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Sample records for lyman continuum radiation

  1. Quantifying Distributions of Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    Simulations have indicated that most of the escaped Lyman continuum photons escape through a minority of solid angles with near complete transparency, with the remaining majority of the solid angles largely opaque, resulting in a very broad and skewed probability distribution function (PDF) of the escape fraction when viewed at different angles. Thus, the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons of a galaxy observed along a line of sight merely represents the properties of the interstellar medium along that line of sight, which may be an ill-representation of true escape fraction of the galaxy averaged over its full sky. Here we study how Lyman continuum photons escape from galaxies at $z=4-6$, utilizing high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We compute the PDF of the mean escape fraction ($\\left$) averaged over mock observational samples, as a function of the sample size, compared to the true mean (had you an infinite sample size). We find that, when the sample size is...

  2. Lyman Continuum Emission from Galaxies at z~3.4

    CERN Document Server

    Steidel, C C; Adelberger, K L

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of significant Lyman continuum flux in the composite spectrum of 29 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) with redshifts = 3.40+/-0.09. After correction for opacity due to intervening absorption using a new composite QSO spectrum evaluated at the same redshift, the ratio of emergent flux density at 1500 \\AA in the rest frame to that in the Lyman continuum is L(1500)/L(900) = 4.6 +/- 1.0. If the relative intensity of the inferred escaping Lyman continuum radiation is typical of LBGs at z ~ 3 (the galaxies in this sample are drawn from the bluest quartile of LBG spectral energy distributions due to known selection effects), then observed LBGs produce about 5 times more H-ionizing photons per unit co-moving volume than QSOs at z ~ 3. The associated contribution to the metagalactic ionizing radiation field is J_{\

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z~2.3--5

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Brent M; Jansen, Rolf A; Cohen, Seth H; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K; MacKenty, John W; O'Connell, Robert W; Silk, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 50 massive star-forming galaxies and 14 weak AGN with reliable spectroscopic redshifts at z~2.3--5.8. We analyzed HST WFC3/UVIS mosaics of the ERS field in three UV filters, and ACS B in the GOODS-South field to sample the rest-frame LyC over these redshifts. The average LyC emission of galaxies at z_mean=2.38, 2.68, 3.47, and 5.02 is detected at the >=3sigma level in image stacks of 11--15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, F336W, and ACS/WFC F435W filters. Their average LyC flux corresponds to AB~29.5--30.7 mag. The LyC flux of weak AGN is typically ~1 mag brighter at z~2.3--4.8, but averaged over ~4x fewer galaxies. The stacked galaxy LyC profiles are flatter than their non-ionizing UV-continuum profiles out to r~0".7, possibly indicating a radial porosity dependence in the ISM. The average LyC emission from AGN is more extended and sometimes more elongated compared to galaxies without AGN, possibly due to the viewing-angle at wh...

  4. Direct Detection of Lyman Continuum Escape from Local Starburst Galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Leitherer, Claus; Lee, Janice C; Oey, M S

    2016-01-01

    We report on the detection of Lyman continuum radiation in two nearby starburst galaxies. Tol 0440-381, Tol 1247-232 and Mrk 54 were observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescopes. The three galaxies have radial velocities of ~13,000 km/s, permitting a ~35 A window on the restframe Lyman continuum shortward of the Milky Way Lyman edge at 912 A. The chosen instrument configuration using the G140L grating covers the spectral range from 912 to 2,000 {\\AA}. We developed a dedicated background subtraction method to account for temporal and spatial background variations of the detector, which is crucial at the low flux levels around 912 A. This modified pipeline allowed us to significantly improve the statistical and systematic detector noise and will be made available to the community. We detect Lyman continuum in all three galaxies. However, we conservatively interpret the emission in Tol 0440-381 as an upper limit due to possible contamination by geocoronal Lyman series lines. ...

  5. Lyman continuum galaxies and the escape fraction of Lyman break galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Jeff; Garel, Thibault; Diaz, C Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3-4 are targeted to measure the fraction of Lyman continuum (LyC) flux that escapes from high redshift galaxies. However, z ~ 3-4 LBGs are identified using the Lyman break technique which preferentially selects galaxies with little or no LyC. We re-examine the standard LBG selection criteria by performing spectrophotometry on composite spectra constructed from 794 U_nGR-selected z ~ 3 LBGs from the literature while adding LyC flux of varying strengths. The modified composite spectra accurately predict the range of redshifts, properties, and LyC flux of LBGs in the literature that have spectroscopic LyC measurements while predicting the existence of a significant fraction of galaxies outside the standard selection region. These galaxies, termed Lyman continuum galaxies (LCGs), are expected to have high levels of LyC flux and are estimated to have a number density ~30-50 percent that of the LBG population. We define R_obs(U_n) as the relative fraction of observed LyC flux, int...

  6. The production and escape of Lyman-Continuum radiation from star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2 and their redshift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Sobral, David; Best, Philip; Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Oteo, Iván; Bouwens, Rychard; Röttgering, Huub

    2017-03-01

    We study the production rate of ionizing photons of a sample of 588 Hα emitters (HAEs) and 160 Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2 in the COSMOS field in order to assess the implied emissivity from galaxies, based on their ultraviolet (UV) luminosity. By exploring the rest-frame Lyman Continuum (LyC) with GALEX/NUV data, we find fesc emissivity measurements from absorption studies, we find a globally averaged of 5.9^{+14.5}_{-4.2} per cent at z = 2.2 if we assume HAEs are the only source of ionizing photons. We find similarly low values of the global at z ≈ 3-5, also ruling out a high at z low escape fractions allow us to measure ξion, the number of produced ionizing photons per unit UV luminosity, and investigate how this depends on galaxy properties. We find a typical ξion ≈ 1024.77 ± 0.04 Hz erg-1 for HAEs and ξion ≈ 1025.14 ± 0.09 Hz erg-1 for LAEs. LAEs and low-mass HAEs at z = 2.2 show similar values of ξion as typically assumed in the reionization era, while the typical HAE is three times less ionizing. Due to an increasing ξion with increasing EW(Hα), ξion likely increases with redshift. This evolution alone is fully in line with the observed evolution of ξion between z ≈ 2 and 5, indicating a typical value of ξion ≈ 1025.4 Hz erg-1 in the reionization era.

  7. New constraints on the average escape fraction of Lyman continuum radiation in z~4 galaxies from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS)

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, F; Guaita, L; Ribeiro, B; Castellano, M; Schaerer, D; Hathi, N P; Lemaux, B C; Grazian, A; Fevre, O Le; Garilli, B; Maccagni, D; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassata, P; Fontana, A; Koekemoer, A M; Brun, V Le; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the average fraction of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons escaping high redshift galaxies is essential to understand how reionization proceeded in the z>6 Universe. We want to measure the LyC signal from a sample of sources in the CDFS and COSMOS fields for which ultra-deep VIMOS spectroscopy as well as multi-wavelength HST imaging are available. We select a sample of 46 galaxies at $z\\sim 4$ from the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) database, such that the VUDS spectra contain the LyC part of the spectra i.e. the rest-frame range $880-910\\AA$; taking advantage of the HST imaging we apply a careful cleaning procedure and reject all the sources showing nearby clumps with different colours, that could potentially be lower redshift interlopers. After this procedure the sample is reduced to 33 galaxies. We measure the ratio between ionizing flux (LyC at $895\\AA$) and non ionizing emission (at $\\sim 1500 \\AA$) for all individual sources. We also produce a normalized stacked spectrum of all sources. Assuming ...

  8. The production and escape of Lyman-Continuum radiation from star-forming galaxies at z~2 and their redshift evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Matthee, Jorryt; Best, Philip; Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Oteo, Ivan; Bouwens, Rychard; Röttgering, Huub

    2016-01-01

    We study the production and escape of ionizing photons of a sample of 588 H$\\alpha$ (Ha) emitters (HAEs) at z=2.2 in COSMOS by exploring their rest-frame Lyman Continuum (LyC) with GALEX/NUV data. We find 8 candidate LyC leakers with f$_{esc}$>60% out of a clean subsample of 191 HAEs (i.e. without any neighbour or foreground galaxy inside the GALEX PSF). Overall, we measure a very low escape fraction f$_{esc}$ <5.5(12.7)% through median (mean) stacking. By combining the Ha luminosity density with IGM emissivity measurements from absorption studies, we find a globally averaged f$_{esc}$ of 5.9$^{+9.3}_{-2.6}$ %. We find similarly low values of the global f$_{esc}$ at z~3-5, indicating little evolution of f$_{esc}$ with redshift and ruling out a high f$_{esc}$ at z<5. We also measure the typical number of ionizing photons per unit UV luminosity, $\\xi_{ion}$=10$^{24.77\\pm0.04}$ Hz erg$^{-1}$. HAEs at z=2.2 are typically three times less ionizing than typically assumed in the reionization era, but higher va...

  9. Lyman-alpha spectral properties of five newly discovered Lyman continuum emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Verhamme, A; Schaerer, D; Izotov, Y; Worseck, G; Thuan, T X; Guseva, N

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported the discovery of five low redshift Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters (LCEs, hereafter) with absolute escape fractions fesc(LyC) ranging from 6 to 13%, higher than previously found, and which more than doubles the number of low redshift LCEs.We use these observations to test theoretical predictions about a link between the characteristics of the Lyman-alpha (Lya) line from galaxies and the escape of ionising photons. We analyse the Lya spectra of eight LCEs of the local Universe observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (our five leakers and three galaxies from the litterature), and compare their strengths and shapes to the theoretical criteria and comparison samples of local galaxies: the Lyman Alpha Reference Survey, Lyman Break Analogs, Green Peas, and the high-redshift strong LyC leaker Ion2. Our LCEs are found to be strong Lya emitters, with high equivalent widths, EW(Lya)> 70 {\\AA}, and large Lya escape fractions, fesc(Lya) > 20%. The Lya prof...

  10. New Constraints on the Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction at z~1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Siana, Brian; Colbert, James; Ferguson, Henry C; Dickinson, Mark; Brown, Thomas M; Conselice, Christopher J; de Mello, Duilia F; Gardner, Jonathan P; Giavalisco, Mauro; Menanteau, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    We examine deep far-ultraviolet (1600 Angstrom) imaging of the Hubble Deep Field-North (HDFN) and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) to search for leaking Lyman continuum radiation from starburst galaxies at z~1.3. There are 21 (primarily sub-L*) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.1Lyman continuum ratio, f_1500/f_700, and allowing a conversion from f_700 limits to relative escape fractions. We show that previous high-redshift studies may have underestimated the amplitude of the Lyman Break, and thus the relative escape fraction, by a factor of ~2. Once the starburst age and intergalactic HI absorption are accounted for, 18 galaxies in our sample have limits to the relative escape fraction, f_esc,rel < 1.0 with some limits as low as f_esc,rel < 0.10 and a sta...

  11. Narrowband Lyman-Continuum Imaging of Galaxies at z ~ 2.85

    CERN Document Server

    Mostardi, Robin E; Nestor, Daniel B; Steidel, Charles C; Reddy, Naveen A

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a survey for z~2.85 Lyman-Continuum (LyC) emission in the HS1549+1933 field and place constraints on the amount of ionizing radiation escaping from star-forming galaxies. Using a custom narrowband filter (NB3420) tuned to wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at z>=2.82$, we probe the LyC spectral region of 49 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 70 Lya-emitters (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at z>=2.82, as well as 58 z~2.85 LAE photometric candidates. Four LBGs and 19 LAEs are detected in NB3420. Using V-band data probing the rest-frame non-ionizing UV, we observe that many NB3420-detected galaxies exhibit spatial offsets between their LyC and non-ionizing UV emission and are characterized by extremely blue NB3420-V colors, corresponding to low ratios of non-ionizing to ionizing radiation (F_UV/F_LyC) that are in tension with current stellar population synthesis models. We measure average values of (F_UV/F_LyC) for our spectroscopically confirmed LBG and LAE samples, correcting for fo...

  12. Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Thuan, T X; Worseck, G; Orlitova, I; Verhamme, A

    2016-01-01

    Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016), we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These galaxies, at redshifts of z~0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 > 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ~6%-13%, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Lyalpha emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for Lyman continuum leakers. We find escape fractions of Lyalpha, fesc(Lyalpha) ~60%-90%, among the highest known for Lyalpha emitters (LAEs). Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the center and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scale lengths alpha in the range ~0.6-1.4 k...

  13. Indirect Evidence for Escaping Lyman Continuum Photons in Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandroff, Rachael; Heckman, Timothy M.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik

    2015-01-01

    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear, however, what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In addition, studies of high redshift galaxies have yet to uncover a large sample of galaxies with the required high escape fraction of ionizing photons.We have uncovered a sample of local analogs to high-redshift, star-forming Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) called Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) by matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalogs. These galaxies are remarkably similar to LBGs in their properties-- morphology, size, UV luminosity, SFR, mass, velocity dispersion, metallicity and dust content. We obtained HST COS far-UV spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 LBAs to look for indirect evidence of escaping ionizing radiation (leakiness).We measure three parameters: (1) the residual intensity in the cores of saturated interstellar low-ionization absorption-lines, which indicates incomplete covering by that gas in the galaxy. (2) The relative amount of blue-shifted Lyman alpha line emission, which can indicate the existence of holes in the neutral hydrogen on the front-side of the galaxy outflow, and (3) the relative weakness of the [SII] optical emission lines that trace matter-bounded HII regions. We find all three diagnostics agree well with one another. Finally, we find the strongest correlation between these leakiness indicators and both the compactness of the galactic star-forming region (size and star formation rate/area) and the speed of the galactic outflow. This suggests that extreme feedback- a high intensity of ionizing radiation and strong pressure from both radiation and a hot galactic wind- combines to create significant holes in the neutral gas. These results not only shed new light on the physical

  14. A Spectroscopic Search for Leaking Lyman Continuum at z~0.7

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Carrie R; Siana, Brian; Scarlata, Claudia; Conselice, Christopher J; Ferguson, Henry C; Brown, Thomas M; Salvato, Mara; Rudie, Gwen C; de Mello, Duilia F; Colbert, James; Gardner, Jonathan P; Giavalisco, Mauro; Armus, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of rest-frame, UV slitless spectroscopic observations of a sample of 32 z~0.7 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) analogs in the COSMOS field. The spectroscopic search was performed with the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) on Hubble Space Telescope. We report the detection of leaking Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation from an AGN-starburst composite. While we find no direct detections of LyC emission in the remainder of our sample, we achieve individual lower limits (3 sigma) of the observed non-ionizing UV to LyC flux density ratios, f_{nu}(1500A)/f_{nu}(830A) of 20 to 204 (median of 73.5) and 378.7 for the stack. Assuming an intrinsic Lyman break of 3.4 and an intergalactic medium (IGM) transmission of LyC photons along the line of sight to the galaxy of 85% we report an upper limit for the relative escape fraction in individual galaxies of 0.02 - 0.19 and a stacked 3 sigma upper limit of 0.01. We find no indication of a relative escape fraction near unity as seen in some LBGs at z~3. Our UV spectra achi...

  15. Lyman continuum leaking AGN in the SSA22 field

    CERN Document Server

    Micheva, Genoveva; Inoue, Akio K

    2016-01-01

    Subaru/SuprimeCam narrowband photometry of the SSA22 field reveals the presence of four Lyman continuum (LyC) candidates among a sample of 14 AGN. Two show offsets and likely have stellar LyC in nature or are foreground contaminants. The remaining two LyC candidates are Type I AGN. We argue that the average LyC escape fraction of high redshift quasars is not likely to be unity, as often assumed in the literature. From direct measurement we obtain the average LyC-to-UV flux density ratio and ionizing emissivity for a number of AGN classes and find it at least a factor of two lower than values obtained assuming f_esc = 1. Comparing to recent Ly{\\alpha} forest measurements, AGNs at redshift z\\sim3 make up at most \\sim20% and as little as 3% of the total ionizing budget. Our results suggest that AGNs are unlikely to dominate the ionization budget of the Universe at high redshifts.

  16. Lyman continuum leaking AGN in the SSA22 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheva, Genoveva; Iwata, Ikuru; Inoue, Akio K.

    2017-02-01

    Subaru/SuprimeCam narrow-band photometry of the SSA22 field reveals the presence of four Lyman continuum (LyC) candidates among a sample of 14 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two show offsets and likely have stellar LyCin nature or are foreground contaminants. The remaining two LyC candidates are type I AGN. We argue that the average LyC escape fraction of high-redshift, low-luminosity AGN is not likely to be unity, as often assumed in the literature. From direct measurement we obtain the average LyC-to-UV flux density ratio and ionizing emissivity for a number of AGN classes and find it at least a factor of 2 lower than values obtained assuming fesc = 1. Comparing to recent Ly α forest measurements, AGNs at redshift z ˜ 3 make up at most ˜12 per cent and as little as ˜5 per cent of the total ionizing budget. Our results suggest that AGNs are unlikely to dominate the ionization budget of the Universe at high redshifts.

  17. Variability of Lyman-alpha and the ultraviolet continuum of 3C 446

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Kinney, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    IUE observations have been conducted over the 1230-3175 A range for the violently variable quasar 3C 446, beginning in June 1980, at intervals of 1.2, 2.2, 0.5, and 0.4 yr. Strong absorption of the continuum was found below 1830 A, probably corresponding to a Lyman edge at z of 1.00 + or - 0.01. The absence of Mg II 2798 A absorption implies that the column density is in the lower end of the range, unless the gas is metal-poor. The Lyman-alpha emission line was detected in five spectra; relative to the number of ionizing protons, the line strengths are the same as in normal quasars, and line equivalent widths are small due to the continuum's rise redward of 912 A, which is much steeper than in normal quasars. The Lyman-alpha line and the nearby continuum vary so as to maintain constant equivalent width.

  18. The puzzle of the lyman continuum polarization of qsos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Shields

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante espectropolarimetr a reciente de cuasares se ha encontrado un sor- prendente incremento en la polarizaci on del cont nuo de Lyman en varios objetos. Discutimos algunos intentos recientes para explicar este hecho, que incluyen el papel de la absorci on de Lyman en PG 1222+228. Presentamos nuevos resultados te oricos que involucran dispersi on por electrones en una corona caliente o en un viento por encima de un disco de acreci on, y la polarizaci on que resulta del efecto relativista de la radiaci on que regresa. Potencialemente estos mecanismos pueden alcanzar niveles de polarizaci on observables en longitudes de onda cortas, pero ninguno logra ex- plicar cuantitativamente los incrementos en la polarizaci on del cont nuo de Lyman. Se requiere urgentemente mayor capacidad para llevar a cabo espectropolarimetr a en el ultravioleta desde sat elites para esclarecer este fen omeno.

  19. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of the Cosmic Horseshoe: A Test of Indirect Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasei, Kaveh; Siana, Brian; Shapley, Alice E.; Quider, Anna M.; Alavi, Anahita; Rafelski, Marc; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Lewis, Geraint F.

    2016-11-01

    High-redshift star-forming galaxies are likely responsible for the reionization of the universe, yet direct detection of their escaping ionizing (Lyman continuum [LyC]) photons has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, we search for escaping LyC of the Cosmic Horseshoe, a gravitationally lensed, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.38 with a large magnification of ∼24. Transmission at wavelengths of low-ionization interstellar absorption lines in the rest-frame ultraviolet suggests a patchy, partially transparent interstellar medium. This makes it an ideal candidate for direct detection of the LyC. We obtained a 10-orbit Hubble near-UV image using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UVIS F275W filter that probes wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at the redshift of the Horseshoe in an attempt to detect escaping LyC radiation. After fully accounting for the uncertainties in the opacity of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and accounting for the charge transfer inefficiency in the WFC3 CCDs, we find a 3σ upper limit for the relative escape fraction of {f}{esc,{rel}}\\lt 0.08. This value is a factor of five lower than the value (0.4) predicted by the 40% transmission in the low-ion absorption lines. Though possible, it is unlikely that the nondetection is due to a high-opacity line of sight through the IGM (\\lt 20% chance). We discuss several possible causes for the discrepancy between the escape fraction and the covering fraction and consider the implications for future attempts at both direct LyC detection and indirect estimates of the escape fraction.

  20. Reducing low signal-to-noise FUSE spectra: confirmation of Lyman continuum escape from Haro 11

    CERN Document Server

    Leitet, E; Piskunov, N; Andersson, B-G

    2011-01-01

    Galaxies are believed to be the main providers of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons during the early phases of the cosmic reionization. Little is known however, when it comes to escape fractions and the mechanisms behind the leakage. To learn more one may look at local objects, but so far only one low-z galaxy has shown any sign of emitting LyC radiation. With data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), Bergvall et al. (2006) found an absolute escape fraction of ionizing photons (f_esc) of 4-10% for the blue compact galaxy Haro 11. However, using a newer version of the reduction pipeline on the same data set, Grimes et al. (2007) could not confirm this and derived an upper limit of f_esc \\leq 2%. Here, using the last version of the pipeline CalFUSE v3.2, we aim at settling the question if Haro 11 is emitting ionizing radiation to a significant level or not. We also investigate the performance of the reduction pipeline for faint targets such as Haro 11. At these faint flux levels both FUSE and Cal...

  1. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G

    2016-01-14

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

  2. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

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    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, 0858 Oslo (Norway); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  3. The Lyα Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Dijkstra, Mark; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Wong, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km s-1 in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1-1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  4. Semi-empirical AGN detection threshold in spectral synthesis studies of Lyman-continuum-leaking early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Leandro S M; Papaderos, Polychronis

    2016-01-01

    Various lines of evidence suggest that the cores of a large portion of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are virtually evacuated of warm ionised gas. This implies that the Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation produced by an assumed active galactic nucleus (AGN) can escape from the nuclei of these systems without being locally reprocessed into nebular emission, which would prevent their reliable spectroscopic classification as Seyfert galaxies with standard diagnostic emission-line ratios. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of these ETGs would then lack nebular emission and be essentially composed of an old stellar component and the featureless power-law (PL) continuum from the AGN. A question that arises in this context is whether the AGN component can be detected with current spectral population synthesis in the optical, specifically, whether these techniques effectively place an AGN detection threshold in LyC-leaking galaxies. To quantitatively address this question, we took a combined approach that involves spectr...

  5. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: Constraints on the Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction Distribution of Lyman--Break Galaxies at 3.4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Inoue, A; Nonino, M; Fontanot, F; Cristiani, S; Grazian, A; Dickinson, M; Stern, D; Tozzi, P; Giallongo, E; Ferguson, H; Spinrad, H; Boutsia, K; Fontana, A; Rosati, P

    2010-01-01

    We use ultra-deep ultraviolet VLT/VIMOS intermediate-band and VLT/FORS1 narrow-band imaging in the GOODS Southern field to derive limits on the distribution of the escape fraction (f_esc) of ionizing radiation for L >~ L*(z=3) Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at redshift 3.4--4.5. Only one LBG, at redshift z=3.795, is detected in its Lyman continuum (LyC; S/N~5.5), the highest redshift galaxy currently known with a direct detection. Its ultraviolet morphology is quite compact (R_eff=0.8, kpc physical). Three out of seven AGN are also detected in their LyC, including one at redshift z=3.951 and z850 = 26.1. From stacked data (LBGs) we set an upper limit to the average f_esc in the range 5%--20%, depending on the how the data are selected (e.g., by magnitude and/or redshift). We undertake extensive Monte Carlo simulations that take into account intergalactic attenuation, stellar population synthesis models, dust extinction and photometric noise in order to explore the moments of the distribution of the escaping radi...

  6. Limits on Lyman Continuum escape from z=2.2 H-alpha emitting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandberg, A; Melinder, J; Bik, A; Guaita, L

    2015-01-01

    The leakage of Lyman continuum photons from star forming galaxies is an elusive parameter. When observed, it provides a wealth of information on star formation in galaxies and the geometry of the interstellar medium, and puts constraints on the role of star forming galaxies in the reionization of the universe. H-alpha-selected galaxies at z~2 trace the highest star formation population at the peak of cosmic star formation history, providing a base for directly measuring Lyman continuum escape. Here we present this method, and highlight its benefits as well as caveats. We also use the method on 10 H-alpha emitters in the Chandra Deep Field South at z=2.2, also imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet. We find no individual Lyman continuum detections, and our stack puts a 5 sigma upper limit on the average absolute escape fraction of <24%, consistent with similar studies. With future planned observations, the sample sizes would rapidly increase and the method presented here would provide ver...

  7. Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Schaerer, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N. G.; Orlitová, I.; Verhamme, A.

    2016-10-01

    Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al., we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. These galaxies, at redshifts of z ˜ 0.3, are characterized by high emission-line flux ratios [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 ≳ 5. The escape fractions of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in these galaxies are in the range of ˜6-13 per cent, the highest values found so far in low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Narrow double-peaked Ly α emission lines are detected in the spectra of all four galaxies, compatible with predictions for LyC leakers. We find escape fractions of Ly α, fesc(Ly α) ˜ 20-40 per cent, among the highest known for Ly α emitting galaxies. Surface brightness profiles produced from the COS acquisition images reveal bright star-forming regions in the centre and exponential discs in the outskirts with disc scalelengths α in the range ˜0.6-1.4 kpc. Our galaxies are characterized by low metallicity, ˜1/8-1/5 solar, low stellar mass ˜(0.2-4) × 109 M⊙, high star formation rates, SFR ˜ 14-36 M⊙ yr-1, and high SFR densities, Σ ˜ 2-35 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. These properties are comparable to those of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. Finally, our observations, combined with our first detection reported in Izotov et al., reveal that a selection for compact star-forming galaxies showing high [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 ratios appears to pick up very efficiently sources with escaping LyC radiation: all five of our selected galaxies are LyC leakers.

  8. Fluctuations in the High-Redshift Lyman-Werner and Lyman-alpha Radiation Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Holzbauer, Lauren N

    2011-01-01

    We use a new method to model fluctuations of the Lyman-Werner (LW) and Lyman-alpha radiation backgrounds at high redshift. At these early epochs the backgrounds are symptoms of a universe newly lit with its first stars. LW photons (11.5-13.6 eV) are of particular interest because they dissociate molecular hydrogen, the primary coolant in the first minihalos. By using a variation of the halo model, we efficiently generate power spectra for any choice of radiation background. We find that the LW power spectrum typically traces the matter power spectrum at large scales but turns over at the scale corresponding to the effective `horizon' of LW photons (~100 comoving Mpc), unless the sources are extremely rare. The series of horizons that characterize the Lyman-alpha flux profile shape the fluctuations of that background in a similar fashion, though those imprints are washed out once one considers fluctuations in the brightness temperature of the 21-cm signal. The Lyman-alpha background strongly affects the redshi...

  9. Coupling the emission of ionizing radiation and Lyman alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The class of objects that reionized intergalactic hydrogen remains an observational and theoretical problem that is in contention for being the most prominent puzzle piece in contemporary astrophysics. The current consensus - determined almost entirely by ruling out bright active galaxies - is that the process was possibly begun and almost certainly finished by faint, lower-mass galaxies forming their early generations of stars. Recent observations of z 3 galaxies may even have identified the analog populations.However understanding how the emitted ionizing power of galaxies is causally related to their {robustly determined} physical properties is not a study that can be performed at high-z: neither the spatial information nor the standard multi-wavelength diagnostics are available. Moreover, on a case-by-case basis, the intervening IGM absorption is impossible to determine. These considerations have spawned a number of detailed studies with UV space telescopes, the synthesis of which however is that a characteristic population of Lyman continuum {LyC} emitting objects has not yet been identified. We show in this proposal that we have identified a characteristic trait in galaxy spectra that is highly indicative of LyC emission, by combining {a} high-z phenomenological studies, {b} new high-resolution UV spectra of local galaxies, and {c} sophisticated models of radiation transport. Believing that we have determined the signature, we propose to test the new hypothesis with deep spectroscopic observations with HST/COS under the Cycle 21 UV initiative.

  10. A High-Resolution Hubble Space Telescope Study of Apparent Lyman Continuum Leakers at z~3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, R. E.; Shapley, A. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Trainor, R. F.; Reddy, N. A.; Siana, B.

    2015-09-01

    We present U336V606J125H160 follow-up Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of 16 z ˜ 3 candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters in the HS1549+1919 field. With these data, we obtain high spatial-resolution photometric redshifts of all sub-arcsecond components of the LyC candidates in order to eliminate foreground contamination and identify robust candidates for leaking LyC emission. Of the 16 candidates, we find one object with a robust LyC detection that is not due to foreground contamination. This object (MD5) resolves into two components; we refer to the LyC-emitting component as MD5b. MD5b has an observed 1500 Å to 900 Å flux-density ratio of {({F}{UV}/{F}{LyC})}{obs}=4.0+/- 2.0, compatible with predictions from stellar population synthesis models. Assuming minimal IGM absorption, this ratio corresponds to a relative (absolute) escape fraction of {f}{esc,{rel}}{MD5{{b}}} = 75%-100% ({f}{esc,{abs}}{MD5{{b}}} = 14%-19%). The stellar population fit to MD5b indicates an age of ≲50 Myr, which is in the youngest 10% of the HST sample and the youngest third of typical z ˜ 3 Lyman break galaxies, and may be a contributing factor to its LyC detection. We obtain a revised, contamination-free estimate for the comoving specific ionizing emissivity at z = 2.85, indicating (with large uncertainties) that star-forming galaxies provide roughly the same contribution as QSOs to the ionizing background at this redshift. Our results show that foreground contamination prevents ground-based LyC studies from obtaining a full understanding of LyC emission from z ˜ 3 star-forming galaxies. Future progress in direct LyC searches is contingent upon the elimination of foreground contaminants through high spatial-resolution observations, and upon acquisition of sufficiently deep LyC imaging to probe ionizing radiation in high-redshift galaxies.

  11. An extreme [OIII] emitter at $z=3.2$: a low metallicity Lyman continuum source

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, S; Amorín, R; Castellano, M; Siana, B; Grazian, A; Suh, H; Balestra, I; Vignali, C; Verhamme, A; Zamorani, G; Mignoli, M; Hasinger, G; Comastri, A; Pentericci, L; Pérez-Montero, E; Fontana, A; Giavalisco, M; Gilli, R

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] We investigate the physical properties of a Lyman continuum emitter candidate at $z=3.212$ with photometric coverage from $U$ to MIPS 24$\\mu$m band and VIMOS/VLT and MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy. Investigation of the UV spectrum confirms a direct spectroscopic detection of the Lyman continuum emission with $S/N>5$. Non-zero Ly$\\alpha$ flux at the systemic redshift and high Lyman-$\\alpha$ escape fraction suggest a low HI column density. The weak C and Si low-ionization absorption lines are also consistent with a low covering fraction along the line of sight. The [OIII]$\\lambda\\lambda4959,5007+\\mathrm{H}\\beta$ equivalent width is one of the largest reported for a galaxy at $z>3$ ($\\mathrm{EW}([\\mathrm{OIII}]\\lambda\\lambda4959,5007+\\mathrm{H}\\beta) \\simeq 1600\\AA$, rest-frame) and the NIR spectrum shows that this is mainly due to an extremely strong [OIII] emission. The large observed [OIII]/[OII] ratio ($>10$) and high ionization parameter are consistent with prediction from photoionization models in ca...

  12. Neutral ISM, Lyα, and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Lyα line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Lyα, but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium. Based on observations with HST-COS, program GO 13017, obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX09AF08G and by other grants and

  13. A Low Upper Limit to the Lyman Continuum Emission of two galaxies at z 3

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A

    2002-01-01

    Long exposure, long-slit spectra have been obtained in the UV/optical bands for two galaxies at z=2.96 and z=3.32 to investigate the fraction of ionizing UV photons escaping from high redshifts galaxies. The two targets are among the brightest galaxies discovered by Steidel and collaborators and they have different properties in terms of Lyman-alpha emission and dust reddening. No significant Lyman continuum emission has been detected. The noise level in the spectra implies an upper limit of f_{rel,esc}\\equiv 3 f(900)/f(1500)< 16% for the relative escape fraction of ionizing photons, after correction for absorption by the intervening intergalactic medium. This upper limit is 4 times lower than the previous detection derived from a composite spectrum of 29 Lyman break galaxies at z 3.4. If this value is typical of the escape fraction of the z 3 galaxies, and is added to the expected contribution of the QSO population, the derived UV background is in good agreement with the one derived by the proximity effec...

  14. A Deep HST Search for Escaping Lyman Continuum Flux at z~1.3: Evidence for an Evolving Ionizing Emissivity

    CERN Document Server

    Siana, Brian; Ferguson, Henry C; Brown, Thomas M; Giavalisco, Mauro; Dickinson, Mark; Chary, Ranga-Ram; de Mello, Duilia F; Conselice, Christopher J; Bridge, Carrie R; Gardner, Jonathan P; Colbert, James W; Scarlata, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained deep Hubble Space Telescope far-UV images of 15 starburst galaxies at z~1.3 in the GOODS fields to search for escaping Lyman continuum photons. These are the deepest far-UV images m_{AB}=28.7, 3\\sigma, 1" diameter) over this large an area (4.83 arcmin^2) and provide the best escape fraction constraints for any galaxy at any redshift. We do not detect any individual galaxies, with 3\\sigma limits to the Lyman Continuum (~700 \\AA) flux 50--149 times fainter (in f_nu) than the rest-frame UV (1500 \\AA) continuum fluxes. Correcting for the mean IGM attenuation (factor ~2), as well as an intrinsic stellar Lyman Break (~3), these limits translate to relative escape fraction limits of f_{esc,rel}4 and reionization of the intergalactic medium at z>6. [Abridged

  15. The ionizing photon production efficiency of compact z~0.3 Lyman continuum leakers and comparison with high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schaerer, D; Verhamme, A; Orlitova, I; Thuan, T X; Worseck, G; Guseva, N

    2016-01-01

    We have recently discovered five Lyman continuum leaking galaxies at z~0.3, selected for their compactness, intense star-formation, and high [OIII]/[OII] ratio (Izotov et al. 2016ab). Here we derive their ionizing photon production efficiency, a fundamental quantity for inferring the number of photons available to reionize the Universe, for the first time for galaxies with confirmed strong Lyman continuum escape (fesc~6-13%). We find an ionizing photon production per unit UV luminosity, which is a factor 2-6 times higher than the canonical value when reported to their observed UV luminosity. After correction for extinction this value is close to the canonical value. The properties of our five Lyman continuum leakers are found to be very similar to those of the confirmed z=3.218 leaker Ion2 from de Barros et al. (2016) and very similar to those of typical star-forming galaxies at z>~6. Our results suggest that UV bright galaxies at high-z such as Lyman break galaxies can be Lyman continuum leakers and that the...

  16. The Impact of Unresolved Turbulence on the Escape Fraction of Lyman Continuum Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, M.; Scannapieco, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the relation between the turbulent Mach number ({ M }) and the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons ({f}{esc}) in high-redshift galaxies. Approximating the turbulence as isothermal and isotropic, we show that the increase in the variance in column densities from { M }=1 to { M }=10 causes {f}{esc} to increase by ≈ 25%, and the increase from { M }=1 to { M }=20 causes {f}{esc} to increases by ≈ 50% for a medium with opacity τ ≈ 1. At a fixed Mach number, the correction factor for escape fraction relative to a constant column density case scales exponentially with the opacity in the cell, which has a large impact for simulated star-forming regions. Furthermore, in simulations of isotropic turbulence with full atomic/ionic cooling and chemistry, the fraction of HI drops by a factor of ≈ 2.5 at { M }≈ 10 even when the mean temperature is ≈ 5× {10}3 {{K}}. If turbulence is unresolved, these effects together enhance {f}{esc} by a factor \\gt 3 at Mach numbers above 10. Such Mach numbers are common at high redshifts where vigorous turbulence is driven by supernovae, gravitational instabilities, and merger activity, as shown both by numerical simulations and observations. These results, if implemented in the current hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to account for unresolved turbulence, can boost the theoretical predictions of the Lyman Continuum photon escape fraction and further constrain the sources of reionization.

  17. Green Peas and diagnostics for Lyman continuum leaking in star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Trinh

    2014-10-01

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for cosmic reionization. The general consensus is that a population of faint low-mass galaxies must be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing photons. However, attempts at identifying individual galaxies showing Lyman continuum (LyC) leakage have so far not been successful, both at high and low redshifts. We propose here to observe directly the LyC of five so-called "Green Pea" (GP) galaxies. GPs share many of the properties of the Lyman Break galaxies at high z (compactness, low mass, low metallicity, high specific star formation rate, gas-rich and clumpy morphology) and may constitute local examples of the long sought-after LyC leaking galaxies. The five GPs have been identified by searching the Sloan Data Release 10 spectral data base of 2 million spectra for non-AGN emission-line objects that meet the following criteria: high [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios, large GALEX FUV fluxes, and redshifted enough (z~0.3) so that the LyC is shifted into the sensitive spectral range of COS. Our unique GP sample will allow us to combine for the first time four fundamental tests for LyC leaking in galaxies and validate their usefulness as LyC leaking indicators : 1) direct measurements of the LyC; 2) high [OIII]/[OII] ratios; 3) characteristics of the Lyman alpha line profile; and 4) residual intensities in the low-ionization ISM absorption UV lines.

  18. Semi-empirical AGN detection threshold in spectral synthesis studies of Lyman-continuum-leaking early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Leandro S. M.; Gomes, Jean-Michel; Papaderos, Polychronis

    2016-10-01

    Various lines of evidence suggest that the cores of a large portion of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are virtually evacuated of warm ionised gas. This implies that the Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation produced by an assumed active galactic nucleus (AGN) can escape from the nuclei of these systems without being locally reprocessed into nebular emission, which would prevent their reliable spectroscopic classification as Seyfert galaxies with standard diagnostic emission-line ratios. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of these ETGs would then lack nebular emission and be essentially composed of an old stellar component and the featureless power-law (PL) continuum from the AGN. A question that arises in this context is whether the AGN component can be detected with current spectral population synthesis in the optical, specifically, whether these techniques effectively place an AGN detection threshold in LyC-leaking galaxies. To quantitatively address this question, we took a combined approach that involves spectral fitting with Starlight of synthetic SEDs composed of stellar emission that characterises a 10 Gyr old ETG and an AGN power-law component that contributes a fraction 0 ≤ xAGN nuclear activity may be missing in the AGN demographics.

  19. Searching for candidates of Lyman continuum sources - revisiting the SSA22 field

    CERN Document Server

    Micheva, Genoveva; Inoue, Akio K; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    We present the largest to date sample of hydrogen Lyman continuum (LyC) emitting galaxies at any redshift, with $18$ LyA Emitters (LAEs) and $7$ Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), obtained from the SSA22 field with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The sample is based on the $136$ LBGs and $159$ LAEs observed in the field, all with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts, and they are selected as galaxies with counterpart in a narrow-band filter image which traces LyC at $z\\geq 3.06$. Many LyC candidates show a spatial offset between the rest-frame non-ionizing ultraviolet (UV) detection and the LyC-emitting substructure or between the LyA emission and LyC. Statistically it is highly unlikely that all candidates in our sample are contaminants, and there should be $\\sim9$ and $\\sim2$ viable LyC candidates among the LAEs and LBGs. There is some evidence for a positive LyC/LyA correlation, suggesting that both LyC and LyA escape via a similar mechanism. "Standard" SED models cannot explain the observed LyC LAEs colors, instead requir...

  20. Revisiting the Lyman Continuum Escape Crisis: Predictions for z > 6 from Local Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisst, Andreas L.

    2016-10-01

    The intrinsic escape fraction of ionizing Lyman continuum photons ({f}{{esc}}) is crucial to understanding whether galaxies are capable of reionizing the neutral hydrogen in the early universe at z > 6. Unfortunately, it is not possible to access {f}{{esc}} at z > 4 with direct observations, and the handful of measurements from low-redshift galaxies consistently find {f}{{esc}} 6 by combining the (sparsely populated) relation between [{{O}} {{III}}]/[{{O}} {{II}}] and {f}{{esc}} with the redshift evolution of [{{O}} {{III}}]/[{{O}} {{II}}] as predicted from local high-z analogs selected by their Hα equivalent width. We find {f}{{esc}}={5.7}-3.3+8.3 % at z = 6 and {f}{{esc}}={10.4}-6.3+15.5 % at z = 9 for galaxies with {log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 9.0 (errors given as 1σ). However, there is a negative correlation with stellar mass and we find up to 50% larger {f}{{esc}} per 0.5 dex decrease in stellar mass. The population-averaged escape fraction increases according to {f}{{esc}}={f}{{esc,0}}{((1+z)/3)}α , with f esc,0 = (2.3 ± 0.05)% and α = 1.17 ± 0.02 at z > 2 for {log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 9.0. With our empirical prediction of {f}{{esc}} (thus fixing an important, previously unknown variable) and further reasonable assumptions on clumping factor and the production efficiency of Lyman continuum photons, we conclude that the average population of galaxies is just capable of reionizing the universe by z ˜ 6.

  1. Q1549-C25: A Clean Source of Lyman-Continuum Emission at $z=3.15$

    CERN Document Server

    Shapley, Alice E; Strom, Allison L; Bogosavljević, Milan; Reddy, Naveen A; Siana, Brian; Mostardi, Robin E; Rudie, Gwen C

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of Q1549-C25, an ~L* star-forming galaxy at z=3.15 for which Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation is significantly detected in deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy. We find no evidence for contamination from a lower-redshift interloper close to the line of sight in the high signal-to-noise spectrum of Q1549-C25. Furthermore, the morphology of Q1549-C25 in V_606, J_125, and H_160 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging reveals that the object consists of a single, isolated component within 1". In combination, these data indicate Q1549-C25 as a clean spectroscopic detection of LyC radiation, only the second such object discovered to date at z~3. We model the spectral energy distribution (SED) of Q1549-C25, finding evidence for negligible dust extinction, an age (assuming continuous star formation) of ~1 Gyr, and a stellar mass of M_*=7.9x10^9 M_sun. Although it is not possible to derive strong constraints on the absolute escape fraction of LyC emission, f_esc(LyC), from a single object, we use simulation...

  2. The Lyman continuum escape and ISM properties in Tololo 1247-232 - new insights from HST and VLA★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschnig, J.; Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Rivera-Thorsen, T. E.; Melinder, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Menacho, V.; Zackrisson, E.; Bergvall, N.; Leitet, E.

    2017-08-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass galaxies are widely discussed as cause of reionization at redshift z ∼ 10-6. However, observational proof of galaxies that are leaking ionizing radiation (Lyman continuum; LyC) is a currently ongoing challenge and the list of LyC emitting candidates is still short. Tololo 1247-232 is among those very few galaxies with recently reported leakage. We performed intermediate resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm ionizing radiation emerging from Tololo 1247-232. Adopting an improved data reduction procedure, we find that LyC escapes from the central stellar clusters, with an escape fraction of 1.5 ± 0.5 per cent only, i.e. the lowest value reported for the galaxy so far. We further make use of far-ultraviolet absorption lines of Si ii and Si iv as a probe of the neutral and ionized interstellar medium (ISM). We find that most of the ISM gas is ionized, likely facilitating LyC escape from density bounded regions. Neutral gas covering as a function of line-of-sight velocity is derived using the apparent optical depth method. The ISM is found to be sufficiently clumpy, supporting the direct escape of LyC photons. We further report on broad-band UV and optical continuum imaging as well as narrow-band imaging of Lyα, Hα and Hβ. Using stellar population synthesis, an Lyα escape fraction of 8 per cent was derived. We also performed Very Large Array 21cm imaging. The hydrogen hyperfine transition was not detected, but a deep upper limit atomic gas mass of ≲109 M⊙ could be derived. The upper limit gas fraction defined as M_{H I}/M_* is only 20 per cent. Evidence is found that the H i gas halo is relatively small compared to the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (Hayes et al. 2013, 2014; Östlin et al. 2014).

  3. The HDUV Survey: Six Lyman Continuum Emitter Candidates at z~2 Revealed by HST UV Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, R P; Reddy, N; Holden, B; Steidel, C C; Montes, M; Atek, H; Bouwens, R J; Carollo, C M; Cibinel, A; Illingworth, G D; Labbe, I; Magee, D; Morselli, L; Nelson, E J; van Dokkum, P G; Wilkins, S

    2016-01-01

    We present six galaxies at z~2 that show evidence of Lyman continuum (LyC) emission based on the newly acquired UV imaging of the Hubble Deep UV legacy survey (HDUV) conducted with the WFC3/UVIS camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). At the redshift of these sources, the HDUV F275W images partially probe the ionizing continuum. By exploiting the HST multi-wavelength data available in the HDUV/GOODS fields, models of the UV spectral energy distributions, and detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the intergalactic medium absorption, we estimate the absolute ionizing photon escape fractions of these galaxies to be very high -- typically >60% (>13% for all sources at 90% likelihood). Our findings are in broad agreement with previous studies that found only a small fraction of galaxies to show high escape fraction. These six galaxies comprise the largest sample yet of LyC leaking candidates at z~2 whose inferred LyC flux has been cleanly observed at HST resolution. While three of our six candidates show evidenc...

  4. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, e.g. a circular loop, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how the radiation vanishes when one goes to the continuum DC limit.

  5. The Impact of Unresolved Turbulence on the Escape Fraction of Lyman Continuum Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the turbulent Mach number (\\mach) and the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons ($f_{\\rm esc}$) in high-redshift galaxies. Approximating the turbulence as isothermal and isotropic, we show that the increase in the variance in column densities from $\\mathcal{M}=1$ to $\\mathcal{M}=10$ causes $f_{\\rm esc}$ to increase by $\\approx 25$\\%, and the increase from $\\mathcal{M}=1$ to $\\mathcal{M}=20$ causes $f_{\\rm esc}$ to increases by $\\approx 50$\\% for a medium with opacity $\\tau\\approx1$. At a fixed Mach number, the correction factor for escape fraction relative to a constant column density case scales exponentially with the opacity in the cell, which has a large impact for simulated star forming regions. Furthermore, in simulations of isotropic turbulence with full atomic/ionic cooling and chemistry, the fraction of HI drops by a factor of $\\approx 2.5$ at $\\mathcal{M}\\approx10$ even when the mean temperature is $\\approx5\\times10^3 K$. If turbulence is unresolved, these eff...

  6. Nebular emission and the Lyman continuum photon escape fraction in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papaderos, P; Vilchez, J M; Kehrig, C; Lehnert, M D; Ziegler, B; Sanchez, S F; Husemann, B; Monreal-Ibero, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Coritjo, C; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A; del Olmo, A; Falcon-Barroso, J; Galbany, L; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Marquez, I; Molla, M; Mast, D; van de Ven, G; Wisotzki, L

    2013-01-01

    We use deep integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey to study the warm interstellar medium (WIM) of 32 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). We propose a tentative subdivision of our sample ETGs into two groups, according to their Ha equivalent width (EW) and Lyman continuum (LyC) photon escape fraction (PLF). Type i ETGs show nearly constant EWs and a PLF~0, suggesting that photoionization by post-AGB stars is the main driver of their faint extranuclear nebular emission. Type ii ETGs are characterized by very low, outwardly increasing EWs, and a PLF as large as ~0.9 in their centers. Such properties point to a low, and inwardly decreasing WIM density and/or volume filling factor. We argue that, because of extensive LyC photon leakage, emission-line luminosities and EWs are reduced in type ii ETG nuclei by at least one order of magnitude. Consequently, the line weakness of these ETGs is by itself no compelling evidence for their containing merely "weak" (sub-Eddington accreting) active galactic nu...

  7. Lyman-alpha radiation hydrodynamics of galactic winds before cosmic reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Radiation from the first stars and galaxies initiated the dramatic phase transition marking an end to the cosmic dark ages. The emission and absorption signatures from the Lyman-alpha transition of neutral hydrogen have been indispensable in extending the observational frontier for high-redshift galaxies into the epoch of reionization. Lyman-alpha radiative transfer provides clues about the processes leading to Lyman-alpha escape from individual galaxies and the subsequent transmission through the intergalactic medium. Cosmological simulations incorporating Lyman-alpha radiative transfer enhance our understanding of fundamental physics by supplying the inferred spectra and feedback on the gas. We discuss the dynamical impact of Lyman-alpha radiation pressure on galaxy formation throughout cosmic reionization with the first fully coupled Lyman-alpha radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. We self-consistently follow the chemistry, cooling, self-gravity, and ionizing radiation in protogalaxies and find that Lyman-alpha radiation pressure turns out to be dynamically important in several spherically symmetric simulations. As a case in point we apply our model to the COSMOS redshift 7 (CR7) galaxy at z = 6.6, which exhibits a +160 km/s velocity offset between the Lyman-alpha and HeII line peaks. We find that a massive black hole with a nonthermal Compton-thick spectrum is able to reproduce the observed Lyman-alpha signatures as a result of higher photon trapping and longer potential lifetime. We conclude with a general discussion of Lyman-alpha radiation in the first galaxies by considering simulations that cover the expected range of halo and source properties.

  8. Cassini observation of Jovian anomalous continuum radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng-Yi; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Kurth, W. S.; Fischer, G.; Schippers, P.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    Jovian anomalous continuum is a narrowband electromagnetic radiation near 10 kHz that can escape from Jupiter's magnetosphere to interplanetary space. One possible source mechanism is the magnetosheath re-radiation of the Jovian low frequency radio emissions such as the quasiperiodic (QP) radio emissions, broadband kilometric radiation (bKOM) and non-thermal continuum. Jovian anomalous continuum was consistently observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument from 2000 to 2004, right before the Saturn orbit insertion, which means the radiation can be detected as far as 8 AU away from Jupiter. An analysis of intensity versus radial distance shows that the Jovian anomalous continuum has a line source rather than a point source, consistent with the theory that the emission is radiated by the whole length of the magnetotail. The emissions are modulated at the system III period of Jupiter and are unpolarized. Since the lower cutoff frequency of the anomalous continuum is related to the plasma frequency in the magnetosheath of Jupiter, which is a function of solar wind density, the recurrent variations of the lower cutoff frequency can be used as a remote diagnostic of the solar wind condition at Jupiter. We propose that the frequency dispersion, a unique characteristic of the anomalous continuum, is likely a comprehensive effect of both the slow group velocity near the local plasma frequency and the refraction/scattering of the waves by density structures as they propagate in the magnetosheath.

  9. Q1549-C25: A Clean Source of Lyman-Continuum Emission at z = 3.15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Strom, Allison L.; Bogosavljević, Milan; Reddy, Naveen A.; Siana, Brian; Mostardi, Robin E.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2016-08-01

    We present observations of Q1549-C25, an ˜ {L}* star-forming galaxy at z = 3.15 for which Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation is significantly detected in deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy. We find no evidence of contamination from a lower-redshift interloper close to the line of sight in the high signal-to-noise spectrum of Q1549-C25. Furthermore, the morphology of Q1549-C25 in V 606, J 125, and H 160 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging reveals that the object consists of a single, isolated component within 1″. In combination, these data indicate Q1549-C25 as a clean spectroscopic detection of LyC radiation, only the second such object discovered to date at z ˜ 3. We model the spectral energy distribution of Q1549-C25, finding evidence of negligible dust extinction, an age (assuming continuous star formation) of ˜1 Gyr, and a stellar mass of {M}* =7.9× {10}9 {M}⊙ . Although it is not possible to derive strong constraints on the absolute escape fraction of LyC emission, f esc(LyC), from a single object, we use simulations of intergalactic and circumgalactic absorption to infer {f}{{esc}}({{LyC}})≥slant 0.51 at 95% confidence. The combination of deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope imaging is required to assemble a larger sample of objects like Q1549-C25, and obtain robust constraints on the average f esc(LyC) at z ˜ 3 and beyond. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  10. Project Lyman

    CERN Document Server

    McCandliss, Stephan R; Blair, William P; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Feldman, Paul D; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Dixon, William V; Sahnow, David J; Neufeld, David A; Lupu, Roxana E; Fleming, Brian; Smee, Stephen A; Andersson, B G; Moseley, Samuel H; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Li, Mary J; Sonneborn, George; Siegmund, Oswald H W; Vallerga, John V; Welsh, Barry Y; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A; Shapley, Alice E

    2008-01-01

    We explore the design of a space mission, Project Lyman, which has the goal of quantifying the ionization history of the universe from the present epoch to a redshift of z ~ 3. Observations from WMAP and SDSS show that before a redshift of z >~ 6 the first collapsed objects, possibly dwarf galaxies, emitted Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation shortward of 912 A, reionizing most of the universe. How LyC escapes from galactic environments, whether it induces positive or negative feedback on the local and global collapse of structures, and the role played by clumping, molecules, metallicity and dust are major unanswered theoretical questions, requiring observational constraint. Numerous intervening Lyman limit systems, which frustrate the detection of LyC from high z objects, thin below z ~ 3 where there are a few objects with apparently very high fesc. At low z there are only controversial detections and a handful of upper limits. A wide-field multi-object spectroscopic survey with moderate spectral and spatial res...

  11. Lyman α radiation hydrodynamics of galactic winds before cosmic reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical impact of Lyman α (Lyα) radiation pressure on galaxy formation depends on the rate and duration of momentum transfer between Lyα photons and neutral hydrogen gas. Although photon trapping has the potential to multiply the effective force, ionizing radiation from stellar sources may relieve the Lyα pressure before appreciably affecting the kinematics of the host galaxy or efficiently coupling Lyα photons to the outflow. We present self-consistent Lyα radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of high-z galaxy environments by coupling the Cosmic Lyα Transfer code (COLT) with spherically symmetric Lagrangian frame hydrodynamics. The accurate but computationally expensive Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations are feasible under the one-dimensional approximation. The initial starburst drives an expanding shell of gas from the centre and in certain cases, Lyα feedback significantly enhances the shell velocity. Radiative feedback alone is capable of ejecting baryons into the intergalactic medium (IGM) for protogalaxies with a virial mass of Mvir ≲ 108 M⊙. We compare the Lyα signatures of Population III stars with 105 K blackbody emission to that of direct collapse black holes with a non-thermal Compton-thick spectrum and find substantial differences if the Lyα spectra are shaped by gas pushed by Lyα radiation-driven winds. For both sources, the flux emerging from the galaxy is reprocessed by the IGM such that the observed Lyα luminosity is reduced significantly and the time-averaged velocity offset of the Lyα peak is shifted redward.

  12. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  13. Continuum subtracting Lyman-alpha images: Low redshift studies using the Solar Blind Channel of HST/ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Matthew; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Kunth, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We are undertaking an imaging study of local star-forming galaxies in the Lyman-alpha (Lya) emission line using the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the ACS onboard HST. Observations have been obtained in Lya and H-alpha and six line-free continuum filters between ~1500 AA and the I-band. In a previous article Hayes et al. (2005) we demonstrated that the production of Lya line-only images (i.e. continuum subtraction) in the SBC-only data-set is non-trivial and that supporting data is a requirement. We here develop various methods of continuum subtraction and assess their relative performance for given input spectral energy distributions (SED). We show that simple assumptions about the behavior of the UV continuum consistently lead to results that are significantly in error, and determine that a spectral fitting approach is essential. Furthermore, fitting of a single component stellar or stellar+nebular spectrum is not always sufficient for realistic template SEDs and, in order to successfully recover t...

  14. The LyAlpha Line Profiles of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: Fast Winds and Lyman Continuum Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Crystal L; Henry, Alaina; Soto, Kurt T; Danforth, Charles W; Wong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect H Lyman alpha emission from 8 ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the H Lyman alpha profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding -1000 km/s in three HII-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the H Lyman alpha line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The H Lyman alpha attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that ...

  15. Detection of Lyman continuum absorption in the BL Lacertae object PKS 0735+178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the Lyman edge in the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178 at the absorption red shift determined by optical measurements leads to a lower limit for the column density of atomic hydrogen, N(H I) not less than 4(17)/sq cm. The Lyman-alpha absorption line appears to have been detected, but only an approximate upper limit can be obtained from the data, of the order of 2(19)/sq cm. This amount of atomic hydrogen is less than that for a line of sight through the disk of a normal spiral galaxy. It is suggested that the absorbing material exists either in the halo of a galaxy or in the tenuous, extended, gaseous disk of a galaxy.

  16. Probing the Rest-Frame Optical Continuum of z=4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Tilvi, V.; Grogin, N. A.; Pirzkal, N.; Dey, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Mobasher, B.; Pakzad, S.; Wang, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a deep Spitzer Space Telescope survey of more than 100 Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs) at z 4.5, first discovered in the Bootes field of the Large Area Lyman Alpha (LALA) survey. These Spitzer/IRAC observations probe the rest-frame optical continuum emission of these galaxies. We also have in hand NICMOS and WFC3 near-infrared (NIR) data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of a sub-sample of these same galaxies. Of the more than 100 sources targeted with Spitzer, 15 sources are detected in at least two out of the four NICMOS/WFC3 and IRAC bands (1.1, 1.6, 3.6 and 4.5 microns), while another 40 sources are detected in one band. We will present the results from a SED-fitting analysis, using the suite of data in the observed NIR/mid-IR, coupled with deep ground based optical data. LAEs form the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function, thus most studies rely on stacking to constrain the rest-frame optical light, which can wash out variations in the physical properties in individual LAEs. This is the largest sample to date of high-redshift LAEs with measured NIR/IR fluxes, allowing us to place the most robust constraints yet on the spread of physical properties in the LAE population.

  17. The HDUV Survey: Six Lyman Continuum Emitter Candidates at z ∼ 2 Revealed by HST UV Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R. P.; Oesch, P. A.; Reddy, N.; Holden, B.; Steidel, C. C.; Montes, M.; Atek, H.; Bouwens, R. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Magee, D.; Morselli, L.; Nelson, E. J.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present six galaxies at z∼ 2 that show evidence of Lyman continuum (LyC) emission based on the newly acquired UV imaging of the Hubble Deep UV legacy survey (HDUV) conducted with the WFC3/UVIS camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). At the redshift of these sources, the HDUV F275W images partially probe the ionizing continuum. By exploiting the HST multiwavelength data available in the HDUV/GOODS fields, models of the UV spectral energy distributions, and detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the intergalactic medium absorption, we estimate the absolute ionizing photon escape fractions of these galaxies to be very high—typically > 60 % (> 13 % for all sources at 90% likelihood). Our findings are in broad agreement with previous studies that found only a small fraction of galaxies with high escape fraction. These six galaxies compose the largest sample yet of LyC leaking candidates at z∼ 2 whose inferred LyC flux has been observed at HST resolution. While three of our six candidates show evidence of hosting an active galactic nucleus, two of these are heavily obscured and their LyC emission appears to originate from star-forming regions rather than the central nucleus. Extensive multiwavelength data in the GOODS fields, especially the near-IR grism spectra from the 3D-HST survey, enable us to study the candidates in detail and tentatively test some recently proposed indirect methods to probe LyC leakage. High-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of our candidates will help constrain such indirect methods, which are our only hope of studying f esc at z∼ 5-9 in the JWST era. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. A Deep Hubble and Keck Search for Definitive Identification of Lyman Continuum Emitters at z~3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Siana, Brian; Kulas, Kristin R; Nestor, Daniel B; Steidel, Charles C; Teplitz, Harry I; Alavi, Anahita; Brown, Thomas M; Conselice, Christopher J; Ferguson, Henry C; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Colbert, James W; Bridge, Carrie R; GSFC), Jonathan P Gardner; University), Duilia F de Mello (Catholic

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging of the rest-frame Lyman continuum (LyC) of galaxies at z~3.1 has produced a large number of candidate LyC-emitting galaxies. These samples are contaminated by galaxies at lower redshift. To better understand LyC escape, we need an uncontaminated sample of galaxies that emit strongly in the LyC. Here we present deep Hubble imaging of five bright galaxies at z~3.1 that had previously been identified as candidate LyC-emitters with ground-based images. The WFC3 F336W images probe the LyC of galaxies at z>3.06 and provide an order-of-magnitude increase in spatial resolution over ground-based imaging. The non-ionizing UV images often show multiple galaxies (or components) within ~1'' of the candidate LyC emission seen from the ground. In each case, only one of the components is emitting light in the F336W filter, which would indicate LyC escape if that component is at z>3.06. We use Keck/NIRSPEC near-IR spectroscopy to measure redshifts of these components to distinguish LyC-emitters from foregr...

  19. The Lyman Continuum escape fraction of galaxies at z=3.3 in the VUDS-LBC/COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Grazian, A; Gerbasi, R; Fiore, F; Fontana, A; Fevre, O Le; Pentericci, L; Vanzella, E; Zamorani, G; Cassata, P; Garilli, B; Brun, V Le; Maccagni, D; Tasca, L A M; Thomas, R; Zucca, E; Amorin, R; Bardelli, S; Cassara', L P; Castellano, M; Cimatti, A; Cucciati, O; Durkalec, A; Giavalisco, M; Hathi, N P; Ilbert, O; Lemaux, B C; Paltani, S; Ribeiro, B; Schaerer, D; Scodeggio, M; Sommariva, V; Talia, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Bonchi, A; Boutsia, K; Capak, P; Charlot, S; Contini, T; de la Torre, S; Dunlop, J; Fotopoulou, S; Guaita, L; Koekemoer, A; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Mellier, Y; Merlin, E; Paris, D; Pforr, J; Pilo, S; Santini, P; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Wang, P W

    2016-01-01

    The Lyman continuum (LyC) flux escaping from high-z galaxies into the IGM is a fundamental quantity to understand the physical processes involved in the reionization epoch. We have investigated a sample of star-forming galaxies at z~3.3 in order to search for possible detections of LyC photons escaping from galaxy halos. UV deep imaging in the COSMOS field obtained with the prime focus camera LBC at the LBT telescope was used together with a catalog of spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) to build a sample of 45 galaxies at z~3.3 with L>0.5L*. We obtained deep LBC images of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the interval 3.2728% but a detailed analysis of their properties reveals that, with the exception of two marginal detections (S/N~2) in the U band, all the other 8 galaxies are most likely contaminated by the UV flux of low-z interlopers located close to the high-z targets. The average escape fraction derived from the stacking of the cleaned sample was constrained t...

  20. Chemistry of a protoplanetary disk with grain settling and Lyman alpha radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fogel, Jeffrey K J; Bergin, Edwin A; Calvet, Nuria; Semenov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a model of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our models we directly calculate the changing propagation and penetration of a high energy radiation field with Lyman alpha radiation included. We also explore the effect on our models of including dust grain settling. We find that, in agreement with earlier studies, the evolution of dust grains plays a large role in determining how deep the UV radiation penetrates into the disk. Significant grain settling at the midplane leads to much smaller freeze-out regions and a correspondingly larger molecular layer, which leads to an increase in column density for molecular species such as CO, CN and SO. The inclusion of Lyman alpha radiation impacts the disk chemistry through specific species that have large photodissociation cross sections at 1216 A. These include HCN, NH3 and CH4, for which the column densities are decreased by an order of magnitude or more due to the presence of Lyman alpha radiation in the UV spectrum. A few spe...

  1. Intergalactic Lyman continuum photon budget in the past 5 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Khaire, Vikram; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2017-04-01

    We constrain the H I photoionization rate (Γ _{H I}) at z ≲ 0.45 by comparing the flux probability distribution function and power spectrum of the Lyα forest data along 82 Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) sightlines obtained using Cosmic Origins Spectrograph with models generated from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations. We have developed a module named 'Code for Ionization and Temperature Evolution (CITE)' for calculating the intergalactic medium (IGM) temperature evolution from high to low redshifts by post-processing the GADGET-2 simulation outputs. Our method, that produces results consistent with other simulations, is computationally less expensive thus allowing us to explore a large parameter space. It also allows rigorous estimation of the error covariance matrix for various statistical quantities of interest. We find that the best-fitting Γ _{H I}(z) increases with z and follows (4 ± 0.1) × 10-14 (1 + z)4.99 ± 0.12 s-1. At any given z, the typical uncertainties Δ Γ _{H I} / Γ _{H I} are ∼25 per cent that contains not only the statistical errors but also those arising from possible degeneracy with the thermal history of the IGM and cosmological parameters and uncertainties in fitting the QSO continuum. These values of Γ _{H I} favour the scenario where only QSOs contribute to the ionizing background at z < 2. Our derived 3σ upper limit on average escape fraction is 0.008, consistent with measurements of low-z galaxies.

  2. Polar solar wind and interstellar wind properties from interplanetary Lyman-alpha radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of Mariner 10 observations of Lyman-alpha resonance radiation shows an increase of interplanetary neutral hydrogen densities above the solar poles. This increase is caused by a latitudinal variation of the solar wind velocity and/or flux. Using both the Mariner 10 results and other solar wind observations, the values of the solar wind flux and velocity with latitude are determined for several cases of interest. The latitudinal variation of interplanetary hydrogen gas, arising from the solar wind latitudinal variation, is shown to be most pronounced in the inner solar system. From this result it is shown that spacecraft Lyman-alpha observations are more sensitive to the latitudinal anisotropy for a spacecraft location in the inner solar system near the downwind axis.

  3. The visibility of Lyman Alpha Emitters during reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Dayal, Pratika; Ferrara, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We present the first Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) study that combines: (i) cosmological SPH simulations run using GADGET-2, (ii) radiative transfer simulations (CRASH), and (iii) a previously developed LAE model. This complete LAE model accounts for the intrinsic LAE Lyman Alpha/continuum luminosity, dust enrichment and Lyman Alpha transmission through the intergalactic medium (IGM), to quantify the effects of reionization, dust and velocity fields on the Lyman Alpha and UV Luminosity Functions (LF). We find that a model neglecting dust sorely fails to reproduce either the slope or the magnitude of the observed Lyman Alpha and UV LFs. Clumped dust is required to simultaneously fit the observed UV and Lyman Alpha LFs, such that the intrinsic Lyman Alpha-to-continuum luminosity is enhanced by a factor f_alpha/f_c ~ 1.5 (3.7) excluding (including) peculiar velocities. The higher value including velocity fields arises since LAEs reside in large potential wells and inflows decrease their Lyman Alpha transmission. For...

  4. Keck Spectroscopy of Lyman-break Galaxies and its Implications for the UV-continuum and Ly_alpha Luminosity Functions at z>6

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Linhua; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Walth, Gregory; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z>6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z'=27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly_alpha emission lines at 6100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8~6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 56.

  5. Lyman-alpha radiation hydrodynamics of galactic winds before cosmic reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Aaron; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical impact of Lyman-alpha (Ly{\\alpha}) radiation pressure on galaxy formation depends on the rate and duration of momentum transfer between Ly{\\alpha} photons and neutral hydrogen gas. Although photon trapping has the potential to multiply the effective force, ionizing radiation from stellar sources may relieve the Ly{\\alpha} pressure before appreciably affecting the kinematics of the host galaxy or efficiently coupling Ly{\\alpha} photons to the outflow. We present self-consistent Ly{\\alpha} radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of high-$z$ galaxy environments by coupling the Cosmic Ly{\\alpha} Transfer code (COLT) with spherically symmetric Lagrangian frame hydrodynamics. The accurate but computationally expensive Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations are feasible under the one-dimensional approximation. In certain cases Ly{\\alpha} feedback significantly enhances the velocity of the shell of gas expanding around a central source. Radiative feedback alone is capable of ejecting baryons into the i...

  6. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars: origin of the blue continuum radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Morchenko, E S

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of models that explain the appearance of the blue continuum radiation during the impulsive phase of stellar flares. Grinin and Sobolev (Astrophysics, vol. 13, 348, 1977) argue that this component of the optical continuum is formed in "the transition layer between the chromosphere and the photosphere". Katsova et al. (Astrophysics, vol. 17, 156, 1981) have "raised" the source of the white-light continuum up to the dense region in the perturbed chromosphere. In the present contribution (the main paper was submitted to journal "Astrophysics"), we show that the statement by Katsova et al. is erroneous.

  7. The Spectral Evolution of the First Galaxies. III. Simulated James Webb Space Telescope Spectra of Reionization-epoch Galaxies with Lyman-continuum Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Finlator, Kristian; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Inoue, Akio K.; Jensen, Hannes; Micheva, Genoveva; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Using four different suites of cosmological simulations, we generate synthetic spectra for galaxies with different Lyman-continuum escape fractions (f esc) at redshifts z≈ 7–9, in the rest-frame wavelength range relevant for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec instrument. By investigating the effects of realistic star formation histories and metallicity distributions on the EW(Hβ)–β diagram (previously proposed as a tool for identifying galaxies with very high f esc), we find that neither of these effects are likely to jeopardize the identification of galaxies with extreme Lyman-continuum leakage. Based on our models, we expect that essentially all z≈ 7{--}9 galaxies that exhibit rest-frame {EW}({{H}}β )≲ 30 Å to have {f}{esc}> 0.5. Incorrect assumptions concerning the ionizing fluxes of stellar populations or the dust properties of z> 6 galaxies can in principle bias the selection, but substantial model deficiencies of this type should at the same time be evident from offsets in the observed distribution of z> 6 galaxies in the EW(Hβ)–β diagram compared to the simulated distribution. Such offsets would thereby allow JWST/NIRSpec measurements of these observables to serve as input for further model refinement.

  8. The spectral evolution of the first Galaxies. III. Simulated James Webb Space Telescope spectra of reionization-epoch galaxies with Lyman continuum leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Zackrisson, E; Finlator, K; Gnedin, N Y; Paardekooper, J -P; Shimizu, I; Inoue, A K; Jensen, H; Micheva, G; Khochfar, S; Vecchia, C Dalla

    2016-01-01

    Using four different suites of cosmological simulations, we generate synthetic spectra for galaxies with different Lyman continuum escape fractions (fesc) at redshifts z=7-9, in the rest-frame wavelength range relevant for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec instrument. By investigating the effects of realistic star formation histories and metallicity distributions on the EW(Hb)-beta diagram (previously proposed as a tool for identifying galaxies with very high fesc), we find that the neither of these effects are likely to jeopardize the identification of galaxies with extreme Lyman continuum leakage. Based on our models, we expect essentially all z=7-9 galaxies that exhibit rest-frame EW(Hb)0.5. Incorrect assumptions concerning the ionizing fluxes of stellar populations or the dust properties of z>6 galaxies can in principle bias the selection, but substantial model deficiencies of this type will at the same time reveal themselves as an offset between the observed and simulated distribution of z>6 ...

  9. Continuum radiative transfer Modeling of Sagittarius B2

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedeke, A.; Schilke, P.; Möller, Th.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Csengeri, T.; Lis, D. C.; Molinari, S.; Qin, S.L.; Rolffs, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from radiative transfer modeling of the continuum emission towards Sagittarius B2 (hereafter Sgr B2). We have developed a radiative transfer framework – Pandora – that employs RADMC-3D (Dullemond 2012) for a self-consistent determination of the dust temperature. With this pipeline, we have set-up a single model that consistently reproduces the thermal dust and free-free continuum emission of Sgr B2 spanning four orders of magnitude in spatial scales (0.02–45 pc) and two ord...

  10. Wandering in the Lyman-alpha forest: a study of dark matter-dark radiation interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Rebecca; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2017-09-01

    The amplitude of large-scale matter fluctuations inferred from the observed Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster mass function and from weak gravitational lensing studies, when taken at face value, is in tension with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). In this work, we revisit whether this possible discrepancy can be attributed to new interactions in the dark matter sector. Focusing on a cosmological model where dark matter interacts with a dark radiation species until the epoch of matter-radiation equality, we find that measurements of the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provide no support to the hypothesis that new dark matter interactions can resolve the possible tension between CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). Indeed, while the addition of dark matter-dark radiation interactions leads to an improvement of 2Δ&ln;Script L=12 with respect to the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model when only CMB, BAO, and LSS data are considered, the inclusion of Lyman-alpha data reduces the improvement of the fit to 2Δ&ln;Script L=6 relative to ΛCDM . We thus conclude that the statistical evidence for new dark matter interactions (largely driven by the Planck SZ dataset) is marginal at best, and likely caused by systematics in the data. We also perform a Fisher forecast analysis for the reach of a future dataset composed of a CMB-S4 experiment combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope galaxy survey. We find that the constraint on the effective number of fluid-like dark radiation species, Δ Nfluid, will be improved by an order of magnitude compared to current bounds.

  11. Incorporating Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Into the Lyman Model to Improve Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li Minghuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu Ting; Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yuan Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Zhensheng; Yin Ming; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Lie; Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Martel, Mary [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-{beta}, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen SNPs from 10 different genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX1, MDM2, TGF{beta}, TNF{alpha}, TNFR, MTHFR, MTRR, and VEGF) were genotyped in 141 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. The LKB model was used to estimate the risk of severe (grade {>=}3) RP as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with SNPs and patient smoking status incorporated into the model as dose-modifying factors. Multivariate analyses were performed by adding significant factors to the MLD model in a forward stepwise procedure, with significance assessed using the likelihood-ratio test. Bootstrap analyses were used to assess the reproducibility of results under variations in the data. Results: Five SNPs were selected for inclusion in the multivariate NTCP model based on MLD alone. SNPs associated with an increased risk of severe RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, TNF{alpha}, XRCC1 and APEX1. With smoking status included in the multivariate model, the SNPs significantly associated with increased risk of RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, and XRCC3. Bootstrap analyses selected a median of 4 SNPs per model fit, with the 6 genes listed above selected most often. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that SNPs can significantly improve the predictive ability of the Lyman MLD model. With a small number of SNPs, it was possible to distinguish cohorts with >50% risk vs <10% risk of RP when they were exposed to high MLDs.

  12. Sowing Black Hole Seeds: Forming Direct Collapse Black Holes With Realistic Lyman-Werner Radiation Fields in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.

  13. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 continuum-subtracted Lyα, Hα, and the ......We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  14. VUV radiometry below 100 nm: the high-power hydrogen arc as a standard source of continuum radiation between 53 nm and 92 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, K; Thoma, P

    1979-08-01

    A stationary hydrogen arc discharge may be used as a standard source of radiation in the VUV below 100 nm. The Lyman resonance continuum is used, the cross sections of which are theoretically well known. The method described is based on optically thin radiation, requiring high plasma temperatures and an effective helium gas separation in the arc. The investigations demonstrate that, in appropriate experimental conditions, the plasma is indeed transparent down to the onset of the He ground-state absorption. Above that, the VUV spectral radiance can be predicted within less than 15% uncertainty from conventional plasma diagnostics. For a first application, the He continuum has been measured between 65 nm and 92 nm. The consistency of these results with theoretical calculations confirms the validity of the concept presented.

  15. Star Formation in the First Galaxies I: Collapse Delayed by Lyman-Werner Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Federrath, Christoph; Dubey, Anshu; Milosavljevic, Milos; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the process of metal-free star formation in the first galaxies with a high-resolution cosmological simulation. We consider the cosmologically motivated scenario in which a strong molecule-destroying Lyman-Werner (LW) background inhibits effective cooling in low-mass haloes, delaying star formation until the collapse or more massive haloes. Only when molecular hydrogen (H2) can self-shield from LW radiation, which requires a halo capable of cooling by atomic line emission, will star formation be possible. To follow the formation of multiple gravitationally bound objects, at high gas densities we introduce sink particles which accrete gas directly from the computational grid. We find that in a 1 Mpc^3 (comoving) box, runaway collapse first occurs in a 3x10^7 M_sun dark matter halo at z~12 assuming a background intensity of J21=100. Due to a runaway increase in the H2 abundance and cooling rate, a self-shielding, supersonically turbulent core develops abruptly with ~10^4 M_sun in cold gas availabl...

  16. The mystery of spectral breaks: Lyman continuum absorption by photon-photon pair production in the Fermi GeV spectra of bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Boris E

    2014-01-01

    We reanalyze Fermi/LAT gamma-ray spectra of bright blazars with a higher photon statistics than in previous works and with new Pass 7 data representation. In the spectra of the brightest blazar 3C 454.3 and possibly of 4C +21.35 we detect breaks at 5 GeV (in the rest frame) associated with the photon-photon pair production absorption by He II Lyman continuum (LyC). We also detect confident breaks at 20 GeV associated with hydrogen LyC both in the individual spectra and in the stacked redshift-corrected spectrum of several bright blazars. The detected breaks in the stacked spectra univocally prove that they are associated with atomic ultraviolet emission features of the quasar broad-line region (BLR). The dominance of the absorption by hydrogen Ly complex over He II, rather small detected optical depth, and the break energy consistent with the head-on collisions with LyC photons imply that the gamma-ray emission site is located within the BLR, but most of the BLR emission comes from a flat disk-like structure ...

  17. Radiation Transport of Heliospheric Lyman-alpha from Combined Cassini and Voyager Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, W.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Sandel, B.; Forrester, T.; Quemerais, E.; Moebius, E.; Esposito, L.; Stewart, I.; McClintock, W.; Jouchoux, A.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Heliospheric neutral hydrogen scatters solar Lyman-alpha radiation from the Sun with '27-day' intensity modulations observed near Earth due to the Sun's rotation combined with Earth's orbital motion. These modulations are increasingly damped in amplitude at larger distances from the Sun due to multiple scattering in the heliosphere, providing a diagnostic of the interplanetary neutral hydrogen density independent of instrument calibration. This paper presents Cassini data from 2003-2004 obtained downwind near Saturn at approximately 10 AU that at times show undamped '27-day' waves in good agreement with the single-scattering models of Pryor et al., 1992. Simultaneous Voyager 1 data from 2003- 2004 obtained upwind at a distance of 88.8-92.6 AU from the Sun show waves damped by a factor of -0.21. The observed degree of damping is interpreted in terms of Monte Carlo multiple-scattering calculations (e.g., Keller et al., 1981) applied to two heliospheric hydrogen two-shock density distributions (discussed in Gangopadhyay et al., 2006) calculated in the frame of the Baranov-Malama model of the solar wind interaction with the two-component (neutral hydrogen and plasma) interstellar wind (Baranov and Malama 1993, Izmodenov et al., 2001, Baranov and Izmodenov, 2006). We conclude that multiple scattering is definitely occurring in the outer heliosphere. Both models compare favorably to the data, using heliospheric neutral H densities at the termination shock of 0.085 cm(exp -3) and 0.095 cm(exp -3). This work generally agrees with earlier discussions of Voyager data in Quemerais et al., 1996 showing the importance of multiple scattering but is based on Voyager data obtained at larger distances from the Sun (with larger damping) simultaneously with Cassini data obtained closer to the Sun.

  18. Are galaxies optically thin to their own Lyman continuum radiation? 2, NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, K

    1995-01-01

    Halpha and UBV photometry of NGC 6822 are used to study the distribution of OB stars and HII regions in the galaxy and to determine whether individual regions of the galaxy are in a state of ionization balance. Four distinct components of the Halpha emission (bright, halo, diffuse and field) differentiated by their surface brightnesses are identified. We find that approximately 1/2 of all OB stars in NGC 6822 are located in the field while only 1/4 are found in the combined bright and halo regions, suggesting that OB stars spend roughly 3/4 of their lifetimes outside ``classical'' H II regions. Comparing the observed Halpha emission with that predicted from stellar ionizing flux models, we find that although the bright, halo and diffuse regions are probably in ionization balance, the field region is producing at least 6 times as much ionizing flux as is observed. The ionization balance results in NGC 6822 suggest that star formation rates obtained from Halpha luminosities must underestimate the true star form...

  19. Spectral line and continuum radiation propagation in a clumpy medium

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, J E; Parra, R

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the propagation of spectral line and continuum radiation in a clumpy medium and give general expressions for the observed absorption or emission from a cloud population. We show that the affect of the medium clumpiness can usually be characterised by a single number multiplying the mean column opacity. Our result provides a simpler proof and generalisation of the result of Martin et al (1984). The formalism provides a simple way to understand the effects of clumping on molecular line profiles and ratios, for example how clumping effects the interpretation of 13CO(1-0) to 12CO(1-0) line ratios. It can also be used as a propagation operator in physical models of clumpy media where the incident radiation effects the spectral line emissivity. We are working to extend the formalism to the propagation of masers in a clumpy medium, but in this case there are special difficulties because formal expectation values are not characteristic of observations because they are biased by rare events.

  20. Electromagnetic bound states in the radiation continuum for periodic double arrays of subwavelength dielectric cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Ndangali, Friends R

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic bound states in the radiation continuum are studied for periodic double arrays of subwavelength dielectric cylinders in TM polarization. They are similar to localized waveguide mode solutions of Maxwell's equations for metal cavities or defects of photonic crystals, but, in contrast to the latter, their spectrum lies in the radiation continuum. The phenomenon is identical to the existence of bound sates in the radiation continuum in quantum mechanics, discovered by von Neumann and Wigner. In the formal scattering theory, these states appear as resonances with the vanishing width. For the system studied, the bound states are shown to exist at specific distances between the arrays in the spectral region where one or two diffraction channels are open. Analytic solutions are obtained for all bound states (below the radiation continuum and in it) in the limit of thin cylinders (the cylinder radius is much smaller than the wavelength). The existence of bound states is also established in the spectra...

  1. Uses of Continuum Radiation in the AXAF Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Austin, R. A.; Eisner, R. F.; ODell, S. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Swartz, D. A.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zirnstein, G.; McDermott, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray calibration of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) observatory at the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) made novel use of the x-ray continuum from a conventional electron-impact source. Taking advantage of the good spectral resolution of solid-state detectors, continuum measurements proved advantageous in calibrating the effective area of AXAF's High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and in verifying its alignment to the XRCF's optical axis.

  2. The effect of Lyman $\\alpha$ radiation on mini-Neptune atmospheres around M stars: application to GJ 436b

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel, Yamila; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Rugheimer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Mini-Neptunes orbiting M stars are a growing population of known exoplanets. Some of them are located very close to their host star, receiving large amounts of UV radiation. Many M stars emit strong chromospheric emission in the H I Lyman $\\alpha$ line (Ly$\\alpha$) at 1215.67 \\AA, the brightest far-UV emission line. We show that the effect of incoming Ly$\\alpha$ flux can significantly change the photochemistry of mini-Neptunes' atmospheres. We use GJ 436b as an example, considering different metallicities for its atmospheric composition. For solar composition, H$_2$O-mixing ratios show the largest change because of Ly$\\alpha$ radiation. H$_2$O absorbs most of this radiation, thereby shielding CH$_4$, whose dissociation is driven mainly by radiation at other far-UV wavelengths ($\\sim1300$ \\AA). H$_2$O photolysis also affects other species in the atmosphere, including H, H$_2$, CO$_2$, CO, OH and O. For an atmosphere with high metallicity, H$_2$O- and CO$_2$-mixing ratios show the biggest change, thereby shield...

  3. HeII emission in Lyman-alpha nebulae: AGN or cooling radiation?

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlata, C; Teplitz, H I; Bridge, C; Francis, P; Palunas, P; Siana, B; Williger, G M; Woodgate, B

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of an extended Lyman-alpha (Lya) nebula located in a known overdensity at z~2.38. The data include multiwavelength photometry covering the rest-frame spectral range from 0.1 to 250um, and deep optical spectra of the sources associated with the extended emission. Two galaxies are associated with the Lya nebula. One of them is a dust enshrouded AGN, while the other is a powerful starburst, forming stars at >~600 Msol/yr. We detect the HeII emission line at 1640A in the spectrum of the obscured AGN, but detect no emission from other highly ionized metals (CIV or NV) as is expected from an AGN. One scenario that simultaneously reproduces the width of the detected emission lines, the lack of CIV emission, and the geometry of the emitting gas, is that the HeII and the Lya emission are the result of cooling gas that is being accreted on the dark matter halo of the two galaxies, Ly1 and Ly2. Given the complexity of the environment associated with our Lya nebula it is possible that various mechanism...

  4. From Mirrors to Windows: Lyman-Alpha Radiative Transfer in a Very Clumpy Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gronke, Max; McCourt, Michael; Oh, S Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lyman-Alpha (Ly$\\alpha$) is the strongest emission line in the Universe and is frequently used to detect and study the most distant galaxies. Because Lya is a resonant line, photons typically scatter prior to escaping; this scattering process complicates the interpretation of Ly$\\alpha$ spectra, but also encodes a wealth of information about the structure and kinematics of neutral gas in the galaxy. Modeling the Ly$\\alpha$ line therefore allows us to study tiny-scale features of the gas, even in the most distant galaxies. Curiously, observed Ly$\\alpha$ spectra can be modeled successfully with very simple, homogeneous geometries (such as an expanding, spherical shell), whereas more realistic, multiphase geometries often fail to reproduce the observed spectra. This seems paradoxical since the gas in galaxies is known to be multiphase. In this Letter, we show that spectra emerging from extremely clumpy geometries with many clouds along the line of sight converge to the predictions from simplified, homogeneous mo...

  5. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lymanradiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg A. Louchev; Norihito Saito; Yu Oishi; Koji Miyazaki; Kotaro Okamura; Jumpei Nakamura; Masahiko Iwasaki; Satoshi Wada

    2016-01-01

    We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α) radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i) multi-photon ionization, (ii) step-wise (2+1)-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii) laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by genera...

  6. Origin of the Blue Continuum Radiation in the Flare Spectra of dMe Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchenko, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Calculations of the emission spectrum of a homogeneous plane layer of pure hydrogen plasma taking into account nonlinear effects (the influence of bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself on its Menzel factors) show that the Planck radiation (the blue component of the optical continuum) during the impulsive phase of large flares on dMe stars originates from the deep (nearphotospheric) layers of the atmosphere. Radiative cooling of the gas behind the front of a stationary shock propagating toward the photosphere of a red dwarf is not capable to create the Planck radiation observed at the peak brightness of the flares.

  7. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Homolova, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukes, P.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate combined continuum removal and radiative transfer (RT) modeling to retrieve leaf chlorophyll a & b content (Cab) from the AISA Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer data of sub-meter (0.4 m) spatial resolution. Based on coupled PROSPECT-DART RT simulations of a Norway spruce (Picea

  8. Ionizing radiation fluctuations and large-scale structure in the Lyman-alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, R A C

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the large-scale inhomogeneities of the hydrogen ionizing radiation field in the Universe at redshift z=3. Using a raytracing algorithm, we simulate a model in which quasars are the dominant sources of radiation. We make use of large scale N-body simulations of a LambdaCDM universe, and include such effects as finite quasar lifetimes and output on the lightcone, which affects the shape of quasar light echoes. We create Lya forest spectra that would be generated in the presence of such a fluctuating radiation field, finding that the power spectrum of the Lya forest can be suppressed by as much as 15 % for modes with k=0.05-1 Mpc/h. This relatively small effect may have consequences for high precision measurements of the Lya power spectrum on larger scales than have yet been published. We also investigate another radiation field probe, the cross-correlation of quasar positions and the Lya forest. For both quasar lifetimes which we simulate (10^7 yr and 10^8 yr), we expect to see a strong decrease ...

  9. Lyman {\\alpha} radiative transfer in the high-redshift, dusty Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Laursen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The significance of the Ly{\\alpha} emission line as a probe of the high-redshift Universe has long been established. Originating mainly in the vicinity of young, massive stars and in association with accretion of large bulks of matter, it is ideal for detecting young galaxies, the fundamental building blocks of our Universe. Since many different processes shape the spectrum and the spatial distribution of the Ly{\\alpha} photons in various ways, a multitude of physical properties of galaxies can be unveiled. However, this also makes the interpretation of Ly{\\alpha} observations notoriously difficult. Because Ly{\\alpha} is a resonant line, it scatters on neutral hydrogen, having its path length from the source to our telescopes vastly increased, and taking it through regions of unknown physical conditions. In this work, a numerical code capable of calculating realistically the radiative transfer of Ly{\\alpha} is presented. The code is capable of performing the radiative transfer in an arbitrary and adaptively r...

  10. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement.

  11. Calibrating cosmological radiative transfer simulations with Lyman alpha forest data: Evidence for large spatial UV background fluctuations at z ~ 5.6 - 5.8 due to rare bright sources

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, Jonathan; Aubert, Dominique; Puchwein, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    We calibrate here cosmological radiative transfer simulation with ATON/RAMSES with a range of measurements of the Lyman alpha opacity from QSO absorption spectra. We find the Lyman alpha opacity to be very sensitive to the exact timing of hydrogen reionisation. Models reproducing the measured evolution of the mean photoionisation rate and average mean free path reach overlap at z ~ 7 and predict an accelerated evolution of the Lyman alpha opacity at z > 6 consistent with the rapidly evolving luminosity function of Lyman alpha emitters in this redshift range. Similar to "optically thin" simulations our full radiative transfer simulations fail, however, to reproduce the high-opacity tail of the Lyman alpha opacity PDF at z > 5. We argue that this is due to spatial UV fluctuations in the post-overlap phase of reionisation on substantially larger scales than predicted by our source model, where the ionising emissivity is dominated by large numbers of sub-L* galaxies. We further argue that this suggests a signific...

  12. 3D Continuum Radiative Transfer. An adaptive grid construction algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolini, G.; Alcolea, J.

    Solving the radiative transfer problem is a common problematic to may fields in astrophysics. With the increasing angular resolution of spatial or ground-based telescopes (VLTI, HST) but also with the next decade instruments (NGST, ALMA, ...), astrophysical objects reveal and will certainly reveal complex spatial structures. Consequently, it is necessary to develop numerical tools being able to solve the radiative transfer equation in three dimensions in order to model and interpret these observations. I present a 3D radiative transfer program, using a new method for the construction of an adaptive spatial grid, based on the Monte Claro method. With the help of this tools, one can solve the continuum radiative transfer problem (e.g. a dusty medium), computes the temperature structure of the considered medium and obtain the flux of the object (SED and images).

  13. High-efficiency generation of pulsed Lymanradiation by resonant laser wave mixing in low pressure Kr-Ar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Louchev, Oleg A; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-04

    We report an experimental generation of ns pulsed 121.568 nm Lymanradiation by the resonant nonlinear four-wave mixing of 212.556 nm and 845.015 nm radiation pulses providing a high conversion efficiency 1.7x10-3 with the output pulse energy 3.6 μJ achieved using a low pressure Kr-Ar mixture. Theoretical analysis shows that this efficiency is achieved due to the advantage of using (i) the high input laser intensities in combination with (ii) the low gas pressure allowing us to avoid the onset of full-scale discharge in the laser focus. In particular, under our experimental conditions the main mechanism of photoionization caused by the resonant 2-photon 212.556 nm radiation excitation of Kr atoms followed by the 1-photon ionization leads to ≈17% loss of Kr atoms and efficiency loss only by the end of the pulse. The energy of free electrons, generated by 212.556 nm radiation via (2 + 1)-photon ionization and accelerated mainly by 845.015 nm radiation, remains during the pulse below the level sufficient for the onset of full-scale discharge by the electron avalanche. Our analysis also suggests that ≈30-fold increase of 845.015 nm pulse energy can allow one to scale up the L-α radiation pulse energy towards the level of ≈100 μJ.

  14. Ultrabroadband super-Planckian radiative heat transfer with artificial continuum cavity states in patterned hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Ding, Fei; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Yan, Min

    2017-06-01

    Localized cavity resonances due to nanostructures at material surfaces can greatly enhance radiative heat transfer (RHT) between two closely placed bodies owing to stretching of cavity states in momentum space beyond the light line. Based on such understanding, we numerically demonstrate the possibility of ultrabroadband super-Planckian RHT between two plates patterned with trapezoidal-shaped hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) arrays. The phenomenon is rooted not only in HMM's high effective index for creating subwavelength resonators but also its extremely anisotropic isofrequency contour. The two properties enable one to create photonic bands with a high spectral density to populate a desired thermal radiation window. At submicron gap sizes between such two plates, the artificial continuum states extend outside the light cone, tremendously increasing overall RHT. Our study reveals that structured HMM offers unprecedented potential in achieving a controllable super-Planckian radiative heat transfer for thermal management at nanoscale.

  15. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bakule, Pavel [STFC, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yokoyama, Koji [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  16. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-α-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Bakule, Pavel; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-01

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-α (Ly-α) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-α generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-α radiation generation can achieve a value of ˜5×10-4 which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  17. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lymanradiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α ) radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i) multi-photon ionization, (ii) step-wise (2+1)-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii) laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by generated free electrons. Developed expressions validated by order of magnitude estimations and available experimental data allow us to identify the area for the operation under high input laser intensities avoiding the onset of full-scale discharge, loss of efficiency and inhibition of generated L-α radiation. Calculations made reveal an opportunity for scaling up the output energy of the experimentally generated pulsed L-α radiation without significant enhancement of photoionization.

  18. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lymanradiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Louchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i multi-photon ionization, (ii step-wise (2+1-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by generated free electrons. Developed expressions validated by order of magnitude estimations and available experimental data allow us to identify the area for the operation under high input laser intensities avoiding the onset of full-scale discharge, loss of efficiency and inhibition of generated L-α radiation. Calculations made reveal an opportunity for scaling up the output energy of the experimentally generated pulsed L-α radiation without significant enhancement of photoionization.

  19. Radiative transfer with POLARIS: I. Analysis of magnetic fields through synthetic dust continuum polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Reissl, Stefan; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    \\textbf{Aims}: We present POLARIS (\\textbf{POLA}rized \\textbf{R}ad\\textbf{I}ation \\textbf{S}imulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interstellar medium. An exemplary application is the investigation of the role of magnetic fields in star formation processes.\\\\ \\textbf{Methods}: We combine currently discussed state-of-the-art grain alignment theories with existing dust heating and polarization algorithms. We test the POLARIS code on multiple scales in complex astrophysical systems that are associated with different stages of star formation. POLARIS uses the full spectrum of dust polarization mechanisms to trace the...

  20. Radiative transfer with POLARIS. I. Analysis of magnetic fields through synthetic dust continuum polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissl, S.; Wolf, S.; Brauer, R.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: We present POLARIS (POLArized RadIation Simulator), a newly developed three-dimensional Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. POLARIS was designed to calculate dust temperature, polarization maps, and spectral energy distributions. It is optimized to handle data that results from sophisticated magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. The main purpose of the code is to prepare and analyze multi-wavelength continuum polarization measurements in the context of magnetic field studies in the interstellar medium. An exemplary application is the investigation of the role of magnetic fields in star formation processes. Methods: We combine currently discussed state-of-the-art grain alignment theories with existing dust heating and polarization algorithms. We test the POLARIS code on multiple scales in complex astrophysical systems that are associated with different stages of star formation. POLARIS uses the full spectrum of dust polarization mechanisms to trace the underlying magnetic field morphology. Results: Resulting temperature distributions are consistent with the density and position of radiation sources resulting from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) - collapse simulations. The calculated layers of aligned dust grains in the considered cirumstellar disk models are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Finally, we compute unique patterns in synthetic multi-wavelength polarization maps that are dependent on applied dust-model and grain-alignment theory in analytical cloud models.

  1. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  2. Trident: A three-pronged galaxy survey. I. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at z~2 in GOODS North

    CERN Document Server

    Sandberg, A; Östlin, G; Hayes, M; Kiaeerad, F

    2015-01-01

    Context. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) are used to probe the distant universe and are therefore important for galaxy evolution studies and for providing clues to the nature of the epoch of reionization, but the exact circumstances under which Lyman alpha escapes a galaxy are still not fully understood. Aims. The Trident project is designed to simultaneously examine Lyman alpha, H-alpha and Lyman Continuum emission from galaxies at redshift z~2, thus linking together these three aspects of ionising radiation in galaxies. In this paper, we outline the strategy of this project and examine the properties of LAEs in the GOODS North field. Methods. We performed a narrowband LAE survey in GOODS North using existing and two custom made filters at the Nordic Optical Telescope with MOSCA. We use complementary broad band archival data in the field to make a careful candidate selection and perform optical to near-IR SED fitting. We also estimate far-infrared luminosities by matching our candidates to detections in...

  3. Origin of the Lyman excess in early-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cesaroni, R; Beltrán, M T; Molinari, S; Olmi, L; Treviño-Morales, S P

    2016-01-01

    Ionized regions around early-type stars are believed to be well-known objects, but until recently, our knowledge of the relation between the free-free radio emission and the IR emission has been observationally hindered by the limited angular resolution in the far-IR. The advent of Herschel has now made it possible to obtain a more precise comparison between the two regimes, and it has been found that about a third of the young HII regions emit more Lyman continuum photons than expected, thus presenting a Lyman excess. With the present study we wish to distinguish between two scenarios that have been proposed to explain the existence of the Lyman excess: (i) underestimation of the bolometric luminosity, or (ii) additional emission of Lyman-continuum photons from an accretion shock. We observed an outflow (SiO) and an infall (HCO+) tracer toward a complete sample of 200 HII regions, 67 of which present the Lyman excess. Our goal was to search for any systematic difference between sources with Lyman excess and ...

  4. Clustering and lifetime of Lyman Alpha Emitters in the Epoch of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Anne; Müller, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We calculate Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) angular correlation functions (ACFs) at $z\\simeq6.6$ and the fraction of lifetime (for the 100 Myrs preceding $z\\simeq6.6$) galaxies spend as Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with/without Lyman Alpha (Ly\\alpha) emission using a model that combines SPH cosmological simulations (GADGET-2), dust attenuation and a radiative transfer code (pCRASH). The ACFs are a powerful tool that significantly narrows the 3D parameter space allowed by LAE Ly$\\alpha$ and UV luminosity functions (LFs) alone. With this work, we simultaneously constrain the escape fraction of ionizing photons $f_{esc}=0.05-0.5$, the mean fraction of neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) $\\leq 0.01$ and the dust-dependent ratio of the escape fractions of Ly$\\alpha$ and UV continuum photons $f_\\alpha/f_c=0.6-1.2$. Our results show that reionization has the largest impact on the amplitude of the ACFs, and its imprints are clearly distinguishable from those of $f_{esc}$ and $f_\\alpha/f_c$. We also show that...

  5. The Lyman alpha Reference Sample VI: Lyman alpha escape from the edge-on disk galaxy Mrk1486

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, Florent; Hayes, Matthew; Zackrisson, Erik; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Adamo, Angela; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Cannon, John M; Laursen, Peter; Rivera-Thorsen, Thoger; Herenz, E Christian; Gruyters, Pieter; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Kunth, Daniel; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Mansson, Tore

    2015-01-01

    While numerical simulations suggest that the strength of the Lyman alpha (Lya) line of star-forming disk galaxies strongly depends on the inclination at which they are observed (i.e. from edge-on to face-on, we expect to see a change from an attenuated Lya line to a strong Lya emission line), recent observations with the Hubble space telescope (HST) have highlighted few low-redshift highly inclined (edge-on) disk galaxies that breaks this trend. We aim to understand how a strong Lya emission line is able to escape from one of those inclined disk galaxies, named Mrk1486 (z=0.0338). For that purpose we used a large set of HST imaging and spectroscopic data to investigate both the ISM structure and the dominant source of Lya radiation inside Mrk1486. Moreover, we used a 3D Monte Carlo Lya radiation transfer code to study the radiative transfer of Lya and UV continuum photons inside a 3D geometry of neutral hydrogen (HI) and dust that models the ISM structure at the galaxy center. The analysis of IFU Halpha spect...

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Lyman Alpha Emission at z=4.4

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Steven L; Windhorst, Rogier A; Ryan, Russell E; Hathi, Nimish P; Finkelstein, Keely D; Anderson, Jay; Grogin, Norman A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Mutchler, Max; Rhoads, James E; McCarthy, Patrick J; O'Connell, Robert W; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; Luppino, Gerard; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Young, Erick T

    2010-01-01

    We present the highest redshift detections of resolved Lyman alpha emission, using Hubble Space Telescope/ACS F658N narrowband-imaging data taken in parallel with the Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science program in the GOODS CDF-S. We detect Lyman alpha emission from three spectroscopically confirmed z = 4.4 Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs), more than doubling the sample of LAEs with resolved Lyman alpha emission. Comparing the light distribution between the rest-frame ultraviolet continuum and narrowband images, we investigate the escape of Lyman alpha photons at high redshift. While our data do not support a positional offset between the Lyman alpha and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission, the half-light radii in two out of the three galaxies are significantly larger in Lyman alpha than in the rest-frame UV continuum. This result is confirmed when comparing object sizes in a stack of all objects in both bands. Additionally, the narrowband flux detected with HST is significantly less than...

  7. A laser-generated plasma as a source of VUV continuum radiation for photoelectronic spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Heckenkamp, Ch.; Heinzmann, Ulrich; Schönhense, G.; BURGESS.D.D; Thorne, A. P.; Wheaton, J. E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using laser-generated plasmas as VUV continuum sources for photoelectron spectroscopy has been demonstrated by measuring the spectral intensity distribution of the VUV continuum in the wavelength region from 79 to 43 nm by energy analysis of the photoelectrons ejected from argon atoms. The maximum photon flux obtained after reflection at a gold-coated spherical mirror was of the order of 10(11) photons nm(-1) per pulse at 50 nm for a laser energy of 830 mJ. The results show...

  8. Lyman edges in AGN accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, B. (Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland)); Pojmanski, G. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Obserwatorium Astronomiczne)

    1990-07-01

    We show that the basic difference in the two principal approaches to predictions of the Lyman edge in an accretion disc lies in the implicit assumption about the density of the radiating gas. Independent from the details, models predict a broad range of the edge sizes, both in absorption and in emission. Observed spectra do not exhibit any strong feature at 912 A but may still be consistent with an accretion disc mechanism if more advanced theory is developed. (author).

  9. Lyman Break Galaxies in the NGST Era

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, H C; Papovich, C; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dickinson, Mark; Papovich, Casey

    2002-01-01

    With SIRTF and NGST in the offing, it is interesting to examine what the stellar populations of z~3 galaxies models imply for the existence and nature of Lyman-break galaxies at higher redshift. To this end, we ``turn back the clock'' on the stellar population models that have been fit to optical and infrared data of Lyman-break galaxies at z~3. The generally young ages (typically 10^8 +- 0.5 yr) of these galaxies imply that their stars were not present much beyond z=4. For smooth star-formation histories SFR(t) and Salpeter IMFs, the ionizing radiation from early star-formation in these galaxies would be insufficient to reionize the intergalactic medium at z~6, and the luminosity density at z~4 would be significantly lower than observed. We examine possible ways to increase the global star-formation rate at higher redshift without violating the stellar-population constraints at z~3.

  10. Search of Continuum Solar Flare Radiation from GHz to THz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Giménez de Castro, C.; Hurford, G.; Lin, R. P.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Marcon, R.; Marun, A.; Raulin, J.-P.; Shih, A. Y.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Válio, A.; Villela, T.

    2011-05-01

    The new solar burst emission spectral component showing sub-THz fluxes increasing with frequency, spectrally separated from the well known microwave component, brings serious constraints for interpretation. The knowledge of THz continuum spectral shape is essential to investigate the nature of the emission mechanisms involved. New 45 and 90 GHz solar polarimeters are being installed at El Leoncito high altitude observatory, where sub-THz (0.2 and 0.4 THz) solar flare flux data are being obtained regularly since several years. The development of THz photometers for continuum requires solutions for several technical challenges. To avoid atmospheric attenuation the THz solar observations should be carried in space or at selected frequency windows on exceptionally high sites near the South Pole. A double THz solar photometer system has been developed to operate at center frequencies of 3 and 7 THz. Golay cell sensors are used, preceded by a low pass membrane filter (f Berkeley, together with GRIPS (Gamma-Ray Imaging Polarimeter for solar flares) experiment. One test flight is planned for 2012. USA. Another balloon flight over Russia (one week) is considered between 2014-2016, in a cooperation with Moscow Lebedev Physics Institute.

  11. Project Lyman: Quantifying 11 Gyrs of Metagalactic Ionizing Background Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    McCandliss, Stephan R; Bergvall, Nils; Bianchi, Luciana; Bridge, Carrie; Bogosavljevic, Milan; Cohen, Seth H; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Dixon, W Van Dyke; Ferguson, Harry; Friedman, Peter; Hayes, Matthew; Howk, J Christopher; Inoue, Akio; Iwata, Ikuru; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kriss, Gerard; Kruk, Jeffrey; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Leitherer, Claus; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Prochaska, Jason X; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Teplitz, Harry I; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2012-01-01

    The timing and duration of the reionization epoch is crucial to the emergence and evolution of structure in the universe. The relative roles that star-forming galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars play in contributing to the metagalactic ionizing background across cosmic time remains uncertain. Deep quasar counts provide insights into their role, but the potentially crucial contribution from star-formation is highly uncertain due to our poor understanding of the processes that allow ionizing radiation to escape into the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fraction of ionizing photons that escape from star-forming galaxies is a fundamental free parameter used in models to "fine-tune" the timing and duration of the reionization epoch that occurred somewhere between 13.4 and 12.7 Gyrs ago (redshifts between 12 > z > 6). However, direct observation of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons emitted below the rest frame \\ion{H}{1} ionization edge at 912 \\AA\\ is increasingly improbable at redshifts z > 3, due to the stead...

  12. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies : Implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, Maarten; Zaroubi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive me

  13. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies : Implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, Maarten; Zaroubi, S.

    The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive

  14. The visibility of Lyman Alpha Emitters: constraining reionization, ionizing photons and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, A; Partl, A M; Müller, V

    2014-01-01

    We couple state of the art cosmological simulations (GADGET-2) with a dust model and a radiative transfer code (pCRASH) to build a complete model for high-redshift Lyman Alpha emitters (LAEs). Due to poor constraints available on the escape fraction of HI ionizing photons (f_esc) from galaxies, we use five different values f_esc=0.05,0.25,0.5,0.75,0.95 to post-process the cosmological simulation with pCRASH. Starting from a completely neutral Universe, we run pCRASH until reionization is complete, i.e. the average neutral hydrogen (HI) fraction drops to ~ 10^-4. For a given f_esc and combination, the only free-parameter left to match model results to observations is the relative escape of Lyman Alpha (Lya) and continuum photons from the galactic environment (f_\\alpha/f_c). Starting from a scenario wherein dust is homogeneously distributed (f_\\alpha/f_c ~ 0.68), we find that the observed LAE UV and Lya luminosity functions (LFs) jointly constrain f_esc ~ 0.05 and and f_\\alpha/f_c such that a decrease in th...

  15. Indirect Evidence for Escaping Ionizing Photons in Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik; Leitherer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of HST COS far-UV spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 low-redshift galaxies that are good analogs to typical star-forming galaxies at high-redshift. We measure three parameters that provide indirect evidence of the escape of ionizing radiation: (1) the residual intensity in the cores of saturated interstellar low-ionization absorption-lines. (2) The relative amount of blue-shifted Lyman alpha line emission, and (3) the relative weakness of the [SII] optical emission lines. We use these diagnostics to rank-order our sample in terms of likely leakiness, noting that a direct measure of escaping Lyman continuum has recently been made for one of the leakiest members of o...

  16. Bloch bound states in the radiation continuum in a periodic array of dielectric rods

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N

    2014-01-01

    We consider an infinite periodic array of dielectric rods in vacuum with the aim to demonstrate three types of a Bloch bound states in the continuum (BSC), symmetry protected with a zero Bloch vector, embedded into one diffraction channel with nonzero Bloch vector, and embedded into two and three diffraction channels. The first and second types of the BSC exist in a wide range of material parameters of the rods, while the third occurs only at a specific value of the radius of the rods. We show that the second type supports the power flux along the array. In order to find BSC we put forward an approach based on the expansion over the Hankel functions. We show how the BSC reveals itself in the scattering function when the singular BSC point is approached along a specific path in the parametric space.

  17. A New Radiation Hydrodynamics Code and Application to the Calculation of Type Ia Supernovae Light Curves and Continuum Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiao-he; Sutherland, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A new, fully dynamic and self-consistent radiation hydrodynamics code, suitable for the calculation of supernovae light curves and continuum spectra, is described. It is a multigroup (frequency-dependent) code and includes all important $O(v/c)$ effects. It is applied to the model W7 of Nomoto, Thielemann, \\& Yokoi (1984) for supernovae of type Ia. Radioactive energy deposition is incorporated through use of tables based upon Monte Carlo results. Effects of line opacity (both static or line blanketing and expansion or line blocking) are neglected, although these may prove to be important. At maximum light, models based upon different treatments of the opacity lead to values for $M_{B,max}$ in the range of -19.0 to -19.4. This range falls between the values for observed supernova claimed by Leibundgut \\& Tammann (1990) and by Pierce, Ressler, \\& Shure (1992).

  18. Lyman-alpha Emission From Cosmic Structure I: Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kollmeier, Juna A; Davé, Romeel; Gould, Andrew; Katz, Neal; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Weinberg, David H

    2009-01-01

    We present predictions for the fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission signature arising from photoionized, optically thick structures in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) cosmological simulations of a Lambda-CDM universe using a Monte Carlo Lyman-alpha radiative transfer code. We calculate the expected Lyman-alpha image and 2-dimensional spectra for gas exposed to a uniform ultraviolet ionizing background as well as gas exposed additionally to the photoionizing radiation from a local quasar, after correcting for the self-shielding of hydrogen. As a test of our numerical methods and for application to current observations, we examine simplified analytic structures that are uniformly or anisotropically illuminated. We compare these results with recent observations. We discuss future observing campaigns on large telescopes and realistic strategies for detecting fluorescence owing to the ambient metagalactic ionization and in regions close to bright quasars. While it will take hundreds of hours on the current genera...

  19. Cosmological adventures in the Lyman forest

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S

    1995-01-01

    The properties of the Lyman-\\alpha absorptions observed in the spectra of QSOs are reviewed: the distribution of column densities and Doppler widths, the redshift evolution, the ``inverse effect'', the clustering. By interpreting the statistics of the line parameters insight is gained about the nature of the absorbers, their sizes, temperatures, confining agents. On the basis of the ``inverse effect'' it is possible to estimate the ultraviolet background radiation at high redshift and, linking this information with the limits on the Gunn-Peterson optical depth, the density of the diffuse part of the intergalactic medium is derived. Future prospects are briefly discussed.

  20. Broadband distortion modeling in Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest BAO fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Blomqvist, Michael; Bautista, Julian E; Ariño, Andreu; Busca, Nicolás G; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Slosar, Anže; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Margala, Daniel; Schneider, Donald P; Vazquez, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorption observed in the spectra of high-redshift quasars has been used as a tracer of large-scale structure by means of the three-dimensional Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest auto-correlation function at redshift $z\\simeq 2.3$, but the need to fit the quasar continuum in every absorption spectrum introduces a broadband distortion that is difficult to correct and causes a systematic error for measuring any broadband properties. We describe a $k$-space model for this broadband distortion based on a multiplicative correction to the power spectrum of the transmitted flux fraction that suppresses power on scales corresponding to the typical length of a Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest spectrum. Implementing the distortion model in fits for the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak position in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest auto-correlation, we find that the fitting method recovers the input values of the linear bias parameter $b_{F}$ and the redshift-space distortion parameter $\\beta_{F}$ for mock dat...

  1. A model for the thermal radio-continuum emission from radiative shocks in colliding stellar winds

    CERN Document Server

    Montes, G; Canto, J; Perez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The interaction of two isotropic stellar winds is studied in order to calculate the free-free emission from the wind collision region. The effects of the binary separation and the wind momentum ratio on the emission from the wind-wind interaction region are investigated. Methods. We developed a semi-analytical model for calculating the thermal emission from colliding stellar winds. Assuming radiative shocks for the compressed layer, which are expected in close binaries, we obtained the emission measure of the thin shell. Then, we computed the total optical depth along each line of sight to obtain the emission from the whole configuration. Results. Here, we present predictions of the free-free emission at radio frequencies from analytic, radiative shock models in colliding wind binaries. It is shown that the emission from the wind collision region mainly arises from the optically thick region of the compressed layer and scales as ~ D^{4/5}, where D is the binary separation. The predicted flux density fro...

  2. A model for the thermal radio-continuum emission from radiative shocks in colliding stellar winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, G.; González, R. F.; Cantó, J.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.

    2011-07-01

    Context. In massive-star binary systems, the interaction of the strong stellar winds results in a wind collision region (WCR) between the stars, which is limited by two shock fronts. Besides the nonthermal emission resulting from the shock acceleration, these shocks emit thermal (free-free) radiation detectable at radio frequencies that increase the expected emission from the stellar winds. Observations and theoretical studies of these sources show that the shocked gas is an important, but not dominant, contributor to the total emission in wide binary systems, while it plays a very substantial role in close binaries. Aims: The interaction of two isotropic stellar winds is studied in order to calculate the free-free emission from the WCR. The effects of the binary separation and the wind momentum ratio on the emission from the wind-wind interaction region are investigated. Methods: We developed a semi-analytical model for calculating the thermal emission from colliding stellar winds. Assuming radiative shocks for the compressed layer, which are expected in close binaries, we obtained the emission measure of the thin shell. Then, we computed the total optical depth along each line of sight to obtain the emission from the whole configuration. Results: Here, we present predictions of the free-free emission at radio frequencies from analytic, radiative shock models in colliding wind binaries. It is shown that the emission from the WCR mainly arises from the optically thick region of the compressed layer and scales as ~D4/5, where D is the binary separation. The predicted flux density Sν from the WCR becomes more important as the frequency ν increases, showing higher spectral indices than the expected 0.6 value (Sν ∝ να, where α = 0.6) from the unshocked winds. We also investigate the emission from short-period WR+O systems calculated with our analytic formulation. In particular, we apply the model to the binary systems WR 98 and WR 113 and compare our results

  3. Nonlinear acoustics in a dispersive continuum: Random waves, radiation pressure, and quantum noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, M. A.

    The nonlinear interaction of sound with sound is studied using dispersive hydrodynamics which derived from a variational principle and the assumption that the internal energy density depends on gradients of the mass density. The attenuation of sound due to nonlinear interaction with a background is calculated and is shown to be sensitive to both the nature of the dispersion and decay bandwidths. The theoretical results are compared to those of low temperature helium experiments. A kinetic equation which described the nonlinear self-inter action of a background is derived. When a Deybe-type cutoff is imposed, a white noise distribution is shown to be a stationary distribution of the kinetic equation. The attenuation and spectrum of decay of a sound wave due to nonlinear interaction with zero point motion is calculated. In one dimension, the dispersive hydrodynamic equations are used to calculate the Langevin and Rayleigh radiation pressures of wave packets and solitary waves.

  4. Low-redshift evolution of the Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Theuns, T; Efstathiou, G P

    1998-01-01

    The low-redshift evolution of the intergalactic medium is investigated using hydrodynamic cosmological simulations. The assumed cosmological model is a critical density cold dark matter universe. The imposed uniform background of ionizing radiation has the amplitude, shape and redshift evolution as computed from the observed quasar luminosity function by Haardt & Madau. We have analysed simulated Lyman-alpha spectra using Voigt-profile fitting, mimicking the procedure with which quasar spectra are analysed. Our simulations reproduce the observed evolution of the number of Lyman-alpha absorption lines over the whole observed interval of z=0.5 to z=4. In particular, our simulations show that the decrease in the rate of evolution of Lyman-alpha absorption lines at z< 2, as observed by Hubble Space Telescope, can be explained by the steep decline in the photo-ionizing background resulting from the rapid decline in quasar numbers at low redshift.

  5. Enhanced direct collapse due to Lyman {\\alpha} feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Jarrett L

    2016-01-01

    We assess the impact of trapped Lyman {\\alpha} cooling radiation on the formation of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs). We apply a one-zone chemical and thermal evolution model, accounting for the photodetachment of H$^-$ ions, precursors to the key coolant H$_{\\rm 2}$, by Lyman {\\alpha} photons produced during the collapse of a cloud of primordial gas in an atomic cooling halo at high redshift. We find that photodetachment of H$^-$ by trapped Lyman {\\alpha} photons can lower the level of the H$_{\\rm 2}$-dissociating background radiation field required for DCBH formation substantially, dropping the critical flux by up to an order of magnitude. This translates into a large increase in the expected number density of DCBHs in the early Universe, and implies that DCBHs may be the seeds for the BHs residing in the centers of a significant fraction of galaxies today. We find that detachment of H$^-$ by Lyman {\\alpha} has the strongest impact on the critical flux for the relatively high background radiation temper...

  6. New interpretations of extraterrestrial Lyman-alpha observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P. W.; Fahr, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The solar Lyman-alpha radiation pressure affects the orbits and the velocities of the interstellar particles entering the solar system. This leads to enhanced particle losses in the heliosphere, since particles spend a longer time crossing it. This causes a stronger decrease of the density with decreasing distances from the sun than had been calculated without accounting for the radiation pressure. Furthermore, the emission pattern of the solar Lyman-alpha radiation is anisotropic and rotates with the sun in a 27-day period. This causes a temporal change in the location of the intensity extrema. At the same time it produces hydrogen density anisotropies with extrema deviating in their directions from those which had been calculated without consideration of the radiation pressure.

  7. Characterizing Lyman Alpha Scattering in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Joanna; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Östlin, Göran; Gronwall, Caryl

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogen emission line of Lyman alpha (Lyα) has long been recognized as key to studying high redshift star-forming galaxies. However, due to the resonance of the emission line, the path that a Lyα photon takes from emission to eventual escape from the galaxy is essentially a mystery. This scattering poses a problem for using Lyα as a key emission feature of galaxies because it results in Lyα not being observed in all star-forming galaxies, and, in galaxies where it is observed, the place where the photon is originally emitted and where it is observed are two very different things. We discuss here how the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS) provides a unique sample of 14 nearby (0.02 Space Telescope imaging. We compare the Lyα/Hα ratios with those expected from pure dust attenuation models, finding that in some cases significant positive departures are found on small scales, consistent with geometrical effects being important on sizes comparable to the HII regions. We then develop a simple scattering model in which we are able to estimate the average path length a Lyα photon travels with respect to non-resonant radiation, and quantifiy the excess dust optical depth to which Lyα radiation may be susceptible.

  8. A High Signal-to-Noise UV Spectrum of NGC 7469 New Support for Reprocessing of Continuum Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kriss, G A; Crenshaw, D M; Zheng, W; Kriss, Gerard A.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Zheng, Wei

    2000-01-01

    From 1996 June 10 to 1996 July 29 the International AGN Watch monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 using IUE, RXTE, and a network of ground-based observatories. On 1996 June 18, in the midst of this intensive monitoring period, we obtained a high signal-to-noise snapshot of the UV spectrum from 1150-3300 A using the FOS on HST. This spectrum allows us to disentangle the UV continuum more accurately from the broad wings of the emission lines, to identify clean continuum windows free of contaminating emission and absorption, and to deblend line complexes such as Lya+NV, CIV+HeII+OIII], SiIII]+CIII], and MgII+FeII. Using the FOS spectrum as a template, we have fit and extracted line and continuum fluxes from the IUE monitoring data. The cleaner continuum extractions confirm the discovery of time delays between the different UV continuum bands by Wanders et al. Our new measurements show delays increasing with wavelength for continuum bands centered at 1485 A, 1740 A and 1825 A relative to 1315 A with delays of...

  9. Simulating the Lyman Alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M E; Anninos, P; Meiksin, A; Norman, M L; Machacek, Marie E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Anninos, Peter; Meiksin, Avery; Norman, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the importance of the Lyman alpha forest as a probe of structure formation in the universe. We first discuss the statistics used to describe the Lyman alpha forest and the numerical techniques used to produce simulated spectra of the forest from a given cosmological model. We then discuss the physical picture of the absorbing structures that emerges from these numerical simulations. Finally, we comment on how two of the statistics, the slope of the column density distribution and the b parameter distribution, may be used to constrain competing cosmologies.

  10. Molecular hydrogen in Lyman Alpha Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We present a physically motivated model to estimate the molecular hydrogen (H2) content of high-redshift (z~5.7,6.6) Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) extracted from a suite of cosmological simulations. We find that the H2 mass fraction, (f_H2), depends on three main LAE physical properties: (a) star formation rate, (b) dust mass, and (c) cold neutral gas mass. At z~5.7, the value of f_H2 peaks and ranges between 0.5-0.9 for intermediate mass LAEs with stellar mass M_* ~ 10^{9-10} solar mass, decreasing for both smaller and larger galaxies. However, the largest value of the H2 mass is found in the most luminous LAEs. These trends also hold at z\\sim6.6, although, due to a lower dust content, f_H2(z=6.6)\\sim0.5 f_H2(z=5.7) when averaged over all LAEs; they arise due to the interplay between the H2 formation/shielding controlled by dust and the intensity of the ultraviolet (UV) Lyman-Werner photo-dissociating radiation produced by stars. We then predict the carbon monoxide (CO) luminosities for such LAEs and check tha...

  11. Parameterization of the Absorption of the H2O Continuum, CO2, O2, and Other Trace Gases in the Fu-Liou Solar Radiation Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; ZENG Qingcun; Y.GU; K.N.LIOU

    2005-01-01

    The absorption properties of the water vapor continuum and a number of weak bands for H2O, O2, CO2,CO, N2O, CH4, and O3 in the solar spectrum are incorporated into the Fu-Liou radiation parameterization program by using the correlated k-distribution method (CKD) for the sorting of absorption lines. The overlap absorption of the H2O lines and the H2O continuum (2500-14500 cm-1) are treated by taking the two gases as a single-mixture gas in transmittance calculations. Furthermore, in order to optimize the computation efforts, CO2 and CH4 in the spectral region 2850-5250 cm-1 are taken as a new singlemixture gas as well. For overlap involving other absorption lines in the Fu-Liou spectral bands, the authors adopt the multiplication rule for transmittance computations under which the absorption spectra for two gases are assumed to be uncorrelated. Compared to the line-by-line (LBL) computation, it is shown that the errors in fluxes introduced by these two approaches within the context of the CKD method are small and less than 0.48% for the H2O line and continuum in the 2500-14500 cm-1 solar spectral region, ~1% for H2O (line)+H2O (continuum)+CO2+CH4 in the spectral region 2850-5250 cm-1, and ~1.5% for H2O (line)+H2O (continuum)+O2 in the 7700-14500 cm-1 spectral region. Analysis also demonstrates that the multiplication rule over a spectral interval as wide as 6800 cm-1 can produce acceptable errors with a maximum percentage value of about 2% in reference to the LBL calculation. Addition of the preceding gases increases the absorption of solar radiation under all sky conditions. For clear sky, the increase in instantaneous solar absorption is about 9%-13% (~12 W m-2) among which the H2O continuum produces the largest increase, while the contributions from O2 and CO2 rank second and third, respectively. In cloudy sky, the addition of absorption amounts to about 6-9 W m-2. The new, improved program with the incorporation of the preceding gases produces a smaller

  12. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Y; Beelen, A; Henkel, C; Cen, R; De Breuck, C; Francis, P; Kovacs, A; Lagache, G; Lehnert, M; Mao, M; Menten, K M; Norris, R; Omont, A; Tatemastu, K; Weiss, A; Zheng, Z

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the radio with fluxes of 67+/-17 microJy and 77+/-16 microJy, respectively, and B5 is marginally detected at 3 sigma (51+/-16 microJy). For all detected sources, their radio positions are consistent with the central positions of the LABs. B6 and B7 are obviously also detected in the FIR. By fitting the data with different templates, we obtained redshifts of 2.20$^{+0.30}_{-0.35}$ for B6 and 2.20$^{+0.45}_{-0.30}$ for B7 which are consistent with the redshift of the lyman alpha emission within uncertainties, indicating that both ...

  13. Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta radiances and profiles in polar coronal holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Curdt, Werner; Vial, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen Lyman-alpha plays a dominant role in the radiative energy transport in the lower transition region, and is important for the stud- ies of transition-region structure as well as solar wind origin. We investigate the Ly-alpha profiles obtained by SUMER in coronal holes and quiet Sun. In a subset of these observations, also the Hi Lyman-beta, Si iii, and O vi lines were (quasi-) simultaneously recorded. We find that the distances between the two peaks of Ly-alpha profiles are larger in coronal holes than in the quiet Sun, indicating a larger opacity in coronal holes. This difference might result from the different magnetic structures or the different radiation fields in the two regions. Most of the Ly-beta profiles in the coronal hole have a stronger blue peak, in contrast to those in quiet-Sun regions. Whilst in both regions the Ly-alpha profiles are stronger in the blue peak. Although the asymmetries are likely to be produced by differential flows in the solar atmosphere, their detailed formation ...

  14. Radiative capture reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B in the continuum shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennaceur, K.; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France); Nowacki, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France)]|[Lab. de Physique Theorique Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Okolowicz, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), Caen (France)]|[Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    1998-06-01

    We present here the first application of realistic shell model (SM) including coupling between many-particle (quasi-)bound states and the continuum of one-particle scattering states to the calculation of the total capture cross section and the astrophysical factor in the reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B. (orig.)

  15. Constraining the End of Reionization with Deep Lyman-alpha Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Intae; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Livermore, Rachael C.; Wold, Isak; Larson, Rebecca L.

    2017-06-01

    An immediately accessible method for studying the intergalactic medium in the reionization era is to measure the equivalent width distribution of Lyman-alpha emission from continuum-selected galaxies with follow-up spectroscopy. To search for Lyman-alpha emission from galaxies at z = 5.5-8.2, we are performing ultra-deep spectroscopic observations of candidate galaxies from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. We utilize data from the DEIMOS (optical) and MOSFIRE (near-infrared) spectrographs on the Keck 10-meter telescopes, ensuring the comprehensive wavelength coverage of Lyman-alpha emission at z ~ 6-8. We have a total of 1169 hours of spectroscopic integration of galaxies at z > 6: 738 hours for 123 galaxies with DEIMOS and 432 hours for 69 galaxies with MOSFIRE with the additional optical spectroscopic data of our sample galaxies in the GOODS-S field from VLT VANDELS survey. The Lyman-alpha fraction, the ratio of galaxies with detected Lyman-alpha emission to the number of all candidate galaxies observed, is directly measured with the completeness test of our data set by constructing detailed simulations of mock emission lines, which consider observational conditions (e.g., observational depth, wavelength coverage, and sky emission) and the probability distribution function of galaxy photometric redshifts. We present the early result on the Lyman-alpha emission equivalent width distribution of galaxies at z ~ 6 from our analysis of the DEIMOS spectroscopic dataset, determining robust upper limits on the Lyman-alpha emission.

  16. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies: implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules : implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive

  17. Three Lyman-alpha Emitters at z approx 6: Early GMOS/Gemini Data from the GLARE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, E R; Bunker, A J; Abraham, R G; Hook, I; Rhoads, J; McCarthy, P J; Boyle, B; Colless, M; Crampton, D; Couch, W; Jorgensen, I; Malhotra, S; Murowinski, R; Roth, K; Savaglio, S; Tsvetanov, Z I; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bunker, Andrew J.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Hook, Isobel; Rhoads, James; Carthy, Patrick J. Mc; Boyle, Brian; Colless, Matthew; Crampton, David; Couch, Warrick; J{\\o}rgensen, Inger; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Murowinski, Rick; Roth, Kathy; Savaglio, Sandra; Tsvetanov., Zlatan

    2004-01-01

    We report spectroscopic detection of three z \\sim 6 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies, in the vicinity of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, from the early data of the Gemini Lyman-alpha at Reionisation Era (GLARE) project. Two objects, GLARE#3001 (z =5.79) and GLARE#3011 (z =5.94), are new detections and are fainter in z' (z'_AB = 26.37 and 27.15) than any continuum-selected objects previously detected in Lyman-alpha. A third object, GLARE#1042 (z =5.83) has previously been detected in line emission from the ground; we report here a new spectroscopic continuum detection. Gemini/GMOS-S spectra of these objects, obtained using nod & shuffle, are presented together with a discussion of their photometric properties. All three objects were selected for spectroscopy via the i-drop Lyman Break technique, the two new detections from the GOODS v1.0 imaging data. The red i'-z' colors and high equivalent widths of these objects suggest a high-confidence z>5 Lyman-alpha identification of the emission lines. This brings the to...

  18. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  19. Continuum Nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S; Dyre, Jeppe C; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental continuum theory governing momentum transport in isotropic nanofluidic systems. The theory is an extension of the classical Navier-Stokes equation, and includes coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as nonlocal response...

  20. Continuum Nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S; Dyre, Jeppe C; Daivis, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental continuum theory governing momentum transport in isotropic nanofluidic systems. The theory is an extension of the classical Navier-Stokes equation, and includes coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom as well as nonlocal response...

  1. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  2. Lyman-alpha emission in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Huchra, John P.; Geller, Margaret J.; O'Brien, Paul; Wilson, Robert

    1988-01-01

    IUE observations of five blue, low-metallicity, star-forming galaxies sufficiently redshifted to permit detection of Lyman-alpha are reported. The galaxies with metallicities 0.1 time solar or more have weak or absent Lyman-alpha emission. There is evidence for increasing Lyman-alpha emission with decreasing metallicity. The reduction of Lyman-alpha fluxes from recombination values is attributed to absorption of multiply scattered Lyman-alpha by dust.

  3. The Inhomogeneous Background of H2 Dissociating Radiation During Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Kyungjin; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Pen, Ue-Li

    2008-01-01

    The first, self-consistent calculations of the cosmological H_2 dissociating UV background produced during the epoch of reionization (EOR) by the sources of reionization are presented. Large-scale radiative transfer simulations of reionization trace the impact of all the ionizing starlight on the IGM from all the sources in our simulation volume down to dwarf galaxies of mass ~ 10^8 solar mass, identified by very high-resolution N-body simulations, including the self-regulating effect of IGM photoheating on dwarf galaxy formation. The UV continuum emitted below 13.6 eV by each source is then transferred through the same IGM, attenuated by atomic H Lyman series resonance lines, to predict the evolution of the inhomogeneous background in the Lyman-Werner band of H_2 between 11 and 13.6 eV.

  4. The Lyman-$\\alpha$ signature of the first galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Aaron; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    We present the Cosmic Lyman-$\\alpha$ Transfer code (COLT), a new massively parallel Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, to simulate Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) resonant scattering through neutral hydrogen as a probe of the first galaxies. We explore the interaction of centrally produced Ly$\\alpha$ radiation with the host galactic environment. The Ly$\\alpha$ photons emitted from the luminous starburst region escape with characteristic features in the line profile depending on the density distribution, ionization structure, and bulk velocity fields. For example, the presence of anisotropic ionization exhibits a tall peak close to line centre with a skewed tail that drops off gradually. Furthermore, moderate (~10 km/s) outflow produces an amplified peak redward of line centre. Idealized models of first galaxies explore the effect of mass, anisotropic H II regions, and radiation pressure driven winds on Ly$\\alpha$ observables. We employ mesh refinement to resolve critical structures. We also post-process an ab i...

  5. Evidence for Black Hole Growth in Local Analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Hornschemeier, Ann; LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have properties that are very similar to distant Lyman break galaxies. Our six targets were specifically selected because they have optical emission-line properties that are intermediate between starbursts and Type 2 (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our new X-ray data provide an important diagnostic of the presence of an AGN. We find X-ray luminosities of order 10(sup 42) erg per second and ratios of X-ray to far-IR lummositles that are higher than values in pure starburst galaxies by factors ranging from approximately 3 to 30. This strongly suggests the presence of an AGN in at least some of the galaxies. The ratios of the luminosities of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray to [O III] emission line are low by about an order of magnitude compared with Type 1 AGN, but are consistent with the broad range seen in Type 2 AGN. Either the AGN hard X-rays are significantly obscured or the [O III] emission is dominated by the starburst. We searched for an iron emission line at approximately 6.4 ke V, which is a key feature of obscured AGNs, but only detected emission at the approximately 2sigma level. Finally, we find that the ratios of the mid-infrared (24 micrometer) continuum to [O III]lambda 5007 luminosities in these LBAs are higher than the values for Type 2 AGN by an average of 0.8 dex. Combining all these clues, we conclude that an AGN is likely to be present, but that the bolometric luminosity is produced primarily by an intense starburst. If these black holes are radiating at the Eddington limit, their masses would lie in the range of 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 6) solar mass. These objects may offer ideal local laboratories to investigate the processes by which black holes grew in the early universe.

  6. Mechanism of soft x-ray continuum radiation from low-energy pinch discharges of hydrogen and ultra-low field ignition of solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R.; Lotoski, J.; Lu, Y.

    2017-09-01

    EUV continuum radiation (10-30 nm) arising only from very low energy pulsed pinch gas discharges comprising some hydrogen was first observed at BlackLight Power, Inc. and reproduced at the Harvard Center for Astrophysics (CfA). The source was determined to be due to the transition of H to the lower-energy hydrogen or hydrino state H(1/4) whose emission matches that observed wherein alternative sources were eliminated. The identity of the catalyst that accepts 3 · 27.2 eV from the H to cause the H to H(1/4) transition was determined to HOH versus 3H. The mechanism was elucidated using different oxide-coated electrodes that were selective in forming HOH versus plasma forming metal atoms as well as from the intensity profile that was a mismatch for the multi-body reaction required during 3H catalysis. The HOH catalyst was further shown to give EUV radiation of the same nature by igniting a solid fuel comprising a source of H and HOH catalyst by passing a low voltage, high current through the fuel to produce explosive plasma. No chemical reaction can release such high-energy light. No high field existed to form highly ionized ions that could give radiation in this EUV region that persisted even without power input. This plasma source serves as strong evidence for the existence of the transition of H to hydrino H(1/4) by HOH as the catalyst and a corresponding new power source wherein initial extraordinarily brilliant light-emitting prototypes are already producing photovoltaic generated electrical power. The hydrino product of a catalyst reaction of atomic hydrogen was analyzed by multiple spectroscopic techniques. Moreover, the mH catalyst was identified to be active in astronomical sources such as the Sun, stars and interstellar medium wherein the characteristics of hydrino match those of the dark matter of the Universe.

  7. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies: Implications of UV backgrounds and the formation of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Spaans, M; Zaroubi, S

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman alpha line is a robust tracer of high redshift galaxies. We present estimates of Lyman alpha emission from a protogalactic halo illuminated by UV background radiation fields with various intensities. For this purpose, we performed cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH, including a detailed network for primordial chemistry,comprising the formation of primordial molecules, a multi-level model for the hydrogen atom as well as the photo-ionization and photo-dissociation processes in a UV background. We find that the presence of a background radiation field J_21 excites the emission of Lyman alpha photons, increasing the Lyman alpha luminosity up to two orders of magnitude. For a halo of \\sim 10^10 M_sun, we find that a maximum flux of 5 \\times 10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1 is obtained for J21 \\times f_esc = 0.1, where f_esc is the escape fraction of the ionizing radiation. Depending on the environmental conditions, the flux may vary by three orders of magnitude. For...

  8. Continuum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some.   The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical con...

  9. Spectral responsivity calibration of the reference radiation thermometer at KRISS by using a super-continuum laser-based high-accuracy monochromatic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Gun Jung; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Hak

    2016-12-01

    We report on the calibration of the relative spectral responsivity of the reference radiation thermometer, model LP4, which is used for the experimental realisation of the international temperature scale of 1990 above 960 °C at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The relative spectral responsivity of LP4 is measured by using a monochromatic source consisting of a super-continuum laser and a double-grating monochromator. By monitoring the wavelength of the output beam directly with a calibrated wavelength-meter, we achieved a high-accuracy measurement of spectral responsivity with a maximum wavelength error of less than 3 pm, a narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 nm, and a high dynamic range over 8 decades. We evaluated the contributions of various uncertainty components of the spectral responsivity measurement to the uncertainty of the temperature scale based on a practical estimation approach, which numerically calculates the maximal effects of the variations of each component. As a result, we evaluate the uncertainty contribution from the spectral responsivity measurement to the temperature scale to be less than 64 mK (k  =  1) in a range from 660 °C to 2749 °C for the LP4 with a filter at 650 nm.

  10. Damped Lyman-α Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.

    Recently, Prochaska & Wolfe (1997) have used Keck spectra of 17 DLA absorbers to investigate the kinematics of the neutral gas using unsaturated low excitation transitions such as Si iiλ 1808. They show that the absorption profiles are inconsistent with models of galactic haloes with random motions, spherically infalling gas and slowly rotating hot disks. The CDM model (Kauffmann 1996) is rejected as it produces disks with rotation velocities too small to account for the large observed velocity broadening of the absorption lines. Models of thick disks (h ~0.3 R, where h is the vertical scale and R the radius) with large rotational velocity (v 225kms-1) can reproduce the data. By combining new data on five damped systems with information gathered in the literature, we study the kinematics of the low and high-ionization phases in a sample of 26 damped Lyman-α systems in the redshift range 1.17 - 4.38. We show that the broader the line the more asymmetric, as expected in case rotation dominates the line broadening. However this correlation does not hold for velocities larger than 150 km/s indicating that evidence for rotational motions if any is restricted to velocity broadenings Δ V 200kms-1 are peculiar with kinematics consistent with random motions. They show sub-systems as those expected if the objects are in the process of merging.

  11. The Impact of Different Physical Processes on the Statistics of Lyman-limit and Damped Lyman-alpha Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Altay, Gabriel; Schaye, Joop; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2013-01-01

    We compute the z = 3 neutral hydrogen column density distribution function f(NHI) for 19 simulations drawn from the OWLS project using a post-processing correction for self-shielding calculated with full radiative transfer of the ionising background radiation. We investigate how different physical processes and parameters affect the abundance of Lyman-limit systems (LLSs) and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (DLAs) including: i) metal-line cooling; ii) the efficiency of feedback from SNe and AGN; iii) the effective equation of state for the ISM; iv) cosmological parameters; v) the assumed star formation law and; vi) the timing of hydrogen reionization . We find that the normalisation and slope, D = d log10 f /d log10 NHI, of f(NHI) in the LLS regime are robust to changes in these physical processes. Among physically plausible models, f(NHI) varies by less than 0.2 dex and D varies by less than 0.18 for LLSs. This is primarily due to the fact that these uncertain physical processes mostly affect star-forming gas w...

  12. The Lyman-alpha Forest Flux Distribution at z\\sim 5.2 and the Evolution of the Ionizing Background

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, P; Donald, Patrick Mc; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2000-01-01

    We use the redshift evolution of the lyman-alpha forest mean transmitted flux at z>2.5 to infer the evolution of the intensity of the ionizing background, using theoretical predictions for the density distribution of the intergalactic gas giving rise to the lyman-alpha forest. The proper background intensity declines gradually with redshift, decreasing by a factor \\sim 3 between z=3 and z=5. The gravitational structure formation theory of the lyman-alpha forest implies that, given the observed mean transmitted flux of \\bar{F}=0.1 in the highest redshift quasar (with a mean lyman-alpha forest redshift z=5.2), only about 3% of the lyman-alpha spectrum should have a flux higher than 50% of the continuum, and less than 0.5% of pixels should have flux above 75% of the continuum, assuming a uniform ionizing background intensity. We show that this is consistent with the spectrum shown in Fan et al.

  13. The Inhomogeneous Background of Hydrogen-Molecule Dissociating Radiation during Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Kyungjin; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Pen, Ue-Li

    2008-01-01

    The first, self-consistent calculations are presented of the cosmological, H2-dissociating UV background produced during the epoch of reionization by the sources of reionization. Large-scale radiative transfer simulations of reionization trace the impact of all the ionizing starlight on the IGM from all the sources in our simulation volume down to dwarf galaxies of mass ~10^8 Msun, identified by very high-resolution N-body simulations, including the self-regulating effect of IGM photoheating on dwarf galaxy formation. The UV continuum emitted below 13.6 eV by each source is then transferred through the same IGM, attenuated by atomic H Lyman series resonance lines, to predict the evolution of the inhomogeneous radiation background in the Lyman-Werner bands of H2 between 11 and 13.6 eV. On average, the intensity of this Lyman-Werner background is found to rise to the threshold level at which dissociation suppresses H2 cooling and star formation inside minihalos, long before reionization is complete. Spatial var...

  14. Relativistic effects in Lyman-alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present the calculation of the Lyman-alpha (Lyman-$\\alpha$) transmitted flux fluctuations with full relativistic corrections to the first order. Even though several studies exist on relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, this is the first study to extend the formalism to a different tracer of underlying matter at unique redshift range ($z = 2 - 5$). Furthermore, we show a comprehensive application of our calculations to the Quasar- Lyman-$\\alpha$ cross-correlation function. Our results indicate that the signal of relativistic effects can be as large as 30% at Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale, which is much larger than anticipated and mainly due to the large differences in density bias factors of our tracers. We construct an observable, the anti-symmetric part of the cross- correlation function, that is dominated by the relativistic signal and offers a new way to measure the relativistic terms at relatively small scales. The analysis shows that relativistic effects are important when considerin...

  15. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  16. On the Diffuse Lyman-alpha Halo Around Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Ethan; Cen, Renyue; Sadoun, Raphael; Momose, Rieko; Ouchi, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Ly$\\alpha$ photons scattered by neutral hydrogen atoms in the circumgalactic media or produced in the halos of star-forming galaxies are expected to lead to extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission around galaxies. Such low surface brightness Ly$\\alpha$ halos (LAHs) have been detected by stacking Ly$\\alpha$ images of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We study the origin of LAHs by performing radiative transfer modeling of nine $z=3.1$ Lyman-Alpha Emitters (LAEs) in a high resolution hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation. We develop a method of computing the mean Ly$\\alpha$ surface brightness profile of each LAE by effectively integrating over many different observing directions. Without adjusting any parameters, our model yields an average Ly$\\alpha$ surface brightness profile in remarkable agreement with observations. We find that observed LAHs can not be accounted for solely by photons originating from the central LAE and scattered to large radii by hydrogen atoms in the circumgalactic gas. Instead, Ly$\\alpha$ em...

  17. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 1: Setup, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of far-infrared water vapor continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, Ralf; Reichert, Andreas; Rettinger, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative knowledge of water vapor radiative processes in the atmosphere throughout the terrestrial and solar infrared spectrum is still incomplete even though this is crucial input to the radiation codes forming the core of both remote sensing methods and climate simulations. Beside laboratory spectroscopy, ground-based remote sensing field studies in the context of so-called radiative closure experiments are a powerful approach because this is the only way to quantify water absorption under cold atmospheric conditions. For this purpose, we have set up at the Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E; 2964 m a.s.l.) a long-term radiative closure experiment designed to cover the infrared spectrum between 400 and 7800 cm-1 (1.28-25 µm). As a benefit for such experiments, the atmospheric states at the Zugspitze frequently comprise very low integrated water vapor (IWV; minimum = 0.1 mm, median = 2.3 mm) and very low aerosol optical depth (AOD = 0.0024-0.0032 at 7800 cm-1 at air mass 1). All instruments for radiance measurements and atmospheric-state measurements are described along with their measurement uncertainties. Based on all parameter uncertainties and the corresponding radiance Jacobians, a systematic residual radiance uncertainty budget has been set up to characterize the sensitivity of the radiative closure over the whole infrared spectral range. The dominant uncertainty contribution in the spectral windows used for far-infrared (FIR) continuum quantification is from IWV uncertainties, while T profile uncertainties dominate in the mid-infrared (MIR). Uncertainty contributions to near-infrared (NIR) radiance residuals are dominated by water vapor line parameters in the vicinity of the strong water vapor bands. The window regions in between these bands are dominated by solar Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) calibration uncertainties at low NIR wavenumbers, while uncertainties due to AOD become an increasing and dominant contribution towards higher NIR wavenumbers

  18. The Lyman Alpha Reference Sample: V. The impact of neutral ISM kinematics and geometry on Lyman Alpha escape

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Orlitová, Ivana; Verhamme, Anne; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Schaerer, Daniel; Cannon, John M; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Herentz, E Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, Jens

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution far-UV spectroscopy of the 14 galaxies of the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample; a sample of strongly star-forming galaxies at low redshifts ($0.028 < z < 0.18$). We compare the derived properties to global properties derived from multi band imaging and 21 cm HI interferometry and single dish observations, as well as archival optical SDSS spectra. Besides the Lyman $\\alpha$ line, the spectra contain a number of metal absorption features allowing us to probe the kinematics of the neutral ISM and evaluate the optical depth and and covering fraction of the neutral medium as a function of line-of-sight velocity. Furthermore, we show how this, in combination with precise determination of systemic velocity and good Ly$\\alpha$ spectra, can be used to distinguish a model in which separate clumps together fully cover the background source, from the "picket fence" model named by Heckman et al. (2011). We find that no one single effect dominates in governing Ly$\\alpha$ radiative transfer and ...

  19. The Lyman α signature of the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2015-06-01

    We present the Cosmic Lyman α Transfer code, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, to simulate Lyman α (Lyα) resonant scattering through neutral hydrogen as a probe of the first galaxies. We explore the interaction of centrally produced Lyα radiation with the host galactic environment. Lyα photons emitted from the luminous starburst region escape with characteristic features in the line profile depending on the density distribution, ionization structure, and bulk velocity fields. For example, anisotropic ionization exhibits a tall peak close to line centre with a skewed tail that drops off gradually. Idealized models of first galaxies explore the effect of mass, anisotropic H II regions, and radiation pressure driven winds on Lyα observables. We employ mesh refinement to resolve critical structures. We also post-process an ab initio cosmological simulation and examine images captured at various distances within the 1 Mpc3 comoving volume. Finally, we discuss the emergent spectra and surface brightness profiles of these objects in the context of high-z observations. The first galaxies will likely be observed through the red damping wing of the Lyα line. Observations will be biased towards galaxies with an intrinsic red peak located far from line centre that reside in extensive H II super bubbles, which allows Hubble flow to sufficiently redshift photons away from line centre and facilitate transmission through the intergalactic medium. Even with gravitational lensing to boost the luminosity this preliminary work indicates that Lyα emission from stellar clusters within haloes of Mvir Telescope.

  20. The Reionization and Galaxy Evolution Probed by z=7 Lyman Alpha Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Kazuaki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Totani, Tomonori; Nagashima, Masahiro; Morokuma, Tomoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hattori, Takashi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Ouchi, Masami

    2007-01-01

    We made a narrowband NB973 (bandwidth of 200A at 9755A) imaging of the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) and found two z=7 Lyman alpha emitter (LAE) candidates down to NB973=24.9. Carrying out deep follow-up spectroscopy, we identified one of them as a real z=6.96 LAE. This has shown that galaxy formation was in progress just 750 Myr after the Big Bang. Meanwhile, the Lyman alpha line luminosity function of LAE is known to decline from z=5.7 to 6.6 in the SDF. L* at z=6.6 is 40-60% of that at z=5.7. We also confirm that the number density of z=7 LAE is only 17% of the density at z=6.6 comparing the latest SDF LAE samples. This series of significant decreases in LAE density with increasing redshift can be the result of galaxy evolution during these epochs. However, using the UV continuum luminosity functions of LAEs, those of Lyman break galaxies, and a LAE evolution model based on the hierarchical clustering, we find that galaxy evolution alone cannot explain all the decrease in density. This extra density deficit can ...

  1. First stars in Damped Lyman Alpha systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Ferrara, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize Damped Lyman Alpha systems (DLAs) potentially host- ing first stars, we present a novel approach to investigate DLAs in the context of Milky Way (MW) formation, along with their connection with the most metal-poor stars and local dwarf galaxies. The merger tree method previo

  2. First stars in Damped Lyman Alpha systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Ferrara, Andrea

    In order to characterize Damped Lyman Alpha systems (DLAs) potentially host- ing first stars, we present a novel approach to investigate DLAs in the context of Milky Way (MW) formation, along with their connection with the most metal-poor stars and local dwarf galaxies. The merger tree method

  3. The Lyman alpha reference sample. VII. Spatially resolved Hα kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Gruyters, Pieter; Orlitova, Ivana; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Cannon, John M.; Roth, Martin M.; Bik, Arjan; Pardy, Stephen; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, Jens; Puschnig, Johannes; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne

    2016-03-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic observations with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer of all 14 galaxies in the z ~ 0.1 Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (LARS). We produce 2D line-of-sight velocity maps and velocity dispersion maps from the Balmer α (Hα) emission in our data cubes. These maps trace the spectral and spatial properties of the LARS galaxies' intrinsic Lyα radiation field. We show our kinematic maps that are spatially registered onto the Hubble Space Telescope Hα and Lyman α (Lyα) images. We can conjecture a causal connection between spatially resolved Hα kinematics and Lyα photometry for individual galaxies, however, no general trend can be established for the whole sample. Furthermore, we compute the intrinsic velocity dispersion σ0, the shearing velocity vshear, and the vshear/σ0 ratio from our kinematic maps. In general LARS galaxies are characterised by high intrinsic velocity dispersions (54 km s-1 median) and low shearing velocities (65 km s-1 median). The vshear/σ0 values range from 0.5 to 3.2 with an average of 1.5. It is noteworthy that five galaxies of the sample are dispersion-dominated systems with vshear/σ0 1. Our result indicates that turbulence in actively star-forming systems is causally connected to interstellar medium conditions that favour an escape of Lyα radiation. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The reduced data cubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A78

  4. Radiative transfer effects in primordial hydrogen recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The calculation of a highly accurate cosmological recombination history has been the object of particular attention recently, as it constitutes the major theoretical uncertainty when predicting the angular power spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies. Lyman transitions, in particular the Lyman-alpha line, have long been recognized as one of the bottlenecks of recombination, due to their very low escape probabilities. The Sobolev approximation does not describe radiative transfer in the vicinity of Lyman lines to a sufficient degree of accuracy, and several corrections have already been computed in other works. In this paper, the impact of some previously ignored radiative transfer effects is calculated. First, the effect of Thomson scattering in the vicinity of the Lyman-alpha line is evaluated, using a full redistribution kernel incorporated into a radiative transfer code. The effect of feedback of distortions generated by the optically thick deuterium Lyman-alpha line blueward of the hydrogen ...

  5. Aeronomy, a 20th Century emergent science: the role of solar Lyman series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kockarts

    Full Text Available Aeronomy is, by definition, a multidisciplinary science which can be used to study the terrestrial atmosphere, as well as any planetary atmosphere and even the interplanetary space. It was officially recognized in 1954 by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. The major objective of the present paper is to show how aeronomy developed since its infancy. The subject is so large that a guide-line has been chosen to see how aeronomy affects our atmospheric knowledge. This guideline is the solar Lyman alpha radiation which has different effects in the solar system. After a short description of the origins of aeronomy the first observations of this line are summarized since the beginning of the space age. Then the consequences of these observations are analyzed for the physics and chemistry of the neutral terrestrial atmosphere. New chemical processes had to be introduced, as well as new transport phenomena. Solar Lyman alpha also influences the structure of the Earth’s ionosphere, particularly the D-region. In the terrestrial exosphere, solar Lyman alpha scattered resonantly by atomic hydrogen is at present the only way to estimate this constituent in an almost collisionless medium. Since planetary atmospheres also contain atomic hydrogen, the Lyman alpha line has been used to deduce the abundance of this constituent. The same is true for the interplanetary space where Lyman alpha observations can be a good tool to determine the concentration. The last section of the paper presents a question which is intended to stimulate further research in aeronomy.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; thermosphere – composition and chemistry – history of geophysics (atmospheric sciences

  6. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-01

    Lyman Spitzer was one of the major figures of twentieth centurytheoretical astrophysics. Over more than fifty years,he kept up sustained research of his own, on problems concerningthe interstellar medium, star formation, and galaxies.In addition he was a major influence on observationalprogrammes, and created a thriving school of theoretical astrophysicsat Princeton University along with a strong plasmaphysics programme. This article brings out his contributions,placing them in context.

  7. On the Lack of Correlation Between Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom and Lyman alpha Emission in Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Bayliss, M. B.; Gladders, M. D.; Sharon, K.; Wuyts, E.; Dahle, H.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom, Lyman alpha, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66 less than z less than 1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100 to 200 km s(exp-1). When present, Lyman alpha is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission have tails to 500-600 km s(exp-1), implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyman alpha equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.

  8. Radio Continuum Observations of the Galactic Center: Photoevaporative Proplyd-like Objects near Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Cotton, W; Schödel, R; Royster, M J

    2015-01-01

    We present radio images within 30$''$ of Sgr A* based on recent VLA observations at 34 GHz with 7.8 microJy sensitivity and resolution $\\sim88\\times46$ milliarcseconds (mas). We report 44 partially resolved compact sources clustered in two regions in the E arm of ionized gas that orbits Sgr A*. These sources have size scales ranging between ~50 and 200 mas (400 to 1600 AUs), and a bow-shock appearance facing the direction of Sgr A*. Unlike the bow-shock sources previously identified in the near-IR but associated with massive stars, these 34 GHz sources do not appear to have near-IR counterparts at 3.8 $\\mu$m. We interpret these sources as a candidate population of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks (proplyds) that are associated with newly formed low mass stars with mass loss rates ~10^{-7} - 10^{-6} solar mass per year and are located at the edge of a molecular cloud outlined by ionized gas. The disks are externally illuminated by strong Lyman continuum radiation from the ~100 OB and WR massive stars dist...

  9. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  10. Extended Lyman-alpha emission from cold accretion streams

    CERN Document Server

    Rosdahl, J

    2011-01-01

    {Abridged} We investigate the observability of cold accretion streams at redshift 3 via Lyman-alpha radiation and the feasibility of cold accretion as the main driver behind giant Lya blobs (LABs). We run cosmological zoom simulations focusing on 3 halos spanning two orders of magnitude in mass, from 10^11 to 10^13 solar masses. We use a version of the AMR code Ramses that includes radiative transfer of UV photons, and we employ a refinement strategy that allows us to resolve accretion streams in their natural environment to an unprecedented level. For the first time, we self-consistently model self-shielding in the cold streams from the cosmological UV background, which enables us to accurately predict their temperatures, ionization states and Lya luminosities. We find the efficiency of gravitational heating in cold streams in a ~10^11 solar mass halo is around 10-20% throughout most of the halo but reaching much higher values close to the center. As a result most of the Lya luminosity comes from the circumg...

  11. Lyman-alpha observations of astrospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Linsky, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Charge-exchange reactions between outflowing stellar wind protons and interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms entering a stellar astrosphere produce a region of piled-up-decelerated neutral hydrogen called the hydrogen wall. Absorption by this gas, which is observed in stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines, provides the only viable technique at this time for measuring the mass-loss rates of F-M dwarf stars. We describe this technique, present an alternative way for understanding the relation of mass-loss rate with X-ray emission, and identify several critical issues.

  12. On the large escape of ionizing radiation from GEHRs

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos, M; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2001-01-01

    A thorough analysis of well studied giant HII regions on galactic discs for which we know the ionizing stellar population, the gas metallicity and the Wolf-Rayet population, leads to photoionization models which can only match all observed line intensity ratios ([OIII], [OII], [NII], [SII] and [SIII] with respect to the intensity of H$\\beta$), as well as the H$\\beta$ luminosity and equivalent width if one allows for an important escape of energetic ionizing radiation. For the three regions presented here, the fractions of escaping Lyman continuum photons amount to 10 to 73 % and, in all cases, the larger fraction of escaping photons has energies between 13.6 and 24.4 eV. These escaping photons clearly must have an important impact as a source of ionization of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) found surrounding many galaxies, as well as of the intergalactic medium (IGM).

  13. The Impact of Lyman alpha Trapping on the Formation of Primordial Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Spaans, M

    2010-01-01

    Numerous cosmological simulations have been performed to study the formation of the first objects. We present the results of high resolution 3-D cosmological simulations of primordial objects formation using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH by including in an approximate manner the radiative transfer effects of Lyman alpha photons. We compare the results of a Lyman alpha trapping case inside gas clouds with atomic and molecular hydrogen cooling cases.The principal objective of this research is to follow the collapse of a zero metallicity halo with an effective equation of state (that accounts for the trapping) and to explore the fate of a halo in each of the three cases, specifically, the impact of thermodynamics on fragmentation of halos.Our results show that in the case of Lyman alpha trapping, fragmentation is halted and a massive object is formed at the center of a halo. The temperature of the gas remains well above $10^{4}$ K and the halo is not able to fragment to stellar masses. In the atomic co...

  14. The Masses of Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Joel R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    Data on galaxies at high redshift, identified by the Lyman-break photometric technique, can teach us about how galaxies form and evolve. The stellar masses and other properties of such Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) depend sensitively on the details of star formation. In this paper we consider three different star formation prescriptions, and use semi-analytic methods applied to the now-standard ΛCDM theory of hierarchical structure formation to show how these assumptions about star formation affect the predicted masses of the stars in these galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos that host them. We find that, within the rather large uncertainties, recent estimates of the stellar masses of LBGs from multi-color photometry are consistent with the predictions of all three models. However, the estimated stellar masses are more consistent with the predictions of two of the models in which star formation is accelerated at high redshifts z ≳ 3, and of these models the one in which many of the LBGs are merger-driven starbursts is also more consistent with indications that many high redshift galaxies are gas rich. The clustering properties of LBGs have put some constraints on the masses of their host halos, but due to similarities in the halo occupation of the three models we consider and degeneracies between model parameters, current constraints are not yet sufficient to distinguish between realistic models.

  15. The Masses of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Primack, Joel R; Somerville, R S; Primack, Joel R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2001-01-01

    Data on galaxies at high redshift, identified by the Lyman-break photometric technique, can teach us about how galaxies form and evolve. The stellar masses and other properties of such Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) depend sensitively on the details of star formation. In this paper we consider three different star formation prescriptions, and use semi-analytic methods applied to the now-standard $\\Lambda$CDM theory of hierarchical structure formation to show how these assumptions about star formation affect the predicted masses of the stars in these galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos that host them. We find that, within the rather large uncertainties, recent estimates of the stellar masses of LBGs from multi-color photometry are consistent with the predictions of all three models. However, the estimated stellar masses are more consistent with the predictions of two of the models in which star formation is accelerated at high redshifts $z\\gsim3$, and of these models the one in which many of the LBGs...

  16. GHRS Observations of the Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, S L

    1996-01-01

    I review the results obtained using the GHRS on low redshift Lyman alpha absorbers. Until the advent of HST and the GHRS, the existence of such absorbers was doubted. The confirmation of their existence, in one of the first GHRS GTO team results to be published, must rank as one of the HSTs most interesting results. The GHRS resolution allows us to probe equivalent widths well below those detectable with the FOS, and has led to a number of interesting new questions. One example is the apparent disagreement between the GHRS result that there are many Lyman alpha absorbers which are not associated with luminous galaxies, and FOS studies which suggest that all such absorbers have a nearby galaxy causing them. This almost certainly shows that the equivalent width (or column density) range reachable by the GHRS includes gas from a wide range of causes, and not only the halos of luminous galaxies. With these data, we are seeing the debris left over from Galaxy formation, material flung out from galaxy interactions ...

  17. Hybrid formulation of radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.; Bufferand, H.; Stamm, R. [PIIM, UMR 7345 Aix-Marseille Universite / CNRS, Centre de St-Jerome, Marseille (France); Reiter, D. [IEK-4 Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of coupled atom-radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas can be computationally very demanding, in particular in ITER relevant conditions or even larger devices, e.g. for power plant divertor studies. At high (∝ 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) atomic densities, it can be shown that sufficiently large divertors behave in certain areas like a black body near the first resonance line of hydrogen (Lyman α). This suggests that, at least in part, the use of continuum model (radiation hydrodynamics) can be sufficiently accurate, while being less time consuming. In this work, we report on the development of a hybrid model devoted to switch automatically between a kinetic and a continuum description according to the plasma conditions. Calculations of the photo-excitation rate in a homogeneous slab are performed as an illustration. The outlined hybrid concept might be also applicable to neutral atom transport, due to mathematical analogy of transport equations for neutrals and radiation. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  18. Detection of HI in Emission in the Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxy Haro 11

    CERN Document Server

    Pardy, Stephen A; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Bergvall, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present the first robust detection of HI 21 cm emission in the blue compact galaxy Haro 11 using the 100m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Haro 11 is a luminous blue compact galaxy with emission in both Lyman Alpha and the Lyman continuum. We detect (5.1 $\\pm$ 0.7 $\\times$10$^8$) M$_{\\odot}$ of HI gas at an assumed distance of 88 Mpc, making this galaxy HI deficient compared to other local galaxies with similar optical properties. Given this small HI mass, Haro 11 has an elevated M$_{H2}$/M$_{HI}$ ratio and a very low gas fraction compared to most local galaxies, and contains twice as much mass in ionized hydrogen as in neutral hydrogen. The HI emission has a linewidth of 71 kms$^{-1}$ and is offset 60 kms$^{-1}$ redward of the optical line center. It is undergoing a starburst after a recent merger which has elevated the star formation rate, and will deplete the gas supply in $<$ 0.2 Gyr. Although this starburst has elevated the SFR compared to galaxies with similar HI masses and linewidths, H...

  19. The BOSS Lyman-alpha Forest Sample from SDSS Data Release 9

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Bartsch, Leslie E; Carithers, William; Dawson, Kyle S; Kirkby, David; Lundgren, Britt; Margala, Daniel; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pieri, Matthew M; Schlegel, David J; Weinberg, David H; Yeche, Christophe; Aubourg, Eric; Bautista, Julian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blomquist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S; Borde, Arnaud; Brewington, Howard; Busca, Nicolas G; Croft, Rupert A C; Delubac, Timothee; Ebelke, Garrett; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ge, Jian; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Hennawi, Joseph F; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Miralda-Escude, Jordi; Myers, Adam D; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Paris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Rich, James; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Ross, Nicholas P; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Slosar, Anze; Spergel, David N; Suzuki, Nao; Viel, Matteo; Weaver, Benjamin A

    2012-01-01

    We present the BOSS Lyman-alpha (Lya) Forest Sample from SDSS Data Release 9, comprising 54,468 quasar spectra with zqso > 2.15 suitable for Lya forest analysis. This data set probes the intergalactic medium with absorption redshifts 2.0 1216 Ang), extrapolated into the forest region and normalized by a linear function to fit the expected evolution of the Lya forest mean-flux. The estimated continuum errors are ~5% rms. We also discuss possible systematics arising from uncertain spectrophotometry and artifacts in the flux calibration; global corrections for the latter are provided. Our sample provides a convenient starting point for users to analyze clustering in BOSS Lya forest data, and it provides a fiducial data set that can be used to compare results from different analyses of baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lya forest. The full data set is available from the SDSS-III DR9 web site.

  20. Studying Lyman-alpha escape and reionization in Green Pea galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Gronke, Max; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Dijkstra, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Green Pea galaxies are low-redshift galaxies with extreme [OIII]5007 emission line. We built the first statistical sample of Green Peas observed by HST/COS and used them as analogs of high-z Lyman-alpha emitters to study Ly-alpha escape and Ly-alpha sizes. Using the HST/COS 2D spectra, we found that Ly-alpha sizes of Green Peas are larger than the UV continuum sizes. We found many correlations between Ly-alpha escape fraction and galactic properties -- dust extinction, Ly-alpha kinematic features, [OIII]/[OII] ratio, and gas outflow velocities. We fit an empirical relation to predict Ly-alpha escape fraction from dust extinction and Ly-alpha red-peak velocity. In the JWST era, we can use this relation to derive the IGM HI column density along the line of sight of each high-z Ly-alpha emitter and probe the reionization process.

  1. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Thompson, Robert; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have indicated the existence of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, the dust properties in them are still unknown. Here we present theoretical constraints on dust properties in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3 by post-processing a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with radiative transfer calculations. We calculate the dust extinction in 2800 dark matter halos using the metallicity information of individual gas particles in our simulation. We use only bright galaxies with rest-frame UV magnitude M_1700 < -20 mag, and study the dust size, dust-to-metal mass ratio, and dust composition. From the comparison of calculated color excess between B and V-band (i.e., E(B-V)) and the observations, we constrain the typical dust size, and show that the best-fitting dust grain size is ~ 0.05 micron, which is consistent with the results of theoretical dust models for Type-II supernova. Our simulation with the dust extinction effect can naturally reproduce the observed rest...

  2. Interplanetary Lyman $\\alpha$ line profiles: variations with solar activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Quemerais, E; Bertaux, J L; Koutroumpa, D; Clarke, J; Kyrola, E; Schmidt, W; Qu\\'emerais, Eric; Lallement, Rosine; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Clarke, John; Kyrola, Erkki; Schmidt, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Interplanetary Lyman alpha line profiles are derived from the SWAN H cell data measurements. The measurements cover a 6-year period from solar minimum (1996) to after the solar maximum of 2001. This allows us to study the variations of the line profiles with solar activity. These line profiles were used to derive line shifts and line widths in the interplanetary medium for various angles of the LOS with the interstellar flow direction. The SWAN data results were then compared to an interplanetary background upwind spectrum obtained by STIS/HST in March 2001. We find that the LOS upwind velocity associated with the mean line shift of the IP \\lya line varies from 25.7 km/s to 21.4 km/s from solar minimum to solar maximum. Most of this change is linked with variations in the radiation pressure. LOS kinetic temperatures derived from IP line widths do not vary monotonically with the upwind angle of the LOS. This is not compatible with calculations of IP line profiles based on hot model distributions of interplanet...

  3. Lyman Alpha Signatures from Direct Collapse Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark; Sobral, David

    2016-01-01

    `Direct collapse black holes' (DCBHs) provide possible seeds for supermassive black holes that exist at redshifts as high as z~7. We study Lyman Alpha (Lya) radiative transfer through simplified representations of the DCBH-scenario. We find that gravitational heating of the collapsing cloud gives rise to a Lya cooling luminosity of up to ~ 1e38(M_gas/1e6 Msun)^2 erg/s. The Lya production rate can be significantly larger during the final stages of collapse, but collisional deexcitation efficiently suppresses the emerging Lya flux. Photoionization by a central source boosts the Lya luminosity to L~1e43(M_BH/1e6 M_sun) erg/s during specific evolutionary stages of the cloud, where M_BH denotes the mass of the black hole powering this source. We predict that the width and velocity off-set of the Lya spectral line range from a few tens to few thousands km/s, depending sensitively on the evolutionary state of the cloud. We also compare our predictions to observations of CR7 (Sobral et al. 2015), a luminous Lya emitt...

  4. Lyman-Werner UV escape fractions from primordial haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2015-12-01

    Population III (Pop III) stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby haloes, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own haloes, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H2 in other haloes, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic haloes by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9-120 M⊙ Pop III stars in 105-107 M⊙ haloes with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H2 in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0 to 85 per cent. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18-13.6 eV energy range, which can be redshifted into the LW lines at cosmological distances, are generally much higher, being above 60 per cent for all but the least massive stars in the most massive haloes. We find that shielding of H2 by neutral hydrogen, which has been neglected in most studies to date, produces escape fractions that are up to a factor of 3 smaller than those predicted by H2 self-shielding alone.

  5. Lyman-Werner UV Escape Fractions from Primordial Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schauer, Anna T P; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S

    2015-01-01

    Population III stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby halos, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own halos, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H$_2$ in other halos, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic halos by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9--120 M$_{\\odot}$ Pop III stars in $10^5$ to $10^7$ M$_{\\odot}$ halos with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H$_{2}$ in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0% to 85%. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18--13.6~eV energy range, which can be redshifted into t...

  6. Diagnosing the reionization of the universe - The absorption spectrum of the intergalactic medium and Lyman alpha clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium composed of H and He and undergoing reionization is studied. The diagnosis of the metagalactic ionizing radiation background at z of about three using metal line ratios for Lyman limit quasar absorption line systems is addressed. The use of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect to diagnose the reionization source and/or nature of the Hy-alpha forest clouds is considered.

  7. Influence of the 6^1S_0-6^3P_1 Resonance on Continuous Lyman-alpha Generation in Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, Daniel; Walz, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Continuous coherent radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet at 122 nm (Lyman-alpha) can be generated using sum-frequency mixing of three fundamental laser beams in mercury vapour. One of the fundamental beams is at 254 nm wavelength, which is close to the 6^1S_0-6^3P_1 resonance in mercury. Experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of this one-photon resonance on phasematching, absorption and the nonlinear yield. The efficiency of continuous Lyman-alpha generation has been improved by a factor of 4.5.

  8. Notes on continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Eduardo W V

    2013-01-01

    This publication is aimed at students, teachers, and researchers of Continuum Mechanics and focused extensively on stating and developing Initial Boundary Value equations used to solve physical problems. With respect to notation, the tensorial, indicial and Voigt notations have been used indiscriminately.   The book is divided into twelve chapters with the following topics: Tensors, Continuum Kinematics, Stress, The Objectivity of Tensors, The Fundamental Equations of Continuum Mechanics, An Introduction to Constitutive Equations, Linear Elasticity, Hyperelasticity, Plasticity (small and large deformations), Thermoelasticity (small and large deformations), Damage Mechanics (small and large deformations), and An Introduction to Fluids. Moreover, the text is supplemented with over 280 figures, over 100 solved problems, and 130 references.

  9. Stellar Mass Function of Lyman Break Galaxies: Theoretical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Liang; HUANG Yong-Qing; LIU Nian-Hua; LAI Zhen-Quan; SHU Cheng-Gang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Adopting the observational distributions of star formation rates and half-light radii of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in the rest frame UV, we investigate empirically the predicted stellar mass function for LBGs.

  10. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-11

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  11. Computational Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shabana, Ahmed A

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the theory of continuum mechanics using computational methods. Ideal for students and researchers, the second edition features a new chapter on computational geometry and finite element analysis.

  12. Intergalactic Lyman continuum photon budget in the past 5 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the H I photoionization rate $(\\Gamma_{\\rm HI})$ at $z \\lesssim 0.45$ by comparing the flux probability distribution function and power spectrum of the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest data along 82 QSO sightlines obtained using Cosmic Origins Spectrograph with models generated from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations. We have developed a module named "Code for Ionization and Temperature Evolution (CITE)" for calculating the intergalactic medium (IGM) temperature evolution from high to low redshifts by post-processing the GADGET-2 simulation outputs. Our method, that produces results consistent with other simulations, is computationally less expensive thus allowing us to explore a large parameter space. It also allows rigorous estimation of the error covariance matrix for various statistical quantities of interest. We find that the best-fit $\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}(z)$ increases with $z$ and follows $(4 \\pm 0.1) \\times 10^{-14}\\:(1+z)^{4.99 \\pm 0.12}$ s$^{-1}$. At any given $z$ the typical uncertainties $\\Delta...

  13. Voyager measurements of hydrogen Lyman-α diffuse emission from the Milky Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, Rosine; Quémerais, Eric; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sandel, Bill R; Izmodenov, Vlad

    2011-12-23

    Doppler-shifted hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission from galaxies is currently measured and used in cosmology as an indicator of star formation. Until now, the Milky Way emission has not been detected, owing to far brighter local sources, including the H (hydrogen) glow, i.e., solar Lyα radiation backscattered by interstellar atoms that flow within the solar system. Because observations from the Voyager spacecraft, now leaving the heliosphere, are decreasingly affected by the H glow, the ultraviolet spectrographs are detecting Lyα diffuse emission from our Galaxy. The surface brightness toward nearby star-forming regions is about 3 to 4 rayleighs. The escape fraction of the radiation from the brightest H II regions is on the order of 3% and is highly spatially variable. These results will help in constraining models of Lyα radiation transfer in distant galaxies.

  14. The 21-cm signature of the first stars during the Lyman-Werner feedback era

    CERN Document Server

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Visbal, Eli; Tseliakhovich, Dmitriy; Hirata, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the first stars is an exciting frontier area in astronomy. Early redshifts z ~ 20 have become observationally promising as a result of a recently recognized effect of a supersonic relative velocity between the dark matter and gas. This effect produces prominent structure on 100 comoving Mpc scales, which makes it much more feasible to detect 21-cm fluctuations from the epoch of first heating. We use semi-numerical hybrid methods to follow for the first time the joint evolution of the X-ray and Lyman-Werner radiative backgrounds, including the effect of the supersonic streaming velocity on the cosmic distribution of stars. We incorporate self-consistently the negative feedback on star formation induced by the Lyman-Werner radiation, which dissociates molecular hydrogen and thus suppresses gas cooling. We find that the feedback delays the X-ray heating transition by a Delta z ~ 2, but leaves a promisingly large fluctuation signal over a broad redshift range. The large-scale power spectrum is pr...

  15. Lyman- photodissociation of CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b): Quantum yield and translational energy of hydrogen atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almuth Laeuter; Hans-Robert Volpp; Jai P Mittal; Rajesh K Vatsa

    2007-07-01

    The collision-free, room temperature gas-phase photodissociation dynamics of CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b) was studied using Lyman- laser radiation (121.6 nm) by the laser photolysis/laserinduced fluorescence `pump/probe’ technique. Lyman- radiation was used both to photodissociate the parent molecule and to detect the nascent H atom products via (22P → 12S) laser-induced fluorescence. Absolute H atom quantum yield, H = (0.39 ± 0.09) was determined by calibration method in which CH4 photolysis at 121.6 nm was used as a reference source of well-defined H atom concentrations. The line shapes of the measured H atom Doppler profiles indicate a Gaussian velocity distribution suggesting the presence of indirect H atom formation pathways in the Lyman- photodissociation of CH3CFCl2. The average kinetic energy of H atoms calculated from Doppler profiles was found to be T(lab) = (50 ± 3) kJ/mol. The nearly statistical translational energy together with the observed Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution indicates that for CH3CFCl2 the H atom forming dissociation process comes closer to the statistical limit.

  16. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Spinrad, Hyron [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reddy, Naveen [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA (United States); Budavari, Tamas [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ferreras, Ignacio [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Gardner, Jonathan P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haiman, Zoltan [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kuemmel, Martin [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Meurer, Gerhardt, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, M468, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  17. HST/ACS Lyman alpha imaging of the nearby starburst ESO338-IG04

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, M; Mas-Hesse, J M; Kunth, D; Leitherer, C; Petrosian, A

    2005-01-01

    ESO338-IG04 is a well known, local, luminous Blue Compact Galaxy. It has a complex morphology and contains a central young starburst with compact young star clusters. The galaxy was imaged using HST/ACS in the Lyman alpha line and continuum. Using the Starburst99 synthetic spectra and other imaging data from HST/WFPC2 we developed a technique that allows us to make the first photometrically valid continuum subtraction for the LYa line. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the models of LYa escape being regulated by kinematical properties of the interstellar medium. The line-only image shows LYa in both emission and absorption. Notably, emission is seen from central bright young clusters and is in spatial agreement with the features present in a longslit spectrum taken with HST/STIS. Diffuse LYa emission regions are seen surrounding the central starburst where photons escape after one or more resonant scatterings in HI. These regions dominate the total LYa output. Photometry reveals a total LYa flux o...

  18. Geocoronal Lyman Alpha Observations with COS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    The time-tagged mode of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) provides a convenient method of studying the orbital variation of geocoronal Lyman-alpha emission at the altitude of HST. We have analyzed G130M blank sky exposures from scheduled STIS parallels and observations for which the target acquisition failed. We supplement these with observations of WD standard stars from flat field and sensitivity monitoring programs where the stellar Lyα profile can be modeled and its contribution to the geocoronal emission removed. Data were corrected for time-dependent sensitivity changes and gain sag. The measurements have been fit by an analytical model based on the orbital position of HST and the angle between the target and the Earth as seen from HST. The Lyα emission varies from less than 2 kR for a target observed at orbit midnight to 37 kR for one observed at the bright Earth limb at orbit noon. A long-term trend of increasing flux is evident, consistent with solar Lyα measurements by SOLSTICE on SORCE as the next solar maximum is approached. We expect the irradiance at solar maximum to be at least 50-55 kR. This level still should not trigger local count rate violations for the FUV detector, but will accelerate gain sag of the microchannel plates in the regions where Lyα falls.

  19. Isolating the Lyman Alpha Forest BAO Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2016-01-01

    A 2.5-3 sigma discrepancy has been reported between the baryonic acoustic oscillation peak (BAO) in the Lyman alpha forest at z=2.34 and the best fit Planck LCDM cosmology. To isolate the origin of the tension, we consider unanchored BAO, in which the standard BAO ruler is not calibrated, eliminating any dependence on cosmology before redshift z=2.34. We consider BOSS BAO measurements at z=0.32, 0.57 and 2.34, using the full 2-dimensional constraints on the best and worst determined combinations of the angular and line of sight BAO scale, as well as isotropic BAO measurements by 6dF and SDSS at z=0.106 and z=0.15. We find that the z>0.43 data alone is in 2.8 sigma of tension with LCDM with or without the Planck best fit values of the mass fraction and the BAO scale, indicating that the tension arises not from the LCDM parameters but from the dark energy evolution itself at 0.57

  20. - X (1)Sigma(+)((g)) (v ''=0) Lyman bands in H-2 and HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenstein, U.; Reinhold, E.M.; Lange, de C.A.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    - X (1)Sigma(+) (v" = 0) Lyman bands in HD are presented using a narrow bandwidth vacuum ultraviolet laser system combined with an accurate frequency calibration. These measurements complete the recently published data on the Lyman frequency transitions of Philip.

  1. Non coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Alemán, T del Pino; Bueno, J Trujillo

    2014-01-01

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen and Thompson scattering by free electrons. Often a continuum depolarization results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non coherent continumm scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both, the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non coherence of the continuum scattering may modify significantly the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns, even yielding polarization sign...

  2. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  3. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  4. Bound states in the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.

  5. Numerical continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kukudzhanov, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on computational methods in continuum thermomechanics. The text is based on the author's lectures, which ensures a didactical and coherent buildup.The main emphasis is put on the presentation of ideas and qualitative considerations, illustrated by specific examples and applications. Conditions and explanations that are essential for the practical application of methods are discussed thoroughly.

  6. Absorption signatures of warm-hot gas at low redshift: Broad Lyman-Alpha Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Tepper-García, Thorsten; Schaye, Joop; Booth, Craig M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Theuns, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the physical state of HI absorbing gas at low redshift (z=0.25) using a subset of cosmological, hydrodynamic simulations from the OWLS project, focusing in particular on broad (b_HI > 40 km/s) Lyman-Alpha absorbers (BLAs), which are believed to originate in shock-heated gas in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). Our fiducial model, which includes radiative cooling by heavy elements and feedback by supernovae and active galactic nuclei, predicts that by z=0.25 nearly 60 per cent of the gas mass ends up at densities and temperatures characteristic of the WHIM and we find that half of this fraction is due to outflows. The standard HI observables (distribution of HI column densities N_HI, distribution of Doppler parameters b_HI, b_HI - N_HI correlation) and the BLA line number density predicted by our simulations are in remarkably good agreement with observations. BLAs arise in gas that is hotter, more highly ionised and more enriched than the gas giving rise to typical Lyman-Alpha forest abs...

  7. On the inversion of the scattering polarization and the Hanle effect signals in the hydrogen Lyman-$\\alpha$ line

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, R; Belluzzi, L; Sainz, R Manso; Stepan, J; Bueno, J Trujillo; Goto, M; Tsuneta, S

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements in the upper chromosphere and above, where the gas-to-magnetic pressure ratio $\\beta$ is lower than unity, are essential for understanding the thermal structure and dynamical activity of the solar atmosphere. Recent developments in the theory and numerical modeling of polarization in spectral lines have suggested that information on the magnetic field of the chromosphere-corona transition region could be obtained by measuring the linear polarization of the solar disk radiation at the core of the hydrogen Lyman-$\\alpha$ line at 121.6~nm, which is produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect. The Chromospheric Lyman-$\\alpha$ Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket experiment aims to measure the intensity (Stokes $I$) and the linear polarization profiles ($Q/I$ and $U/I$) of the hydrogen Lyman-$\\alpha$ line. In this paper we clarify the information that the Hanle effect can provide by applying a Stokes inversion technique based on a database search. The database contains a...

  8. COMPARISON OF PIONEER 10, VOYAGER 1, AND VOYAGER 2 ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH ANTI-SOLAR LYMAN-ALPHA BACKSCATTER SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayock, B.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J., E-mail: brian.fayock@gmail.com, E-mail: garyp.zank@gmail.com, E-mail: jacob.heerikhuisen@uah.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Observations made by ultraviolet (UV) detectors on board Pioneer 10, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 can be used to analyze the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the heliosphere, including the interaction regions of the solar wind and local interstellar medium. Previous studies of the long-term trend of decreasing intensity with increasing heliocentric distance established the need for more sophisticated heliospheric models. Here we use state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) neutral models to simulate Lyman-alpha backscatter as would be seen by the three spacecrafts, exploiting a new 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code under solar minimum conditions. Both observations and simulations of the UV backscatter intensity are normalized for each spacecraft flight path at {approx}15 AU, and we focus on the slope of decreasing intensity over an increasing heliocentric distance. Comparisons of simulations with Voyager 1 Lyman-alpha data results in a very close match, while the Pioneer 10 comparison is similar due to normalization, but not considered to be in agreement. The deviations may be influenced by a low resolution of photoionization in the 3D MHD-neutral model, a lack of solar cycle activity in our simulations, and possibly issues with instrumental sensitivity. Comparing the slope of Voyager 2 and the simulated intensities yields an almost identical match. Our results predict a large increase in the Lyman-alpha intensity as the hydrogen wall is approached, which would signal an imminent crossing of the heliopause.

  9. On the Waterbag Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the existence of a classical solution for the waterbag model with a continuum of waterbags, which can been viewed as an infinite dimensional system of first-order conservation laws. The waterbag model, which constitutes a special class of exact weak solution of the Vlasov equation, is well known in plasma physics, and its applications in gyrokinetic theory and laser-plasma interaction are very promising. The proof of the existence of a continuum of regular waterbags relies on a generalized definition of hyperbolicity for an integrodifferential hyperbolic system of equations, some results in singular integral operators theory and harmonic analysis, Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problems and energy estimates.

  10. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  11. Struggles with the Continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, John C

    2016-01-01

    Our assumption that spacetime is a continuum leads to many challenges in mathematical physics. Singularities, divergent integrals and the like threaten many of our favorite theories, from Newtonian gravity to classical electrodynamics, quantum electrodynamics and the Standard Model. In general relativity, singularities are intimately connected to some of the theory's most dramatic successful predictions. We survey these problems and the large amount of work that has gone into dealing with them.

  12. Properties of High Equivalent Width Lyman-α Emitting Galaxies at Redshifts Between 2.5 and 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Brian J.; Bonfield, D.; Grady, C.; Lindler, D.; Mufson, S.; Woodgate, B.

    2012-01-01

    Lyman-α emitting galaxies (LAEs) have been studied for the last decade, yet there are few observations of high equivalent width (EW) objects. The emission mechanisms that drive high EW LAEs, though studied for the last decade, still are not well understood. Since only small numbers have been discovered, it is unknown whether these high EW LAEs make up a population that is undergoing a peculiar stage of galactic evolution, or simply just a more vigorous version of star formation coupled with a clumpy ISM. We have developed a broadband selection technique to effectively increase the number of known LAEs, to build a bigger sample of high EW LAEs. While these high EW LAEs are less numerous than typical LAEs, we are able to probe much larger volumes than blind narrowband or spectroscopic searches. Using photometry from the Deep 2 and 3 fields from the CFHT-Legacy Survey, we have spectroscopically confirmed 63 LAEs with redshifts between 2.5 and 3.5 using the WIYN/Hydra multi-object spectrograph. These LAEs exhibit narrow Lyman-α emission, and show no other line emission to our spectroscopic flux limits. Using UV continuum fitting techniques in conjunction with our spectroscopic data, we have calculated equivalent widths, star formation rates, internal reddening, and escape fractions for our program galaxies. Of the 63 LAEs that we discovered, 29 show EWs that are in excess of 100 Å in the rest frame.

  13. Medium-resolution spectroscopy of FORJ0332-3557: Probing the interstellar medium and stellar populations of a lensed Lyman-break galaxy at z=3.77

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanac, Remi A; Lidman, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We recently reported the discovery of FORJ0332-3557, a lensed Lyman-break galaxy at z=3.77 in a remarkable example of strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lensing. We present here a medium-resolution rest-frame UV spectrum of the source, which appears to be similar to the well-known Lyman-break galaxy MS1512-cB58 at z=2.73. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a stellar population of less than 30 Ma, with an extinction of A(V)=0.5 mag and an extinction-corrected star formation rate SFR(UV) of 200-300 Msun/a. The Lyman-alpha line exhibits a damped profile in absorption produced by a column density of about N(HI) = (2.5+_1.0) 10^21 atoms/cm^2, superimposed on an emission line shifted both spatially (0.5 arcsec with respect to the UV continuum source) and in velocity space (+830 km/s with respect to the low-ionisation absorption lines from its interstellar medium), a clear signature of outflows with an expansion velocity of about 270 km/s. A strong emission line from HeII 164.04nm indicates the pres...

  14. The nature of proximate damped Lyman α systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, S.L.; Prochaska, J.X.; Hennawi, J.; Lopez, S.; Usher, C.; Wolfe, A.M.; Russell, D.M.; Benn, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    We present high-resolution echelle spectra of seven proximate damped Lyman α (PDLA) systems. The relative velocity separation of each PDLA from the background quasar is ΔV < 3000 km s−1. Combining our sample with a further nine PDLAs from the literature we compare the chemical properties of the prox

  15. Oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-alpha hygrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-¿ hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert¿Beer law around reference conditions for oxygen and f

  16. Exploring 21CM - Lyman Alpha Emitter Synergies for SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayal, Pratika; Hutter, Anne; Müller, Volker; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the signatures of reionization and ionizing properties of the early galaxies in the cross-correlations between the 21cm emission from the spin-flip transition of neutral hydrogen (H I ) and the underlying galaxy population, in particular a sub-population of galaxies visible as Lyman Alpha E

  17. Dust properties of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Márquez, J.; Burgarella, D.; Heinis, S.; Buat, V.; Lo Faro, B.; Béthermin, M.; López-Fortín, C. E.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rodighiero, G.; Salvato, M.; Scott, D.; Taniguchi, Y.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Since the mid-1990s, the sample of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) has been growing thanks to the increasing sensitivities in the optical and in near-infrared telescopes for objects at z> 2.5. However, the dust properties of the LBGs are poorly known because the samples are small and/or biased against far-infrared (far-IR) or submillimeter (submm) observations. Aims: This work explores from a statistical point of view the far-IR and submm properties of a large sample of LBGs at z ~ 3 that cannot be individually detected from current far-IR observations. Methods: We select a sample of 22, 000 LBGs at 2.5 luminosity (LFUV), UV continuum slope (βUV), and stellar mass (M∗) to better sample their variety. We stack in PACS (100 and 160 μm) images from PACS Evolution Probe survey (PEP), SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 μm) images from the Herschel Multi-tied Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) programs, and AzTEC (1.1 mm) images from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our stacking procedure corrects the biases induced by galaxy clustering and incompleteness of our input catalogue in dense regions. Results: We obtain the full infrared spectral energy distributions (SED) of subsamples of LBGs and derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of LFUV, βUV, and M∗. The average IRX (or dust attenuation) is roughly constant over the LFUV range, with a mean of 7.9 (1.8 mag). However, it is correlated with βUV, AFUV = (3.15 ± 0.12) + (1.47 ± 0.14) βUV, and stellar mass, log (IRX) = (0.84 ± 0.11)log (M∗/ 1010.35) + 1.17 ± 0.05. We investigate using a statistically controlled stacking analysis as a function of (M∗, βUV), the dispersion of the IRX-βUV and IRX-M∗ plane. On the one hand, the dust attenuation shows a departure of up to 2.8 mag above the mean IRX-βUV relation when log (M∗ [ M⊙ ]) increases from 9.75 to 11.5 in the same βUV bin. This strongly suggests that M∗ plays an important role in shaping the IRX-βUV plane. On the other hand

  18. AXUV bolometer and Lyman-α camera systems on the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, A. W.; Weisen, H.; Zabolotsky, A.; Duval, B. P.; Pitts, R. A.; Wischmeier, M.; Lavanchy, P.; Marmillod, Ph.; Pochon, G.

    2004-10-01

    A set of seven twin slit cameras, each containing two 20-element linear absolute extreme ultraviolet photodiode arrays, has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable. One array in each camera will operate as a bolometer and the second as a Lyman-alpha (Lα) emission monitor for estimating the recycled neutral flux. The camera configuration was optimized by simulations of tomographic reconstructions of the expected Lα emission. The diagnostic will provide spatial and temporal resolution (10 μs) of the radiated power and the Lα emission that is considerably higher than previously achieved. This optimism is justified by extensive experience with prototype systems, which include first measurements of Lα light from the divertor.

  19. Stationary inverted Lyman population formed from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with certain catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Randell L; Ray, Paresh C; Mayo, Robert M [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2003-07-07

    A new chemically generated plasma source is reported. The presence of gaseous Rb{sup +} or K{sup +} ions with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a low applied temperature, extremely low voltage plasma called a resonant transfer or rt-plasma having strong vacuum ultraviolet emission. We propose an energetic catalytic reaction involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and Rb{sup +} or 2K{sup +} since Rb{sup +} to Rb{sup 2+}, 2K{sup +} to K + K{sup 2+}, and K to K{sup 3+} each provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to the potential energy of atomic hydrogen. Remarkably, a stationary inverted Lyman population was observed; thus, these catalytic reactions may pump a cw HI laser as predicted by a collisional radiative model used to determine that the observed overpopulation was above threshold.

  20. High-Redshift Star Formation in a Time-Dependent Lyman-Werner Background

    CERN Document Server

    Visbal, Eli; Terrazas, Bryan; Bryan, Greg L; Barkana, Rennan

    2014-01-01

    The first generation of stars produces a background of Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation which can photo-dissociate molecular hydrogen, increasing the mass of dark matter halos required to host star formation. Previous studies have determined the critical mass required for efficient molecular cooling with a constant LW background. However, the true background is expected to increase rapidly at early times. Neglecting this evolution could underestimate star formation in small halos that may have started to cool in the past when the LW intensity was much lower. Background evolution is a large source of uncertainty in pre-reionization predictions of the cosmological 21cm signal, which can be observed with future radio telescopes. To address this, we perform zero-dimentional one-zone calculations that follow the density, chemical abundances, and temperature of gas in the central regions of dark matter halos, including hierarchical growth and an evolving LW background. We begin by studying the physics of halos subjected...

  1. A systematic study of Lyman-Alpha transfer through outflowing shells: Model parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Outflows promote the escape of Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) photons from dusty interstellar media. The process of radiative transfer through interstellar outflows is often modelled by a spherically symmetric, geometrically thin shell of gas that scatters photons emitted by a central Ly$\\alpha$ source. Despite its simplified geometry, this `shell model' has been surprisingly successful at reproducing observed Ly$\\alpha$ line shapes. In this paper we perform automated line fitting on a set of noisy simulated shell model spectra, in order to determine whether degeneracies exist between the different shell model parameters. While there are some significant degeneracies, we find that most parameters are accurately recovered, especially the HI column density ($N_{\\rm HI}$) and outflow velocity ($v_{\\rm exp}$). This work represents an important first step in determining how the shell model parameters relate to the actual physical properties of Ly$\\alpha$ sources. To aid further exploration of the parameter space, we ...

  2. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, David; Lai, W Michael

    1994-01-01

    Continuum mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, and the book contains an abundance of illustrative examples and problems, many with solutions. Through the addition of more advanced material (solution of classical elasticity problems, constitutive e

  3. PAH Emission Within Lyman Alpha Blobs

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, James W; Teplitz, Harry; Francis, Paul; Palunas, Povilas; Williger, Gerard M; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of Lya Blobs (LAB) at z=2.38-3.09. The mid-infrared ratios (4.5/8um and 8/24um) indicate that ~60% of LAB infrared counterparts are cool, consistent with their infrared output being dominated by star formation and not active galactic nuclei (AGN). The rest have a substantial hot dust component that one would expect from an AGN or an extreme starburst. Comparing the mid-infrared to submillimeter fluxes (~850um or rest frame far infrared) also indicates a large percentage (~2/3) of the LAB counterparts have total bolometric energy output dominated by star formation, although the number of sources with sub-mm detections or meaningful upper limits remains small (~10). We obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 6 infrared-bright sources associated with LABs. Four of these sources have measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, indicative of significant star formation, while the remaining two show a featureless continuum, indicative of infrared energy...

  4. The effect of dust geometry on the Lyman-alpha output of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlata, C; Teplitz, H I; Panagia, N; Hayes, M; Siana, B; Rau, A; Francis, P; Caon, A; Pizzella, A; Bridge, C

    2009-01-01

    We present the optical spectroscopic follow-up of 31 z=0.3 Lyman-alpha (Lya) emitters, previously identified by Deharveng et al. (2008). We find that 17% of the Lya emitters have line ratios that require the hard ionizing continuum produced by an AGN. The uniform dust screen geometry traditionally used in studies similar to ours is not able to simultaneously reproduce the observed high Lya/Halpha and Halpha/Hbeta line ratios. We consider different possibilities for the geometry of the dust around the emitting sources. We find that also a uniform mixture of sources and dust does not reproduce the observed line ratios. Instead, these are well reproduced by a clumpy dust screen. This more realistic treatment of the geometry results in extinction corrected (Lya/Halpha)_C values consistent with Case B recombination theory, whereas a uniform dust screen model would imply values (Lya/Halpha)_C higher than 8.7. Our analysis shows that there is no need to invoke "ad-hoc" multi phase media in which the Lya photons only...

  5. Physical Properties of Local Star-Forming Analogues to z~5 Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greis, Stephanie M L; Davies, Luke J M; Levan, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Intense, compact, star-forming galaxies are rare in the local Universe but ubiquitous at high redshift. We interpret the 0.1-22 um spectral energy distributions (SED) of a sample of 180 galaxies at 0.05continuum extinction $E_\\mathrm{cont}$(B-V) ~ 0.1) and find star formation rates of a few tens of Solar masses per year. We use our inferred masses to determine a mean specific star formation rate for this sample of ~ $10^{-9}$ yr$^{-1}$, and compare this to the specific star formation rates in distant Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), and in other low redshift populations. We conclude that our sample's characteristics overlap significantly with those of the z~5 LBG population, maki...

  6. Star Formation Rate and Extinction in Faint z~4 Lyman-Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    To, Chun-Hao; Owen, Frazer N

    2014-01-01

    We present a statistical detection of 1.5 GHz radio continuum emission from a sample of faint z~4 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). LBGs are key tracers of the high-redshift star formation history and important sources of UV photons that ionized the intergalactic medium in the early universe. In order to better constrain the extinction and intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of high-redshift LBGs, we combine the latest ultradeep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1.5 GHz radio image and the Hubble Space Telescope Advance Camera for Surveys (ACS) optical images in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North. We select a large sample of 1771 z~4 LBGs from the ACS catalogue using $\\bband$-dropout color criteria. Our LBG samples have $\\iband$~25-28 (AB), ~0-3 magnitudes fainter than M*_UV at z~4. In our stacked radio images, we find the LBGs to be point-like under our 2" angular resolution. We measure their mean 1.5 GHz flux by stacking the measurements on the individual objects. We achieve a statistical detection ...

  7. A resolved map of the infrared excess in a Lyman Break Galaxy at z=3

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, M P; Geach, J E; Hine, N K; Bremer, M; Chapman, S C; Davies, L J M; Hayashino, T; Knudsen, K K; Kubo, M; Lehmer, B D; Matsuda, Y; Smith, D J B; van der Werf, P P; Violino, G; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We have observed the dust continuum of ten z=3.1 Lyman Break Galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array at ~450 mas resolution in Band 7. We detect and resolve the 870um emission in one of the targets with an integrated flux density of S(870)=(192+/-57) uJy, and measure a stacked 3-sigma signal of S(870)=(67+/-23) uJy for the remaining nine. The total infrared luminosities estimated from full spectral energy distribution fits are L(8-1000um)=(8.4+/-2.3)x10^10 Lsun for the detection and L(8-1000um)=(2.9+/-0.9)x10^10 Lsun for the stack. With HST ACS I-band imaging we map the rest-frame UV emission on the same scale as the dust, effectively resolving the 'infrared excess' (IRX=L_FIR/L_UV) in a normal galaxy at z=3. Integrated over the galaxy we measure IRX=0.56+/-0.15, and the galaxy-averaged UV slope is beta=-1.25+/-0.03. This puts the galaxy a factor of ~10 below the IRX-beta relation for local starburst nuclei of Meurer et al. (1999). However, IRX varies by more than a factor of 3 across t...

  8. ALMA observations of Lyman-alpha Blob 1: halo sub-structure illuminated from within

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Matsuda, Y; Hayes, M; Mas-Ribas, Ll; Dijkstra, M; Steidel, C C; Chapman, S C; Feldmann, R; Avison, A; Agertz, O; Ao, Y; Birkinshaw, M; Bremer, M N; Clements, D L; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Harrison, C M; Hine, N K; Kubo, M; Michalowski, M J; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D J B; Spaans, M; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Taniguchi, Y; van Kampen, E; van der Werf, P; Verma, A; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850um continuum observations of the original Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z=3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with total flux density S_850 = 1.68+/-0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star formation rate of ~150 M_sun/yr. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint (m~27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging (~5850A). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with Keck MOSFIRE to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km/s of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 10^13 M_sun halo at z...

  9. Zeroes in continuum - continuum dipole matrix elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Pratt, R. H.; Korol, Andrei

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that Cooper minima in photoeffect cross sections are due to zeroes in corresponding bound-free dipole matrix elements. As was discussed before(C. D. Shaffer, R. H. Pratt, and S. D. Oh, Phys. Rev. A. 57), 227 (1998)., free-free dipole matrix elements in screened (atomic or ionic) potentials can also have zeroes. Such zeroes (existing at energies of the order of 1-100 eV) result in structures in the energy dependence of bremsstrahlung cross sections and angular distributions(A. Florescu, O. I. Obolensky, C. D. Shaffer, and R. H. Pratt, AIP Conference Proceedings, 576), 60 (2001).. In the soft photon limit, zeroes of radiative free-free matrix elements are related to Ramsauer-Townsend minima in elastic scattering of electrons by atoms. Here we study properties of the trajectories of dipole matrix element zeroes in the plane of initial and final electron energies. We show how the trajectories in this plane evolve with ionicity for several low ℓ dipole transitions ℓ → ℓ ± 1.

  10. Escape of Lyα and continuum photons from star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin

    2014-05-01

    A large number of high-redshift galaxies have been discovered via their narrow-band Lyα line or broad-band continuum colours in recent years. The nature of the escaping process of photons from these early galaxies is crucial to understand galaxy evolution and the cosmic reionization. Here, we investigate the escape of Lyα, non-ionizing UV-continuum (λ = 1300-1600 Å in rest frame), and ionizing photons (λ emissivity of Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs). By combining this relation with the observed luminosity functions of LAEs at different redshift, we estimate the contribution from LAEs to the reionization of intergalactic medium (IGM). Our result suggests that ionizing photons from LAEs alone are not sufficient to ionize IGM at z ≳ 6, but they can maintain the ionization of IGM at z ˜ 0-5.

  11. Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Akn 564. II. Ultraviolet Continuum and Emission-line Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, S J; Peterson, B M; Brandt, W N; Clavel, J; Edelson, R; George, I M; Horne, K; Kriss, G A; Mathur, S; Netzer, H; O'Brien, P T; Pogge, R W; Pounds, K A; Romano, P; Shemmer, O; Turner, T J; Wamsteker, W

    2001-01-01

    We present results of an intensive two-month campaign of approximately daily spectrophotometric monitoring of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Akn 564 with HST. The fractional variability amplitude of the continuum variations between 1365-3000 A is ~6%, about a factor 3 less than that found in typical Seyfert 1 galaxies over a similar period of time. However, large amplitude, short time-scale flaring behavior is evident, with trough-to-peak flux changes of about 18% in approximately 3 days. We present evidence for wavelength-dependent continuum time delays, with the variations at 3000 A lagging behind those at 1365 A by about 1 day. These delays may be interpreted as evidence for a stratified continuum reprocessing region, possibly an accretion-disk structure. The Lyman-alpha 1216 emission-line exhibits flux variations of about 1% amplitude.

  12. Modeling the Lyman-alpha Forest in Collisionless Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sorini, Daniele; Lukić, Zarija; Hennawi, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations can accurately predict the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM), but only under the condition of retaining high spatial resolution necessary to resolve density fluctuations in the IGM. This resolution constraint prohibits simulating large volumes, such as those probed by BOSS and future surveys, like DESI and 4MOST. To overcome this limitation, we present Iteratively Matched Statistics (IMS), a novel method to accurately model the Lyman-alpha forest with collisionless N-body simulations, where the relevant density fluctuations are unresolved. We use a small-box, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation to obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) and the power spectrum of the real-space Lyman-alpha forest flux. These two statistics are iteratively mapped onto a pseudo-flux field of an N-body simulation, which we construct from the matter density. We demonstrate that our method can perfectly reproduce line-of-sight observables, such as the PDF and power spe...

  13. The Environmental Impact of Lyman-break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tasker, E J; Bryan, Greg L.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    We perform cosmological simulations of galaxies forming at z=3 using the hydrodynamics grid code, Enzo. By selecting the largest galaxies in the volume to correspond to Lyman-break galaxies, we construct observational spectra of the HI flux distribution around these objects, as well as column densities of CIV and OVI throughout a refined region. We successfully reproduce the most recent observations of the mean HI flux in the close vicinity of Lyman-break galaxies but see no evidence for the proximity effect in earlier observations. While our galaxies do return metals to the IGM, their quantity and volume appears to be somewhat less than observed. We conclude that either we do not adequately resolve galactic winds, or that at least some of the intergalactic metal enrichment is by early epoch objects whose mass is smaller than our minimum resolved halo mass.

  14. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N..; Ishikawa, R.; Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; hide

    2014-01-01

    To Understand energy release process in the Sun including solar flares, it is essentially important to measure the magnetic field of the atmosphere of the Sun. Magnetic field measurement of the upper layers (upper chromosphere and above) was technically difficult and not well investigated yet. Upper chromosphere and transition region magnetic field measurement by Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket to be launched in 2015. The proposal is already selected and developments of the flight components are going.

  15. THE HST/ACS+WFC3 SURVEY FOR LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS. II. SCIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael' s College. One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Worseck, Gabor; Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chen, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 640 S. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the first science results from our Hubble Space Telescope survey for Lyman limit absorption systems (LLS) using the low dispersion spectroscopic modes of the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3. Through an analysis of 71 quasars, we determine the incidence frequency of LLS per unit redshift and per unit path length, l(z) and l(X), respectively, over the redshift range 1 < z < 2.6, and find a weighted mean of l(X) =0.29 {+-} 0.05 for 2.0 < z < 2.5 through a joint analysis of our sample and that of Ribaudo et al. Through stacked spectrum analysis, we determine a median (mean) value of the mean free path to ionizing radiation at z = 2.4 of {lambda}{sup 912}{sub mfp} = 243(252) h {sup -1}{sub 72} Mpc, with an error on the mean value of {+-}43 h {sup -1}{sub 72} Mpc. We also re-evaluate the estimates of {lambda}{sup 912}{sub mfp} from Prochaska et al. and place constraints on the evolution of {lambda}{sup 912}{sub mfp} with redshift, including an estimate of the ''breakthrough'' redshift of z = 1.6. Consistent with results at higher z, we find that a significant fraction of the opacity for absorption of ionizing photons comes from systems with N{sub H{sub I}} {<=}10{sup 17.5} cm{sup -2} with a value for the total Lyman opacity of {tau}{sup Lyman}{sub eff} = 0.40 {+-} 0.15. Finally, we determine that at minimum, a 5-parameter (4 power law) model is needed to describe the column density distribution function f(N{sub H{sub I}}, X) at z {approx} 2.4, find that f(N{sub H{sub I}}, X) undergoes no significant change in shape between z {approx} 2.4 and z {approx} 3.7, and provide our best fit model for f(N{sub H{sub I}}, X).

  16. NICMOS Snapshot Survey of Damped Lyman Alpha Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, J W; Colbert, James W.; Malkan, Matthew A.

    2001-01-01

    We image 19 quasars with 22 damped Lyman alpha (DLA) systems using the F160W filter and the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, in both direct and coronagraphic modes. We reach 5 sigma detection limits of ~H=22 in the majority of our images. We compare our observations to the observed Lyman-break population of high-redshift galaxies, as well as Bruzual & Charlot evolutionary models of present-day galaxies redshifted to the distances of the absorption systems. We predict H magnitudes for our DLAs, assuming they are producing stars like an L* Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) at their redshift. Comparing these predictions to our sensitivity, we find that we should be able to detect a galaxy around 0.5-1.0 L* (LBG) for most of our observations. We find only one new possible candidate, that near LBQS0010-0012. This scarcity of candidates leads us to the conclusion that most DLA systems are not drawn from a normal LBG luminosity function nor a local galaxy luminosity fun...

  17. Lyman Break Galaxies and the Reionization of the Intergalactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, H C; Papovich, C; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dickinson, Mark; Papovich, Casey

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared observations of Lyman-break galaxies at redshifts z~3 are beginning to provide constraints on ages, star-formation histories, dust content, metallicities, and stellar masses. At present, uncertainties of more than an order of magnitude are typical for many of these parameters. It is nonetheless interesting to ask what the stellar-population models imply for the existence and luminosities of Lyman-break galaxies at higher redshift. To this end we examine the inferred star-formation rates in two well-studied samples of galaxies as a function of redshift out to z = 10 for various best-fit and limiting cases. Taken at face value, the generally young ages (typically 10^8 +- 0.5 yr) of the z = 3 Lyman break galaxies imply that their stars were not present much beyond z=4. By z = 6 the cosmic star-formation rate from the progenitors of these galaxies is less than 10% of star-formation rate at z=3 +- 0.5, even for maximally-old models, provided the derivative of the star-formation rate SFR(t) is monoton...

  18. On The Detection Of Ionizing Radiation Arising From Star-Forming Galaxies At Redshift z ~ 3-4 : Looking For Analogs Of "Stellar Reionizers"

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, Eros; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Cristiani, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark; Fontana, Adriano; Nonino, Mario; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey; Faber, S M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Newman, Jeffrey; Siana, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    We use the spatially-resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z~3.7 identified using ultra-deep imaging below the Lyman limit (1-sigma limit of ~30 AB in a 2" diameter aperture). In 18 candidates, out of a sample of 19 with flux detected at >3-sigma level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the LBG by up to 1.5". We fit the SED of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f_esc) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these fi...

  19. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  20. Continuum robots and underactuated grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Giri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the capabilities of continuum (continuous backbone robot structures in the performance of under-actuated grasping. Continuum robots offer the potential of robust grasps over a wide variety of object classes, due to their ability to adapt their shape to interact with the environment via non-local continuum contact conditions. Furthermore, this capability can be achieved with simple, low degree of freedom hardware. However, there are practical issues which currently limit the application of continuum robots to grasping. We discuss these issues and illustrate via an experimental continuum grasping case study.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  1. The HETDEX Pilot Survey V: The Physical Origin of Lyman-alpha Emitters Probed by Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Mimi; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J; Drory, Niv; Ashby, Matthew L N; Blanc, Guillermo A; Bridge, Joanna; Chonis, Taylor; Ciardullo, Robin; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fazio, Giovanni G; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jogee, Shardha; Livermore, Rachael; Salmon, Brett; Schneider, Donald P; Willner, S P; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a VLT/SINFONI and Keck/NIRSPEC near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 16 Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at $z$ = 2.1 - 2.5 in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields discovered from the HETDEX Pilot Survey. We detect rest-frame optical nebular lines (H$\\alpha$ and/or [OIII]$\\lambda$5007) for 10 of the LAEs and measure physical properties, including the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity, gas-mass fraction, and Ly$\\alpha$ velocity offset. We find that LAEs may lie below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift. The LAEs all show velocity shifts of Ly$\\alpha$ relative to the systemic redshift ranging between +85 and +296 km s$^{-1}$ with a mean of +180 km s$^{-1}$. This value is smaller than measured for continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The Ly$\\alpha$ velocity offsets show a moderate correlation with the measured star formation rate (2.5$\\sigma$), but no significant correlations are seen with the SFR...

  2. The Direct Collapse of a Massive Black Hole Seed under the Influence of an Anisotropic Lyman-Werner Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2014-11-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that the gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is set to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiation emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing techniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the very center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find that a radiation source, emitting >1054 (~ 103 J21) photons s-1, is required to cause the collapse of a clump of M ~ 105 M ⊙. The resulting accretion rate onto the collapsing object is ~0.25 M ⊙ yr-1. Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case, in terms of the H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly affect the dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, the final mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ~ 105 M ⊙. This is consistent with predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to a supermassive black hole.

  3. Statistical Properties of Diffuse Lyman-alpha Halos around Star-forming Galaxies at z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, Rieko; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yuma, Suraphong; Mori, Masao; Umemura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We present statistical properties of diffuse Lyman-alpha halos (LAHs) around high-$z$ star-forming galaxies with large Subaru samples of Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at $z=2.2$. We make subsamples defined by the physical quantities of LAEs' central Lyman-alpha luminosities, UV magnitudes, Lyman-alpha equivalent widths, and UV slopes, and investigate LAHs' radial surface brightness (SB) profiles and scale lengths $r_n$ as a function of these physical quantities. We find that there exist prominent LAHs around LAEs with faint Lyman-alpha luminosities, bright UV luminosities, and small Lyman-alpha equivalent widths in cumulative radial Lyman-alpha SB profiles. We confirm this trend with the anti-correlation between $r_n$ and Lyman-alpha luminosities (equivalent widths) based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient that is $\\rho=-0.9$ ($-0.7$) corresponding to the $96\\%$ ($93\\%$) confidence level, although the correlation between $r_n$ and UV magnitudes is not clearly found in the rank correlation coefficien...

  4. The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Radiation in the "Green Pea" Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskot, A E

    2013-01-01

    Although Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the Universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z=0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' SDSS spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {\\lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {\\lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the...

  5. Continuum of Care (COC) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs is to reduce the incidence of homelessness in CoC communities by assisting homeless...

  6. The Lyman β forest as a cosmic thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iršič, Vid [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: virsic@ictp.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high resolution hydrodynamic simulations in terms of Lyman α and Lyman β one dimensional flux power spectra P{sub αα} and P{sub ββ}). In particular, we focus on the behaviour that the flux auto-power spectra and cross-power spectra P{sub αβ}) display when the intergalactic medium (IGM) thermal history is changed in a range of values that bracket a reference model, while cosmological parameters are kept fixed to best fit the cosmic microwave background data. We present empirical fits that describe at the sub-percent level the dependence of the power spectra on the thermal parameters. At the largest scales, the power spectra show a constant bias between each other that is set by the parameters describing the IGM thermal state. The cross-power spectrum has an oscillatory pattern and crosses zero at a scale which depends on T{sub 0}, the IGM temperature at the mean density, for reasonable values of the power-law index γ of the IGM temperature-density relation T=T{sub 0}(1+δ){sup γ-1}). By performing a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that the power spectrum P{sub ββ} is more sensitive to the thermal history than P{sub αα} alone, due to the fact that it probes denser regions than Lyman α. When we combine the power and cross spectra the constraints on γ can be improved by a factor ∼ 4, while the constraints on T{sub 0} improve by a factor of ∼ 2. We address the role of signal-to-noise and resolution by mocking realistic observations and we conclude that the framework presented in this work can significantly improve the knowledge of the IGM thermal state, which will in turn guarantee better constraints on IGM-derived cosmological parameters.

  7. ON THE DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ARISING FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z {approx} 3-4: LOOKING FOR ANALOGS OF 'STELLAR RE-IONIZERS'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Nonino, Mario [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (RM) (Italy); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Faber, S. M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Siana, Brian D., E-mail: vanzella@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We use the spatially resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z {approx} 3.7 identified using ultradeep imaging below the Lyman limit (1{sigma} limit of Almost-Equal-To 30 AB in a 2'' diameter aperture). In 19 candidates out of a sample of 20 with flux detected at >3{sigma} level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) by up to 1.''5. We fit the spectral energy distribution of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f{sub esc}) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these findings, we argue that the majority of similar measurements reported in the literature need further investigation before it can be firmly concluded that LyC emission is detected. Our only surviving LyC candidate is an LBG at z = 3.795, which shows the bluest (B - V) color among LBGs at similar redshift, a stellar mass of M {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, weak interstellar absorption lines, and a flat UV spectral slope with no Ly{alpha} in emission. We estimate its f{sub esc} to be in the range 25%-100%, depending on the dust and intergalactic attenuation.

  8. GRB 051008: A long, spectrally-hard dust-obscured GRB in a Lyman-Break Galaxy at z ~ 2.8

    CERN Document Server

    Volnova, A A; Gorosabel, J; Perley, D A; Frederiks, D D; Kann, D A; Rumyantsev, V V; Biryukov, V V; Burkhonov, O; Castro-Tirado, A J; Ferrero, P; Golenetskii, S V; Klose, S; Loznikov, V M; Minaev, P Yu; Stecklum, B; Svinkin, D S; Tsvetkova, A E; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Ulanov, M V

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the dark Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 051008 provided by Swift/BAT, Swift/XRT, Konus-WIND, INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS in the high-energy domain and the Shajn, Swift/UVOT, Tautenburg, NOT, Gemini and Keck I telescopes in the optical and near-infrared bands. The burst was detected only in gamma- and X-rays and neither a prompt optical nor a radio afterglow were detected down to deep limits. We identified the host galaxy of the burst, which is a typical Lyman-break Galaxy (LBG) with R-magnitude of 24.06 +/- 0.10. A redshift of the galaxy of z = 2.77 (-0.20,+0.15) is measured photometrically due to the presence of a clear, strong Lyman-break feature. The host galaxy is a small starburst galaxy with moderate intrinsic extinction (A_V = 0.3 mag) and has a SFR of ~ 60 M_Sun / yr typical for LBGs. It is one of the few cases where a GRB host has been found to be a classical Lyman-break galaxy. Using the redshift we estimate the isotropic-equivalent radiated energy of the burst to be E_iso = (1.15 +/- 0.20) x 1...

  9. FUV Continuum in Flare Kernels Observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Kowalski, Adam; Allred, Joel C.; Cauzzi, Gianna

    2016-05-01

    Fits to Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectra observed from bright kernels during the impulsive phase of solar flares are providing long-sought constraints on the UV/white-light continuum emission. Results of fits of continua plus numerous atomic and molecular emission lines to IRIS far ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of bright kernels are presented. Constraints on beam energy and cross sectional area are provided by cotemporaneous RHESSI, FERMI, ROSA/DST, IRIS slit-jaw and SDO/AIA observations, allowing for comparison of the observed IRIS continuum to calculations of non-thermal electron beam heating using the RADYN radiative-hydrodynamic loop model.

  10. Resonantly Trapped Bound State in the Continuum Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kodigala, Ashok; Bahari, Babak; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Kanté, Boubacar

    2015-01-01

    Cavities play a fundamental role in wave phenomena from quantum mechanics to electromagnetism and dictate the spatiotemporal physics of lasers. In general, they are constructed by closing all "doors" through which waves can escape. We report, at room temperature, a bound state in the continuum laser that harnesses optical modes residing in the radiation continuum but nonetheless may possess arbitrarily high quality factors. These counterintuitive cavities are based on resonantly trapped symmetry-compatible modes that destructively interfere. Our experimental demonstration opens exciting avenues towards coherent sources with intriguing topological properties for optical trapping, biological imaging, and quantum communication.

  11. Metallicities and dust content of proximate damped Lyman α systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Mendel, J. T.

    2011-03-01

    Composite spectra of 85 proximate absorbers [log N(H I) ≥ 20 cm-2 and velocity difference between the absorption and emission redshifts, ΔV 6000 km s-1, with further sub-samples to investigate the metal-line dependence on N(H I) and QSO luminosity. Low (e.g. Si II and Fe II) and high ionization (e.g. Si IV and C IV) species alike have equivalent widths (EWs) that are larger by factors of 1.5-3 in the ΔV 6000 km s-1 spectrum. The EWs show an even stronger dependence on ΔV if only the highest neutral hydrogen column density [log N(H I) ≥ 20.7] absorbers are considered. We conclude that proximate damped Lyman α systems (PDLAs) generally have higher metallicities than intervening absorbers, with the enhancement being a function of both ΔV and N(H I). It is also found that absorbers near QSOs with lower rest-frame UV luminosities have significantly stronger metal lines. We speculate that absorbers near to high luminosity QSOs may have had their star formation prematurely quenched. There is no evidence for Lyα emission in the trough of the composite spectrum. Finally, we search for the signature of dust reddening by the PDLAs, based on an analysis of the QSO continuum slopes relative to a control sample, and determine a limit of E(B-V) extinction curve. This work provides an empirical motivation for distinguishing between proximate and intervening DLAs and establishes a connection between the QSO environment and galaxy properties at high redshifts.

  12. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  13. Lyman-alpha Forests cool Warm Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, Julien; Yèche, Christophe; Magneville, Christophe; Viel, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The free-streaming of keV-scale particles impacts structure growth on scales that are probed by the Lyman-alpha forest of distant quasars. Using an unprecedentedly large sample of medium-resolution QSO spectra from the ninth data release of SDSS, along with a state-of-the-art set of hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-alpha forest in the non-linear regime, we issue the tightest bounds to date on pure dark matter particles: $m_X \\gtrsim 4.35 \\: \\rm{keV}$ (95% CL) for early decoupled thermal relics such as a hypothetical gravitino, and its corresponding bound for a non-resonantly produced right-handed neutrino $m_s \\gtrsim 31.7 \\: \\rm{keV}$ (95% CL). Thanks to SDSS-III data featuring smaller uncertainties and covering a larger redshift range than SDSS-I data, our bounds improve upon those established by previous works and are further at odds with a purely non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino as dark matter.

  14. The Lyman-beta forest as a cosmic thermometer

    CERN Document Server

    Iršič, Vid

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high resolution hydrodynamic simulations in terms of Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta one dimensional flux power spectra ($P_{\\alpha\\alpha}$ and $P_{\\beta\\beta}$). In particular, we focus on the behaviour that the flux auto-power spectra and cross-power spectra ($P_{\\alpha\\beta}$) display when the intergalactic medium (IGM) thermal history is changed in a range of values that bracket a reference model, while cosmological parameters are kept fixed to best fit the cosmic microwave background data. We present empirical fits that describe at the sub-percent level the dependence of the power spectra on the thermal parameters. At the largest scales, the power spectra show a constant bias between each other that is set by the parameters describing the IGM thermal state. The cross-power spectrum has an oscillatory pattern and crosses zero at a scale which depends on $T_0$, the IGM temperature at the mean density, for reasonable values of the power-law index $\\gamma$ of the IGM tempera...

  15. Lyman-alpha Forest Constraints on Decaying Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Peter, Annika H G; Zentner, Andrew R; Purcell, Chris W

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution N-body simulations of decaying dark matter cosmologies focusing on the statistical properties of the transmitted Lyman-alpha forest flux in the high-redshift intergalactic medium. In this type of model a dark matter particle decays into a slightly less massive stable dark matter daughter particle and a comparably light particle. The small mass splitting provides a non-relativistic kick velocity V_k to the daughter particle resulting in free-streaming and subsequent damping of small-scale density fluctuations. Current Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum measurements probe comoving scales up to ~ 2-3 h^-1 Mpc at redshifts z ~ 2-4, providing one of the most robust ways to probe cosmological density fluctuations on relatively small scales. The suppression of structure growth due to the free-streaming of dark matter daughter particles also has a significant impact on the neutral hydrogen cloud distribution, which traces the underlying dark matter distribution well at high re...

  16. The Dynamical Masses, Densities, and Star Formation Scaling Relations of Lyman Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoads, James E; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fynbo, Johan P U; McLinden, Emily M; Richardson, Mark L A; Tilvi, Vithal S

    2013-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass measurements for Lyman alpha galaxies at high redshift, based on velocity dispersion measurements from rest-frame optical emission lines and size measurements from HST imaging, for a sample of nine galaxies drawn from four surveys. These measurements enable us to study the nature of Lyman alpha galaxies in the context of galaxy scaling relations. The resulting dynamical masses range from 1e9 to 1e10 solar masses. We also fit stellar population models to our sample, and use them to plot the Lyman alpha sample on a stellar mass vs. line width relation. Overall, the Lyman alpha galaxies follow well the scaling relation established by observing star forming galaxies at lower redshift (and without regard for Lyman alpha emission), though in 1/3 of the Lyman alpha galaxies, lower-mass fits are also acceptable. In all cases, the dynamical masses agree with established stellarmass-linewidth relation. Using the dynamical masses as an upper limit on gas mass, we show that Lyman alpha...

  17. A High-Resolution Hubble Space Telescope Study of Lyman Continuum Leakers at $z\\sim3$

    CERN Document Server

    Mostardi, Robin E; Steidel, Charles C; Trainor, Ryan F; Reddy, Naveen A; Siana, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present $U_{336}V_{606}J_{125}H_{160}$ follow-up $HST$ observations of 16 $z\\sim3$ candidate LyC emitters in the HS1549+1933 field. With these data, we obtain high spatial-resolution photometric redshifts of all sub-arcsecond components of the LyC candidates in order to eliminate foreground contamination and identify robust candidates for leaking LyC emission. Of the 16 candidates, we find one object with a robust LyC detection that is not due to foreground contamination. This object (MD5) resolves into two components; we refer to the LyC-emitting component as MD5b. MD5b has an observed 1500\\AA\\ to 900\\AA\\ flux-density ratio of $(F_{UV}/F_{LyC})_{obs}=4.0\\pm2.0$, compatible with predictions from stellar population synthesis models. Neglecting IGM absorption, this ratio corresponds to lower limits to the relative (absolute) escape fraction of $f_{esc,rel}^{MD5b}=75\\%\\pm38\\%$ ($f_{esc,abs}^{MD5b}=14\\%\\pm7\\%$). The stellar population fit to MD5b indicates an age of $\\lesssim50$Myr, which is in the youngest 10...

  18. Nonlocal Theories in Continuum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jirásek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain why the standard continuum theory fails to properly describe certain mechanical phenomena and how the description can be improved by enrichments that incorporate the influence of gradients or weighted spatial averages of strain or of an internal variable. Three typical mechanical problems that require such enrichments are presented: (i dispersion of short elastic waves in heterogeneous or discrete media, (ii size effects in microscale elastoplasticity, in particular with the size dependence of the apparent hardening modulus, and (iii localization of strain and damage in quasibrittle structures and with the resulting transitional size effect. Problems covered in the examples encompass static and dynamic phenomena, linear and nonlinear behavior, and three constitutive frameworks, namely elasticity, plasticity and continuum damage mechanics. This shows that enrichments of the standard continuum theory can be useful in a wide range of mechanical problems. 

  19. Minimally Parametric Constraints on the Primordial Power Spectrum from Lyman-alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Current analyses of the Lyman-alpha forest assume that the primordial power spectrum of density perturbations obeys a simple power law, a strong theoretical assumption which should be tested. Employing a large suite of numerical simulations which drop this assumption, we reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum using Lyman-alpha data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our method combines a minimally parametric framework with cross-validation, a technique used to avoid over-fitting the data. Future work will involve predictions for the upcoming Baryon Oscillation Sky Survey (BOSS), which will provide new Lyman-alpha data with vastly decreased statistical errors.

  20. Quantum Theory of Continuum Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rakich, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present the basic ingredients of continuum optomechanics, i.e. the suitable extension of cavity-optomechanical concepts to the interaction of photons and phonons in an extended waveguide. We introduce a real-space picture and argue which coupling terms may arise in leading order in the spatial derivatives. This picture allows us to discuss quantum noise, dissipation, and the correct boundary conditions at the waveguide entrance. The connections both to optomechanical arrays as well as to the theory of Brillouin scattering in waveguides are highlighted. We identify the 'strong coupling regime' of continuum optomechanics that may be accessible in future experiments.

  1. Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

  2. Fluctuating feedback-regulated escape fraction of ionizing radiation in low-mass, high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Blaizot, Jérémy; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne

    2017-09-01

    Low-mass galaxies are thought to provide the bulk of the ionizing radiation necessary to reionize the Universe. The amount of photons escaping the galaxies is poorly constrained theoretically, and difficult to measure observationally. Yet it is an essential parameter of reionization models. We study in detail how ionizing radiation can leak from high-redshift galaxies. For this purpose, we use a series of high-resolution radiation hydrodynamics simulations, zooming on three dwarf galaxies in a cosmological context. We find that the energy and momentum input from the supernova explosions has a pivotal role in regulating the escape fraction by disrupting dense star-forming clumps, and clearing sightlines in the halo. In the absence of supernovae, photons are absorbed very locally, within the birth clouds of massive stars. We follow the time evolution of the escape fraction and find that it can vary by more than six orders of magnitude. This explains the large scatter in the value of the escape fraction found by previous studies. This fast variability also impacts the observability of the sources of reionization: a survey even as deep as M1500 = -14 would miss about half of the underlying population of Lyman-continuum emitters.

  3. ALMA Band 8 Continuum Emission from Orion Source I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki

    2016-12-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  4. The Lyman α forest in a blazar-heated Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchwein, Ewald; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip

    2012-06-01

    It has been realized only recently that TeV emission from blazars can significantly heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) by pair-producing high-energy electrons and positrons, which in turn excite vigorous plasma instabilities, leading to a local dissipation of the pairs' kinetic energy. In this work, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to model the impact of this blazar heating on the Lyman α forest at intermediate redshifts (z˜ 2-3). We find that blazar heating produces an inverted temperature-density relation in the IGM and naturally resolves many of the problems present in previous simulations of the forest that included photoionization heating alone. In particular, our simulations with blazar heating simultaneously reproduce the observed effective optical depth and temperature as a function of redshift, the observed probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the transmitted flux, and the observed flux power spectra, over the full redshift range 2 sum of thermally broadened individual lines, we find superb agreement with the observed lower cut-off of the linewidth distribution and abundances of neutral hydrogen column densities per unit redshift. Using the most recent constraints on the cosmic ultraviolet (UV) background, this excellent agreement with observations does not require rescaling the amplitude of the UV background - a procedure that was routinely used in the past to match the observed level of transmitted flux. We also show that our blazar-heated model matches the data better than standard simulations even when such a rescaling is allowed. This concordance between Lyman α data and simulation results, which are based on the most recent cosmological parameters, also suggests that the inclusion of blazar heating alleviates previous tensions on constraints for σ8 derived from Lyman α measurements and other cosmological data. Finally, we show that blazar heating dramatically alters the volume-weighted temperature PDF, implying an

  5. The Temporal Behaviour of Lyman-alpha Emission During Solar Flares From SDO/EVE

    CERN Document Server

    Milligan, Ryan O

    2015-01-01

    Despite being the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly$\\alpha$) emission during solar flares in recent years. The few examples that do exist, however, have shown Ly$\\alpha$ emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (on the order of 10%). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in earth's ionosphere. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory now provides broadband, photometric Ly$\\alpha$ data at 10 s cadence, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H$\\alpha$, Ly$\\beta$, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the Ly$\\alpha$ emission peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray e...

  6. Constraining quasar host halo masses with the strength of nearby Lyman-alpha forest absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y R; Kim, Young-Rae; Croft, Rupert

    2006-01-01

    Using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we measure the mean transmitted flux in the Lyman alpha forest for quasar sightlines that pass near a foreground quasar. We find that the trend of absorption with pixel-quasar separation distance can be fitted using a simple power law form including the usual correlation function parameters r_{0} and \\gamma so that ( = \\sum exp(-tau_eff*(1+(r/r_{0})^(-\\gamma)))). From the simulations we find the relation between r_{0} and quasar mass and formulate this as a way to estimate quasar host dark matter halo masses, quantifying uncertainties due to cosmological and IGM parameters, and redshift errors. With this method, we examine data for ~3000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3, assuming that the effect of ionizing radiation from quasars (the so-called transverse proximity effect) is unimportant (no evidence for it is seen in the data.) We find that the best fit host halo mass for SDSS quasars with mean redshift z=3 and absolute G band magnitu...

  7. The Low Redshift Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest in Cold Dark Matter Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, R; Katz, N; Weinberg, D H; Davé, Romeel; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David

    1999-01-01

    We study the physical origin of the low-redshift Lyman alpha forest in hydrodynamic simulations of four CDM cosmologies. Our main conclusions are insensitive to the cosmological model but depend on our assumption that the UV background declines at low redshift. We find that the expansion of the universe drives rapid evolution of dN/dz (the number of absorbers per unit z) at z > 1.7, but that at lower redshift the fading of the UV background counters the influence of expansion, leading to slow evolution. At every redshift, weaker lines come primarily from moderate fluctuations of the diffuse, unshocked IGM, and stronger lines originate in shocked or radiatively cooled gas of higher overdensity. However, the neutral hydrogen column density associated with structures of fixed overdensity drops as the universe expands, so an absorber at z = 0 is dynamically analogous to an absorber with neutral hydrogen column density 10 to 50 times higher at z = 2-3. We find no clear distinction between lines arising in "galaxy ...

  8. High redshift galaxies and the Lyman-alpha forest in a CDM universe

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, R A C; Springel, V; Westover, M; White, M; Croft, Rupert A.C.; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker; Westover, Michael; White, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We use a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a cold dark matter universe to investigate theoretically the relationship between high redshift galaxies and the Lyman=alpha forest at redshift z=3. Galaxies in the simulation are surrounded by halos of hot gas, which nevertheless contain enough neutral hydrogen to cause a Ly-alpha flux decrement, its strength increasing with galaxy mass. A comparison with recent observational data by Adelberger et. al on the Ly-alpha forest around galaxies reveals that actual galaxies may have systematically less Ly-alpha absorption within 1 Mpc of them than our simulated galaxies. In order to investigate this possibility, we add several simple prescriptions for galaxy feedback on the IGM to the evolved simulation. These include the effect of photoionizing background radiation coming from galactic sources, galactic winds whose only effect is to deposit thermal energy into the IGM, and another, kinetic model for winds, which are assumed to evacuate cavities in the IGM around ga...

  9. Imprints of Molecular Clouds in Radio Continuum Images

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2012-01-01

    We show radio continuum images of several molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy and report the presence of dark features that coincide with dense molecular clouds. Unlike infrared dark clouds, these features which we call "radio dark clouds" are produced by a deficiency in radio continuum emission from molecular clouds that are embedded in a bath of UV radiation field or synchrotron emitting cosmic ray particles. The contribution of the continuum emission along different pathlengths results in dark features that trace embedded molecular clouds. The new technique of identifying cold clouds can place constraints on the depth and the magnetic field of molecular clouds when compared to those of the surrounding hot plasma radiating at radio wavelengths. The study of five molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy, Sgr A, Sgr B2, radio Arc, the snake filament and G359.75-0.13 demonstrate an anti--correlation between the distributions of radio continuum and molecular line and dust emission. Radio dark clouds are iden...

  10. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at high redshift: Direct detection of young galaxies in a young universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Steven Arthur

    An early result of galaxy formation theory was the prediction that the copious ionizing radiation produced in nascent galaxies undergoing their first starbursts should in turn produce a strong Lya emission line. We report on our efforts to detect and characterize primeval galaxies by searching for this expected Lya signature with two observational techniques: serendipitous slit spectroscopy, and narrowband imaging selection. In Part I, we describe our serendipitous slit spectroscopy survey of the Hubble Deep Field and its environs, which resulted in a catalog of 74 spectroscopic redshifts spanning 0.10 5. Follow-up observations at higher resolution resulted in the additional serendipitous detection of a strong Lya-emitting galaxy at z = 5.190 (ES1). At the time of its discovery, ES1 was one of only nine known galaxies at z > 5, and was the sixth most distant known galaxy. The unprecedented spectral purity of the observation offers evidence for a galaxy-scale outflow with a. velocity of v > 300 km s -1 , consistent with wind speeds observed in powerful local starbursts (typically 10 2 to 10 3 km s -1 ), and with simulations of the late- stage evolution of Lya emission in star-forming systems. Our final serendipitous detection is the remarkable source CXOHDFN J123635.6+621424, which is both the highest redshift known spiral galaxy, and a rare example of a high redshift, hard X-ray-emitting Type II AGN. Significantly, all of these results were acquired with no direct allocation of telescope time. In Part II, we report on our implementation of narrowband imaging selection, with which we traded redshift coverage for survey volume, focusing on the systematic study of galaxies at a particular epoch in favor of chasing that rare, most-distant object. This effort resulted in a catalog of 76 z [approximate] 4.5 Lya-emitting galaxies spectroscopically-confirmed in campaigns of Keck/LRIS and Keck/DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Area Lyman

  11. Hydrodynamical Simulations of the Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest Model Comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M E; Meiksin, A; Anninos, P; Thayer, D; Norman, M L; Zhang, Y

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the Lyman alpha forest as predicted by numerical simulations for a range of currently viable cosmological models. This is done in order to understand the dependencies of the forest on cosmological parameters. Focusing on the redshift range from two to four, we show that: (1) most of the evolution in the distributions of optical depth, flux and column density can be understood by simple scaling relations, (2) the shape of optical depth distribution is a sensitive probe of the amplitude of density fluctuations on scales of a few hundred kpc, (3) the mean of the b distribution (a measure of the width of the absorption lines) is also very sensitive to fluctuations on these scales, and decreases as they increase. We perform a preliminary comparison to observations, where available. A number of other properties are also examined, including the evolution in the number of lines, the two-point flux distribution and the HeII opacity.

  12. Reproducing the Kinematics of Damped Lyman-alpha Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Neeleman, Marcel; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We examine the kinematic structure of Damped Lyman-alpha Systems (DLAs) in a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using the AREPO code. We are able to match the distribution of velocity widths of associated low ionisation metal absorbers substantially better than earlier work. Our simulations produce a population of DLAs dominated by halos with virial velocities around 70 km/s, consistent with a picture of relatively small, faint objects. In addition, we reproduce the observed correlation between velocity width and metallicity and the equivalent width distribution of SiII. Some discrepancies of moderate statistical significance remain; too many of our spectra show absorption concentrated at the edge of the profile and there are slight differences in the exact shape of the velocity width distribution. We show that the improvement over previous work is mostly due to our strong feedback from star formation and our detailed modelling of the metal ionisation state.

  13. Detecting Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Absorbers with Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Garnett, Roman; Bird, Simeon; Schneider, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We develop an automated technique for detecting damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs) along spectroscopic sightlines to quasi-stellar objects (QSOs or quasars). The detection of DLAs in large-scale spectroscopic surveys such as SDSS-III sheds light on galaxy formation at high redshift, showing the nucleation of galaxies from diffuse gas. We use nearly 50 000 QSO spectra to learn a novel tailored Gaussian process model for quasar emission spectra, which we apply to the DLA detection problem via Bayesian model selection. We propose models for identifying an arbitrary number of DLAs along a given line of sight. We demonstrate our method's effectiveness using a large-scale validation experiment, with excellent performance. We also provide a catalog of our results applied to 162 861 spectra from SDSS-III data release 12.

  14. Sample variance and Lyman-alpha forest transmission statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rollinde, Emmanuel; Schaye, Joop; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We compare the observed probability distribution function of the transmission in the \\HI\\ Lyman-alpha forest, measured from the UVES 'Large Programme' sample at redshifts z=[2,2.5,3], to results from the GIMIC cosmological simulations. Our measured values for the mean transmission and its PDF are in good agreement with published results. Errors on statistics measured from high-resolution data are typically estimated using bootstrap or jack-knife resampling techniques after splitting the spectra into chunks. We demonstrate that these methods tend to underestimate the sample variance unless the chunk size is much larger than is commonly the case. We therefore estimate the sample variance from the simulations. We conclude that observed and simulated transmission statistics are in good agreement, in particular, we do not require the temperature-density relation to be 'inverted'.

  15. An excess of damped Lyman alpha galaxies near QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, D M; Ellison, S L; Benn, Chris R.; Ellison, Sara L.; Russell, David M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a sample of 33 damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs) discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) whose absorption redshifts (z_abs) are within 6000 km/s of the QSO's systemic redshift (z_sys). Our sample is based on 731 2.5 = 2e20 cm^-2. The derived number density of DLAs per unit redshift, n(z), within v < 6000 km/s is higher (3.5 sigma significance) by almost a factor of 2 than that of intervening absorbers observed in the SDSS DR3, i.e. there is evidence for an overdensity of galaxies near the QSOs. This provides a physical motivation for excluding DLAs at small velocity separations in surveys of intervening 'field' DLAs. In addition, we find that the overdensity of proximate DLAs is independent of the radio-loudness of the QSO, consistent with the environments of radio-loud and radio-quiet QSOs being similar.

  16. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the Lyman Alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L; Harkness, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations in a (600 Mpc)^3 volume to study the observability of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the intergalactic medium as probed by Lyman alpha forest (LAF) absorption. The large scale separation between the wavelength of the BAO mode (~150 Mpc) and the size of LAF absorbers (~100 kpc) makes this a numerically challenging problem. We report on several 2048^3 simulations of the LAF using the ENZO code. We adopt WMAP5 concordance cosmological parameters and power spectrum including BAO perturbations. 5000 synthetic HI absorption line spectra are generated randomly piercing the box face. We calculate the cross-correlation function between widely separated pairs. We detect the BAO signal at z=3 where theory predicts to moderate statistical significance.

  17. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  18. The Direct Collapse of a Massive Black Hole Seed Under the Influence of an Anisotropic Lyman-Werner Source

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, John A; Wise, John H

    2014-01-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation provides an attractive solution to the origin of the quasars now routinely observed at $z \\gtrsim 6$. We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to simulate the collapse of gas at high redshift, including a nine species chemical model of H, He, and H$_2$. The direct collapse model requires that the gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object. The source is set to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band only at $12.8 \\ \\rm{eV}$. The LW radiation emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing techniques. We find that, due to self-shielding, a small amount of H$_2$ is able to form at the very center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we ...

  19. A possible connection between the spin temperature of damped Lyman α absorption systems and star formation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spin temperature/covering factor degeneracy, Tspin/f, in damped Lyman α absorption systems. By normalizing the upper limits and including these via a survival analysis, there is, as previously claimed, an apparent increase in Tspin/f with redshift at zabs ≳ 1. However, when we account for the geometry effects of an expanding Universe, neglected by the previous studies, this increase in Tspin at zabs ≳ 1 is preceded by a decrease at zabs ≲ 1. Using high resolution radio images of the background continuum sources, we can transform the Tspin/f degeneracy to T_spin/d_abs^{ 2}, where dabs is the projected linear size of the absorber. Again, there is no overall increase with redshift, although a dip at zabs ≈ 2 persists. Furthermore, we find d_abs^{ 2}/T_spin to follow a similar variation with redshift as the star formation rate, ψ*. This suggests that, although the total hydrogen column density, N_{H I}, shows little relation to ψ*, the fraction of the cold neutral medium, \\int τ_obs dv/N_{H I}, may. Therefore, further efforts to link the neutral gas with the star formation history should also consider the cool component of the gas.

  20. Lyman break and UV-selected galaxies at z ~ 1: II. PACS-100um/160um FIR detections

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Bongiovanni, Á; Pérez-García, A M; Cepa, J; Cedrés, B; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E J; Altieri, B; Andreani, P; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Aussel, H; itez, N Ben\\'; Berta, S; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Cerviño, M; Cimatti, A; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Daddi, E; Elbaz, D; Fernandez-Soto, A; Schreiber, N Förster; Genzel, R; Gonzalez-Delgado, R M; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Floc'h, E Le; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Maiolino, R; arquez, I M\\'; inez, V J Mart\\'; Masegosa, J; Matute, I; Moles, M; Molino, A; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; inez, R P\\' erez-Mart\\'; Pintos-Castro, I; Poglitsch, A; Polednikova, J; Popesso, P; Pović, M; Pozzi, F; Prada, F; Quintana, J M; Riguccini, L; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I; Viironen, K

    2013-01-01

    We report the PACS-100um/160um detections of a sample of 42 GALEX-selected and FIR-detected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 1 located in the COSMOS field and analyze their ultra-violet (UV) to far-infrared (FIR) properties. The detection of these LBGs in the FIR indicates that they have a dust content high enough so that its emission can be directly detected. According to a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with stellar population templates to their UV-to-near-IR observed photometry, PACS-detected LBGs tend to be bigger, more massive, dustier, redder in the UV continuum, and UV-brighter than PACS-undetected LBGs. PACS-detected LBGs at z ~ 1 are mostly disk-like galaxies and are located over the green-valley and red sequence of the color-magnitude diagram of galaxies at their redshift. By using their UV and IR emission, we find that PACS-detected LBGs tend to be less dusty and have slightly higher total star-formation rates (SFRs) than other PACS-detected UV-selected galaxies within their same reds...

  1. Nitrogen-induced absorption of oxygen in the Herzberg continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardanand, MR.

    1977-01-01

    Total absorption of O2 induced by collisions with N2 has been measured at room temperature in the Hersberg continuum using a one meter normal incidence grating monochromator. The enhanced absorption is ascribed to the formation of O2-O2 and O2-N2 dimers. The interaction constants for these dimers are determined and utilized to investigate their effect on the absorption of solar radiation in the stratosphere.

  2. Homogenization of a Cauchy continuum towards a micromorphic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Geralf

    2017-02-01

    The micromorphic theory of Eringen and Mindlin, including special cases like strain gradient theory or Cosserat theory, is widely used to model size effects and localization phenomena. The heuristic construction of such theories based on thermodynamic considerations is well-established. However, the identification of corresponding constitutive laws and of the large number of respective constitutive parameters limits the practical application of such theories. In the present contribution, a closed procedure for the homogenization of a Cauchy continuum at the microscale towards a fully micromorphic continuum is derived including explicit definitions of all involved generalized macroscopic stress and deformation measures. The boundary value problem to be solved on the microscale is formulated either for using static or kinematic boundary conditions. The procedure is demonstrated with an example.

  3. Copernicus measurement of the Jovian Lyman-alpha emission and its aeronomical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, S. K.; Kerr, R. B.; Upson, W. L., II; Festou, M. C.; Donahue, T. M.; Barker, E. S.; Cochran, W. D.; Bertaux, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the intensity of the Lyman-alpha emission is a good indicator of the principal aeronomical processes on the major planets. The high-resolution ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Copernicus was used in 1980 April and May to detect the Jovian Lyman-alpha emission by spectroscopically discriminating it from other Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha emissions such as those of the geocorona, and the interplanetary medium. Taking into consideration the reported emission data, it appears that an unusually large energy input due to the particle precipitation in the auroral region must have been responsible for the large observed Lyman-alpha intensity during the Voyager encounter. At most other times, the observed Jovian Lyman-alpha intensity can be explained, within the range of statistical uncertainty, by a model that takes into consideration the solar EUV flux, the solar Lyman-alpha flux, the high exospheric temperature, and the eddy diffusion coefficient without energy input from the auroral sources.

  4. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-02-02

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 10(12) Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit.

  5. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 1012 Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit. PMID:28150701

  6. An expedition to continuum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Wolfgang H

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces field theory as required in solid and fluid mechanics as well as in electromagnetism. It also presents the necessary mathematical framework, namely tensor algebra and tensor calculus, by using an inductive approach, which makes it particularly suitable for beginners. In general, the book can be used in undergraduate classes on continuum theory and, more specifically, in courses on continuum mechanics, for students of physics and engineering alike. The benefits for the readers consist of providing a sound basis of the subject as a whole and of training their ability for solving specific problems in a rational manner.  For this purpose the general laws of nature in terms of the balances for mass, momentum, and energy are applied and combined with constitutive relations, which are material specific. Various examples and homework problems illustrate how to use the theory in daily practice. Numerous mini-biographies have been added to the mathematical text for diversion and amusement.

  7. Mathematical Modeling in Continuum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temam, Roger; Miranville, Alain

    2005-06-01

    Temam and Miranville present core topics within the general themes of fluid and solid mechanics. The brisk style allows the text to cover a wide range of topics including viscous flow, magnetohydrodynamics, atmospheric flows, shock equations, turbulence, nonlinear solid mechanics, solitons, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This second edition will be a unique resource for those studying continuum mechanics at the advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate level whether in engineering, mathematics, physics or the applied sciences. Exercises and hints for solutions have been added to the majority of chapters, and the final part on solid mechanics has been substantially expanded. These additions have now made it appropriate for use as a textbook, but it also remains an ideal reference book for students and anyone interested in continuum mechanics.

  8. Imaging of spatial distributions of the millimeter wave intensity by using visible continuum radiation from a discharge in a Cs–Xe mixture. Part I: Review of the method and its fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitlin, M. S., E-mail: gitlin@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The first part of the review is presented which is dedicated to the time-resolved method of imaging and measuring the spatial distribution of the intensity of millimeter waves by using visible continuum (VC) emitted by the positive column (PC) of a dc discharge in a mixture of cesium vapor with xenon. The review focuses on the operating principles, fundamentals, and applications of this new technique. The design of the discharge tube and experimental setup used to create a wide homogeneous plasma slab with the help of the Cs–Xe discharge at a gas pressure of 45 Torr are described. The millimeter-wave effects on the plasma slab are studied experimentally. The mechanism of microwave-induced variations in the VC brightness and the causes of violation of the local relation between the VC brightness and the intensity of millimeter waves are discussed. Experiments on the imaging of the field patterns of horn antennas and quasi-optical beams demonstrate that this technique can be used for good-quality imaging of millimeter-wave beams in the entire millimeter-wavelength band. The method has a microsecond temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of about 2 mm. Energy sensitivities of about 10 μJ/cm{sup 2} in the Ka-band and about 200 μJ/cm{sup 2} in the D-band have been demonstrated.

  9. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  10. Lyman Alpha Camera for Io's SO2 atmosphere and Europa's water plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Sandel, Bill; Schneider, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The Student Lyman-Alpha Mapper (SLAM) was conceived for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission proposal (McEwen et al., 2014) to determine the spatial and temporal variations in Io's SO2 atmosphere by recording the H Ly-α reflection over the disk (Feldman et al., 2000; Feaga et al., 2009). SO2 absorbs at H Ly-α, thereby modulating the brightness of sunlight reflected by the surface, and measures the density of the SO2 atmosphere and its variability with volcanic activity and time of day. Recently, enhancements at the Ly-α wavelength (121.57 nm) were seen near the limb of Europa and interpreted as active water plumes ~200 km high (Roth et al., 2014). We have a preliminary design for a very simple camera to image in a single bandpass at Ly-α, analogous to a simplified version of IMAGE EUV (Sandel et al. 2000). Our goal is at least 50 resolution elements across Io and/or Europa (~75 km/pixel), ~3x better than HST STIS, to be acquired at a range where the radiation noise is below 1E-4 hits/pixel/s. This goal is achieved with a Cassegrain-like telescope with a 10-cm aperture. The wavelength selection is achieved using a simple self-filtering mirror in combination with a solar-blind photocathode. A photon-counting detector based on a sealed image intensifier preserves the poisson statistics of the incoming photon flux. The intensifier window is coated with a solar-blind photocathode material (CsI). The location of each photon event is recorded by a position-sensitive anode based on crossed delay-line or wedge-and-strip technology. The sensitivity is 0.01 counts/pixel/sec/R, sufficient to estimate SO2 column abundances ranging from 1E15 to 1E17 per cm2 in a 5 min (300 sec) exposure. Sensitivity requirements to search for and image Europa plumes may be similar. Io's Ly-α brightness of ~3 kR exceeds the 0.8 kR brightness of Europa's plume reported by Roth et al. (2014), but the plume brightness is a direct measurement rather than inferring column abundance from

  11. Interferometric multi-wavelength (sub)millimeter continuum study of the young high-mass protocluster IRAS05358+3543

    CERN Document Server

    Beuther, H; Schilke, P; Wyrowski, F; Menten, K M; Zhang, Q

    2007-01-01

    The young massive star-forming region IRAS05358+3543 was observed at high-spatial resolution in the continuum emission at 3.1 and 1.2mm with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and at 875 and 438mum with the Submillimeter Array. We resolve at least four continuum sub-sources that are likely of protostellar nature. Two of them are potentially part of a proto-binary system with a projected separation of 1700AU. Additional (sub)mm continuum peaks are not necessarily harboring protostars but maybe caused by the multiple molecular outflows. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the sub-sources show several features. The main power house mm1, which is associated with CH3OH maser emission, a hypercompact HII region and a mid-infrared source, exhibits a typical SED with a free-free emission component at cm and long mm wavelengths and a cold dust component in the (sub)mm part of the spectrum (spectral index between 1.2mm and 438mum alpha~3.6). The free-free emission corresponds to a Lyman continuum flux of an em...

  12. Peering through the holes: the far UV color of star-forming galaxies at z~3-4 and the escaping fraction of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Castellano, M; Grazian, A; Inoue, A K; Schaerer, D; Guaita, L; Zamorani, G; Giavalisco, M; Siana, B; Pentericci, L; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effect of the escaping ionizing radiation on the color selection of high redshift galaxies and identify candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters. The intergalactic medium prescription of Inoue et al.(2014) and galaxy synthesis models of Bruzual&Charlot (2003) have been used to properly treat the ultraviolet stellar emission, the stochasticity of the intergalactic transmission and mean free path in the ionizing regime. Color tracks are computed by turning on/off the escape fraction of ionizing radiation. At variance with recent studies, a careful treatment of IGM transmission leads to no significant effects on the high-redshift broad-band color selection. The decreasing mean free path of ionizing photons with increasing redshift further diminishes the contribution of the LyC to broad-band colors. We also demonstrate that prominent LyC sources can be selected under suitable conditions by calculating the probability of a null escaping ionizing radiation. The method is applied to a s...

  13. ALMA band 8 continuum emission from Orion Source I

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A; Honma, Mareki

    2016-01-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.1". The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au times 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelength. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick black-body spectral energy distribution (SED), and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright (2016), in which the continuum emission have been proposed to arise from the edge-on circum...

  14. Lyman Break Galaxies at z~5 Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, I; Tamura, N; Ando, M; Wada, S; Watanabe, C; Akiyama, M; Aoki, K

    2003-01-01

    (abridged) We present results of a search for Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 5 in a 618 square-arcmin field including the HDF-N taken by Subaru Prime Focus Camera. Utilizing the published redshift data of the HDF-N and its flanking fields, the color selection criteria are chosen so that LBGs are picked out most efficiently and least contaminated by foreground objects. The numbers of LBG candidates detected are 310 in 23.0 < I_c < 25.5. The rest-frame UV luminosity function(LF) of LBGs at z ~ 5 is derived statistically. The fraction of contamination is estimated to be ~50% in the faintest magnitude range. The completeness of the survey is ~80% at the bright part of the sample, and ~20% in the faintest magnitude range (25.0 < I_c <= 25.5). The LF of LBG candidates at z ~ 5 does not show a significant difference from those at z ~ 3 and 4, though there might be a slight decrease in the fainter part. The UV luminosity density within the observational limit is 0.56 - 0.69 times smaller than that obt...

  15. Chemical evolution and nature of Damped Lyman-Alpha systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Vladilo, G

    2003-01-01

    We study the nature of Damped Lyman -Alpha systems (DLAs) by means of a comparison between observed abundances and models of chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type. In particular, we compare for the first time the abundance ratios as functions of metallicity and redshift with dust-corrected data. We have developed detailed models following the evolution of several chemical elements (H, D, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Fe, Ni and Zn) for elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies. Each of the models is calibrated to reproduce the main features of a massive elliptical, the Milky Way and the LMC, respectively. In addition, we run some models also for dwarf irregular starburst galaxies. All the models share the same uptodate nucleosynthesis prescriptions but differ in their star formation histories. The role of SNe of different type (II, Ia) is studied in each galaxy model together with detailed and up to date nucleosynthesis prescriptions. Our main conclusions are: 1) when dust depletion is ...

  16. A Lyman Break Galaxy Candidate at z~9

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Alaina L; Colbert, James W; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I; McCarthy, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of a z~9 Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) candidate, selected from the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey as a J-dropout with J110 - H160 = 1.7. Spitzer/IRAC photometry reveals that the galaxy has a blue H160 - 3.6 um color, and a spectral break between 3.6 and 4.5 um. We interpret this break as the Balmer break, and derive a best-fit photometric redshift of z~9. We use Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of this photometric redshift, and show a 96% probability of z>7. We estimate a lower limit to the comoving number density of such galaxies at z~9 of phi > 3.8 x 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3}. If the high redshift of this galaxy is confirmed, this will indicate that the luminous end of the rest-frame UV luminosity function has not evolved substantially from z~ 9 to z~3. Still, some small degeneracy remains between this z~9 model and models at z~2-3; deep optical imaging (reaching I ~ 29 AB) can rule out the lower-z models.

  17. Damped Lyman Alpha Systems in Galaxy Formation Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Pontzen, Andrew; Pettini, Max; Booth, C M; Stinson, Greg; Wadsley, James; Brooks, Alyson; Quinn, Thomas; Haehnelt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the population of z=3 damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs) in a recent series of high resolution galaxy formation simulations. The simulations are of interest because they form at z=0 some of the most realistic disk galaxies to date. No free parameters are available in the simulations: these have been fixed by physical and z=0 observational constraints, and thus our study provides a genuine consistency test. The precise role of DLAs in galaxy formation remains in debate, but they provide a number of strong constraints on the nature of our simulated bound systems at z=3 because of their coupled information on neutral H I densities, kinematics, metallicity and estimates of star formation activity. Our results, without any parameter-tuning, closely match the observed incidence rate and column density distributions of DLAs. Our simulations are the first to reproduce the distribution of metallicities (with a median of Z_{DLA} = Z_{solar}/20) without invoking observationally unsupported mechanisms suc...

  18. The Lyman-alpha Forest as a Cosmological Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, D H; Katz, N; Kollmeier, J A; Weinberg, David H.; Dav'e, Romeel; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.

    2003-01-01

    We review recent developments in the theory of the Lyman-alpha forest and their implications for the role of the forest as a test of cosmological models. Simulations predict a relatively tight correlation between the local Lya optical depth and the local gas or dark matter density. Statistical properties of the transmitted flux can constrain the amplitude and shape of the matter power spectrum at high redshift, test the assumption of Gaussian initial conditions, and probe the evolution of dark energy by measuring the Hubble parameter H(z). Simulations predict increased Lya absorption in the vicinity of galaxies, but observations show a Lya deficit within Delta_r ~ 0.5 Mpc/h (comoving). We investigate idealized models of "winds" and find that they must eliminate neutral hydrogen out to comoving radii ~1.5 Mpc/h to marginally explain the data. Winds of this magnitude suppress the flux power spectrum by \\~0.1 dex but have little effect on the distribution function or threshold crossing frequency. In light of the...

  19. The redshift evolution of Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Valageas, P; Silk, J

    1999-01-01

    We present a model for the Lyman-alpha absorbers that treats all objects (from the low-density forest clouds to the dense damped systems) in a unified description. This approach is consistent with an earlier model of galaxies (luminosity function, metallicity) but also with the known description of the density field in the small-scale non-linear regime. We consider two cosmological models: a critical universe $\\Omega=1$ with a CDM power-spectrum, and an open CDM universe with $\\Omega_0=0.3$, $\\Lambda=0$. We reproduce the available data on column density distribution as a function of redshift, the value of the main new parameter, the background ionizing UV flux, being consistent with the observed limits. This allows a quantitatively trustable analytical description of the opacity, mass, size, velocity dispersion and metallicity of these absorbers, over a range of column densities spanning 10 orders of magnitude. Moreover, together with an earlier model of galaxy formation this draws a unified picture of the re...

  20. The Stellar Populations and Evolution of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    Using deep near-IR and optical observations of the HDF-N from the HST NICMOS and WFPC2 and from the ground, we examine the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 2.0 < z < 3.5. The UV-to-optical rest-frame SEDs of the galaxies are much bluer than those of present-day spiral and elliptical galaxies, and are generally similar to those of local starburst galaxies with modest amounts of reddening. We use stellar population synthesis models to study the properties of the stars that dominate the light from LBGs. Under the assumption that the star-formation rate is continuous or decreasing with time, the best-fitting models provide a lower bound on the LBG mass estimates. LBGs with ``L*'' UV luminosities are estimated to have minimum stellar masses ~ 10^10 solar masses, or roughly 1/10th that of a present-day L* galaxy. By considering the effects of a second component of maximally-old stars, we set an upper bound on the stellar masses that is ~ 3-8 times the minimum estimate. We...

  1. The z ~ 4 Lyman Break Galaxies: Colors and Theoretical Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Idzi, R; Papovich, C; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Kretchmer, C; Lotz, J; Idzi, Rafal; Somerville, Rachel; Papovich, Casey; Ferguson, Henry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kretchmer, Claudia; Lotz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We investigate several fundamental properties of z ~ 4 Lyman-break galaxies by comparing observations with the predictions of a semi-analytic model based on the Cold Dark Matter theory of hierarchical structure formation. We use a sample of B_{435}-dropouts from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, and complement the ACS optical B_{435}, V_{606}, i_{775}, and z_{850} data with the VLT ISAAC J, H, and K_{s} observations. We extract B_{435}-dropouts from our semi-analytic mock catalog using the same color criteria and magnitude limits that were applied to the observed sample. We find that the i_{775} - K_{s} colors of the model-derived and observed B_{435}-dropouts are in good agreement. However, we find that the i_{775}-z_{850} colors differ significantly, indicating perhaps that either too little dust or an incorrect extinction curve have been used. Motivated by the reasonably good agreement between the model and observed data we present predictions for the stellar masses, star formation rates, and ag...

  2. Lyman Alpha Emitters in the Hierarchically Clustering Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We present a new theoretical model for the luminosity functions (LFs) of Lyman alpha (Lya) emitting galaxies in the framework of hierarchical galaxy formation. We extend a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation that reproduces a number of observations for local galaxies, without changing the original model parameters but introducing a physically-motivated modelling to describe the escape fraction of Lya photons from host galaxies (f_esc). Though a previous study using a hierarchical clustering model simply assumed a constant and universal value of f_esc, we incorporate two new effects on f_esc: extinction by interstellar dust and galaxy-scale outflow induced as a star formation feedback. It is found that the new model nicely reproduces all the observed Lya LFs of the Lya emitters (LAEs) at different redshifts in z ~ 3--6. Our model predicts that galaxies with strong outflows and f_esc ~ 1 are dominant in the observed LFs, which is consistent with available observations while the simple universal f_esc model ...

  3. The Metallicity evolution of Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savaglio, S; Stiavelli, M

    1999-01-01

    We have collected absorption line measurements of 70 Damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems, mostly coming from high resolution data, to investigate the chemical evolution of galaxies in the redshift interval 0.0 < z < 4.4. In doing that, we have adopted the most general approach used so far, i.e. the dust depletion corrections are obtained by comparing the element abundances with four depletion patterns observed in the Milky Way. The best solution, obtained through chi^2 minimization, gives as output parameters the global DLA metallicity and the dust-to-metals ratio. Clear evolution of the metallicity vs. redshift is found, with average values going from ~1/30 solar at z~4.1 to dispersion around the average regression is significantly larger than the errors (i.e. ~0.45 dex average dispersion relative to ~0.14 dex error), indicating that the class of DLAs include objects with a range of evolutionary histories and/or initial conditions, such as total mass, formation time, matter spatial distribution, etc. We a...

  4. Giant Lyman-Alpha Nebulae in the Illustris Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gronke, Max

    2016-01-01

    Several `giant' Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) nebulae with extent $\\gtrsim 300\\,$kpc and observed Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity of $\\gtrsim 10^{44}\\,{\\rm erg}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2}\\,{\\rm arcsec}^{-2}$ have recently been detected, and it has been speculated that their presence hints at a substantial cold gas reservoir in small cool clumps not resolved in modern hydro-dynamical simulations. We use the Illustris simulation to predict the Ly$\\alpha$ emission emerging from large halos ($M > 10^{11.5}M_{\\odot}$) at $z\\sim 2$ and thus test this model. We consider both AGN and star driven ionization, and compared the simulated surface brightness maps, profiles and Ly$\\alpha$ spectra to a model where most gas is clumped below the simulation resolution scale. We find that while the cold clumps boost the Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity especially in the outer regions of the halo -- as expected by previous work -- with Illustris no additional clumping is necessary to explain the extents and luminosities of the `giant Ly$\\alpha$ nebul...

  5. Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, GA

    1988-01-01

    This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e

  6. Continuum modeling of myxobacteria clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Cameron W.; Alber, Mark; Tsimring, Lev S.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we develop a continuum theory of clustering in ensembles of self-propelled inelastically colliding rods with applications to collective dynamics of common gliding bacteria Myxococcus xanthus. A multi-phase hydrodynamic model that couples densities of oriented and isotropic phases is described. This model is used for the analysis of an instability that leads to spontaneous formation of directionally moving dense clusters within initially dilute isotropic ‘gas’ of myxobacteria. Numerical simulations of this model confirm the existence of stationary dense moving clusters and also elucidate the properties of their collisions. The results are shown to be in a qualitative agreement with experiments.

  7. Computing Intrinsic Lyman-alpha Fluxes of F5 V to M5 V Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Linsky, Jeffrey L; Ayres, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H2O, CH4, and CO2 in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyman-alpha line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Lyman-alpha flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on HST spectra, reconstructed Lyman-alpha line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Lyman-...

  8. First Detection of Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing and Lyman-{\\alpha} Forest Bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Doux, Cyrille; Aubourg, Eric; Ganga, Ken; Lee, Khee-Gan; Spergel, David N; Tréguer, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detection of a correlation between the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing. For each Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest in SDSS-III/BOSS DR12, we correlate the one-dimensional power spectrum with the CMB lensing convergence on the same line of sight from Planck. This measurement constitutes a position-dependent power spectrum, or a squeezed bispectrum, and quantifies the non-linear response of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum to a large-scale overdensity. The signal is measured at 5~$\\sigma$ and is consistent with the $\\Lambda$CDM expectation. We measure the linear and non-linear biases of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest with respect to the dark matter distribution. This new observable provides a consistency check for the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest as a large-scale structure probe and tests our understanding of the relation between intergalactic gas and dark matter. In the future, it could be used to test hydrodynamical simulations and calibrate the relation between the Ly...

  9. Two-phase equilibrium and molecular hydrogen formation in damped Lyman-alpha systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liszt, H S

    2002-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen is quite underabundant in damped Lyman-alpha systems at high redshift, when compared to the interstellar medium near the Sun. This has been interpreted as implying that the gas in damped Lyman-alpha systems is warm. like the nearby neutral intercloud medium, rather than cool, as in the clouds which give rise to most H I absorption in the Milky Way. Other lines of evidence suggest that the gas in damped Lyman-alpha systems -- in whole or part -- is actually cool; spectroscopy of neutral and ionized carbon, discussed here, shows that the damped Lyman-alpha systems observed at lower redshift z $$ 2.8 are warm (though not devoid of H2). To interpret the observations of carbon and hydrogen we constructed detailed numerical models of H2 formation under the conditions of two-phase thermal equilibrium, like those which account for conditions near the Sun, but with varying metallicity, dust-gas ratio, $etc$. We find that the low metallicity of damped Lyman-alpha systems is enough to suppress H2 form...

  10. Constraints on QSO emissivity using H I and He II Lyman α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Vikram

    2017-10-01

    The spectrum of cosmic ultraviolet background radiation at He II ionizing energies (E ≥ 4 Ryd) is important to study the He II reionization, thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and metal lines observed in quasi-stellar object (QSO) absorption spectra. It is determined by the emissivity of QSOs at E ≥ 4 Ryd obtained from their observed luminosity functions and the mean spectral energy distribution (SED). The SED is approximated as a power law at energies E ≥ 1 Ryd, fE ∝ Eα, where the existing observations constrain the power-law index α only up to ∼2.3 Ryd. Here, we constrain α for E ≥ 4 Ryd using recently measured He II Lyman α effective optical depths (τ_{α }^{He II}), H I photoionization rates and updated H I distribution in the IGM. We find that -1.6 > α > -2 is required to reproduce the τ_{α }^{He II} measurements when we use the QSO emissivity obtained from their luminosity function using optical surveys. We also find that the models where QSOs can alone reionize H I cannot reproduce the τ_{α }^{He II} measurements. These models need modifications, such as a break in mean QSO SED at energies greater than 4 Ryd. Even after such modifications, the predicted He II reionization history, showing that the He II is highly ionized even at z ∼ 5, is significantly different from the standard models. Therefore, the thermal history of the IGM will be crucial to distinguish these models. We also provide the He II photoionization rates obtained from binned τ_{α }^{He II} measurements.

  11. A connection between extremely strong Damped Lyman-alpha Systems and Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies at small impact parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Noterdaeme, P; Paris, I; Cai, Z; Finley, H; Ge, J; Pieri, M M; York, D G

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of ~100 high redshift (z~2-4) extremely strong damped Lyman-alpha systems (ESDLA, with N(HI)>0.5x10^22 cm^-2) detected in quasar spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey SDSS-III DR11. We study the neutral hydrogen, metal, and dust content of this elusive population of absorbers and confirm our previous finding that the high column density end of the N(HI) frequency distribution has a relatively shallow slope with power-law index -3.6, similar to what is seen from 21-cm maps in nearby galaxies. The stacked absorption spectrum indicates a typical metallicity ~1/20th solar, similar to the mean metallicity of the overall DLA population. The relatively small velocity extent of the low-ionisation lines suggests that ESDLAs do not arise from large-scale flows of neutral gas. The high column densities involved are in turn more similar to what is seen in DLAs associated with gamma-ray burst afterglows (GRB-DLAs), which are known to occur close to star forming regions. This indicates...

  12. Lyman α emission from the first galaxies: signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock heated to temperatures of similar to 10(4) K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman alpha line. Indeed, a number of Lyman alpha blobs have been detected at

  13. Lyman α emission from the first galaxies : Signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M.A.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, Maarten; Zaroubi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock heated to temperatures of ˜104 K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman α line. Indeed, a number of Lyman α blobs have been detected at high redshift. In th

  14. Lyman α emission from the first galaxies: signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock heated to temperatures of ˜104 K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman α line. Indeed, a number of Lyman α blobs have been detected at high redshift. In th

  15. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies : signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock heated to temperatures of similar to 10(4) K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman alpha line. Indeed, a number of Lyman alpha blobs have been detected at

  16. Lyman α emission from the first galaxies: signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock heated to temperatures of similar to 10(4) K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman alpha line. Indeed, a number of Lyman alpha blobs have been detected at

  17. Medium-resolution spectroscopy of FORJ0332-3557: probing the interstellar medium and stellar populations of a lensed Lyman-break galaxy at z = 3.77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanac, Rémi A.; Valls-Gabaud, David; Lidman, Chris

    2008-06-01

    We recently reported the discovery of FORJ0332-3557, a lensed Lyman-break galaxy at z = 3.77 in a remarkable example of strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lensing. We present here a medium-resolution rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the source, which appears to be similar to the well-known Lyman-break galaxy MS1512-cB58 at z = 2.73. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a stellar population of less than 30Ma, with an extinction of Av = 0.5 mag and an extinction-corrected star formation rate SFRUV of 200-300h-170Msolara-1. The Lyα line exhibits a damped profile in absorption produced by a column density of about NHI = (2.5 +/- 1.0) × 1021cm-2, superimposed on an emission line shifted both spatially (0.5 arcsec with respect to the UV continuum source) and in velocity space (+830kms-1 with respect to the low-ionization absorption lines from its interstellar medium), a clear signature of outflows with an expansion velocity of about 270kms-1. A strong emission line from HeII λ164.04 nm indicates the presence of Wolf-Rayet stars and reinforces the interpretation of a very young starburst. The metallic lines indicate subsolar abundances of elements Si, Al and C in the ionized gas phase. Based on observations made at the ESO VLT under programmes 74.A-0536 and 78.A-0240. E-mail: remi.cabanac@ast.obs-mip.fr (RAC); david.valls-gabaud@obspm.fr (DV-G); clidman@eso.org (CL)

  18. A possible solution to the Lyman/Balmer line problem in hot DA white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Preval, S P; Badnell, N R; Holberg, J B; Hubeny, I

    2014-01-01

    Arguably, the best method for determining the effective temperature ($T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) and surface gravity (log $g$) of a DA white dwarf is by fitting the Hydrogen Lyman and Balmer absorption features. However, as has been shown for white dwarfs with $T_{\\mathrm{eff}}$>50,000K, the calculated value from the Lyman and Balmer lines are discrepant, which worsens with increasing temperature. Many different solutions have been suggested, ranging from the input physics used to calculate the models, to interstellar reddening. We will focus on the former, and consider three variables. The first is the atomic data used, namely the number of transitions included in line blanketing treatments and the photoionization cross sections. The second is the stark broadening treatment used to synthesise the Lyman and Balmer line profiles, namely the calculations performed by Lemke (1997) and Tremblay & Bergeron (2009). Finally, the third is the atmospheric content. The model grids are calculated with a pure H composition, ...

  19. Minimally Parametric Power Spectrum Reconstruction from the Lyman-alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Viel, Matteo; Verde, Licia

    2010-01-01

    Current results from the Lyman alpha forest assume that the primordial power spectrum of density perturbations follows a simple power law form. We present the first analysis of Lyman alpha data to study the effect of relaxing this strong assumption on primordial and astrophysical constraints. We perform a large suite of numerical simulations, using them to calibrate a minimally parametric framework for describing the power spectrum. Combined with cross-validation, a statistical technique which prevents over-fitting of the data, this framework allows us to reconstruct the power spectrum shape without strong prior assumptions. We find no evidence for deviation from scale-invariance; our analysis also shows that current Lyman alpha data do not have sufficient statistical power to robustly probe the shape of the power spectrum at these scales. In contrast, the ongoing Baryon Oscillation Sky Survey (BOSS) will be able to do so with high precision. Furthermore, this near-future data will be able to break degeneraci...

  20. Bias, redshift space distortions and primordial nongaussianity of nonlinear transformations: application to Lyman alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Seljak, Uros

    2012-01-01

    On large scales a nonlinear transformation of matter density field can be viewed as a biased tracer of the density field itself. A nonlinear transformation also modifies the redshift space distortions in the same limit, giving rise to a velocity bias. In models with primordial nongaussianity a nonlinear transformation generates a scale dependent bias on large scales. We derive analytic expressions for these for a general nonlinear transformation. These biases can be expressed entirely in terms of the one point distribution function (PDF) of the final field and the parameters of the transformation. Our analysis allows one to devise nonlinear transformations with nearly arbitrary bias properties, which can be used to increase the signal in the large scale clustering limit. We apply the results to the ionizing equilibrium model of Lyman-alpha forest, in which Lyman-alpha flux F is related to the density perturbation delta via a nonlinear transformation. Velocity bias can be expressed as an average over the Lyman...

  1. Records Continuum: An Emerging Recordkeeping Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shiou Lin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Records Continuum, a recordkeeping theory emerging from the Australian archives and records management studies which gained international recognition in the 1990s. This paper first describes the background of the theory development. It goes on to explicate the theses of continuum theorists including the Records Continuum Diagram developed by Frank Upward. Finally, it offers some critiques on the theoretical propositions and discusses their implications on records and archival practices. [Article content in Chinese

  2. Lyman-alpha and CIII] Emission in z=7-9 Galaxies: Accelerated Reionization Around Luminous Star Forming Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Daniel P; Charlot, Stephane; Chevallard, Jacopo; Tang, Mengtao; Belli, Sirio; Zitrin, Adi; Mainali, Ramesh; Gutkin, Julia; Vidal-Garcia, Alba; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    We discuss new Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of four luminous galaxies at z~7-9 selected to have intense optical line emission by Roberts-Borsani et al. (2016). Previous follow-up has revealed Lyman-alpha in two of the four galaxies. Our new MOSFIRE observations confirm that Lyman-alpha is present in the entire sample. We detect Lyman-alpha emission in COS-zs7-1, confirming its redshift as z=7.154, and we detect Lyman-alpha in EGS-zs8-2 at z=7.477, verifying a tentative detection presented in an earlier study. The ubiquity of Lyman-alpha in this sample is puzzling given that the IGM is likely significantly neutral over 77 is expected to be strongly luminosity-dependent, with the most effective transmission occurring in systems with intense star formation.

  3. The most metal-rich damped Lyman alpha systems at z>1.5 I: The Data

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Trystyn A M; Prochaska, J Xavier; Ellison, Sara L; Wolfe, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    We present HIRES observations for 30 damped Lyman alpha systems, selected on the basis of their large metal column densities from previous, lower resolution data. The measured metal column densities for Fe, Zn, S, Si, Cr, Mn, and Ni are provided for these 30 systems. Combined with previously observed large metal column density damped Lyman alpha systems, we present a sample of 44 damped Lyman alpha systems observed with high resolution spectrographs (R~30000). These damped Lyman alpha systems probe the most chemically evolved systems at redshifts greater than 1.5. We discuss the context of our sample with the general damped Lyman alpha population, demonstrating that we are probing the top 10% of metal column densities with our sample. In a companion paper, we will present an analysis of the sample's elemental abundances in the context of galactic chemical enrichment.

  4. Predicting Lyman-alpha and Mg II Fluxes from K and M Dwarfs Using GALEX Ultraviolet Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S

    2014-01-01

    A star's UV emission can greatly affect the atmospheric chemistry and physical properties of closely orbiting planets with the potential for severe mass loss. In particular, the Lyman-alpha emission line at 1216 Angstroms, which dominates the far-ultraviolet spectrum, is a major source of photodissociation of important atmospheric molecules such as water and methane. The intrinsic flux of Lyman-alpha, however, cannot be directly measured due to the absorption of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium and contamination by geocoronal emission. To date, reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyman-alpha line based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra has been accomplished for 46 FGKM nearby stars, 28 of which have also been observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Our investigation provides a correlation between published intrinsic Lyman-alpha and GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet chromospheric fluxes for K and M stars. The negative correlations between the ratio of the Lyman-alpha to the GALEX fluxes reveal ...

  5. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FAINT 3 < z < 8 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR A DECLINING FRACTION OF EMISSION LINE SOURCES IN THE REDSHIFT RANGE 6 < z < 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Kavli Institute of Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, F-13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Richard, Johan [Observatoire de Lyon, F-69561 Saint-Genis-Laval (France)

    2012-01-10

    Using deep Keck spectroscopy of Lyman break galaxies selected from infrared imaging data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we present new evidence for a reversal in the redshift-dependent fraction of star-forming galaxies with detectable Lyman alpha (Ly{alpha}) emission in the redshift range 6.3 < z < 8.8. Our earlier surveys with the DEIMOS spectrograph demonstrated a significant increase with redshift in the fraction of line emitting galaxies over the interval 4 < z < 6, particularly for intrinsically faint systems which dominate the luminosity density. Using the longer wavelength sensitivities of Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and NIRSPEC, we have targeted 19 Lyman break galaxies selected using recent WFC3/IR data whose photometric redshifts are in the range 6.3 < z < 8.8 and which span a wide range of intrinsic luminosities. Our spectroscopic exposures typically reach a 5{sigma} sensitivity of <50 A for the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of Ly{alpha} emission. Despite the high fraction of emitters seen only a few hundred million years later, we find only two convincing and one possible line emitter in our more distant sample. Combining with published data on a further seven sources obtained using FORS2 on the ESO Very Large Telescope, and assuming continuity in the trends found at lower redshift, we discuss the significance of this apparent reversal in the redshift-dependent Ly{alpha} fraction in the context of our range in continuum luminosity. Assuming all the targeted sources are at their photometric redshift and our assumptions about the Ly{alpha} EW distribution are correct, we would expect to find so few emitters in less than 1% of the realizations drawn from our lower redshift samples. Our new results provide further support for the suggestion that, at the redshifts now being probed spectroscopically, we are entering the era where the intergalactic medium is partially neutral. With the arrival of more

  6. The Infrared Continuum Spectrum of VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, M; Decin, L; Waelkens, C; Feuchtgruber, H; Melnick, G J; Harwit, Martin; Malfait, Koen; Decin, Leen; Waelkens, Christoffel; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Melnick, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    We combine spectra of VY CMa obtained with the short- and long-wavelength spectrometers, SWS and LWS, on the Infrared Space Observatory to provide a first detailed continuum spectrum of this highly luminous star. The circumstellar dust cloud through which the star is observed is partially self-absorbing, which makes for complex computational modeling. We review previous work and comment on the range of uncertainties about the physical traits and mineralogical composition of the modeled disk. We show that these uncertainties significantly affect the modeling of the outflow and the estimated mass loss. In particular, we demonstrate that a variety of quite diverse models can produce good fits to the observed spectrum. If the outflow is steady, and the radiative repulsion on the dust cloud dominates the star's gravitational attraction, we show that the total dust mass-loss rate is $\\sim 4\\times 10^{-6}M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, assuming that the star is at a distance of 1.5 kpc. Several indications, however, suggest t...

  7. ON THE CONTINUUM MODELING OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 黄永刚; Philippe H.Geubelle; 黄克智

    2002-01-01

    We have recently proposed a nanoscale continuum theory for carbonnanotubes. The theory links continuum analysis with atomistic modeling by incor-porating interatomic potentials and atomic structures of carbon nanotubes directlyinto the constitutive law. Here we address two main issues involved in setting upthe nanoscale continuum theory for carbon nanotubes, namely the multi-body in-teratomic potentials and the lack of centrosymmetry in the nanotube structure. Weexplain the key ideas behind these issues in establishing a nanoscale continuum theoryin terms of interatomic potentials and atomic structures.

  8. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  9. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Morchenko, Egor; Livshits, Moisey

    2015-01-01

    The emission spectrum has been calculated of a homogeneous pure hydrogen layer, which parameters are typical for a flare on a red dwarf. The ionization and excitation states were determined by the solution of steady-state equations taking into account the continuum and all discrete hydrogen levels. We consider the following elementary processes: electron-impact transitions, spontaneous and induced radiative transitions, and ionization by the bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself. The Biberman--Holstein approximation was used to calculate the scattering of line radiation. Asymptotic formulae for the escape probability are obtained for a symmetric line profile taking into account the Stark and Doppler effects. The approximation for the core of the H$-\\alpha$ line by a gaussian curve has been substantiated. The spectral intensity of the continuous spectrum, the intensity of the lines of the Balmer series and the magnitude of the Balmer jump have been calculated. The conditions have been ...

  10. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation II

    CERN Document Server

    Hagstrom, G I

    2013-01-01

    Building on the development of [MOR13], bifurcation of unstable modes that emerge from continuous spectra in a class of infinite-dimensional noncanonical Hamiltonian systems is investigated. Of main interest is a bifurcation termed the continuum Hamiltonian Hopf (CHH) bifurcation, which is an infinite-dimensional analog of the usual Hamiltonian Hopf (HH) bifurcation. Necessary notions pertaining to spectra, structural stability, signature of the continuous spectra, and normal forms are described. The theory developed is applicable to a wide class of 2+1 noncanonical Hamiltonian matter models, but the specific example of the Vlasov-Poisson system linearized about homogeneous (spatially independent) equilibria is treated in detail. For this example, structural (in)stability is established in an appropriate functional analytic setting, and two kinds of bifurcations are considered, one at infinite and one at finite wavenumber. After defining and describing the notion of dynamical accessibility, Kre\\u{i}n-like the...

  11. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    •The principle of virtual work is used to establish consistent theories of kinematic nonlinearity and linearity for other kinds of bodies, such as beams and plates •An in-depth treatment of structural instability as many structures fail due to this phenomenon •An introduction to the most versatile...... numerical method, the finite element method, including means of mending inherent problems •An informal, yet precise exposition that emphasizes not just how a topic is treated, but discusses why a particular choice is made The book opens with a derivation of kinematically nonlinear 3-D continuum mechanics...... for solids. Then the principle of virtual work is utilized to derive the simpler, kinematically linear 3-D theory and to provide the foundation for developing consistent theories of kinematic nonlinearity and linearity for specialized continua, such as beams and plates, and finite element methods...

  12. H2 Lyman and Werner band lines and their sensitivity for a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio in the gravitational potential of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salumbides, E. J.; Bagdonaite, J.; Abgrall, H.; Roueff, E.; Ubachs, W.

    2015-06-01

    Recently we published an accurate analysis of molecular hydrogen absorption in the photospheres of the white dwarf stars GD133 and GD29-38, previously observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Constraints were derived on a possible dependence of the proton-electron mass ratio on gravitational fields that are 10 000 times stronger than at the Earth's surface. Here we present further details of that study, in particular a re-evaluation of the spectrum of the B^1Σ _u^+ - X^1Σ _g^+ (v^' },v^' ' }) Lyman bands relevant for the prevailing temperatures (12 000-14 000 K) of the photospheres. The emphasis is on the calculation of so-called Ki-coefficients, that represent the sensitivity of each individual line to a possible change in the proton-electron mass ratio. Such calculations were performed by semi-empirical methods and by ab initio methods providing accurate and consistent values. A full listing is provided for the molecular physics data on the Lyman bands (wavelengths λi, line oscillator strengths fi, radiative damping rates Γi, and sensitivity coefficients Ki) as required for the analyses of H2-spectra in hot dwarf stars. A similar listing of the molecular physics parameters for the C^1Π_u - X^1Σ _g^+ (v^' },v^' ' }) Werner bands is provided for future use in the analysis of white dwarf spectra.

  13. Temperature Dependences of Mechanisms Responsible for the Water-Vapor Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng

    2014-01-01

    The water-vapor continuum absorption plays an important role in the radiative balance in the Earth's atmosphere. It has been experimentally shown that for ambient atmospheric conditions, the continuum absorption scales quadratically with the H2O number density and has a strong, negative temperature dependence (T dependence). Over the years, there have been three different theoretical mechanisms postulated: far-wings of allowed transition lines, water dimers, and collision-induced absorption. The first mechanism proposed was the accumulation of absorptions from the far-wings of the strong allowed transition lines. Later, absorption by water dimers was proposed, and this mechanism provides a qualitative explanation for the continuum characters mentioned above. Despite the improvements in experimental data, at present there is no consensus on which mechanism is primarily responsible for the continuum absorption.

  14. Physics of the continuum of borromean nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagen, J.S.; Rogde, T. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Danilin, B.V. [RRC The Kurchatov Inst., Kurchatov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, S.N. [JINR, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation); Thompson, I.J. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Zhukov, M.V. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Goeteborg Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); RNBT Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    The continuum states of two-neutron halo nuclei are calculated in the method of hyperspherical harmonics. Using DWIA theory appropriate for dilute halo matter we have probed the structure of the low-lying {sup 6}He continuum via calculations of charge-exchange and inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  15. Lyman-α forest constraints on decaying dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Purcell, Chris W.

    2013-12-01

    We present an analysis of high-resolution N-body simulations of decaying dark matter cosmologies focusing on the statistical properties of the transmitted Lyman-α (Lyα) forest flux in the high-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM). In this type of model a dark matter particle decays into a slightly less massive stable dark matter daughter particle and a comparably light particle. The small mass splitting provides a nonrelativistic kick velocity Vk=cΔM/M to the daughter particle resulting in free-streaming and subsequent damping of small-scale density fluctuations. Current Lyα forest power spectrum measurements probe comoving scales up to ˜2-3h-1Mpc at redshifts z˜2-4, providing one of the most robust ways to probe cosmological density fluctuations on relatively small scales. The suppression of structure growth due to the free-streaming of dark matter daughter particles also has a significant impact on the neutral hydrogen cloud distribution, which traces the underlying dark matter distribution well at high redshift. We exploit Lyα forest power spectrum measurements to constrain the amount of free-streaming of dark matter in such models and thereby place limits on decaying dark matter based only on the dynamics of cosmological perturbations without any assumptions about the interactions of the decay products. We use a suite of dark-matter-only simulations together with the fluctuating Gunn-Peterson approximation to derive the Lyα flux distribution. We argue that this approach should be sufficient for our main purpose, which is to demonstrate the power of the Lyα forest to constrain decaying dark matter models. We find that Sloan Digital Sky Survey 1D Lyα forest power spectrum data place a lifetime-dependent upper limit Vk≲30-70km/s for decay lifetimes ≲10Gyr. This is the most stringent model-independent bound on invisible dark matter decays with small mass splittings. For larger mass splittings (large Vk), Lyα forest data restrict the dark matter

  16. Millimeter continuum observations of Galactic center giant molecular cloud cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, D. C.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Keene, Jocelyn

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of 1.3- and 0.8-mm continuum emission toward the cores of three Galactic center molecular clouds with ongoing massive star formation, Sagittarius B2, C, and D, which were made in order to study possible variations in the high-mass star formation rate per unit mass between the Galactic center and the disk. The luminosity-to-mass ratio, based on the mass estimates derived from the millimeter continuum emission, is used as a tracer of the high-mass star formation rate in GMC cores. The magnitude of errors involved in using millimeter continuum emission for determining the core mass is estimated through radiative transfer modeling. It is inferred from the present millimeter data, along with previously published far-infrared data, that the Sgr C and D cores are very similar in terms of mean dust optical depth and temperature. The luminosity-to-mass ratios derived for the Sgr C and D cores are found to be consistent with those of typical disk GMC cores with comparable far-infrared luminosities.

  17. Large-scale 3D mapping of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman Alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Ozbek, Melih; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2016-01-01

    Maps of the large-scale structure of the Universe at redshifts 2-4 can be made with the Lyman-alpha forest which are complementary to low redshift galaxy surveys. We apply the Wiener interpolation method of Caucci et al. to construct three-dimensional maps from sets of Lyman-alpha forest spectra taken from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We mimic some current and future quasar redshift surveys (BOSS, eBOSS and MS-DESI) by choosing similar sightline densities. We use these appropriate subsets of the Lyman-alpha absorption sightlines to reconstruct the full three dimensional Lyman-alpha flux field and perform comparisons between the true and the reconstructed fields. We study global statistical properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) maps with auto-correlation and cross-correlation analysis, slice plots, local peaks and point by point scatter. We find that both the density field and the statistical proper- ties of the IGM are recovered well enough that the resulting IGM maps can be meaningfully cons...

  18. Diagnosing galactic feedback with the line broadening in the low redshift Lyman-alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, M; Bolton, J S; Kim, T -S; Puchwein, E; Nasir, F; Wakker, B P

    2016-01-01

    We compare the low redshift (z ~ 0.1) Lyman-alpha forest from hydrodynamical simulations with data from the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph (COS). We find tension between the observed number of lines with b-parameters in the range 25-45 km/s and the predictions from simulations that incorporate either vigorous feedback from active galactic nuclei or that exclude feedback altogether. The gas in these simulations is, respectively, either too hot to contribute to the Lyman-alpha absorption or too cold to produce the required line widths. Matching the observed b-parameter distribution therefore requires feedback processes that thermally or turbulently broaden the absorption features without collisionally (over-)ionising hydrogen. This suggests the Lyman-alpha forest b-parameter distribution is a valulable diagnostic of galactic feedback in the low redshift Universe. We furthermore confirm the low redshift Lyman-alpha forest column density distribution is better reproduced by an ultraviolet background with an HI photo-...

  19. A deep search for 21-cm absorption in high redshift damped Lyman-alpha systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanekar, N; Chengalur, JN

    2003-01-01

    We present deep GMRT 21-cm absorption spectra of 10 damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs), of which 8 are at redshifts zgreater than or similar to1.3. HI absorption was detected in only one DLA, the z=0.5318 absorber toward PKS 1629+12. This absorber has been identified with a luminous spiral galaxy; th

  20. A Lyman-alpha tunable acousto-optic filter for detecting superthermal flare protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and characterize a narrow-band, tunable filter for use near the Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen at 121.6 nm. Such a filter could form the critical component of an instrument to observe asymmetries in the solar Lyman-alpha line, caused by energetic protons accelerated during the impulsive phase of solar flares. Characteristic charge-exchange nonthermal emission at Lyman alpha should be produced when sub-MeV protons are injected into the chromosphere, but no instrument suitable for their detection has been developed. Such an instrument would require a narrow-band (less than 0.01 nm) tunable filter with aperture and throughput consistent with imaging a solar active region at 0.1 second intervals. The development of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) suitable for use as compact, simple tunable filters for astronomical work suggested an investigation into the use of an AOTF at Lyman-alpha.

  1. An Ultraluminous Lyman Alpha Emitter with a Blue Wing at z=6.6

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, E M; Songaila, A; Barger, A J; Rosenwasser, B; Wold, I

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of the most luminous high-redshift Lyman Alpha Emitting galaxy (LAE) yet seen, with log L(Ly alpha) = 43.9 ergs/s. The galaxy -- COSMOS Lyman alpha 1, or COLA1 -- was detected in a search for ultra-luminous LAEs with Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope. It was confirmed to lie at z = 6.593 based on a Lyman alpha line detection obtained from followup spectroscopy with the DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck2. COLA1 is the first very high-redshift LAE to show a multi-component Lyman alpha line profile with a blue wing, which suggests that it could lie in a highly ionized region of the intergalactic medium and could have significant infall. If this interpretation is correct, then ultra-luminous LAEs like COLA1 offer a unique opportunity to determine the properties of the HII regions around these galaxies which will help in understanding the ionization of the z ~ 7 intergalactic medium.

  2. Lyman alpha emission in starbursts: implications for galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Mas-Hesse, J M; Tenorio-Tagle, G; Leitherer, C; Terlevich, R J; Terlevich, E

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a high resolution UV 2-D spectroscopic survey of star forming galaxies observed with HST-STIS. Our main aim was to map the Lyman alpha profiles to learn about the gas kinematics and its relation with the escape of Lyman alpha photons and to detect extended Lyman alpha emission due to scattering in gaseous halos. We have combined our data with previously obtained UV spectroscopy on other three star-forming galaxies. We find that the P-Cygni profile is spatially extended, smooth and spans several kiloparsecs covering a region much larger than the starburst itself. We propose a scenario whereby an expanding super-shell is generated by the interaction of the combined stellar winds and supernova ejecta from the young starbursts, with an extended low density halo. The variety of observed Lyman alpha profiles both in our sample and in high redshift starbursts is explained as phases in the time evolution of the super-shell expanding into the disk and halo of the host galaxy. The observed sha...

  3. Lyman alpha line formation in starbursting galaxies I. Moderately thick, dustless, and static HI media

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Lee, H M; Ahn, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Hee-Won; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the Lyman alpha line transfer in nearby and high redshift starbursting galaxies, where the effect of high optical depths and the role of dust in the scattering medium are expected to be conspicuous and should be treated in a very careful manner. We present our first results in dustless, static, and uniform HI media with moderate optical depths \\tau_0=10^{3-7}, where \\tau_0 is the line center optical depth of Lyman alpha and temperatures T=10^{1-4}K using a Monte Carlo code. We investigate the basic physics of the line transfer and confirm the criterion of a\\tau_0>10^3 for the validity of diffusion approximation suggested by Neufeld in 1990, where $a$ is the Voigt parameter. Adopting the model suggested by Tenorio-Tagle et al. in 1999, we performed a detailed calculation on the Lyman alpha line formation for each evolutionary stage of an expanding supershell. The emergent Lyman alpha profiles are characterized by the double peaks and the absorption trough at the line center. It is found that the...

  4. The evolution of neutral gas in damped Lyman α systems from the XQ-100 survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Ellison, S. L.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of 38 intervening Damped Lyman $\\alpha$ (DLA) systems identified towards 100 $z>3.5$ quasars, observed during the XQ-100 survey. The XQ-100 DLA sample is combined with major DLA surveys in the literature. The final combined sample consists of 742 DLAs over a redshift range app...

  5. A Search for z>6.5 Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies with WISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Micaela B.; Scarlata, Claudia; Dai, Yu Sophia; Rafelski, Marc; Baronchelli, Ivano; Colbert, James W.; Dominguez, Alberto; Hathi, Nimish P.; Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Martin, Crystal L.; Mehta, Vihang; Pahl, Anthony; Ross, Nathaniel; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Teplitz, Harry I.; WISP Team

    2016-01-01

    The observed number density of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at z>6 provides an important probe of the reionization history of the universe. Because Lyman-alpha photons are very sensitive to the presence of neutral hydrogen, the evolution of the galaxy number density above redshift 6 can be used as a measurement on the progress of reionization. However, the Lyman-alpha luminosity function is currently poorly constrained at high-z. We present the results of a systematic search for Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at redshifts of ~6.5 to 7.5 using the HST WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. WISP's uncorrelated fields are well-suited to the study of bright LAEs, minimizing the effects of clustering introduced by a patchy reionization. From the 30 deepest WISP fields, we compile a sample of single-line emitters, confirm redshifts with broadband colors, and identify LAE candidates that have "dropped out" (are undetected at the 1 sigma level) of the WFC3 UVIS filters. By combining our results with other z~7 studies, we determine whether the number density of LAEs evolves past z~6.5.

  6. Discovery of a faint, star-forming, multiply lensed, Lyman-α blob

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caminha, G. B.; Karman, W.; Rosati, P.; Caputi, K. I.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Balestra, I.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a multiply lensed Lyman-α blob (LAB) behind the galaxy cluster AS1063 using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The background source is at z = 3.117 and is intrinsically faint compared to almost all previously reported LABs. We

  7. The Lyman-alpha forest in f(R) modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Christian; Springel, Volker

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of chameleon-type f(R) gravity with the goal to assess whether the impact of such models is detectable in absorption line statistics. We carry out a set of hydrodynamical simulations with the cosmological simulation code MG-GADGET, including star formation and cooling effects, and create synthetic Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorption spectra from the simulation outputs. We statistically compare simulations with f(R) and ordinary general relativity, focusing on flux probability distribution functions (PDFs) and flux power-spectra, an analysis of the column density and line width distributions, as well as the matter power spectrum. We find that the influence of f(R) gravity on the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest is rather small. Even models with strong modifications of gravity, like $|\\bar{f}_{R0}| = 10^{-4}$, do not change the statistical Lyman-$\\alpha$ properties by more than 10%. The column density and line width distributions are hardl...

  8. The Radiated Energy Budget of Chromospheric Plasma in a Major Solar Flare Deduced From Multi-Wavelength Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Milligan, Ryan O; Dennis, Brian R; Hudson, Hugh S; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Allred, Joel C; Chamberlin, Phillip C; Ireland, Jack; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be $>2\\times10^{31}$ erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304\\AA\\ and H I (Ly$\\alpha$) at 1216\\AA\\ by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600\\AA\\ and 1700\\AA\\ by SDO/AIA, and the WL continuum at 4504\\AA, 5550\\AA, and 6684\\AA, along with the Ca II H line at 3968\\AA\\ using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these in...

  9. Hubble imaging of the ionizing radiation from a star-forming galaxy at z=3.2 with fesc>50%

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Vasei, K; Alavi, A; Giavalisco, M; Siana, B; Grazian, A; Hasinger, G; Suh, H; Cappelluti, N; Vito, F; Amorin, R; Balestra, I; Brusa, M; Calura, F; Castellano, M; Comastri, A; Fontana, A; Gilli, R; Mignoli, M; Pentericci, L; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are considered to be the leading candidate sources that dominate the cosmic reionization at z>7, and the search for analogs at moderate redshift showing Lyman continuum (LyC) leakage is currently a active line of research. We have observed a star-forming galaxy at z=3.2 with Hubble/WFC3 in the F336W filter, corresponding to the 730-890A rest-frame, and detect LyC emission. This galaxy is very compact and also has large Oxygen ratio [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 (>=10). No nuclear activity is revealed from optical/near-infrared spectroscopy and deep multi-band photometry (including the 6Ms X-ray, Chandra). The measured escape fraction of ionizing radiation spans the range 50-100\\%, depending on the IGM attenuation. The LyC emission is detected at S/N=10 with m(F336W)=27.57+/-0.11 and it is spatially unresolved, with effective radius R_e7 allowing a direct comparison with lower redshift LyC emitters, as reported here.

  10. The Gunn-Peterson effect and the Lyman $\\alpha$ forest

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A

    1997-01-01

    We show that spatial correlations in a stochastic large scale velocity field in an otherwise smooth intergalactic medium (homogeneous comoving density) superposed on the general Hubble flow, may cause a `line-like' structure in QSO spectra similar to the population of unsaturated Ly-alpha forest lines which usually are attributed to individual clouds with 10^{11} <= N(HI) <= 5*10^{13} cm^{-2}. Therefore there is no clear observational distinction between a diffuse intergalactic medium and discrete intergalactic clouds. It follows that the HI-density in the diffuse intergalactic medium might be substantially underestimated if it is determined from the observed intensity distribution near the apparent continuum in high resolution spectra of QSOs. Our tentative estimate implies a diffuse neutral hydrogen opacity tau_{GP} = 0.3 at z = 3 and a current baryon density Omega_{IGM} = 0.08$, assuming a Hubble constant H = 70 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}.

  11. Continuum Lowering -- A New Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, B J B

    2013-01-01

    What is meant by continuum lowering and ionisation potential depression (IPD) in a Coulomb system depends very much upon what question is being asked and whether it relates to equilibrium (equation-of-state) phenomena or non-equilibrium dynamical processes like photoionisation. It is shown that these scenarios are characterised by different values of the IPD. In the former, the ionisation potential of an atom embedded in matter is the difference in the free energy of the many-body system between states of thermodynamic equilibrium differing by the ionisation state of just one atom. Typically, this energy is less than that required to ionise the same atom in vacuo. Probably, the best known example of the IPD determined this way is that given by Stewart and Pyatt (SP). However, it is a common misconception that this formula should apply to the energy of a photon causing photoionisation - a local adiabatic process that occurs on timescales far too short to allow the final state to come into equilibrium, and addi...

  12. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Maps of the Permanently Shaded Regions (PSR) at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Paul; Retherford, Kurt; Gladstone, Randall; Stern, Alan; Egan, Anthony; Miles, Paul; Parker, Joel; Kaufmann, David; Horvath, David; Greathouse, Thomas; Versteeg, Maartem; Steffl, Andrew; Mukherjee, Joey; Davis, Michael; Slater, David; Bayless, Amanda; Feldmann, Paul; Hurley, Dana; Pryor, Wayne; Hendrix, Amanda

    2013-04-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on-board LRO is a UV spectrograph covering the spectral range of 57-196 nm. We present Lyman-alpha and far-UV albedo maps of the north and south poles. These maps indicate that the coldest, permanently shadowed regions (PSR) in deep polar craters have significantly lower Lyman-alpha albedo than the surrounding regions, which is best explained by a high surface porosity there - possibly related to the accumulation of volatile frosts.

  13. Io's SO2 Atmosphere Viewed in Silhouette by Jupiter Lyman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Roth, Lorenz; Feaga, Lori M.; Becker, Tracy M.; Tsang, Constantine; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Grava, Cesare

    2016-10-01

    We report a new technique for mapping Io's SO2 vapor distribution. Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) instrument observed Io during four Jupiter transit events to obtain medium resolution far-UV spectral images near the Lyman-α wavelength of 121.6 nm. Jupiter's bright Lyman-α dayglow provides a background light source for opacity measurements, much like during a stellar occultation or transiting exoplanet event. Peaks in the photoabsorption cross-sections for sulfur dioxide occur near 122 nm, with resulting absorptions raising the altitude where a tangential line of sight opacity of tau=1 is detected up to resolvable distances above the disk. This method of measuring column densities along lines of sight above the limb complements Lyman-α reflectance imaging and other methods for measuring Io's SO2 gas. For example, interpretation of Io's surface reflected components at far-UV wavelengths is complicated by SO2 frost features being correlated with regions of known volcanic outgassing activity, while Jupiter's Lyman-α dayglow provides a more spatially uniform background light source. Initial examination of these near-terminator limb observations with STIS confirms the findings from previous Lyman-α disk reflectance imaging using STIS's G140L mode (e.g., Feldman et al., GRL, 2000; Feaga et al. 2009) that Io's polar SO2 density is roughly an order of magnitude lower than found at the equator. As Strobel & Wolven (2001) described it, Io appears to wear its dayside atmosphere as "a belt" around the equator. We describe detailed simulations, now underway, that incorporate the STIS point spread function and consideration of additional attenuation by atmospheric hydrogen atoms, which are produced by charge exchange reactions between magnetospheric protons and Io's atmosphere.

  14. Semianalytic continuum spectra of Type 2 supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Marcos J.; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    We extend the approximate radiative transfer analysis of Hershkowitz, Linder, & Wagoner (1986) to a more general class of supernova model atmospheres, using a simple fit to the effective continuum opacity produced by lines (Wagoner, Perez, & Vasu 1991). At the low densities considered, the populations of the excited states of hydrogen are governed mainly by photoionization and recombination, and scattering dominates absorptive opacity. We match the asymptotic expressions for the spectral energy density J(sub nu) at the photosphere, whose location at each frequency is determined by a first-order calculation of the deviation of J(sub nu) from the Planck function B(sub nu). The emergent spectral luminosity then assumes the form L(sub nu) = 4 pi(squared)r(squared)(sub *) zeta(squared)B(sub nu)(T(sub p)), where T(sub p)(nu) is the photospheric temperature zeta is the dilution factor, and r(sub *) is a fiducial radius (ultimately taken to be the photospheric radius r(sub p)(nu)). The atmosphere is characterized by an effective temperature T(sub e) (varies as L(sup 1/4)r(sup -1/2)(sub *)) and hydrogen density n(sub H) = dependence of zeta on frequency nu and the parameters T(sub p), r(sub p), and alpha. The resulting understanding of the dependence of the spectral luminosity on observable parameters which characterize the relevant physical conditions will be of particular use in assessing the reliability of the expanding photosphere method of distance determination. This is particularly important at cosmological distances, where no information about the progenitor star will be available. This technique can also be applied to other low-density photosphere.

  15. Area Regge calculus and continuum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Khatsymovsky, V M

    2002-01-01

    Encountered in the literature generalisations of general relativity to independent area variables are considered, the discrete (generalised Regge calculus) and continuum ones. The generalised Regge calculus can be either with purely area variables or, as we suggest, with area tensor-connection variables. Just for the latter, in particular, we prove that in analogy with corresponding statement in ordinary Regge calculus (by Feinberg, Friedberg, Lee and Ren), passing to the (appropriately defined) continuum limit yields the generalised continuum area tensor-connection general relativity.

  16. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  17. The Effects of Lyman-Limit Systems on the Evolution and Observability of the Epoch of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Iliev, Ilian T; Shapiro, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    We present the first large-scale, full radiative transfer simulations of the reionization of the intergalactic medium in the presence of Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). To illustrate the impact of LLS opacity, possibly missed by previous simulations, we add either a uniform or spatially-varying hydrogen bound-free opacity. This opacity, implemented as the mean free path (mfp) of the ionizing photons, extrapolates the observed, post-reionization redshift dependence into the epoch of reionization. In qualitative agreement with previous studies, we find that at late times the presence of LLSs slows down the ionization fronts, and alters the size distribution of H II regions. We quantitatively characterize the size distribution and morphological evolution of H II regions and examine the effects of the LLSs on the redshifted 21-cm signal from the patchy reionization. The presence of LLSs extends the ionization history by $\\Delta z \\sim 0.8$. The LLS absorbers significantly impede the late-time growth of the H II regio...

  18. The transverse proximity effect in the z ~ 2 Lyman-alpha forest suggests QSO episodic lifetimes of ~1 Myr

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkman, David

    2008-01-01

    We look for signs of the H~I transverse proximity effect in the spectra of 130 QSO pairs, most with transverse separations in the plane of the sky of 0.1 -- 3 Mpc at z ~ 2.2. We expected to see a decrease in Lyman-alpha forest HI absorption in the spectrum of background QSOs near the position of foreground QSOs. Instead we see no change in the absorption in front of the foreground QSOs, and we see evidence for a 50% increase in the absorption out to 6 Mpc behind the foreground QSOs. Further, we see no change in the H I absorption along the line-of-sight to the foreground QSOs, the normal line-of-sight proximity effect. We may account for the lack of change in the H I absorption if the effect of extra UV photons is canceled by higher gas density around QSOs. If so, the increase in absorption behind the QSOs then suggests that the higher gas density there is not canceled by the UV radiation from the QSOs. We can explain our observations if QSOs have had their current UV luminosities for less than approximately ...

  19. A low escape fraction of ionizing photons of L>L* Lyman break galaxies at z=3.3

    CERN Document Server

    Boutsia, K; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Pentericci, L; Castellano, M; Zamorani, G; Mignoli, M; Vanzella, E; Fiore, F; Lilly, S J; Gallozzi, S; Testa, V; Paris, D; Santini, P

    2011-01-01

    We present an upper limit for the relative escape fraction (f_{esc}^{rel}) of ionizing radiation at z~3.3 using a sample of 11 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with deep imaging in the U band obtained with the Large Binocular Camera, mounted on the prime focus of the Large Binocular Telescope. We selected 11 LBGs with secure redshift in the range 3.27=30.7(AB)mag at 1 sigma. We derive a 1 sigma upper limit of f_{esc}^{rel}~5%, which is one of the lowest values found in the literature so far at z~3.3. Assuming that the upper limit for the escape fraction that we derived from our sample holds for all galaxies at this redshift, the hydrogen ionization rate that we obtain (Gamma_{-12}<0.3 s^{-1}) is not enough to keep the IGM ionized and a substantial contribution to the UV background by faint AGNs is required. Since our sample is clearly still limited in size, larger z~3 LBG samples, at similar or even greater depths are necessary to confirm these results on a more firm statistical basis.

  20. High-ion absorption in the proximate damped Lyman-alpha system toward Q0841+129

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Andrew J; Petitjean, Patrick; Srianand, Raghunathan; Guimarães, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    We present VLT/UVES spectroscopy of the quasar Q0841+129, whose spectrum shows a proximate damped Lyman-alpha (PDLA) absorber at z=2.47621 and a proximate sub-DLA at z=2.50620, both lying close in redshift to the QSO itself at z_em=2.49510+/-0.00003. This fortuitous arrangement, with the sub-DLA acting as a filter that hardens the QSO's ionizing radiation field, allows us to model the ionization level in the foreground PDLA, and provides an interesting case-study on the origin of the high-ion absorption lines Si IV, C IV, and O VI in DLAs. The high ions in the PDLA show at least five components spanning a total velocity extent of ~160 km/s, whereas the low ions exist predominantly in a single component spanning just 30 km/s. We examine various models for the origin of the high ions. Both photoionization and turbulent mixing layer models are fairly successful at reproducing the observed ionic ratios after correcting for the non-solar relative abundance pattern, though neither model can explain all five compone...

  1. Deep SAURON Spectral-Imaging of the diffuse Lyman-alpha halo LAB1 in SSA22

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, R; Bacon, R; Wilman, R J; Sullivan, M; Chapman, S C; Davies, R L; De Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, E; Bower, Richard

    2004-01-01

    We have used the SAURON panoramic integral field spectrograph to study the structure of the Ly-alpha emission-line halo, LAB1, surrounding the sub-millimeter galaxy SMM J221726+0013. This emission-line halo was discovered during a narrow-band imaging survey of the z=3.1 large-scale structure in the SSA22 region. Our observations trace the emission halo out to almost 100 kpc from the sub-millimeter source and identify two distinct Ly-alpha `mini-haloes' around the nearby Lyman-break galaxies. The main emission region has a broad line profile, with variations in the line profile seeming chaotic and lacking evidence for a coherent velocity structure. The data also suggests that Ly-alpha emission is suppressed around the sub-mm source. Interpretation of the line structure needs care because Ly-alpha may be resonantly scattered, leading to complex radiative transfer effects, and we suggest that the suppression in this region arises because of such effects. We compare the structure of the central emission-line halo...

  2. Helium 584 Å and H Lyman-α Airglow in Giant Planetary Atmospheres: Modeling, Observations, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Christopher; Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-07-01

    The atmosphere of the outer planets is mainly composed of H2 and neutral atomic helium. The study of He 584 Å and H Lyman-α brightnesses is interesting as the EUV and FUV (Extreme and Far Ultraviolet) planetary airglow have the potential to yield useful information about mixing and other important parameters in their thermospheres. Time variation, asymmetries, and polar enhancement of the airglow are also possible and analysis of the public archived NASA mission data sets (i.e. Voyager and Cassini) can help solve some of the outstanding problems associated with these phenomena. The comparison of observations with results from sophisticated photochemical and radiative transfer models can also help ameliorate unexplained differences in the dynamical processes operating within planetary upper atmospheres. Powerful analysis techniques allow us to extract information on atmospheric mixing, temperatures, and temporal changes due to the solar and seasonal cycles from the variations in distribution and intensity of airglow emissions that result. The presentation will discuss the implications of interpretations from comparison of modeling and observations in giant planetary atmospheres.

  3. A Definitive Survey for Lyman Limit Systems at z~3.5 with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Worseck, Gabor

    2009-01-01

    We perform a semi-automated survey for tau>=2 Lyman Limit systems (LLSs) in quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 7. From a starting sample of 2473 quasars with zem=3.6-4.4, we analyze 469 spectra meeting strict seletion criteria for a total redshift path Dz=93.8 and identify 192 intervening systems at z>3.3. The incidence of tau>=2 LLSs per unit redshift, l(z), is well described by a single-power law at these redshifts: l(z) = C_LLS [(1+z)/(1+z_*)]^gamma, with z_*=3.7, C_LLS = 1.9+/-0.2, and gamma = 5.2+/-1.5 (68% c.l.). These values are systematically lower than previous estimates (especially at z<4) but are consistent with recent measurements of the mean free path to ionizing radiation. Extrapolations of this power-law to z=0 are inconsistent with previous estimations of l(z) at z<1 and suggest a break at z~2, similar to that observed for the Lya forest. Our results also indicate that the systems giving rise to LLS absorption decrease by ~50% in comoving number density and/or...

  4. Large scale opacity fluctuations in the Lyman alpha forest: evidence for QSOs dominating the ionising UV background at z ~ 5.5-6 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, Jonathan; Haehnelt, Martin G

    2016-01-01

    Lyman-alpha forest data probing the post-reionization Universe shows surprisingly large opacity fluctuations over rather large ($\\ge$50 comoving Mpc/h) spatial scales. We model these fluctuations using a hybrid approach utilizing the large volume Millennium simulation to predict the spatial distribution of QSOs combined with smaller scale full hydrodynamical simulation performed with RAMSES and post-processed with the radiative transfer code ATON. We produce realictic mock absorption spectra that account for the contribution of galaxies and QSOs to the ionising UV background. This improved models confirm our earlier findings that a significant ($\\ge$50%) contribution of ionising photons from QSOs can explain the large reported opacity fluctuations on large scales. The inferred QSO luminosity function is thereby consistent with recent estimates of the space density of QSOs at this redshift. Our simulations still somewhat struggle, however, to reproduce the very long (110 comoving Mpc/h) high opacity absorption...

  5. Geometric continuum mechanics and induced beam theories

    CERN Document Server

    R Eugster, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This research monograph discusses novel approaches to geometric continuum mechanics and introduces beams as constraint continuous bodies. In the coordinate free and metric independent geometric formulation of continuum mechanics as well as for beam theories, the principle of virtual work serves as the fundamental principle of mechanics. Based on the perception of analytical mechanics that forces of a mechanical system are defined as dual quantities to the kinematical description, the virtual work approach is a systematic way to treat arbitrary mechanical systems. Whereas this methodology is very convenient to formulate induced beam theories, it is essential in geometric continuum mechanics when the assumptions on the physical space are relaxed and the space is modeled as a smooth manifold. The book addresses researcher and graduate students in engineering and mathematics interested in recent developments of a geometric formulation of continuum mechanics and a hierarchical development of induced beam theories.

  6. Dynamical Structure of Nuclear Excitation in Continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-Lei; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; ZHANG Xi-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dynamical structures of collective excitation in continuum are studied by calculating the isoscalar and isovector strength as well as transition density of nuclei near the drip-line such as 28O and 34Ca. It is found that for some excited states in continuum the proton and neutron transition density calculated from isoscalar and isovector excitation at some given energies may be different, which will affect the calculation of the polarization for nuclei with N ≠ Z.

  7. Lyman alpha emission from the first galaxies: Signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Spaans, M; Zaroubi, S

    2011-01-01

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock-heated to temperatures of $\\sim10^4$ K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman alpha line. Indeed, a number of Lyman alpha blobs has been detected at high redshift. In this letter, we explore the origin of such Lyman alpha emission using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that include a detailed model of atomic hydrogen as a multi-level atom and the effects of line trapping with the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We see that baryons fall into the center of a halo through cold streams of gas, giving rise to a Lyman alpha luminosity of at least $\\rm 10^{44} erg s^{-1}$ at $\\rm z=4.7$, similar to observed Lyman alpha blobs. We find that a Lyman alpha flux of $\\rm 5.0\\times 10^{-17} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ emerges from the envelope of the halo rather than its center, where the photons are efficiently trapped. Such emission can be probed in detail with the upcoming J...

  8. Analytical perspective for bound states in the continuum in photonic crystal slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Liang, Yong; Li, Zhengbin; Noda, Susumu

    2014-07-18

    We investigate the formation of photonic bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal slabs from an analytical perspective. Unlike the stationary at-Γ BICs which originate from the geometric symmetry, the tunable off-Γ BICs are due to the weighted destructive via the continuum interference in the vicinity of accidental symmetry when the majority of the radiation is precanceled. The symmetric compatible nature of the off-Γ BICs leads to a trapping of light that can be tuned through continuously varying the wave vector. With the analytical approach, we explain a reported experiment and predict the existence of a new BIC at an unrevealed symmetry.

  9. Light-Cone Effect of Radiation Fields in Cosmological Radiative Transfer Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method to implement time-delayed propagation of radiation fields in cosmological radiative transfer simulations. Time-delayed propagation of radiation fields requires construction of retarded-time fields by tracking the location and lifetime of radiation sources along the corresponding light-cones. Cosmological radiative transfer simulations have, until now, ignored this "light-cone effect" or implemented ray-tracing methods that are computationally demanding. We show that radiative transfer calculation of the time-delayed fields can be easily achieved in numerical simulations when periodic boundary conditions are used, by calculating the time-discretized retarded-time Green's function using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and convolving it with the source distribution. We also present a direct application of this method to the long-range radiation field of Lyman-Werner band photons, which is important in the high-redshift astrophysics with first stars.

  10. Exploring the Overabundance of ULXs in Metal- and Dust-poor Local Lyman Break Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Lehmer, Bret; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andy

    2016-02-01

    We have studied high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z\\gt 2) Lyman break galaxies and, within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs), they are sufficiently nearby (crowded lower-luminosity HMXBs using the star-forming galaxy XLF and then vary the XLF normalizations and bright-end slopes until we reproduce the observed point source luminosity distributions. We find that these LBAs have a shallower bright-end slope ({γ }2=1.90) than the standard XLF ({γ }2=2.73). If we conservatively assume that the brightest X-ray source from each galaxy is powered by an accreting supermassive black hole rather than an HMXB and eliminate these sources from consideration, the luminosity distribution becomes poorly constrained but does appear to be consistent with a standard XLF.

  11. LRO-Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Observations of the GRAIL Impact Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hurley, D. M.; Gladstone, G. R.; Hayne, P. O.; Paige, D. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Colaprete, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Miles, P. F.; Grava, C.; Throop, H.; Feldman, P. D.; Hendrix, A. R.; Pryor, W. R.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Parker, J. W.; Stern, S. A.

    2013-10-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) UV spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was positioned to directly view the expanding gas plumes from the two GRAIL spacecraft impacts on 17 December 2012. LAMP detected resonantly scattered emissions from Hg and H atoms in the sunlit regions of these plumes. The spectral, spatial, and light-curve analyses used in these gas detections are consistent with previous LAMP observations of the LCROSS impact into the permanently shadowed region of Cabeus crater. LAMP's detection of atomic H by Lyman-α emission at the Moon (a first) was facilitated by pointing at the nightside surface to eliminate sky background noise. Volatile transport of Hg and H species is known to concentrate them near the poles, and in the context of LRO-Diviner temperature measurements of these high-latitude (75.6° N) impact sites the LAMP detections address this process.

  12. Large Area Lyman Alpha Survey: Finding Young Galaxies at z=4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Spinrad, H.

    Strong Lyα emission is a signpost of young stars and the absence of dust and thus indicates young galaxies. To find such a population of young galaxies at z=4.5 we started the Large Area Lyman Alpha survey (LALA). This survey achieves an unprecedented combination of volume and sensitivity by using narrow-band filters on a large format (36' × 36') camera on the 4 meter telescope at KPNO. The volume density and star-formation contribution of the Lyα emitters at z=4.5 is comparable to that of Lyman break galaxies. With many candidates and a few spectroscopic confirmations in hand we discuss what the properties of Lyα emitters imply for galaxy and star formation in the early universe.

  13. Lyman-alpha Cooling Emission from Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C -A; Dijkstra, M; Hernquist, L; Zaldarriaga, M

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that galaxies accrete most of their baryons via the cold mode, from streams with temperatures T~10^4-10^5 K. At these temperatures, the streams should radiate primarily in Lya and have therefore been proposed as a model to power the Lya blobs and other high-redshift Lya sources. We introduce a new Lya radiative transfer code, aRT, and apply it to cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We address physical and numerical issues that are critical to making accurate predictions for the cooling luminosity, but that have been mostly neglected or treated simplistically so far. We highlight the importance of self-shielding and of properly treating sub-resolution models in simulations. Most existing simulations do not self-consistently incorporate these effects, which can lead to order-of-magnitude errors in the predicted cooling luminosity. Using a combination of post-processing ionizing radiative transfer and re-simulation techniques, we develop an approximation to the consistent evolution...

  14. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Stewart, M.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1 percent in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1 percent polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30 percent) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-alpha line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with 10 e-/pixel/second dark current, 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 +/- 0.5 and 1.0 percent residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  15. On the selection of damped Lyman α systems using Mg II absorption at 2 < zabs < 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, T. A. M.; Ellison, S. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Lopez, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Becker, G.; Christensen, L.; Cupani, G.; Denney, K.; Worseck, G.

    2017-01-01

    The XQ-100 survey provides optical and near-infrared coverage of 36 blindly selected, intervening damped Lyman α systems (DLAs) at 2 frame equivalent width (W0^{2796}) at these redshifts. Of the 29 DLAs with clean Mg II profiles, we find that six (20 per cent of DLAs) have W0^{2796} effect on the H I-weighted mean metallicity.

  16. A study of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line profile in DBA white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Genest-Beaulieu, C

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen abundances in DBA white dwarfs determined from optical or UV spectra have been reported to differ significantly in some studies. We revisit this problem using our own model atmospheres and synthetic spectra, and present a theoretical investigation of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line profile as a function of effective temperature and hydrogen abundance. We identify one possible solution to this discrepancy and show considerable improvement from a detailed analysis of optical and UV spectra of DBA stars.

  17. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o

  18. No Evidence for Lyman-alpha Emission in Spectroscopy of z > 7 Candidate Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Caruana, Joseph; Wilkins, Stephen M; Stanway, Elizabeth R; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Hickey, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    We present Gemini/GNIRS spectroscopic observations of 4 z-band (z~7) dropout galaxies and VLT/XSHOOTER observations of one z-band dropout and 3 Y-band (z~8-9) dropout galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, which were selected with Wide Field Camera 3 imaging on the Hubble Space Telescope. We find no evidence of Lyman-alpha emission with a typical 5-sigma sensitivity of 5X10^-18erg/cm^2/s, and we use the upper limits on Lyman-alpha flux and the broad-band magnitudes to constrain the rest-frame equivalent widths for this line emission. Accounting for incomplete spectral coverage, we survey 3.0 z-band dropouts and 2.9 Y-band dropouts to a Lyman-alpha rest-frame equivalent width limit > 120Ang (for an unresolved emission line); for an equivalent width limit of 50Ang the effective numbers of drop-outs surveyed fall to 1.2 z-band drop-outs and 1.5 Y-band drop-outs. A simple model where the fraction of high rest-frame equivalent width emitters follows the trend seen at z=3-6.5 is inconsistent with our non-detectio...

  19. The Lyman-alpha Reference Sample: I. Survey outline and first results for Markarian 259

    CERN Document Server

    Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Rivera-Thorsen, Thoger; Marquart, Thomas; Orlitova, Ivana; Adamo, Angela; Melinder, Jens; Guaita, Lucia; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M; Gruyters, Pieter; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Micheva, Genoveva; Pardy, Hector Oti-Floranes Stephen A; Roth, Martin M; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha reference sample (LARS) is a program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that provides a sample of local universe laboratory galaxies in which to study the astrophysics of the visibility and strength of the Lyman-alpha (Lya) line of hydrogen. This article presents an overview of the survey, its selection function and HST imaging observations. The sample was selected from the GALEX+SDSS catalogue at z=0.028-0.19, in order to allow Lya to be captured with combinations of long pass filters in the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of HST/ACS. In addition, LARS utilises Halpha and Hbeta narrow, and U, B, i broad-band imaging with ACS and WFC3. In order to study galaxies in which large numbers of Lya photons are produced we demanded an Halpha equivalent width > 100{\\AA}. The sample of 14 galaxies covers far UV (FUV) luminosities that overlaps with those of high-z Lya emitters and Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). We present the reduction steps used to obtain the Lya images, including our LARS eXtraction softwa...

  20. Exploring the nature of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitter CR7

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwig, Tilman; Magg, Mattis; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S; Glover, Simon C O; Whalen, Daniel J; Pellegrini, Eric W; Volonteri, Marta

    2015-01-01

    CR7 is the brightest Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitter observed at $z>6$, which shows very strong Lyman-$\\alpha$ and HeII 1640 \\AA\\ line luminosities, but no metal line emission. Previous studies suggest that CR7 hosts either young primordial stars with a total stellar mass of $\\sim 10^7\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$ or a black hole of $\\sim 10^6\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$. Here, we explore different formation scenarios for CR7 with a semianalytical model, based on the random sampling of dark matter merger trees. We find that primordial stars cannot account for the observed line luminosities because of their short lifetimes and because of early metal enrichment. Black holes that are the remnants of the first stars are either not massive enough, or reside in metal-polluted haloes, ruling out this possible explanation of CR7. Our models instead suggest that direct collapse black holes, which form in metal-free haloes exposed to large Lyman-Werner fluxes, are more likely the origin of CR7. However, this result is derived under optimistic ass...

  1. The HST/ACS+WFC3 Survey for Lyman Limit Systems. II. Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Worseck, Gabor; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Madau, Piero

    2013-03-01

    We present the first science results from our Hubble Space Telescope survey for Lyman limit absorption systems (LLS) using the low dispersion spectroscopic modes of the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3. Through an analysis of 71 quasars, we determine the incidence frequency of LLS per unit redshift and per unit path length, l(z) and l(X), respectively, over the redshift range 1 Prochaska et al. and place constraints on the evolution of λ912 mfp with redshift, including an estimate of the "breakthrough" redshift of z = 1.6. Consistent with results at higher z, we find that a significant fraction of the opacity for absorption of ionizing photons comes from systems with N H I <=1017.5 cm-2 with a value for the total Lyman opacity of τLyman eff = 0.40 ± 0.15. Finally, we determine that at minimum, a 5-parameter (4 power law) model is needed to describe the column density distribution function f(N H I , X) at z ~ 2.4, find that f(N H I , X) undergoes no significant change in shape between z ~ 2.4 and z ~ 3.7, and provide our best fit model for f(N H I , X).

  2. Exploring the nature of the Lyman-α emitter CR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Latif, Muhammad A.; Magg, Mattis; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Pellegrini, Eric W.; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-10-01

    CR7 is the brightest Lyman-α emitter observed at z > 6, which shows very strong Lyman-α and He II 1640 Å line luminosities, but no metal-line emission. Previous studies suggest that CR7 hosts either young primordial stars with a total stellar mass of ˜107 M⊙ or a black hole of ≳106 M⊙. Here, we explore different formation scenarios for CR7 with a semi-analytical model, based on the random sampling of dark matter merger trees. We are unable to reproduce the observational constraints with a primordial stellar source, given our model assumptions, due to the short stellar lifetimes and the early metal enrichment. Black holes that are the remnants of the first stars are either not massive enough, or reside in metal-polluted haloes, ruling out this possible explanation of CR7. Our models instead suggest that direct collapse black holes, which form in metal-free haloes exposed to large Lyman-Werner fluxes, are more likely the origin of CR7. However, this result is derived under optimistic assumptions and future observations are necessary to further constrain the nature of CR7.

  3. The Non-Linear Power Spectrum of the Lyman Alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at $z\\sim 2.3$, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman Alpha transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyman Alpha forest and provide a better physical interpretation of ...

  4. Search for a direction in the forest of Lyman-$\\alpha$

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We report the first test of isotropy of the Universe in the matter dominated epoch using the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest data from the high redshift quasars ($z>2$) from SDSS-III BOSS-DR9 datasets. Using some specified data cuts, we obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest transmitted flux and use the statistical moments of the PDF to address the isotropy of the Universe. In an isotropic Universe one would expect the transmitted flux to have consistent statistical characteristics in different parts of the sky. We trisect the total survey area of 3275 ${\\rm deg}^2$ along the galactic latitude and using quadrant convention. We also make three subdivisions in the data for three different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR). Finally we obtain and compare the statistical moments in the mean redshifts of 2.3, 2.6 and 2.9. We find, that the moments from all patches agree at all redshifts and at all SNRs, within 3$\\sigma$ uncertainties. Since Lyman-$\\alpha$ transmitted flux directly maps the...

  5. Reconnaissance of the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanet system in the Lyman-α line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D.; Wheatley, P. J.; Bolmont, E.; Gillon, M.; de Wit, J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Jehin, E.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.

    2017-02-01

    The TRAPPIST-1 system offers the opportunity to characterize terrestrial, potentially habitable planets orbiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star. We performed a four-orbit reconnaissance with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to study the stellar emission at Lyman-α, to assess the presence of hydrogen exospheres around the two inner planets, and to determine their UV irradiation. We detect the Lyman-α line of TRAPPIST-1, making it the coldest exoplanet host star for which this line has been measured. We reconstruct the intrinsic line profile, showing that it lacks broad wings and is much fainter than expected from the stellar X-ray emission. TRAPPIST-1 has a similar X-ray emission as Proxima Cen but a much lower Ly-α emission. This suggests that TRAPPIST-1 chromosphere is only moderately active compared to its transition region and corona. We estimated the atmospheric mass loss rates for all planets, and found that despite a moderate extreme UV emission the total XUV irradiation could be strong enough to strip the atmospheres of the inner planets in a few billions years. We detect marginal flux decreases at the times of TRAPPIST-1b and c transits, which might originate from stellar activity, but could also hint at the presence of extended hydrogen exospheres. Understanding the origin of these Lyman-α variations will be crucial in assessing the atmospheric stability and potential habitability of the TRAPPIST-1 planets.

  6. Numerical Simulations of the Lyman-alpha forest - A comparison of Gadget-2 and Enzo

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, J A; Viel, M; Regan, John A.; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2006-01-01

    We compare simulations of the Lyman-alpha forest performed with two different hydrodynamical codes, Gadget-2 and Enzo. A comparison of the dark matter power spectrum for simulations run with identical initial conditions show differences of 1-3% at the scales relevant for quantitative studies of the Lyman-alpha forest. This allows a meaningful comparison of the effect of the different implementations of the hydrodynamic part of the two codes. Using the same cooling and heating algorithm in both codes the differences in the temperature and the density probability distribution function are of the order of 10%. These differences can be mainly attributed to a slight mismatch in the resolution. The differences are smaller than or equal to the effects of boxsize and resolution on these statistics. Once resolution effects are taken into account the differences in the flux power spectrum - the statistics most widely used for estimating the matter power spectrum and cosmological parameters from Lyman-alpha forest data ...

  7. Spatial correlation between submillimetre and Lyman-alpha galaxies in the SSA 22 protocluster

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Yoichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Iono, Daisuke; Wilson, Grant W; Yun, Min S; Takata, Tadafumi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Ezawa, Hajime; Perera, Thushara A; Scott, Kimberly S; Austermann, Jason E; Hughes, David H; Aretxaga, Itziar; Chung, Aeree; Oshima, Tai; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kawabe, Ryohei; 10.1038/nature07947

    2009-01-01

    Lyman-alpha emitters are thought to be young, low-mass galaxies with ages of ~10^8 yr. An overdensity of them in one region of the sky (the SSA 22 field) traces out a filamentary structure in the early Universe at a redshift of z = 3.1 (equivalent to 15 per cent of the age of the Universe) and is believed to mark a forming protocluster. Galaxies that are bright at (sub)millimetre wavelengths are undergoing violent episodes of star formation, and there is evidence that they are preferentially associated with high-redshift radio galaxies, so the question of whether they are also associated with the most significant large-scale structure growing at high redshift (as outlined by Lyman-alpha emitters) naturally arises. Here we report an imaging survey of 1,100-um emission in the SSA 22 region. We find an enhancement of submillimetre galaxies near the core of the protocluster, and a large-scale correlation between the submillimetre galaxies and the low-mass Lyman-alpha emitters, suggesting synchronous formation of ...

  8. Spatial correlation between submillimetre and Lyman-alpha galaxies in the SSA 22 protocluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Iono, Daisuke; Wilson, Grant W; Yun, Min S; Takata, Tadafumi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Ezawa, Hajime; Perera, Thushara A; Scott, Kimberly S; Austermann, Jason E; Hughes, David H; Aretxaga, Itziar; Chung, Aeree; Oshima, Tai; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2009-05-07

    Lyman-alpha emitters are thought to be young, low-mass galaxies with ages of approximately 10(8) yr (refs 1, 2). An overdensity of them in one region of the sky (the SSA 22 field) traces out a filamentary structure in the early Universe at a redshift of z approximately 3.1 (equivalent to 15 per cent of the age of the Universe) and is believed to mark a forming protocluster. Galaxies that are bright at (sub)millimetre wavelengths are undergoing violent episodes of star formation, and there is evidence that they are preferentially associated with high-redshift radio galaxies, so the question of whether they are also associated with the most significant large-scale structure growing at high redshift (as outlined by Lyman-alpha emitters) naturally arises. Here we report an imaging survey of 1,100-microm emission in the SSA 22 region. We find an enhancement of submillimetre galaxies near the core of the protocluster, and a large-scale correlation between the submillimetre galaxies and the low-mass Lyman-alpha emitters, suggesting synchronous formation of the two very different types of star-forming galaxy within the same structure at high redshift. These results are in general agreement with our understanding of the formation of cosmic structure.

  9. The shadow continuum : testing the records continuum model through the Djogdja Documenten and the migrated archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karabinos, Michael Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation tests the universal suitability of the records continuum model by using two cases from the decolonization of Southeast Asia. The continuum model is a new model of records visualization invented in the 1990s that sees records as free to move throughout four ‘dimensions’ rather than

  10. The shadow continuum : testing the records continuum model through the Djogdja Documenten and the migrated archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karabinos, Michael Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation tests the universal suitability of the records continuum model by using two cases from the decolonization of Southeast Asia. The continuum model is a new model of records visualization invented in the 1990s that sees records as free to move throughout four ‘dimensions’ rather than

  11. Observed Faraday Effects in Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers and Lyman Limit Systems: The Magnetised Environment of Galactic Building Blocks at Redshift=2

    CERN Document Server

    Farnes, J S; Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; O'Sullivan, S P; Curran, S J

    2016-01-01

    Protogalactic environments are typically identified using quasar absorption lines, and these galactic building blocks can manifest as Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers (DLAs) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs). We use radio observations of Faraday effects to test whether DLAs and LLSs host a magnetised medium, by combining DLA and LLS detections throughout the literature with 1.4 GHz polarization data from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). We obtain a control, a DLA, and a LLS sample consisting of 114, 19, and 27 lines-of-sight respectively - all of which are polarized at $\\ge8\\sigma$ to ensure Rician bias is negligible. Using a Bayesian framework, we are unable to detect either coherent or random magnetic fields in DLAs: the regular coherent magnetic fields within the DLAs must be $\\le2.8$ $\\mu$G, and the lack of depolarization is consistent with the weakly magnetised gas in DLAs being non-turbulent and quiescent. However, we find mild suggestive evidence that LLSs have coherent magnetic fields: after controlling for t...

  12. First results from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS): first simultaneous detection of Lyman-{\\alpha} emission and Lyman break from a galaxy at z=7.51

    CERN Document Server

    Tilvi, V; Malhotra, S; Finkelstein, S L; Rhoads, J E; Windhorst, R; Grogin, N A; Koekemoer, A; Zakamska, N; Ryan, R; Christensen, L; Hathi, N; Pharo, J; Joshi, B; Yang, H; Gronwall, C; Cimatti, A; Walsh, J; OConnell, R; Straughn, A; Ostlin, G; Rothberg, B; Livermore, R C; Hibon, P; Gardner, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts provide a valuable tool to study cosmic dawn, and therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyman-\\alpha emission and the Lyman break from a z = 7.512+/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with G102 grism on Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6{\\sigma}) in multiple observational position angles (PA), with total integrated Ly{\\alpha} line flux of 1.06+/- 0.12 e10-17erg s-1cm-2. The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than the previous MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of faint Ly{\\alpha} emission at {\\lambda} = 1.0347{\\mu}m, yielding z = 7.5078+/- 0.0004. This is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on gro...

  13. Synthetic line and continuum linear-polarisation signatures of axisymmetric type II supernova ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Dessart, Luc

    2011-01-01

    We present synthetic single-line and continuum linear-polarisation signatures due to electron scattering in axially-symmetric Type II supernovae (SNe) which we calculate using a Monte Carlo and a long-characteristic radiative-transfer code. Aspherical ejecta are produced by prescribing a latitudinal scaling or stretching of SN ejecta inputs obtained from 1-D non-LTE time-dependent calculations. We study polarisation signatures as a function of inclination, shape factor, wavelength, line identity, post-explosion time. At early times, cancellation and optical-depth effects make the polarisation intrinsically low, causing complicated sign reversals with inclination or continuum wavelength, and across line profiles. While the line polarisation is positive (negative) for an oblate (prolate) morphology at the peak and in the red wing, the continuum polarisation may be of any sign. These complex polarisation variations are produced not just by the asymmetric distribution of scatterers but also of the flux. Our early...

  14. Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulation. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress.

  15. Stiffness Control of Surgical Continuum Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the first stiffness controller for continuum robots. The control law is based on an accurate approximation of a continuum robot’s coupled kinematic and static force model. To implement a desired tip stiffness, the controller drives the actuators to positions corresponding to a deflected robot configuration that produces the required tip force for the measured tip position. This approach provides several important advantages. First, it enables the use of robot deflection sensing as a means to both sense and control tip forces. Second, it enables stiffness control to be implemented by modification of existing continuum robot position controllers. The proposed controller is demonstrated experimentally in the context of a concentric tube robot. Results show that the stiffness controller achieves the desired stiffness in steady state, provides good dynamic performance, and exhibits stability during contact transitions. PMID:24273466

  16. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  17. Hyperbolic conservation laws in continuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Constantine M

    2016-01-01

    This is a masterly exposition and an encyclopedic presentation of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. It illustrates the essential role of continuum thermodynamics in providing motivation and direction for the development of the mathematical theory while also serving as the principal source of applications. The reader is expected to have a certain mathematical sophistication and to be familiar with (at least) the rudiments of analysis and the qualitative theory of partial differential equations, whereas prior exposure to continuum physics is not required. The target group of readers would consist of (a) experts in the mathematical theory of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws who wish to learn about the connection with classical physics; (b) specialists in continuum mechanics who may need analytical tools; (c) experts in numerical analysis who wish to learn the underlying mathematical theory; and (d) analysts and graduate students who seek introduction to the theory of hyperbolic systems of conser...

  18. Discrete and continuum modelling of soil cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Both continuum and discrete methods are used to investigate the soil cutting process. The Discrete Element Method ( dem) is used for the discrete modelling and the Material-Point Method ( mpm) is used for continuum modelling. M pmis a so-called particle method or meshless finite element method. Standard finite element methods have difficulty in modelling the entire cutting process due to large displacements and deformation of the mesh. The use of meshless methods overcomes this problem. M pm can model large deformations, frictional contact at the soil-tool interface, and dynamic effects (inertia forces). In granular materials the discreteness of the system is often important and rotational degrees of freedom are active, which might require enhanced theoretical approaches like polar continua. In polar continuum theories, the material points are considered to possess orientations. A material point has three degrees-of-freedom for rigid rotations, in addition to the three classic translational degrees-of-freedom. The Cosserat continuum is the most transparent and straightforward extension of the nonpolar (classic) continuum. Two-dimensional dem and mpm (polar and nonpolar) simulations of the cutting problem are compared to experiments. The drag force and flow patterns are compared using cohesionless corn grains as material. The corn macro (continuum) and micro ( dem) properties were obtained from shear and oedometer tests. Results show that the dilatancy angle plays a significant role in the flow of material but has less of an influence on the draft force. Nonpolar mpm is the most accurate in predicting blade forces, blade-soil interface stresses and the position and orientation of shear bands. Polar mpm fails in predicting the orientation of the shear band, but is less sensitive to mesh size and mesh orientation compared to nonpolar mpm. dem simulations show less material dilation than observed during experiments.

  19. Continuum secondary structure captures protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C.A.F.; Palmer, A.G.; Brunak, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    The DSSP program assigns protein secondary structure to one of eight states. This discrete assignment cannot describe the continuum of thermal fluctuations. Hence, a continuous assignment is proposed. Technically, the continuum results from averaging over ten discrete DSSP assignments...... protein structure analysis, comparison, and prediction....... with different hydrogen bond thresholds. The final continuous assignment for a single NMR model successfully reflected the structural variations observed between all NMR models in the ensemble. The structural variations between NMR models were verified to correlate with thermal motion; these variations were...

  20. Transfer to the continuum and Breakup reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Moro, A M

    2006-01-01

    A standard approach for the calculation of breakup reactions of exotic nuclei into two fragments is to consider inelastic excitations into the single particle continuum of the projectile. Alternatively one can also consider the transfer to the continuum of a system composed of the light fragment and the target. In this work we make a comparative study of the two approaches, underline the different inputs, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Our test cases consist of the breakup of $^{11}$Be on a proton target at intermediate energies, and the breakup of $^8$B on $^{58}$Ni at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  1. AN EQUIVALENT CONTINUUM METHOD OF LATTICE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hualin; Yang Wei

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent continuum method is developed to analyze the effective stiffness of three-dimensional stretching dominated lattice materials. The strength and three-dimensional plastic yield surfaces are calculated for the equivalent continuum. A yielding model is formulated and compared with the results of other models. The bedding-in effect is considered to include the compliance of the lattice joints. The predicted stiffness and strength are in good agreement with the experimental data, validating the present model in the prediction of the mechanical properties of stretching dominated lattice structures.

  2. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available –819 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20634.x Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys Alvise Raccanelli,1� Gong-Bo Zhao,1 David J. Bacon,1 Matt J. Jarvis,2,3 Will J. Percival,1 Ray P. Norris,4 Huub Ro¨ttgering,5 Filipe B. Abdalla... of Universe – radio continuum: galaxies. 1 IN T RO D U C T I O N Radio surveys for cosmology are entering a new phase with the construction of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for radio �E-mail: alvise.raccanelli@port.ac.uk astronomy (Ro¨ttgering 2003...

  3. Continuum mechanics concise theory and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, P

    1998-01-01

    Written in response to the dearth of practical and meaningful textbooks in the field of fundamental continuum mechanics, this comprehensive treatment offers students and instructors an immensely useful tool. Its 115 solved problems and exercises not only provide essential practice but also systematically advance the understanding of vector and tensor theory, basic kinematics, balance laws, field equations, jump conditions, and constitutive equations.Readers follow clear, formally precise steps through the central ideas of classical and modern continuum mechanics, expressed in a common, effici

  4. Continuum driven winds from super-Eddington stars. A tale of two limits

    CERN Document Server

    van Marle, A J; Shaviv, N J

    2007-01-01

    Continuum driving is an effective method to drive a strong stellar wind. It is governed by two limits: the Eddington limit and the photon-tiring limit. A star must exceed the effective Eddington limit for continuum driving to overcome the stellar gravity. The photon-tiring limit places an upper limit on the mass loss rate that can be driven to infinity, given the energy available in the radiation field of the star. Since continuum driving does not require the presence of metals in the stellar atmosphere it is particularly suited to removing mass from low- and zero-metallicity stars and can play a crucial part in their evolution. Using a porosity length formalism we compute numerical simulations of super-Eddington, continuum driven winds to explore their behaviour for stars both below and above the photon-tiring limit. We find that below the photon tiring limit, continuum driving can produce a large, steady mass loss rate at velocities on the order of the escape velocity. If the star exceeds the photon-tiring ...

  5. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amarnath, Sudha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

  6. Observations of Microwave Continuum Emission from Air Shower Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P W; Varner, G S; Beatty, J J; Connolly, A; Chen, P; Conde, M E; Gai, W; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Miki, C; Konecny, R; Kowalski, J; Ng, J; Power, J G; Reil, K; Saltzberg, D; Stokes, B T; Walz, D

    2007-01-01

    We investigate a possible new technique for microwave measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) extensive air showers which relies on detection of expected continuum radiation in the microwave range, caused by free-electron collisions with neutrals in the tenuous plasma left after the passage of the shower. We performed an initial experiment at the AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator) laboratory in 2003 and measured broadband microwave emission from air ionized via high energy electrons and photons. A follow-up experiment at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) in summer of 2004 confirmed the major features of the previous AWA observations with better precision and made additional measurements relevant to the calorimetric capabilities of the method. Prompted by these results we built a prototype detector using satellite television technology, and have made measurements indicating possible detection of cosmic ray extensive air showers. The method, if confirmed by experiments now in progress, cou...

  7. Spectroscopy of 7 Radio-Loud QSOs at 2Lyman-alpha Nebulae Accreting onto Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, Nathan; Binette, Luc

    2014-01-01

    We performed long-slit optical spectroscopy (GTC-OSIRIS) of 6 radio-loud QSOs at redshifts $2Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitting nebulae, and detect extended Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission for 4, with surface brightness $\\sim10^{-16}$ ergs $\\rm cm^{-2}s^{-1}arcsec^{-2}$ and line width FWHM 400-1100 (mean 863) km $\\rm s^{-1}$. We also observed the $z\\simeq 5.9$ radio-loud QSO, SDSS J2228+0110, and find evidence of a $\\geq 10$ kpc extended Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission nebula, a new discovery for this high-redshift object. Spatially-resolved kinematics of the 5 nebulae are examined by fitting the Lyman-$\\alpha$ wavelength at a series of positions along the slit. We found the line-of-sight velocity $\\Delta(v)$ profiles to be relatively flat. However, 3 of the nebulae appear systematically redshifted by 250-460 km $\\rm s^{-1}$ relative to the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line of the QSO (with no offset for the other two), which we argue is evidence for infall. One of these (Q0805+046) had a small ($...

  8. The effects of Lyman-limit systems on the evolution and observability of the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hemant; Mellema, Garrelt; Iliev, Ilian T.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large-scale, full radiative transfer simulations of the reionization of the intergalactic medium in the presence of Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). To illustrate the impact of LLS opacity, possibly missed by previous simulations, we add either a uniform or spatially varying hydrogen bound-free opacity. This opacity, implemented as the mean free path (MFP) of the ionizing photons, extrapolates the observed, post-reionization redshift dependence into the epoch of reionization. In qualitative agreement with previous studies, we find that at late times the presence of LLSs slows down the ionization fronts, and alters the size distribution of H II regions. We quantitatively characterize the size distribution and morphological evolution of H II regions and examine the effects of the LLSs on the redshifted 21-cm signal from the patchy reionization. The presence of LLSs extends the ionization history by Δz ˜ 0.8. The LLS absorbers significantly impede the late-time growth of the H II regions. The position-dependent LLS distribution slows reionization further and additionally limits the late growth of the ionized regions. However, there is no `freeze out' of the H II regions and the largest regions grow to the size of the simulation volume. The 21-cm power spectra show that at large scales the power drops by a factor of 2 for 50 per cent and 75 per cent ionization stages (at k = 0.1 h Mpc-1) reflecting the limiting effect of the LLSs on the growth of ionized patches. The statistical observables such as the rms of the brightness temperature fluctuations and the peak amplitudes of the 21-cm power spectra at large scales (k = 0.05-0.1 h Mpc-1) are diminished by the presence of LLS.

  9. Radio continuum from FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.F.; Hartmann, L.W.; Chavira, E. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico))

    1990-12-01

    Using the very large array a sensitive search is conducted for 3.6-cm continuum emission toward four FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, and Elias 1-12. V1057 Cyg and Elias 1-12 at the level of about 0.1 mJy is detected. The association of radio continuum emission with these FU Ori objects strengthens a possible relation between FU Ori stars and objects like L 1551 IRS 5 and Z CMa that are also sources of radio continuum emission and have been proposed as post-FU Ori objects. Whether the radio continuum emission is caused by free-free emission from ionized ejecta or if it is optically thin emission from a dusty disk is discussed. It was determined that, in the archives of the Tonantzintla Observatory, a plate taken in 1957 does not show Elias 1-12. This result significantly narrows the time range for the epoch of the outburst of this source to between 1957 and 1965. 38 refs.

  10. 类星体对的Lyman-α吸收线和发射线的相互关系%Relation between the Lyman-α Emission and Absorption Lines of Quasar Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有兵; 吕连忠; 彭青松

    2008-01-01

    通过探究类星体对的Lyman-α的吸收线和发射线的等值宽度,研究了它们之间可能存在的相互关系.研究了来自SDSS巡天的12对中等分辨率的类星体对.发现Lyman-α的发射线和吸收线的等值宽度没有任何的相关性.它支持了前人的建议,即背景类星体的Lyman-α吸收线来自前景类星体附近的光学厚吸收体,而Lyman-α的发射线来自前景类星体本身.%We investigated the relation between the Lyman-α emission and absorption lines of quasar pairs by exploring possible correlation between the equivalent widths of the two kinds of lines. We used 12 moderately resolved quasar pairs from the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey (SDSS) for the study, where the equivalent widths of the Lyman-α emission lines of the foreground quasars are available in literature. The equivalent widths of the corresponding Ly-α absorption lines of the background quasars were measured from their spectra data downloaded from the SDSS web-site. We found no correlation between rest-frame equivalent widths of the Ly-α emission and absorption lines, favoring the previous suggestion that the Ly-α absorption lines in background quasars are due to optically thick absorbers near the foreground quasars, and the Ly-α emission lines originate from the foreground quasars themselves.

  11. Fast temporal correlation between hard X-ray and ultraviolet continuum brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcos E.; Mauas, Pablo J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations have shown fast and simultaneous increases in hard X-rays (HXR, E25 keV) and ultraviolet continuum (UVC, lambda lambda approx. equals 1600 and 1388 A) radiation. A simple and natural explanation is given for this phenomenon to happen, which does not involve extreme conditions for energy transport processes, and confirms earlier results on the effect of XUV photoionization in the solar atmosphere.

  12. The Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in local Star-Forming Galaxies Scenario and Connection with Primeval Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kunth, D; Terlevich, R J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1998-01-01

    We review the Lyan alpha emission in local star-forming galaxies. In most cases as already shown by the IUE, the emission is absent or much weaker than expected. This occurs because Lyman alpha photons can be resonantly scattered by the neutral gas and destroyed by even very low amounts of dust. However new Hubble Space Telescope observations (HST) indicate that other factors such as the velocity structure of the gas play a crucial role. Gas flows are likely to occur as powered by the kinetic energy released via stellar winds and supernova. We propose a scenario based on the hydrodynamics of superbubbles powered by massive bursts of star formation that naturally accounts for the variety of Lyman alpha line detections in star-forming galaxies. We caution with the attempts to derive the co-moving star formation rate at high redshift from Lyman alpha emission searches.

  13. The Contribution of HI-rich Galaxies to the Damped Lyman-alpha Absorber Population at z=0

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, S E; Schneider, Jessica L. Rosenberg & Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of the expected properties of the low redshift damped Lyman-alpha absorber population determined from a sample of HI-selected galaxies in the local universe. We use measurements of the number density and HI cross-section of galaxies to show that the total HI cross-section at column densities sufficient to produce damped Lyman-alpha absorption is consistent with no evolution of the absorber population. We also find that the dN/dz distribution is dominated by galaxies with HI masses near 10^9 M_solar. However, because of the large dispersion in the correlation between HI mass and stellar luminosity, we find that the distribution of dN/dz as a function of L_J is nearly flat. Additionally, we demonstrate that the linewidths of the HI-selected galaxies are roughly consistent with the kinematics of damped Lyman-alpha absorbers.

  14. Exploring 21cm-Lyman Alpha Emitter Synergies for SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Anne; Dayal, Pratika; Müller, Volker; Trott, Cathryn M.

    2017-02-01

    We study the signatures of reionization and ionizing properties of early galaxies in the cross-correlations between the 21 cm emission from the spin-flip transition of neutral hydrogen (H i) and the underlying galaxy population. In particular, we focus on a sub-population of galaxies visible as Lyα Emitters (LAEs). With both observables simultaneously derived from a z≃ 6.6 hydrodynamical simulation (GADGET-2) snapshot post-processed with a radiative transfer code (pCRASH) and a dust model, we perform a parameter study and aim to constrain both the average intergalactic medium (IGM) ionization state (1- ) and the reionization topology (outside-in versus inside-out). We find that, in our model, LAEs occupy the densest and most-ionized regions resulting in a very strong anti-correlation between the LAEs and the 21 cm emission. A 1000 hr Square Kilometer Array (SKA)-LOW1—Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam experiment can provide constraints on , allowing us to distinguish between IGM ionization levels of 50%, 25%, 10%, and fully ionized at scales r≲ 10 comoving Mpc (assuming foreground avoidance for SKA). Our results support the inside-out reionization scenario where the densest knots (under-dense voids) are ionized first (last) for ≳ 0.1. Further, 1000 hr SKA-LOW1 observations should be able to confirm the inside-out scenario by detecting a lower 21 cm brightness temperature (by about 2–10 mK) in the densest regions (≳2 arcmin scales) hosting LAEs, compared to lower-density regions devoid of them.

  15. HST-COS OBSERVATIONS OF AGNs. III. SPECTRAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE LYMAN CONTINUUM FROM COMPOSITE COS/G140L DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Evan M.; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Stevans, Matthew L., E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: stevans@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are important diagnostics of both accretion disk physics and their contribution to the metagalactic ionizing UV background. Though the mean AGN spectrum is well characterized with composite spectra at wavelengths greater than 912 Å, the shorter-wavelength extreme-UV (EUV) remains poorly studied. In this third paper in a series on the spectra of AGNs, we combine 11 new spectra taken with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope with archival spectra to characterize the typical EUV spectral slope of AGNs from λ{sub rest} ∼ 850 Å down to λ{sub rest} ∼ 425 Å. Parameterizing this slope as a power law, we obtain F{sub ν} ∝ ν{sup −0.72±0.26}, but we also discuss the limitations and systematic uncertainties of this model. We identify broad emission features in this spectral region, including emission due to ions of O, Ne, Mg, and other species, and we limit the intrinsic He i 504 Å photoelectric absorption edge opacity to τ{sub He} {sub i} < 0.047.

  16. HST-COS Observations of AGNs. III. Spectral Constraints in the Lyman Continuum from Composite COS/G140L Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Evan M.; Stevans, Matthew L.; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are important diagnostics of both accretion disk physics and their contribution to the metagalactic ionizing UV background. Though the mean AGN spectrum is well characterized with composite spectra at wavelengths greater than 912 Å, the shorter-wavelength extreme-UV (EUV) remains poorly studied. In this third paper in a series on the spectra of AGNs, we combine 11 new spectra taken with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope with archival spectra to characterize the typical EUV spectral slope of AGNs from λrest ˜ 850 Å down to λrest ˜ 425 Å. Parameterizing this slope as a power law, we obtain Fν ∝ ν-0.72±0.26, but we also discuss the limitations and systematic uncertainties of this model. We identify broad emission features in this spectral region, including emission due to ions of O, Ne, Mg, and other species, and we limit the intrinsic He i 504 Å photoelectric absorption edge opacity to τHe i contract NAS5-26555.

  17. A New Population of High Redshift, Dusty Lyman-Alpha Emitters and Blobs Discovered by WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Carrie R; Borys, Colin J K; Petty, Sara; Benford, Dominic; Eisenhardt, Peter; Farrah, Duncan; Griffith, Roger L; Jarrett, Tom; Stanford, S Adam; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We report a new technique to select 1.610^{13-14}L_sun) and warm colors, typically larger than submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) and dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). These traits are commonly associated with the dust being energized by intense AGN activity. We hypothesize that the combination of spatially extended Lyman-alpha, large amounts of warm IR-luminous dust, and rarity (implying a short-lived phase) can be explained if the galaxies are undergoing strong `feedback' transforming them from an extreme dusty starburst to a QSO.

  18. Mapping High-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\\alpha$ and Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H$\\alpha$ imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms cr...

  19. Abundances in Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Systems and Chemical Evolution of High Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, L; Barlow, T A; Lu, Limin; Sargent, Wallace L.W.; Barlow, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent abundance measurements in damped Lyman-alpha galaxies, supplemented with unpublished Keck observations, are discussed. The metallicity distribution with cosmic time is examined for clues about the degree of enrichment, the onset of initial star formation, and the nature of the galxies. The relative abundances of the elements are compared with the abundnce pattern in Galactic halo stars and in the Sun, taking into account of the effects of dust depletion, in order to gain insight into the stellar processes and the time scales by which the enrichment occurred.

  20. Lyman-alpha observations of comets West 1976 VI and P d'Arrest 1976 XI with Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festou, M. C.; Keller, H. U.; Bertaux, J. L.; Barker, E. S.

    1983-02-01

    Lyman-alpha observations by the Copernicus satellite have been used to determine the production rates of hydrogen atoms of comets West 1976 VI and P/d'Arrest 1976 XI at a time when they were dynamically active (splitting or outburst of the nucleus). The observed Lyman-alpha line widths are in agreement with those observed in comet Kobayashi-Berger-Milon 1975 IX and, consequently, do not contradict the assumption that the H atoms are produced by the photodissociation of water vapor, even in CO(plus) rich comets..

  1. Airborne spectrophotometry of SN 1987A from 1.7 to 12.6 microns - Time history of the dust continuum and line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Rank, David M.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cohen, Martin; Pinto, Philip A.; Axelrod, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of SN 1987A from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory are presented for five epochs at 60, 260, 415, 615, and 775 days after the explosion. The low-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda = 50-100) spectra of SN 1987A are combined with data from other wavelengths to model the continuum, subtract the continuum from the spectra to determine line strengths and reveal molecular bands, separate the atomic continuum radiation from the dust continuum, and derive constraints on the grain temperatures and optical depths. A scenario for the evolution of SN 1987A and that of the ejecta from which it arises is obtained on the basis of the analysis of the continuum emission.

  2. Continuum of Collaboration: Little Steps for Little Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This mini-article outlines a continuum of collaboration for faculty within a department of the same discipline. The goal of illustrating this continuum is showcase different stages of collaboration so that faculty members can assess where they are as a collective and consider steps to collaborate more. The separate points along a continuum of…

  3. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - And Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure...

  4. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone - and Some More

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    Quite trivially, Continuum mechanics per se deals with the description of deformations of three-dimensional continua i.e. models whose properties are independent of scale in that the continuum does not possess a structure. Thus, continuum mechanics does not try to model the atomic structure of th...

  5. The geometrical language of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of modern differential geometry within the framework of continuum mechanics. It is divided into three parts of roughly equal length. The book opens with a motivational chapter to impress upon the reader that differential geometry is indeed the natural language of continuum mechanics or, better still, that the latter is a prime example of the application and materialization of the former. In the second part, the fundamental notions of differential geometry are presented with rigor using a writing style that is as informal as possible. Differentiable manifolds, tangent bundles, exterior derivatives, Lie derivatives, and Lie groups are illustrated in terms of their mechanical interpretations. The third part includes the theory of fiber bundles, G-structures, and groupoids, which are applicable to bodies with internal structure and to the description of material inhomogeneity. The abstract notions of differential geometry are thus illuminated by practical and intuitivel...

  6. Mesoscopic and continuum modelling of angiogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Spill, F.

    2014-03-11

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones in response to chemical signals secreted by, for example, a wound or a tumour. In this paper, we propose a mesoscopic lattice-based model of angiogenesis, in which processes that include proliferation and cell movement are considered as stochastic events. By studying the dependence of the model on the lattice spacing and the number of cells involved, we are able to derive the deterministic continuum limit of our equations and compare it to similar existing models of angiogenesis. We further identify conditions under which the use of continuum models is justified, and others for which stochastic or discrete effects dominate. We also compare different stochastic models for the movement of endothelial tip cells which have the same macroscopic, deterministic behaviour, but lead to markedly different behaviour in terms of production of new vessel cells. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Development of a continuum robot for colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Haiyan; Li Mantian; Wang Pengfei; Feng Yuan; Sun Lining

    2009-01-01

    A novel continuum robot for colonoscopy is presented. The aim is to develop a robot for colonoscopy which can provide the same functions as conventional colonoscope, but much less pain and discomfort for patient. In contrast to traditional rigid-link robot, the robot features a continuous backbone with no joints. The continuum robot is 300 mm in total length and 12 mm in diameter that is less than the average diameter of human colon (20 mm). The robot has a total of 4 DOF (degrees of freedom) and is actuated remotely by 6 hybrid step motors through super-elastic NiTi wires. Its shape can be changed with high dexterity, therefore ensuring its adaptability to the tortuous shape of human colon. The mechanical structure, kinematics and DSP-based control system are discussed; prototype experiments are carried out to validate the kinematics model and to show the motion performances.

  8. Computer Simulations on a Multidimensional Continuum:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girault, Isabelle; Pfeffer, Melanie; Chiocarriello, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations exist on a multidimensional continuum with other educational technologies including static animations, serious games, and virtual worlds. The act of defining simulations is context dependent. In our context of science education, we define simulations as algorithmic, dynamic...... with emphasis on simulations’ algorithmic, dynamic, and simple features. Defined as models, simulations can be computational or conceptual in nature and may reflect hypothetical or real events; such distinctions are addressed. Examples of programs that demonstrate the features of simulations emphasized in our...

  9. Sensitivity filtering from a continuum mechanics perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    In topology optimization filtering is a popular approach for preventing numerical instabilities. This short note shows that the well-known sensitivity filtering technique, that prevents checkerboards and ensures mesh-independent designs in density-based topology optimization, is equivalent to min...... to minimizing compliance for nonlocal elasticity problems known from continuum mechanics. Hence, the note resolves the long-standing quest for finding an explanation and physical motivation for the sensitivity filter....

  10. Radio continuum jet in NGC 7479

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Seppo; Beck, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The barred galaxy NGC 7479 hosts a remarkable jet-like radio continuum feature: bright, 12-kpc long in projection, and hosting an aligned magnetic field. The degree of polarization is 6%-8% along the jet, and remarkably constant, which is consistent with helical field models. The radio brightness of the jet suggests strong interaction with the ISM and hence a location near the disk plane. We observed NGC 7479 at four wavelengths with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. The equipartition ...

  11. Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Myron B

    2015-01-01

    Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer.  This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe

  12. Continuation through Singularity of Continuum Multiphase Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of dissipative particle dynamics ( DPD ). Several accomplishments are worth mentioning. A many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) code...prohibitively high cost. In this project, the mesoscopic Dissipative Particle Dynamics ( DPD ) approach is adopted to bridge the molecular and continuum...scales. The interfacial dynamics is accounted for using a variant of DPD called Many-body DPD described below. 1.2.1 Background of MDPD The

  13. On Friedrichs Model with Two Continuum States

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    The Friedrichs model with one discrete state coupled to more than one continuum is studied. The exact eigenstates for the full Hamiltonian can be solved explicitly. The discrete state is found to generate more than one virtual state pole or more than one pair of resonance poles in different Riemann sheets in different situations. The form factors could also generate new states on different sheets. All these states can appear in the generalized completeness relation.

  14. Cosmology with SKA Radio Continuum Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Matt J; Blake, Chris; Brown, Michael L; Lindsay, Sam N; Raccanelli, Alvise; Santos, Mario; Schwarz, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Radio continuum surveys have, in the past, been of restricted use in cosmology. Most studies have concentrated on cross-correlations with the cosmic microwave background to detect the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, due to the large sky areas that can be surveyed. As we move into the SKA era, radio continuum surveys will have sufficient source density and sky area to play a major role in cosmology on the largest scales. In this chapter we summarise the experiments that can be carried out with the SKA as it is built up through the coming decade. We show that the SKA can play a unique role in constraining the non-Gaussianity parameter to \\sigma(f_NL) ~ 1, and provide a unique handle on the systematics that inhibit weak lensing surveys. The SKA will also provide the necessary data to test the isotropy of the Universe at redshifts of order unity and thus evaluate the robustness of the cosmological principle.Thus, SKA continuum surveys will turn radio observations into a central probe of cosmological research in th...

  15. DISCRETE AND CONTINUUM MODELLING OF GRANULAR FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. P. Zhu; Y. H. WU; A. B. Yu

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses three popular methods simulating granular flow at different time and length scales:discrete element method (DEM), averaging method and viscous, elastic-plastic continuum model. The theoretical models of these methods and their applications to hopper flows are discussed. It is shown that DEM is an effective method to study the fundamentals of granular flow at a particle or microscopic scale. By use of the continuum approach, granular flow can also be described at a continuum or macroscopic scale. Macroscopic quantities such as velocity and stress can be obtained by use of such computational method as FEM. However, this approach depends on the constitutive relationship of materials and ignores the effect of microscopic structure of granular flow. The combined approach of DEM and averaging method can overcome this problem. The approach takes into account the discrete nature of granular materials and does not require any global assumption and thus allows a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of granular flow. However, it is difficult to adapt this approach to process modelling because of the limited number of particles which can be handled with the present computational capacity, and the difficulty in handling non-spherical particles.Further work is needed to develop an appropriate approach to overcome these problems.

  16. Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao; Ben-Zhuo, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson- Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of the biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulations. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and the PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230106) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Program for Cross & Cooperative Team of the Science & Technology Innovation.

  17. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  18. Lyman-alpha Blobs Like Company : The Discovery of A Candidate 100 kpc Lyman-alpha Blob Near to A Radio Galaxy with A Giant Lyman-alpha halo, B3 J2330+3927 at z=3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Y; Morimoto, N; Smail, Ian; De Breuck, C; Ohta, K; Kodama, T; Inoue, A K; Hayashino, T; Kousai, K; Nakamura, E; Horie, M; Yamada, T; Kitamura, M; Saitô, T; Taniguchi, Y; Tanaka, I; Hibon, P

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of a candidate of giant radio-quiet Lyman-alpha (Lya) blob (RQLAB) in a large-scale structure around a high-redshift radio galaxy (HzRG) lying in a giant Lya halo, B3 J2330+3927 at redshift z=3.087. We obtained Lya imaging around B3 J2330+3927 with Subaru/Suprime-Cam to search for Lya emitters (LAEs) and absorbers (LAAs) at redshift z=3.09+-0.03. We detected candidate 127 LAEs and 26 LAAs in the field of view of 31' x 24'. We found that B3 J2330+3927 is surrounded by a 130 kpc Lya halo and a large-scale (60 x 20 comoving Mpc) filamentary structure. The large-scale structure contains one prominent local density peak with an overdensity of greater than 5, which is 8' (15 comoving Mpc) away from B3 J2330+3927. In this peak, we discovered a candidate 100 kpc RQLAB. The existence of both types of Lya nebulae in the same large-scale structure suggests that giant Lya nebulae need special large-scale environments to form. On smaller scales, however, the location of B3 J2330+3927 is not a sign...

  19. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Low-redshift Damped Lyman-alpha Quasar Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, M R; Kulkarni, V P; Takamiya, M; Chun, Mark R.; Gharanfoli, Soheila; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Takamiya, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out a high angular resolution near-infrared imaging study of the fields of 6 quasars with 7 strong absorption line systems at z < 0.5, using the Hokupa'a adaptive optics system and the QUIRC near-infrared camera on the Gemini-North telescope. These absorption systems include 4 classical damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (DLAs), 2 sub-DLAs, and one Lyman-limit system. Images were obtained in the H or K' filters with FWHM between 0.2"-0.5" with the goal of detecting the absorbing galaxies and identifying their morphologies. Features are seen at projected separations of 0.5"-16.0" from the quasars and all of the fields show features at less than 2" separation. We find candidate absorbers in all of the seven systems. With the assumption that some of these are associated with the absorbers, the absorbers are low luminosity < 0.1 L*_H or L*_K; we do not find any large bright candidate absorbers in any of our fields. Some fields show compact features that are too faint for quantitative morphology, b...

  20. Lenses in the forest: cross--correlation of the Lyman-alpha flux with CMB lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinotto, Alberto; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys. /Fermilab; Das, Sudeep; /Princeton U. Observ. /Princeton U.; Spergel, David N.; /Princeton U. Observ. /APC, Paris; Viel, Matteo; /Trieste Observ. /INFN, Trieste

    2009-03-01

    We present a theoretical estimate for a new observable: the cross-correlation between the Lyman-{alpha}-flux fluctuations in quasar (QSO) spectra and the convergence of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured along the same line-of-sight. As a first step toward the assessment of its detectability, we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio using linear theory. Although the signal-to-noise is small for a single line-of-sight and peaks at somewhat smaller redshifts than those probed by the Lyman-{alpha} forest, we estimate a total signal-to-noise of 9 for cross-correlating QSO spectra of SDSSIII with Planck and 20 for cross-correlating with a future polarization based CMB experiment. The detection of this effect would be a direct measure of the neutral hydrogen-matter cross-correlation and could provide important information on the growth of structures at large scales in a redshift range which is still poorly probed by observations.

  1. Probing the Physical Properties of z=4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Keely D; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E; Grogin, Norman A; Pirzkal, Norbert; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mobasher, Bahram; Pakzad, Sabrina; Salmon, Brett; Wang, Junzian

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from a stellar population modeling analysis of a sample of 162 z=4.5, and 14 z=5.7 Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the Bootes field, using deep Spitzer/IRAC data at 3.6 and 4.5 um from the Spitzer Lyman Alpha Survey, along with Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS and WFC3 imaging at 1.1 and 1.6 um for a subset of the LAEs. This represents one of the largest samples of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer IRAC. We find that 30/162 (19%) of the z=4.5 LAEs and 9/14 (64%) of the z=5.7 LAEs are detected at >3-sigma in at least one IRAC band. Individual z=4.5 IRAC-detected LAEs have a large range of stellar mass, from 5x10^8 to 10^11 Msol. One-third of the IRAC-detected LAEs have older stellar population ages of 100 Myr - 1 Gyr, while the remainder have ages < 100 Myr. A stacking analysis of IRAC-undetected LAEs shows this population to be primarily low mass (8 -- 20 x 10^8 Msol) and young (64 - 570 Myr). We find a correlation between stellar mass and the dust-corrected ultraviolet-bas...

  2. The impact of feedback from galaxy formation on the Lyman-alpha transmitted flux

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Matteo; Booth, Craig M

    2012-01-01

    The forest of Lyman-alpha absorption lines seen in the spectra of distant quasars has become an important probe of the distribution of matter in the Universe. We use large, hydrodynamical simulations from the OWLS project to investigate the effect of feedback from galaxy formation on the probability distribution function and the power spectrum of the Lyman-alpha transmitted flux. While metal-line cooling is unimportant, both galactic outflows from massive galaxies driven by active galactic nuclei and winds from low-mass galaxies driven by supernovae have a substantial impact on the flux statistics. At redshift z=2.25, the effects on the flux statistics are of a similar magnitude as the statistical uncertainties of published data sets. The changes in the flux statistics are not due to differences in the temperature-density relation of the photo-ionised gas. Instead, they are caused by changes in the density distribution and in the fraction of hot, collisionally ionised gas. It may be possible to disentangle as...

  3. The primordial deuterium abundance of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Ryan; Nollett, Kenneth M; Jorgenson, Regina

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and analysis of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system currently known, which also displays the Lyman series absorption lines of neutral deuterium. The average [O/H] abundance of this system is [O/H] = -2.804 +/- 0.015, which includes an absorption component with [O/H] = -3.07 +/- 0.03. Despite the unfortunate blending of many weak D I absorption lines, we report a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance of this system. Using the six highest quality and self-consistently analyzed measures of D/H in DLAs, we report tentative evidence for a subtle decrease of D/H with increasing metallicity. This trend must be confirmed with future high precision D/H measurements spanning a range of metallicity. A weighted mean of these six independent measures provides our best estimate of the primordial abundance of deuterium, 10^5 (D/H)_P = 2.547 +/- 0.033 (log_10 (D/H)_P = -4.5940 +/- 0.0056). We perform a series of detailed Monte Carlo calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BB...

  4. Performance Characterization of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Reyann; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Champey, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket instrument currently being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), and other partners. The goal of this instrument is to observe and detect the Hanle effect in the scattered Lyman-Alpha UV (121.6nm) light emitted by the Sun's chromosphere. The polarized spectrum imaged by the CCD cameras will capture information about the local magnetic field, allowing for measurements of magnetic strength and structure. In order to make accurate measurements of this effect, the performance characteristics of the three on- board charge-coupled devices (CCDs) must meet certain requirements. These characteristics include: quantum efficiency, gain, dark current, read noise, and linearity. Each of these must meet predetermined requirements in order to achieve satisfactory performance for the mission. The cameras must be able to operate with a gain of 2.0+/- 0.5 e--/DN, a read noise level less than 25e-, a dark current level which is less than 10e-/pixel/s, and a residual non- linearity of less than 1%. Determining these characteristics involves performing a series of tests with each of the cameras in a high vacuum environment. Here we present the methods and results of each of these performance tests for the CLASP flight cameras.

  5. Exploring the Overabundance of ULXs in Metal- and Dust-poor Local Lyman Break Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Basu-Zych, Antara R; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andy

    2016-01-01

    We have studied high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z>2) Lyman break galaxies, and within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are sufficiently nearby (10^{39}$ erg/s; ultraluminous X-ray sources, ULXs) in these low-metallicity galaxies, based on 8 detected ULXs. Comparing with the star-forming galaxy X-ray luminosity function (XLF) presented by Mineo et al. (2012), Haro 11 and VV 114 host ~4 times more L$_X>10^{40}$ erg/s sources than expected given their SFRs. We simulate the effects of source blending from crowded lower luminosity HMXBs using the star-forming galaxy XLF and then vary the XLF shapes until we reproduce the observed point source luminosity distributions. We find that these LBAs have a shallower bright end slope than the standard XLF. If we conservatively assume that the brightest X-ray source from each galaxy is powered by an AGN rather than a HMXB and elimina...

  6. No overdensity of Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies around a quasar at z~5.7

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucchelli, C; Decarli, R; Farina, E P; Venemans, B P; Walter, F; Overzier, R

    2016-01-01

    Bright quasars, observed when the Universe was less than one billion years old (z>5.5), are known to host massive black holes (~10$^{9}$ M$_{\\odot}$), and are thought to reside in the center of massive dark matter overdensities. In this picture, overdensities of galaxies are expected around high redshift quasars. However, observations based on the detection of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) around these quasars do not offer a clear picture: this may be due to the uncertain redshift constraints of LBGs, which are selected through broad-band filters only. To circumvent such uncertainties, we here perform a search for Lyman Alpha Emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the field of the quasar PSO J215.1512-16.0417 at z~5.73, through narrow band, deep imaging with FORS2 at the VLT. We study an area of 37 arcmin$^{2}$, i.e. ~206 comoving Mpc$^{2}$ at the redshift of the quasar. We find no evidence for an overdensity of LAEs in the quasar field with respect to blank field studies. Possible explanations for these findings include ...

  7. The Cosmic Evolution of the Metallicity Distribution of Ionized Gas Traced by Lyman Limit Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J Christopher; Prochaska, J Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from our KODIAQ Z survey aimed to determine the metallicity distribution and physical properties of the partial and full Lyman limit systems (pLLSs and LLSs; 16.22, which probe gas in the interface regions between the intergalactic medium and galaxies. We study 31 HI-selected pLLSs and LLSs at 2.3Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs) at any given z, and this fraction remains relatively constant from z<1 to z~2-4. There is therefore a reservoir of metal-poor cool gas at all z that ma...

  8. The Keck+Magellan Survey for Lyman Limit Absorption III: Sample Definition and Column Density Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele; Bernstein, Rebecca A; Burles, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    We present an absorption-line survey of optically thick gas clouds -- Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) -- observed at high dispersion with spectrometers on the Keck and Magellan telescopes. We measure column densities of neutral hydrogen NHI and associated metal-line transitions for 157 LLSs at z=1.76-4.39 restricted to 10^17.3 < NHI < 10^20.3. An empirical analysis of ionic ratios indicates an increasing ionization state of the gas with decreasing NHI and that the majority of LLSs are highly ionized, confirming previous expectations. The Si^+/H^0 ratio spans nearly four orders-of-magnitude, implying a large dispersion in the gas metallicity. Fewer than 5% of these LLSs have no positive detection of a metal transition; by z~3, nearly all gas that is dense enough to exhibit a very high Lyman limit opacity has previously been polluted by heavy elements. We add new measurements to the small subset of LLS (~5-10) that may have super-solar abundances. High Si^+/Fe^+ ratios suggest an alpha-enhanced medium whereas ...

  9. Spectroscopic confirmation of two Lyman break galaxies at redshift beyond 7

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Fontana, A; Grazian, A; Castellano, M; Boutsia, K; Cristiani, S; Dickinson, M; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Giavalisco, M; Maiolino, R; Moorwood, A; Paris, D; Santini, P

    2010-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic confirmation of two Lyman break galaxies at redshift > 7. The galaxies were observed as part of an utra-deep spectroscopic campaign with FORS2 at the ESO/VLT for the confirmation of z~7 "z--band dropout'' candidates selected from our VLT/Hawk-I imaging survey. Both galaxies show a prominent emission line at 9735A and 9858A respectively: the lines have fluxes around ~ 1-1.2 x 10^(-17) erg/s/cm2 and exhibit a sharp decline on the blue side and a tail on the red side. The asymmetry is quantitatively comparable to the observed asymmetry in z~6 Lya lines, where absorption by neutral hydrogen in the IGM truncates the blue side of the emission line profile. We carefully evaluate the possibility that the galaxies are instead at lower redshift and we are observing either [OII], [OIII] or Ha emission: however from the spectroscopic and the photometric data we conclude that there are no other plausible identifications, except for Lya at redshift > 7, making these the first robust Lyman break ...

  10. Star Formation from DLA Gas in the Outskirts of Lyman Break Galaxies at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Marc; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence for spatially extended low surface brightness emission around Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in the V-band image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, corresponding to the z~3 rest-frame FUV light, which is a sensitive measure of Star Formation Rates (SFRs). We find that the covering fraction of molecular gas at z~3 is not adequate to explain the emission in the outskirts of LBGs, while the covering fraction of neutral atomic-dominated hydrogen gas at high redshift is sufficient. We develop a theoretical framework to connect this emission around LBGs to the expected emission from neutral H I gas i.e., Damped Lyman Alpha systems (DLAs), using the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. Working under the hypothesis that the observed FUV emission in the outskirts of LBGs is from in-situ star formation in atomic-dominated hydrogen gas, the results suggest that the SFR efficiency in such gas at z~3 is between factors of 10 and 50 lower than predictions based on the local KS relation. The total star formation r...

  11. Damped and sub-damped Lyman-alpha absorbers in z > 4 QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Guimaraes, Rodney; De Carvalho, Reinaldo Ramos; Djorgovski, George; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Castro, Sandra; Poppe, Paulo Da Rocha; Aghaee, Ali

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a survey for damped (DLA, log N(H I) > 20.3) and sub-damped Lyman-? systems (19.5 2.55 along the lines-of-sight to 77 quasars with emission redshifts in the range 4 19.5 are detected of which 40 systems are damped Lyman-? systems for an absorption length of ?X = 378. About half of the lines of sight of this homogeneous survey have never been investigated for DLAs. We study the evolution with redshift of the cosmological density of the neutral gas and ?nd, consis- tently with previous studies at similar resolution, that ?DLA,H I decreases at z > 3.5. The overall cosmological evolution of ?HI shows a peak around this redshift. The H I column density distribution for log N(H I) ? 20.3 is ?tted, consistently with previous surveys, with a single power-law of index ? ? -1.8$\\pm$0.25. This power-law overpredicts data at the high-end and a second, much steeper, power-law (or a gamma function) is needed. There is a ?attening of the function at lower H I column densities with an index of ? ?...

  12. Lyman-alpha constraints on warm and on warm-plus-cold dark matter models

    CERN Document Server

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Viel, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    We revisit Lyman-alpha bounds on the dark matter mass in Lambda Warm Dark Matter (Lambda-WDM) models, and derive new bounds in the case of mixed Cold plus Warm models (Lambda-CWDM), using a set up which is a good approximation for several theoretically well-motivated dark matter models. We combine WMAP5 results with two different Lyman-alpha data sets, including observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We pay a special attention to systematics, test various possible sources of error, and compare the results of different statistical approaches. Expressed in terms of the mass of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino, our bounds read m_NRP > 8 keV (frequentist 99.7% confidence limit) or m_NRP > 12.1 keV (Bayesian 95% credible interval) in the pure Lambda-WDM limit. For the mixed model, we obtain limits on the mass as a function of the warm dark matter fraction F_WDM. Within the mass range studied here (5 keV < m_NRP < infinity), we find that any mass value is allowed when F_WDM < 0.6 (freque...

  13. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  14. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  15. The Connection Between Reddening, Gas Covering Fraction, and the Escape of Ionizing Radiation at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan; Shapley, Alice E.

    2016-09-01

    Using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed z∼ 3 galaxies, we establish an empirical relationship between reddening (E(B-V)), neutral gas covering fraction ({f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}})), and the escape of ionizing (Lyman continuum, LyC) photons. Our sample includes 933 galaxies at z∼ 3,121 of which have deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at 850≲ {λ }{{rest}}≲ 1300 Å with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on Keck. The high covering fraction of outflowing optically thick {{H}} {{I}} indicated by the composite spectra of these galaxies implies that photoelectric absorption, rather than dust attenuation, dominates the depletion of LyC photons. By modeling the composite spectra as the combination of an unattenuated stellar spectrum including nebular continuum emission with one that is absorbed by {{H}} {{I}} and reddened by a line-of-sight extinction, we derive an empirical relationship between E(B-V) and {f}{{cov}}({{H}} {{I}}). Galaxies with redder UV continua have larger covering fractions of {{H}} {{I}} characterized by higher line-of-sight extinctions. We develop a model which connects the ionizing escape fraction with E(B-V), and which may be used to estimate the ionizing escape fraction for an ensemble of galaxies. Alternatively, direct measurements of the escape fraction for our sample allow us to constrain the intrinsic LyC-to-UV flux density ratio to be }{{int}}≳ 0.20, a value that favors stellar population models that include weaker stellar winds, a flatter initial mass function, and/or binary evolution. Last, we demonstrate how the framework discussed here may be used to assess the pathways by which ionizing radiation escapes from high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  16. Interpreting angina: symptoms along a gender continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea-Arsenio, Mary; Shannon, Harry S; Velianou, James L; Giacomini, Mita

    2016-01-01

    Background ‘Typical’ angina is often used to describe symptoms common among men, while ‘atypical’ angina is used to describe symptoms common among women, despite a higher prevalence of angina among women. This discrepancy is a source of controversy in cardiac care among women. Objectives To redefine angina by (1) qualitatively comparing angina symptoms and experiences in women and men and (2) to propose a more meaningful construct of angina that integrates a more gender-centred approach. Methods Patients were recruited between July and December 2010 from a tertiary cardiac care centre and interviewed immediately prior to their first angiogram. Symptoms were explored through in-depth semi-structured interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed concurrently using a modified grounded theory approach. Angiographically significant disease was assessed at ≥70% stenosis of a major epicardial vessel. Results Among 31 total patients, 13 men and 14 women had angiograpically significant CAD. Patients describe angina symptoms according to 6 symptomatic subthemes that array along a ‘gender continuum’. Gender-specific symptoms are anchored at each end of the continuum. At the centre of the continuum, are a remarkably large number of symptoms commonly expressed by both men and women. Conclusions The ‘gender continuum’ offers new insights into angina experiences of angiography candidates. Notably, there is more overlap of shared experiences between men and women than conventionally thought. The gender continuum can help researchers and clinicians contextualise patient symptom reports, avoiding the conventional ‘typical’ versus ‘atypical’ distinction that can misrepresent gendered angina experiences. PMID:27158523

  17. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  18. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  19. The Continuum is Countable: Infinity is Unique

    CERN Document Server

    Germain, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Since the theory developed by Georg Cantor, mathematicians have taken a sharp interest in the sizes of infinite sets. We know that the set of integers is infinitely countable and that its cardinality is Aleph0. Cantor proved in 1891 with the diagonal argument that the set of real numbers is uncountable and that there cannot be any bijection between integers and real numbers. Cantor states in particular the Continuum Hypothesis. In this paper, I show that the cardinality of the set of real numbers is the same as the set of integers. I show also that there is only one dimension for infinite sets, Aleph.

  20. Millimeter Continuum Observations Of Disk Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sean

    2016-07-01

    I will offer a condensed overview of some key issues in protoplanetary disk research that makes use interferometric measurements of the millimeter-wavelength continuum emitted by their solid particles. Several lines of evidence now qualitatively support theoretical models for the growth and migration of disk solids, but also advertise a quantitative tension with the traditional efficiency of that evolution. New observations of small-scale substructures in disks might both reconcile the conflict and shift our focus in the mechanics of planet formation.

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor continuum QCD in the quenched limit. The theory is set up at perturbative momenta, where asymptotic freedom leads to precise results. The evolution of QCD towards the hadronic phase is achieved by means of dynamical hadronization in the nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach. We use a vertex expansion scheme based on gauge-invariant operators and discuss its convergence properties and the remaining systematic errors. In particular, we present results for the quark propagator, the full tensor structure and momentum dependence of the quark-gluon vertex, and the four-Fermi scatterings.

  2. Set theory and the continuum hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. The independence of the continuum hypothesis is the focus of this study by Paul J. Cohen. It presents not only an accessible technical explanation of the author's landmark proof but also a fine introduction to mathematical logic. An emeritus professor of mathematics at Stanford University, Dr. Cohen won two of the most prestigious awards in mathematics: in 1964, he was awarded the American Mathematical Society's Bôcher Prize for analysis; and in 1966, he received the Fields Medal for Logic.

  3. From continuum mechanics to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Boehmer, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Using ideas from continuum mechanics we construct a theory of gravity. We show that this theory is equivalent to Einstein's theory of general relativity; it is also a much faster way of reaching general relativity than the conventional route. Our approach is simple and natural: we form a very general model and then apply two physical assumptions supported by experimental evidence. This easily reduces our construction to a model equivalent to general relativity. Finally, we suggest a simple way of modifying our theory to investigate non-standard space-time symmetries.

  4. CDENPROP: Transition matrix elements involving continuum states

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Alex G; Morales, Felipe; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Transition matrix elements between electronic states where one electron can be in the continuum are required for a wide range of applications of the molecular R-matrix method. These include photoionization, photorecombination and photodetachment; electron-molecule scattering and photon-induced processes in the presence of an external D.C. field, and time-dependent R-matrix approaches to study the effect of the exposure of molecules to strong laser fields. We present a new algorithm, implemented as a module (CDENPROP) in the UKRmol electron-molecule scattering code suite.

  5. The Lyman-alpha forest of a Lyman Break Galaxy VLT Spectra of MS1512-cB58 at z=2.724

    CERN Document Server

    Savaglio, S; Padovani, P

    2001-01-01

    The high redshift galaxy MS1512-cB58 (z=2.724, m_V=20.64) has been observed with the very efficient high resolution echelle spectrograph VLT/UVES. Although this is a very challenging observational program for a Southern hemisphere telescope (the galaxy is located at +36 deg declination), high resolution spectra (FWHM ~ 26 km/s) have revealed, with unprecedented detail along a galaxy sight line, the Lyman-alpha forest due to intervening clouds in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The mean depression D_A due to IGM absorption blueward of the galaxy Ly-alpha wavelength and the number density dn/dz of Ly-alpha clouds have been compared with equivalent results obtained for QSO sight lines at similar redshifts. Our results indicate a possible excess of absorption close to the galaxy. The mean depression at ~ 150 h_65^-1 Mpc comoving (Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) from the galaxy is D_A=0.36+/-0.03, to be compared with 0.22+/-0.04, expected from a best fit to QSO sight lines. In the same region (z=2.610), the number ...

  6. New approach for precise computation of Lyman-α forest power spectrum with hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borde, Arnaud; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Rossi, Graziano; Viel, Matteo; Bolton, James S.; Yèche, Christophe; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, Jim

    2014-07-01

    Current experiments are providing measurements of the flux power spectrum from the Lyman-α forests observed in quasar spectra with unprecedented accuracy. Their interpretation in terms of cosmological constraints requires specific simulations of at least equivalent precision. In this paper, we present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter and baryons, specifically aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the inter-galactic medium as probed by the Lyman-α forests at high redshift. The simulations were run using the GADGET-3 code and were designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of the current SDSS-III/BOSS or forthcoming SDSS-IV/eBOSS data. They are made using either 2 × 7683 simeq 1 billion or 2 × 1923 simeq 14 million particles, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc h-1)3 for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc h-1)3 for large-volume ones. Using a splicing technique, the resolution is further enhanced to reach the equivalent of simulations with 2 × 30723 simeq 58 billion particles in a (100 Mpc h-1)3 box size, i.e. a mean mass per gas particle of 1.2 × 105Msolar h-1. We show that the resulting power spectrum is accurate at the 2% level over the full range from a few Mpc to several tens of Mpc. We explore the effect on the one-dimensional transmitted-flux power spectrum of four cosmological parameters (ns, σ8, Ωm and H0) and two astrophysical parameters (T0 and γ) that are related to the heating rate of the intergalactic medium. By varying the input parameters around a central model chosen to be in agreement with the latest Planck results, we built a grid of simulations that allows the study of the impact on the flux power spectrum of these six relevant parameters. We improve upon previous studies by not only measuring the effect of each parameter individually, but also probing the impact of the simultaneous variation of each pair of parameters. We thus provide a full second-order expansion, including

  7. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  8. Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Jiang, Jianzheng [Chinese Academy ofSciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-09-15

    In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime.

  9. Evolution of the Pleistocene Climate Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2008-12-01

    Orbital-climate theory provides a powerful deterministic framework for the analysis of Pleistocene climate change, and has become a cornerstone of modern Paleoclimatology. The stochastic component of Pleistocene climate has received considerably less attention, although some studies have argued for the dominance of stochastic climate processes. Undoubtedly, a complete understanding of the controls on Pleistocene climate change necessitates an assessment of both deterministic and stochastic processes, as well as potential linkages between the two. In this study, we investigate changes in the dominance of deterministic versus stochastic climate processes associated with evolution of the Pleistocene climate system. Achievement of this objective requires: (1) careful selection and analysis of paleoclimate data series, to isolate true climate noise from other proxy noise sources (e.g., proxy fidelity, time-scale distortion, diagenesis, analytical error), and (2) application of quantitative methods capable of separating deterministic periodic signals (the spectral "lines") from the stochastic component of climate (the spectral "continuum"). This study focuses on an analysis of published benthic foraminifera oxygen isotopic records using a number of techniques rooted in Thomson's multi-taper method, which is specifically designed to separate deterministic "line" energy from stochastic "continuum" energy. Our analysis indicates large, and sometimes abrupt, changes in the relative dominance of stochastic versus deterministic energy. These changes in energy distribution parallel the evolution of the Pleistocene climate system. This analysis also demonstrates linkages between stochastic and deterministic climate processes, and yields insight into the mechanisms of Pleistocene climate change.

  10. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...

  11. Wouthuysen-Field coupling strength and application to high-redshift 21 cm radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirata, C M

    2006-01-01

    The first UV sources in the universe are expected to have coupled the HI spin temperature to the gas kinetic temperature via scattering in the Lyman-alpha resonance [the Wouthuysen-Field (WF) effect]. By establishing an HI spin temperature different from the temperature of the CMB, the WF effect should allow observations of HI during the reionization epoch in the redshifted 21 cm line. This paper investigates four mechanisms that can affect the strength of the WF effect that were not previously considered: (1) Photons redshifting into the HI Lyman resonances may excite an H atom and result in a radiative cascade terminating in two-photon 2s->1s emission, rather than always degrading to Lyman-alpha as usually assumed. (2) The fine structure of the Lyman-alpha resonance alters the photon frequency distribution and leads to a suppression of the scattering rate. (3) The spin-flip scatterings change the frequency of the photon and cause the photon spectrum to relax not to the kinetic temperature of the gas but to ...

  12. Pollen Dispersal by Catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the Flower of Mountain Laurel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M. B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower's stamen could make it possible. Briggs's unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower's growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs's experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  13. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide

    2013-01-01

    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  14. The distribution of Lyman-limit absorption systems during and after reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Crociani, Daniela; Moscardini, Lauro; Furlanetto, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Lyman-limit absorption systems can play many important roles during and after cosmological reionization. Unfortunately, due to the prohibitively large dynamic range required, it is impossible to self-consistently include these systems in cosmological simulations. Using fast and versatile semi-numeric simulations, we systematically explore the spatial distribution of absorption systems during and following reionization. We self-calibrate the resulting number of absorbers to the mean free path (mfp) of the ionizing ultraviolet background (UVB), and present results at a given mfp and neutral hydrogen fraction. We use a simple optical depth criterion to identify the locations of absorbers. Our approach is fairly robust to uncertainties such as missing subgrid structure. Unlike at lower redshifts where the UVB is relatively uniform, at higher redshifts the fluctuations in the UVB and the HII morphology of reionization can drive the large-scale distribution of absorption systems. Specifically, we find that absorber...

  15. Constraints on ionising photon production from the large-scale Lyman-alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya; Verde, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the z~2.5 Lyman-alpha forest on large scales encodes information about the galaxy and quasar populations that keep the intergalactic medium photoionized. We present the first forecasts for constraining the populations with data from current and next-generation surveys. At a minimum the forest should tell us whether galaxies or, conversely, quasars dominate the photon production. The number density and clustering strength of the ionising sources might be estimated to sub-10% precision with a DESI-like survey if degeneracies (e.g., with the photon mean-free-path, small-scale clustering power normalization and potentially other astrophysical effects) can be broken by prior information. We demonstrate that, when inhomogeneous ionisation is correctly handled, constraints on dark energy do not degrade.

  16. A search for Lyman Break Galaxies at z>8 in the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, A L; Colbert, J W; Siana, B; Teplitz, H I; McCarthy, P; Yan, L; Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Colbert, James W.; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Carthy, Patrick Mc

    2007-01-01

    We have selected 14 J-dropout Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) candidates with J110 - H160 > 2.5 from the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey. This survey consists of 135 square arcminutes of imaging in 228 independent sight lines, reaching average 5 sigma sensitivities of J110 = 25.8 and H160 = 25.6 (AB). Distinguishing these candidates from dust reddened star forming galaxies at z ~ 2-3 is difficult, and will require longer wavelength observations. We consider the likelihood that any J-dropout LBGs exist in this survey, and find that if L*(z=9.5) is significantly brighter than L*(z=6) (a factor of four), then a few J-dropout LBGs are likely. A similar increase in luminosity has been suggested by Eyles et al. and Yan et al., but the magnitude of this increase is uncertain.

  17. Investigating the Metallicity Evolution of Sub-damped Lyman alpha Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchady, Tarini; Jorgenson, Regina

    2017-01-01

    A clear understanding of the production and build up of metals across cosmic time is a key ingredient to any theory of galaxy formation and evolution. We present chemical abundance measurements for a sample of ~20 sub-damped Lyman alpha systems (subDLAs) detected in the absorption spectra of high redshift quasars taken by the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) on the Keck II telescope. The sample contains absorbers with neutral hydrogen column densities of 1019.0 Metal line column densities were measured using the apparent optical depth method while neutral hydrogen column densities were measured via Voigt profile fitting. We compare our measurements to those of DLAs and subDLAs from the literature to investigate the potential differences in metallicity evolution between these types of galaxies.

  18. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Lyman Break Galaxies as Progenitors of Spheroids in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, M; Kobayashi, N; Ohta, K; Iwata, I

    2007-01-01

    In order to reveal the stellar mass distribution of z~3 galaxies, we are conducting deep imaging observations of U-dropout Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems in K-band, which corresponds to rest-frame V-band of z~3 galaxies. The results of the Subaru intensive-program observations with AO36/NGS/IRCS indicate that 1) the K-band peaks of some of the LBGs brighter than K=22.0 mag show significant offset from those in the optical images, 2) the z~3 Mv* LBGs and serendipitously observed Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) have flat profiles similar to disk galaxies in the local universe (i.e., Sersic with n2 systems among the luminous z~3 LBGs and DRGs, and their strong spatial clustering, we infer that the dense n2 spheroids of nearby galaxies through relaxations due to major merger events.

  19. Diagnostics of MCF plasmas using Lyman-{alpha} fluorescence excited by one or two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voslamber, D

    1998-11-01

    Laser-induced Lyman-{alpha} fluorescence of the hydrogen isotopes is investigated with regard to diagnostic applications in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A formal analysis is presented for two excitation schemes: one-photon and Doppler-free two-photon excitation. The analysis includes estimates of the expected experimental errors arising from the photon noise and from the sensitivity of the observed fluorescence signals to variations of the plasma and laser parameters. Both excitation schemes are suitable primarily for application in the plasma edge, but even in the plasma bulk of large machines they can still be applied in combination with a diagnostic neutral beam. The two-photon excitation scheme is particularly attractive because it involves absorption spectra that are resolved within the Doppler width. This implies a large diagnostic potential and in particular offers a way to measure the deuterium-tritium fuel mix in fusion reactors. (author) 37 refs.

  20. Statistical properties of damped Lyman-alpha systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR12

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Ho, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    We present new estimates for the statistical properties of damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs). We compute the column density distribution function at $z>2$, the line density, $\\mathrm{d}N/\\mathrm{d}X$, and the neutral hydrogen density, $\\Omega_\\mathrm{DLA}$. Our estimates are derived from the DLA catalogue of \\cite{Garnett:2016}, which uses the SDSS--III DR12 quasar spectroscopic survey. This catalogue provides a probability that a given spectrum contains a DLA, allowing us to use even the noisiest data without biasing our results and thus substantially increase our sample size. We measure a non-zero column density distribution function at $95\\%$ confidence for all column densities $N_\\mathrm{HI} 4$. We show that our results are insensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra, but that there is a residual dependence on quasar redshift for $z<2.5$, which may be due to remaining systematics in our analysis.

  1. A metallicity-spin temperature relation in damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekar, Nissim; Briggs, Frank H; Chengalur, Jayaram N

    2009-01-01

    We report evidence for an anti-correlation between spin temperature $T_s$ and metallicity [Z/H], detected at $3.6 \\sigma$ significance in a sample of 26 damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs) at redshifts $0.09 1.7$ have low metallicities, [Z/H] $< -1$, implying that the HI in high-$z$ DLAs is predominantly warm. The anti-correlation between $T_s$ and [Z/H] is consistent with the presence of a mass-metallicity relation in DLAs, suggested by the tight correlation between DLA metallicity and the kinematic widths of metal lines. Most high-$z$ DLAs are likely to arise in galaxies with low masses ($M_{\\rm vir} < 10^{10.5} M_\\odot$), low metallicities ([Z/H]$< -1$, and low cold gas fractions.

  2. A CROSS-CHECK FOR H0 FROM LYMAN- α FOREST AND BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Busti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to infer the Hubble constant H0 through the observed mean transmitted flux from high-redshift quasars and the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs. A semi-analytical model for the cosmological-independent volume density distribution function was adopted; it allowed us to obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters once a moderate knowledge of the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM parameters is assumed. Our analysis, based on two different samples of Lyman-α forest and the BAO measurement, restricts (h, Ωm to the intervals 0.19 ≤ Ωm ≤ 0.23 and 0.53 ≤ h ≤ 0.82 (1σ. Although the constraints are weaker compared with other estimates, we point out that, with a bigger sample and a better knowledge of the IGM, this method could provide complementary results to measure the Hubble constant independently of the cosmic distance ladder.

  3. Low-Redshift Lyman Limit Systems as Diagnostics of Cosmological Inflows and Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Hafen, Z; Angles-Alcazar, D; Keres, D; Feldmann, R; Chan, T K; Quataert, E; Murray, N; Hopkins, P F

    2016-01-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with stellar feedback from the FIRE project to study the physical nature of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at z~2) tend to have higher metallicities ([X/H] ~ -0.5) while very low metallicity ([X/H] < -2) LLSs are typically associated with gas infalling from the intergalactic medium. However, most LLSs occupy an intermediate region in metallicity-radial velocity space, for which there is no clear trend between metallicity and radial kinematics. Metal-enriched inflows arise in the FIRE simulations as a result of galactic winds that fall back onto galaxies at low redshift. The overall simulated LLS metallicity distribution has a mean (standard deviation) [X/H] = -0.9 (0.4) and does not show significant evidence for bimodality, in contrast to recent observational studies but consistent with LLSs arising from halos with a broad range of masses and metallicities.

  4. The spin temperature of high-redshift damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekar, N; Smette, A; Ellison, S L; Ryan-Weber, E V; Momjian, E; Briggs, F H; Lane, W M; Chengalur, J N; Delafosse, T; Grave, J; Jacobsen, D; de Bruyn, A G

    2013-01-01

    We report results from a programme aimed at investigating the temperature of neutral gas in high-redshift damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs). This involved (1) HI 21cm absorption studies of a large DLA sample, (2) VLBI studies to measure the low-frequency quasar core fractions, and (3) optical/ultraviolet spectroscopy to determine DLA metallicities and velocity widths. Including literature data, our sample consists of 37 DLAs with estimates of the spin temperature $T_s$ and the covering factor. We find a strong $4\\sigma$) difference between the $T_s$ distributions in high-z (z>2.4) and low-z (z1 sub-sample. Since z>1 DLAs have angular diameter distances comparable to or larger than those of the background quasars, they have similar efficiency in covering the quasars. Low covering factors in high-z DLAs thus cannot account for the observed redshift evolution in spin temperatures. (Abstract abridged.)

  5. Direct Method Gas Phase Oxygen Abundances of 4 Lyman Break Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Jonathan S; Pogge, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    We measure the gas-phase oxygen abundances in 4 Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) using auroral emission lines to derive direct abundances. The direct method oxygen abundances of these objects are generally consistent with the empirically-derived strong-line method values, confirming that these objects are low oxygen abundance outliers from the Mass-Metallicity (MZ) relation defined by star forming SDSS galaxies. We find slightly anomalous excitation conditions (Wolf-Rayet features) that could potentially bias the empirical estimates towards high values if caution is not exercised in the selection of the strong-line calibration used. The high rate of star formation and low oxygen abundance of these objects is consistent with the predictions of the Fundamental Metallicity Relation (FMR), in which the infall of relatively unenriched gas simultaneously triggers an episode of star formation and dilutes ISM of the host galaxy.

  6. Cosmochemistry, cosmology and fundamental constants: High-resolution spectroscopy of damped Lyman-alpha systems

    CERN Document Server

    Quast, R; Smette, A; Garcet, O; Ledoux, C; López, S; Wisotzki, L

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy of QSO absorption lines provides essential observational input for the study of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies at high redshift. But new observations may indicate that present chemical abundance data are biased due to deficient spectral resolution and unknown selection effects: Recent high-resolution spectra reveal the hitherto unperceived chemical nonuniformity of molecular hydrogen-bearing damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems, and the novel H/ESO DLA survey produces compelling evidence for faint QSOs being attenuated by dust. We present a revised analysis of the molecular hydrogen-bearing DLA complex toward HE 0515-4414 showing nonuniform differential depletion of chemical elements onto dust grains, and introduce to the H/ESO DLA survey and its implications. Conclusively, we aim at starting an unbiased chemical abundance database established on high-resolution spectroscopic observations. New data to probe the temperature-redshift relation predicted by standard cosmology and to t...

  7. A cross-check for H0 from Lyman-α Forest and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busti, V. C.; Guimarães, R. N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new method is proposed to infer the Hubble constant H0 through the observed mean transmitted flux from high-redshift quasars and the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). A semi-analytical model for the cosmological-independent volume density distribution function was adopted; it allowed us to obtain constraints on the cosmological parameters once a moderate knowledge of the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) parameters is assumed. Our analysis, based on two different samples of Lyman-α forest and the BAO measurement, restricts (h, Ωm) to the intervals 0.19 ≤ Ωm ≤ 0.23 and 0.53 ≤ h ≤ 0.82 (1σ). Although the constraints are weaker compared with other estimates, we point out that, with a bigger sample and a better knowledge of the IGM, this method could provide complementary results to measure the Hubble constant independently of the cosmic distance ladder.

  8. The Lyman-alpha forest in a blazar-heated Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Puchwein, Ewald; Springel, Volker; Broderick, Avery E; Chang, Philip

    2011-01-01

    It has been realised only recently that TeV emission from blazars can significantly heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) by pair-producing high-energy electrons and positrons, which in turn excite vigorous plasma instabilities, leading to a local dissipation of the pairs' kinetic energy. In this work, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to model the impact of this induced blazar heating on the Lyman-alpha forest at intermediate redshifts (z~2-3). We find that blazar heating produces an inverted equation-of-state in the IGM and naturally resolves many of the problems present in previous simulations of the forest that included photoionisation heating alone. In particular, our simulation results simultaneously reproduce the observed effective optical depth and temperature as a function of redshift, the observed probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the transmitted flux, and the observed flux power spectra, over the full redshift range 2

  9. Spatially Resolved Emission of a z~3 Damped Lyman Alpha Galaxy with Keck/OSIRIS IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Holly; Jorgenson, Regina

    2017-01-01

    The damped Lyman alpha (DLA) class of galaxies contains most of the neutral hydrogen gas over cosmic time. Few DLAs have been detected directly, which limits our knowledge of fundamental properties like size and mass. We present Keck/OSIRIS infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFU) observations of a DLA that was first detected in absorption toward a background quasar. Our observations use the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system to reduce the point-spread function of the quasar, making it possible to spatially resolve the DLA emission. We map this emission in O[III] 5007 Å. At redshift z~3, this DLA represents one of the highest redshift DLAs mapped with IFU spectroscopy. We present measurements of the star formation rate, metallicity, and gas mass of the galaxy.This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  10. Center-to-limb variation of intensity and polarization in continuum spectra of FGK stars for spherical atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Kostogryz, N M; Berdyugina, S V; Hauschildt, P H

    2015-01-01

    One of the necessary parameters needed for the interpretation of the light curves of transiting exoplanets or eclipsing binaries, as well as interferometric measurements of a star or microlensing events is how the intensity and polarization of a light change from the center to the limb. Scattering and absorption processes in stellar atmosphere affect both the center-to limb variation of intensity (CLVI) and polarization (CLVP). In this paper, we present a study of the CLVI and CLVP in continuum spectra considering different contributions of scattering and absorption opacity for different spectral type stars with spherical atmospheres. We solve the polarized radiative transfer equation in the presence of continuum scattering, considering spherical stellar model atmospheres. We developed two independent codes based on Feautrier and short characteristics methods to cross-check our results. We calculate the CLVI and CLVP in continuum for the Phoenix grid of spherical stellar model atmospheres for a range of $T_{e...

  11. First Constraints on Fuzzy Dark Matter from Lyman-α Forest Data and Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Bolton, James S.; Becker, George D.

    2017-07-01

    We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-α forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of ˜1 kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time, we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-α flux power spectrum in these models and compare it to the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples. After marginalization over nuisance and physical parameters and with conservative assumptions for the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) that allow for jumps in the temperature of up to 5000 K, XQ-100 provides a lower limit of 7.1 ×10-22 eV , HIRES/MIKE returns a stronger limit of 14.3 ×10-22 eV , while the combination of both data sets results in a limit of 20 ×10-22 eV (2 σ C.L.). The limits for the analysis of the combined data sets increases to 37.5 ×10-22 eV (2 σ C.L.) when a smoother thermal history is assumed where the temperature of the IGM evolves as a power law in redshift. Light boson masses in the range 1 - 10 ×10-22 eV are ruled out at high significance by our analysis, casting strong doubts that FDM helps solve the "small scale crisis" of the cold dark matter models.

  12. Design Gradient Descent Optimal Sliding Mode Control of Continuum Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Piltan; Shahnaz Tayebi Haghighi

    2012-01-01

    In this research, a new approach for gradient descent optimal sliding mode controller for continuum robots is proposed. Based on the new dynamic models developed, a novel technique for nonlinear control of continuum manipulators to be employed in various situations has also been proposed and developed. A section of a continuum arm is modeled using lumped model elements (masses, springs and dampers) and control by nonlinear methodology (sliding mode method) and optimization the sliding surface...

  13. 3D real-space calculations of continuum response

    CERN Document Server

    Nakatsukasa, T; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    We present linear response theories in the continuum capable of describing continuum spectra and dynamical correlations of finite systems with no spatial symmetry. Our formulation is essentially the same as the continuum random-phase approximation (RPA) but suitable for uniform grid representation in the three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian coordinate. Effects of the continuum are taken into account by solving equations iteratively with a retarded Green's function. The method is applied to photoabsorption spectra in small molecules (acetylene and ethylene) and inelastic electron scattering from a deformed nucleus 12C.

  14. A continuum theory of edge dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, V. L.

    2017-09-01

    Continuum theory of dislocation aims to describe the behavior of large ensembles of dislocations. This task is far from completion, and, most likely, does not have a ;universal solution;, which is applicable to any dislocation ensemble. In this regards it is important to have guiding lines set by benchmark cases, where the transition from a discrete set of dislocations to a continuum description is made rigorously. Two such cases have been considered recently: equilibrium of dislocation walls and screw dislocations in beams. In this paper one more case is studied, equilibrium of a large set of 2D edge dislocations placed randomly in a 2D bounded region. The major characteristic of interest is energy of dislocation ensemble, because it determines the structure of continuum equations. The homogenized energy functional is obtained for the periodic dislocation ensembles with a random contents of the periodic cell. Parameters of the periodic structure can change slowly on distances of order of the size of periodic cells. The energy functional is obtained by the variational-asymptotic method. Equilibrium positions are local minima of energy. It is confirmed the earlier assertion that energy density of the system is the sum of elastic energy of averaged elastic strains and microstructure energy, which is elastic energy of the neutralized dislocation system, i.e. the dislocation system placed in a constant dislocation density field making the averaged dislocation density zero. The computation of energy is reduced to solution of a variational cell problem. This problem is solved analytically. The solution is used to investigate stability of simple dislocation arrays, i.e. arrays with one dislocation in the periodic cell. The relations obtained yield two outcomes: First, there is a state parameter of the system, dislocation polarization; averaged stresses affect only dislocation polarization and cannot change other characteristics of the system. Second, the structure of

  15. The water vapour continuum in near-infrared windows - Current understanding and prospects for its inclusion in spectroscopic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Keith P.; Campargue, Alain; Mondelain, Didier; McPheat, Robert A.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-09-01

    report pilot measurements of the water vapour self-continuum using a supercontinuum laser source coupled to an FTS. Such improvements, as well as additional measurements and analyses in other laboratories, would enable the inclusion of the water vapour continuum in future spectroscopic databases, and therefore allow for a more reliable forward modelling of the radiative properties of the atmosphere. It would also allow a more confident assessment of different theoretical descriptions of the underlying cause or causes of continuum absorption.

  16. Embodiment design of soft continuum robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjie Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a multidisciplinary project where mechatronic engineers worked alongside biologists to develop a soft robotic arm that captures key features of octopus anatomy and neurophysiology. The concept of embodiment (the dynamic coupling between sensory-motor control, anatomy, materials and environment that allows for the animal to achieve adaptive behaviours is used as a starting point for the design process but tempered by current engineering technologies and approaches. In this article, the embodied design requirements are first discussed from a robotic viewpoint by taking into account real-life engineering limitations; then, the motor control schemes inspired by octopus nervous system are investigated. Finally, the mechanical and control design of a prototype is presented that appropriately blends bio-inspiration and engineering limitations. Simulated and experimental results show that the developed continuum robotic arm is able to reproduce octopus-like motions for bending, reaching and grasping.

  17. Nucleon and Delta structure in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloet, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the only known example in nature of a fundamental quantum field theory that is innately non-perturbative. Solving QCD will have profound implications for our understanding of the natural world, for example, it will explain how light quarks and massless gluons bind together to form the observed mesons and baryons; hence explaining the origin of more than 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Given the challenges posed by QCD, it is insufficient to study hadron ground-states alone if one seeks a solution; in this regard the delta plays a special role as the lightest baryon resonance. I will discuss recent progress using continuum QCD approaches to the study of nucleon and delta properties, with a focus on insights gained by the calculation (and measurement) of their electromagnetic form factors.

  18. Variational continuum multiphase poroelasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serpieri, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the...

  19. A CONTINUUM DAMAGE MODEL OF AGING CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenyang; Xie Huicai; Xu Tao; Yu Jie; Cai Changan

    2001-01-01

    There is up to now no constitutive model in the current theories of CDM that could give a description for the degradation of aging concrete. The two internal state variables β and ω are introduced in this paper. β is called cohesion variable as an additional kinematic parameter, reflecting the cohesion state among material particles. ω is called damage factor for micro-defects such as voids.Then a damage model and a series of constitutive equations are developed on Continuum Mechanics.The model proposed could give a valid description for the whole-course-degradation of aging concrete due tochemical and mechanical actions. Finally, the validity of the model is evaluated by an example and experimental results.

  20. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms.