated as separate and distinct. Ultimately, utilization of EHRs among behavioral health care providers will improve the coordination of services and overall patient care, which is essential to reducing mental health disparities.

  13. LYMANTRIA MONACHA L. SPECIES MONITORING WITH THE AID OF SEXUAL ATTRACTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I OLTEAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An extremely dangerous pest especially for the resinous species (spruce fir, pine tree, fir tree, larice, duglas which can also attack leafy trees is Lymantria monacha. The larva of this pest attacks as of the beginning of spring. In the beginning they attack the barely open buds which they gnaw, then the needles are partially or totally eaten. The studies shows the situation of Lymantria monacha adults caucht with the aid of ATRALYMON sexual attractant in 2001 and 2002.

  14. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  15. 2-Methyl-(Z)-7-Octadecene - the sex pheromone of allopatric Lymantria serva and Lymantria lucescens: two potential invasive species in the Orient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul W. Schaefer; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries; Yasutomo Higashiura; Yi-Bin Fan

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the sex pheromones of two allopatric Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): (1) L. serva (Fabricius) in Taiwan whose larvae attack and occasionally defoliate Ficus spp. and (2) L. lucescens (Fabricius) in Honshu, Japan, whose larvae feed on Quercus...

  16. Disparity of secondary electron emission in ferroelectric domains of YMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, S. Q.; Yuan, Wenjuan; Yan, Yunjie; Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Ceramics and Fine Processing, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, J.; Li, J. Q. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-07-20

    The applications of multiferroic materials require our understanding about the behaviors of domains with different polarization directions. Taking advantage of the scanning electron microscope, we investigate the polar surface of single crystal YMnO{sub 3} sample in secondary electron (SE) mode. By slowing down the scanning speed of electron beam, the negative surface potential of YMnO{sub 3} can be realized, and the domain contrast can be correspondingly changed. Under this experimental condition, with the help of a homemade Faraday cup, the difference of intrinsic SE emission coefficients of antiparallel domains is measured to be 0.12 and the downward polarization domains show a larger SE emission ability. Our results indicate that the total SE emission of this material can be altered by changing the ratio of the antiparallel domains, which provide an avenue for device design with this kind of materials.

  17. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  18. Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Health Disparities conduct transdisciplinary research involving social, behavioral, biological, and genetic research to improve knowledge of the causes of health disparities and devise effective methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease and promoting ...

  19. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    A gram-negative bacillus, pathogenic for gypsy moth larvae, was characterized culturally, morphologically, and physiologically as a member of the Serratia group of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The microorganism lacked the pigmentation characteristic of the group but was generally distinguished from closely related members of the family by its...

  20. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    The ED50 of a strain of Serratia marcescens for microinjected instar III and IV gypsy moth larvae was 7.5 and 14.5 viable cells, respectively. Percentage and rate of mortality were found to be highly variable among replicates of the same instar and between instars in free-feeding bioassays. Mortality in second instar larvae...

  1. Changes in Lymantria dispar protocerebral neurosecretory neurons after exposure to cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijin Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moth 4th instar caterpillars were fed for 3 days with an artificial diet supplemented with increasing cadmium (Cd concentrations (0, 10, 30, 100 and 250 μg⁄g of dry food weight. Changes in the morphometric characteristics of A1’ dorso-medial and L2 dorso-lateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. In the A1’ nsn, Cd supplements led to an enhanced nuclear size, except in the group treated with 250 μg Cd⁄g in the form of dry food. The size of L2 type nsn was increased in the groups provided with 30 and 100 μg Cd⁄g, while no differences in the size of nuclei was detected in L2 neurons among the experimental groups.

  2. The ecology, geopolitics, and economics of managing Lymantria dispar in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Barry B. Bai; Donald A. Eggen; Donna S. Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Increases in global trade and travel have resulted in a number of species being inadvertently (or, in a few cases, deliberately) introduced into new geographical locations. In most cases, there is generally a lack of information regarding a species' biology and ecology, and its potential to cause environmental and economic harm. Regardless, management decisions...

  3. The relationship between male moth density and female mating success in invading populations of Lymantria dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Ksenia S. Onufrieva; Kevin W. Thorpe

    2012-01-01

    The successful establishment of non-native species in new areas can be affected by many factors including the initial size of the founder population. Populations comprised of fewer individuals tend to be subject to stochastic forces and Allee effects (positive-density dependence), which can challenge the ability of small founder populations to establish in a new area....

  4. Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy R. deWaard; Andrew Mitchell; Melody A. Keena; David Gopurenko; Laura M. Boykin; Karen F. Armstrong; Michael G. Pogue; Joao Lima; Robin Floyd; Robert H. Hanner; Leland M. Humble

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction digest system would gather more information by transitioning to the...

  5. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel, E-mail: daniel_talamas@hotmail.com [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Talamás-Rohana, Patricia, E-mail: ptr@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime, E-mail: rogelio@fis.cinvestav.mx [Department of Physics, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha, E-mail: mespinosac@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana, E-mail: bchavez@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); González-Robles, Arturo, E-mail: goroa@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico); Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo, E-mail: amartine@cinvestav.mx [Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-10-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica.

  6. Cell-matrix interactions of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. A comparative study by electron-, atomic force- and confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamás-Lara, Daniel; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Fragoso-Soriano, Rogelio Jaime; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; González-Robles, Arturo; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of tissues by Entamoeba histolytica is a multistep process that initiates with the adhesion of the parasite to target tissues. The recognition of the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar as a distinct, but closely related protozoan species raised the question as to whether the lack of its pathogenic potential could be related to a weaker adhesion due to limited cytoskeleton restructuring capacity. We here compared the adhesion process of both amebas to fibronectin through scanning, transmission, atomic force, and confocal microscopy. In addition, electrophoretic and western blot assays of actin were also compared. Adhesion of E. histolytica to fibronectin involves a dramatic reorganization of the actin network that results in a tighter contact to and the subsequent focal degradation of the fibronectin matrix. In contrast, E. dispar showed no regions of focal adhesion, the cytoskeleton was poorly reorganized and there was little fibronectin degradation. In addition, atomic force microscopy using topographic, error signal and phase modes revealed clear-cut differences at the site of contact of both amebas with the substrate. In spite of the morphological and genetic similarities between E. histolytica and E. dispar the present results demonstrate striking differences in their respective cell-to-matrix adhesion processes, which may be of relevance for understanding the invasive character of E. histolytica. - Highlights: • Striking differences in adhesion to FN between E. histolytica and E. dispar. • A greater degree of cell stiffness in E. histolytica with respect to E. dispar. • E. histolytica but not E. dispar forms regions of close contact with FN. • The actin cytoskeleton is involved in the pathogenicity of E. histolytica

  7. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data Collection in Clinical Settings and in Electronic Health Records: A Key to Ending LGBT Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2011 report on the health of LGBT people pointed out that there are limited health data on these populations and that we need more research. It also described what we do know about LGBT health disparities, including lower rates of cervical cancer screening among lesbians, and mental health issues related to minority stress. Patient disclosure of LGBT identity enables provider-patient conversations about risk factors and can help us reduce and better understand disparities. It is essential to the success of Healthy People 2020's goal of eliminating LGBT health disparities. This is why the IOM's report recommended data collection in clinical settings and on electronic health records (EHRs). The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology rejected including sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in meaningful use guidelines for EHRs in 2012 but are considering this issue again in 2013. There is overwhelming community support for the routine collection of SOGI data in clinical settings, as evidenced by comments jointly submitted by 145 leading LGBT and HIV/AIDS organizations in January 2013. Gathering SOGI data in EHRs is supported by the 2011 IOM's report on LGBT health, Healthy People 2020, the Affordable Care Act, and the Joint Commission. Data collection has long been central to the quality assurance process. Preventive health care from providers knowledgeable of their patients' SOGI can lead to improved access, quality of care, and outcomes. Medical and nursing schools should expand their attention to LGBT health issues so that all clinicians can appropriately care for LGBT patients.

  8. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  9. Electron Number-Based Phase Diagram of Pr1 -xLaCex CuO4 -δ and Possible Absence of Disparity between Electron- and Hole-Doped Cuprate Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongjoon; Han, Garam; Kyung, Wonshik; Seo, Jeongjin; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Beom Seo; Arita, Masashi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Park, Seung Ryong; Kim, C.

    2017-03-01

    We performed annealing and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies on electron-doped cuprate Pr1 -xLaCex CuO4 -δ (PLCCO). It is found that the optimal annealing condition is dependent on the Ce content x . The electron number (n ) is estimated from the experimentally obtained Fermi surface volume for x =0.10 , 0.15 and 0.18 samples. It clearly shows a significant and annealing dependent deviation from the nominal x . In addition, we observe that the pseudo-gap at hot spots is also closely correlated with n ; the pseudogap gradually closes as n increases. We established a new phase diagram of PLCCO as a function of n . Different from the x -based one, the new phase diagram shows similar antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases to those of hole doped ones. Our results raise a possibility for absence of disparity between the phase diagrams of electron- and hole-doped cuprates

  10. Gender disparities in the experience, effects and reporting of electronic aggression among secondary school students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adebayo, Emmanuel; Oluwagbayela, Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Electronic aggression is the use of electronic communication technologies to harass others. It is a problem among adolescents and young people worldwide. There is a dearth of information on this problem in developing countries in spite of the increasing use of electronic media technology in these countries. To explore gender differences in the prevalence, effects and reporting of electronic aggression among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted using mixed methods (a quantitative survey of 653 students and 18 in-depth interviews with victims and/or perpetrators). Survey students were selected using multi-stage sampling and in-depth interviewees were selected purposively. History of electronic aggression (as a perpetrator and/or victim) in the 3 months preceding the study was obtained. Respondents also provided information on the effects of the last incident of bullying on them and whether or not they reported this incident. 25.8% of males and 22.1% of females had perpetrated electronic aggression, while 42.7% of females were victims compared to 36.8% of males. More females (58.1%) than males (40.3%) perpetrated electronic aggression via phone calls and more males (33.8%) than females (22.6%) perpetrated electronic aggression via chatrooms. 45.4% of male victims and 39.4% of female victims felt angry following the last cyberbully incident. Findings from the in-depth interviewees corroborated the survey findings and a male victim reported feeling very sad and even tried to stay away from school following repeated episodes of electronic aggression. More female (59.1%) than male (42.7%) victims reported the incident to someone (p=0.035). Incidents of electronic aggression were common and the experiences of male and female students were comparable, although more female victims reported the incidents they had experienced. Victims, especially males, should be encouraged to report incidents so that the relevant authorities

  11. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  12. Monitoring the establishment and prevalence of the fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga in two Lymantria dispar L. populations in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilarska; M. McManus; P. Pilarska; G. Georgiev; P. Mirchev; A. Linde

    2005-01-01

    The establishment and prevalence of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga, (Zygomycetes, Entomophthorales), introduced into two gypsy moth populations in Bulgaria, was monitored during 2000-2004. In the Karlovo Region population, where E. maimaiga was introduced in 1999, the fungus was recovered every year and the...

  13. Impact of viral enhancin genes on potency of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in L. dispar following disruption of the peritrophic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Merideth A. Humphries; Alyssa R. Genfron; James M. Slavicek

    2010-01-01

    Enhancins are metalloproteases found in many betabaculoviruses and several alphabaculoviruses, which enhance alphabaculovirus potency by degrading a protein component of the peritrophic matrix (PM), facilitating passage of virions through this structure. Earlier studies on betabaculovirus enhancins within heterologous systems suggested that enhancins facilitate virion...

  14. What Are Cancer Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the factors associated with cancer disparities, examples of how the cancer burden differs across certain population groups, and NCI actions to understand and reduce cancer disparities.

  15. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  16. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  17. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  18. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  19. Rural Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Delta Region for specific data. U.S. – Mexico Border While life expectancy in many counties of ... documents the successes, challenges, and relevant information for planning. ... on rural/urban disparities see What sources cover health behaviors and ...

  20. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ik People" People Awakening Resilience Project (PARP), Cuqyun "Measuring" Treatment and Health Services Research Alcohol Treatment and ... addressing Health Disparities . 1 2009-2013 Health Disparities Strategic Plan, p.4 2 Ibid, p.4 3 ...

  1. Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae): a redescription and taxonomic revision of Thelohania disparis Timofejeva 1956, a microsporidian parasite of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Pilarska, D. K.; Linde, A.; Weiser, Jaroslav; McManus, M. L.; Hoch, G.; Solter, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 292-304 ISSN 1066-5234 Grant - others:Karlova Univerzita v Praze a USDA US Forest Service(CZ) 161/79-982111; USDA FS Cooperative Agreement(US) AG 01CA-11242343-107; Grant US Agricultural Experimental Station(US) ILLU-65-0344; Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft(BG) 436 BUL 17/8/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : microsporidia * parasitology * biological control Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  2. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi 3 H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion

  3. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  4. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    cancer. The reasons for this racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and mortality are unknown but may stem from economic , social, psychological...them are elevated in the prostate tumors of African American men. We further hypothesize that elevated cholesterol, which is an essential component of...cancer promotional effects of high cholesterol. Essentially , we anticipate the level of cholesterol reduction needed to protect the prostate will be

  5. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  6. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.

  7. Examples of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the bacterium H. pylori (stomach cancer) in immigrant countries of origin contributes to these disparities. ( ACS ) ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  8. Allometric disparity in rodent evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson LAB

    2013-01-01

    In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results ...

  9. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  10. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  11. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  12. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  13. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  14. Gender disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jennifer A; Patel, Vinisha; Varela, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    The existence of disparities in delivery of health care has been the subject of increased empirical study in recent years. Some studies have suggested that disparities between men and women exist in the diagnoses and treatment of health conditions, and as a result measures have been taken to identify these differences. This article uses several examples to illustrate health care gender bias in medicine. These examples include surgery, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, critical care, and cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, we discuss reasons why these issues still occur, trends in health care that may address these issues, and the need for acknowledgement of the current system's inequities in order to provide unbiased care for women in the future. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  15. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  16. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  17. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  18. Linking Diversity and Disparity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadeb Sarkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The purpose of this paper is to examine links between the diversity measures (Patil and Taillie 1982 and the disparity measures (Lindsay 1994, quantities apparently developed for somewhat different purposes. We demonstrate that numerous diversity measures satisfying all the desirable criteria mentioned by Patil and Taillie can be defined by the generating functions of certain disparities and the associated residual adjustment functions. This provides the statistician and the ecologist a wide class of flexible indices for the statistical measurement of diversity.

  19. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  20. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and

  1. Why the WTA - WTP disparity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Thomas C.; Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) has been demonstrated repeatedly. Because using WTP estimates of value where a WTA estimate is appropriate tends to undervalue environmental assets, this issue is important to environmental managers. We summarize reasons for the disparity and then discuss some of the...

  2. Reducing Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Care: The Role of 'Big Data'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-15

    Advances in a wide array of scientific technologies have brought data of unprecedented volume and complexity into the oncology research space. These novel big data resources are applied across a variety of contexts-from health services research using data from insurance claims, cancer registries, and electronic health records, to deeper and broader genomic characterizations of disease. Several forms of big data show promise for improving our understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer, and for powering more intelligent and far-reaching interventions to close the racial gap in breast cancer survival. In this article we introduce several major types of big data used in breast cancer disparities research, highlight important findings to date, and discuss how big data may transform breast cancer disparities research in ways that lead to meaningful, lifesaving changes in breast cancer screening and treatment. We also discuss key challenges that may hinder progress in using big data for cancer disparities research and quality improvement.

  3. Health disparities through a psychological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E

    2009-11-01

    There is growing concern in the United States about avoidable, unjust differences in health associated with sociodemographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. This concern has sparked research to identify how disparities develop and how they can be reduced. Studies showing that disparities occur at all levels of socioeconomic status, not simply at the very bottom, suggest that psychosocial factors play an important role. The author discusses both content and process issues in psychological research on disparities. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  4. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  5. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  6. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  7. Energy price disparity and public welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templet, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The differences in the price of energy to economic sectors are linked to a number of system parameters and to public welfare. There are large disparities in energy prices within states when comparing residential and industrial prices although neoclassical economics predicts one price in markets. The large disparities between the two sectors across states negatively affects the efficiency of resource allocation, creates subsidies for those getting the cheap energy and results in unequal access to energy. These in turn lead to inefficient partitioning of energy between products and waste, higher pollution, leakage of wealth and poorer energy use efficiency, i.e. high energy intensity. States with large energy price disparities between sectors have statistically higher poverty, lower incomes, more pollution and use more energy but with less efficiency. Higher energy price disparities also result in higher throughput per unit of output thus reducing the chances for sustainability and lower public welfare. 31 refs

  8. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality commissioned the Institute of Medicine establish a committee to provide guidance on the National Healthcare Disparities Report is of access to health care...

  9. Gender Disparity in Education Enrollment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Quayes; Richard David Ramsey

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of school enrollment in Pakistan. The likelihood of school enrollment is estimated using separate logistic regression models for three different age groups. The empirical results indicate severe gender disparity in school enrollment across all age groups, particularly among the older age groups. Although the rate of school enrollment is positively associated with household income, the gender disparity actually deteriorates with an increase in household inco...

  10. REGIONAL DISPARITIES – HISTORICAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the issue of regional disparities has become a highly debated topic, knowledge regarding regional disparities being a matter of political priority as their persistence hinders the appropriate integration process. On the other hand, emphasis was put on integration through the process of EU enlargement, thus highlighting other issues related to the nature and size of disparities. Regional disparities regarding development and the living standards of the population have long been the concern of all Member States. In the case of Romania, recently admitted into the European structures, registering large backlogs to economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, represents a clear necessity. The "European Union" (EU project is of an unprecedented complexity and scale because it involves a plurality of states, which are culturally and economically heterogeneous. Moreover, these economic and cultural differences exist even within the states. Hence, there is also the central idea of the Union, regarding unity in diversity. In Romania the local, regional communities have a strong identity, but still evolving. Taking into account Romania's objective of successfully integrating into European structures, and the principles of democratic decision-making requires that regional development should aim at reducing economic and social disparities based on a notable involvement of the local, regional communities. Based on these facts, the paper aims to present the current regional (and intra-regional disparities in Romania with regard to a number of synthetic indicators of capital, of labor and of outcomes. The persistence in time of these economic disparities can be explained by considering the cultural legacies – represented by norms, values, institutions, that impact on how people interact, communicate

  11. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  12. Academic musculoskeletal radiology: influences for gender disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Sadia R; Khurshid, Kiran; Jalal, Sabeena; Bancroft, Laura; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2018-03-01

    Research productivity is one of the few quintessential gauges that North American academic radiology departments implement to determine career progression. The rationale of this study is to quantify the relationship of gender, research productivity, and academic advancements in the musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology to account for emerging trends in workforce diversity. Radiology residency programs enlisted in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA), Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) and International Skeletal Society (ISS) were searched for academic faculty to generate the database for gender and academic profiles of MSK radiologists. Bibliometric data was collected using Elsevier's SCOPUS archives, and analyzed using Stata version 14.2. Among 274 MSK radiologists in North America, 190 (69.34%) were men and 84 (30.66%) were women, indicating a statistically significant difference (χ2 = 6.34; p value = 0.042). The available number of female assistant professors (n = 50) was more than half of the male assistant professors (n = 88), this ratio however, plummeted at higher academic ranks, with only one-fourth of women (n = 11) professors compared to men (n = 45). The male MSK radiologist had 1.31 times the odds of having a higher h-index, keeping all other variables constant. The trend of gender disparity exists in MSK radiology with significant underrepresentation of women in top tiers of academic hierarchy. Even with comparable h-indices, at the lower academic ranks, a lesser number of women are promoted relative to their male colleagues. Further studies are needed to investigate the degree of influence research productivity has, in determining academic advancement of MSK radiologists.

  13. Conjunctions between motion and disparity are encoded with the same spatial resolution as disparity alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Read, Jenny C A

    2012-10-10

    Neurons in cortical area MT respond well to transparent streaming motion in distinct depth planes, such as caused by observer self-motion, but do not contain subregions excited by opposite directions of motion. We therefore predicted that spatial resolution for transparent motion/disparity conjunctions would be limited by the size of MT receptive fields, just as spatial resolution for disparity is limited by the much smaller receptive fields found in primary visual cortex, V1. We measured this using a novel "joint motion/disparity grating," on which human observers detected motion/disparity conjunctions in transparent random-dot patterns containing dots streaming in opposite directions on two depth planes. Surprisingly, observers showed the same spatial resolution for these as for pure disparity gratings. We estimate the limiting receptive field diameter at 11 arcmin, similar to V1 and much smaller than MT. Higher internal noise for detecting joint motion/disparity produces a slightly lower high-frequency cutoff of 2.5 cycles per degree (cpd) versus 3.3 cpd for disparity. This suggests that information on motion/disparity conjunctions is available in the population activity of V1 and that this information can be decoded for perception even when it is invisible to neurons in MT.

  14. Disparities at the intersection of marginalized groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John W.; Williams, David R.; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disparities exist across several dimensions of social inequality, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and gender. Most investigations of health disparities focus on one dimension. Recent calls by researchers argue for studying persons who are marginalized in multiple ways, often from the perspective of intersectionality, a theoretical framework applied to qualitative studies in law, sociology, and psychology. Quantitative adaptations are emerging but there is little guidance as to what measures or methods are helpful. Here, we consider the concept of a joint disparity and its composition, show that this approach can illuminate how outcomes are patterned for social groups that are marginalized across multiple axes of social inequality, and compare the insights gained with that of other measures of additive interaction. We apply these methods to a cohort of males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, examining disparities for black males with low early life SES vs. white males with high early life SES across several outcomes that predict mental health, including unemployment, wages, and incarceration. We report striking disparities in each outcome, but show that the contribution of race, SES, and their intersection varies. PMID:27531592

  15. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  16. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  17. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  18. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... upon members of a race, sex, or ethnic group where other employees, applicants, or members have not been subjected to that standard. Disparate treatment occurs where members of a race, sex, or ethnic... standards are required by business necessity. This section does not prohibit a user who has not previously...

  19. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  20. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile. The results do not provide support for a uniformly extension of pension age for all....

  1. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  3. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  4. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Health Literacy Health Equity CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2011 Report More Information CDC Releases Second Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 CDC and its ...

  5. Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) - SEER Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.

  6. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  7. The human face of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  8. Racial disparities: disruptive genes in prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Plaga, Alexis; Shukla, Girish C

    2017-06-01

    Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MRS1 ), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality. Concerted efforts are needed to identify race specific prognostic markers and treatment regimen for a better management of the disease.

  9. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  10. [Health disparities: local realities and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, P; Green, A R

    2012-11-28

    Since 1887, the Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU) has brought care to vulnerable populations who are at risk of poor physical, mental and social health. These include marginalised Swiss natives and immigrant communities (asylum seekers, undocumented immigrants). These patients are at risk of health disparities given their poor access to the health care system and lack of adapted quality care. Clinical approach must address these potential disparities, reinforced by a research describing them in order to explain their cause, and propose possible solutions, and a medical training addressing these topics from the undergraduate to the attending level. Through those holistic clinical approach, robust research and improved medical training, health providers will contribute to give quality care to all citizens, without exception!

  11. The energy implications of Chinese regional disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuanxi; Todd, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Chinese regional disparities are readily apparent, with well-being seen the highest at the coast and declining steadily inland. Their mitigation will clearly be hostage to improvement in economic development, since the unevenness of that development created them in the first place. Integral to development is structural change, and the key to effecting that change is improved energy efficiency. Indeed, this paper explores energy usage and regional development from 1952 to the present, establishing that they both conform to an inverted-U pattern. Eastern China, the leader in industrialization, has moved beyond the apogee of the curve, but Central and Western China have failed to follow suit, being held back by poor industrial structures and adverse patterns of energy consumption. Remedying this laggardly performance preoccupies China's Government, for rendering the country energy-efficient and containing regional disparities, both rest on pushing the Central and Western regions down the curve in the wake of the prosperous coast.

  12. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  13. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  14. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  15. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  16. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  17. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  18. The intersection of disability and healthcare disparities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access to and quality of healthcare and can be viewed as the inability of the healthcare system to adequately address the needs of specific population groups. This article uses a narrative method to identify and critique the main conceptual frameworks that have been used in analyzing disparities in healthcare access and quality, and evaluating those frameworks in the context of healthcare for individuals with disabilities. Specific models that are examined include the Aday and Anderson Model, the Grossman Utility Model, the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s models of Access to Healthcare Services and Healthcare Disparities, and the Cultural Competency model. While existing frameworks advance understandings of disparities in healthcare access and quality, they fall short when applied to individuals with disabilities. Specific deficits include a lack of attention to cultural and contextual factors (Aday and Andersen framework), unrealistic assumptions regarding equal access to resources (Grossman's utility model), lack of recognition or inclusion of concepts of structural accessibility (IOM model of Healthcare Disparities) and exclusive emphasis on supply side of the healthcare equation to improve healthcare disparities (Cultural Competency model). In response to identified gaps in the literature and short-comings of current conceptualizations, an integrated model of disability and healthcare disparities is put forth. We analyzed models of access to care and disparities in healthcare to be able to have an integrated and cohesive conceptual framework that could potentially address issues related to access to

  19. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  20. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Khurshid, K; Sanelli, P C; Jalal, S; Chahal, T; Norbash, A; Nicolaou, S; Castillo, M; Khosa, F

    2018-01-01

    There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. After excluding programs that did not fulfill our selection criteria, we generated a short list of 85 US and 8 Canadian programs. We found 465 faculty members who met the inclusion criteria for our study. We used Elsevier's SCOPUS for gathering the data pertaining to the publications, H-index, citations, and tenure of the productivity of each faculty member. Gender disparity was insignificant when analyzing academic ranks. There are more men working in neuroimaging relative to women (χ 2 = 0.46; P = .79). However, gender disparity was highly significant for leadership positions in neuroradiology (χ 2 = 6.76; P = .009). The median H-index was higher among male faculty members (17.5) versus female faculty members (9). Female faculty members have odds of 0.84 compared with male faculty members of having a higher H-index, adjusting for publications, citations, academic ranks, leadership ranks, and interaction between gender and publications and gender and citations (9). Neuroradiology faculty members follow the same male predominance seen in many other specialties of medicine. In this study, issues such as mentoring, role models, opportunities to engage in leadership/research activities, funding opportunities, and mindfulness regarding research productivity are explored. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  3. Disparity modifications and the emotional effects of stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Atsuta, Daiki; Tomiyama, Yuya; Kim, Sanghyun; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Reiko; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition, 3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.

  4. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  5. Rural Urban Disparity in and around Surabaya Region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vely Kukinul Siswanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A shift in development towards the outskirts of urban areas changes the characteristics of the region and can ultimately lead to urban disparities in economic and social terms. The current study has tried to divide the study area covers the areas of surrounding Surabaya as urban, peri urban and rural areas with reference to three time periods (2008, 2009 and 2010 and shows that the typology in the study area changes each year. Furthermore, based on the theil index analysis, using a number of pre-prosperous household for social disparity and per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product for economic disparity shows that urban and peri urban areas have medium and high level of social and economic disparity compare with rural area which have low levels of disparity. Through multivariate correlation analysis can be seen that the health center distance, electricity and water users effecting the social disparity. Moreover, the financial, industrial, electricity, trade, construction, transportation, agriculture, and mining sector's productivity have a significant relationship with the economic disparity. Health facilities, water and electricity improvement strategies to be followed for reducing the social disparity. Electricity improvement, water, services sector, transportation infrastructure, and industrial development to reduce the economic disparity.

  6. Global stereo matching algorithm based on disparity range estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei

    2017-09-01

    The global stereo matching algorithms are of high accuracy for the estimation of disparity map, but the time-consuming in the optimization process still faces a curse, especially for the image pairs with high resolution and large baseline setting. To improve the computational efficiency of the global algorithms, a disparity range estimation scheme for the global stereo matching is proposed to estimate the disparity map of rectified stereo images in this paper. The projective geometry in a parallel binocular stereo vision is investigated to reveal a relationship between two disparities at each pixel in the rectified stereo images with different baselines, which can be used to quickly obtain a predicted disparity map in a long baseline setting estimated by that in the small one. Then, the drastically reduced disparity ranges at each pixel under a long baseline setting can be determined by the predicted disparity map. Furthermore, the disparity range estimation scheme is introduced into the graph cuts with expansion moves to estimate the precise disparity map, which can greatly save the cost of computing without loss of accuracy in the stereo matching, especially for the dense global stereo matching, compared to the traditional algorithm. Experimental results with the Middlebury stereo datasets are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  7. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  8. Neighborhood Disparities in the Restaurant Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Espino, Jennifer Valdivia; Meinen, Amy; Escaron, Anne L; Roubal, Anne; Nieto, Javier; Malecki, Kristen

    2016-11-01

    Restaurant meals account for a significant portion of the American diet. Investigating disparities in the restaurant food environment can inform targeted interventions to increase opportunities for healthy eating among those who need them most. To examine neighborhood disparities in restaurant density and the nutrition environment within restaurants among a statewide sample of Wisconsin households. Households (N = 259) were selected from the 2009-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based survey of Wisconsin adults. Restaurants in the household neighborhood were enumerated and audited using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Neighborhoods were defined as a 2- and 5-mile street-distance buffer around households in urban and non-urban areas, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models identified independent associations between sociodemographic household characteristics and neighborhood restaurant density and nutrition environment scores. On average, each neighborhood contained approximately 26 restaurants. On average, restaurants obtained 36.1% of the total nutrition environment points. After adjusting for household characteristics, higher restaurant density was associated with both younger and older household average age (P restaurant food environment in Wisconsin neighborhoods varies by age, race, and urbanicity, but offers ample room for improvement across socioeconomic groups and urbanicity levels. Future research must identify policy and environmental interventions to promote healthy eating in all restaurants, especially in young and/or rural neighborhoods in Wisconsin.

  9. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  10. Bridging the digital divide in health care: the role of health information technology in addressing racial and ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lenny; Green, Alexander R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; King, Roderick; Betancourt, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been consistently documented in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of many common clinical conditions. There has been an acceleration of health information technology (HIT) implementation in the United States, with health care reform legislation including multiple provisions for collecting and using health information to improve and monitor quality and efficiency in health care. Despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. Several root causes for disparities are amenable to interventions using HIT, particularly innovations in electronic health records, as well as strategies for chronic disease management. Recommendations regardinghealth care system, provider, and patient factors can help health care organizations address disparities as they adopt, expand, and tailor their HIT systems. In terms of health care system factors, organizations should (1) automate and standardize the collection of race/ethnicity and language data, (2) prioritize the use of the data for identifying disparities and tailoring improvement efforts, (3) focus HIT efforts to address fragmented care delivery for racial/ethnic minorities and limited-English-proficiency patients, (4) develop focused computerized clinical decision support systems for clinical areas with significant disparities, and (5) include input from racial/ethnic minorities and those with limited English proficiency in developing patient HIT tools to address the digital divide. As investments are made in HIT, consideration must be given to the impact that these innovations have on the quality and cost of health care for all patients, including those who experience disparities.

  11. Improving trends in gender disparities in the Department of Veterans Affairs: 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Alison M; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Wright, Steve M; Hayes, Patricia M; Haskell, Sally G

    2014-09-01

    Increasing numbers of women veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services has contributed to the need for equitable, high-quality care for women. The VA has evaluated performance measure data by gender since 2006. In 2008, the VA launched a 5-year women's health redesign, and, in 2011, gender disparity improvement was included on leadership performance plans. We examined data from VA Office of Analytics and Business Intelligence quarterly gender reports for trends in gender disparities in gender-neutral performance measures from 2008 to 2013. Through reporting of data by gender, leadership involvement, electronic reminders, and population management dashboards, VA has seen a decreasing trend in gender inequities on most Health Effectiveness Data and Information Set performance measures.

  12. Improving Trends in Gender Disparities in the Department of Veterans Affairs: 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnogorski, Maggie; Wright, Steve M.; Hayes, Patricia M.; Haskell, Sally G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services has contributed to the need for equitable, high-quality care for women. The VA has evaluated performance measure data by gender since 2006. In 2008, the VA launched a 5-year women’s health redesign, and, in 2011, gender disparity improvement was included on leadership performance plans. We examined data from VA Office of Analytics and Business Intelligence quarterly gender reports for trends in gender disparities in gender-neutral performance measures from 2008 to 2013. Through reporting of data by gender, leadership involvement, electronic reminders, and population management dashboards, VA has seen a decreasing trend in gender inequities on most Health Effectiveness Data and Information Set performance measures. PMID:25100416

  13. 78 FR 35837 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... disparities research to close the disparity gap in the burden of illness and death experienced by racial and... Number NIH-2007-0931] RIN 0925-AA61 National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research... disparities research and other health disparities research. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  14. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Bourne, Philip E.; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O. Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S.; Wong, David W.S.; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them. PMID:28439179

  15. Big Data Science: Opportunities and Challenges to Address Minority Health and Health Disparities in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Bourne, Philip E; Peprah, Emmanuel; Duru, O Kenrik; Breen, Nancy; Berrigan, David; Wood, Fred; Jackson, James S; Wong, David W S; Denny, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Addressing minority health and health disparities has been a missing piece of the puzzle in Big Data science. This article focuses on three priority opportunities that Big Data science may offer to the reduction of health and health care disparities. One opportunity is to incorporate standardized information on demographic and social determinants in electronic health records in order to target ways to improve quality of care for the most disadvantaged populations over time. A second opportunity is to enhance public health surveillance by linking geographical variables and social determinants of health for geographically defined populations to clinical data and health outcomes. Third and most importantly, Big Data science may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of health disparities and understanding of minority health in order to guide intervention development. However, the promise of Big Data needs to be considered in light of significant challenges that threaten to widen health disparities. Care must be taken to incorporate diverse populations to realize the potential benefits. Specific recommendations include investing in data collection on small sample populations, building a diverse workforce pipeline for data science, actively seeking to reduce digital divides, developing novel ways to assure digital data privacy for small populations, and promoting widespread data sharing to benefit under-resourced minority-serving institutions and minority researchers. With deliberate efforts, Big Data presents a dramatic opportunity for reducing health disparities but without active engagement, it risks further widening them.

  16. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  17. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  18. Poverty and elimination of urban health disparities: challenge and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.

  19. Male/Female Salary Disparity for Professors of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Diana G.

    The earnings gap between male and female workers across all occupational groups has been well documented; full-time women workers earn, on average, approximately 65 percent of men's salaries. Although male/female salary disparity is largest across occupational groups, salary disparity within occupational groups still prevails. For example, the…

  20. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  1. Luminance, Colour, Viewpoint and Border Enhanced Disparity Energy Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Martins

    Full Text Available The visual cortex is able to extract disparity information through the use of binocular cells. This process is reflected by the Disparity Energy Model, which describes the role and functioning of simple and complex binocular neuron populations, and how they are able to extract disparity. This model uses explicit cell parameters to mathematically determine preferred cell disparities, like spatial frequencies, orientations, binocular phases and receptive field positions. However, the brain cannot access such explicit cell parameters; it must rely on cell responses. In this article, we implemented a trained binocular neuronal population, which encodes disparity information implicitly. This allows the population to learn how to decode disparities, in a similar way to how our visual system could have developed this ability during evolution. At the same time, responses of monocular simple and complex cells can also encode line and edge information, which is useful for refining disparities at object borders. The brain should then be able, starting from a low-level disparity draft, to integrate all information, including colour and viewpoint perspective, in order to propagate better estimates to higher cortical areas.

  2. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  3. Lossless Compression of Stereo Disparity Maps for 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Efficient compression of disparity data is important for accurate view synthesis purposes in multi-view communication systems based on the “texture plus depth” format, including the stereo case. In this paper a novel technique for lossless compression of stereo disparity images is presented...

  4. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  5. Vector disparity sensor with vergence control for active vision systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.

  6. Health disparities among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.

  7. Urethroplasty: a geographic disparity in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Frank N; Salmon, Scott A; Smith, Aaron C; Santucci, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    Urethroplasty is the gold standard for urethral strictures but its geographic prevalence throughout the United States is unknown. We analyzed where and how often urethroplasty was being performed in the United States compared to other treatment modalities for urethral stricture. De-identified case logs from the American Board of Urology were collected from certifying/recertifying urologists from 2004 to 2009. Results were categorized by ZIP codes to determine the geographic distribution. Case logs from 3,877 urologists (2,533 recertifying and 1,344 certifying) were reviewed including 1,836 urethroplasties, 13,080 urethrotomies and 19,564 urethral dilations. The proportion of urethroplasty varied widely among states (range 0% to 17%). The ratio of urethroplasty-to-urethrotomy/dilation also varied widely from state to state, but overall 1 urethroplasty was performed for every 17 urethrotomies or dilations performed. Certifying urologists were 3 times as likely to perform urethroplasty as recertifying urologists (12% vs 4%, respectively, pUrethroplasties were performed more commonly in states with residency programs (mean 5% vs 3%). Some states reported no urethroplasties during the observation period (Vermont, North Dakota, South Dakota, Maine and West Virginia). To our knowledge this is the first report on the geographic distribution of urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. There are large variations in the rates of urethroplasty performed throughout the United States, indicating a disparity of care, especially for those regions in which few or no urethroplasties were reported. This disparity may decrease with time as younger certifying urologists are performing 3 times as many urethroplasties as older recertifying urologists. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Philanthropy and disparities: progress, challenges, and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Faith; Sessions, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Philanthropy has invested millions of dollars to reduce disparities in health care and improve minority health. Grants to strengthen providers' cultural competence, diversify health professions, and collect data have improved understanding of and spurred action on disparities. The persistence of disparities in spite of these advances has shifted philanthropic attention toward strategies to change social, economic, and environmental conditions. We argue that these evolving perspectives, along with earlier groundwork, present new opportunities for funders, especially in combination with progress toward universal health coverage. This article looks at how philanthropy has addressed health disparities over the past decade, with a focus on accomplishments, the work remaining to be done, and how funders can help advance the disparities agenda.

  9. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological 'design' space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused morphometric studies. The unique structural and

  10. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A

    2013-05-01

    Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25-64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, were used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both data sets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). The results add to the literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups.

  11. 77 FR 43850 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Healthand Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  12. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengshi; Kwaku, Abuaku Benjamin; Chen, Youfang; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wen, Shi Wu

    2014-04-27

    Major efforts have been made to improve the health care system in Hunan province, China. The aims of this study were to assess whether and to what extent these efforts have impacted on gender and regional disparities of Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in recent years, especially for less developed areas. We obtained data from the 2005-2009 China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP)to conduct this study in Hunan province. Counties within the province were divided into four regions according to quartiles based on the 2007 per capita GDP. Index of Disparity (ID) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were used to measure the disparities of TB incidence in relation to gender and region. Bootstrap technique was used to increase the precision. The average annual incidence of TB was 111.75 per 100,000 in males and 43.44 per 100 000 in females in Hunan. The gender disparity was stable, with ID from 42.34 in 2005 to 43.92 in 2009. For regional disparity, ID, RII (mean) and RII (ratio) decreased significantly from 2005 to 2009 in males (P China, regional disparity in relation to incidence of TB decreased significantly, but the gender disparity remains in the Hunan province.

  13. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  14. Integrating intersectionality and biomedicine in health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula A

    2009-01-01

    Persisting health disparities have lead to calls for an increase in health research to address them. Biomedical scientists call for research that stratifies individual indicators associated with health disparities, for example, ethnicity. Feminist social scientists recommend feminist intersectionality research. Intersectionality is the multiplicative effect of inequalities experienced by nondominant marginalized groups, for example, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor. The elimination of health disparities necessitates integration of both paradigms in health research. This study provides a practical application of the integration of biomedical and feminist intersectionality paradigms in nursing research, using a psychiatric intervention study with battered Latino women as an example.

  15. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    1 | P a g e Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0802 TITLE: " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC094372 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...developed the tools/methods for working with SEER-Medicare. We plan to use analytic approaches and methods to explore racial disparities in the use of

  16. Regional Disparities in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBOLYA KURKÓ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The abolishment of the communist regime, the establishment of a democratic legal and institutional system brought important changes in the development of the regional economy of Romania. The old – from an economic point of view – differentiating factors have lost some of their importance, mainly the level of industrialization, which, in the past, was used to measure economic development. In addition, other factors came forward, that correlate more with the economic capacity, but, nowadays, their positive effect can only be increased by the combination of several other factors: foreign investments, as an indicator of regional attractiveness, regional GDP, the level of personal income, and the appreciation of human resources. Today, in the interest of enhancing the competitiveness of the regions a special role is reserved for entrepreneurial activity, the strength of the SME sector, the role of foreign working capital in the local economy, but also the territorial concentration of R&D centers. The study focuses on some aspects of disparities regarding the regional economic structure.

  17. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  18. Pharmacogenomics and the challenge of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines emerging technologies and recent research on population differences in pharmacogenomics and the perspectives of scientists, community advocates, policymakers, and social critics on the use of race as a proxy for genetic variation. The discussion focuses on how recent developments in genomic science impact social understandings of racial difference and the public health goal to eliminate ongoing health disparities among racially identified groups. This paper examines how factors such as governmental policies--requiring the use of racial and ethnic categories in genetic research and increasing interest in identifying untapped racial market niches by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries--and weak governmental oversight of race-based therapeutics converge to create an 'infrastructure of racialization' that may alter the vision of personalized medicine that has been so highly anticipated. This paper argues that significant public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of the emerging discourse that tethers racial justice to notions of racial biology and discusses the social and ethical implications for the pendulum shift towards a geneticization of race in drug development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  1. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  3. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women-non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian-using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have "high labor force attachment" (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading.

  4. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  5. Can universal coverage eliminate health disparities? Reversal of disparate injury outcomes in elderly insured minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michelle; Chang, David C; Rogers, Selwyn O; Yu, Peter T; Easterlin, Molly; Coimbra, Raul; Kobayashi, Leslie

    2013-06-15

    Health outcome disparities in racial minorities are well documented. However, it is unknown whether such disparities exist among elderly injured patients. We hypothesized that such disparities might be reduced in the elderly owing to insurance coverage under Medicare. We investigated this issue by comparing the trauma outcomes in young and elderly patients in California. A retrospective analysis of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospital discharge database was performed for all publicly available years from 1995 to 2008. Trauma admissions were identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, primary diagnosis codes from 800 to 959, with certain exclusions. Multivariate analysis examined the adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality in young (<65 y) and elderly (≥65 y) patients, controlling for age, gender, injury severity as measured by the survival risk ratio, Charlson comorbidity index, insurance status, calendar year, and teaching hospital status. A total of 1,577,323 trauma patients were identified. Among the young patients, the adjusted odds ratio of death relative to non-Hispanic whites for blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans/others was 1.2, 1.2, 0.90, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding adjusted odds ratios of death for elderly patients were 0.78, 0.87, 0.92, and 0.61. Young black and Hispanic trauma patients had greater mortality risks relative to non-Hispanic white patients. Interestingly, elderly black and Hispanic patients had lower mortality risks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development tendencies of regional disparities in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klamár Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper deals with the issues of regional development and regional disparities in Slovakia in the years 2001-2014. Levelling respectively increase of regional disparities was evaluated through a set of 13 socio-economic indicators (gross birth rate, average monthly wage, monthly labour costs per employee, employment rate, unemployment rate, net monthly income and expenses per capita, completed dwellings, creation of GDP, labour productivity per employee in industry and construction, number of organizations focused on generating profit and number of freelancers which were used in the territorial units at the level of self-governing regions of the Slovak Republic (NUTS III level. In terms of the evaluation and comparison of regional disparities were used the Gini coefficient and the coefficient of variation for mutual comparison and validation of divergent or convergent tendencies of regional disparities in Slovakia.

  7. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be ...

  8. The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid Managed Care, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  9. Stereo Disparity through Cost Aggregation with Guided Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Tan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the depth, or equivalently the disparity, of a stereo scene is a challenging problem in computer vision. The method proposed by Rhemann et al. in 2011 is based on a filtering of the cost volume, which gives for each pixel and for each hypothesized disparity a cost derived from pixel-by-pixel comparison. The filtering is performed by the guided filter proposed by He et al. in 2010. It computes a weighted local average of the costs. The weights are such that similar pixels tend to have similar costs. Eventually, a winner-take-all strategy selects the disparity with the minimal cost for each pixel. Non-consistent labels according to left-right consistency are rejected; a densification step can then be launched to fill the disparity map. The method can be used to solve other labeling problems (optical flow, segmentation but this article focuses on the stereo matching problem.

  10. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  11. Explaining Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety: A Qualitative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Uiters, Ellen; de Bruijne, Martine C.; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored characteristics of in-hospital care and treatment of immigrant patients to better understand the processes underlying ethnic disparities in patient safety. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with care providers regarding patient safety events involving immigrant

  12. Asthma and Health Disparities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Health Disparities Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table ... under 18 years of age, who currently have asthma, 2010 Non-Hispanic Black Non-Hispanic White Non- ...

  13. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  14. Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2008-06-01

    While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.

  15. Widening Disparity and its Suppression in a Stochastic Replicator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2016-04-01

    Winner-take-all phenomena are observed in various competitive systems. We find similar phenomena in replicator models with randomly fluctuating growth rates. The disparity between winners and losers increases indefinitely, even if all elements are statistically equivalent. A lognormal distribution describes well the nonstationary time evolution. If a nonlinear load corresponding to progressive taxation is introduced, a stationary distribution is obtained and disparity widening is suppressed.

  16. Disseminating Health Disparities Education Through Tele-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaSonya Knowles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years of research demonstrate that there are wide disparities in health throughout America. Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist when specific population subgroups are compared. Health Disparities in America: Working Toward Social Justice is a course instructed every fall by Dr. Lovell Jones, director of The Center for Research on Minority Health (CRMH at UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The CRMH has created a course that examines the social and societal factors that are fundamental in creating disparities in health. Students from 10 different academic programs and institutions participate in this course. The course is unique in the aspect that various, diverse speakers whom are experts in their field of study instruct each class. This health disparities course is conducted at one of three different academic institutions in the Houston area and broadcast via satellite to various academic institutions by means of teleeducation. Tele-education is defined as a mode of instruction utilizing different forms of media such as video, audio technology tools and computers. Video and audio technologies involve the transmission of interface between learners and instructors, either interactive or non-interactive. Tele-education technologies have an important role to play in addressing the dissemination of health disparities education. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of tele-education as a mode of instruction to introduce the multi-disciplinary components of health disparities. Our findings suggest that tele-education is a useful tool in imparting health disparities education.

  17. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  18. Temporal Integration of Auditory Stimulation and Binocular Disparity Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies using visual objects defined by luminance have reported that the auditory event must be presented 30 to 40 ms after the visual stimulus to perceive audiovisual synchrony. In the present study, we used visual objects defined only by their binocular disparity. We measured the optimal latency between visual and auditory stimuli for the perception of synchrony using a method introduced by Moutoussis & Zeki (1997. Visual stimuli were defined either by luminance and disparity or by disparity only. They moved either back and forth between 6 and 12 arcmin or from left to right at a constant disparity of 9 arcmin. This visual modulation was presented together with an amplitude-modulated 500 Hz tone. Both modulations were sinusoidal (frequency: 0.7 Hz. We found no difference between 2D and 3D motion for luminance stimuli: a 40 ms auditory lag was necessary for perceived synchrony. Surprisingly, even though stereopsis is often thought to be slow, we found a similar optimal latency in the disparity 3D motion condition (55 ms. However, when participants had to judge simultaneity for disparity 2D motion stimuli, it led to larger latencies (170 ms, suggesting that stereo motion detectors are poorly suited to track 2D motion.

  19. Disparities in Disability by Educational Attainment Across US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    To examine how disparities in adult disability by educational attainment vary across US states. We used the nationally representative data of more than 6 million adults aged 45 to 89 years in the 2010-2014 American Community Survey. We defined disability as difficulty with activities of daily living. We categorized education as low (less than high school), mid (high school or some college), or high (bachelor's or higher). We estimated age-standardized disability prevalence by educational attainment and state. We assessed whether the variation in disability across states occurs primarily among low-educated adults and whether it reflects the socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts. Disparities in disability by education vary markedly across states-from a 20 percentage point disparity in Massachusetts to a 12-point disparity in Wyoming. Disparities vary across states mainly because the prevalence of disability among low-educated adults varies across states. Personal and contextual socioeconomic resources of low-educated adults account for 29% of the variation. Efforts to reduce disparities in disability by education should consider state and local strategies that reduce poverty among low-educated adults and their surrounding contexts.

  20. Controlling disease and creating disparities: a fundamental cause perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C; Link, Bruce G

    2005-10-01

    The United States and other developed countries experienced enormous improvements in population health during the 20th century. In the context of this dramatic positive change, health disparities by race and socioeconomic status emerged for several potent killers. Any explanation for current health disparities must take these changing patterns into account. Any explanation that ignores large improvements in population health and fails to account for the emergence of disparities for specific diseases is an inadequate explanation of current disparities. We argue that genetic explanations and some prominent social causation explanations are incompatible with these facts. We propose that the theory of "fundamental causes" can account for both vast improvements in population health and the creation of large socioeconomic and racial disparities in mortality for specific causes of death over time. Specifically, we argue that it is our enormously expanded capacity to control disease and death in combination with existing social and economic inequalities that create health disparities by race and socioeconomic status: When we develop the ability to control disease and death, the benefits of this new-found ability are distributed according to resources of knowledge, money, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections. We present data on changing mortality patterns by race and socioeconomic status for two types of diseases: those for which our capacity to prevent death has increased significantly and those for which we remain largely unable to prevent death. Time trends in mortality patterns are consistent with the fundamental cause explanation.

  1. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  2. 75 FR 29357 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and Underserved... Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 594-8696...

  3. 75 FR 66114 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  4. 75 FR 12766 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research... Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800...

  5. 75 FR 9421 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research..., National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  6. 76 FR 63310 - National Center On Minority and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Health Disparities Research (R01). Date: November... Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., MSC. 5465, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  7. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  8. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  10. 34 CFR 222.162 - What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in current expenditures or revenues per pupil measured? 222.162... of the Act § 222.162 What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are...

  11. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2013-03-01

    To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent's last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report 'very good' on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level.

  12. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  13. Employment and Wage Disparities for Nurses With Activity Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara L; Butler, Richard J; Butler, Matthew J

    2016-11-01

    No studies quantify the labor market disparities between nurses with and without activity difficulties (physical impairment or disability). We explore disparate treatment of nurses with activity difficulties at three margins of the labor market: the ability to get a job, the relative wage rate offered once a nurse has a job, and the annual hours of work given that wage rate. Key variables from the American Community Survey (ACS) were analyzed, including basic demographic information, wages, hours of work, and employment status of registered nurses from 2006 to 2014. Although there is relatively little disparity in hourly wages, there is enormous disparity in the disabled's employment and hours of work opportunities, and hence a moderate amount of disparity in annual wages. This has significant implications for the nursing labor force, particularly as the nursing workforce continues to age and physical limitations or disabilities increase by 15-fold from 25 to 65 years of age.  Physical or psychological difficulties increase sharply over the course of a nurse's career, and employers must heighten efforts to facilitate an aging workforce and provide appropriate job accommodations for nurses with activity limitations. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  16. The Effects of Gender- and Sexuality-Based Harassment on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Substance Use Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Bersamin, Melina; Russell, Stephen T; Mair, Christina

    2018-06-01

    We tested three competing models about whether gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school have nonindependent, additive, or interactive effects on adolescents' electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping), cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking (HED). We also tested whether harassment mediated substance use disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) adolescents and their cisgender heterosexual peers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey, including 316,766 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 from more than 1,500 middle and high schools. We used logistic regression models and interaction terms to estimate associations of past-year gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school on past-month substance use, and the Karlson-Holm-Breen method to test whether harassment mediated LGBT disparities in substance use. Vaping, smoking, drinking, HED, and gender- and sexuality-based harassment were higher for transgender adolescents than for cisgender males and females, and for adolescents who were lesbian, gay, or bisexual only versus heterosexual only. Gender- and sexuality-based harassments were independently associated with greater odds of using each substance in every grade. These two types of harassment had positive interactions with each other for vaping in grade 11, smoking in grade 11, and HED in grades 9 and 11. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment significantly mediated many of the LGBT disparities in substance use. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school independently or interactively produced LGBT disparities in substance use. Reducing these types of discrimination in schools will likely mitigate these disparities. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining disparate data for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  18. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  19. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304

  20. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  1. Feminist intersectionality: bringing social justice to health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jamie; Kelly, Ursula A

    2011-05-01

    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations--who and what are studied and why?--and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional approach in the context of health disparities research to firmly establish inseparable links between health research ethics, social action, and social justice. The aim is to provide an ethical approach to health disparities research that simultaneously describes and seeks to eliminate health disparities. © The Author(s) 2011

  2. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes in the Liver and Gills of the Killifish Aphanius Dispar (Cyprinodontidae Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiya H. Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a mycotoxin which can cause serious toxicity to animals and humans.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AFB1 in Aphanius dispar fish and measure residues in tissues after in vivo exposure. Aphanius dispar were fed diets containing 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg for 10, 20 and 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the liver and gills were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscopy. During the experiment, no external changes or unusual behavior were observed in the fish. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in liver appeared under all four treatments: 50, 100, 150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Gill tissues were affected at high doses of 100,150 and 200 µg AFB1/kg. Accumulation of AFB1 residues in liver and gill tissues was found to be related to a dose and duration of exposure.

  3. Wellness Programs With Financial Incentives Through Disparities Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison; LoSasso, Anthony T; Shah, Mona; Atwood, Alicia; Lewis-Walls, Tanya R

    2018-02-01

    To examine wellness programs with financial incentives and their effect on disparities in preventive care. Financial incentives were introduced by 15 large employers, from 2010 to 2013. Fifteen private employers. A total of 299 436 employees and adult dependents. Preventive services and participation in financial incentives. Multivariate linear regression. Disparities in preventive services widened after introduction of financial incentives. Asians were 3% more likely and African Americans were 3% less likely to receive wellness rewards than whites and non-Hispanics, controlling for other factors. Federal law limits targeting of wellness financial incentives by subgroups; thus, employers should consider outreach and culturally appropriate messaging.

  4. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K

    2017-10-01

    Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (pprevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  7. Leveraging Cloud Computing to Address Public Health Disparities: An Analysis of the SPHPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Arash; Olabode, Olusegun A; Bell, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    As the use of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) has continued to gain prominence in hospitals and physician practices, public health agencies and health professionals have the ability to access health data through health information exchanges (HIE). With such knowledge health providers are well positioned to positively affect population health, and enhance health status or quality-of-life outcomes in at-risk populations. Through big data analytics, predictive analytics and cloud computing, public health agencies have the opportunity to observe emerging public health threats in real-time and provide more effective interventions addressing health disparities in our communities. The Smarter Public Health Prevention System (SPHPS) provides real-time reporting of potential public health threats to public health leaders through the use of a simple and efficient dashboard and links people with needed personal health services through mobile platforms for smartphones and tablets to promote and encourage healthy behaviors in our communities. The purpose of this working paper is to evaluate how a secure virtual private cloud (VPC) solution could facilitate the implementation of the SPHPS in order to address public health disparities.

  8. The Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Graft Outcome Disparities in African American Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; Hunt, Kelly J; Fominaya, Cory E; Payne, Elizabeth H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Srinivas, Titte R; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    Although outcome inequalities for non-Hispanic Black (NHB) kidney transplant recipients are well documented, there is paucity in data assessing the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on this disparity in kidney transplantation. This was a longitudinal study of a national cohort of veteran kidney recipients transplanted between Jan 2001 and Dec 2007. Data included baseline characteristics acquired through the USRDS linked to detailed clinical follow up information acquired through the VA electronic health records. Analyses were conducted using sequential multivariable modeling (Cox regression), incorporating blocks of variables into iterative nested models; 3,139 patients were included (2,095 NHW [66.7%] and 1,044 NHBs [33.3%]). NHBs had a higher prevalence of hypertension (100% vs. 99%, ptransplant diabetes (59% vs. 53%, pAdherence to medications used to manage CVD risk was significantly lower in NHBs. In the fully adjusted models, the independent risk of graft loss in NHBs was substantially reduced (unadjusted HR 2.00 vs. adjusted HR 1.49). CVD risk factors and control reduced the influence of NHB race by 9–18%. Similar trends were noted for mortality and estimates were robust across in sensitivity analyses. These results demonstrate that NHB kidney transplant recipients have significantly higher rates of CVD risk factors and reduced CVD risk control. These issues are likely partly related to medication non-adherence and meaningfully contribute to racial disparities for graft outcomes. PMID:27402921

  9. Lack of Gender Disparities in Emergency Department Triage of Acute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madsen, Tracy E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous literature has shown gender disparities in the care of acute ischemic stroke. Compared to men, women wait longer for brain imaging and are less likely to receive intravenous (IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. Emergency department (ED triage is an important step in the rapid assessment of stroke patients and is a possible contributor to disparities. It is unknown whether gender differences exist in ED triage of acute stroke patients. Our primary objective was to determine whether gender disparities exist in the triage of acute stroke patients as defined by Emergency Severity Index (ESI levels and use of ED critical care beds. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients age ≥18 years presenting to a large, urban, academic ED within six hours of symptom onset between January 2010, and December 2012. Primary outcomes were triage to a non-critical ED bed and Emergency Severity Index (ESI level. Primary outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records by a blinded data manager; secondary outcome data and covariates were abstracted by trained research assistants. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses. Logistic regression was performed using age, race, insurance status, mode of and time to arrival, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and presence of atypical symptoms as covariates. Results: There were 537 patients included in this study. Women were older (75.6 vs. 69.5, p<0.001, and more women had a history of atrial fibrillation (39.8% vs. 25.3%, p<0.001. Compared to 9.5% of men, 10.3% of women were triaged to a non-critical care ED bed (p=0.77; 92.1% of women were triaged as ESI 1 or 2 vs. 93.6% of men (p=0.53. After adjustment, gender was not associated with triage location or ESI level, though atypical symptoms were associated with higher odds of being triaged to a non-critical care bed (aOR 1.98, 95%CI [1.03 – 3.81] and 3

  10. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  11. Gender disparity in internet utilisation habits of medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that there still exists gender inequality in internet utilization by students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It recommends paradigm shift in teaching, information dissemination patterns and policy implementation to accomplish the desired change. Keywords: Internet, Utilization, Habits, Gender, Disparity, Digital, Divide.

  12. Disparities in Salaries: Metropolitan versus Nonmetropolitan Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Louis C.; Simpson, Lynn A.; Waller, Lee Rusty

    2009-01-01

    This article explores disparities in faculty salaries between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Texas community colleges. The analysis reveals a significant difference in faculty salaries for the 2000 and 2005 academic years respectively. The study found no significant difference in the rate of change in faculty salaries from 2000 to 2005.…

  13. Monitoring population density and fluctuations of Anisandrus dispar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark and ambrosia beetles consist of two main ecological groups; bark beetles settle in the phloem, whereas ambrosia beetles bore in the xylem (sapwood). The latter are very detrimental ... in Samsun province. Key words: Hazelnut, population monitoring, Anisandrus dispar, Xyleborinus saxesenii, red winged sticky traps.

  14. A Scoping Review of Health Disparities in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Kind, Amy J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy compared to the general population, and these disparities are likely exacerbated for those individuals who are otherwise disadvantaged. We conducted a review to ascertain what is known about health and health system quality (e.g., high…

  15. When does power disparity help or hurt group performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakci, Murat; Greer, Lindred L; Groenen, Patrick J F

    2016-03-01

    Power differences are ubiquitous in social settings. However, the question of whether groups with higher or lower power disparity achieve better performance has thus far received conflicting answers. To address this issue, we identify 3 underlying assumptions in the literature that may have led to these divergent findings, including a myopic focus on static hierarchies, an assumption that those at the top of hierarchies are competent at group tasks, and an assumption that equality is not possible. We employ a multimethod set of studies to examine these assumptions and to understand when power disparity will help or harm group performance. First, our agent-based simulation analyses show that by unpacking these common implicit assumptions in power research, we can explain earlier disparate findings--power disparity benefits group performance when it is dynamically aligned with the power holder's task competence, and harms group performance when held constant and/or is not aligned with task competence. Second, our empirical findings in both a field study of fraud investigation groups and a multiround laboratory study corroborate the simulation results. We thereby contribute to research on power by highlighting a dynamic understanding of power in groups and explaining how current implicit assumptions may lead to opposing findings. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Social Capital, Information, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Math Course Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study revealed that socioeconomically advantaged students persist in high school math at higher rates than their disadvantaged peers even when they have the same initial placements and skill levels. These disparities are larger among students with prior records of low academic status because students…

  17. Healthcare Providers' Responses to Narrative Communication About Racial Healthcare Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana J; Bokhour, Barbara G; Cunningham, Brooke A; Do, Tam; Gordon, Howard S; Jones, Dina M; Pope, Charlene; Saha, Somnath; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-10-25

    We used qualitative methods (semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers) to explore: 1) the role of narratives as a vehicle for raising awareness and engaging providers about the issue of healthcare disparities and 2) the extent to which different ways of framing issues of race within narratives might lead to message acceptance for providers' whose preexisting beliefs about causal attributions might predispose them to resist communication about racial healthcare disparities. Individual interviews were conducted with 53 providers who had completed a prior survey assessing beliefs about disparities. Participants were stratified by the degree to which they believed providers contributed to healthcare inequality: low provider attribution (LPA) versus high provider attribution (HPA). Each participant read and discussed two differently framed narratives about race in healthcare. All participants accepted the "Provider Success" narratives, in which interpersonal barriers involving a patient of color were successfully resolved by the provider narrator, through patient-centered communication. By contrast, "Persistent Racism" narratives, in which problems faced by the patient of color were more explicitly linked to racism and remained unresolved, were very polarizing, eliciting acceptance from HPA participants and resistance from LPA participants. This study provides a foundation for and raises questions about how to develop effective narrative communication strategies to engage providers in efforts to reduce healthcare disparities.

  18. Quantifying the disparity in outcome between urban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Acute appendicitis in South Africa is associated with higher morbidity than in the developed world. Objective. To compare outcomes of urban and rural patients in KwaZulu-Natal and to determine whether there are disparities in outcome. Methods. We conducted a prospective study from September 2010 to ...

  19. The diversity and disparity in biomedical informatics (DDBI) workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, William M; Swamidass, S Joshua; Payne, Philip R O; Wiley, Laura; Williams-DeVane, ClarLynda

    2018-01-01

    The Diversity and Disparity in Biomedical Informatics (DDBI) workshop will be focused on complementary and critical issues concerned with enhancing diversity in the informatics workforce as well as diversity in patient cohorts. According to the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) at the NIH, diversity refers to the inclusion of the following traditionally underrepresented groups: African Americans/Blacks, Asians (>30 countries), American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Latino or Hispanic (20 countries). Gender, culture, and socioeconomic status are also important dimensions of diversity, which may define some underrepresented groups. The under-representation of specific groups in both the biomedical informatics workforce as well as in the patient-derived data that is being used for research purposes has contributed to an ongoing disparity; these groups have not experienced equity in contributing to or benefiting from advancements in informatics research. This workshop will highlight innovative efforts to increase the pool of minority informaticians and discuss examples of informatics research that addresses the health concerns that impact minority populations. This workshop topics will provide insight into overcoming pipeline issues in the development of minority informaticians while emphasizing the importance of minority participation in health related research. The DDBI workshop will occur in two parts. Part I will discuss specific minority health & health disparities research topics and Part II will cover discussions related to overcoming pipeline issues in the training of minority informaticians.

  20. Income-Based Disparities in Early Elementary School Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study documents gaps in kindergarten and first-grade science achievement by family income and explores the degree to which such gaps can be accounted for by student race/ethnicity, out-of-school activities, parental education, and school fixed effects. In doing so, it expands on prior research that documents disparate rates of science…

  1. Identification of Factors Contributing to Gender Disparity in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in absolute numbers while female dismissal rates soared alarmingly between 2000/01-2004/05. To bridge the gender disparity in participation, the paper recommends intervention strategies aimed at bolstering academic achievement and positive self-concept among female students. East African Social Science Research ...

  2. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  3. Lifecourse approach to racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.

  4. Sex Disparities in Arrest Outcomes for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…

  5. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Conyers, F. Garrett; Estapé, Estela S.; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J.; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R.; Nivet, Marc A.; Oppenheim, Joel D.; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2015-01-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. PMID:23659676

  6. Musculoskeletal networks reveal topological disparity in mammalian neck evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-12-13

    The increase in locomotor and metabolic performance during mammalian evolution was accompanied by the limitation of the number of cervical vertebrae to only seven. In turn, nuchal muscles underwent a reorganization while forelimb muscles expanded into the neck region. As variation in the cervical spine is low, the variation in the arrangement of the neck muscles and their attachment sites (i.e., the variability of the neck's musculoskeletal organization) is thus proposed to be an important source of neck disparity across mammals. Anatomical network analysis provides a novel framework to study the organization of the anatomical arrangement, or connectivity pattern, of the bones and muscles that constitute the mammalian neck in an evolutionary context. Neck organization in mammals is characterized by a combination of conserved and highly variable network properties. We uncovered a conserved regionalization of the musculoskeletal organization of the neck into upper, mid and lower cervical modules. In contrast, there is a varying degree of complexity or specialization and of the integration of the pectoral elements. The musculoskeletal organization of the monotreme neck is distinctively different from that of therian mammals. Our findings reveal that the limited number of vertebrae in the mammalian neck does not result in a low musculoskeletal disparity when examined in an evolutionary context. However, this disparity evolved late in mammalian history in parallel with the radiation of certain lineages (e.g., cetartiodactyls, xenarthrans). Disparity is further facilitated by the enhanced incorporation of forelimb muscles into the neck and their variability in attachment sites.

  7. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper “Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education” reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in others. Explanations of gender inequality in higher education should distinguish between these different ...

  8. Disparities in Overweight and Obesity among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Cheung, Lilian; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social disparities and behavioral correlates of overweight and obesity over time among college students. Methods: Multilevel analyses of BMI, physical activity, and television viewing from 2 representative surveys of US college students (n=24,613). Results: Overweight and obesity increased over time and were higher among…

  9. Can internet infrastructure help reduce regional disparities? : evidence from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celbis, M.G.; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents novel evidence regarding the role of regional internet infrastructure in reducing regional per capita income disparities. We base our study on the assumptions that (1) the diffusion of information homogenizes regional economies through reducing the dissimilarities in institutions

  10. Disparity of radioiodine and radiothallium concentrations in chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, K.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Friedman, M.; Rao, U.

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) presented with thyroid nodules, showed disparate uptakes of radioiodine and radiothallium. All patients were clinically euthyroid and had positive antithyroid antibody titers. On cytological and/or pathological examinations, they were consistent with chronic thyroiditis.

  11. Prioritizing health disparities in medical education to improve care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosogba, Temitope; Betancourt, Joseph R; Conyers, F Garrett; Estapé, Estela S; Francois, Fritz; Gard, Sabrina J; Kaufman, Arthur; Lunn, Mitchell R; Nivet, Marc A; Oppenheim, Joel D; Pomeroy, Claire; Yeung, Howa

    2013-05-01

    Despite yearly advances in life-saving and preventive medicine, as well as strategic approaches by governmental and social agencies and groups, significant disparities remain in health, health quality, and access to health care within the United States. The determinants of these disparities include baseline health status, race and ethnicity, culture, gender identity and expression, socioeconomic status, region or geography, sexual orientation, and age. In order to renew the commitment of the medical community to address health disparities, particularly at the medical school level, we must remind ourselves of the roles of doctors and medical schools as the gatekeepers and the value setters for medicine. Within those roles are responsibilities toward the social mission of working to eliminate health disparities. This effort will require partnerships with communities as well as with academic centers to actively develop and to implement diversity and inclusion strategies. Besides improving the diversity of trainees in the pipeline, access to health care can be improved, and awareness can be raised regarding population-based health inequalities. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth Disparity between Medical Research and Medical Services in India. British rulers opened hospitals for modern medicine; medical colleges; nurses schools etc. in the 19th century to the joyous welcome of natives. During the same period, they set up Indian Research Fund Association two years ahead of the MRC of ...

  13. Disparity refinement process based on RANSAC plane fitting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more accurate than normal flow state-of-the-art stereo matching algorithms. The performance evaluations are based on standard image quality metrics i.e. structural similarity index measure, peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. Keywords: computer vision; disparity refinement; image segmentation; RANSAC; ...

  14. Racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about racial and ethnic disparities in health care utilization, expenditures and drug choice in the antidepressant market. This study investigates factors associated with the racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. We seek to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Among the population characteristics, we are interested in identifying which factors are most important in accounting for racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 1996-2003, we have an available sample of 10,416 Caucasian, 1,089 African American and 1,539 Hispanic antidepressant drug users aged 18 to 64 years. We estimate individual out-of-pocket payments, total prescription drug expenditures, drug utilization, the probability of taking generic versus brand name antidepressants, and the share of drugs that are older types of antidepressants (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs) for these individuals during a calendar year. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus unobserved heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Caucasians have the highest antidepressant drug expenditures and utilization. African-Americans have the lowest drug expenditures and Hispanics have the lowest drug utilization. Relative to Caucasians and Hispanics, African-Americans are more likely to purchase generics and use a higher share of older drugs (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs). Differences in observable characteristics explain most of the racial/ethnic differences in these outcomes, with the exception of drug utilization. Differences in health insurance and education levels are particularly important factors in explaining disparities. In contrast, differences in drug utilization largely reflect unobserved

  15. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  16. An examination of the impact of executive compensation disparity on corporate social performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, T.A.; David, P.; Shao, F.; Fox, C.J.; Westermann-Behaylo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between top management team compensation disparity and corporate social performance. We argue that pay structures with high disparity are reflective of transactional, individualistic organizations that foster a shareholder orientation. In contrast, pay structures with

  17. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  18. Corporatization of pain medicine: implications for widening pain care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Salimah H

    2011-04-01

    The current health care system in the United States is structured in a way that ensures that more opportunity and resources flow to the wealthy and socially advantaged. The values intrinsic to the current profit-oriented culture are directly antithetical to the idea of equitable access. A large body of literature points to disparities in pain treatment and pain outcomes among vulnerable groups. These disparities range from the presence of disproportionately higher numbers and magnitude of risk factors for developing disabling pain, lack of access to primary care providers, analgesics and interventions, lack of referral to pain specialists, longer wait times to receive care, receipt of poor quality of pain care, and lack of geographical access to pharmacies that carry opioids. This article examines the manner in which the profit-oriented culture in medicine has directly and indirectly structured access to pain care, thereby widening pain treatment disparities among vulnerable groups. Specifically, the author argues that the corporatization of pain medicine amplifies disparities in pain outcomes in two ways: 1) directly through driving up the cost of pain care, rendering it inaccessible to the financially vulnerable; and 2) indirectly through an interface with corporate loss-aversion/risk management culture that draws upon irrelevant social characteristics, thus worsening disparities for certain populations. Thus, while financial vulnerability is the core reason for lack of access, it does not fully explain the implications of corporate microculture regarding access. The effect of corporatization on pain medicine must be conceptualized in terms of overt access to facilities, providers, pharmaceuticals, specialty services, and interventions, but also in terms of the indirect or covert effect of corporate culture in shaping clinical interactions and outcomes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-07-01

    Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trust in physicians and racial disparities in HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somnath; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Mistrust among African Americans is often considered a potential source of racial disparities in HIV care. We sought to determine whether greater trust in one's provider among African-American patients mitigates racial disparities. We analyzed data from 1,104 African-American and 201 white patients participating in a cohort study at an urban, academic HIV clinic between 2005 and 2008. African Americans expressed lower levels of trust in their providers than did white patients (8.9 vs. 9.4 on a 0-10 scale; p African Americans were also less likely than whites to be receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) when eligible (85% vs. 92%; p = 0.02), to report complete ART adherence over the prior 3 days (83% vs. 89%; p = 0.005), and to have a suppressed viral load (40% vs. 47%; p = 0.04). Trust in one's provider was not associated with receiving ART or with viral suppression but was significantly associated with adherence. African Americans who expressed less than complete trust in their providers (0-9 of 10) had lower ART adherence than did whites (adjusted OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25-0.66). For African Americans who expressed complete trust in their providers (10 of 10), the racial disparity in adherence was less prominent but still substantial (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95). Trust did not affect disparities in receipt of ART or viral suppression. Our findings suggest that enhancing trust in patient-provider relationships for African-American patients may help reduce disparities in ART adherence and the outcomes associated with improved adherence.

  1. Student Enrolment in Malaysian Higher Education: Is There Gender Disparity and What Can We Learn from the Disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang-Da

    2018-01-01

    Access into higher education has traditionally been dominated by males. However, the current situation in Malaysia as well as in many developed and developing nations is that females have outnumbered males in higher education. By comparing gender enrolment, this paper illustrates the extent of gender disparity in Malaysian higher education across…

  2. Using temporal seeding to constrain the disparity search range in stereo matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhlovu, T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available for reusing computed disparity estimates on features in a stereo image sequence to constrain the disparity search range. Features are detected on a left image and their disparity estimates are computed using a local-matching algorithm. The features...

  3. Unequal before the Law : Measuring Legal Gender Disparities across the World

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Sarah; Islam, Asif; Ramalho, Rita; Sakhonchik, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Several economies have laws that treat women differently from men. This study explores the degree of such legal gender disparities across 167 economies around the world. This is achieved by constructing a simple measure of legal gender disparities to evaluate how countries perform. The average number of overall legal gender disparities across 167 economies is 17, ranging from a minimum of ...

  4. 76 FR 40384 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special, Emphasis Panel, U24 Grant Review. Date: July 11-12, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  5. 76 FR 11500 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01 grant review (03). Date: March 7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m... Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD...

  6. 76 FR 31618 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 14, 2011. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  7. 76 FR 6808 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 22, 2011. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  8. 76 FR 28795 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R25 Grant Review. Date: May 23-24, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  9. 77 FR 27784 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 12, 2012. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  10. 76 FR 52959 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Revision Applications to Support Environmental Health Disparities Research P20. Date: August 29, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  11. 75 FR 71449 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel (R01). Date: December 15-16, 2010. Time: 7:45 a.m. to 3..., National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  12. 78 FR 62638 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Technologies for Improving Minority Health and Eliminating Health Disparities (R41/ R42). Date: November 8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5...

  13. 76 FR 55078 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, ZMD1 RN (02) NIMHD Comprehensive Center of Excellence... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected

  14. 77 FR 9676 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 28, 2012. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  15. 75 FR 28262 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 8, 2010. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9 a.m...

  16. 76 FR 18566 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, NIMHD Conference Grant Application (R13) Review. Date... Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536...

  17. 76 FR 55075 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 13, 2011. Closed: 8 to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  18. 77 FR 36564 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Support for Conference and Scientific meetings... Institutes of Health, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd...

  19. 78 FR 50428 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 10, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  20. 76 FR 21748 - Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Disparities Subcommittee (HDS), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... through the ACD on strategic and other health disparities and health equity issues and provide guidance on... update including the CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report, U.S. 2011; the National Prevention...

  1. 78 FR 65345 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Research Center in Minority Institution Program... applications. Place: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  2. 76 FR 11499 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 LRP Panel 1. Date: March 18, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536, [email protected

  3. 78 FR 9402 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health; Disparities Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Minority Health and Health; Disparities Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: February 26, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  4. 76 FR 57068 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; ZMD1 RN 01 NIMHD Exploratory Centers of Excellence (P20... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996, [email protected

  5. 78 FR 28233 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: June 11, 2013. Closed: 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. Agenda...

  6. 76 FR 14673 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; 2011 LRP Panel 3. Date: April 13, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451-9536, [email protected

  7. 78 FR 13689 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel. Date: March 8, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m..., and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 496-3996...

  8. 77 FR 50139 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be closed to the public in... Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 17, 2012. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and...

  9. 75 FR 53975 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Date: September 14, 2010. Closed: 8 a.m. to 9:30 a.m...

  10. 75 FR 25273 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, Faith Based R21. Date: June 29-July 1, 2010. Time: 5 p..., Chief, Office of Scientific Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707...

  11. 77 FR 61611 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Social, Behavioral, Health Services, and Policy Research on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01). Date: November 7-9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 3 p.m...

  12. 75 FR 42100 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel, NCMHD Social Determinants of Health (R01) Panel. Date... Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-8696, [email protected

  13. 78 FR 10621 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Conference Grant Review (R13). Date: March 15... Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 594-7784, [email protected

  14. 77 FR 9673 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01. Date: February 16, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes...

  15. Path Not Found: Disparities in Access to Computer Science Courses in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexis; McAlear, Frieda; Scott, Allison

    2015-01-01

    "Path Not Found: Disparities in Access to Computer Science Courses in California High Schools" exposes one of the foundational causes of underrepresentation in computing: disparities in access to computer science courses in California's public high schools. This report provides new, detailed data on these disparities by student body…

  16. Gender Disparity at Elementary Education Level in Jammu and Kashmir: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on a study to explore gender disparity at elementary education level in Jammu and Kashmir. Gender disparity in education refers to differences in outcomes observed between two sexes. Education disparities can be seen in different enrolment rates, dropout rates, and survival rates among the sexes. The central government and…

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 36 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different fertilizers on the microbial activity and productivity of soil under potato ... Preparation of productive and highly purified mogrosides from Siraitia grosvenorii ... Effects of Lymantria dispar feeding and mechanical wounding on ...

  18. Ethnic disparities in diabetes management and pay-for-performance in the UK: the Wandsworth Prospective Diabetes Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Millett

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pay-for-performance rewards health-care providers by paying them more if they succeed in meeting performance targets. A new contract for general practitioners in the United Kingdom represents the most radical shift towards pay-for-performance seen in any health-care system. The contract provides an important opportunity to address disparities in chronic disease management between ethnic and socioeconomic groups. We examined disparities in management of people with diabetes and intermediate clinical outcomes within a multiethnic population in primary care before and after the introduction of the new contract in April 2004.We conducted a population-based longitudinal survey, using electronic general practice records, in an ethnically diverse part of southwest London. Outcome measures were prescribing levels and achievement of national treatment targets (HbA1c < or = 7.0%; blood pressure [BP] < 140/80 mm Hg; total cholesterol < or = 5 mmol/l or 193 mg/dl. The proportion of patients reaching treatment targets for HbA1c, BP, and total cholesterol increased significantly after the implementation of the new contract. The extents of these increases were broadly uniform across ethnic groups, with the exception of the black Caribbean patient group, which had a significantly lower improvement in HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.97 and BP control (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81 relative to the white British patient group. Variations in prescribing and achievement of treatment targets between ethnic groups present in 2003 were not attenuated in 2005.Pay-for-performance incentives have not addressed disparities in the management and control of diabetes between ethnic groups. Quality improvement initiatives must place greater emphasis on minority communities to avoid continued disparities in mortality from cardiovascular disease and the other major complications of diabetes.

  19. Population disparities in mental health: insights from cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-10-01

    By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe.

  20. Intra-regional disparities in Sisak-Moslavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Braičić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct discrepancies in social and economic development levels between different parts of the Sisak-Moslavina County. Although discussed in earlier researches, the County's intraregional disparities were approached in a new way. The paper deals with the disparities between administrative cities and municipalities and between the northern (Sisak Posavina and Moslavina and the southern (Banovina part of the County by applying two groups of indicators – economic development and demographic development. Based on these indicators administrative cities and municipalities ranking has been conducted, two synthetic ranks have been derived and their correlation tested. According to different indicators, the Municipality of Gvozd is in the most unfavourable situation while the most favourable indicators are related to the town of Kutina.

  1. The evolution of lycopsid rooting structures: conservatism and disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Alexander J; Dolan, Liam

    2017-07-01

    Contents 538 I. 538 II. 539 III. 541 IV. 542 543 References 543 SUMMARY: The evolution of rooting structures was a crucial event in Earth's history, increasing the ability of plants to extract water, mine for nutrients and anchor above-ground shoot systems. Fossil evidence indicates that roots evolved at least twice among vascular plants, in the euphyllophytes and independently in the lycophytes. Here, we review the anatomy and evolution of lycopsid rooting structures. Highlighting recent discoveries made with fossils we suggest that the evolution of lycopsid rooting structures displays two contrasting patterns - conservatism and disparity. The structures termed roots have remained structurally similar despite hundreds of millions of years of evolution - an example of remarkable conservatism. By contrast, and over the same time period, the organs that give rise to roots have diversified, resulting in the evolution of numerous novel and disparate organs. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. The disparate histories of binocular vision and binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2018-01-01

    Vision and hearing are dependent on disparities of spatial patterns received by two eyes and on time and intensity differences to two ears. However, the experiences of a single world have masked attention to these disparities. While eyes and ears are paired, there has not been parity in the attention directed to their functioning. Phenomena involving binocular vision were commented upon since antiquity whereas those about binaural hearing are much more recent. This history is compared with respect to the experimental manipulations of dichoptic and dichotic stimuli and the instruments used to stimulate the paired organs. Binocular color mixing led to studies of binaural hearing and direction and distance in visual localization were analyzed before those for auditory localization. Experimental investigations began in the nineteenth century with the invention of instruments like the stereoscope and pseudoscope, soon to be followed by their binaural equivalents, the stethophone and pseudophone.

  3. Regional Economic Growth; Socio-Economic Disparities among Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Özgür SARICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State level economy has always been relying on its major metropolitan area’s economic success. So, such metropolitan agglomerations have been considered the only agents that can foster the state’s economic standing as if other economic places do (or may not have significant contribution to the regional economy. In contrast, as some major cities enhance their economic well-being and agglomerate in specialized sector, the rest of the region lose their economic grounds or stay constant by widening the economic gap among cities. Therefore, an institutional approach can help to establish new regional arrangements to substitute all economic places to coordinate each other and succeed the economic growth as part of state government by reducing the disparities. In this sense, this study builds upon the inquiry that seeks the impacts of some economic disparities among economic places (counties on the performances of state level regional economy.

  4. A quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for different disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghan; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yun, Lijun; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Color asymmetry is a common phenomenon in stereoscopic display system, which can cause visual fatigue or visual discomfort. When the color difference between the left and right eyes exceeds a threshold value, named binocular color fusion limit, color rivalry is said to occur. The most important information brought by stereoscopic displays is the depth perception produced by the disparity. As the stereo pair stimuli are presented separately to both eyes with disparities and those two monocular stimuli differ in color but share an iso-luminance polarity, it is possible for stereopsis and color rivalry to coexist. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to measure the color fusion limit for different disparity levels. In particular, it examines how the magnitude and sign of disparity affect the binocular color fusion limit that yields a fused, stable stereoscopic percept. The binocular color fusion limit was measured at five levels of disparities: 0, +/-60, +/-120 arc minutes for a sample color point which was selected from the 1976 CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram. The experimental results showed that fusion limit for the sample point varied with the level and sign of disparity. It was an interesting result that the fusion limit increased as the disparity decreases at crossed disparity direction (sign -), but there is almost no big change at uncrossed disparity direction (sign +). We found that color fusion was more difficult to achieve at the crossed disparity direction than at the uncrossed disparity direction.

  5. Prenatal and Postpartum Care Disparities in a Large Medicaid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Jarlenski, Marian; Kelley, David

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Pennsylvania's maternal mortality, infant mortality, and preterm birth rates rank 24th, 35th, and 25th in the country, and are higher among racial and ethnic minorities. Provision of prenatal and postpartum care represents one way to improve these outcomes. We assessed the extent of disparities in the provision and timeliness of prenatal and postpartum care for women enrolled in Pennsylvania Medicaid. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of representative samples of women who delivered live births from November 2011 to 2015. Our outcomes were three binary effectiveness-of-care measures: prenatal care timeliness, frequency of prenatal care, and postpartum care timeliness. Pennsylvania's Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to submit these outcomes to the state after reviewing administrative and medical records through a standardized, validated sampling process. We assessed for differences in outcomes by race, ethnicity, region, year, and MCO using logistic regression. Results We analyzed data for 12,228 women who were 49% White, 31% Black/African American, 4% Asian, and 15% Hispanic/Latina. Compared to Black/African American women, white and Asian women had higher odds of prenatal and postpartum care. Hispanic/Latina women had higher frequency of prenatal care than non-Hispanic women. Pennsylvania's Southeast had lower prenatal care and Northwest had lower postpartum care than other regions. Prenatal care significantly decreased in 2014 and increased in 2015. We observed differences between MCOs, and as MCO performance diminished, racial disparities within each plan widened. We explored hypotheses for observed disparities in secondary analyses. Conclusions for Practice Our data demonstrate that interventions should address disparities by race, region, and MCO in equity-promoting measures.

  6. Child Health Disparities: What Can a Clinician Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Emmanuel, Mickey A; Levy, Daniel J; Jenkins, Renee R

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric primary and specialty practice has changed, with more to do, more regulation, and more family needs than in the past. Similarly, the needs of patients have changed, with more demographic diversity, family stress, and continued health disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. How can clinicians continue their dedicated service to children and ensure health equity in the face of these changes? This article outlines specific, practical, actionable, and evidence-based activities to help clinicians assess and address health disparities in practice. These tools may also support patient-centered medical home recognition, national and state cultural and linguistic competency standards, and quality benchmarks that are increasingly tied to payment. Clinicians can play a critical role in (1) diagnosing disparities in one's community and practice, (2) innovating new models to address social determinants of health, (3) addressing health literacy of families, (4) ensuring cultural competence and a culture of workplace equity, and (5) advocating for issues that address the root causes of health disparities. Culturally competent care that is sensitive to the needs, health literacy, and health beliefs of families can increase satisfaction, improve quality of care, and increase patient safety. Clinical care approaches to address social determinants of health and interrupting the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage include (1) screening for new health "vital signs" and connecting families to resources, (2) enhancing the comprehensiveness of services, (3) addressing family health in pediatric encounters, and (4) moving care outside the office into the community. Health system investment is required to support clinicians and practice innovation to ensure equity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Child Health Disparities: What Can a Clinician Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tina L.; Emmanuel, Mickey; Levy, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric primary and specialty practice has changed with more to do, more regulation and more family needs. Similarly, the needs of patients have changed with more demographic diversity, family stress and continued health disparities by race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. How can clinicians continue their dedicated service to children and ensure health equity in the face of these changes? This paper outlines specific, practical, actionable and evidence-based activities for clinicians t...

  8. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Wang, Peng; Qin, Xuezheng; Zhang, Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE) is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  9. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    Full Text Available The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  10. Developing Partnerships to Reduce Disparities in Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Breslau, Erica S.; Rochester, Phyllis W.; Saslow, Debbie; Crocoll, Caroline E.; Johnson, Lenora E.; Vinson, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Interventions in scientific settings to improve the well-being of women who are not regularly screened for cancer have failed. Consequently, community-based prevention and control efforts are needed. Community Context From 2003 through 2007, three federal agencies and 1 nongovernmental agency collaborated with county-level public health counterparts from 6 states to address screening disparities in cervical and breast cancer in counties with the highest prevalence. This case study ...

  11. Appreciation of the renminbi and urban-rural income disparity

    OpenAIRE

    Ping HUA; Sylviane GUILLAUMONT JEANNENEY

    2008-01-01

    Although poverty has been significantly decreased in China over the last twenty years, this decrease has been highly unequal across the provinces and has brought increased disparity in urban and rural per capita income. We studied the impact of exchange rate policy on urban-rural per capita income, which was marked by strong real depreciation before 1994 followed by moderate appreciation before stabilizing. We concluded that in the inland provinces where poverty is hardest, real appreciation ...

  12. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengshi; Kwaku, Abuaku Benjamin; Chen, Youfang; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wen, Shi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major efforts have been made to improve the health care system in Hunan province, China. The aims of this study were to assess whether and to what extent these efforts have impacted on gender and regional disparities of Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in recent years, especially for less developed areas. Methods We obtained data from the 2005–2009 China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP)to conduct this study in Hunan province. Counties within the province ...

  13. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disad...

  14. Solving Disparities Through Payment And Delivery System Reform: A Program To Achieve Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Xu, Lucy J; Nocon, Robert S; Cook, Scott C; Ducas, Andrea M; Chin, Marshall H

    2017-06-01

    Payment systems generally do not directly encourage or support the reduction of health disparities. In 2013 the Finding Answers: Solving Disparities through Payment and Delivery System Reform program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sought to understand how alternative payment models might intentionally incorporate a disparities-reduction component to promote health equity. A qualitative analysis of forty proposals to the program revealed that applicants generally did not link payment reform tightly to disparities reduction. Most proposed general pay-for-performance, global payment, or shared savings plans, combined with multicomponent system interventions. None of the applicants proposed making any financial payments contingent on having successfully reduced disparities. Most applicants did not address how they would optimize providers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to reduce disparities. A better understanding of how payment and care delivery models might be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities is essential. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Disparities in new graduate transition from multiple stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamack, Monica; Rush, Kathy L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand multiple stakeholder perspectives of new graduate (NG) transition programs. It was part of a larger mixed-methods study (2011) designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of new graduate nurse transition best practices, across six British Columbia health authorities. Data collection involved individual interviews with academic nurse educators (n=4) and separate focus groups with new graduate (n=48) and front-line nurse leaders (n=69). Disparity emerged as the overriding theme and described differences between stakeholder group perspectives, between expectations and reality, and within and across programs. Four disparities emerged: entry-level education and practice, perspectives on employment and career planning, transition program elements and support. Despite general satisfaction with undergraduate preparation, theory-practice gaps were identified. New Graduates experienced misalignments between their employment expectations and their realities. The employed student nurse program in which many new graduates had participated did not always yield employment, but when it did, differences in transitional expectations arose between new graduates and leaders. There was considerable variation across and within provincial new graduate programs with respect to orientation, supernumerary time and preceptorship characteristics, including lack of training. Disparities arose in the nature, amount of and access to support and the monitoring of new graduate progress. Findings reinforced organizational complexities and the importance of communication across education and practice sectors. This paper uncovers the tensions between the perspectives of new graduates and nurse leaders about transitional programs and opens the opportunity to collaborate in aligning the perspectives.

  16. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  17. Global Gender Disparities in Obesity: A Review1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    There is a global obesity pandemic. However, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among men and women varies greatly within and between countries, and overall, more women are obese than men. These gender disparities in overweight and obesity are exacerbated among women in developing countries, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, in developed countries, more men are overweight than women. Current knowledge suggests that myriad sociocultural dynamics throughout the world exacerbate gender disparities in excess weight gain. Different contextual factors drive gender differences in food consumption, and women often report consuming healthier foods, yet may consume more sugar-laden foods, than men. Acculturation, through complex sociocultural pathways, affects weight gain among both men and women. The nutrition transition taking place in many developing countries has also affected excess weight gain among both genders, but has had an even greater impact on the physical activity levels of women. Furthermore, in some countries, cultural values favor larger body size among women or men as a sign of fertility, healthfulness, or prosperity. As the global obesity pandemic continues, more research on gender disparities in overweight and obesity will improve the understanding of this pandemic. PMID:22797984

  18. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  19. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D

    2015-03-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.

  20. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  1. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  2. Disparity, motion, and color information improve gloss constancy performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Gunnar; Faul, Franz; Ekroll, Vebjørn; Mausfeld, Rainer

    2010-09-01

    S. Nishida and M. Shinya (1998) found that observers have only a limited ability to recover surface-reflectance properties under changes in surface shape. Our aim in the present study was to investigate how the degree of surface-reflectance constancy depends on the availability of information that may help to infer the reflectance and shape properties of surfaces. To this end, we manipulated the availability of (i) motion-induced information (static vs. dynamic presentation), (ii) disparity information (with the levels "monocular," "surface disparity," and "surface + highlight disparity"), and (iii) color information (grayscale stimuli vs. hue differences between diffuse and specular reflections). The task of the subjects was to match the perceived lightness and glossiness between two surfaces with different spatial frequency and amplitude by manipulating the diffuse component and the exponent of the Phong lighting model in one of the surfaces. Our results indicate that all three types of information improve the constancy of glossiness matches--both in isolation and in combination. The lightness matching data only revealed an influence of motion and color information. Our results indicate, somewhat counterintuitively, that motion information has a detrimental effect on lightness constancy.

  3. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  4. A reaction-diffusion model to capture disparity selectivity in primary visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sultan Mohiuddin Siddiqui

    Full Text Available Decades of experimental studies are available on disparity selective cells in visual cortex of macaque and cat. Recently, local disparity map for iso-orientation sites for near-vertical edge preference is reported in area 18 of cat visual cortex. No experiment is yet reported on complete disparity map in V1. Disparity map for layer IV in V1 can provide insight into how disparity selective complex cell receptive field is organized from simple cell subunits. Though substantial amounts of experimental data on disparity selective cells is available, no model on receptive field development of such cells or disparity map development exists in literature. We model disparity selectivity in layer IV of cat V1 using a reaction-diffusion two-eye paradigm. In this model, the wiring between LGN and cortical layer IV is determined by resource an LGN cell has for supporting connections to cortical cells and competition for target space in layer IV. While competing for target space, the same type of LGN cells, irrespective of whether it belongs to left-eye-specific or right-eye-specific LGN layer, cooperate with each other while trying to push off the other type. Our model captures realistic 2D disparity selective simple cell receptive fields, their response properties and disparity map along with orientation and ocular dominance maps. There is lack of correlation between ocular dominance and disparity selectivity at the cell population level. At the map level, disparity selectivity topography is not random but weakly clustered for similar preferred disparities. This is similar to the experimental result reported for macaque. The details of weakly clustered disparity selectivity map in V1 indicate two types of complex cell receptive field organization.

  5. Recurrent connectivity can account for the dynamics of disparity processing in V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Jason M.; Potetz, Brian R.; Tyler, Christopher W.; Lee, Tai Sing

    2013-01-01

    Disparity tuning measured in the primary visual cortex (V1) is described well by the disparity energy model, but not all aspects of disparity tuning are fully explained by the model. Such deviations from the disparity energy model provide us with insight into how network interactions may play a role in disparity processing and help to solve the stereo correspondence problem. Here, we propose a neuronal circuit model with recurrent connections that provides a simple account of the observed deviations. The model is based on recurrent connections inferred from neurophysiological observations on spike timing correlations, and is in good accord with existing data on disparity tuning dynamics. We further performed two additional experiments to test predictions of the model. First, we increased the size of stimuli to drive more neurons and provide a stronger recurrent input. Our model predicted sharper disparity tuning for larger stimuli. Second, we displayed anti-correlated stereograms, where dots of opposite luminance polarity are matched between the left- and right-eye images and result in inverted disparity tuning in the disparity energy model. In this case, our model predicted reduced sharpening and strength of inverted disparity tuning. For both experiments, the dynamics of disparity tuning observed from the neurophysiological recordings in macaque V1 matched model simulation predictions. Overall, the results of this study support the notion that, while the disparity energy model provides a primary account of disparity tuning in V1 neurons, neural disparity processing in V1 neurons is refined by recurrent interactions among elements in the neural circuit. PMID:23407952

  6. Health Disparities in Pediatric Asthma: Comprehensive Tertiary Care Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laurens; Kalle, Fanta; Grinstead, Laura; Jimenez, Maritza; Murphy, Meghan; Oceanic, Pat; Fitzgerald, Diane; Dabney, Kirk

    2015-03-01

    Study conducted at Nemours /Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803 BACKGROUND: Although the treatment and management of asthma hasimproved over time, incidence and prevalence among children continues to rise in the United States. Asthma prevalence, health services utilization, and mortality rate demonstrate remarkable disparities. The underlying causes of these disparities are not fully understood. We aimed to examine racial/ethnic variances in pediatric asthma prevalence/admission. We retrospectively reviewed data on 1070 patients and applied a cross-sectional design to assess asthma admission between 2010 and 2011. Information was available on race/ethnicity, sex, insurance status, severity of illness (SOI), and length of stay/hospitalization (LOS).Chi-square statistic was used for the association between race and other variables in an attempt to explain the racial/ethnic variance. The proportionate morbidity of asthma was highest amongCaucasians (40.92%) and African Americans (40.54%), intermediate among others (16.57%), and lowest among Asian (0.56%), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.28%), and Hawaiian Native/Pacific Islander (0.28%). Overall there were disparities by sex, with more boys (61.80%) diagnosed with asthma than girls (38.20%), χ2(7)=20.1, p=0.005. Insurance status, and SOI varied by race/ethnicity, but not LOS. Caucasian children were more likely to have private insurance, while African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have public insurance (p<0.005). Asthma was more severe among non-Hispanic children, χ2(14)=154.6, p<0.001. While the overall readmission proportion was 2.8%, readmission significantly varied by race/ethnicity. Racial/ethnic disparities in asthma admission exist among children in the Delaware Valley. There were racial/ethnic disparities in insurance status, asthma severity, and sex differed by race/ethnicity, but not in length of hospitalization. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by

  7. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care Utilization among U.S. College Students: Applying the Institution of Medicine Definition of Health Care Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Justin B; Eisenberg, Daniel; Lu, Liya; Gathright, Molly

    2015-10-01

    The authors apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of health care disparities to college students. The analysis pools data from the first two waves of the Healthy Minds Study, a multicampus survey of students' mental health (N = 13,028). A probit model was used for any past-year service utilization, and group differences in health status were adjusted by transforming the entire distribution for each minority population to approximate the white distribution. Disparities existed between whites and all minority groups. Compared to other approaches, the predicted service disparities were greater because this method included the effects of mediating SES variables. Health care disparities persist in the college setting despite improved access and nearly universal insurance coverage. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating potential sources of disparities beyond geography and coverage.

  8. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  9. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Demographic and Urbanization Disparities of Liver Transplantation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hung Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited access to or receipt of liver transplantation (LT may jeopardize survival of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Taiwan launched its National Health Insurance (NHI program in 1995, which essentially removes financial barriers to health care. This study aims to investigate where there are still demographic and urbanization disparities of LT after 15 years of NHI program implementation. Data analyzed in this study were retrieved from Taiwan’s NHI inpatient claims. A total of 3020 people aged ≥18 years received LT between 2000 and 2013. We calculated crude and adjusted prevalence rate of LT according to secular year, age, sex, and urbanization. The multiple Poisson regression model was further employed to assess the independent effects of demographics and urbanization on prevalence of LT. The biennial number of people receiving LT substantially increased from 56 in 2000–2001 to 880 in 2012–2013, representing a prevalence rate of 1.63 and 18.58 per 106, respectively. Such increasing secular trend was independent of sex. The prevalence was consistently higher in men than in women. The prevalence also increased with age in people <65 years, but dropped sharply in the elderly (≥65 years people. We noted a significant disparity of LT in areas with different levels of urbanization. Compared to urban areas, satellite (prevalence rate ratio (PRR, 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.57–0.69 and rural (PRR, 0.76, 95% CI, 0.69–0.83 areas were both associated with a significantly lower prevalence of LT. There are still significant demographic and urbanization disparities in LT after 15 years of NHI program implementation. Given the predominance of living donor liver transplantation in Taiwan, further studies should be conducted to investigate factors associated with having a potential living donor for LT.

  12. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  13. Applying anthropology to eliminate tobacco-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldade, Kate; Burgess, Diana; Olayinka, Abimbola; Whembolua, Guy Lucien S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2012-06-01

    Disparities in tobacco's harm persist. Declines in smoking among the general population have not been experienced to the same extent by vulnerable populations. Innovative strategies are required to diminish disparities in tobacco's harm. As novel tools, anthropological concepts and methods may be applied to improve the design and outcomes of tobacco cessation interventions. We reviewed over 60 articles published in peer-reviewed journals since 1995 for content on anthropology and smoking cessation. The specific questions framing the review were: (a) "How can lessons learned from anthropological studies of smoking improve the design and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions?" (b) How can anthropology be applied to diminish disparities in smoking cessation? and (c) How can qualitative methods be used most effectively in smoking cessation intervention research? Three specific disciplinary tools were identified and examined: (a) culture, (b) reflexivity, and (c) qualitative methods. Examining culture as a dynamic influence and understanding the utilities of smoking in a particular group is a precursor to promoting cessation. Reflexivity enables a deeper understanding of how smokers perceive quitting and smoking beyond addiction and individual health consequences. Qualitative methods may be used to elicit in-depth perspectives on quitting, insights to inform existing community-based strategies for making behavior changes, and detailed preferences for cessation treatment or programs. Anthropological tools can be used to improve the effectiveness of intervention research studies targeting individuals from vulnerable groups. Synthesized applications of anthropological concepts can be used to facilitate translation of findings into clinical practice for providers addressing tobacco cessation in vulnerable populations.

  14. Health disparities in liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, C Wendy; Sonderup, Mark W

    2015-09-01

    Disparities in health reflect the differences in the incidence, prevalence, burden of disease and access to care determined by socio-economic and environmental factors. With liver disease, these disparities are exacerbated by a combination of limited awareness and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in addition to the diagnostic and management costs. Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 11% of the world's population, disproportionately has 24% of the global disease burden, yet allocates health. It has 3% of the global healthcare workforce with a mean of 0.8 healthcare workers per 1000 population. Barriers to healthcare access are many and compounded by limited civil registration data, socio-economic inequalities, discrepancies in private and public healthcare services and geopolitical strife. The UN 2014 report on the Millennium Development Goals suggest that sub-Saharan Africa will probably not meet several goals, however with HIV/AIDS and Malaria (goal 6), many successes have been achieved. A 2010 Global Burden of Disease study demonstrated that cirrhosis mortality in sub-Saharan Africa doubled between 1980 and 2010. Aetiologies included hepatitis B (34%), hepatitis C (17%), alcohol (18%) and unknown in 31%. Hepatitis B, C and alcohol accounted for 47, 23 and 20% of hepatocellular carcinoma respectively. In 10%, the underlying aetiology was not known. Liver disease reflects the broader disparities in healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many of these challenges are not insurmountable as vaccines and new therapies could comprehensively deal with the burden of viral hepatitis. Access to and affordability of therapeutics remains the major barrier. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Economic Disparities and Syphilis Incidence in Massachusetts, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, Laura; Caten, Evan; Hsu, Katherine; DeMaria, Alfred

    We used area-level indicators of poverty to describe economic disparities in the incidence rate of infectious syphilis in Massachusetts to (1) determine whether methods developed in earlier AIDS analyses in Massachusetts could be applied to syphilis and (2) characterize syphilis trends during a time of increased rates of syphilis incidence. Using census tract data and population counts from the US Census Bureau and Massachusetts data on syphilis, we analyzed the incidence rate of syphilis infection from 2001 to 2013 by the poverty level of the census tract in which people with syphilis resided, stratified by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The syphilis incidence rate increased in all census tract groups in Massachusetts from 2001 to 2013, and disparities in incidence rates by area poverty level persisted over time. The overall incidence rate of syphilis increased 6.9-fold from 2001 to 2013 in all census tract poverty-level groupings (from 1.5 to 10.3 per 100 000 population), but the rise in rate was especially high in the poorest census tracts (from 5.6 to 31.0 per 100 000 population) and among men (from 2.2 to 19.4 per 100 000 population). The highest syphilis incidence rate was among non-Hispanic black people. The largest changes in incidence rate occurred after 2010. One region had a disproportionate increase in incidence rates and a disproportionate impact on the statewide trend. Census tract poverty analyses can inform the targeting of interventions that make progress toward reducing disparities in rates of syphilis incidence possible.

  16. Using information technology to reduce asthma disparities in underserved populations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A; Robles, Elias; Harris, Judith; Radford, Peggy

    2010-10-01

    Low health literacy has been identified as an independent predictor of poor asthma control. The Institute of Medicine considers the role of information technology (IT) as critical in providing "safe, effective, patient centered, timely, efficient, and equitable" care with the potential to reduce health disparities in underserved populations. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate an interactive computer-based questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms in children of parents with limited health literacy and/or limited English proficiency. Volunteer caregivers attending a mobile asthma clinic were randomly assigned to complete the electronic or the paper-and-pencil version of an asthma screening questionnaire (ASQ) in their language of choice (English or Spanish). In the electronic version, a tablet computer was used to present the ASQ questions as video clips and to collect information through the touchscreen. Participants also completed a demographic questionnaire, a brief health literacy questionnaire, and a system usability and satisfaction questionnaire. Reliability of the paper and electronic self-assessments was evaluated by comparing each participant's answers to information they provided during a nurse-guided structured interview (gold standard). A total of 48 parents participated in the study, 26 completed the electronic ASQ and 21 the paper-and-pencil form. Thirty-five percent of the children had well-controlled asthma (n = 17). Most participants were Spanish speaking (67%) Hispanic (n = 44) mothers (n = 43) with a median age of 32 years. More than half had ≤8 years of education (n = 25) and earned education was significant (ρ = .47, p higher than concordance between the paper ASQ and the nurse interview (68% versus 54%; p technology tools may help reduce barriers to access due to inadequate levels of English proficiency and health literacy.

  17. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell

    2012-01-01

    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  18. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  19. White Paper: SSAT Commitment to Workforce Diversity and Healthcare Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Matthew; Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Telem, Dana; Hawn, Mary T; Michelassi, Fabrizio; Reid-Lomardo, K Marie

    2016-05-01

    The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Track (SSAT) is committed to diversity and inclusiveness of its membership, promotion of research related to healthcare disparities, cultural competency of practicing gastrointestinal surgeons, and cultivation of leaders with unique perspectives. The SSAT convened a task force to assess the current state of diversity and inclusion and recommend sustainable initiatives to promote these goals. Working through the current committee structure of the Society, and by establishing a permanent Diversity and Inclusion liaison committee, the SSAT will maintain its commitment and strive towards diversity of thought and inclusiveness on every level to improve the well-being and betterment of its membership and the patients they serve.

  20. Urban and rural educational system disparities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue of the educational system in more details and to deal with conceptions, methodological approaches and the acquired knowledge, focused particularly on Romanian educational system.The mean of the paper is to present the complex issue of regional and territorial disparities in Romania. The educational system in Romania is at a crossroad. Initiated important reforms in the sector after the last 21 years – including changing the curriculum, student assessment, teacher training, funding and management module – will be continued to improve outcomes in education.

  1. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    15.3%) NA 6 (6%) 6 (5.4%) Prostate - specific Antigen (PSA) ng/mL 76.7 (42.9) 78.2 (40.7) pTNM Stage T2 68 (67.3%) 48 (43.2%) T3 29 (28.7%) 58...Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity- specific markers of prostate ...by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity- specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  2. Social Capital, Information, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Math Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Schneider, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the National Education Longitudinal Study revealed that socioeconomically advantaged students persist in high school math at higher rates than their disadvantaged peers, even when they have the same initial placements and skill levels. These disparities are larger among students with prior records of low academic status because students from more privileged backgrounds persist in math coursework even when their prior performance predicts they will not. Among students with low middle school math performance, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged families appear to benefit from having consultants for coursework decisions, so that they make up ground with their socioeconomically advantaged peers. PMID:21743762

  3. Regional Disparities in Poverty and Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Vijay, M

    2012-01-01

    India is a witness of regional disparities in many sphere of socio- economic development. On one side, world’s majority of new billionaires are in India and on the another side, India has majority of poor people. Like that, in development, the States like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, and Gujrat are in the forefront and BIMURAO (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Orissa) States are far behind in many aspects. The main objective of the Eleventh Plan was faster and inclusive grow...

  4. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  5. Examining Sexual Orientation Disparities in Unmet Medical Needs among Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Bethany G.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen’s health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexu...

  6. Gender disparities in completing school education in India: Analyzing regional variations

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    Is gender disparity greater in North India? This paper seeks to answer this question by examining gender differences in probability of completing school education across regions in India. A Gender Disparity Index is calculated using National Sample Survey Organization unit level data from the 61st Round and regional variations in this index analyzed to examine the hypothesis that gender disparity is greater in the North, comparative to the rest of India. This is followed by an econometric exe...

  7. Mind the Gap: Race\\Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Patrick M.; Reither, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    Race/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in obesity are substantial and may widen in the future. We review seven potential mechanisms that recent research has used to explain obesity disparities. Those seven mechanisms fall into three broad groups—health behaviors, biological and developmental factors, and the social environment—which incorporate both proximate and upstream determinants of obesity disparities. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. population an...

  8. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  9. Implementing the Institute of Medicine definition of disparities: an application to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas G; Alegria, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L; Wells, Kenneth B; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2006-10-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines a health service disparity between population groups to be the difference in treatment or access not justified by the differences in health status or preferences of the groups. This paper proposes an implementation of this definition, and applies it to disparities in outpatient mental health care. Health Care for Communities (HCC) reinterviewed 9,585 respondents from the Community Tracking Study in 1997-1998, oversampling individuals with psychological distress, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or mental health treatment. The HCC is designed to make national estimates of service use. Expenditures are modeled using generalized linear models with a log link for quantity and a probit model for any utilization. We adjust for group differences in health status by transforming the entire distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white distribution. We compare disparities according to the IOM definition to other methods commonly used to assess health services disparities. Our method finds significant service disparities between whites and both blacks and Latinos. Estimated disparities from this method exceed those for competing approaches, because of the inclusion of effects of mediating factors (such as income) in the IOM approach. A rigorous definition of disparities is needed to monitor progress against disparities and to compare their magnitude across studies. With such a definition, disparities can be estimated by adjusting for group differences in models for expenditures and access to mental health services.

  10. The Effects of Hurricane Katrina on Food Access Disparities in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, J. Nicholas; Rice, Janet C.; Swalm, Chris M.; Hutchinson, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in neighborhood food access are well documented, but little research exists on how shocks influence such disparities. We examined neighborhood food access in New Orleans at 3 time points: before Hurricane Katrina (2004–2005), in 2007, and in 2009. We combined existing directories with on-the-ground verification and geographic information system mapping to assess supermarket counts in the entire city. Existing disparities for African American neighborhoods worsened after the storm. Although improvements have been made, by 2009 disparities were no better than prestorm levels. PMID:21233432

  11. An Approach to Integrating Health Disparities within Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Maribel; Marte, Otto; Barba, Joseph; Hubbard, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Health disparities are preventable differences in the incidence, prevalence and burden of disease among communities targeted by gender, geographic location, ethnicity and/or socio-economic status. While biomedical research has identified partial origin(s) of divergent burden and impact of disease, the innovation needed to eradicate health disparities in the United States requires unique engagement from biomedical engineers. Increasing awareness of the prevalence and consequences of health disparities is particularly attractive to today's undergraduates, who have undauntedly challenged paradigms believed to foster inequality. Here, the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York (CCNY) has leveraged its historical mission of access-and-excellence to integrate the study of health disparities into undergraduate BME curricula. This article describes our novel approach in a multiyear study that: (i) Integrated health disparities modules at all levels of the required undergraduate BME curriculum; (ii) Developed opportunities to include impacts of health disparities into undergraduate BME research projects and mentored High School summer STEM training; and (iii) Established health disparities-based challenges as BME capstone design and/or independent entrepreneurship projects. Results illustrate the rising awareness of health disparities among the youngest BMEs-to-be, as well as abundant undergraduate desire to integrate health disparities within BME education and training.

  12. Mind the gap: race/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Patrick M; Reither, Eric N

    2015-11-01

    Race/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in obesity are substantial and may widen in the future. We review nine potential mechanisms that recent research has used to explain obesity disparities. Those nine mechanisms fall into three broad groups-health behaviors, biological factors, and the social environment-which incorporate both proximate and upstream determinants of obesity disparities. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the US population and to close race/ethnic and SES disparities in obesity will likely require the use of multifaceted interventions that target multiple mechanisms simultaneously. Unfortunately, relatively few of the mechanisms reviewed herein have been tested in an intervention framework.

  13. Psychiatrists' attitudes toward and awareness about racial disparities in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Julie B; Lamberti, J Steven

    2010-02-01

    Psychiatrists may perpetuate racial-ethnic disparities in health care through racially biased, albeit unconscious, behaviors. Changing these behaviors requires that physicians accept that racial-ethnic disparities exist and accept their own contributions to disparities. The purposes of this study were to assess psychiatrists' awareness of racial disparities in mental health care, to evaluate the extent to which psychiatrists believe they contribute to disparities, and to determine psychiatrists' interest in participating in disparities-reduction programs. A random sample of psychiatrists, identified through the American Psychiatric Association's member directory, was invited to complete the online survey. The survey was also distributed to psychiatrists at a national professional conference. Of the 374 respondents, most said they were not familiar or only a little familiar with the literature on racial disparities. Respondents tended to believe that race has a moderate influence on quality of psychiatric care but that race is more influential in others' practices than in their own practices. One-fourth had participated in any type of disparities-reduction program within the past year, and approximately one-half were interested in participating in such a program. Psychiatrists may not recognize the pervasiveness of racial inequality in psychiatric care, and they may attribute racially biased thinking to others but not to themselves. Interventions to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities should focus on revealing and modifying unconscious biases. Lack of physician interest may be one barrier to such interventions.

  14. Evolution of extreme body size disparity in monitor lizards (Varanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Schulte, James A; Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Many features of species' biology, including life history, physiology, morphology, and ecology are tightly linked to body size. Investigation into the causes of size divergence is therefore critical to understanding the factors shaping phenotypic diversity within clades. In this study, we examined size evolution in monitor lizards (Varanus), a clade that includes the largest extant lizard species, the Komodo dragon (V. komodoensis), as well as diminutive species that are nearly four orders of magnitude smaller in adult body mass. We demonstrate that the remarkable body size disparity of this clade is a consequence of different selective demands imposed by three major habitat use patterns-arboreality, terrestriality, and rock-dwelling. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships and ancestral habitat use and applied model selection to determine that the best-fitting evolutionary models for species' adult size are those that infer oppositely directed adaptive evolution associated with terrestriality and rock-dwelling, with terrestrial lineages evolving extremely large size and rock-dwellers becoming very small. We also show that habitat use affects the evolution of several ecologically important morphological traits independently of body size divergence. These results suggest that habitat use exerts a strong, multidimensional influence on the evolution of morphological size and shape disparity in monitor lizards. © 2011 The Author(s).

  15. Disparities in diabetes: the nexus of race, poverty, and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Darrell J; Thorpe, Roland J; McGinty, Emma E; Bower, Kelly; Rohde, Charles; Young, J Hunter; LaVeist, Thomas A; Dubay, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    We sought to determine the role of neighborhood poverty and racial composition on race disparities in diabetes prevalence. We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2000 US Census to estimate the impact of individual race and poverty and neighborhood racial composition and poverty concentration on the odds of having diabetes. We found a race-poverty-place gradient for diabetes prevalence for Blacks and poor Whites. The odds of having diabetes were higher for Blacks than for Whites. Individual poverty increased the odds of having diabetes for both Whites and Blacks. Living in a poor neighborhood increased the odds of having diabetes for Blacks and poor Whites. To address race disparities in diabetes, policymakers should address problems created by concentrated poverty (e.g., lack of access to reasonably priced fruits and vegetables, recreational facilities, and health care services; high crime rates; and greater exposures to environmental toxins). Housing and development policies in urban areas should avoid creating high-poverty neighborhoods.

  16. Explaining regional disparities in traffic mortality by decomposing conditional probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gregory P; Clark, David E; Travis, Lori L; Haskins, Amy E

    2011-04-01

    In the USA, the mortality rate from traffic injury is higher in rural and in southern regions, for reasons that are not well understood. For 1754 (56%) of the 3142 US counties, we obtained data allowing for separation of the deaths/population rate into deaths/injury, injuries/crash, crashes/exposure and exposure/population, with exposure measured as vehicle miles travelled. A 'decomposition method' proposed by Li and Baker was extended to study how the contributions of these components were affected by three measures of rural location, as well as southern location. The method of Li and Baker extended without difficulty to include non-binary effects and multiple exposures. Deaths/injury was by far the most important determinant in the county-to-county variation in deaths/population, and accounted for the greatest portion of the rural/urban disparity. After controlling for the rural effect, injuries/crash accounted for most of the southern/northern disparity. The increased mortality rate from traffic injury in rural areas can be attributed to the increased probability of death given that a person has been injured, possibly due to challenges faced by emergency medical response systems. In southern areas, there is an increased probability of injury given that a person has crashed, possibly due to differences in vehicle, road, or driving conditions.

  17. Tracking Biocultural Pathways to Health Disparities: The Value of Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M.; Costello, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Cultural factors and biomarkers are emerging emphases in social epidemiology that readily ally with human biology and anthropology. Persistent health challenges and disparities have established biocultural roots, and environment plays an integral role in physical development and function that form the bases of population health. Biomarkers have proven to be valuable tools for investigating biocultural bases of health disparities. Aims We apply recent insights from biology to consider how culture gets under the skin and evaluate the construct of embodiment. We analyze contrasting biomarker models and applications, and propose an integrated model for biomarkers. Three examples from the Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS) illustrate these points. Subjects and methods The longitudinal developmental epidemiological GSMS comprises a population-based sample of 1420 children with repeated measures including mental and physical health, life events, household conditions, and biomarkers for pubertal development and allostatic load. Results Analyses using biomarkers resolved competing explanations for links between puberty and depression, identified gender differences in stress at puberty, and revealed interactive effects of birthweight and postnatal adversity on risk for depression at puberty in girls. Conclusion An integrated biomarker model can both enrich epidemiology and illuminate biocultural pathways in population health. PMID:19381986

  18. Visiting Black Patients: Racial Disparities in Security Standby Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carmen R; McCullough, Wayne R; Hawley, Jamie D

    2018-02-01

    Structural inequalities exist within healthcare. Racial disparities in hospital security standby requests (SSRs) have not been previously explored. We speculated hospital SSRs varied based upon race with black patients and their visitors negatively impacted. An 8-year retrospective study of hospital security dispatch information was performed. Data were analyzed to determine demographic information, and service location patterns for SSRs involving patients and their visitors. The race of the patient's visitors was imputed using the patient's race. The observed and expected (using hospital census data) number of patients impacted by SSRs was compared. Descriptive statistics were computed. Categorical data were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher exact test statistic. A p patients who were white (N = 642; 63%), female (56%), or patient's race. Although Black patients represent 12% of the hospital population, they and their visitors were more than twice as likely (p patients (N = 106; 10%) combined (p patients and their visitors. It also introduces the concept of "security intervention errors in healthcare environments." New metrics and continuous quality improvement initiatives are needed to understand and eliminate racial/ethnic based disparities in SSRs. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health disparities, social injustice, and the culture of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Lynne S

    2005-01-01

    Nurses are well positioned to challenge institutionalized social injustices that lead to health disparities. The aim of this cross-cultural study was to collect stories of difference and fairness within nursing. The study used a life history methodology informed by feminist theory and critical social theory. Life story interviews were conducted with 26 women nurses of varying racial, cultural, sexual identity, and specialty backgrounds in the United States (n = 13) and Aotearoa New Zealand (n = 13). Participants reported having some understanding of social justice issues. They were asked to reflect on their experience of difference and fairness in their lives and specifically within nursing. Their stories were analyzed using a life history immersion method. Nursing remains attached to the ideological construction of the "White good nurse." Taken-for-granted ideals privilege those who fit in and marginalize those who do not. The nurses experienced discrimination and unfairness, survived by living in two worlds, learned to live in contradiction, and worked surreptitiously for social justice. For nurses to contribute to changing the systems and structures that maintain health disparities, the privilege of not seeing difference and the processes of mainstream violence that support the construction of the "White good nurse" must be challenged. Nurses need skills to deconstruct the marginalizing social processes that sustain inequalities in nursing and healthcare. These hidden realities--racism, sexism, heterosexism, and other forms of discrimination--will then be made visible and open to challenge.

  20. Accelerators: Sparking Innovation and Transdisciplinary Team Science in Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol R. Horowitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and implementation of effective, sustainable, and scalable interventions that advance equity could be propelled by innovative and inclusive partnerships. Readied catalytic frameworks that foster communication, collaboration, a shared vision, and transformative translational research across scientific and non-scientific divides are needed to foster rapid generation of novel solutions to address and ultimately eliminate disparities. To achieve this, we transformed and expanded a community-academic board into a translational science board with members from public, academic and private sectors. Rooted in team science, diverse board experts formed topic-specific “accelerators”, tasked with collaborating to rapidly generate new ideas, questions, approaches, and projects comprising patients, advocates, clinicians, researchers, funders, public health and industry leaders. We began with four accelerators—digital health, big data, genomics and environmental health—and were rapidly able to respond to funding opportunities, transform new ideas into clinical and community programs, generate new, accessible, actionable data, and more efficiently and effectively conduct research. This innovative model has the power to maximize research quality and efficiency, improve patient care and engagement, optimize data democratization and dissemination among target populations, contribute to policy, and lead to systems changes needed to address the root causes of disparities.

  1. Special Issue on Global Health Disparities Focus on Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok

    2016-01-01

    Haeok Lee, PhD, RN, FAAN who is a Korean-American nurse scientist, received her doctor al degree from the Nursing Physiology Department, College of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in 1993, and her post doctor al training from College of Medicine, UCSF. Dr. Lee worked at Case Western Reserve University and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She has worked at the UMass Boston since 2008. Dr. Lee has established a long-term commitment to minority health, especially Asian American Pacific Islanders, as a community leader, community health educator, and community researcher, and all these services have become a foundation for her community-based participatory research. Dr. Lee's research addresses current health problems framed in the context of social, political, and economic settings, and her studies have improved racial and ethnic data and developed national health policies to address health disparities in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and liver cancer among minorities. Dr. Lee's research, which is noteworthy for its theoretical base, is clearly filling the gap. Especially, Dr. Lee's research is beginning to have a favorable impact on national and international health policies and continuing education programs directed toward the global elimination of cervical and liver cancer-related health disparities in underserved and understudied populations.

  2. LGBT healthcare disparities: What progress have we made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    Nearly fifteen years have passed since this author's publication which examined the depth of education and training for medical students and practicing physicians specific to clinical competence in the care of lesbian and gay patients in the United States. Since then, there has been an explosion of research gains which have shed a steady light on the needs and disparities of lesbian and gay healthcare. This rich literature base has expanded to include bisexual and transgender (LGBT) healthcare in peer-reviewed journals. Despite these research gains underscoring a call for action, there continues to be a dearth of cultural competency education and training for healthcare professionals focused on clinical assessment and treatment of LGBT patients. This article will focus exclusively on the current status of medical and nursing education and training specific to clinical competence for LGBT healthcare. We are long overdue in closing the clinical competency gap in medical and nursing education to reduce the healthcare disparities within the LGBT community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accelerators: Sparking Innovation and Transdisciplinary Team Science in Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Shameer, Khader; Gabrilove, Janice; Atreja, Ashish; Shepard, Peggy; Goytia, Crispin N.; Smith, Geoffrey W.; Dudley, Joel; Manning, Rachel; Bickell, Nina A.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2017-01-01

    Development and implementation of effective, sustainable, and scalable interventions that advance equity could be propelled by innovative and inclusive partnerships. Readied catalytic frameworks that foster communication, collaboration, a shared vision, and transformative translational research across scientific and non-scientific divides are needed to foster rapid generation of novel solutions to address and ultimately eliminate disparities. To achieve this, we transformed and expanded a community-academic board into a translational science board with members from public, academic and private sectors. Rooted in team science, diverse board experts formed topic-specific “accelerators”, tasked with collaborating to rapidly generate new ideas, questions, approaches, and projects comprising patients, advocates, clinicians, researchers, funders, public health and industry leaders. We began with four accelerators—digital health, big data, genomics and environmental health—and were rapidly able to respond to funding opportunities, transform new ideas into clinical and community programs, generate new, accessible, actionable data, and more efficiently and effectively conduct research. This innovative model has the power to maximize research quality and efficiency, improve patient care and engagement, optimize data democratization and dissemination among target populations, contribute to policy, and lead to systems changes needed to address the root causes of disparities. PMID:28241508

  4. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  5. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Kelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  7. Trends in racial disparities for asthma outcomes among children 0 to 17 years, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Lara J; Moorman, Jeanne E; Simon, Alan E; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Racial disparities in childhood asthma have been a long-standing target for intervention, especially disparities in hospitalization and mortality. Describe trends in racial disparities in asthma outcomes using both traditional population-based rates and at-risk rates (based on the estimated number of children with asthma) to account for prevalence differences between race groups. Estimates of asthma prevalence and outcomes (emergency department [ED] visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) were calculated from national data for 2001 to 2010 for black and white children. Trends were calculated using weighted loglinear regression, and changes in racial disparities over time were assessed using Joinpoint. Disparities in asthma prevalence between black and white children increased from 2001 to 2010; at the end of this period, black children were twice as likely as white children to have asthma. Population-based rates showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (ED visits and hospitalizations) or increased (asthma attack prevalence, deaths). In contrast, analysis with at-risk rates, which account for differences in asthma prevalence, showed that disparities in asthma outcomes remained stable (deaths), decreased (ED visits, hospitalizations), or did not exist (asthma attack prevalence). Using at-risk rates to assess racial disparities in asthma outcomes accounts for prevalence differences between black and white children, and adds another perspective to the population-based examination of asthma disparities. An at-risk rate analysis shows that among children with asthma, there is no disparity for asthma attack prevalence and that progress has been made in decreasing disparities in asthma ED visit and hospitalization rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Disparate Vision: Preston S. Cohen’s Lightfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Pješivac

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationships between the geometry of space, theory of perception and theory of narrative in the context of Preston Scott Cohen’s Lightfall – the atrium space of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art in Israel. The starting premise of the study is that it is possible to see the atrium space of the Tel Aviv Museum of Art as an inversion of the atrium space of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Guggenheim Museum in New York. Hence, the main hypothesis is that Cohen’s Lightfall transgresses the language of modernist architecture, moving from the constitution of exhibition space for pure gaze to the constitution of exhibition space for disparate vision. This means breaking with the homogeneous, universal space and time concepts of totalitarianism with the aim of building space-time concepts based on a disjunctive synthesis of narratives, ideologies and discourses of different societies, cultures and arts, or building space-time concepts in a continuous process of becoming. How does the architecture of Cohen’s Lightfall reject the totalitarian modernist interior of the museum as an institution designed solely for the observation of the work of art? How is the theory and practice of contemporary art and culture reflected in the aesthetics of Lightfall and, vice versa, how do the aesthetics of Lightfall influence the practice of contemporary art, culture and society? In other words, in what way does Cohen’s atrium space set the work of art not as autonomous, isolated, neutral and without context but as a unit of discourse? How does Cohen make the transition from the constitution of artistic space for pure gaze to the constitution of artistic space for disparate vision? This study draws on the theoretical investigations of Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Jacques Derrida, Gilbert Simondon and Pierre Bourdieu.   Article received: December 23, 2016; Article accepted: January 20, 2017; Published online: April 20, 2017 Original scholarly

  9. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  10. Gender disparities in anxiety and quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; van den Broek, Krista C; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2011-01-01

    A paucity of studies in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients has examined gender disparities in patient-reported outcomes, such as anxiety and quality of life (QoL). We investigated (i) gender disparities in anxiety and QoL and (ii) the magnitude of the effect of gender vs. New...

  11. What Makes African American Health Disparities Newsworthy? An Experiment among Journalists about Story Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…

  12. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  13. The association between racial disparity in income and reported sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S; Kent, Charlotte K; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-05-01

    We examined the association between racial disparity in income and reported race-specific county-level bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States focusing on disparities between Blacks and Whites. Data are from the US 2000 decennial census. We defined 2 race-income county groups (high and low race-income disparity) on the basis of the difference between Black and White median household incomes. We used 2 approaches to examine disparities in STI rates across the groups. In the first approach, we computed and compared race-specific STI rates for the groups. In the second approach, we used spatial regression analyses to control for potential confounders. Consistent with the STI literature, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis rates for Blacks were substantially higher than were those for Whites. We also found that racial disparities in income were associated with racial disparities in chlamydia and gonorrhea rates and, to a lesser degree, syphilis rates. Racial disparities in household income may be a more important determinant of racial disparities in reported STI morbidity than are absolute levels of household income.

  14. Sex and Race Disparities in Health: Cohort Variations in Life Course Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lee, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses changes in sex and race disparities in health over the life course and across cohorts by conducting growth curve analyses of nationally representative longitudinal data that spans 15 years. It finds that changes in disparities in depressive symptoms, disability and self-assessments of health across the life course are…

  15. Disparities in access to effective treatment for infertility in the United States: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, economic, racial, ethnic, geographic, and other disparities exist in access to fertility treatment and in treatment outcomes. This opinion examines the factors that contribute to these disparities and proposes actions to address them. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  17. Gender-Based Pay Disparities in Intercollegiate Coaching: The Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, John; Glazier, Michael S.; Evans, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the legal issues surrounding pay disparities between men and women in intercollegiate coaching, including how courts have treated disparate wage claims under the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Title IX, and the defenses used by institutions. Offers suggestions for defending claims and a detailed review of…

  18. Free Space Computation From Stochastic Occupancy Grids Based On Iconic Kalman Filtered Disparity Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Madsen, Claus B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the free space in a scene as viewed by a vehicle-mounted camera. Using disparity maps from a stereo camera and known camera motion, the disparity maps are first filtered by an iconic Kalman filter, operating on each pixel individually, thereby reducing...

  19. Te Kotahitanga: Addressing Educational Disparities Facing Maori Students in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere; Cavanagh, Tom; Teddy, Lani

    2009-01-01

    The major challenges facing education in New Zealand today are the continuing social, economic and political disparities within our nation, primarily between the descendants of the European colonisers and the Indigenous Maori people. These disparities are also reflected in educational outcomes. In this paper, an Indigenous Maori Peoples' solution…

  20. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  1. What makes African American health disparities newsworthy? An experiment among journalists about story framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C et al. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17: 2946–52). They found that black adults are more interested in cancer screening after reading about the progress African Americans have made in fighting cancer than after reading stories emphasizing disparities between blacks and whites. This study builds on past findings by (i) examining how health journalists judge the newsworthiness of stories that report race-specific health information by emphasizing disparities versus progress and (ii) determining whether these judgments can be changed by informing journalists of audience reactions to disparity versus progress framing. In a double-blind-randomized experiment, 175 health journalists read either a disparity- or progress-framed story on colon cancer, preceded by either an inoculation about audience effects of such framing or an unrelated (i.e. control) information stimuli. Journalists rated the disparity-frame story more favorably than the progress-frame story in every category of news values. However, the inoculation significantly increased positive reactions to the progress-frame story. Informing journalists of audience reactions to race-specific health information could influence how health news stories are framed. PMID:21911844

  2. Disparities in the Use of Preventive Health Care among Children with Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chen; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Wang, Jong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Children with disabilities face more barriers accessing preventive health services. Prior research has documented disparities in the receipt of these services. However, most are limited to specific types of disability or care. This study investigates disparities in the use of preventive health care among children with disabilities in Taiwan. Three…

  3. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust

    2015-01-01

    data. METHODS: The study included data from 12 European cohorts from Denmark, England, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The cohorts included between 2434 and 99 655 pregnancies. The association between maternal education and preterm delivery (22-36 completed weeks...... characteristics. Nevertheless, there were similar educational differences in risk of preterm delivery in 8 of the 12 cohorts with slope index of inequality varying between 2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3] and 4.0 [95% CI 1.4, 6.6] excess preterm deliveries per 100 singleton deliveries among the educationally most......BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort...

  4. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.

  6. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.

  7. Regional Relative Price Disparities and Their Driving Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Joon Chang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the long-run behavior of relative price dispersion among cities in Korea with a special emphasis on heterogeneous transitional patterns of price level dynamics. Formal statistical tests indicate considerable evidence for rejecting the null of relative price level convergence among the majority of cities over the sample period of 1985-2015. The analysis of gravity model suggests that the effect of transportation costs on intercity price level differentials is limited, while other socioeconomic factors, such as income, input factor prices, demographic structure, and housing price growth, play key roles in accounting for persistent regional price level disparities. Individual price levels are found to be better explained by a multiple-component model, and the deviations from PPP may be attributed to distinct stochastic common trends that are characterized by income and demographic structure.

  8. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available. PMID:28912739

  9. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  10. Disparate subcellular location of putative sortase substrates in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Shaw, Helen A; Wren, Brendan W; Fairweather, Neil F

    2017-08-23

    Clostridium difficile is a gastrointestinal pathogen but how the bacterium colonises this niche is still little understood. Sortase enzymes covalently attach specific bacterial proteins to the peptidoglycan cell wall and are often involved in colonisation by pathogens. Here we show C. difficile proteins CD2537 and CD3392 are functional substrates of sortase SrtB. Through manipulation of the C-terminal regions of these proteins we show the SPKTG motif is essential for covalent attachment to the cell wall. Two additional putative substrates, CD0183 which contains an SPSTG motif, and CD2768 which contains an SPQTG motif, are not cleaved or anchored to the cell wall by sortase. Finally, using an in vivo asymmetric cleavage assay, we show that despite containing a conserved SPKTG motif, in the absence of SrtB these proteins are localised to disparate cellular compartments.

  11. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-05-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual's log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young.

  12. On social inequality: Analyzing the rich-poor disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-05-01

    From the Old Testament to the Communist Manifesto, and from the French Revolution to the Occupy Wall Street protests, social inequality has always been at the focal point of public debate, as well as a major driver of political change. Although being of prime interest since Biblical times, the scientific investigation of the distributions of wealth and income in human societies began only at the close of the nineteenth century, and was pioneered by Pareto, Lorenz, Gini, and Pietra. The methodologies introduced by these trailblazing scholars form the bedrock of the contemporary science of social inequality. Based on this bedrock we present a new quantitative approach to the analysis of wealth and income distributions, which sets its spotlight on the most heated facet of the current global debate on social inequality-the rich-poor disparity. Our approach offers researchers highly applicable quantitative tools to empirically track and statistically analyze the growing gap between the rich and the poor.

  13. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in HPV Vaccination Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M

    2017-12-20

    There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.

  14. Racial and Gender Disparities in the Physician Assistant Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darron T; Jacobson, Cardell K

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether racial, gender, and ethnic salary disparities exist in the physician assistant (PA) profession and what factors, if any, are associated with the differentials. We use a nationally representative survey of 15,105 PAs from the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA). We use bivariate and multivariate statistics to analyze pay differentials from the 2009 AAPA survey. Women represent nearly two-thirds of the profession but receive approximately $18,000 less in primary compensation. The differential reduces to just over $9,500 when the analysis includes a variety of other variables. According to AAPA survey, minority PAs tend to make slightly higher salaries than White PAs nationally, although the differences are not statistically significant once the control variables are included in the analysis. Despite the rough parity in primary salary, PAs of color are vastly underrepresented in the profession. The salaries of women lag in comparison to their male counterparts. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer’s premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers’ compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  16. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.

  17. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual’s log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young. PMID:25798025

  18. GENDER DISPARITIES – ISSUE OF THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Demyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the situation of gender disparities in Romania, an important subject of our days, based both on literature review and official data analysis. Since the status of the woman in contemporary society cannot be treated independently from what is largely debated nowadays in relation to the presence of women in different fields on the labor market, we have firstly proceeded to review the main theoretical and empirical literature in this respect. The paper starts with a short introduction in the field, followed by a brief analysis of important data regarding education, wage and hierarchical positions. The second part represents a correlation between the main determinants of the overall progress of society, trying to highlight the main conclusions of this delicate issue

  19. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  20. Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

  1. A rural African American faith community's solutions to depression disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasants RA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities

  3. Reducing health disparities: the social role of medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopelt, Keren; Davidovitch, Nadav; Yahav, Zehava; Urkin, Jacob; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2014-06-01

    Medical education based on the principles of social medicine can contribute toward reducing health disparities through the "creation" of doctors who are more involved in community programs. This study compared the social medicine orientation of graduates from various medical schools in Israel. The authors conducted an online cross-sectional survey in May 2011 among physicians who are graduates of Israeli medical schools. The study included 1050 physicians practicing medicine in Israel: 36% who are graduates from the Hebrew University, 26% from Tel Aviv University, 22% from the Technion and 16% from Ben-Gurion University. A greater percentage of physicians who studied either at the Technion or Ben-Gurion are working or have worked in the periphery (∼50% vs. ∼30% at the Hebrew and Tel Aviv Universities). Among Ben-Gurion graduates, 47% are active in social medicine programs vs. 34-38% from other schools. Among physicians active in social medicine programs, 32% of Ben-Gurion alumni estimated that their medical education greatly influenced their social medicine involvement vs. 8-15% from other schools. Hebrew University alumni described their studies as more research-oriented. In contrast, Ben-Gurion graduates described their studies as more social medicine-oriented and they exhibited more positive attitudes about the role of physicians in reducing health disparities. Social medicine-oriented medical education induces a socialization process reinforcing human values regarding doctor-patient relationships and produces positive attitudes among future doctors about social involvement. Findings emphasize the need to develop educational programs with this orientation and to strengthen medical schools in the periphery.

  4. Choropleth map legend design for visualizing community health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromley Ellen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health outcomes across communities are a central concern in public health and epidemiology. Health disparities research often links differences in health outcomes to other social factors like income. Choropleth maps of health outcome rates show the geographical distribution of health outcomes. This paper illustrates the use of cumulative frequency map legends for visualizing how the health events are distributed in relation to social characteristics of community populations. The approach uses two graphs in the cumulative frequency legend to highlight the difference between the raw count of the health events and the raw count of the social characteristic like low income in the geographical areas of the map. The approach is applied to mapping publicly available data on low birth weight by town in Connecticut and Lyme disease incidence by town in Connecticut in relation to income. The steps involved in creating these legends are described in detail so that health analysts can adopt this approach. Results The different health problems, low birth weight and Lyme disease, have different cumulative frequency signatures. Graphing poverty population on the cumulative frequency legends revealed that the poverty population is distributed differently with respect to the two different health problems mapped here. Conclusion Cumulative frequency legends can be useful supplements for choropleth maps. These legends can be constructed using readily available software. They contain all of the information found in standard choropleth map legends, and they can be used with any choropleth map classification scheme. Cumulative frequency legends effectively communicate the proportion of areas, the proportion of health events, and/or the proportion of the denominator population in which the health events occurred that falls within each class interval. They illuminate the context of disease through graphing associations with other

  5. Cancer mortality disparities among New York City's Upper Manhattan neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall; Lucchini, Roberto; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    The East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES) neighborhoods of New York City are geographically contiguous to tertiary medical care, but are characterized by cancer mortality rate disparities. This ecological study aims to disentangle the effects of race and neighborhood on cancer deaths. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were determined using neighborhood-specific data from the New York State Cancer Registry and Vital Records Office (2007-2011). Ecological data on modifiable cancer risk factors from the New York City Community Health Survey (2002-2006) were stratified by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood and modeled against stratified mortality rates to disentangle race/ethnicity and neighborhood using logistic regression. Significant gaps in mortality rates were observed between the UES and both CH and EH across all cancers, favoring UES. Mortality-to-incidence ratios of both CH and EH were similarly elevated in the range of 0.41-0.44 compared with UES (0.26-0.30). After covariate and multivariable adjustment, black race (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-1.93) and EH residence (odds ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.35) remained significant risk factors in all cancers' combined mortality. Mortality disparities remain among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Both neighborhood and race are significantly associated with cancer mortality, independent of each other. Multivariable adjusted models that include Community Health Survey risk factors show that this mortality gap may be avoidable through community-based public health interventions.

  6. 2D Sub-Pixel Disparity Measurement Using QPEC / Medicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cournet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of its earth observation missions, CNES created a library called QPEC, and one of its launcher called Medicis. QPEC / Medicis is a sub-pixel two-dimensional stereo matching algorithm that works on an image pair. This tool is a block matching algorithm, which means that it is based on a local method. Moreover it does not regularize the results found. It proposes several matching costs, such as the Zero mean Normalised Cross-Correlation or statistical measures (the Mutual Information being one of them, and different match validation flags. QPEC / Medicis is able to compute a two-dimensional dense disparity map with a subpixel precision. Hence, it is more versatile than disparity estimation methods found in computer vision literature, which often assume an epipolar geometry. CNES uses Medicis, among other applications, during the in-orbit image quality commissioning of earth observation satellites. For instance the Pléiades-HR 1A & 1B and the Sentinel-2 geometric calibrations are based on this block matching algorithm. Over the years, it has become a common tool in ground segments for in-flight monitoring purposes. For these two kinds of applications, the two-dimensional search and the local sub-pixel measure without regularization can be essential. This tool is also used to generate automatic digital elevation models, for which it was not initially dedicated. This paper deals with the QPEC / Medicis algorithm. It also presents some of its CNES applications (in-orbit commissioning, in flight monitoring or digital elevation model generation. Medicis software is distributed outside the CNES as well. This paper finally describes some of these external applications using Medicis, such as ground displacement measurement, or intra-oral scanner in the dental domain.

  7. Nutrition activation and dietary intake disparities among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Massey, Philip M

    2016-12-01

    To introduce the concept 'nutrition activation' (the use of health and nutrition information when making food and diet decisions) and to assess the extent to which nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and explains dietary disparities. Cross-sectional sample representative of adults in the USA. Primary outcome measures include daily energy intake and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast foods and sit-down restaurant foods as determined by two 24 h dietary recalls. We use bivariate statistics and multiple logistic and linear regression analyses to assess racial/ethnic disparities in nutrition activation and food behaviour outcomes. USA. Adult participants (n 7825) in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrition activation varies across racial/ethnic groups and is a statistically significant predictor of SSB, fast-food and restaurant-food consumption and daily energy intake. Based on the sample distribution, an increase from the 25th to 75th percentile in nutrition activation is associated with a decline of about 377 kJ (90 kcal)/d. Increased nutrition activation is associated with a larger decline in SSB consumption among whites than among blacks and foreign-born Latinos. Fast-food consumption is associated with a larger 'spike' in daily energy intake among blacks (+1582 kJ (+378 kcal)/d) than among whites (+678 kJ (+162 kcal)/d). Nutrition activation is an important but understudied determinant of energy intake and should be explicitly incorporated into obesity prevention interventions, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities.

  8. Racial disparities in the use of outpatient mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasky, Vanessa; Yang, Rachel L; Datta, Jashodeep; Graves, Holly L; Cintolo, Jessica A; Meise, Chelsey; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Czerniecki, Brian J; Kelz, Rachel R

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities exist within many domains of cancer care. This study was designed to identify differences in the use of outpatient mastectomy (OM) based on patient race. We identified patients in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File (during the years 2007-2010) who underwent a mastectomy. The association between mastectomy setting, patient race, patient age, American Society of Anesthesiology physical status classification, functional status, mastectomy type, and hospital teaching status was determined using the chi-square test. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was developed to assess the relative odds of undergoing OM by race, with adjustment for potential confounders. We identified 47,318 patients enrolled in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File who underwent a mastectomy during the study time frame. More than half (62.6%) of mastectomies were performed in the outpatient setting. All racial minorities had lower rates of OM, with 63.8% of white patients; 59.1% of black patients; 57.4% of Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander patients; and 43.9% of American Indian or Alaska Native patients undergoing OM (P black patients, American Indian or Alaska Native patients, and those of unknown race were all less likely to undergo OM (odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.93; OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.72; and OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.64-0.76, respectively) compared with white patients. Disparities exist in the use of OM among racial minorities. Further studies are needed to identify the role of cultural preferences, physician attitudes, and insurer encouragements that may influence these patterns of use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vergence driven accommodation with simulated disparity in myopia and emmetropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Guido; Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2018-01-01

    The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display. In Step 1, vergence was driven behind the monitor using a blurred, non-accommodative, uncrossed disparity target. In Step 2, vergence and accommodation were driven back to the monitor plane using naturalistic images that contained structured depth and focus information from size, blur and/or disparity. In Step 1, both refractive groups converged towards the stereoscopic target depth plane, but the vergence-driven accommodative change was smaller in emmetropes than in myopes (F 1,19 =5.13, p=0.036). In Step 2, there was little effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation or vergence in either refractive group. However, vergence responses were significantly slower (F 1,19 =4.55, p=0.046) and accommodation variability was higher (F 1,19 =12.9, p=0.0019) in myopes. Vergence and accommodation responses are disrupted in virtual reality displays in both refractive groups. Accommodation responses are less stable in myopes, perhaps due to a lower sensitivity to dioptric blur. Such inaccuracies of accommodation may cause long-term blur on the retina, which has been associated with a failure of emmetropization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual Orientation Disparities in the Use of Emerging Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Mereish, Ethan H; Burgess, Claire

    2017-01-28

    Prescription drug, e-cigarette, smokeless tobacco, and synthetic marijuana use has risen dramatically in the United States over the past decade. This paper investigates the use of risky substances among adolescents, and examines disparities between sexual minority (i.e., mostly heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual; LGB) and heterosexual adolescents in use of novel and emerging substances. Given the public health risk and the imminence of these substances in the media, emerging drug use was examined in a county wide sample of adolescents in a Southern state. A probability sample of middle and high school students (N = 3012; ages 11-18) using random cluster methods was obtained in a mid-sized school district in the Southeastern United States. LGB adolescents reported higher past-30 day and lifetime use of cigarettes (AORs =2.77, 2.90, respectively), smokeless tobacco (lifetime only: AOR = 1.88), e-cigarettes (lifetime only; AOR = 1.92), alcohol (AORs = 1.7, 2.20), marijuana (AORs = 3.02, 3.06), synesthetic marijuana (AORs = 3.77, 2.48), and prescription drugs (AORs = 3.82, 2.55). Adolescents who self-identified as "mostly heterosexual" reported higher lifetime cigarette use, and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes and prescription drugs as compared with heterosexual adolescents. Our results are notable given the dearth of data documenting use of increasingly emerging or "trendy" substances such as prescription drugs. More research is needed to understand the underlying cause of these disparities, and efforts should be targeted toward this population to reduce negative outcomes from misuse.

  11. Disparity Disambiguation by Fusion of Signal and Symbolic-Level Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralli, J.; Diaz, J.; Ros, E.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for resolving ambiguities in low-level disparity calculations in a stereo-vision scheme by using a recurrent mechanism that we call signal-symbol loop. Due to the local nature of low-level processing it is not always possible to estimate the correct disparity values produced...... at this level. Symbolic abstraction of the signal produces robust, high confidence, multimodal image features which can be used to interpret the scene more accurately and therefore disambiguate low-level interpretations by biasing the correct disparity. The fusion process is capable of producing more accurate...... dense disparity maps than the low- and symbolic-level algorithms can produce independently. Therefore we describe an efficient fusion scheme that allows symbolic- and low-level cues to complement each other, resulting in a more accurate and dense disparity representation of the scene....

  12. Social justice, health disparities, and culture in the care of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Pierre, Geraldine; Hilliard, Tandrea S

    2012-01-01

    Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and are often a barrier to support and equality for minority communities. The "conundrum of health disparities" refers to the interplay between disparity, social justice, and cultural interpretation, and encourages researchers to understand both (1) disparity caused by economic and structural barriers to access, treatment, and diagnosis, and (2) disparity due to cultural interpretation of disease, in order to effectively address health care issues and concerns among elderly Americans. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. The Role of Binocular Disparity in Rapid Scene and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.

  14. Health-related disparities: influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; White, Sandra L

    2005-07-01

    Racial disparities in health cannot be explained solely on the basis of poverty, access to health care, behavior, or environmental factors. Their complex etiology is dependent on interactions between all these factors plus genetics. Scientists have been slow to consider genetics as a risk factor because genetic polymorphisms tend to be more variable within a race than between races. Now that studies are demonstrating the existence of racial differences in allelic frequencies for multiple genes affecting a single biologic mechanism, the present argument for a significant genetic role in contributing to health disparities is gaining support. Individuals vary, often significantly, in their response to environmental agents. This variability provides a high "background noise" when scientists examine human populations to identify environmental links to disease. This variability often masks important environmental contributors to disease risk and is a major impediment to efforts to investigate the causes of diseases.Fortunately, investments in the various genome projects have led to the development of tools and databases that can be used to help identify the genetic variations in environmental response genes that can lead to such wide differences in disease susceptibility. NIEHS developed the environ-mental genome project to catalog these genetic variants (polymorphisms)and to identify the ones that play a major role in human susceptibility to environmental agents. This information is being used in epidemiologic studies to pinpoint environmental contributors to disease better. The research summarized in this article is critically important for tying genetics and the environment to health disparities, and for the development of a rational approach to gauge environmental threats. Common variants in genes play pivotal roles in determining if or when illness or death result from exposure to drugs or environmental xenobiotics. Most common variants exist in all human

  15. Perspectives of Orthopedic Surgeons on Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelani, Muyibat A; O'Connor, Mary I

    2017-08-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare, including orthopedics, have been extensively documented. However, the level of knowledge among orthopedic surgeons regarding racial/ethnic disparities is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the views of orthopedic surgeons on (1) the extent of racial/ethnic disparities in orthopedic care, (2) patient and system factors that may contribute, and (3) the potential role of orthopedic surgeons in the reduction of disparities. Three hundred five members of the American Orthopaedic Association completed a survey to assess their knowledge of racial/ethnic disparities and their perceptions about the underlying causes. Twelve percent of respondents believe that patients often receive different care based on race/ethnicity in healthcare in general, while 9 % believe that differences exist in orthopedic care in general, 3 % believe that differences exist within their hospitals/clinics, and 1 % reported differences in their own practices. Despite this, 68 % acknowledge that there is evidence of disparities in orthopedic care. Fifty-one percent believe that a lack of insurance significantly contributes to disparities. Thirty-five percent believe that diversification of the orthopedic workforce would be a "very effective" strategy in addressing disparities, while 25 % percent believe that research would be "very effective" and 24 % believe that surgeon education would be "very effective." Awareness regarding racial/ethnic disparities in musculoskeletal care is low among orthopedic surgeons. Additionally, respondents were more likely to acknowledge disparities within the practices of others than their own. Increased diversity, research, and education may help improve knowledge of this problem.

  16. Effect of Medicaid Managed Care on racial disparities in health care access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) on racial disparities in access to care consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparity, which excludes differences stemming from health status but includes socioeconomic status (SES)-mediated differences. Secondary data from the Adult Samples of the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey, metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization (MHMO) market share from the 1997 to 2001 InterStudy MSA Trend Dataset, and MSA characteristics from the 1997 to 2001 Area Resource File. I estimate multivariate regression models to compare racial disparities in doctor visits, emergency room (ER) use, and having a usual source of care between enrollees in MMC and Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans. To contend with potential selection bias, I use a difference-in-difference analytical strategy and assess the impact of greater MHMO market share at the MSA level on Medicaid enrollees' access measures. To implement the IOM definition of racial disparity, I adjust for health status but not SES factors using a novel method to transform the distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white health status distribution. MMC enrollment is associated with lowered disparities in having any doctor visit in the last year for blacks, and in having any usual source of care for both blacks and Hispanics. Increasing Medicaid HMO market share lowered disparities in having any doctor visits in the last year for both blacks and Hispanics. Although disparities in most other measures were not much affected, black-white ER use disparities exist among MMC enrollees and in areas of high MHMO market share. MMC programs' reduction of some disparities suggests that recent shifts in Medicaid policy toward managed care plans have benefited minority enrollees. Future research should investigate whether black-white disparities in ER use within MMC groups

  17. Dialysis facility staff perceptions of racial, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipford, Kristie J; McPherson, Laura; Hamoda, Reem; Browne, Teri; Gander, Jennifer C; Pastan, Stephen O; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-01-10

    Racial/ethnic, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been well documented, but few studies have explored health care staff attitudes towards these inequalities. Staff perceptions can influence patient care and outcomes, and identifying staff perceptions on disparities could aid in the development of potential interventions to address these health inequities. The objective of this study was to investigate dialysis staff (n = 509), primarily social workers and nurse managers, perceptions of renal transplant disparities in the Southeastern United States. This is a mixed methods study that uses both deductive and inductive qualitative analysis of a dialysis staff survey conducted in 2012 using three open-ended questions that asked staff to discuss their perceptions of factors that may contribute to transplant disparities among African American, female, and elderly patients. Study results suggested that the majority of staff (n = 255, 28%) perceived patients' low socioeconomic status as the primary theme related to why renal transplant disparities exist between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Staff cited patient perception of old age as a primary contributor (n = 188, 23%) to the disparity between young and elderly patients. The dialysis staff responses on gender transplant disparities suggested that staff were unaware of differences due to limited experience and observation (n = 76, 14.7%) of gender disparities. These findings suggest that dialysis facilities should educate staff on existing renal transplantation disparities, particularly gender disparities, and collaboratively work with transplant facilities to develop strategies to actively address modifiable patient barriers for transplant.

  18. Decomposing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Hasebe, Takuya; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    While persistent racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been reported among the elderly, characteristics contributing to disparities are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination using a nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. We performed cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses for which the dependent variable was self-reported receipt of influenza vaccine during the 2010–2011 season among community dwelling non-Hispanic African-American (AA), non-Hispanic White (W), English-speaking Hispanic (EH) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH) elderly, enrolled in the 2011 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) (un-weighted/weighted N= 6,095/19.2million). Using the nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, we assessed the relative contribution of seventeen covariates—including socio-demographic characteristics, health status, insurance, access, preference regarding healthcare, and geographic regions —to disparities in influenza vaccination. Unadjusted racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination were 14.1 percentage points (pp) (W-AA disparity, p.8). The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method estimated that the unadjusted W-AA and W-SH disparities in vaccination could be reduced by only 45% even if AA and SH groups become equivalent to Whites in all covariates in multivariable regression models. The remaining 55% of disparities were attributed to (a) racial/ethnic differences in the estimated coefficients (e.g., odds ratios) in the regression models and (b) characteristics not included in the regression models. Our analysis found that only about 45% of racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination among the elderly could be reduced by equalizing recognized characteristics among racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are needed to identify additional modifiable characteristics causing disparities in influenza vaccination. PMID

  19. Robust feature estimation by non-rigid hierarchical image registration and its application in disparity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Amir; Choudhry, Aadil Jaleel; Ullah, Shan

    2017-03-01

    Industries are moving towards automation in order to increase productivity and ensure quality. Variety of electronic and electromagnetic systems are being employed to assist human operator in fast and accurate quality inspection of products. Majority of these systems are equipped with cameras and rely on diverse image processing algorithms. Information is lost in 2D image, therefore acquiring accurate 3D data from 2D images is an open issue. FAST, SURF and SIFT are well-known spatial domain techniques for features extraction and henceforth image registration to find correspondence between images. The efficiency of these methods is measured in terms of the number of perfect matches found. A novel fast and robust technique for stereo-image processing is proposed. It is based on non-rigid registration using modified normalized phase correlation. The proposed method registers two images in hierarchical fashion using quad-tree structure. The registration process works through global to local level resulting in robust matches even in presence of blur and noise. The computed matches can further be utilized to determine disparity and depth for industrial product inspection. The same can be used in driver assistance systems. The preliminary tests on Middlebury dataset produced satisfactory results. The execution time for a 413 x 370 stereo-pair is 500ms approximately on a low cost DSP.

  20. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  1. Electron Beam Diagnostics in Plasmas Based on Electron Beam Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Blackwell, David; Walton, Scott; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Over the last few years, electron beam ionization has been shown to be a viable generator of high density plasmas with numerous applications in materials modification. To better understand these plasmas, we have fielded electron beam diagnostics to more clearly understand the propagation of the beam as it travels through the background gas and creates the plasma. These diagnostics vary greatly in sophistication, ranging from differentially pumped systems with energy selective elements to metal 'hockey pucks' covered with thin layers of insulation to electrically isolate the detector from the plasma but pass high energy beam electrons. Most importantly, absolute measurements of spatially resolved beam current densities are measured in a variety of pulsed and continuous beam sources. The energy distribution of the beam current(s) will be further discussed, through experiments incorporating various energy resolving elements such as simple grids and more sophisticated cylindrical lens geometries. The results are compared with other experiments of high energy electron beams through gases and appropriate disparities and caveats will be discussed. Finally, plasma parameters are correlated to the measured beam parameters for a more global picture of electron beam produced plasmas.

  2. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    disparities in China. The data showed a significant digital divide in China, especially in the older population. Internet access is still limited to people with higher SES; however, the mobile phone has been adopted by the general population. The digital divide is associated with not only individual SES but also community resources. Future electronic health (eHealth) programs need to consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for various social groups. ©Y Alicia Hong, Zi Zhou, Ya Fang, Leiyu Shi. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.09.2017.

  3. The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of calculus, used as a marker for oral hygiene. Oral health outcomes were gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, tooth loss and perceived oral health. Education and income indicated socioeconomic position. Sex, age, ethnicity, dental insurance and diabetes were adjusted for in the regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in behaviors. Regression models adjusting and not adjusting for behaviors were compared to assess the change in socioeconomic disparities in oral health. The results showed clear socioeconomic disparities in all behaviors. After adjusting for behaviors, the association between oral health and socioeconomic indicators attenuated but did not disappear. These findings imply that improvement in health-related behaviors may lessen, but not eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health, and suggest the presence of more complex determinants of these disparities which should be addressed by oral health preventive policies.

  4. Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. PMID:23763393

  5. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Nursing Home Quality of Life Deficiencies, 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J. Campbell MA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Racial/ethnic disparities in nursing homes (NHs are associated with lower quality of care, and state Medicaid payment policies may influence NH quality. However, no studies analyzing disparities in NH quality of life (QoL exist. Therefore, this study aims to estimate associations at the NH level between average number of QoL deficiencies and concentrations of racial/ethnic minority residents, and to identify effects of state Medicaid payment policies on racial/ethnic disparities. Method: Multivariable Poisson regression with NH random effects was used to determine the association between NH minority concentration in 2000 to 2010 and average number of QoL deficiencies in 2001 to 2011 at the NH level, and the effect of state NH payment policies on QoL deficiencies and racial/ethnic disparities in QoL deficiencies across NH minority concentrations. Results: Racial/ethnic disparities in QoL between high and low minority concentration NHs decrease over time, but are not eliminated. Case mix payment was associated with an increased disparity between high and low minority concentration NHs in QoL deficiencies. Discussion: NH managers and policy makers should consider initiatives targeting minority residents or low-performing NHs with higher minority concentrations for improvement to reduce disparities and address QoL deficiencies.

  6. Disparities in criminal court referrals to drug treatment and prison for minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Macdonald, John M; Arkes, Jeremy

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment were explained by current arrest and criminal history characteristics among drug-involved offenders, and whether those disparities decreased after California's Proposition 36, which mandated first- and second-time nonviolent drug offenders drug treatment instead of prison. We analyzed administrative data on approximately 170,000 drug-involved arrests in California between 1995 and 2005. We examined odds ratios from logistic regressions for prison and diversion across racial/ethnic groups before and after Proposition 36. We found significant disparities in prison and diversion for Blacks and Hispanics relative to Whites. These disparities decreased after controlling for current arrest and criminal history characteristics for Blacks. Proposition 36 was also associated with a reduction in disparities, but more so for Hispanics than Blacks. Disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment among drug-involved offenders affect hundreds of thousands of citizens and might reinforce imbalances in criminal justice and health outcomes. Our study indicated that standardized criminal justice policies that improved access to drug treatment might contribute to alleviating some share of these disparities.

  7. Race-Based Health Disparities and the Digital Divide: Implications for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Zula

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities.

  8. A roadmap and best practices for organizations to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.

  9. Disparity Map Generation from Illumination Variant Stereo Images Using Efficient Hierarchical Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral H. Borisagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hierarchical stereo matching algorithm is presented which gives disparity map as output from illumination variant stereo pair. Illumination difference between two stereo images can lead to undesirable output. Stereo image pair often experience illumination variations due to many factors like real and practical situation, spatially and temporally separated camera positions, environmental illumination fluctuation, and the change in the strength or position of the light sources. Window matching and dynamic programming techniques are employed for disparity map estimation. Good quality disparity map is obtained with the optimized path. Homomorphic filtering is used as a preprocessing step to lessen illumination variation between the stereo images. Anisotropic diffusion is used to refine disparity map to give high quality disparity map as a final output. The robust performance of the proposed approach is suitable for real life circumstances where there will be always illumination variation between the images. The matching is carried out in a sequence of images representing the same scene, however in different resolutions. The hierarchical approach adopted decreases the computation time of the stereo matching problem. This algorithm can be helpful in applications like robot navigation, extraction of information from aerial surveys, 3D scene reconstruction, and military and security applications. Similarity measure SAD is often sensitive to illumination variation. It produces unacceptable disparity map results for illumination variant left and right images. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm produces quality disparity maps for both wide range of illumination variant and invariant stereo image pair.

  10. Decoding conjunctions of direction-of-motion and binocular disparity from human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kiley J; Clifford, Colin W G

    2012-05-01

    Motion and binocular disparity are two features in our environment that share a common correspondence problem. Decades of psychophysical research dedicated to understanding stereopsis suggest that these features interact early in human visual processing to disambiguate depth. Single-unit recordings in the monkey also provide evidence for the joint encoding of motion and disparity across much of the dorsal visual stream. Here, we used functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis to examine where in the human brain conjunctions of motion and disparity are encoded. Subjects sequentially viewed two stimuli that could be distinguished only by their conjunctions of motion and disparity. Specifically, each stimulus contained the same feature information (leftward and rightward motion and crossed and uncrossed disparity) but differed exclusively in the way these features were paired. Our results revealed that a linear classifier could accurately decode which stimulus a subject was viewing based on voxel activation patterns throughout the dorsal visual areas and as early as V2. This decoding success was conditional on some voxels being individually sensitive to the unique conjunctions comprising each stimulus, thus a classifier could not rely on independent information about motion and binocular disparity to distinguish these conjunctions. This study expands on evidence that disparity and motion interact at many levels of human visual processing, particularly within the dorsal stream. It also lends support to the idea that stereopsis is subserved by early mechanisms also tuned to direction of motion.

  11. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess outcome disparities in patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Estella M; Balsbaugh, Thomas; Nuovo, Jim; Tandon, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) tools can help expand our understanding of disparities in health outcomes within a community. The purpose of this project was (1) to demonstrate the methods to link a disease management registry with a GIS mapping and analysis program, (2) to address the challenges that occur when performing this link, and (3) to analyze the outcome disparities resulting from this assessment tool in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used registry data derived from the University of California Davis Health System's electronic medical record system to identify patients with diabetes mellitus from a network of 13 primary care clinics in the greater Sacramento area. This information was converted to a database file for use in the GIS software. Geocoding was performed and after excluding those who had unknown home addresses we matched 8528 unique patient records with their respective home addresses. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the Geolytics, Inc. (East Brunswick, NJ), a provider of US Census Bureau data, with 2008 estimates and projections. Patient, socioeconomic, and demographic data were then joined to a single database. We conducted regression analysis assessing A1c level based on each patient's demographic and laboratory characteristics and their neighborhood characteristics (socioeconomic status [SES] quintile). Similar analysis was done for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After excluding ineligible patients, the data from 7288 patients were analyzed. The most notable findings were as follows: There was, there was found an association between neighborhood SES and A1c. SES was not associated with low-density lipoprotein control. GIS methodology can assist primary care physicians and provide guidance for disease management programs. It can also help health systems in their mission to improve the health of a community. Our analysis found that neighborhood SES was a barrier to optimal glucose

  12. Examining the Gap: Compensation Disparities between Male and Female Physician Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Noël; Cawley, James F; McCall, Timothy C

    Compensation disparities between men and women have been problematic for decades, and there is considerable evidence that the gap cannot be entirely explained by nongender factors. The current study examined the compensation gap in the physician assistant (PA) profession. Compensation data from 2014 was collected by the American Academy of PAs in 2015. Practice variables, including experience, specialty, and hours worked, were controlled for in an ordinary least-squares sequential regression model to examine whether there remained a disparity in total compensation. In addition, the absolute disparity in compensation was compared with historical data collected by American Academy of PAs over the previous 1.5 decades. Without controlling for practice variables, a total compensation disparity of $16,052 existed between men and women in the PA profession. Even after PA practice variables were controlled for, a total compensation disparity of $9,695 remained between men and women (95% confidence interval, $8,438-$10,952). A 17-year trend indicates the absolute disparity between men and women has not lessened, although the disparity as a percent of male compensation has decreased in recent years. There remain challenges to ensuring pay equality in the PA profession. Even when compensation-relevant factors such as experience, hours worked, specialty, postgraduate training, region, and call are controlled for, there is still a substantial gender disparity in PA compensation. Remedies that may address this pay inequality include raising awareness of compensation disparities, teaching effective negotiation skills, assisting employers as they develop equitable compensation plans, having less reliance on past salary in position negotiation, and professional associations advocating for policies that support equal wages and opportunities, regardless of personal characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the US. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks aged 50 years and older from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: 1) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); and 2) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and 3) a combination of both. The racial disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results Differences in screening account for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. 36% of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little over 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. PMID:22514249

  14. Characterizing, modeling, and addressing gender disparities in introductory college physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren Elizabeth

    2011-12-01

    The underrepresentation and underperformance of females in physics has been well documented and has long concerned policy-makers, educators, and the physics community. In this thesis, we focus on gender disparities in the first- and second-semester introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. Success in these courses is critical for future study and careers in physics (and other sciences). Using data gathered from roughly 10,000 undergraduate students, we identify and model gender differences in the introductory physics courses in three areas: student performance, retention, and psychological factors. We observe gender differences on several measures in the introductory physics courses: females are less likely to take a high school physics course than males and have lower standardized mathematics test scores; males outscore females on both pre- and post-course conceptual physics surveys and in-class exams; and males have more expert-like attitudes and beliefs about physics than females. These background differences of males and females account for 60% to 70% of the gender gap that we observe on a post-course survey of conceptual physics understanding. In analyzing underlying psychological factors of learning, we find that female students report lower self-confidence related to succeeding in the introductory courses (self-efficacy) and are less likely to report seeing themselves as a "physics person". Students' self-efficacy beliefs are significant predictors of their performance, even when measures of physics and mathematics background are controlled, and account for an additional 10% of the gender gap. Informed by results from these studies, we implemented and tested a psychological, self-affirmation intervention aimed at enhancing female students' performance in Physics 1. Self-affirmation reduced the gender gap in performance on both in-class exams and the post-course conceptual physics survey. Further, the benefit of the self

  15. Making sense of housing disparities research: a review of health and economic inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narine, Lutchmie; Shobe, Marcia A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent recession and accompanying housing crisis, important gains have occurred in U.S. homeownership over the past several decades; however, wide inequalities among minority and immigrant populations remain. Understanding the role of several under-studied factors on housing outcomes, including health status and disability, and differences in financial capital, such as savings, investments, and other assets, remains a major policy initiative. Although past research has examined African American-White housing disparities, it is also important to explore disparities among Hispanics, Asians, and immigrants. This article reviews health and financial capital disparities in homeownership and home values between Whites and minority populations and offers suggestions for future policy research.

  16. Variable disparity-motion estimation based fast three-view video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Seung-Cheol; Hwang, Yong Seok; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, variable disparity-motion estimation (VDME) based 3-view video coding is proposed. In the encoding, key-frame coding (KFC) based motion estimation and variable disparity estimation (VDE) for effectively fast three-view video encoding are processed. These proposed algorithms enhance the performance of 3-D video encoding/decoding system in terms of accuracy of disparity estimation and computational overhead. From some experiments, stereo sequences of 'Pot Plant' and 'IVO', it is shown that the proposed algorithm's PSNRs is 37.66 and 40.55 dB, and the processing time is 0.139 and 0.124 sec/frame, respectively.

  17. Examining the Impact of Structural Racism on Food Insecurity: Implications for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela; Bruce, Marino A

    Food insecurity is defined as "a household-level economic and social condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food." While, levels of food insecurity in the United States have fluctuated over the past 20 years; disparities in food insecurity rates between people of color and whites have continued to persist. There is growing recognition that discrimination and structural racism are key contributors to disparities in health behaviors and outcomes. Although several promising practices to reduce food insecurity have emerged, approaches that address structural racism and discrimination may have important implications for alleviating racial/ethnic disparities in food insecurity and promoting health equity overall.

  18. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  19. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  20. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  1. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  2. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  3. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  4. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A.; Button, David J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa.

  5. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T; Galmarini, S; Bianconi, R; French, S [eds.

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  6. Occupational injury disparities in the US hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Susan; Vossenas, Pamela; Krause, Niklas; Moriarty, Joan; Frumin, Eric; Shimek, Jo Anna M; Mirer, Franklin; Orris, Peter; Punnett, Laura

    2010-02-01

    Hotel employees have higher rates of occupational injury and sustain more severe injuries than most other service workers. OSHA log incidents from five unionized hotel companies for a three-year period were analyzed to estimate injury rates by job, company, and demographic characteristics. Room cleaning work, known to be physically hazardous, was of particular concern. A total of 2,865 injuries were reported during 55,327 worker-years of observation. The overall injury rate was 5.2 injuries per 100 worker-years. The rate was highest for housekeepers (7.9), Hispanic housekeepers (10.6), and about double in three companies versus two others. Acute trauma rates were highest in kitchen workers (4.0/100) and housekeepers (3.9/100); housekeepers also had the highest rate of musculoskeletal disorders (3.2/100). Age, being female or Hispanic, job title, and company were all independently associated with injury risk. Sex- and ethnicity-based disparities in injury rates were only partially due to the type of job held and the company in which the work was performed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  8. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  9. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer screening in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Timothy; Taira, Deborah A; Davis, James; Chan, Henry

    2007-10-01

    Despite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, many women do not obtain mammograms. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between income and mammography screening for members enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii. We analyzed claims data for women (N = 46,328) aged 50 to 70 years during 2003 and 2004. We used parametric and nonparametric regression techniques. We used probit estimation to conduct multivariate analysis. At the 5th percentile of the earnings distribution, the probability of mammography is 57.1%, and at the 95th percentile, it is 67.7%. Movement from the 5th percentile to the 35th percentile of the earnings distribution increases the probability of mammography by 0.0378 percentage points. A similar movement from the 65th percentile to the 95th percentile increases the probability by 0.0394 percentage points. Also, we observed an income gradient within narrowly defined geographic regions where physical access to medical care providers is not an issue. We observed a steep income gradient in mammography screening in Hawaii. Because of the prevalence of measurement error, this gradient is probably far greater than our estimate. We cannot plausibly attribute our findings to disparities in coverage because 100% of our sample had health insurance coverage. The gradient also does not appear to result from poorer people residing in areas that are geographically isolated from providers of medical care.

  10. Disparities in children's oral health and access to dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J

    Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Disparities in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R. M.; Gonzales, M.; Wiggins, C. L.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses indicated that New Mexican Hispanics and American Indians (AI) did not experience the declining colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates observed among non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We evaluated more recent data to determine whether racial/ethnic differences persisted. Methods. We used New Mexico Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data from 1995 to 2009 to calculate age-specific incidence rates and age-adjusted incidence rates overall and by tumor stage. We calculated mortality rates using National Center for Health Statistics’ data. We used join point regression to determine annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted incidence rates. Analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Incidence rates continued declining in NHW (APC −1.45% men, −1.06% women), while non significantly increasing for AI (1.67% men, 1.26% women) and Hispanic women (0.24%). The APC initially increased in Hispanic men through 2001 (3.33%, P = 0.06), before declining (−3.10%, P = 0,003). Incidence rates declined in NHW and Hispanics aged 75 and older. Incidence rates for distant-stage cancer remained stable for all groups. Mortality rates declined significantly in NHW and Hispanics. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities in CRC persist in New Mexico. Incidence differences could be related to risk factors or access to screening; mortality differences could be due to patterns of care for screening or treatment.

  12. Disparities in operative outcomes in patients with comorbid mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth A; Wirtalla, Christopher; Sharoky, Catherine E; Kelz, Rachel R

    2018-04-01

    Patients with mental health disorders have worse medical outcomes and experience excess mortality compared with those without a mental health comorbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental health comorbidities and surgical outcomes. This retrospective cohort study used the National Inpatient Sample (2009-2011) to select patients who underwent one of the 4 most common general surgery procedures (cholecystectomy and common duct exploration, colorectal resection, excision and lysis of peritoneal adhesions, and appendectomy). Patients with a concurrent mental health diagnosis were identified. Multivariable logistic regression examined outcomes, including prolonged length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and postoperative complications. Of the 579,851 patients included, 38,702 patients (6.7%) had a mental health diagnosis. Mood disorders were most prevalent (58.7%), followed by substance abuse (23.8%). After adjustment for confounders, including sex, race, number of comorbidities, admission status, open operations, insurance, and income quartile, we found that having a mental health diagnosis conferred a 40% greater odds of including prolonged length of stay (OR 1.41, P mental health diagnosis cohort. General surgery patients with comorbid mental disease experience a greater incidence of postoperative complications and longer hospitalizations. Recognizing these disparate outcomes is the first step in understanding how to optimize care for this frequently marginalized population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  14. Decoupled form and function in disparate herbivorous dinosaur clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Brassey, Charlotte A; Button, David J; Barrett, Paul M

    2016-05-20

    Convergent evolution, the acquisition of morphologically similar traits in unrelated taxa due to similar functional demands or environmental factors, is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Consequently, the occurrence of similar form is used routinely to address fundamental questions in morphofunctional research and to infer function in fossils. However, such qualitative assessments can be misleading and it is essential to test form/function relationships quantitatively. The parallel occurrence of a suite of morphologically convergent craniodental characteristics in three herbivorous, phylogenetically disparate dinosaur clades (Sauropodomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda) provides an ideal test case. A combination of computational biomechanical models (Finite Element Analysis, Multibody Dynamics Analysis) demonstrate that despite a high degree of morphological similarity between representative taxa (Plateosaurus engelhardti, Stegosaurus stenops, Erlikosaurus andrewsi) from these clades, their biomechanical behaviours are notably different and difficult to predict on the basis of form alone. These functional differences likely reflect dietary specialisations, demonstrating the value of quantitative biomechanical approaches when evaluating form/function relationships in extinct taxa.

  15. Spatial Disparities of Financial Intermediaries in Cluj County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LELIA PAPP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at identifying the disparities in the spatial distribution of financial intermediaries by taking as case-study a specific territorial unit, namely Cluj County. The knowledge of the number and location of financial intermediaries has importance in understanding the complex functionality of the territory, as well as in the complex process of territorial management, since there is a close linkage between the presence and the activity of the different financial institutions and economic and social development. The analysis is focused on the following financial intermediaries: monetary financial institutions, other financial intermediaries, insurance companies and pension funds. The interpreted data, the calculated indicators (such as the number of banks per 1,000 inhabitants, the number of ATMs per 1,000 inhabitants and the cartographic materials indicate a high concentration of financial intermediaries in Cluj-Napoca, a slight diversity in the other five towns of the county and low presence or even their absence in rural area.

  16. Missed Opportunity? Leveraging Mobile Technology to Reduce Racial Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rashawn; Sewell, Abigail A; Gilbert, Keon L; Roberts, Jennifer D

    2017-10-01

    Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to access health insurance and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices. We find that blacks and Latinos are more likely to trust online newspapers to get health information than whites. Minorities who have access to a mobile device are more likely to rely on the Internet for health information in a time of strong need. Federally insured individuals who are connected to mobile devices have the highest probability of reliance on the Internet as a go-to source of health information. We conclude by discussing the importance of mobile technologies for health policy, particularly related to developing health literacy, improving health outcomes, and contributing to reducing health disparities by race and health insurance status. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  17. Racial and Gender Disparities in Patients with Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2012-01-01

    Gout affects 8.3 million Americans according to NHANES 2007–2008, roughly 3.9% of the U.S. population. Gout has significant impact on physical function, productivity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health care costs. Uncontrolled gout is also associated with significant utilization of emergent care services. Women are less likely to have gout than men, but in the postmenopausal years the gender difference in disease incidence decreases. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minorities, especially blacks, have higher prevalence of gout. On the other hand, blacks are less likely to receive quality gout care, leading to a disproportionate morbidity. Women are less likely than men to receive allopurinol, less likely to get joint aspirations for crystal analyses for establishing diagnosis, but those on urate-lowering therapy are as/more likely as men to get serum urate check within 6-months of initiation. While a few studies provide the knowledge related to gender and race/ethnicity disparities in gout, several knowledge gaps exist in gout epidemiology and outcomes differences by gender and race/ethnicity. These should be explored in future studies. PMID:23315156

  18. Combining disparate data sources for improved poverty prediction and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Neeti; Jacques, Damien Christophe

    2017-11-14

    More than 330 million people are still living in extreme poverty in Africa. Timely, accurate, and spatially fine-grained baseline data are essential to determining policy in favor of reducing poverty. The potential of "Big Data" to estimate socioeconomic factors in Africa has been proven. However, most current studies are limited to using a single data source. We propose a computational framework to accurately predict the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) at a finest spatial granularity and coverage of 552 communes in Senegal using environmental data (related to food security, economic activity, and accessibility to facilities) and call data records (capturing individualistic, spatial, and temporal aspects of people). Our framework is based on Gaussian Process regression, a Bayesian learning technique, providing uncertainty associated with predictions. We perform model selection using elastic net regularization to prevent overfitting. Our results empirically prove the superior accuracy when using disparate data (Pearson correlation of 0.91). Our approach is used to accurately predict important dimensions of poverty: health, education, and standard of living (Pearson correlation of 0.84-0.86). All predictions are validated using deprivations calculated from census. Our approach can be used to generate poverty maps frequently, and its diagnostic nature is, likely, to assist policy makers in designing better interventions for poverty eradication. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Distance decay and persistent health care disparities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2014-11-04

    Access to health care is a particular concern given the important role of poor access in perpetuating poverty and inequality. South Africa's apartheid history leaves large racial disparities in access despite post-apartheid health policy to increase the number of health facilities, even in remote rural areas. However, even when health services are provided free of charge, monetary and time costs of travel to a local clinic may pose a significant barrier for vulnerable segments of the population, leading to overall poorer health. Using newly available health care utilization data from the first nationally representative panel survey in South Africa, together with administrative geographic data from the Department of Health, we use graphical and multivariate regression analysis to investigate the role of distance to the nearest facility on the likelihood of having a health consultation or an attended birth. Ninety percent of South Africans live within 7 km of the nearest public clinic, and two-thirds live less than 2 km away. However, 14% of Black African adults live more than 5 km from the nearest facility, compared to only 4% of Whites, and they are 16 percentage points less likely to report a recent health consultation (p apartheid but progress is still needed to achieve equity in health care access.

  20. Social disparities in dentition status among American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Zhiwu; Walker, Mary P

    2014-02-01

    To assess the overall dentition status of American adults, to investigate disparities and changes in dentition using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 and to study the effects of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language on dentition after adjusting for other demographics. Descriptive statistics were used to explore and summarise dentition status. The prevalence of dentition markers over two surveys were compared using tests of proportions and a series of regressions were used to estimate the strength of association of family poverty status, education, citizenship and language with the four markers of dentition status. Overall, dentition status has improved in adults. However, gaps exist in that non-Hispanic Black and Mexican-Americans have a higher prevalence of dental decay and lower restoration rates than other races. After adjusting for selected demographics, adults with less education (still exist among adults in the USA. The results also indicate that to improve overall oral health and close the existing gaps in oral health, increased access to dental care would be needed for people who have low incomes and low levels of education. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Gender disparities in health: attending to the particulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Barbara Burns; Puzan, Elayne

    2004-03-01

    As we get a feel for this new century, collective creativity is called for while we confront the challenges presented. Globalization, with its flow of ideas, people, and materials is no longer a theoretical concept and its advantages and disadvantages are becoming clear. While the axiom that "all politics are local" remains relevant, world events touch all corners of the globe. In the world of science, there are exciting advances being made,but many of these are accompanied by concerns about unequal access to biomedicine and technology, and misplaced health care priorities. One of the effects of transnationalism is that multiculturalism becomes the norm so that the label "minority" begins to lose its meaning. In the field of women's health, the issues have not changed as much as the conceptualization of them. The fact that biology and society contribute to sex differences is well known, but understanding how these interact at all levels (from the molecular to the community level) requires innovative research strategies. Efforts to describe gender disparities in health status are inadequate unless they are linked with actions that will improve the well being of diverse populations. An approach suggested in this article is to direct research and policy attention to the lifestyles and needs of particular women living in a particular time and place in society. This is the first step before meaningful interventions can be implemented and the women's health paradigm expanded.

  2. The Impact of Regional Disparities on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Gurgul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated how economic growth affects the disparity in the distribution of regional income in Poland and vice versa. The research was based on annual data covering the period 2000-2009. In general, the research was divided into two main parts. First, the authors examined the evolution of the level of spatial inequalities in income in Poland over the last decade using the concepts of sigma and beta convergence. Next the nature of causal dependences was investigated between this inequality and economic growth. It was found that Polish regions did not converge with respect to the distribution of income as total GDP grew. The second part of the research provided evidence to claim that this inequality caused growth. Moreover, the evidence was also found that growth affected regional inequality. Finally, the authors noticed that the effects of both these factors were positive. The results suggest that as a consequence of rapid economic growth, some regions in Poland seized new opportunities, while less developed regions were unable to keep up with the challenging requirements of a decade of fast economic growth. (original abstract

  3. Health Disparities in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery: Nationwide Outcomes and Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Lopez, Omar; Jupiter, Daniel C; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Bowen-Jallow, Kanika A

    2017-11-01

    Bariatric surgery represents an appropriate treatment for adolescent severe obesity, but its utilization remains low in this patient population. We studied the impact of race and sex on preoperative characteristics, outcomes, and utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery. Retrospective analysis (2007-2014) of adolescent bariatric surgery using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database, a national database that collects bariatric surgical care data. We assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and outcomes (weight loss and remission of obesity-related conditions [ORCs]). Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and U.S. census data, we calculated the ratio of severe obesity and bariatric procedures among races and determined the ratio of ratios to assess for disparities. About 1,539 adolescents underwent bariatric surgery. Males had higher preoperative body mass index (BMI; 51.8 ± 10.5 vs. 47.1 ± 8.7, p adolescents underwent bariatric surgery at a higher proportion than blacks and Hispanics (2.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively). Preoperative characteristics vary according to race and sex. Race and sex do not impact 12-month weight loss or ORC's remission rates. Minority adolescents undergo bariatric surgery at lower-than-expected rates. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Disparities Since 1800: Trends and Regional Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahid Alam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the growing body of evidence on the relative economic standing of different regions of the world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In general, it does not find support for Euro-centric claims regarding Western Europe’s early economic lead. The Eurocentric claims are based primarily on estimates of per capita income, which are plagued by conceptual problems, make demands on historical data that are generally unavailable, and use questionable assumptions to reconstruct early per capita income. A careful examination of these conjectural estimates of per capita income, however, does not support claims that Western Europe had a substantial lead over the rest of the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century. An examination of several alternative indices of living standards in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries—such as real wages, labor productivity in agriculture, and urbanization—also fails to confirm claims of European superiority. In addition, this paper examines the progress of global disparities—including the presence of regional patterns—using estimates of per capita income.

  5. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  6. Sex Disparities in Ischemic Stroke Care: The Florida Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities Study (CReSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdaghi, Negar; Romano, Jose G.; Wang, Kefeng; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A.; Koch, Sebastian; Gardener, Hannah; Dong, Chuanhui; Rose, David Z.; Waddy, Salina P.; Robichaux, Mary; Garcia, Enid J.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Juan A.; Burgin, W. Scott; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sex-specific disparities in stroke care including thrombolytic therapy and early hospital admission is reported. In a large registry of Florida and Puerto Rico hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines – Stroke (GWTG-S) program, we sought to determine sex-specific differences in ischemic stroke performance metrics and overall thrombolytic treatment. Methods 51,317 (49% women) patients were included from 73 sites from 2010–2014. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations evaluated sex-specific differences in the pre-specified GWTG-S metrics for defect free care (DFC) in ischemic stroke, adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, insurance status, hospital characteristics, individual risk factors and the presenting stroke severity. Results As compared to men, women were older (73±15 vs. 69±14 years; p<0.0001), more hypertensive (67% vs. 63%, P<0.0001) and had more atrial fibrillation (19% vs. 16%; p<0.0001). DFC was slightly lower in women than men (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93–1.00). Temporal trends in DFC improved substantially and similarly for men and women, with a 29% absolute improvement in women (p for trend <0.0001) and 28% in men (p for trend <0.0001), p value for time-by-sex interaction of 0.13. Women were less likely to receive thrombolysis (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.86–0.99, P=0.02) and less likely to have a door to needle time (DTN) <1 hour (OR 0.83, 95%CI, 0.71–0.97, p=0.02) as compared to men Conclusion Women received comparable stroke care to men in this registry as measured by pre-specified GWTG metrics. However, women less likely received thrombolysis and had DTN <1 hour, an observation that calls for implementation of interventions to reduce sex-disparity in these measures. PMID:27553032

  7. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  8. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  9. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  10. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  11. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  14. Strategies to reduce disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality: Patient and provider education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Joses; Moroz, Leslie

    2017-08-01

    A reduction in racial disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality requires effective education of both patients and providers. Although providers seem to recognize that disparities exist, there is a widespread need for improving our understanding differences in health care and outcomes and the factors that contribute to them. There are increasingly more educational materials available for the purpose of augmenting disparities education among patients and providers. However, it is important to incorporate contemporary learning methodologies and technologies to address our current knowledge deficit. Collaborative educational models with a multi-disciplinary approach to patient education will be essential. Ultimately, the comprehensive education of providers and patients will require efforts on the part of numerous stakeholders within patient care delivery models. Further investigation will be necessary to determine how best to disseminate this information to maximize the impact of patient and provider educations with the goal of eliminating disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Value of Friction, Tension, and Disparity in Global Collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Misunderstandings; conflicting goals; competition for limited funds; differing worldviews, agendas, ideals... These types of 'friction' are inevitable in national and global collaboration. And while friction can create tension and conflict, it is not inherently bad. It is at these points of interaction and tension where we can sometimes gain the most insight. Common understanding comes not only through agreed universal principles but also through multiple lines of evidence that wind through disparate views and describe a greater story. Collaboration is not straightforward in an environment of friction, tension, and disparity. Collaborators do not necessarily have common goals. Dynamic, coalition-style politics emerge. How can we align these disparities to achieve standards and common knowledge while still valuing and understanding differing perspectives? Achieving the understanding that comes through both unity and disparity is a central goal of the Research Data Alliance. RDA is emerging as a "neutral place" or "social gateway" where frictions can be identified, addressed, and understood but not necessarily removed.

  16. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical cultural competency and knowledge of health disparities among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Olihe N; Odedina, Folakemi T; Reams, Romonia R; Smith, W Thomas

    2012-04-10

    To evaluate the level of competency and knowledge about health disparities among third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 2 Florida public colleges of pharmacy and to explore the demographic correlates of these variables. A cross-sectional survey study design was used to collect data from participants. The students had low health-disparities knowledge and moderate skills in dealing with sociocultural issues and cross-cultural encounters. Speaking a language(s) other than English and having exposure to cultural-competency instruction were the demographic variables found to be most significantly associated with clinical cultural competency and/or knowledge of health disparities. Clinical cultural competency and health-disparities instruction may not be adequately incorporated into the pharmacy school curricula in the institutions studied. Relevant education and training are necessary to enhance cultural competency among pharmacy students.

  18. Disparities in public and private pre-primary and primary schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... essential for educational planning; their disparities in public and private pre-primary and ... teaching as a career especially in the private schools where they constitute only 35.

  19. Effects of Social, Economic, and Labor Policies on Occupational Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Gaydos, Megan; Monforton, Celeste; Slatin, Craig; Borkowski, Liz; Dooley, Peter; Liebman, Amy; Rosenberg, Erica; Shor, Glenn; Keifer, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States. Methods We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Results Many populations such as tipped workers, public employees, immigrant workers, and misclassified workers are not protected by current laws and policies, including worker’s compensation or Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement of standards. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities. Conclusions There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all. PMID:23606055

  20. Sociodemographic disparities in the utilization of proton therapy for prostate cancer at an urban academic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Woodhouse, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Sociodemographic disparities exist in PT use for prostate cancer at an urban academic institution. Further investigation of potential barriers to access is warranted to ensure equitable distribution across all demographic groups.

  1. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-5 - Overall permitted disparity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... permitted disparity limits. (a) Introduction—(1) In general. The maximum excess allowance and maximum offset... Commissioner considers appropriate. Additional rules may include (without being limited to) rules for computing...

  2. Merging Disparate Data and Numerical Model Results for Dynamically Constrained Nowcasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirwin, A

    1999-01-01

    Our objective is to combine disparate surface current observations from sources like HF radar, Lagrangian drifters, passive remote sensing and ADCPs with open boundary flow information from any available source...

  3. Intermediate view reconstruction using adaptive disparity search algorithm for real-time 3D processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung-hoon; Park, Changhan; Kim, Eun-soo

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, intermediate view reconstruction (IVR) using adaptive disparity search algorithm (ASDA) is for realtime 3-dimensional (3D) processing proposed. The proposed algorithm can reduce processing time of disparity estimation by selecting adaptive disparity search range. Also, the proposed algorithm can increase the quality of the 3D imaging. That is, by adaptively predicting the mutual correlation between stereo images pair using the proposed algorithm, the bandwidth of stereo input images pair can be compressed to the level of a conventional 2D image and a predicted image also can be effectively reconstructed using a reference image and disparity vectors. From some experiments, stereo sequences of 'Pot Plant' and 'IVO', it is shown that the proposed algorithm improves the PSNRs of a reconstructed image to about 4.8 dB by comparing with that of conventional algorithms, and reduces the Synthesizing time of a reconstructed image to about 7.02 sec by comparing with that of conventional algorithms.

  4. Racial/ethnic disparities and culturally competent health care among youth and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Dzung X; Park, M Jane

    2008-06-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care are receiving increasing national attention from the fields of public health and medicine. Efforts to reduce disparities should adopt a life-span approach and recognize the role of gender. During adolescence, young people make increasingly independent decisions about health-related behavior and health care, while developing gender identity. Little is known about how cultural context shapes gender identity and gender identity's influence on health-related behavior and health care utilization. The authors review disparities in health status and health care among adolescents, especially young men, by reviewing health care access, clinical services, and issues related to culture, identity, and acculturation. Significant differences in health status by gender exist in adolescence, with young men faring worse on many health markers. This article discusses gaps in research and offers recommendations for improving health care quality and strengthening the research base on gender and disparities during adolescence.

  5. A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0529 TITLE: A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...AND SUBTITLE A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in

  6. Social support and depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Cao, Qi; Shi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Weixia; Jiang, Haixia; Hou, Yucheng

    2018-09-01

    Depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults is an important public health issue in China. Social support is considered as an effective way to alleviate depression of older adults. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which social support could explain the depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults in China. This study used data drawn from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with 6,772 observations. Multiple data analysis strategies were adopted, including descriptive analyses, bivariate analyses, regression analyses and decomposition analyses. There were significant depressive symptom disparities between urban and rural older adults in China. Social support had significant association with depressive symptom of older adults while adjusting for covariates. About 25%-28% of the depressive symptom disparities could be attributed to urban-rural gaps in social support, in which community support contributed 21%-25%. Educational level and physical health status also contributed to the disparities. This study only established correlations between social support and depressive symptom disparity rather than casual relationships; and the self-reported measurement of depressive symptom and the unobservable cultural factors might cause limitations. The urban-rural gap in social support, especially community support was a prime explanation for depressive symptom disparities between urban and rural older adults in China. To reduce the depressive symptom disparities, effective community construction in rural China should be put into place, including improving the infrastructure construction, strengthening the role of social organizations, and encouraging community interpersonal interactions for older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Disparities in lymphoma on the basis of race, gender, HIV status, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Melody; Flowers, Christopher R; Nastoupil, Loretta J

    2017-11-01

    Lymphoid malignancies account for the sixth leading cause of death in the US, and, although survival is improving overall, this trend is not applicable to all patients. In this review, we describe disparities in the initial presentation, treatment, and outcomes across a diverse group of lymphoma patients on the basis of gender, race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. Identifying these disparities will hopefully lead to improved outcomes in these groups of lymphoma patients in the future.

  8. Disparities in dietary habits and physical activity in Denmark and trends from 1995 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Landvad, Niels; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2014-11-01

    To examine social disparities in dietary-, alcohol- and leisure-time physical activity habits in Danish adults from 1995 to 2008 and to test the hypothesis of widening disparities. Four cross-sectional surveys of representative samples of the Danish population aged 20-75 years were analysed, a total of 7900 respondents. Dietary and alcohol habits were measured by a 7-day pre-coded food diary and physical activity and education by a face-to-face interview. Multivariate analyses were used to test associations between explanatory variables and response variables and the hypothesis of widening disparities. In all analyses, both diet quality and physical inactivity differed systematically with educational group and with healthier habits for the group with long education. Only for alcohol habits was an opposite social gradient seen. Disparities persisted over all time periods. The analyses using "The Concentration Index" did not change any of the conclusions. Gender also influenced diet quality. Men had dietary and alcohol habits furthest away from the guidelines. A trend of healthier habits was also found over the time period. Social disparities in diet quality and leisure-time physical activity were seen for all examined time periods and with no significant change therefore, there is no support to the hypothesis of widening social disparities in all educational groups some improvement of dietary habits was found, especially for those foods where comprehensive initiatives had taken place however, social disparities still exist there is an ongoing need to address these disparities in order to reduce social inequality in health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM UNDER ECONOMIC TRANSITION: NATIONAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Guo, Rong; Wang, Qingbin

    2003-01-01

    China's Tourism industry, especially international tourism, has expanded rapidly since its market-oriented economic reform started in 1978. There has been limited information regarding the trends and regional disparities. This paper examines the national trends of China's international tourism since 1982 and analyzes the changes in regional disparities since 1995. While the trend analysis suggests that China's international tourism is likely to keep growing at a significant rate, the analysis...

  10. Objective quality assessment of stereoscopic images with vertical disparity using EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Avarvand, Forooz; Bosse, Sebastian; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schäfer, Ralf; Nolte, Guido; Wiegand, Thomas; Curio, Gabriel; Samek, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neurophysiological correlates of vertical disparity in 3D images are studied in an objective approach using EEG technique. These disparities are known to negatively affect the quality of experience and to cause visual discomfort in stereoscopic visualizations. Approach. We have presented four conditions to subjects: one in 2D and three conditions in 3D, one without vertical disparity and two with different vertical disparity levels. Event related potentials (ERPs) are measured for each condition and the differences between ERP components are studied. Analysis is also performed on the induced potentials in the time frequency domain. Main results. Results show that there is a significant increase in the amplitude of P1 components in 3D conditions in comparison to 2D. These results are consistent with previous studies which have shown that P1 amplitude increases due to the depth perception in 3D compared to 2D. However the amplitude is significantly smaller for maximum vertical disparity (3D-3) in comparison to 3D with no vertical disparity. Our results therefore suggest that the vertical disparity in 3D-3 condition decreases the perception of depth compared to other 3D conditions and the amplitude of P1 component can be used as a discriminative feature. Significance. The results show that the P1 component increases in amplitude due to the depth perception in the 3D stimuli compared to the 2D stimulus. On the other hand the vertical disparity in the stereoscopic images is studied here. We suggest that the amplitude of P1 component is modulated with this parameter and decreases due to the decrease in the perception of depth.

  11. Unequal Depression for Equal Work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001–2002 US nationally representati...

  12. Understanding social disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control: the role of neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S; Hansen, Ben B; Williams, David R; Kaplan, George A; Hunte, Haslyn E

    2007-11-01

    The spatial segregation of the US population by socioeconomic position and especially race/ethnicity suggests that the social contexts or "neighborhoods" in which people live may substantially contribute to social disparities in hypertension. The Chicago Community Adult Health Study did face-to-face interviews, including direct measurement of blood pressure, with a representative probability sample of adults in Chicago. These data were used to estimate socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to analyze how these disparities are related to the areas in which people live. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with neighborhood affluence/gentrification, and adjustments for context eliminated the highly significant disparity between blacks/African-Americans and whites, and reduced the significant educational disparity by 10-15% to borderline statistical significance. Awareness of hypertension was significantly higher in more disadvantaged neighborhoods and in places with higher concentrations of blacks (and lower concentrations of Hispanics and immigrants). Adjustment for context completely eliminated blacks' greater awareness, but slightly accentuated the lesser awareness of Hispanics and the greater levels of awareness among the less educated. There was no consistent evidence of either social disparities in or contextual associations with treatment of hypertension, given awareness. Among those on medication, blacks were only 40-50% as likely as whites to have their hypertension controlled, but context played little or no role in either the level of or disparities in control of hypertension. In sum, residential contexts potentially play a large role in accounting for racial/ethnic and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic disparities in hypertension prevalence and, in a different way, awareness, but not in treatment or control of diagnosed hypertension.

  13. Konference Regionálne disparity v Strednej Európe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajdová, Zdenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2007), s. 1071-1072 ISSN 0038-0288. [Regionálne disparity v Strednej Európe. Bratislava, 25.10.2007-26.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : regional disparities * regional policy * international conference Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.169, year: 2007

  14. Challenges in covering health disparities in local news media: an exploratory analysis assessing views of journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Blake, Kelly D; Taylor-Clark, Kalahn; Viswanath, K

    2010-10-01

    News coverage of health topics influences knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at the individual level, and agendas and actions at the institutional and policy levels. Because disparities in health often are the result of social inequalities that require community-level or policy-level solutions, news stories employing a health disparities news frame may contribute to agenda-setting among opinion leaders and policymakers and lead to policy efforts aimed at reducing health disparities. This study objective was to conduct an exploratory analysis to qualitatively describe barriers that health journalists face when covering health disparities in local media. Between June and October 2007, 18 journalists from television, print, and radio in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts, were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone, and the crystallization/immersion method was used to conduct a qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Our results revealed that journalists said that they consider several angles when developing health stories, including public impact and personal behavior change. Challenges to employing a health disparities frame included inability to translate how research findings may impact different socioeconomic groups, and difficulty understanding how findings may translate across racial/ethnic groups. Several journalists reported that disparities-focused stories are "less palatable" for some audiences. This exploratory study offers insights into the challenges that local news media face in using health disparities news frames in their routine coverage of health news. Public health practitioners may use these findings to inform communication efforts with local media in order to advance the public dialogue about health disparities.

  15. Slow and steady: the evolution of cranial disparity in fossil and recent turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Joyce, Walter G

    2016-11-30

    Turtles (Testudinata) are a diverse group of amniotes that have a rich fossil record that extends back to the Late Triassic, but little is known about global patterns of disparity through time. We here investigate the cranial disparity of 172 representatives of the turtle lineage and their ancestors grouped into 20 time bins ranging from the Late Triassic until the Recent using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Three evolutionary phases are apparent in all three anatomical views investigated. In the first phase, disparity increases gradually from the Late Triassic to the Palaeogene with only a minor perturbation at the K/T extinct event. Although global warming may have influenced this increase, we find the Mesozoic fragmentation of Pangaea to be a more plausible factor. Following its maximum, disparity decreases strongly towards the Miocene, only to recover partially towards the Recent. The marked collapse in disparity is likely a result of habitat destruction caused by global drying, combined with the homogenization of global turtle faunas that resulted from increased transcontinental dispersal in the Tertiary. The disparity minimum in the Miocene is likely an artefact of poor sampling. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. An evaluation of four patterns of interaction for integrating disparate ESBs effectively and easily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart John Green

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organisations use Enterprise Service Busses (ESBs to support enterprise application integration. For a variety of reasons – mergers and acquisitions, geographically distributed enterprise units, distributed governance, scalability – enterprises sometimes need to acquire multiple, disparate ESBs and enable the applications that each one supports to interoperate. However, currently, no standard architecture exists for integrating multiple, disparate ESBs. To begin to address this problem, four candidate disparate ESB integration patterns – directly connected, web services, homogeneous messaging middleware, and message bridge – were identified from the enterprise application integration literature and tested for their effectiveness in integrating multiple, disparate ESBs. Each pattern was applied in two different scenarios: loan broker request, and inter-divisional messaging. In each scenario a number of enterprise applications were integrated using three disparate ESBs: Oracle Service Bus, Apache ServiceMix, and Mule ESB. The experiments were designed to test how well the different patterns supported effective integration of different ESBs. The results indicate that the web services and homogeneous messaging middleware patterns are the best for integrating disparate EBS effectively and with minimal difficulty. In addition, it was discovered that the degree to which ESB integration could be achieved depended upon the number of ESBs being integrated, the relevant skills of the integration team, and the types of the ESBs. The results may be of practical benefit to the communities engaged in enterprise application integration research and practice.

  17. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  18. Effects of Geography on Mental Health Disparities on Sexual Minorities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Jacob; Adamczyk, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Gay and lesbian individuals have higher rates of psychological distress than do heterosexual individuals. The minority stress hypothesis attributes this disparity to adversity-related stress experienced by sexual minorities. In support of this idea, research in the U.S. has generally found that mental health disparities between sexual minorities and others are narrower in places where tolerance is relatively high. However, few studies have examined disparities between sexual minorities and others in neighborhoods where sexual minorities are most highly concentrated. Likewise, little research attention has been given to disparities for people who move to more tolerant places from less tolerant states and countries. Using data from the New York City Community Health Survey, we found some evidence that disparities between sexual minorities and others were lower in areas with higher concentrations of sexual minorities. However, disparities did not vary by the tolerance level of the state of birth among those born in the U.S. and were actually lower among those born in the least tolerant nations. These results complicate the idea that there is a dose-response relationship between tolerance and psychological distress among sexual minorities.

  19. The first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-12-23

    The evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic was a pivotal event in the Earth's history but is poorly understood, as previous studies have focused on vague driving mechanisms and have not untangled different macroevolutionary components (origination, diversity, abundance and disparity). We calculate the morphological disparity (morphospace occupation) of dinosaurs throughout the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and present new measures of taxonomic diversity. Crurotarsan archosaurs, the primary dinosaur 'competitors', were significantly more disparate than dinosaurs throughout the Triassic, but underwent a devastating extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. However, dinosaur disparity showed only a slight non-significant increase after this event, arguing against the hypothesis of ecological release-driven morphospace expansion in the Early Jurassic. Instead, the main jump in dinosaur disparity occurred between the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic. Conversely, dinosaur diversity shows a steady increase over this time, and measures of diversification and faunal abundance indicate that the Early Jurassic was a key episode in dinosaur evolution. Thus, different aspects of the dinosaur radiation (diversity, disparity and abundance) were decoupled, and the overall macroevolutionary pattern of the first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution is more complex than often considered.

  20. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas: current trends and disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Marinho de Souza, Maria; Gawryszewski, Vilma Pinheiro; Orduñez, Pedro; Sanhueza, Antonio; Espinal, Marcos A

    2012-08-01

    To describe the current situation and trends in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Americas and explore their association with economic indicators. This time series study analysed mortality data from 21 countries in the region of the Americas from 2000 to the latest available year. Age-adjusted death rates, annual variation in death rates. Regression analysis was used to estimate the annual variation and the association between age-adjusted rates and country income. Currently, CVD comprised 33.7% of all deaths in the Americas. Rates were higher in Guyana (292/100 000), Trinidad and Tobago (289/100 000) and Venezuela (246/100 000), and lower in Canada (108/100 000), Puerto Rico (121/100 000) and Chile (125/100 000). Male rates were higher than female rates in all countries. The trend analysis showed that CVD death rates in the Americas declined -19% overall (-20% among women and -18% among men). Most countries had a significant annual decline, except Guatemala, Guyana, Suriname, Paraguay and Panama. The largest annual declines were observed in Canada (-4.8%), the USA (-3.9%) and Puerto Rico (-3.6%). Minor declines were in Mexico (-0.8%) and Cuba (-1.1%). Compared with high-income countries the difference between the median of death rates in lower middle-income countries was 56.7% higher and between upper middle-income countries was 20.6% higher. CVD death rates have been decreasing in most countries in the Americas. Considerable disparities still remain in the current rates and trends.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Disparities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewer, Audrey L; Ibrahim, Said A; Leary, Marion; Dutwin, David; McNally, Bryan; Anderson, Monique L; Morrison, Laurie J; Aufderheide, Tom P; Daya, Mohamud; Idris, Ahamed H; Callaway, Clifton W; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Vilke, Gary M; Abella, Benjamin S

    2017-05-17

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with increased survival from cardiac arrest, yet bystander CPR rates are low in many communities. The overall prevalence of CPR training in the United States and associated individual-level disparities are unknown. We sought to measure the national prevalence of CPR training and hypothesized that older age and lower socioeconomic status would be independently associated with a lower likelihood of CPR training. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a nationally representative adult sample. We assessed the demographics of individuals trained in CPR within 2 years (currently trained) and those who had been trained in CPR at some point in time (ever trained). The association of CPR training and demographic variables were tested using survey weighted logistic regression. Between September 2015 and November 2015, 9022 individuals completed the survey; 18% reported being currently trained in CPR, and 65% reported training at some point previously. For each year of increased age, the likelihood of being currently CPR trained or ever trained decreased (currently trained: odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; P trained: OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99; P =0.04). Furthermore, there was a greater then 4-fold difference in odds of being currently CPR trained from the 30-39 to 70-79 year old age groups (95% CI, 0.10-0.23). Factors associated with a lower likelihood of CPR training were lesser educational attainment and lower household income ( P training in CPR. Older age, lesser education, and lower income were associated with reduced likelihood of CPR training. These findings illustrate important gaps in US CPR education and suggest the need to develop tailored CPR training efforts to address this variability. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Aberrant DNA Methylation: Implications in Racial Health Disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wang

    Full Text Available Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal carcinoma (CRC are higher in African Americans (AAs than in Caucasian Americans (CAs. Deficient micronutrient intake due to dietary restrictions in racial/ethnic populations can alter genetic and molecular profiles leading to dysregulated methylation patterns and the inheritance of somatic to germline mutations.Total DNA and RNA samples of paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues were prepared from AA and CA CRC specimens. Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS and RNA sequencing were employed to evaluate total genome methylation of 5'-regulatory regions and dysregulation of gene expression, respectively. Robust analysis was conducted using a trimming-and-retrieving scheme for RRBS library mapping in conjunction with the BStool toolkit.DNA from the tumor of AA CRC patients, compared to adjacent normal tissues, contained 1,588 hypermethylated and 100 hypomethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs. Whereas, 109 hypermethylated and 4 hypomethylated DMRs were observed in DNA from the tumor of CA CRC patients; representing a 14.6-fold and 25-fold change, respectively. Specifically; CHL1, 4 anti-inflammatory genes (i.e., NELL1, GDF1, ARHGEF4, and ITGA4, and 7 miRNAs (of which miR-9-3p and miR-124-3p have been implicated in CRC were hypermethylated in DNA samples from AA patients with CRC. From the same sample set, RNAseq analysis revealed 108 downregulated genes (including 14 ribosomal proteins and 34 upregulated genes (including POLR2B and CYP1B1 [targets of miR-124-3p] in AA patients with CRC versus CA patients.DNA methylation profile and/or products of its downstream targets could serve as biomarker(s addressing racial health disparity.

  3. Developmental Screening Disparities for Languages Other than English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuti Rodrigues, Kristine; Hambidge, Simon J; Dickinson, Miriam; Richardson, Douglas B; Davidson, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is a known barrier to preventive care. Children from families with LEP face socioeconomic circumstances associated with increased odds of developmental delays and decreased participation in early care and education programs. Little is known about developmental surveillance and screening for children from families who speak languages other than English and Spanish. We sought to compare developmental surveillance and screening at well-child visits (WCVs) by preferred parental language. Using a retrospective cohort (n = 15,320) of children aged 8 to 40 months with ≥2 WCVs from January 1, 2006, to July 1, 2010, in a community health system, 450 children from 3 language groups (150 English, 150 Spanish, and 150 non-English, non-Spanish) were randomly selected. Chart review assessed 2 primary outcomes, developmental surveillance at 100% of WCVs and screened with a standardized developmental screening tool, and also determined whether children were referred for diagnostic developmental evaluation. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Compared to the English-speaking group, the non-English, non-Spanish group had lower odds of receiving developmental surveillance at 100% of WCVs (odds ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2, 0.5) and of being screened with a standardized developmental screening tool (odds ratio, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.1, 0.2). There were no differences between the English- and Spanish-speaking groups. Though underpowered, no differences were found for referral. Improved developmental surveillance and screening are needed for children from families who speak languages other than English and Spanish. Lack of statistically significant differences between English- and Spanish-speaking groups suggests that improved translation and interpretation resources may decrease disparities. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Racial disparities in short sleep duration by occupation and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chandra L; Redline, Susan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, Michelle A; Hu, Frank B

    2013-11-01

    Short sleep duration, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has been shown to vary by occupation and industry, but few studies have investigated differences between black and white populations. By using data from a nationally representative sample of US adult short sleepers (n = 41,088) in the National Health Interview Survey in 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for short sleep duration in blacks compared with whites for each of 8 industry categories by using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Participants' mean age was 47 years; 50% were women and 13% were black. Blacks were more likely to report short sleep duration than whites (37% vs. 28%), and the black-white disparity was widest among those who held professional occupations. Adjusted short sleep duration was more prevalent in blacks than whites in the following industry categories: finance/information/real estate (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.59); professional/administrative/management (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.44); educational services (PR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.54); public administration/arts/other services (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.41); health care/social assistance (PR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.32); and manufacturing/construction (PR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20). Short sleep generally increased with increasing professional responsibility within a given industry among blacks but decreased with increasing professional roles among whites. Our results suggest the need for further investigation of racial/ethnic differences in the work-sleep relationship.

  5. Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Health Disparities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Fisher-Hoch

    Full Text Available Globally half of all diabetes mellitus is undiagnosed. We sought to determine the extent and characteristics of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes in Mexican Americans residing in the United States. This disadvantaged population with 50% lifetime risk of diabetes is a microcosm of the current pandemic. We accessed baseline data between 2004 and 2014 from 2,838 adults recruited to our Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC; a two-stage randomly selected 'Framingham-like' cohort of Mexican Americans on the US Mexico border with severe health disparities. We examined prevalence, risk factors and metabolic health in diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes. Two thirds of this Mexican American population has diabetes or pre-diabetes. Diabetes prevalence was 28.0%, nearly half undiagnosed, and pre-diabetes 31.6%. Mean BMI among those with diabetes was 33.5 kg/m2 compared with 29.0 kg/m2 for those without diabetes. Significant risk factors were low income and educational levels. Most with diabetes had increased waist/hip ratio. Lack of insurance and access to health services played a decisive role in failure to have diabetes diagnosed. Participants with undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes had similar measures of poor metabolic health similar but generally not as severe as those with diagnosed diabetes. More than 50% of a minority Mexican American population in South Texas has diabetes or pre-diabetes and is metabolically unhealthy. Only a third of diabetes cases were diagnosed. Sustained efforts are imperative to identify, diagnose and treat individuals in underserved communities.

  6. Gender disparities in research productivity among 9952 academic physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Cherla, Deepa V; Diaz, Lucia; Kovalerchik, Olga; Mauro, Kevin M; Baredes, Soly; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S

    2013-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased considerably over the past 3 decades, and they now comprise approximately half of medical school matriculants. We examine whether gender disparities in research productivity are present throughout various specialties and compare these findings to those previously described among otolaryngologists. Bibliometric analysis. Research productivity, measured by the h-index, was calculated for 9,952 academic physicians representing 34 medical specialties. Additionally, trends in how rate of research productivity changed throughout different career stages were compared. Women were underrepresented at the level of professor and in positions of departmental leadership relative to their representation among assistant and associate professors. Male faculty had statistically higher research productivity both overall (H = 10.3 ± 0.14 vs. 5.6 ± 0.14) and at all academic ranks. For the overall sample, men and women appeared to have equivalent rates of research productivity. In internal medicine, men had higher early-career productivity, while female faculty had productivity equaling and even surpassing that of their male colleagues beyond 20 to 25 years. Men and women had equivalent productivity in surgical specialties throughout their careers, and similar rates in pediatrics until 25 to 30 years. Female academic physicians have decreased research productivity relative to men, which may be one factor contributing to their underrepresentation at the level of professor and departmental leader relative to their proportions in junior academic ranks. Potential explanations may include fewer woman physicians in the age groups during which higher academic ranks are attained, greater family responsibilities, and greater involvement in clinical service and educational contributions. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Geographic disparities in state and district policies targeting youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-10-01

    States and school districts nationwide have enacted policies targeting youth obesity, but many policies lack specific requirements or enforcement language. Geographic disparities in youth obesity could worsen if policies are weaker in areas with higher obesity prevalence. To determine if state or district policy strength varies with youth obesity prevalence across Census divisions. Policies in five domains related to nutrition and physical activity in schools were obtained from all states and nationally representative samples of 578 and 592 public school districts in the 2006-2007 and 2008-2009 school years, respectively. Policy language strength was rated on a 0-100 scale on both the state and district level. Regression models were used to determine if mean 2006-2007 strength scores, and changes in mean scores from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009, were associated with youth obesity prevalence across Census divisions. Analyses were conducted in 2010. State and district policies governing foods sold outside of school meal programs ("competitive foods") were stronger in 2006-2007 in the two divisions with the highest youth obesity prevalence (East South Central, West South Central). Furthermore, mean competitive food policy strength increased the most from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 in these divisions. The West South Central had the weakest district physical education policies in 2006-2007, however, and was the only division in which average strength of district school meal policies decreased. State and districts in Census divisions with the highest youth obesity prevalence are taking steps to restrict competitive foods in schools, but many have not targeted other policy domains as aggressively. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  9. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  10. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  11. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  12. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  13. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  14. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  15. The Linked CENTURY Study: linking three decades of clinical and public health data to examine disparities in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Mariotti, Megan; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-03-09

    Despite the need to identify the causes of disparities in childhood obesity, the existing epidemiologic studies of early life risk factors have several limitations. We report on the construction of the Linked CENTURY database, incorporating CENTURY (Collecting Electronic Nutrition Trajectory Data Using Records of Youth) Study data with birth certificates; and discuss the potential implications of combining clinical and public health data sources in examining the etiology of disparities in childhood obesity. We linked the existing CENTURY Study, a database of 269,959 singleton children from birth to age 18 years with measured heights and weights, with each child's Massachusetts birth certificate, which captures information on their mothers' pregnancy history and detailed socio-demographic information of both mothers and fathers. Overall, 74.2 % were matched, resulting in 200,343 children in the Linked CENTURY Study with 1,580,597 well child visits. Among this cohort, 94.0 % (188,334) of children have some father information available on the birth certificate and 60.9 % (121,917) of children have at least one other sibling in the dataset. Using maternal race/ethnicity from the birth certificate as an indicator of children's race/ethnicity, 75.7 % of children were white, 11.6 % black, 4.6 % Hispanic, and 5.7 % Asian. Based on socio-demographic information from the birth certificate, 20.0 % of mothers were non-US born, 5.9 % smoked during pregnancy, 76.3 % initiated breastfeeding, and 11.0 % of mothers had their delivery paid for by public health insurance. Using clinical data from the CENTURY Study, 22.7 % of children had a weight-for-length ≥ 95(th) percentile between 1 and 24 months and 12.0 % of children had a body mass index ≥ 95(th) percentile at ages 5 and 17 years. By linking routinely-collected data sources, it is possible to address research questions that could not be answered with either source alone. Linkage between a clinical

  16. Area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health service use among children involved in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseop; Garcia, Antonio R; Yang, Shuyan; Jung, Nahri

    2018-06-01

    Relying on data from a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system (CWS) in 1999-2000 (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, Cohort 1) and 2008-2009 (Cohort 2), this study implemented a diverse set of disparity indicators to estimate area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health (MH) services use and changes in area-socioeconomic disparities between the two cohorts. Our study found that there are area-socioeconomic disparities in MH service use, indicating that the rates of MH service use among youth referred to the CWS differ by area-socioeconomic positions defined by county-level poverty rates. We also found that area-socioeconomic disparities increased over time. However, the magnitude of the increase varied widely across disparity measures, suggesting that there are different conclusions about the trend and magnitude of area-socioeconomic disparities, depending upon which disparity measures are implemented. A greater understanding of the methodological differences among disparity measures is warranted, which will in turn impact how interventions are designed to reduce socioeconomic disparities among children in the CWS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  18. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  20. Rate-distortion analysis of steganography for conveying stereovision disparity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toshiyuki; Batolomeu, Ana B. D. T.; Francob, Filipe A. L.; Delannay, Damien; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2004-06-01

    3-D images transmission in a way which is compliant with traditional 2-D representations can be done through the embedding of disparity maps within the 2-D signal. This approach enables the transmission of stereoscopic video sequences or images on traditional analogue TV channels (PAL or NTSC) or printed photographic images. The aim of this work is to study the achievable performances of such a technique. The embedding of disparity maps has to be seen as a global rate-distortion problem. The embedding capacity through steganography is determined by the transmission channel noise and by the bearable distortion on the watermarked image. The distortion of the 3-D image displayed as two stereo views depends on the rate allocated to the complementary information required to build those two views from one reference 2-D image. Results from the works on the scalar Costa scheme are used to optimize the embedding of the disparity map compressed bit stream into the reference image. A method for computing the optimal trade off between the disparity map distortion and embedding distortion as a function of the channel impairments is proposed. The goal is to get a similar distortion on the left (the reference image) and the right (the disparity compensated image) images. We show that in typical situations the embedding of 2 bits/pixels in the left image, while the disparity map is compressed at 1 bit per pixel leads to a good trade-off. The disparity map is encoded with a strong error correcting code, including synchronisation bits.