WorldWideScience

Sample records for lyford mapped tree

  1. Neighborhood-preserving mapping between trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Ibragimov, R.; Guo, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    (v)). Here, for a graph G and a vertex v, we use N(v) to denote the set of vertices which have distance at most i to v in G. We call this problem Neighborhood-Preserving Mapping (NPM). The main result of this paper is a complete dichotomy of the classical complexity of NPM on trees with respect to different...... values of l,d,k. Additionally, we present two dynamic programming algorithms for the case that one of the input trees is a path. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....

  2. Mapping trees in high resolution imagery across large areas using locally variable thresholds guided by medium resolution tree maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian; Danaher, Tim; Gill, Tony

    2017-06-01

    Large area tree maps, important for environmental monitoring and natural resource management, are often based on medium resolution satellite imagery. These data have difficulty in detecting trees in fragmented woodlands, and have significant omission errors in modified agricultural areas. High resolution imagery can better detect these trees, however, as most high resolution imagery is not normalised it is difficult to automate a tree classification method over large areas. The method developed here used an existing medium resolution map derived from either Landsat or SPOT5 satellite imagery to guide the classification of the high resolution imagery. It selected a spatially-variable threshold on the green band, calculated based on the spatially-variable percentage of trees in the existing map of tree cover. The green band proved more consistent at classifying trees across different images than several common band combinations. The method was tested on 0.5 m resolution imagery from airborne digital sensor (ADS) imagery across New South Wales (NSW), Australia using both Landsat and SPOT5 derived tree maps to guide the threshold selection. Accuracy was assessed across 6 large image mosaics revealing a more accurate result when the more accurate tree map from SPOT5 imagery was used. The resulting maps achieved an overall accuracy with 95% confidence intervals of 93% (90-95%), while the overall accuracy of the previous SPOT5 tree map was 87% (86-89%). The method reduced omission errors by mapping more scattered trees, although it did increase commission errors caused by dark pixels from water, building shadows, topographic shadows, and some soils and crops. The method allows trees to be automatically mapped at 5 m resolution from high resolution imagery, provided a medium resolution tree map already exists.

  3. Tree Cover Mapping Tool—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2016-06-02

    The Tree Cover Mapping (TCM) tool was developed by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center to allow a user to quickly map tree cover density over large areas using visual interpretation of high resolution imagery within a geographic information system interface. The TCM tool uses a systematic sample grid to produce maps of tree cover. The TCM tool allows the user to define sampling parameters to estimate tree cover within each sample unit. This mapping method generated the first on-farm tree cover maps of vast regions of Niger and Burkina Faso. The approach contributes to implementing integrated landscape management to scale up re-greening and restore degraded land in the drylands of Africa. The TCM tool is easy to operate, practical, and can be adapted to many other applications such as crop mapping, settlements mapping, or other features. This user manual provides step-by-step instructions for installing and using the tool, and creating tree cover maps. Familiarity with ArcMap tools and concepts is helpful for using the tool.

  4. Navigation and Tree Mapping in Orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Andersen, Jens Christian

    In this paper an algorithm for estimating tree positions is presented. The sensors used for the algorithm is GNSS and LIDAR, and data is collected in an orchard with grapefruit trees while driving along the rows. The positions of the trees are estimated using ellipse fitting on point clouds...... and localization for an autonomous robot....

  5. Plum Tree Island National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Plum Tree Island National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  6. Embedding mapping class groups into finite products of trees

    OpenAIRE

    Hume, David

    2012-01-01

    We prove the equivalence between a relative bottleneck property and being quasi-isometric to a tree-graded space. As a consequence, we deduce that the quasi-trees of spaces defined axiomatically by Bestvina-Bromberg-Fujiwara are quasi-isometric to tree-graded spaces. Using this we prove that mapping class groups quasi-isometrically embed into a finite product of simplicial trees. In particular, these groups have finite Assouad-Nagata dimension, direct embeddings exhibiting $\\ell^p$ compressio...

  7. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  8. CHAIN RECURRENT POINTS AND TOPOLOGICAL ENTROPY OF A TREE MAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunTaixiang

    2002-01-01

    Let f be a tree map,P(f) the set of periodic points of f and CR(f) the set of chain recurrent points of f. In this paper,the notion of division for invariant closed subsets of a tree map is introduced. It is proved that: (1) fhas zero topological entropy if and only if for any x∈CR(f)-P(f) and each natural number s the orbit of x under f5 has a division; (2) If f has zero topological entropy,then for any xECR(f)--P(f) the w-limit set of x is an infinite minimal set.

  9. Predicting tree crown defoliation using color-infrared orthophoto maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigirdas M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthophoto maps based on color-infrared aerial photography have been used by the Lithuanian forest inventory since 2001. This study aimed to investigate the opportunities for using these orthophoto maps to predict tree crown defoliation at the single tree and sample plot levels. The test area was located in the Aukstaitija National Park, eastern Lithuania, and it was photographed in the summer of 2008 using a Vexcel UltraCam D digital frame aerial camera to produce digital orthophoto maps with a 0.5 x 0.5 m ground sampling density. Some 1721 tree crowns (mainly pine, spruce and birch, located in 166 permanent sample plots, were identified and delineated on the orthophoto maps. Crown defoliation and other dendrometric characteristics were field-estimated for all of these trees in summer 2008. Judgments on the suitability of using color-infrared aerial photography based orthophotos to estimate tree crown defoliation were based on the accuracy of the defoliation prediction. Defoliation for each crown was predicted using the non-parametric k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN method and characteristics extracted from the digital orthophoto maps as the auxiliary variables for prediction. Prediction accuracies were validated using the “Leave One Out” technique by comparing the predicted data with data from field-assessed crown defoliations. The lowest root mean square errors for the predicted tree crown defoliation values were 7.564 for pine trees, 9.166 for spruce and 7.712 for birch and the highest coefficients of correlation between field-estimated and predicted crown defoliations were 0.576, 0.600 and 0.386, respectively. However, there was no best performing solution for using the k-NN prediction found, as the best results were achieved using different approaches. Next, predicted and field estimated tree crown defoliation values were aggregated up to the sample plot level by taking an averaging of trees in the same sample plot. The root mean square error

  10. TreeQA: quantitative genome wide association mapping using local perfect phylogeny trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; McMillan, Leonard; Pardo-Manuel De Villena, Fernando; Threadgill, David; Wang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The goal of genome wide association (GWA) mapping in modern genetics is to identify genes or narrow regions in the genome that contribute to genetically complex phenotypes such as morphology or disease. Among the existing methods, tree-based association mapping methods show obvious advantages over single marker-based and haplotype-based methods because they incorporate information about the evolutionary history of the genome into the analysis. However, existing tree-based methods are designed primarily for binary phenotypes derived from case/control studies or fail to scale genome-wide. In this paper, we introduce TreeQA, a quantitative GWA mapping algorithm. TreeQA utilizes local perfect phylogenies constructed in genomic regions exhibiting no evidence of historical recombination. By efficient algorithm design and implementation, TreeQA can efficiently conduct quantitative genom-wide association analysis and is more effective than the previous methods. We conducted extensive experiments on both simulated datasets and mouse inbred lines to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of TreeQA.

  11. Distribution maps for Midsouth tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy C. Beltz; Daniel F. Bertelson

    1990-01-01

    The Midsouth is an important timber-producing region, with a wide variety of sites and species. In addition to timber production, increasing demands for non-timber amenities are placed on the region’s forests. These maps indicate the distribution of individual species recorded in surveys of the Midsouth conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service....

  12. Mapping of fuelwood trees using geoinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning (CiSTUP) (India)

    2010-02-15

    Rural population of India constitutes about 70% of the total population and traditional fuels account for 75% of the rural energy needs. Depletion of woodlands coupled with the persistent dependency on fuel wood has posed a serious problem for household energy provision in many parts. This study highlights that the traditional fuels still meet 85-95% of fuel needs in rural areas of Kolar district; people prefer fuel wood for cooking and agriculture residues for water heating and other purposes. However, rapid changes in land cover and land use in recent times have affected these traditional fuels availability necessitating inventorying, mapping and monitoring of bioresources for sustainable management of bioresources. Remote sensing data (Multispectal and Panchromatic), Geographic Information System (GIS), field surveys and non-destructive sampling were used to assess spatially the availability and demand of energy. Field surveys indicate that rural household depends on species such as Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis to meet fuel wood requirement for domestic activities. Hence, to take stock of fuel wood availability, mapping was done at species level (with 88% accuracy) considering villages as sampling units using fused multispectral and panchromatic data. (author)

  13. A simple model of trees for unicellular maps

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuy, Guillaume; Fusy, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We consider unicellular maps, or polygon gluings, of fixed genus. A few years ago the first author gave a recursive bijection transforming unicellular maps into trees, explaining the presence of Catalan numbers in counting formulas for these objects. In this paper, we give another bijection that explicitly describes the "recursive part" of the first bijection. As a result we obtain a very simple description of unicellular maps as pairs made by a plane tree and a permutation-like structure. All the previously known formulas follow as an immediate corollary or easy exercise, thus giving a bijective proof for each of them, in a unified way. For some of these formulas, this is the first bijective proof, e.g. the Harer-Zagier recurrence formula, or the Lehman-Walsh/Goupil-Schaeffer formulas. Thanks to previous work of the second author this also leads us to a new expression for Stanley character polynomials, which evaluate irreducible characters of the symmetric group.

  14. Binary Tree Approach to Scaling in Unimodal Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ketoja, J A; Ketoja, Jukka A.; Kurkijarvi, Juhani

    1993-01-01

    Ge, Rusjan, and Zweifel (J. Stat. Phys. 59, 1265 (1990)) introduced a binary tree which represents all the periodic windows in the chaotic regime of iterated one-dimensional unimodal maps. We consider the scaling behavior in a modified tree which takes into account the self-similarity of the window structure. A non-universal geometric convergence of the associated superstable parameter values towards a Misiurewicz point is observed for almost all binary sequences with periodic tails. There are an infinite number of exceptional sequences, however, which lead to superexponential scaling. The origin of such sequences is explained.

  15. MR-Tree - A Scalable MapReduce Algorithm for Building Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PURDILĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning decision trees against very large amounts of data is not practical on single node computers due to the huge amount of calculations required by this process. Apache Hadoop is a large scale distributed computing platform that runs on commodity hardware clusters and can be used successfully for data mining task against very large datasets. This work presents a parallel decision tree learning algorithm expressed in MapReduce programming model that runs on Apache Hadoop platform and has a very good scalability with dataset size.

  16. Decision-tree induction from self-mapping space based on web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-yu; ZHU Zhong-ying

    2007-01-01

    An improved decision tree method for web information retrieval with self-mapping attributes is proposed. The self-mapping tree has a value of self-mapping attribute in its internal node, and information based on dissimilarity between a pair of mapping sequences. This method selects self-mapping which exists between data by exhaustive search based on relation and attribute information. Experimental results confirm that the improved method constructs comprehensive and accurate decision tree. Moreover, an example shows that the selfmapping decision tree is promising for data mining and knowledge discovery.

  17. Association mapping in forest trees and fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Awais; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-06-01

    Association mapping (AM), also known as linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping, is a viable approach to overcome limitations of pedigree-based quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. In AM, genotypic and phenotypic correlations are investigated in unrelated individuals. Unlike QTL mapping, AM takes advantage of both LD and historical recombination present within the gene pool of an organism, thus utilizing a broader reference population. In plants, AM has been used in model species with available genomic resources. Pursuing AM in tree species requires both genotyping and phenotyping of large populations with unique architectures. Recently, genome sequences and genomic resources for forest and fruit crops have become available. Due to abundance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a genome, along with availability of high-throughput resequencing methods, SNPs can be effectively used for genotyping trees. In addition to DNA polymorphisms, copy number variations (CNVs) in the form of deletions, duplications, and insertions also play major roles in control of expression of phenotypic traits. Thus, CNVs could provide yet another valuable resource, beyond those of microsatellite and SNP variations, for pursuing genomic studies. As genome-wide SNP data are generated from high-throughput sequencing efforts, these could be readily reanalysed to identify CNVs, and subsequently used for AM studies. However, forest and fruit crops possess unique architectural and biological features that ought to be taken into consideration when collecting genotyping and phenotyping data, as these will also dictate which AM strategies should be pursued. These unique features as well as their impact on undertaking AM studies are outlined and discussed.

  18. Robust dynamical effects in traffic and chaotic maps on trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bosiljka Tadić; Zoran Levnajić

    2008-06-01

    In the dynamic processes on networks collective effects emerge due to the couplings between nodes, where the network structure may play an important role. Interaction along many network links in the nonlinear dynamics may lead to a kind of chaotic collective behavior. Here we study two types of well-defined diffusive dynamics on scale-free trees: traffic of packets as navigated random walks, and chaotic standard maps coupled along the network links. We show that in both cases robust collective dynamic effects appear, which can be measured statistically and related to non-ergodicity of the dynamics on the network. Specifically, we find universal features in the fluctuations of time series and appropriately defined return-time statistics.

  19. Mapping tropical forest trees using high-resolution aerial digital photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Bohlman, Stephanie A.; Olff, Han; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of tree species is a key aspect of community ecology. Because tree species in tropical forests occur at low densities, it is logistically challenging to measure distributions across large areas. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of canopy tree crown maps, derived

  20. GENERATION OF 2D LAND COVER MAPS FOR URBAN AREAS USING DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    J. Höhle

    2014-01-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects like buildings, roads, grassland, trees, hedges, and walls from such an "intelligent" point cloud. The decision tree is derived from training areas which borders are digitized on top of a ...

  1. A New Tree Cover Percentage Map in Eurasia at 500 m Resolution Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kobayashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global tree cover percentage is an important parameter used to understand the global environment. However, the available global percent tree cover products are few, and efforts to validate these maps have been limited. Therefore, producing a new broad-scale percent tree cover dataset is valuable. Our study was undertaken to map tree cover percentage, on a global scale, with better accuracy than previous studies. Using a modified supervised regression tree algorithm from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data of 2008, the tree cover percentage was estimated at 500 m resolution in Eurasia. Training data were created by simulation using reference data interpreted from Google Earth. We collected approximately 716 high-resolution images from Google Earth. The regression tree model was modified to fit those images for improved accuracy. Our estimation result was validated using 307 points. The root mean square error (RMSE between estimated and observed tree cover was 11.2%, and the weighted RMSE between them, in which five tree cover strata (0%–20%, 21%–40%, 41%–60%, 61%–80%, and 81%–100% were weighted equally, was 14.2%. The result was compared to existing global percent-scale tree cover datasets. We found that existing datasets had some pixels with estimation error of more than 50% and each map had different characteristics. Our map could be an alternative dataset and other existing datasets could be modified using our resultant map.

  2. Tree structure-based bit-to-symbol mapping for multidimensional modulation format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoxi, Li; Yujuan, Si; Guijun, Hu

    2017-06-01

    Bit-to-symbol mapping is one of the key issues in multidimensional modulation. In an effort to resolve this issue, a tree structure based bit-to-symbol mapping scheme is proposed. By constructing a tree structure of constellation points, any neighboring constellation points become nearest-neighbor constellation points with minimum Euclidean distance, which in turn, changes the bit-to-symbol mapping problem in multidimensional signal modulation from random to orderly. Then, through the orderly distribution of labels, the minimum Hamming distance between the nearest neighboring constellation points is ensured, eventually achieving bit-to-symbol mapping optimization for multidimensional signals. Simulation analysis indicates that, compared with random search mapping, tree mapping can effectively improve the bit error rate performance of multidimensional signal modulation without multiple searching, reducing the computational cost.

  3. EVALUATION OF DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY TO MAP LAND COVER IN CAPIXABA, ACRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symone Maria de Melo Figueiredo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the accuracy of mapping land cover in Capixaba, state of Acre, Brazil, using decision trees. Elevenattributes were used to build the decision trees: TM Landsat datafrom bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7; fraction images derived from linearspectral unmixing; and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. The Kappa values were greater than 0,83, producingexcellent classification results and demonstrating that the technique is promising for mapping land cover in the study area.

  4. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Cover Using Fused Airborne LIDAR and Satellite Imagery Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmehr, Ebadat G.; Amati, Marco; Fraser, Clive S.

    2016-06-01

    Urban green spaces, particularly urban trees, play a key role in enhancing the liveability of cities. The availability of accurate and up-to-date maps of tree canopy cover is important for sustainable development of urban green spaces. LiDAR point clouds are widely used for the mapping of buildings and trees, and several LiDAR point cloud classification techniques have been proposed for automatic mapping. However, the effectiveness of point cloud classification techniques for automated tree extraction from LiDAR data can be impacted to the point of failure by the complexity of tree canopy shapes in urban areas. Multispectral imagery, which provides complementary information to LiDAR data, can improve point cloud classification quality. This paper proposes a reliable method for the extraction of tree canopy cover from fused LiDAR point cloud and multispectral satellite imagery data. The proposed method initially associates each LiDAR point with spectral information from the co-registered satellite imagery data. It calculates the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) value for each LiDAR point and corrects tree points which have been misclassified as buildings. Then, region growing of tree points, taking the NDVI value into account, is applied. Finally, the LiDAR points classified as tree points are utilised to generate a canopy cover map. The performance of the proposed tree canopy cover mapping method is experimentally evaluated on a data set of airborne LiDAR and WorldView 2 imagery covering a suburb in Melbourne, Australia.

  5. Dissimilarity maps on trees and the representation theory of $GL_n(\\C)$

    CERN Document Server

    Manon, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the representation theory in type $A$used previously to establish that the dissimilarity vectors of phylogenetic trees are points on the tropical Grassmannian variety. We use a different version of this construction to show that the space of phylogenetic trees $K_n$ maps to the tropical varieties of every flag variety of $GL_n(\\C).$ Using this map, we interpret the tropicalization of the semistandard tableaux basis of an irreducible representation of $GL_n(\\C)$ as combinatorial invariants of phylogenetic trees.

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Dilated Mappings of Binary Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    connected processors in an eight nearest neighbour array. Iqbal (4] has designed a heuristic algorithm which works especially well for the mapping of...April 1986. [3) S. Bokhari, "On the Mapping Problem," IEEE Tran. Cornput.,vol. C-30. No. 3, 1980. [43 M. A. Iqbal, " A Heuristic Algorithm for the Mapping

  7. Sampling intensity and normalizations: Exploring cost-driving factors in nationwide mapping of tree canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Tipton; Gretchen Moisen; Paul Patterson; Thomas A. Jackson; John Coulston

    2012-01-01

    There are many factors that will determine the final cost of modeling and mapping tree canopy cover nationwide. For example, applying a normalization process to Landsat data used in the models is important in standardizing reflectance values among scenes and eliminating visual seams in the final map product. However, normalization at the national scale is expensive and...

  8. GENERATION OF 2D LAND COVER MAPS FOR URBAN AREAS USING DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objec...

  9. Mapping big tree presence in open savanna, using tree shadow and high resolution multispectral imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathieu, Renaud SA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available savanna patch dynamics. They generally are considered as prominent keystone structures associated with a stable ecological stage. A variety of anthropogenic land use and management activities are however putting increasing pressure on the big tree...

  10. IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF TREE SPECIES IN URBAN AREAS USING WORLDVIEW-2 IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and mapping of urban trees are essential to provide urban forestry authorities with timely and consistent information. Modern techniques increasingly facilitate these tasks, but require the development of semi-automatic tree detection and classification methods. In this article, we propose an approach to delineate and map the crown of 15 tree species in the city of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq using WorldView-2 (WV-2 imagery. A tree crown object is identified first and is subsequently delineated as an image object (IO using vegetation indices and texture measurements. Next, three classification methods: Maximum Likelihood, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine were used to classify IOs using selected IO features. The best results are obtained with Support Vector Machine classification that gives the best map of urban tree species in Duhok. The overall accuracy was between 60.93% to 88.92% and κ-coefficient was between 0.57 to 0.75. We conclude that fifteen tree species were identified and mapped at a satisfactory accuracy in urban areas of this study.

  11. Non-wandering sets of the powers of maps of a tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Wen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Erdos, A., Stone, A. H., Some remarks about almost periodic transformations, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 945, 5: 26.[2]Gottschalk, W. H., Powers of homeomorphisms with almost periodic properties, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 944, 50: 222.[3]Coven, E. M., Nitecki, Z., Non-wandering sets of the powers of maps of the interval, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys., 98, : 9.[4]Franks, J., Misiurewicz, M., Cycles for disk homeomorphisms and thick trees, Contemporary Mathematics, 993, 52: 69.[5]Li, L., Ye, X., Topological entropy for finite invariant subset of Y, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 995, 347: 465.[6]Alseda, L., Guaschi, J., Los, J. et al., Canonical representative for patterns of tree maps, Topology, 997, 36: 23.[7]Alseda, L., Baldwin, S., Llibre, J. et al., Entropy of transitive tree maps, Topology, 997, 36: 59.[8]Ye, X., Topological entropy of transitive maps of a tree, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys., 2000, 20: 289.[9]Walters, P., An Introduction to Ergodic Theory, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 982.[10]Block, L., Coppel, W. A., Dynamics in one-dimension, Lec. Notes in Math., 53, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 992.[11]Li, T., Ye, X., Chain recurrent points of a tree map, Bull. Austral. Math. Soc., 999, 59: 8.

  12. Soil Organic Matter Mapping by Decision Tree Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; ZHANG Xing-Gang; WANG Fan; WANG Ren-Chao

    2005-01-01

    Based on a case study of Longyou County, Zhejiang Province, the decision tree, a data mining method, was used to analyze the relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) and other environmental and satellite sensing spatial data.The decision tree associated SOM content with some extensive easily observable landscape attributes, such as landform,geology, land use, and remote sensing images, thus transforming the SOM-related information into a clear, quantitative,landscape factor-associated regular system. This system could be used to predict continuous SOM spatial distribution.By analyzing factors such as elevation, geological unit, soil type, land use, remotely sensed data, upslope contributing area, slope, aspect, planform curvature, and profile curvature, the decision tree could predict distribution of soil organic matter levels. Among these factors, elevation, land use, aspect, soil type, the first principle component of bitemporal Landsat TM, and upslope contributing area were considered the most important variables for predicting SOM. Results of the prediction between SOM content and landscape types sorted by the decision tree showed a close relationship with an accuracy of 81.1%.

  13. Iqpc 2015 Track: Tree Separation and Classification in Mobile Mapping LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorte, B.; Oude Elberink, S.; Sirmacek, B.; Wang, J.

    2015-08-01

    The European FP7 project IQmulus yearly organizes several processing contests, where submissions are requested for novel algorithms for point cloud and other big geodata processing. This paper describes the set-up and execution of a contest having the purpose to evaluate state-of-the-art algorithms for Mobile Mapping System point clouds, in order to detect and identify (individual) trees. By the nature of MMS these are trees in the vicinity of the road network (rather than in forests). Therefore, part of the challenge is distinguishing between trees and other objects, such as buildings, street furniture, cars etc. Three submitted segmentation and classification algorithms are thus evaluated.

  14. Object-Based Mapping of the Circumpolar Taiga-Tundra Ecotone with MODIS Tree Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K. J.; Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R.

    2011-01-01

    The circumpolar taiga tundra ecotone was delineated using an image-segmentation-based mapping approach with multi-annual MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover data. Circumpolar tree canopy cover (TCC) throughout the ecotone was derived by averaging MODIS VCF data from 2000 to 2005 and adjusting the averaged values using linear equations relating MODIS TCC to Quickbird-derived tree cover estimates. The adjustment helped mitigate VCF's overestimation of tree cover in lightly forested regions. An image segmentation procedure was used to group pixels representing similar tree cover into polygonal features (segmentation objects) that form the map of the transition zone. Each polygon represents an area much larger than the 500 m MODIS pixel and characterizes the patterns of sparse forest patches on a regional scale. Those polygons near the boreal/tundra interface with either (1) mean adjusted TCC values from5 to 20%, or (2) mean adjusted TCC values greater than 5% but with a standard deviation less than 5% were used to identify the ecotone. Comparisons of the adjusted average tree cover data were made with (1) two existing tree line definitions aggregated for each 1 degree longitudinal interval in North America and Eurasia, (2) Landsat-derived Canadian proportion of forest cover for Canada, and (3) with canopy cover estimates extracted from airborne profiling lidar data that transected 1238 of the TCC polygons. The adjusted TCC from MODIS VCF shows, on average, less than 12% TCC for all but one regional zone at the intersection with independently delineated tree lines. Adjusted values track closely with Canadian proportion of forest cover data in areas of low tree cover. A comparison of the 1238 TCC polygons with profiling lidar measurements yielded an overall accuracy of 67.7%.

  15. MODIS Snow Cover Mapping Decision Tree Technique: Snow and Cloud Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mapping of snow cover continues to challenge cryospheric scientists and modelers. The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow data products have been used since 2000 by many investigators to map and monitor snow cover extent for various applications. Users have reported on the utility of the products and also on problems encountered. Three problems or hindrances in the use of the MODIS snow data products that have been reported in the literature are: cloud obscuration, snow/cloud confusion, and snow omission errors in thin or sparse snow cover conditions. Implementation of the MODIS snow algorithm in a decision tree technique using surface reflectance input to mitigate those problems is being investigated. The objective of this work is to use a decision tree structure for the snow algorithm. This should alleviate snow/cloud confusion and omission errors and provide a snow map with classes that convey information on how snow was detected, e.g. snow under clear sky, snow tinder cloud, to enable users' flexibility in interpreting and deriving a snow map. Results of a snow cover decision tree algorithm are compared to the standard MODIS snow map and found to exhibit improved ability to alleviate snow/cloud confusion in some situations allowing up to about 5% increase in mapped snow cover extent, thus accuracy, in some scenes.

  16. Canopy Fuel Load Mapping of Mediterranean Pine Sites Based on Individual Tree-Crown Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Mallinis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an individual tree-crown-based approach for canopy fuel load estimation and mapping in two Mediterranean pine stands. Based on destructive sampling, an allometric equation was developed for the estimation of crown fuel weight considering only pine crown width, a tree characteristic that can be estimated from passive imagery. Two high resolution images were used originally for discriminating Aleppo and Calabrian pines crown regions through a geographic object based image analysis approach. Subsequently, the crown region images were segmented using a watershed segmentation algorithm and crown width was extracted. The overall accuracy of the tree crown isolation expressed through a perfect match between the reference and the delineated crowns was 34.00% for the Kassandra site and 48.11% for the Thessaloniki site, while the coefficient of determination between the ground measured and the satellite extracted crown width was 0.5. Canopy fuel load values estimated in the current study presented mean values from 1.29 ± 0.6 to 1.65 ± 0.7 kg/m2 similar to other conifers worldwide. Despite the modest accuracies attained in this first study of individual tree crown fuel load mapping, the combination of the allometric equations with satellite-based extracted crown width information, can contribute to the spatially explicit mapping of canopy fuel load in Mediterranean areas. These maps can be used among others in fire behavior prediction, in fuel reduction treatments prioritization and during active fire suppression.

  17. Tree Canopy Cover Mapping Using LiDAR in Urban Barangays of Cebu City, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejares, J. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, J. B.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates tree canopy cover mapping of urban barangays (smallest administrative division in the Philippines) in Cebu City using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was used to extract tree canopy cover. Multi-resolution segmentation and a series of assign-class algorithm in eCognition software was also performed to extract different land features. Contextual features of tree canopies such as height, area, roundness, slope, length-width and elliptic fit were also evaluated. The results showed that at the time the LiDAR data was collected (June 24, 2014), the tree cover was around 25.11 % (or 15,674,341.8 m2) of the city's urban barangays (or 62,426,064.6 m2). Among all urban barangays in Cebu City, Barangay Busay had the highest cover (55.79 %) while barangay Suba had the lowest (0.8 %). The 16 barangays with less than 10 % tree cover were generally located in the coastal area, presumably due to accelerated urbanization. Thirty-one barangays have tree cover ranging from 10.59--27.3 %. Only 3 barangays (i.e., Lahug, Talamban, and Busay) have tree cover greater than 30 %. The overall accuracy of the analysis was 96.6 % with the Kappa Index of Agreement or KIA of 0.9. From the study, a grouping can be made of the city's urban barangays with regards to tree cover. The grouping will be useful to urban planners not only in allocating budget to the tree planting program of the city but also in planning and creation of urban parks and playgrounds.

  18. Mapping topographic structure in white matter pathways with level set trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Kent

    Full Text Available Fiber tractography on diffusion imaging data offers rich potential for describing white matter pathways in the human brain, but characterizing the spatial organization in these large and complex data sets remains a challenge. We show that level set trees--which provide a concise representation of the hierarchical mode structure of probability density functions--offer a statistically-principled framework for visualizing and analyzing topography in fiber streamlines. Using diffusion spectrum imaging data collected on neurologically healthy controls (N = 30, we mapped white matter pathways from the cortex into the striatum using a deterministic tractography algorithm that estimates fiber bundles as dimensionless streamlines. Level set trees were used for interactive exploration of patterns in the endpoint distributions of the mapped fiber pathways and an efficient segmentation of the pathways that had empirical accuracy comparable to standard nonparametric clustering techniques. We show that level set trees can also be generalized to model pseudo-density functions in order to analyze a broader array of data types, including entire fiber streamlines. Finally, resampling methods show the reliability of the level set tree as a descriptive measure of topographic structure, illustrating its potential as a statistical descriptor in brain imaging analysis. These results highlight the broad applicability of level set trees for visualizing and analyzing high-dimensional data like fiber tractography output.

  19. Automated soil resources mapping based on decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 张新刚; 王人潮

    2004-01-01

    This article presents two approaches for automated building of knowledge bases of soil resources mapping.These methods used decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling,respectively to generate knowledge from training data.With these methods,building a knowledge base for automated soil mapping is easier than using the conventional knowledge acquisition approach.The knowledge bases built by these two methods were used by the knowledge classifier for soil type classification of the Longyou area,Zhejiang Province,China using TM bi-temporal imageries and GIS data.To evaluate the performance of the resultant knowledge bases,the classification results were compared to existing soil map based on field survey.The accuracy assessment and analysis of the resultant soil maps suggested that the knowledge bases built by these two methods were of good quality for mapping distribution model of soil classes over the study area.

  20. Automated soil resources mapping based on decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 张新刚; 王人潮

    2004-01-01

    This article presents two approaches for automated building of knowledge bases of soil resources mapping.These methods used decision tree and Bayesian predictive modeling, respectively to generate knowledge from training data.With these methods, building a knowledge base for automated soil mapping is easier than using the conventional knowledge acquisition approach. The knowledge bases built by these two methods were used by the knowledge classifier for soil type classification of the Longyou area, Zhejiang Province, China using TM hi-temporal imageries and GIS data. To evaluate the performance of the resultant knowledge bases, the classification results were compared to existing soil map based on field survey. The accuracy assessment and analysis of the resultant soil maps suggested that the knowledge bases built by these two methods were of good quality for mapping distribution model of soil classes over the study area.

  1. Mapping tree health using airborne laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for a floodplain eucalypt forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendryk, Iurii; Tulbure, Mirela; Broich, Mark; McGrath, Andrew; Alexandrov, Sergey; Keith, David

    2016-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two complementary remote sensing technologies that provide comprehensive structural and spectral characteristics of forests over large areas. In this study we developed two algorithms: one for individual tree delineation utilizing ALS and the other utilizing ALS and HSI to characterize health of delineated trees in a structurally complex floodplain eucalypt forest. We conducted experiments in the largest eucalypt, river red gum forest in the world, located in the south-east of Australia that experienced severe dieback over the past six decades. For detection of individual trees from ALS we developed a novel bottom-up approach based on Euclidean distance clustering to detect tree trunks and random walks segmentation to further delineate tree crowns. Overall, our algorithm was able to detect 67% of tree trunks with diameter larger than 13 cm. We assessed the accuracy of tree delineations in terms of crown height and width, with correct delineation of 68% of tree crowns. The increase in ALS point density from ~12 to ~24 points/m2 resulted in tree trunk detection and crown delineation increase of 11% and 13%, respectively. Trees with incorrectly delineated crowns were generally attributed to areas with high tree density along water courses. The accurate delineation of trees allowed us to classify the health of this forest using machine learning and field-measured tree crown dieback and transparency ratios, which were good predictors of tree health in this forest. ALS and HSI derived indices were used as predictor variables to train and test object-oriented random forest classifier. Returned pulse width, intensity and density related ALS indices were the most important predictors in the tree health classifications. At the forest level in terms of tree crown dieback, 77% of trees were classified as healthy, 14% as declining and 9% as dying or dead with 81% mapping accuracy. Similarly, in terms of tree

  2. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  3. Efficient and accurate construction of genetic linkage maps from the minimum spanning tree of a graph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Wu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic linkage maps are cornerstones of a wide spectrum of biotechnology applications, including map-assisted breeding, association genetics, and map-assisted gene cloning. During the past several years, the adoption of high-throughput genotyping technologies has been paralleled by a substantial increase in the density and diversity of genetic markers. New genetic mapping algorithms are needed in order to efficiently process these large datasets and accurately construct high-density genetic maps. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm to order markers on a genetic linkage map. Our method is based on a simple yet fundamental mathematical property that we prove under rather general assumptions. The validity of this property allows one to determine efficiently the correct order of markers by computing the minimum spanning tree of an associated graph. Our empirical studies obtained on genotyping data for three mapping populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare, as well as extensive simulations on synthetic data, show that our algorithm consistently outperforms the best available methods in the literature, particularly when the input data are noisy or incomplete. The software implementing our algorithm is available in the public domain as a web tool under the name MSTmap.

  4. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  5. Automated large scale parameter extraction of road-side trees sampled by a laser mobile mapping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenbergh, R.C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadsid

  6. Mapping Regional Distribution of a Single Tree Species: Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Schwartz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  7. MULTISEASONAL TREE CROWN STRUCTURE MAPPING WITH POINT CLOUDS FROM OTS QUADROCOPTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hese

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OTF (Off The Shelf quadro copter systems provide a cost effective (below 2000 Euro, flexible and mobile platform for high resolution point cloud mapping. Various studies showed the full potential of these small and flexible platforms. Especially in very tight and complex 3D environments the automatic obstacle avoidance, low copter weight, long flight times and precise maneuvering are important advantages of these small OTS systems in comparison with larger octocopter systems. This study examines the potential of the DJI Phantom 4 pro series and the Phantom 3A series for within-stand and forest tree crown 3D point cloud mapping using both within stand oblique imaging in different altitude levels and data captured from a nadir perspective. On a test site in Brandenburg/Germany a beach crown was selected and measured with 3 different altitude levels in Point Of Interest (POI mode with oblique data capturing and deriving one nadir mosaic created with 85/85 % overlap using Drone Deploy automatic mapping software. Three different flight campaigns were performed, one in September 2016 (leaf-on, one in March 2017 (leaf-off and one in May 2017 (leaf-on to derive point clouds from different crown structure and phenological situations – covering the leaf-on and leafoff status of the tree crown. After height correction, the point clouds where used with GPS geo referencing to calculate voxel based densities on 50 × 10 × 10 cm voxel definitions using a topological network of chessboard image objects in 0,5 m height steps in an object based image processing environment. Comparison between leaf-off and leaf-on status was done on volume pixel definitions comparing the attributed point densities per volume and plotting the resulting values as a function of distance to the crown center. In the leaf-off status SFM (structure from motion algorithms clearly identified the central stem and also secondary branch systems. While the penetration into the

  8. MAPPING OF MEMORIAL TREES OF HOLY PLACES IN RUSSIA AND THE NEAR ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kotova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Orthodox Church in Russia and the Near Abroad is related by definite mode with world of nature environment. Trees growing now or existed in the past in territories of holy places are elements of this world. These plants were eye-witnesses of miracles, participants in events of Holy History and the life of Christian ascetics. Some of them persisted until the present and have a great value as unique examples of nature and culture heritage. Mapping of such objects surviving of last centuries has a large value for their inventory and protection. This corresponds with All-Russian federal program “Trees - memorial of the living nature”. Data about extinct plants are important for profound study of the history of holy places and reconstruction there of historical landscape.

  9. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables.

  10. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Singh

    Full Text Available At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA was used (using multiresolution segmentation to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively. Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%, whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM and maximum likelihood (ML classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables.

  11. Spectral mapping of savanna tree species at canopy level, with focus on tall trees, using an integrated CAO Hyperspectral & LiDAR sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available of food production and fuel wood for the local populace and communities. Economically viable tree species can thus be sustainably monitored while the pest species can be targeted and removed. The aim of this study was to identify spectrally and map 5 tall...

  12. Yield mapping, soil fertility and tree gaps in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Molin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current high competition on Citrus industry demands from growers new management technologies for superior efficiency and sustainability. In this context, precision agriculture (PA has developed techniques based on yield mapping and management systems that recognize field spatial variability, which contribute to increase profitability of commercial crops. Because spatial variability is often not perceived the orange orchards are still managed as uniform and adoption of PA technology on citrus farms is low. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial variability of three factors: fruit yield, soil fertility and occurrence of plant gaps caused by either citrus blight or huanglongbing (HLB in a commercial Valencia orchard in Brotas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data from volume, geographic coordinates and representative area of the bags used on harvest were recorded to generate yield points that were then interpolated to produce the yield map. Soil chemical characteristics were studied by analyzing samples collected along planting rows and inter-rows in 24 points distributed in the field. A map of density of tree gaps was produced by georeferencing individual gaps and later by counting the number of gaps within 500 m² cells. Data were submitted to statistical and geostatistical analyses. A t test was used to compare means of soil chemical characteristics between sampling regions. High variation on yield and density of tree gaps was observed from the maps. It was also demonstrated overlapping regions of high density of plant absence and low fruit yield. Soil fertility varied depending on the sampling region in the orchard. The spatial variability found on yield, soil fertility and on disease occurrence demonstrated the importance to adopt site specific nutrient management and disease control as tools to guarantee efficiency of fruit production.

  13. SNP identification from RNA sequencing and linkage map construction of rubber tree for anchoring the draft genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Shearman

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  14. SNP identification from RNA sequencing and linkage map construction of rubber tree for anchoring the draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Jeremy R; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  15. The Iqmulus Urban Showcase: Automatic Tree Classification and Identification in Huge Mobile Mapping Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, J.; Bredif, M.; Gierlinger, T.; Krämer, M.; Lindenberg, R.; Liu, K.; Michel, F.; Sirmacek, B.

    2016-06-01

    Current 3D data capturing as implemented on for example airborne or mobile laser scanning systems is able to efficiently sample the surface of a city by billions of unselective points during one working day. What is still difficult is to extract and visualize meaningful information hidden in these point clouds with the same efficiency. This is where the FP7 IQmulus project enters the scene. IQmulus is an interactive facility for processing and visualizing big spatial data. In this study the potential of IQmulus is demonstrated on a laser mobile mapping point cloud of 1 billion points sampling ~ 10 km of street environment in Toulouse, France. After the data is uploaded to the IQmulus Hadoop Distributed File System, a workflow is defined by the user consisting of retiling the data followed by a PCA driven local dimensionality analysis, which runs efficiently on the IQmulus cloud facility using a Spark implementation. Points scattering in 3 directions are clustered in the tree class, and are separated next into individual trees. Five hours of processing at the 12 node computing cluster results in the automatic identification of 4000+ urban trees. Visualization of the results in the IQmulus fat client helps users to appreciate the results, and developers to identify remaining flaws in the processing workflow.

  16. Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Epstein

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cate...

  17. Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cat...

  18. Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V.~Glaser and R.~Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  19. The creation of a digital soil map for Cyprus using decision-tree classification techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Zomeni, Zomenia; Bruggeman, Adriana; Noller, Joy; Zissimos, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Considering the increasing threats soil are experiencing especially in semi-arid, Mediterranean environments like Cyprus (erosion, contamination, sealing and salinisation), producing a high resolution, reliable soil map is essential for further soil conservation studies. This study aims to create a 1:50.000 soil map covering the area under the direct control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study consists of two major steps. The first is the creation of a raster database of predictive variables selected according to the scorpan formula (McBratney et al., 2003). It is of particular interest the possibility of using, as soil properties, data coming from three older island-wide soil maps and the recently published geochemical atlas of Cyprus (Cohen et al., 2011). Ten highly characterizing elements were selected and used as predictors in the present study. For the other factors usual variables were used: temperature and aridity index for climate; total loss on ignition, vegetation and forestry types maps for organic matter; the DEM and related relief derivatives (slope, aspect, curvature, landscape units); bedrock, surficial geology and geomorphology (Noller, 2009) for parent material and age; and a sub-watershed map to better bound location related to parent material sources. In the second step, the digital soil map is created using the Random Forests package in R. Random Forests is a decision tree classification technique where many trees, instead of a single one, are developed and compared to increase the stability and the reliability of the prediction. The model is trained and verified on areas where a 1:25.000 published soil maps obtained from field work is available and then it is applied for predictive mapping to the other areas. Preliminary results obtained in a small area in the plain around the city of Lefkosia, where eight different soil classes are present, show very good capacities of the method. The Ramdom Forest approach leads to reproduce soil

  20. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (HVAC benefits from UTC for individual homes, and for assessing the ecosystem services for entire urban areas. Such maps have previously been made using a variety of methods, typically relying on high resolution aerial or satellite imagery. This paper seeks to contribute to this growing body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately, the resulting fine resolution UTC map will be

  1. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFaden, Sean W.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Royar, Anna R.; Lu, Jacqueline W. T.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban tree canopy is widely believed to have myriad environmental, social, and human-health benefits, but a lack of precise canopy estimates has hindered quantification of these benefits in many municipalities. This problem was addressed for New York City using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to develop a comprehensive land-cover map, including tree canopy to the scale of individual trees. Mapping was performed using a rule-based expert system that relied primarily on high-resolution LIDAR, specifically its capacity for evaluating the height and texture of aboveground features. Multispectral imagery was also used, but shadowing and varying temporal conditions limited its utility. Contextual analysis was a key part of classification, distinguishing trees according to their physical and spectral properties as well as their relationships to adjacent, nonvegetated features. The automated product was extensively reviewed and edited via manual interpretation, and overall per-pixel accuracy of the final map was 96%. Although manual editing had only a marginal effect on accuracy despite requiring a majority of project effort, it maximized aesthetic quality and ensured the capture of small, isolated trees. Converting high-resolution LIDAR and imagery into usable information is a nontrivial exercise, requiring significant processing time and labor, but an expert system-based combination of OBIA and manual review was an effective method for fine-scale canopy mapping in a complex urban environment.

  2. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover.

  3. A low-cost multi-sensoral mobile mapping system and its feasibility for tree measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Anttoni; Hyyppä, Juha; Kukko, Antero; Yu, Xiaowei; Kaartinen, Harri; Lehtomäki, Matti; Lin, Yi

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost mini-UAV-based laser scanning system, which is also capable of performing car-based mobile mapping. The quality of the system and its feasibility for tree measurements was tested using the system's laser scanner. The system was constructed as a modular measurement system consisting of a number of measurement instruments: a GPS/IMU positioning system, two laser scanners, a CCD camera, a spectrometer and a thermal camera. An Ibeo Lux and a Sick LMS151 profile laser were integrated into the system to provide dense point clouds; intensities of the reflected echoes can also be obtained with the Sick LMS. In our tests, when using a car as a platform, the pole-type object extraction algorithm which was developed resulted in 90% completeness and 86% correctness. The heights of pole-type objects were obtained with a bias of -1.6 cm and standard deviation of 5.4 cm. Using a mini-UAV as the platform, the standard deviation of individual tree heights was about 30 cm. Also, a digital elevation model extraction was tested with the UAV data, resulting in a height offset of about 3.1 cm and a standard deviation of 9.2 cm. With a multitemporal point cloud, we demonstrated a method to derive the biomass change of a coniferous tree with an R2 value of 0.92. The proposed system is capable of not only recording point cloud data giving the geometry of the objects, but also simultaneously collecting image data, including overlapping images and the intensity of laser backscatter, as well as hyperspectral and thermal data. Therefore we believe that the system is feasible for new algorithm and concept development and for basic research, especially when data is recorded multitemporally.

  4. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa

    2016-08-01

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.

  5. Mapping standing dead trees (snags) in the aftermath of the 2013 Rim Fire using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Planes, Á.; Garcia-Alonso, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ustin, S.; Falk, M.; Ramirez, C.; Siegel, R.

    2014-12-01

    Abundance and spatial distribution of standing dead trees (snags) are key indicators of forest biodiversity and ecosystem health and represent a critical component of habitat for various wildlife species, including the great grey owl and the black-backed woodpecker. In this work we assess the potential of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to discriminate snags from the live trees and map their distribution. The study area encompasses the burn perimeter of the Rim Fire, the third largest wildfire in California's recorded history (~104.000 ha) and represents a heterogeneous mosaic of mixed conifer forests, hardwood, and meadows. The snags mapping procedure is based on a 3D single tree detection using a Watershed algorithm and the extraction of height and intensity metrics within each segment. Variables selected using Gaussian processes form a feature space for a classifier to distinguish between dead trees and live trees. Finally, snag density and snag diameter classes that are relevant for avian species are mapped. This work shows the use of LiDAR metrics to quantify ecological variables related to the vertical heterogeneity of the forest canopy that are important in the identification of snags, for example, fractional cover. We observed that intensity-related variables are critical to the successful identification of snags and their distribution. Our study highlights the importance of high-density LiDAR for characterizing the forest structural variables that contribute to the assessment of wildlife habitat suitability.

  6. Aerial detection of Ailanthus altissima: a cost-effective method to map an invasive tree in forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Aaron Kloss; Michael Bowden; Cheryl Coon; Todd F. Hutchinson; Louis Iverson; Greg Guess

    2015-01-01

    We present an aerial mapping method to efficiently and effectively identify seed clusters of the invasive tree, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle across deciduous forest landscapes in the eastern United States. We found that the ideal time to conduct aerial digital surveys is early to middle winter, when Ailanthus seed...

  7. GIS-based groundwater potential mapping using boosted regression tree, classification and regression tree, and random forest machine learning models in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Seyed Amir; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Dixon, Barnali

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is considered one of the most valuable fresh water resources. The main objective of this study was to produce groundwater spring potential maps in the Koohrang Watershed, Chaharmahal-e-Bakhtiari Province, Iran, using three machine learning models: boosted regression tree (BRT), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). Thirteen hydrological-geological-physiographical (HGP) factors that influence locations of springs were considered in this research. These factors include slope degree, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, profile curvature, distance to rivers, distance to faults, lithology, land use, drainage density, and fault density. Subsequently, groundwater spring potential was modeled and mapped using CART, RF, and BRT algorithms. The predicted results from the three models were validated using the receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC). From 864 springs identified, 605 (≈70 %) locations were used for the spring potential mapping, while the remaining 259 (≈30 %) springs were used for the model validation. The area under the curve (AUC) for the BRT model was calculated as 0.8103 and for CART and RF the AUC were 0.7870 and 0.7119, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that the BRT model produced the best prediction results while predicting locations of springs followed by CART and RF models, respectively. Geospatially integrated BRT, CART, and RF methods proved to be useful in generating the spring potential map (SPM) with reasonable accuracy.

  8. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  9. Very High Resolution Mapping of Tree Cover Using Scalable Deep Learning Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ganguly, sangram; basu, saikat; nemani, ramakrishna; mukhopadhyay, supratik; michaelis, andrew; votava, petr; saatchi, sassan

    2016-04-01

    Several studies to date have provided an extensive knowledge base for estimating forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and recent advances in space-based modeling of the 3-D canopy structure, combined with canopy reflectance measured by passive optical sensors and radar backscatter, are providing improved satellite-derived AGB density mapping for large scale carbon monitoring applications. A key limitation in forest AGB estimation from remote sensing, however, is the large uncertainty in forest cover estimates from the coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-derived land cover maps (present resolution is limited to 30-m of the USGS NLCD Program). As part of our NASA Carbon Monitoring System Phase II activities, we have demonstrated that uncertainties in forest cover estimates at the Landsat scale result in high uncertainties in AGB estimation, predominantly in heterogeneous forest and urban landscapes. We have successfully tested an approach using scalable deep learning architectures (Feature-enhanced Deep Belief Networks and Semantic Segmentation using Convolutional Neural Networks) and High-Performance Computing with NAIP air-borne imagery data for mapping tree cover at 1-m over California and Maryland. Our first high resolution satellite training label dataset from the NAIP data can be found here at http://csc.lsu.edu/~saikat/deepsat/ . In a comparison with high resolution LiDAR data available over selected regions in the two states, we found our results to be promising both in terms of accuracy as well as our ability to scale nationally. In this project, we propose to estimate very high resolution forest cover for the continental US at spatial resolution of 1-m in support of reducing uncertainties in the AGB estimation. The proposed work will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in related carbon products.

  10. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Sander, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1) quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) processing and allometric models, (2) quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3) mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  11. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhao

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1 quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR processing and allometric models, (2 quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3 mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping of Tegucigalpa, Honduras Using Artificial Neural Network, Bayesian Network and Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Urquia, E. L.; Braun, A.; Yamagishi, H.

    2016-12-01

    Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras, experiences rainfall-induced landslides on a yearly basis. The high precipitation regime and the rugged topography the city has been built in couple with the lack of a proper urban expansion plan to contribute to the occurrence of landslides during the rainy season. Thousands of inhabitants live at risk of losing their belongings due to the construction of precarious shelters in landslide-prone areas on mountainous terrains and next to the riverbanks. Therefore, the city is in the need for landslide susceptibility and hazard maps to aid in the regulation of future development. Major challenges in the context of highly dynamic urbanizing areas are the overlap of natural and anthropogenic slope destabilizing factors, as well as the availability and accuracy of data. Data-driven multivariate techniques have proven to be powerful in discovering interrelations between factors, identifying important factors in large datasets, capturing non-linear problems and coping with noisy and incomplete data. This analysis focuses on the creation of a landslide susceptibility map using different methods from the field of data mining, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Bayesian Networks (BN) and Decision Trees (DT). The input dataset of the study contains geomorphological and hydrological factors derived from a digital elevation model with a 10 m resolution, lithological factors derived from a geological map, and anthropogenic factors, such as information on the development stage of the neighborhoods in Tegucigalpa and road density. Moreover, a landslide inventory map that was developed in 2014 through aerial photo interpretation was used as target variable in the analysis. The analysis covers an area of roughly 100 km2, while 8.95 km2 are occupied by landslides. In a first step, the dataset was explored by assessing and improving the data quality, identifying unimportant variables and finding interrelations. Then, based on a training

  13. Stress wave propagation on standing trees. Part 2, Formation of 3D stress wave contour maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Su; Houjiang Zhang; Xiping Wang

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of wood quality in standing trees is an important procedure in the forest operational value chain worldwide. The goal of this paper is to investigate how a stress wave travel in a tree stem as it is introduced into the tree through a mechanical impact. Experimental stress wave data was obtained on freshly cut red pine logs in the...

  14. Forest Tree Species Distribution Mapping Using Landsat Satellite Imagery and Topographic Variables with the Maximum Entropy Method in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Chiang, Shou; Valdez, Miguel; Chen, Chi-Farn

    2016-06-01

    Forest is a very important ecosystem and natural resource for living things. Based on forest inventories, government is able to make decisions to converse, improve and manage forests in a sustainable way. Field work for forestry investigation is difficult and time consuming, because it needs intensive physical labor and the costs are high, especially surveying in remote mountainous regions. A reliable forest inventory can give us a more accurate and timely information to develop new and efficient approaches of forest management. The remote sensing technology has been recently used for forest investigation at a large scale. To produce an informative forest inventory, forest attributes, including tree species are unavoidably required to be considered. In this study the aim is to classify forest tree species in Erdenebulgan County, Huwsgul province in Mongolia, using Maximum Entropy method. The study area is covered by a dense forest which is almost 70% of total territorial extension of Erdenebulgan County and is located in a high mountain region in northern Mongolia. For this study, Landsat satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were acquired to perform tree species mapping. The forest tree species inventory map was collected from the Forest Division of the Mongolian Ministry of Nature and Environment as training data and also used as ground truth to perform the accuracy assessment of the tree species classification. Landsat images and DEM were processed for maximum entropy modeling, and this study applied the model with two experiments. The first one is to use Landsat surface reflectance for tree species classification; and the second experiment incorporates terrain variables in addition to the Landsat surface reflectance to perform the tree species classification. All experimental results were compared with the tree species inventory to assess the classification accuracy. Results show that the second one which uses Landsat surface reflectance coupled

  15. FOREST TREE SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MAPPING USING LANDSAT SATELLITE IMAGERY AND TOPOGRAPHIC VARIABLES WITH THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD IN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Chiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest is a very important ecosystem and natural resource for living things. Based on forest inventories, government is able to make decisions to converse, improve and manage forests in a sustainable way. Field work for forestry investigation is difficult and time consuming, because it needs intensive physical labor and the costs are high, especially surveying in remote mountainous regions. A reliable forest inventory can give us a more accurate and timely information to develop new and efficient approaches of forest management. The remote sensing technology has been recently used for forest investigation at a large scale. To produce an informative forest inventory, forest attributes, including tree species are unavoidably required to be considered. In this study the aim is to classify forest tree species in Erdenebulgan County, Huwsgul province in Mongolia, using Maximum Entropy method. The study area is covered by a dense forest which is almost 70% of total territorial extension of Erdenebulgan County and is located in a high mountain region in northern Mongolia. For this study, Landsat satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM were acquired to perform tree species mapping. The forest tree species inventory map was collected from the Forest Division of the Mongolian Ministry of Nature and Environment as training data and also used as ground truth to perform the accuracy assessment of the tree species classification. Landsat images and DEM were processed for maximum entropy modeling, and this study applied the model with two experiments. The first one is to use Landsat surface reflectance for tree species classification; and the second experiment incorporates terrain variables in addition to the Landsat surface reflectance to perform the tree species classification. All experimental results were compared with the tree species inventory to assess the classification accuracy. Results show that the second one which uses Landsat surface

  16. Semi-Automated Approach for Mapping Urban Trees from Integrated Aerial LiDAR Point Cloud and Digital Imagery Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-Yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  17. SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR MAPPING URBAN TREES FROM INTEGRATED AERIAL LiDAR POINT CLOUD AND DIGITAL IMAGERY DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Dogon-Yaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  18. Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogoro Fujiki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the progress of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and the safeguarding of ecosystems from the perverse negative impacts caused by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+ requires the development of spatiotemporally robust and sensitive indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health. Recently, it has been proposed that tree-community composition based on count-plot surveys could serve as a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective indicator for forest intactness in Bornean logged-over rain forests. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map tree-community composition across the entire landscape based on Landsat imagery. We targeted six forest management units (FMUs, each of which ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 ha in area, covering a broad geographic range spanning the most area of Borneo. Approximately fifty 20 m-radius circular plots were established in each FMU, and the differences in tree-community composition at a genus level among plots were examined for trees with diameter at breast height ≥10 cm using an ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS. Subsequently, we developed a linear regression model based on Landsat metrics (e.g., reflectance value, vegetation indices and textures to explain the nMDS axis-1 scores of the plots, and extrapolated the model to the landscape to establish a tree-community composition map in each FMU. The adjusted R2 values based on a cross-validation approach between the predicted and observed nMDS axis-1 scores indicated a close correlation, ranging from 0.54 to 0.69. Histograms of the frequency distributions of extrapolated nMDS axis-1 scores were derived from each map and used to quantitatively diagnose the forest intactness of the FMUs. Our study indicated that tree-community composition, which was reported as a robust indicator of forest intactness, could be mapped at a landscape level to

  19. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  20. First-generation linkage map for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) with utility in congeneric species

    OpenAIRE

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Western Palearctic tree frogs (Hyla arborea group) represent a strong potential for evolutionary and conservation genetic research, so far underexploited due to limited molecular resources. New microsatellite markers have recently been developed for Hyla arborea, with high cross-species utility across the entire circum-Mediterranean radiation. Here we conduct sibship analyses to map available markers for use in future population genetic applications. Findings We characterized eight...

  1. Using UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Bark Beetle Damage at Tree-Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope Näsi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hyperspectral frame imaging sensor operating in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm was used to identify mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. trees suffering from infestation, representing a different outbreak phase, by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.. We developed a new processing method for analyzing spectral characteristic for high spatial resolution photogrammetric and hyperspectral images in forested environments, as well as for identifying individual anomalous trees. The dense point clouds, measured using image matching, enabled detection of single trees with an accuracy of 74.7%. We classified the trees into classes of healthy, infested and dead, and the results were promising. The best results for the overall accuracy were 76% (Cohen’s kappa 0.60, when using three color classes (healthy, infested, dead. For two color classes (healthy, dead, the best overall accuracy was 90% (kappa 0.80. The survey methodology based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging will be of a high practical value for forest health management, indicating a status of bark beetle outbreak in time.

  2. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal.

  3. Predictive mapping of soil organic carbon in wet cultivated lands using classification-tree based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2010-01-01

    the geographic distribution of SOC across Denmark using remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GISs) and decision-tree modeling (un-pruned and pruned classification trees). Seventeen parameters, i.e. parent material, soil type, landscape type, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, mean curvature...... field measurements in the area of interest (Denmark). A large number of tree-based classification models (588) were developed using (i) all of the parameters, (ii) all Digital Elevation Model (DEM) parameters only, (iii) the primary DEM parameters only, (iv), the remote sensing (RS) indices only, (v......) selected pairs of parameters, (vi) soil type, parent material and landscape type only, and (vii) the parameters having a high impact on SOC distribution in built pruned trees. The best constructed classification tree models (in the number of three) with the lowest misclassification error (ME...

  4. A voting-based statistical cylinder detection framework applied to fallen tree mapping in terrestrial laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewski, Przemyslaw; Yao, Wei; Heurich, Marco; Krzystek, Peter; Stilla, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    This paper introduces a statistical framework for detecting cylindrical shapes in dense point clouds. We target the application of mapping fallen trees in datasets obtained through terrestrial laser scanning. This is a challenging task due to the presence of ground vegetation, standing trees, DTM artifacts, as well as the fragmentation of dead trees into non-collinear segments. Our method shares the concept of voting in parameter space with the generalized Hough transform, however two of its significant drawbacks are improved upon. First, the need to generate samples on the shape's surface is eliminated. Instead, pairs of nearby input points lying on the surface cast a vote for the cylinder's parameters based on the intrinsic geometric properties of cylindrical shapes. Second, no discretization of the parameter space is required: the voting is carried out in continuous space by means of constructing a kernel density estimator and obtaining its local maxima, using automatic, data-driven kernel bandwidth selection. Furthermore, we show how the detected cylindrical primitives can be efficiently merged to obtain object-level (entire tree) semantic information using graph-cut segmentation and a tailored dynamic algorithm for eliminating cylinder redundancy. Experiments were performed on 3 plots from the Bavarian Forest National Park, with ground truth obtained through visual inspection of the point clouds. It was found that relative to sample consensus (SAC) cylinder fitting, the proposed voting framework can improve the detection completeness by up to 10 percentage points while maintaining the correctness rate.

  5. Improved predictive mapping of indoor radon concentrations using ensemble regression trees based on automatic clustering of geological units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Georg; Bochud, Francois; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Murith, Christophe; Palacios Gruson, Martha; Baechler, Sébastien

    2015-09-01

    According to estimations around 230 people die as a result of radon exposure in Switzerland. This public health concern makes reliable indoor radon prediction and mapping methods necessary in order to improve risk communication to the public. The aim of this study was to develop an automated method to classify lithological units according to their radon characteristics and to develop mapping and predictive tools in order to improve local radon prediction. About 240 000 indoor radon concentration (IRC) measurements in about 150 000 buildings were available for our analysis. The automated classification of lithological units was based on k-medoids clustering via pair-wise Kolmogorov distances between IRC distributions of lithological units. For IRC mapping and prediction we used random forests and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). The automated classification groups lithological units well in terms of their IRC characteristics. Especially the IRC differences in metamorphic rocks like gneiss are well revealed by this method. The maps produced by random forests soundly represent the regional difference of IRCs in Switzerland and improve the spatial detail compared to existing approaches. We could explain 33% of the variations in IRC data with random forests. Additionally, the influence of a variable evaluated by random forests shows that building characteristics are less important predictors for IRCs than spatial/geological influences. BART could explain 29% of IRC variability and produced maps that indicate the prediction uncertainty. Ensemble regression trees are a powerful tool to model and understand the multidimensional influences on IRCs. Automatic clustering of lithological units complements this method by facilitating the interpretation of radon properties of rock types. This study provides an important element for radon risk communication. Future approaches should consider taking into account further variables like soil gas radon measurements as

  6. Mapping mangrove forests using multi-tidal remotely-sensed data and a decision-tree-based procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Treitz, Paul M.; Chen, Dongmei; Quan, Chang; Shi, Lixin; Li, Xinhui

    2017-10-01

    Mangrove forests grow in intertidal zones in tropical and subtropical regions and have suffered a dramatic decline globally over the past few decades. Remote sensing data, collected at various spatial resolutions, provide an effective way to map the spatial distribution of mangrove forests over time. However, the spectral signatures of mangrove forests are significantly affected by tide levels. Therefore, mangrove forests may not be accurately mapped with remote sensing data collected during a single-tidal event, especially if not acquired at low tide. This research reports how a decision-tree -based procedure was developed to map mangrove forests using multi-tidal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Three indices, including the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and NDVIL·NDMIH (the multiplication of NDVIL by NDMIH, L: low tide level, H: high tide level) were used in this algorithm to differentiate mangrove forests from other land-cover and land-use types in Fangchenggang City, China. Additionally, the recent Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data were selected to validate the results and compare if the methodology is reliable. The results demonstrate that short-term multi-tidal remotely-sensed data better represent the unique nearshore coastal wetland habitats of mangrove forests than single-tidal data. Furthermore, multi-tidal remotely-sensed data has led to improved accuracies using two classification approaches: i.e. decision trees and the maximum likelihood classification (MLC). Since mangrove forests are typically found at low elevations, the inclusion of elevation data in the two classification procedures was tested. Given the decision-tree method does not assume strict data distribution parameters, it was able to optimize the application of multi-tidal and elevation data, resulting in higher classification accuracies of mangrove forests. When using multi

  7. Mapping Species Composition of Forests and Tree Plantations in Northeastern Costa Rica with an Integration of Hyperspectral and Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Matthew E.; Defries, Ruth S.; Sesnie, Steven E.; Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Soto, Carlomagno; Singh, Aditya; Townsend, Philip A.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient means to map tree plantations is needed to detect tropical land use change and evaluate reforestation projects. To analyze recent tree plantation expansion in northeastern Costa Rica, we examined the potential of combining moderate-resolution hyperspectral imagery (2005 HyMap mosaic) with multitemporal, multispectral data (Landsat) to accurately classify (1) general forest types and (2) tree plantations by species composition. Following a linear discriminant analysis to reduce data dimensionality, we compared four Random Forest classification models: hyperspectral data (HD) alone; HD plus interannual spectral metrics; HD plus a multitemporal forest regrowth classification; and all three models combined. The fourth, combined model achieved overall accuracy of 88.5%. Adding multitemporal data significantly improved classification accuracy (p less than 0.0001) of all forest types, although the effect on tree plantation accuracy was modest. The hyperspectral data alone classified six species of tree plantations with 75% to 93% producer's accuracy; adding multitemporal spectral data increased accuracy only for two species with dense canopies. Non-native tree species had higher classification accuracy overall and made up the majority of tree plantations in this landscape. Our results indicate that combining occasionally acquired hyperspectral data with widely available multitemporal satellite imagery enhances mapping and monitoring of reforestation in tropical landscapes.

  8. Mapping Species Composition of Forests and Tree Plantations in Northeastern Costa Rica with an Integration of Hyperspectral and Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Fagan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient means to map tree plantations is needed to detect tropical land use change and evaluate reforestation projects. To analyze recent tree plantation expansion in northeastern Costa Rica, we examined the potential of combining moderate-resolution hyperspectral imagery (2005 HyMap mosaic with multitemporal, multispectral data (Landsat to accurately classify (1 general forest types and (2 tree plantations by species composition. Following a linear discriminant analysis to reduce data dimensionality, we compared four Random Forest classification models: hyperspectral data (HD alone; HD plus interannual spectral metrics; HD plus a multitemporal forest regrowth classification; and all three models combined. The fourth, combined model achieved overall accuracy of 88.5%. Adding multitemporal data significantly improved classification accuracy (p < 0.0001 of all forest types, although the effect on tree plantation accuracy was modest. The hyperspectral data alone classified six species of tree plantations with 75% to 93% producer’s accuracy; adding multitemporal spectral data increased accuracy only for two species with dense canopies. Non-native tree species had higher classification accuracy overall and made up the majority of tree plantations in this landscape. Our results indicate that combining occasionally acquired hyperspectral data with widely available multitemporal satellite imagery enhances mapping and monitoring of reforestation in tropical landscapes.

  9. A Versatile, Production-Oriented Approach to High-Resolution Tree-Canopy Mapping in Urban and Suburban Landscapes Using GEOBIA and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath O'Neil-Dunne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of tree canopy in urban and suburban landscapes are increasingly well known: stormwater runoff control, air-pollution mitigation, temperature regulation, carbon storage, wildlife habitat, neighborhood cohesion, and other social indicators of quality of life. However, many urban areas lack high-resolution tree canopy maps that document baseline conditions or inform tree-planting programs, limiting effective study and management. This paper describes a GEOBIA approach to tree-canopy mapping that relies on existing public investments in LiDAR, multispectral imagery, and thematic GIS layers, thus eliminating or reducing data acquisition costs. This versatile approach accommodates datasets of varying content and quality, first using LiDAR derivatives to identify aboveground features and then a combination of LiDAR and imagery to differentiate trees from buildings and other anthropogenic structures. Initial tree canopy objects are then refined through contextual analysis, morphological smoothing, and small-gap filling. Case studies from locations in the United States and Canada show how a GEOBIA approach incorporating data fusion and enterprise processing can be used for producing high-accuracy, high-resolution maps for large geographic extents. These maps are designed specifically for practical application by planning and regulatory end users who expect not only high accuracy but also high realism and visual coherence.

  10. Stochastic gradient boosting classification trees for forest fuel types mapping through airborne laser scanning and IRS LISS-III imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirici, G.; Scotti, R.; Montaghi, A.; Barbati, A.; Cartisano, R.; Lopez, G.; Marchetti, M.; McRoberts, R. E.; Olsson, H.; Corona, P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an application of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data in conjunction with an IRS LISS-III image for mapping forest fuel types. For two study areas of 165 km2 and 487 km2 in Sicily (Italy), 16,761 plots of size 30-m × 30-m were distributed using a tessellation-based stratified sampling scheme. ALS metrics and spectral signatures from IRS extracted for each plot were used as predictors to classify forest fuel types observed and identified by photointerpretation and fieldwork. Following use of traditional parametric methods that produced unsatisfactory results, three non-parametric classification approaches were tested: (i) classification and regression tree (CART), (ii) the CART bagging method called Random Forests, and (iii) the CART bagging/boosting stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) approach. This contribution summarizes previous experiences using ALS data for estimating forest variables useful for fire management in general and for fuel type mapping, in particular. It summarizes characteristics of classification and regression trees, presents the pre-processing operation, the classification algorithms, and the achieved results. The results demonstrated superiority of the SGB method with overall accuracy of 84%. The most relevant ALS metric was canopy cover, defined as the percent of non-ground returns. Other relevant metrics included the spectral information from IRS and several other ALS metrics such as percentiles of the height distribution, the mean height of all returns, and the number of returns.

  11. Repeatability in photo-interpretation of tree canopy cover and its effect on predictive mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Jackson; Gretchen G. Moisen; Paul L. Patterson; John Tipton

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explore repeatability in photo-interpreted imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program that was sampled as part of the National Land Cover Database 2011 Tree Canopy Cover pilot project. Data were collected in 5 diverse pilot areas in the US, including one each in Oregon, Utah, Kansas, Michigan and Georgia. Repeatability metrics. The intra-...

  12. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raciti, Steve M., E-mail: Steve.M.Raciti@Hofstra.edu [Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Gittleson Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549 (United States); Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hutyra, Lucy R.; Newell, Jared D. [Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 685 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ∼ 1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5 ± 1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha{sup −1}), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha{sup −1}) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha{sup −1}) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R{sup 2} = 0.26, p = 0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R{sup 2} = 0.55, p = 0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic

  13. 树映射的链回归点与拓扑熵%CHAIN RECURRENT POINTS AND TOPOLOGICAL ENTROPY OF A TREE MAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙太祥

    2002-01-01

    Let f be a tree map,P(f) the set of periodic points of f and CR(f) the set of chain recurrent points of f. In this paper,the notion of division for invariant closed subsets of a tree map is introduced.It is proved that: (1) f has zero topological entropy if and only if for any x∈CR(f)-P(f) and each natural number s the orbit of x under fs has a division; (2) If f has zero topological entropy,then for any x∈CR(f)-P(f) the ω-limit set of x is an infinite minimal set.

  14. Mapping potential carbon and timber losses from hurricanes using a decision tree and ecosystem services driver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delphin, S; Escobedo, F J; Abd-Elrahman, A; Cropper, W

    2013-11-15

    Information on the effect of direct drivers such as hurricanes on ecosystem services is relevant to landowners and policy makers due to predicted effects from climate change. We identified forest damage risk zones due to hurricanes and estimated the potential loss of 2 key ecosystem services: aboveground carbon storage and timber volume. Using land cover, plot-level forest inventory data, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, and a decision tree-based framework; we determined potential damage to subtropical forests from hurricanes in the Lower Suwannee River (LS) and Pensacola Bay (PB) watersheds in Florida, US. We used biophysical factors identified in previous studies as being influential in forest damage in our decision tree and hurricane wind risk maps. Results show that 31% and 0.5% of the total aboveground carbon storage in the LS and PB, respectively was located in high forest damage risk (HR) zones. Overall 15% and 0.7% of the total timber net volume in the LS and PB, respectively, was in HR zones. This model can also be used for identifying timber salvage areas, developing ecosystem service provision and management scenarios, and assessing the effect of other drivers on ecosystem services and goods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intracortical Microstimulation Maps of Motor, Somatosensory, and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Tree Shrews (Tupaia belangeri) Reveal Complex Movement Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Cooke, Dylan F; Krubitzer, Leah

    2016-01-11

    Long-train intracortical microstimulation (LT-ICMS) is a popular method for studying the organization of motor and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in mammals. In primates, LT-ICMS evokes both multijoint and multiple-body-part movements in primary motor, premotor, and PPC. In rodents, LT-ICMS evokes complex movements of a single limb in motor cortex. Unfortunately, very little is known about motor/PPC organization in other mammals. Tree shrews are closely related to both primates and rodents and could provide insights into the evolution of complex movement domains in primates. The present study investigated the extent of cortex in which movements could be evoked with ICMS and the characteristics of movements elicited using both short train (ST) and LT-ICMS in tree shrews. We demonstrate that LT-ICMS and ST-ICMS maps are similar, with the movements elicited with ST-ICMS being truncated versions of those elicited with LT-ICMS. In addition, LT-ICMS-evoked complex movements within motor cortex similar to those in rodents. More complex movements involving multiple body parts such as the hand and mouth were also elicited in motor cortex and PPC, as in primates. Our results suggest that complex movement networks present in PPC and motor cortex were present in mammals prior to the emergence of primates.

  16. Tools for developing a quality management program: proactive tools (process mapping, value stream mapping, fault tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the concepts of quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA), as well as the current state of QM and QA practices in radiotherapy. A systematic approach incorporating a series of industrial engineering-based tools is proposed, which can be applied in health care organizations proactively to improve process outcomes, reduce risk and/or improve patient safety, improve through-put, and reduce cost. This tool set includes process mapping and process flowcharting, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), value stream mapping, and fault tree analysis (FTA). Many health care organizations do not have experience in applying these tools and therefore do not understand how and when to use them. As a result there are many misconceptions about how to use these tools, and they are often incorrectly applied. This article describes these industrial engineering-based tools and also how to use them, when they should be used (and not used), and the intended purposes for their use. In addition the strengths and weaknesses of each of these tools are described, and examples are given to demonstrate the application of these tools in health care settings.

  17. PCA Beyond The Concept of Manifolds: Principal Trees, Metro Maps, and Elastic Cubic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, A N; Zinovyev, A Yu

    2008-01-01

    Multidimensional data distributions can have complex topologies and variable local dimensions. To approximate complex data, we propose a new type of low-dimensional ``principal object'': a principal cubic complex. This complex is a generalization of linear and non-linear principal manifolds and includes them as a particular case. To construct such an object, we combine a method of topological grammars with the minimization of an elastic energy defined for its embedment into multidimensional data space. The whole complex is presented as a system of nodes and springs and as a product of one-dimensional continua (represented by graphs), and the grammars describe how these continua transform during the process of optimal complex construction. The simplest case of a topological grammar (``add a node'', ``bisect an edge'') is equivalent to the construction of ``principal trees'', an object useful in many practical applications. We demonstrate how it can be applied to the analysis of bacterial genomes and for visual...

  18. Embedding global and collective in a torus network with message class map based tree path selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Eisley, Noel A.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Senger, Robert M; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.

    2016-06-21

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a global barrier and global interrupt network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. The computer system includes a multitude of nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises taking inputs from a set of receivers of the nodes, dividing the inputs from the receivers into a plurality of classes, combining the inputs of each of the classes to obtain a result, and sending said result to a set of senders of the nodes. Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a collective network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. In one embodiment, the method comprises adding to a torus network a central collective logic to route messages among at least a group of nodes in a tree structure.

  19. Mapping environmental susceptibility to Saint Louis encephalitis virus, based on a decision tree model of remotelysensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo H. Rotela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In response to the first human outbreak (January - May 2005 of Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE virus in Córdoba province, Argentina, we developed an environmental SLE virus risk map for the capital, i.e. Córdoba city. The aim was to provide a map capable of detecting macro-environmental factors associated with the spatial distribution of SLE cases, based on remotely sensed data and a geographical information system. Vegetation, soil brightness, humidity status, distances to water-bodies and areas covered by vegetation were assessed based on pre-outbreak images provided by the Landsat 5TM satellite. A strong inverse relationship between the number of humans infected by SLEV and distance to high-vigor vegetation was noted. A statistical non-hierarchic decision tree model was constructed, based on environmental variables representing the areas surrounding patient residences. From this point of view, 18% of the city could be classified as being at high risk for SLEV infection, while 34% carried a low risk, or none at all. Taking the whole 2005 epidemic into account, 80% of the cases came from areas classified by the model as medium-high or high risk. Almost 46% of the cases were registered in high-risk areas, while there were no cases (0% in areas affirmed as risk free.

  20. URBAN TREE CROWN PROJECTION AREA MAPPING WITH OBJECT BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICE INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAKÁCS ÁGNES

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of built-up areas in the urban environment at the expense of green spaces brings up numerous environmental problems, for which accurate and efficient solutions should be found. The assessment of ecosystem services developed within the field of landscape ecology is playing an ever more important role in environmental sciences and thus may offer suitable answers. Such assessments can be carried out by developing indicators. Accordingly, in the case of urban trees, an accurate quantitative characterization of their services (such as e.g. carbon sequestration, pollutant removal and microclimate regulation is also needed. The aim of this study is to establish a generally applicable method based on indicator development, using widely available data. In the case of urban green spaces there are several services for which the development of proper indicators and evaluation methods requires a delineation of tree crowns, or at least the crown projection area. Accordingly, in our work, we map the crown projection area of a large and popular urban park of Szeged, Széchenyi square, using object-based image analysis on UltraCamD digital orthophotos. Following a multiresolution segmentation the classification of the resulting objects was carried out, using the eCognition image analysis software. Besides fulfilling the policy objectives related to the evaluation of urban ecosystem services, the produced crown base can also be used in several other types of urban ecological and urban climatological studies (e.g. urban climate modelling, human-comfort assessment. In this paper the first results are presented.

  1. Interim Report on Multiple Sequence Alignments and TaqMan Signature Mapping to Phylogenetic Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S; Jaing, C

    2012-03-27

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, addressing a significant capability gap for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the Taqman signature development for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  2. Land Cover Mapping using GEOBIA to Estimate Loss of Salacca zalacca Trees in Landslide Area of Clapar, Madukara District of Banjarnegara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Anggi; Juniansah, Anwar; Nurcahyati, Eka; Dimas Afrizal, Mousafi; Adnan Shafry Untoro, Muhammad; Arifatha, Na'ima; Ramadhani Yudha Adiwijaya, Raden; Farda, Nur Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Landslide is an unpredictable natural disaster which commonly happens in highslope area. Aerial photography in small format is one of acquisition method that can reach and obtain high resolution spatial data faster than other methods, and provide data such as orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model (DSM). The study area contained landslide area in Clapar, Madukara District of Banjarnegara. Aerial photographs of landslide area provided advantage in objects visibility. Object's characters such as shape, size, and texture were clearly seen, therefore GEOBIA (Geography Object Based Image Analysis) was compatible as method for classifying land cover in study area. Dissimilar with PPA (PerPixel Analyst) method that used spectral information as base object detection, GEOBIA could use spatial elements as classification basis to establish a land cover map with better accuracy. GEOBIA method used classification hierarchy to divide post disaster land cover into three main objects: vegetation, landslide/soil, and building. Those three were required to obtain more detailed information that can be used in estimating loss caused by landslide and establishing land cover map in landslide area. Estimating loss in landslide area related to damage in Salak (Salacca zalacca) plantations. This estimation towards quantity of Salak tree that were drifted away by landslide was calculated in assumption that every tree damaged by landslide had same age and production class with other tree that weren't damaged. Loss calculation was done by approximating quantity of damaged trees in landslide area with data of trees around area that were acquired from GEOBIA classification method.

  3. An Object-Based Approach for Mapping Shrub and Tree Cover on Grassland Habitats by Use of LiDAR and CIR Orthoimages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hellesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abandonment of former agricultural management practices such as mowing and grazing, an increasing amount of grassland is no longer being managed. This has resulted in increasing shrub encroachment, which poses a threat to a number of species. Monitoring is an important means of acquiring information about the condition of the grasslands. Though the use of traditional remote sensing is an effective means of mapping and monitoring land cover, the mapping of small shrubs and trees based only on spectral information is challenged by the fact that shrubs and trees often spectrally resemble grassland and thus cannot be safely distinguished and classified. With the aid of LiDAR-derived information, such as elevation, the classification of spectrally similar objects can be improved. In this study, we applied high point density LiDAR data and colour-infrared orthoimages for the classification of shrubs and trees in a study area in Denmark. The classification result was compared to a classification based only on colour-infrared orthoimages. The overall accuracy increased significantly with the use of LiDAR and, for shrubs and trees specifically, producer’s accuracy increased from 81.2% to 93.7%, and user’s accuracy from 52.9% to 89.7%. Object-based image analysis was applied in combination with a CART classifier. The potential of using the applied approach for mapping and monitoring of large areas is discussed.

  4. Assessment of seasonal features based on Landsat time series for tree crown cover mapping in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Aynekuly, Ermias; Pellikka, Petri

    2016-04-01

    Tree crown cover (CC) is an important vegetation attribute for land cover characterization, and for mapping and monitoring forest cover. Free data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 allow construction of fine resolution satellite image time series and extraction of seasonal features for predicting vegetation attributes. In the savannas, surface reflectance vary distinctively according to the rainy and dry seasons, and seasonal features are useful information for CC mapping. However, it is unclear if it is better to use spectral bands or vegetation indices (VI) for computation of seasonal features, and how feasible different VI are for CC prediction in the savanna woodlands and agroforestry parklands of West Africa. In this study, the objective was to compare seasonal features based on spectral bands and VI for CC mapping in southern Burkina Faso. A total of 35 Landsat images from November 2013 to October 2014 were processed. Seasonal features were computed using a harmonic model with three parameters (mean, amplitude and phase), and spectral bands, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), tasseled cap (TC) indices (brightness, greenness, wetness) as input data. The seasonal features were employed to predict field estimated CC (n = 160) using Random Forest algorithm. The most accurate results were achieved when using seasonal features based on TC indices (R2: 0.65; RMSE: 10.7%) and spectral bands (R2: 0.64; RMSE: 10.8%). GNDVI performed better than NDVI or NDWI, and NDWI resulted in the poorest results (R2: 0.56; RMSE: 11.9%). The results indicate that spectral features should be carefully selected for CC prediction as shown by relatively poor performance of commonly used NDVI. The seasonal features based on three TC indices and all the spectral bands provided superior accuracy in comparison to single VI. The method presented in this study provides a feasible method to map

  5. Hierarchical classification approach for mapping rubber tree growth using per-pixel and object-oriented classifiers with SPOT-5 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Dibs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in Malaysia to increase the productivity of latex. This made accurate knowledge of rubber tree growth and age distribution a helpful decision making tool for the government, rubber plantation managers, and harvesters. Gathering this information using conventional methods is difficult, time consuming, and limited in spatial coverage. This paper presents hierarchical classification approach to obtain accurate map of rubber tree growth age distribution using SPOT-5 satellite imagery. The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of pixel-based and object-oriented classifiers for rubber growth classification. At the first level, the general land cover was classified into eight land cover classes (soil, water body, rubber, mature oil palm, young oil palm, forest, urban area, and other vegetation using Mahalanobis distance (MD, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers. Thereafter, the best classification map, k-NN output, was used to select only pixels that belong to the rubber class from the SPOT-5 image. The extracted pixels served as input into the next classification hierarchy where four classifiers, MD, k-NN, SVM, and decision tree (DT, were implemented to map rubber trees into three intra-classes (mature, middle-aged, and young rubbers. The result produced overall accuracy of 97.48%, 96.90%, 96.25%, and 80.80% for k-NN, SVM, MD, and DT respectively. The result indicates that object-oriented classifiers are better than pixel-based methods mapping rubber tree growth.

  6. Identifying Genetic Hotspots by Mapping Molecular Diversity of Widespread Trees: When Commonness Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Cintia P; Mathiasen, Paula; Acosta, María Cristina; Quiroga, María Paula; Vidal-Russell, Romina; Echeverría, Cristian; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning requires setting priorities at the same spatial scale at which decision-making processes are undertaken considering all levels of biodiversity, but current methods for identifying biodiversity hotspots ignore its genetic component. We developed a fine-scale approach based on the definition of genetic hotspots, which have high genetic diversity and unique variants that represent their evolutionary potential and evolutionary novelties. Our hypothesis is that wide-ranging taxa with similar ecological tolerances, yet of phylogenetically independent lineages, have been and currently are shaped by ecological and evolutionary forces that result in geographically concordant genetic patterns. We mapped previously published genetic diversity and unique variants of biparentally inherited markers and chloroplast sequences for 9 species from 188 and 275 populations, respectively, of the 4 woody dominant families of the austral temperate forest, an area considered a biodiversity hotspot. Spatial distribution patterns of genetic polymorphisms differed among taxa according to their ecological tolerances. Eight genetic hotspots were detected and we recommend conservation actions for some in the southern Coastal Range in Chile. Existing spatially explicit genetic data from multiple populations and species can help to identify biodiversity hotspots and guide conservation actions to establish science-based protected areas that will preserve the evolutionary potential of key habitats and species.

  7. Mapping Savanna Tree Species at Ecosystem Scales Using Support Vector Machine Classification and BRDF Correction on Airborne Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial distribution of plant species in savannas provides insight into the roles of competition, fire, herbivory, soils and climate in maintaining the biodiversity of these ecosystems. This study focuses on the challenges facing large-scale species mapping using a fusion of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery. Here we build upon previous work on airborne species detection by using a two-stage support vector machine (SVM classifier to first predict species from hyperspectral data at the pixel scale. Tree crowns are segmented from the lidar imagery such that crown-level information, such as maximum tree height, can then be combined with the pixel-level species probabilities to predict the species of each tree. An overall prediction accuracy of 76% was achieved for 15 species. We also show that bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRDF effects caused by anisotropic scattering properties of savanna vegetation can result in flight line artifacts evident in species probability maps, yet these can be largely mitigated by applying a semi-empirical BRDF model to the hyperspectral data. We find that confronting these three challenges—reflectance anisotropy, integration of pixel- and crown-level data, and crown delineation over large areas—enables species mapping at ecosystem scales for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem function.

  8. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  9. 基于中文语法树的概念图挖掘研究%Concept map mining based on Chinese grammar tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鉴全; 季绍波

    2012-01-01

    提出一种基于中文文本语法树的附有权重的简化概念图构造算法.在构造概念图过程中,使用剪枝算法解决概念图的权重度量问题.对一些权威新闻资讯网页进行概念图挖掘的实验证明,本文算法比较有效.%This paper proposes a weighted simple concept map constructing algorithm based on Chinese grammar tree.In the process of constructing concept map,trimming algorithm is used to solve the problem of computing the weight of a concept map.Concept map mining tests on some authoritative news webpage show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  10. A framework for mapping tree species combining hyperspectral and LiDAR data: Role of selected classifiers and sensor across three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Fassnacht, Fabian Ewald; Joshi, P. K.; Koch, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of tree species distribution is important worldwide for sustainable forest management and resource evaluation. The accuracy and information content of species maps produced using remote sensing images vary with scale, sensor (optical, microwave, LiDAR), classification algorithm, verification design and natural conditions like tree age, forest structure and density. Imaging spectroscopy reduces the inaccuracies making use of the detailed spectral response. However, the scale effect still has a strong influence and cannot be neglected. This study aims to bridge the knowledge gap in understanding the scale effect in imaging spectroscopy when moving from 4 to 30 m pixel size for tree species mapping, keeping in mind that most current and future hyperspectral satellite based sensors work with spatial resolution around 30 m or more. Two airborne (HyMAP) and one spaceborne (Hyperion) imaging spectroscopy dataset with pixel sizes of 4, 8 and 30 m, respectively were available to examine the effect of scale over a central European forest. The forest under examination is a typical managed forest with relatively homogenous stands featuring mostly two canopy layers. Normalized digital surface model (nDSM) derived from LiDAR data was used additionally to examine the effect of height information in tree species mapping. Six different sets of predictor variables (reflectance value of all bands, selected components of a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Vegetation Indices (VI) and each of these sets combined with LiDAR derived height) were explored at each scale. Supervised kernel based (Support Vector Machines) and ensemble based (Random Forest) machine learning algorithms were applied on the dataset to investigate the effect of the classifier. Iterative bootstrap-validation with 100 iterations was performed for classification model building and testing for all the trials. For scale, analysis of overall classification accuracy and kappa values indicated that 8 m spatial

  11. GIS, geostatistics, metadata banking, and tree-based models for data analysis and mapping in environmental monitoring and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried

    2006-05-01

    By the example of environmental monitoring, some applications of geographic information systems (GIS), geostatistics, metadata banking, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) are presented. These tools are recommended for mapping statistically estimated hot spots of vectors and pathogens. GIS were introduced as tools for spatially modelling the real world. The modelling can be done by mapping objects according to the spatial information content of data. Additionally, this can be supported by geostatistical and multivariate statistical modelling. This is demonstrated by the example of modelling marine habitats of benthic communities and of terrestrial ecoregions. Such ecoregionalisations may be used to predict phenomena based on the statistical relation between measurements of an interesting phenomenon such as, e.g., the incidence of medically relevant species and correlated characteristics of the ecoregions. The combination of meteorological data and data on plant phenology can enhance the spatial resolution of the information on climate change. To this end, meteorological and phenological data have to be correlated. To enable this, both data sets which are from disparate monitoring networks have to be spatially connected by means of geostatistical estimation. This is demonstrated by the example of transformation of site-specific data on plant phenology into surface data. The analysis allows for spatial comparison of the phenology during the two periods 1961-1990 and 1991-2002 covering whole Germany. The changes in both plant phenology and air temperature were proved to be statistically significant. Thus, they can be combined by GIS overlay technique to enhance the spatial resolution of the information on the climate change and use them for the prediction of vector incidences at the regional scale. The localisation of such risk hot spots can be done by geometrically merging surface data on promoting factors. This is demonstrated by the example of the

  12. An AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) using haploid DNA samples of megagametophytes from a single maternal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Yul; Choi, Hyung-Soon; Kang, Bum-Yong

    2005-10-31

    We have constructed an AFLP-based linkage map of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc.) using haploid DNA samples of 96 megagametophytes from a single maternal tree, selection clone Kyungbuk 4. Twenty-eight primer pairs generated a total of 5,780 AFLP fragments. Five hundreds and thirteen fragments were verified as genetic markers with two alleles by their Mendelian segregation. At the linkage criteria LOD 4.0 and maximum recombination fraction 0.25(theta), a total of 152 markers constituted 25 framework maps for 19 major linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2,341 cM with an average framework marker spacing of 18.4 cM. The estimated genome size was 2,662 cM. With an assumption of equal marker density, 82.2% of the estimated genome would be within 10 cM of one of the 230 linked markers, and 68.1% would be within 10 cM of one of the 152 framework markers. We evaluated map completeness in terms of LOD value, marker density, genome length, and map coverage. The resulting map will provide crucial information for future genomic studies of the Japanese red pine, in particular for QTL mapping of economically important breeding target traits.

  13. Schistosomiasis risk mapping in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a decision tree approach, remote sensing data and sociological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia T Martins-Bedê

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is not just a physical disease, but is related to social and behavioural factors as well. Snails of the Biomphalaria genus are an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and infect humans through water. The objective of this study is to classify the risk of schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais (MG. We focus on socioeconomic and demographic features, basic sanitation features, the presence of accumulated water bodies, dense vegetation in the summer and winter seasons and related terrain characteristics. We draw on the decision tree approach to infection risk modelling and mapping. The model robustness was properly verified. The main variables that were selected by the procedure included the terrain's water accumulation capacity, temperature extremes and the Human Development Index. In addition, the model was used to generate two maps, one that included risk classification for the entire of MG and another that included classification errors. The resulting map was 62.9% accurate.

  14. Assessing the utility WorldView-2 imagery for tree species mapping in South African subtropical humid forest and the conservation implications: Dukuduku forest patch as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Malahlela, Oupa; Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5-2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders' workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.

  15. Feature Based Modeling and Mapping of Tree Trunks and Natural Terrain Using 3D Laser Scanner Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyti, Heikki; Visala, Arto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to measure tree trunks and to model the ground using a 3D laser scanner. The 3D scanner, self-build using two 2D Sick scanners on a rotating base, measures each scan line approximately at 45° angle towards the ground and the trees. Single scan lines are segmented to find ground and tree returns. 3D point clouds from the surrounding forest are recorded while the measuring vehicle is moving. Sequential scan lines are joined together as the pose changes are r...

  16. The Performance Analysis of the Map-Aided Fuzzy Decision Tree Based on the Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Algorithm in an Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wei Chiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardware sensors embedded in a smartphone allow the device to become an excellent mobile navigator. A smartphone is ideal for this task because its great international popularity has led to increased phone power and since most of the necessary infrastructure is already in place. However, using a smartphone for indoor pedestrian navigation can be problematic due to the low accuracy of sensors, imprecise predictability of pedestrian motion, and inaccessibility of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS in some indoor environments. Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR is one of the most common technologies used for pedestrian navigation, but in its present form, various errors tend to accumulate. This study introduces a fuzzy decision tree (FDT aided by map information to improve the accuracy and stability of PDR with less dependency on infrastructure. First, the map is quickly surveyed by the Indoor Mobile Mapping System (IMMS. Next, Bluetooth beacons are implemented to enable the initializing of any position. Finally, map-aided FDT can estimate navigation solutions in real time. The experiments were conducted in different fields using a variety of smartphones and users in order to verify stability. The contrast PDR system demonstrates low stability for each case without pre-calibration and post-processing, but the proposed low-complexity FDT algorithm shows good stability and accuracy under the same conditions.

  17. The Performance Analysis of the Map-Aided Fuzzy Decision Tree Based on the Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Algorithm in an Indoor Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Liao, Jhen-Kai; Tsai, Guang-Je; Chang, Hsiu-Wen

    2015-12-28

    Hardware sensors embedded in a smartphone allow the device to become an excellent mobile navigator. A smartphone is ideal for this task because its great international popularity has led to increased phone power and since most of the necessary infrastructure is already in place. However, using a smartphone for indoor pedestrian navigation can be problematic due to the low accuracy of sensors, imprecise predictability of pedestrian motion, and inaccessibility of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in some indoor environments. Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) is one of the most common technologies used for pedestrian navigation, but in its present form, various errors tend to accumulate. This study introduces a fuzzy decision tree (FDT) aided by map information to improve the accuracy and stability of PDR with less dependency on infrastructure. First, the map is quickly surveyed by the Indoor Mobile Mapping System (IMMS). Next, Bluetooth beacons are implemented to enable the initializing of any position. Finally, map-aided FDT can estimate navigation solutions in real time. The experiments were conducted in different fields using a variety of smartphones and users in order to verify stability. The contrast PDR system demonstrates low stability for each case without pre-calibration and post-processing, but the proposed low-complexity FDT algorithm shows good stability and accuracy under the same conditions.

  18. Insight into the Genetic Components of Community Genetics: QTL Mapping of Insect Association in a Fast-Growing Forest Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWoody, J.; Viger, M.; Lakatos, F.; Tuba, K.; Taylor, G.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses conducted on data from a common gard

  19. Insight into the Genetic Components of Community Genetics: QTL Mapping of Insect Association in a Fast-Growing Forest Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWoody, J.; Viger, M.; Lakatos, F.; Tuba, K.; Taylor, G.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses conducted on data from a common gard

  20. Shape indexes for semi-automated detection of windbreaks in thematic tree cover maps from the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liknes, Greg C.; Meneguzzo, Dacia M.; Kellerman, Todd A.

    2017-07-01

    Windbreaks are an important ecological resource across the large expanse of agricultural land in the central United States and are often planted in straight-line or L-shaped configurations to serve specific functions. As high-resolution (i.e., morphology-based index that we have named the Straight and Narrow Feature Index (SNFI), a windbreak sinuosity index, and an area index indicating the occupied fractional area of a bounding box. The indexes were tested in two study areas: (1) a riparian area dominated by sinuous bands of trees but mixed with row crop agriculture and (2) an agricultural area with a mix of straight-line and L-shaped windbreaks. In the riparian area, a Kruskall-Wallis rank sum test indicated class differences for all three indexes, and pairwise comparisons indicate windbreaks and riparian trees are separable using any of the three indexes. SNFI also produced significant differences between windbreaks oriented in different directions (east-west vs. north-south). In the agricultural area, the Kruskall-Wallis rank sum test indicated differences between classes for all three indexes, and pairwise comparisons show that all class pairs have significant differences for at least one index, with the exception of L-shaped windbreaks vs. non-windbreak tree patches. We also used classification trees to objectively assign representative samples of tree patches to classes using both single indexes and multiple indexes. Classes were correctly assigned for more than 90% of the samples in both the riparian and agricultural study areas. In the riparian area, combining indexes did not improve accuracy compared to using SNFI alone, whereas in the agricultural area, combining the three indexes produced the best result. Thematic datasets derived from high-resolution imagery are becoming more available, and extracting useful information can be a challenge, partly due to the large amount of data to assess. Calculating the three shape indexes presented can assist with

  1. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  2. Skeletal Rigidity of Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Howard; Li, Brian; Risteski, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by geometric origami and the straight skeleton construction, we outline a map between spaces of phylogenetic trees and spaces of planar polygons. The limitations of this map is studied through explicit examples, culminating in proving a structural rigidity result.

  3. The GAP-tree, an approach to "on-the-fly' map generalization of an area partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, P.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The concept of "on-the-fly' map generalization is very different from the implementation approaches described in the paper by Muller et al.: batch and interactive generalization (Chapter 1). The term batch generalization is used for the process in which a computer gets an input dataset and returns a

  4. Insight into the genetic components of community genetics: QTL mapping of insect association in a fast-growing forest tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer DeWoody

    Full Text Available Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses conducted on data from a common garden experiment. The F2 offspring of a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides cross were assessed for seven categories of insect leaf damage at two time points, June and August. Positive and negative correlations were detected among damage categories and between sampling times. For example, sap suckers on leaves in June were positively correlated with sap suckers on leaves (P<0.001 but negatively correlated with skeletonizer damage (P<0.01 in August. The seven forms of leaf damage were used as a proxy for seven functional groups of insect species. Significant variation in insect association occurred among the hybrid offspring, including transgressive segregation of susceptibility to damage. NMDS analyses revealed significant variation and modest broad-sense heritability in insect community structure among genets. QTL analyses identified 14 genomic regions across 9 linkage groups that correlated with insect association. We used three genomics tools to test for putative mechanisms underlying the QTL. First, shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway genes co-located to 9 of the 13 QTL tested, consistent with the role of phenolic glycosides as defensive compounds. Second, two insect association QTL corresponded to genomic hotspots for leaf trait QTL as identified in previous studies, indicating that, in addition to biochemical attributes, leaf morphology may influence insect preference. Third, network analyses identified categories of gene models over-represented in QTL for certain damage types, providing direction for future functional studies. These results provide insight into the genetic components involved in insect community structure in a fast

  5. Development of a Decision Support Tree Approach for Mapping Urban Vegetation Cover From Hyperspectral Imagery and GIS: the case of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Iro; Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios P.

    2013-04-01

    Urban vegetation represents one of the main factors directly influencing human life. Consequently, extracting information on its spatial distribution is of crucial importance to ensure, between other, sustainable urban planning and successful environmental management. To this end, remote sensing & Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology has demonstrated a very promising, viable solution. In comparison to multispectral systems, use of hyperspectral imagery in particular, enhances dramatically our ability to accurately identify different targets on the Earth's surface. In our study, a decision tree-based classification method is presented for mapping urban vegetation cover from hyperspectral imagery. The ability of the proposed method is demonstrated using as a case study the city of Athens, Greece, for which satellite hyperspectral imagery from Hyperion sensor has been acquired. Hyperion collects spectral data in 242 spectral bands from visible to middle-infrared regions of electromagnetic spectrum and at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. Validation of our proposed method is carried out on a GIS environment based on the error matrix statistics, using as reference very high resolution imagery acquired nearly concurrently to Hyperion at our study region, supported by field visits conducted in the studied area. Additionally, the urban vegetation cover maps derived from our proposed here technique are compared versus analogous results obtained against other classification methods traditionally used in mapping urban vegetation cover. Our results confirmed the ability of our approach combined with Hyperion imagery to extract urban vegetation cover for the case of a densely-populated city with complex urban features, such as Athens. Our findings can potentially offer significant information at local scale as regards the presence of open green spaces in urban environment, since such information is vital for the successful infrastructure development, urban

  6. Revisiting a universal airborne light detection and ranging approach for tropical forest carbon mapping: scaling-up from tree to stand to landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Grégoire; Sabatier, Daniel; Rutishauser, Ervan

    2014-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning provides continuous coverage mapping of forest canopy height and thereby is a powerful tool to scale-up above-ground biomass (AGB) estimates from stand to landscape. A critical first step is the selection of the plot variables which can be related to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) statistics. A universal approach was previously proposed which combines local and regional estimates of basal area (BA) and wood density with LiDAR-derived canopy height to map carbon at a regional scale (Asner et al. in Oecologia 168:1147-1160, 2012). Here we explore the contribution of stem diameter distribution, specific wood density and height-diameter (H-D) allometry to forest stand AGB and propose an alternative model. By applying the new model to a large tropical forest data set we show that an appropriate choice of input variables is essential to minimize prediction error of stand AGB which will propagate at larger scale. Stem number (N) and average stem cross-sectional area should be used instead of BA when scaling from tree to plot. Stand quadratic mean diameter above the census threshold diameter size should be preferred over stand mean diameter as it reduces the prediction error of stand AGB by a factor of ten. Wood density should be weighted by stem volume per species instead of BA. LiDAR-derived statistics should prove useful for estimating local H-D allometries as well as mapping N and the mean quadratic diameter above 10 cm at the landscape level. Prior stratification into forest types is likely to improve both estimation procedures significantly and is considered the foremost current challenge.

  7. Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents and islands: tracing uniparental gene trees across the map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Genetic relationships between human groups were first studied by comparisons of relative allele frequency at multiple loci. Geographical study of detailed, highly resolved trees of single, non-recombining uniparental loci (mitochondrial DNA: mtDNA and Y chromosome/non-recombining Y: NRY), following specific lineages rather than populations, then revolutionized knowledge of the peopling of the world, although, curiously, the use of geographically highly specific mutations that protect against malaria, found on individual autosomal globin genes, were first in single-locus phylogeography. mtDNA, with its high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation rates and relative ease of dating, led the way and gave stronger proof of the recent near replacement of all human species by anatomically modern humans (AMH). AMH left Africa via a single southern exit about 70 000 years ago and rapidly spread around the Indian Ocean towards the Antipodes, long before a small branch left a South Asian colony, earlier on the trail, to populate Europe. The worldwide skeleton phylogeny of mtDNA is fully resolved, but a regional analysis will continue to illuminate subsequent migrations. NRY with a lower SNP mutation rate still has a dating problem relating to use the of single tandem repeats (STRs), but has validated mtDNA results and with more geographical specificity and genomic size, as with the autosomal human genome, has much more detail to offer for the future. PMID:22312044

  8. SU-C-BRA-07: Virtual Bronchoscopy-Guided IMRT Planning for Mapping and Avoiding Radiation Injury to the Airway Tree in Lung SAbR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, A; Modiri, A; Bland, R; Yan, Y; Ahn, C; Timmerman, R [University of Texas SouthWestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Post-treatment radiation injury to central and peripheral airways is a potentially important, yet under-investigated determinant of toxicity in lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SAbR). We integrate virtual bronchoscopy technology into the radiotherapy planning process to spatially map and quantify the radiosensitivity of bronchial segments, and propose novel IMRT planning that limits airway dose through non-isotropic intermediate- and low-dose spillage. Methods: Pre- and ∼8.5 months post-SAbR diagnostic-quality CT scans were retrospectively collected from six NSCLC patients (50–60Gy in 3–5 fractions). From each scan, ∼5 branching levels of the bronchial tree were segmented using LungPoint, a virtual bronchoscopic navigation system. The pre-SAbR CT and the segmented bronchial tree were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and deformably registered to the planning CT. The five-fraction equivalent dose from the clinically-delivered plan was calculated for each segment using the Universal Survival Curve model. The pre- and post-SAbR CTs were used to evaluate radiation-induced segmental collapse. Two of six patients exhibited significant segmental collapse with associated atelectasis and fibrosis, and were re-planned using IMRT. Results: Multivariate stepwise logistic regression over six patients (81 segments) showed that D0.01cc (minimum point dose within the 0.01cc receiving highest dose) was a significant independent factor associated with collapse (odds-ratio=1.17, p=0.010). The D0.01cc threshold for collapse was 57Gy, above which, collapse rate was 45%. In the two patients exhibiting segmental collapse, 22 out of 32 segments showed D0.01cc >57Gy. IMRT re-planning reduced D0.01cc below 57Gy in 15 of the 22 segments (68%) while simultaneously achieving the original clinical plan objectives for PTV coverage and OAR-sparing. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the administration of lung SAbR can Result in significant injury to

  9. Mapping tree root system in dikes using induced polarization: Focus on the influence of soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Benjamin; Saracco, Ginette; Peyras, Laurent; Vennetier, Michel; Mériaux, Patrice; Camerlynck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we assessed induced polarization as potential non-destructive method for root detection in dike embankments. We used both laboratory and field experiment to describe the electrical signal with a focus on soil water content. Our objective was to determine in which hydric state of the soil, and related electrical properties, roots could be accurately discriminated. We hypothesized that preferential water zone absorption near the roots could, in some conditions, contribute to locate them. During the laboratory experiments, we compared the response of containers filled with the same homogeneous silty clay bare material, and without (A) or with freshly cut root (B) at different levels of soil water content. Resistivity and phase variations with soil water content indicated that it was preferable to work in dry conditions since the contrast was higher. Interactions and overlapping between polarization effects of both root and soil made it difficult to interpret first chargeability maps. This led us to study temporal-spatial variations by considering the dynamics of water absorption during a field experiment. High resolution time lapses images showed a correlation between root location and complex resistivity anomalies. Although these first results have to be confirmed by further measurements, induced polarization seems to add useful information to interpret anomalies produced by woody roots.

  10. The effect of topographic normalization on fractional tree cover mapping in tropical mountains: An assessment based on seasonal Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Hari; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2016-10-01

    Free archive of georectified and atmospherically corrected Landsat satellite images create a large range of opportunities for environmental research. However, the topographic effects in images are typically normalized regionally by end-users, and it remains uncertain if this procedure is always necessary. Our objective was to assess the effect of topographic normalization on the fractional tree cover (Fcover) modelling in a tropical mountain landscape, in Southeastern Kenya. We carried out topographic normalization by C-correction for all available Landsat images between June 2012 and October 2013, and examined if normalization improves Fcover regressions. The reference Fcover was based on airborne LiDAR data. Furthermore, we tested several vegetation indices and seasonal features (annual percentiles and means), and compared three digital elevation models (DEM). Our results showed that the fit of Fcover models did not improve after topographic normalization in the case of ratio-based vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI; Reduced Simple Ratio, RSR) or Tasseled Cap Greenness but improved in the case of Brightness and Wetness, particularly in the period of the lowest sun elevation. RSR was the best vegetation index to predict Fcover. Furthermore, SRTM DEM provided stronger relationship with cosine of the solar incidence angle than ASTER DEM and regional DEM based on topographic maps. We conclude that NDVI and RSR are robust against topographic effects in the tropical mountain landscapes throughout the year. However, if Tasseled Cap indices are preferred, we recommend topographic normalization using SRTM DEM.

  11. SPDE Approximation for Random Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhtin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    We consider the genealogy tree for a critical branching process conditioned on non-extinction. We enumerate vertices in each generation of the tree so that for each two generations one can define a monotone map describing the ancestor--descendant relation between their vertices. We show that under appropriate rescaling this family of monotone maps converges in distribution in a special topology to a limiting flow of discontinuous monotone maps which can be seen as a continuum tree. This flow is a solution of an SPDE with respect to a Brownian sheet.

  12. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 2: Alaska Trees and Common Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr.

    This volume is the second in a series of atlases describing the natural distribution or range of native tree species in the United States. The 82 species maps include 32 of trees in Alaska, 6 of shrubs rarely reaching tree size, and 44 more of common shrubs. More than 20 additional maps summarize environmental factors and furnish general…

  13. Yield mapping, soil fertility and tree gaps in an orange orchard Mapeamento da produtividade, fertilidade do solo e falhas de plantas em pomar de laranjeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Molin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current high competition on Citrus industry demands from growers new management technologies for superior efficiency and sustainability. In this context, precision agriculture (PA has developed techniques based on yield mapping and management systems that recognize field spatial variability, which contribute to increase profitability of commercial crops. Because spatial variability is often not perceived the orange orchards are still managed as uniform and adoption of PA technology on citrus farms is low. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial variability of three factors: fruit yield, soil fertility and occurrence of plant gaps caused by either citrus blight or huanglongbing (HLB in a commercial Valencia orchard in Brotas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data from volume, geographic coordinates and representative area of the bags used on harvest were recorded to generate yield points that were then interpolated to produce the yield map. Soil chemical characteristics were studied by analyzing samples collected along planting rows and inter-rows in 24 points distributed in the field. A map of density of tree gaps was produced by georeferencing individual gaps and later by counting the number of gaps within 500 m² cells. Data were submitted to statistical and geostatistical analyses. A t test was used to compare means of soil chemical characteristics between sampling regions. High variation on yield and density of tree gaps was observed from the maps. It was also demonstrated overlapping regions of high density of plant absence and low fruit yield. Soil fertility varied depending on the sampling region in the orchard. The spatial variability found on yield, soil fertility and on disease occurrence demonstrated the importance to adopt site specific nutrient management and disease control as tools to guarantee efficiency of fruit production.A atual competitividade existente no setor citrícola demanda dos produtores

  14. Hi-trees and their layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Kim; Sbarski, Peter; van Gelder, Tim; Prager, Daniel; Bulka, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.

  15. Quantum Simulation of Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinas, Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Quantum simulations constructing probability tensors of biological multi-taxa in phylogenetic trees are proposed, in terms of positive trace preserving maps, describing evolving systems of quantum walks with multiple walkers. Basic phylogenetic models applying on trees of various topologies are simulated following appropriate decoherent quantum circuits. Quantum simulations of statistical inference for aligned sequences of biological characters are provided in terms of a quantum pruning map operating on likelihood operator observables, utilizing state-observable duality and measurement theory.

  16. Mapping average GPP, RE, and NEP for 2000 to 2013 using satellite data integrated into regression-tree models in the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large...

  17. Probabilistic Hazard for Seismically-Induced Tsunamis in Complex Tectonic Contexts: Event Tree Approach to Seismic Source Variability and Practical Feasibility of Inundation Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) rests on computationally demanding numerical simulations of the tsunami generation and propagation up to the inundated coastline. We here focus on tsunamis generated by the co-seismic sea floor displacement, which constitute the vast majority of the observed tsunami events, i.e. on Seismic PTHA (SPTHA). For incorporating the full expected seismic source variability, aiming at a complete SPTHA, a very large number of numerical tsunami scenarios is typically needed, especially for complex tectonic contexts, where SPTHA is not dominated by large subduction earthquakes only. Here, we propose a viable approach for reducing the number of simulations for a given set of input earthquakes representing the modelled aleatory uncertainties of the seismic rupture parameters. Our approach is based on a preliminary analysis of the SPTHA of maximum offshore wave height (HMax) at a given target location, and assuming computationally cheap linear propagation. We start with defining an operational SPTHA framework in which we then introduce a simplified Event Tree approach, combined with a Green's functions approach, for obtaining a first controlled sampling and reduction of the effective source parameter space size. We then apply a two-stage filtering procedure to the 'linear' SPTHA results. The first filter identifies and discards all the sources producing a negligible contribution at the target location, for example the smallest earthquakes or those directing most of tsunami energy elsewhere. The second filter performs a cluster analysis aimed at selecting groups of source parameters producing comparable HMax profiles for each earthquake magnitude at the given test site. We thus select a limited set of sources that is subsequently used for calculating 'nonlinear' probabilistic inundation maps at the target location. We find that the optimal subset of simulations needed for inundation calculations can be obtained basing on just the

  18. Enumerating Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Kucharczyk, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    In this note we discuss trees similar to the Calkin-Wilf tree, a binary tree that enumerates all positive rational numbers in a simple way. The original construction of Calkin and Wilf is reformulated in a more algebraic language, and an elementary application of methods from analytic number theory gives restrictions on possible analogues.

  19. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  20. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  1. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  2. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  3. Evaluation of Random Forest and Adaboost tree-based ensemble classification and spectral band selection for ecotope mapping using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, J.; Paelinckx, D.; Alterra - Centrum Landschap,

    2008-01-01

    Detailed land use/land cover classification at ecotope level is important for environmental evaluation. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using airborne hyperspectral imagery for the classification of ecotopes. In particular, we assess two tree-based ensemble classification algorithms

  4. Evaluation of Random Forest and Adaboost tree-based ensemble classification and spectral band selection for ecotope mapping using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, J.; Paelinckx, D.; Alterra - Centrum Landschap,

    2008-01-01

    Detailed land use/land cover classification at ecotope level is important for environmental evaluation. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using airborne hyperspectral imagery for the classification of ecotopes. In particular, we assess two tree-based ensemble classification

  5. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  6. Two Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, John. H.; Longstaff, Francis A.; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    We solve a model with two “Lucas trees.†Each tree has i.i.d. dividend growth. The investor has log utility and consumes the sum of the two trees’ dividends. This model produces interesting asset-pricing dynamics, despite its simple ingredients. Investors want to rebalance their portfolios after any change in value. Since the size of the trees is fixed, however, prices must adjust to offset this desire. As a result, expected returns, excess returns, and return volatility all vary throug...

  7. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  10. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; WALKER, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  11. Game tree algorithms and solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the concept of solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min trees. Every game tree algorithm tries to prune nodes as many as possible from the game tree. A cut-off criterion in

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  14. Affine and Projective Tree Metric Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Harel, Matan; Pachter, Lior

    2011-01-01

    The tree metric theorem provides a combinatorial four point condition that characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from pairwise compatible split systems. A similar (but weaker) four point condition characterizes dissimilarity maps derived from circular split systems (Kalmanson metrics). The tree metric theorem was first discovered in the context of phylogenetics and forms the basis of many tree reconstruction algorithms, whereas Kalmanson metrics were first considered by computer scientists, and are notable in that they are a non-trivial class of metrics for which the traveling salesman problem is tractable. We present a unifying framework for these theorems based on combinatorial structures that are used for graph planarity testing. These are (projective) PC-trees, and their affine analogs, PQ-trees. In the projective case, we generalize a number of concepts from clustering theory, including hierarchies, pyramids, ultrametrics and Robinsonian matrices, and the theorems that relate them. As with tree metric...

  15. Evaluation and Comparison of QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 Multispectral Imagery for Mapping Iberian Wild Pear Trees (Pyrus bourgaeana, Decne in a Mediterranean Mixed Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Arenas-Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of images with very high spatial and spectral resolution from airborne sensors or those aboard satellites is opening new possibilities for the analysis of fine-scale vegetation, such as the identification and classification of individual tree species. To evaluate the potential of these images, a study was carried out to compare the spatial, spectral and temporal resolution between QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 imagery, in order to discriminate and identify, within the mixed Mediterranean forest, individuals of the Iberian wild pear (Pyrus bourgaeana. This is a typical species of the Mediterranean forest, but its biology and ecology are still poorly known. The images were subjected to different correction processes and data were homogenized. Vegetation classes and individual trees were identified on the images, which were classified from two types of supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machines on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The classification values were satisfactory. The classifiers were compared, and Support Vector Machines was the algorithm that provided the best results in terms of overall accuracy. The QuickBird image showed higher overall accuracy (86.16% when the Support Vector Machines algorithm was applied. In addition, individuals of Iberian wild pear were discriminated with probability of over 55%, when the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied. From the perspective of improving the sampling effort, these results are a starting point for facilitating research on the abundance, distribution and spatial structure of P. bourgaeana at different scales, in order to quantify the conservation status of this species.

  16. Interpreting Tree Ensembles with inTrees

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Houtao

    2014-01-01

    Tree ensembles such as random forests and boosted trees are accurate but difficult to understand, debug and deploy. In this work, we provide the inTrees (interpretable trees) framework that extracts, measures, prunes and selects rules from a tree ensemble, and calculates frequent variable interactions. An rule-based learner, referred to as the simplified tree ensemble learner (STEL), can also be formed and used for future prediction. The inTrees framework can applied to both classification an...

  17. A Note on Geodesically Bounded -Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that a complete geodesically bounded -tree is the closed convex hull of the set of its extreme points. It is also noted that if is a closed convex geodesically bounded subset of a complete -tree and if a nonexpansive mapping satisfies then has a fixed point. The latter result fails if is only continuous.

  18. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  19. Aspen Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

  20. Challenges of predicting the potential distribution of a slow-spreading invader: a habitat suitability map for an invasive riparian tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential spread of invasive species is essential for land managers to prevent their establishment and restore impacted habitat. Habitat suitability modeling provides a tool for researchers and managers to understand the potential extent of invasive species spread. Our goal was to use habitat suitability modeling to map potential habitat of the riparian plant invader, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). Russian olive has invaded riparian habitat across North America and is continuing to expand its range. We compiled 11 disparate datasets for Russian olive presence locations (n = 1,051 points and 139 polygons) in the western US and used Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to develop two habitat suitability maps for Russian olive in the western United States: one with coarse-scale water data and one with fine-scale water data. Our models were able to accurately predict current suitable Russian olive habitat (Coarse model: training AUC = 0.938, test AUC = 0.907; Fine model: training AUC = 0.923, test AUC = 0.885). Distance to water was the most important predictor for Russian olive presence in our coarse-scale water model, but it was only the fifth most important variable in the fine-scale model, suggesting that when water bodies are considered on a fine scale, Russian olive does not necessarily rely on water. Our model predicted that Russian olive has suitable habitat further west from its current distribution, expanding into the west coast and central North America. Our methodology proves useful for identifying potential future areas of invasion. Model results may be influenced by locations of cultivated individuals and sampling bias. Further study is needed to examine the potential for Russian olive to invade beyond its current range. Habitat suitability modeling provides an essential tool for enhancing our understanding of invasive species spread.

  1. INDUCTION OF DECISION TREES BASED ON A FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Bin; Hu Guangrui; Mao Xiaoquan

    2002-01-01

    Based on a fuzzy neural network, the letter presents an approach for the induction of decision trees. The approach makes use of the weights of fuzzy mappings in the fuzzy neural network which has been trained. It can realize the optimization of fuzzy decision trees by branch cutting, and improve the ratio of correctness and efficiency of the induction of decision trees.

  2. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio [Universidad Autonoma, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Martin, Carmelo P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Departamento de Fisica Teorica I Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories. (orig.)

  3. Unimodular Trees versus Einstein Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Martin, Carmelo P

    2016-01-01

    The maximally helicity violating (MHV) tree level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in both theories.

  4. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio; Martín, Carmelo P.

    2016-10-01

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories.

  5. A Method for Application of Classification Tree Models to Map Aquatic Vegetation Using Remotely Sensed Images from Different Sensors and Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous attempts to identify aquatic vegetation from remotely-sensed images using classification trees (CT, the images used to apply CT models to different times or locations necessarily originated from the same satellite sensor as that from which the original images used in model development came, greatly limiting the application of CT. We have developed an effective normalization method to improve the robustness of CT models when applied to images originating from different sensors and dates. A total of 965 ground-truth samples of aquatic vegetation types were obtained in 2009 and 2010 in Taihu Lake, China. Using relevant spectral indices (SI as classifiers, we manually developed a stable CT model structure and then applied a standard CT algorithm to obtain quantitative (optimal thresholds from 2009 ground-truth data and images from Landsat7-ETM+, HJ-1B-CCD, Landsat5-TM and ALOS-AVNIR-2 sensors. Optimal CT thresholds produced average classification accuracies of 78.1%, 84.7% and 74.0% for emergent vegetation, floating-leaf vegetation and submerged vegetation, respectively. However, the optimal CT thresholds for different sensor images differed from each other, with an average relative variation (RV of 6.40%. We developed and evaluated three new approaches to normalizing the images. The best-performing method (Method of 0.1% index scaling normalized the SI images using tailored percentages of extreme pixel values. Using the images normalized by Method of 0.1% index scaling, CT models for a particular sensor in which thresholds were replaced by those from the models developed for images originating from other sensors provided average classification accuracies of 76.0%, 82.8% and 68.9% for emergent vegetation, floating-leaf vegetation and submerged vegetation, respectively. Applying the CT models developed for normalized 2009 images to 2010 images resulted in high classification (78.0%–93.3% and overall (92.0%–93.1% accuracies. Our

  6. Somatotopic mapping of chordotonal organ neurons in a primitive ensiferan, the New Zealand tree weta Hemideina femorata: II. complex tibial organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Field, Laurence H

    2003-09-22

    Most ensiferan insects possess sets of highly specialized chordotonal organs in the proximal tibiae to detect conspecific auditory/vibratory signals or approach of predators. To date, most auditory/vibratory afferents have been classified according to their physiological properties and axonal projection morphology, but not to somatotopic origins. Hence, the functional specialization of identified receptor cells in the tibial organs remains uncertain. To address this question from an anatomical aspect, we investigated the structure of the weta, Hemideina femorata, tibial organs (the most elaborated tibial chordotonal organs among ensiferans) and their central projections by staining small numbers of receptor afferents from identified tibial organs. These organs comprise the "complex tibial organ," including the subgenual organ (primary vibration detector) and its posterior complement, the accessory organ, and the crista acustica (primary auditory organ) and its proximal complement, the intermediate organ. Unlike reports of a membranous organ structure for homologs in other ensiferans, weta tibial organs contain receptor cells embedded in thick solid masses. Primary afferents project ipsilaterally to the medial ventral association center of thoracic ganglia, where axon terminals are arrayed topographically in different areas specific to each organ, except for almost complete overlap of afferents originating from the distal part of the crista acustica and from the intermediate organ. In contrast to somatotopic reflection of sensilla position on limbs, as known for mechanoreceptor hairs, the somatotopic projection map of the insect ear reveals topographic association with acoustic tracheae or tibial cuticular attachment sites, which in turn must reflect determinants of response sensitivity (e.g., frequency or threshold).

  7. Finite Sholander Trees, Trees, and their Betweenness

    CERN Document Server

    Chvátal, Vašek; Schäfer, Philipp Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We provide a proof of Sholander's claim (Trees, lattices, order, and betweenness, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 3, 369-381 (1952)) concerning the representability of collections of so-called segments by trees, which yields a characterization of the interval function of a tree. Furthermore, we streamline Burigana's characterization (Tree representations of betweenness relations defined by intersection and inclusion, Mathematics and Social Sciences 185, 5-36 (2009)) of tree betweenness and provide a relatively short proof.

  8. The reality model of the plum tree based on SpeedTree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhi-yong; Huang, Xin-yuan

    2010-02-01

    Plum Blossom as the Chinese traditional flowers may be unique all over the world and has the first right of access to international registry of flower. In this paper, the SpeedTree software is used to quickly build reality model of the plum tree. The graphics texture mapping techniques is used, and the plum tree image maps express the geometric model of the surface material, which constitutes a visual image of the graphic objects. It is significant for non-destructive study of plum and virtual garden.

  9. Modular Tree Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  10. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  11. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  12. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  13. Individual-based approach as a useful tool to disentangle the relative importance of tree age, size and inter-tree competition in dendroclimatic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an individual-based approach was used to assess the relative importance of tree age, size, and competition in modulating the individual dendroclimatic response of Quercus robur L. This was performed in a multi-aged forest in northwestern Spain under a wet Atlantic climate. All trees in five replicated forest stands with homogeneous soil conditions were mapped and inter-tree competition was quantified with a distance-dependent competition index. Tree rings of cored trees were cro...

  14. Warranty Cost Analysis for Product Family Based on Fault Tree Mapping%基于故障树映射的产品族保证成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一骝; 刘子先

    2012-01-01

    针对当前制造企业的产品通常以产品族而不是单一产品的形式存在的现实,对现有的基于单一产品的保证成本计算模型进行了改进,并指出产品族保证成本计算取决于配置产品的元件的可靠性.通过逆向搜索的方法,元件可靠性可以根据故障树模型向BOM模型映射得到.作者通过一个笔记本电脑的案例说明文中方法的操作过程,并比较了企业采用FRW和PRW两种策略时保证成本的差异.%Currently, product warranty cost is calculated based on individual products. However, today, warranty is always offered with respect to product family rather than individual products. Thus, new method is necessary for product warranty cost calculation. In this paper, the existing models for individual products are modified to adapt to product family. In the new model, module reliability is defined through the mapping from the fault tree model to the bill of material (BOM) model by using inverse search. The warranty cost calculation for laptop computer is used to show the application of the proposed method. The results are compared with the existing method such as free replacement warranty (FRW) and pro-rata warranty ( PRW). It shows that the proposed method is effective.

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree...

  16. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii 201301 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  17. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska 201301 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  18. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available roots is required a detailed 3D survey approach is recommended. REFERENCES Butnor, J.R., Doolittle, J.A., Johnsen, K.H., Samuelson, L., Stokes, T. and Kress, L., 2003, Utility of Ground-Penetrating Radar as a Root Biomass Survey Tool in Forest...

  19. Airway Tree Extraction with Locally Optimal Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract the airway tree from CT images by continually extending the tree with locally optimal paths. This is in contrast to commonly used region growing based approaches that only search the space of the immediate neighbors. The result is a much more robust method...... for tree extraction that can overcome local occlusions. The cost function for obtaining the optimal paths takes into account of an airway probability map as well as measures of airway shape and orientation derived from multi-scale Hessian eigen analysis on the airway probability. Significant improvements...

  20. Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie

    2008-10-01

    Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.

  1. Reconciliation of Gene and Species Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Rusin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree.

  2. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  3. Healthy,Happy trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

  4. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  5. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).

  6. Stress Wave Propagation in Larch Plantation Trees-Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenglu Liu; Fang Jiang; Xiping Wang; Houjiang Zhang; Wenhua Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempted to simulate stress wave propagation in virtual tree trunks and construct two dimensional (2D) wave-front maps in the longitudinal-radial section of the trunk. A tree trunk was modeled as an orthotropic cylinder in which wood properties along the fiber and in each of the two perpendicular directions were different. We used the COMSOL...

  7. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  8. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  9. A new method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth removal from high resolution airborne LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Bucksch, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    High density airborne LiDAR, for example FLI-MAP 400 data, has opened an opportunity for individual tree measurement. This paper presents a method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth vegetation removal in forest area. The delineation of individual trees involves two steps namely 1) tree

  10. A new method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth removal from high resolution airborne LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Bucksch, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    High density airborne LiDAR, for example FLI-MAP 400 data, has opened an opportunity for individual tree measurement. This paper presents a method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth vegetation removal in forest area. The delineation of individual trees involves two steps namely 1) tree

  11. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  12. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  13. Selection of sleeping trees in pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoonjampa, Rungnapa; Koenig, Andreas; Borries, Carola; Gale, George A; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-06-01

    Selection and use patterns of sleeping sites in nonhuman primates are suggested to have multiple functions, such as predation avoidance, but they might be further affected by range defense as well as foraging constraints or other factors. Here, we investigate sleeping tree selection by the male and female members of one group of pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) at Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Data were collected on 113 nights, between September 2006 and January 2009, yielding data on 201 sleeping tree choices (107 by the female and 94 by the male) and on the characteristics of 71 individual sleeping trees. Each sleeping tree and all trees > or =40 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) in the home range were assessed (height, DBH, canopy structure, liana load) and mapped using a GPS. The gibbons preferentially selected tall (mean=38.5 m), emergent trees without lianas. The majority of the sleeping trees (53.5%) were used only once and consecutive reuse was rare (9.5%). Sleeping trees were closer to the last feeding tree of the evening than to the first feeding tree in the morning, and sleeping trees were located in the overlap areas with neighbors less often than expected based on time spent in these areas. These results suggest avoidance of predators as the main factor influencing sleeping tree selection in pileated gibbons. However, other non-mutually exclusive factors may be involved as well.

  14. On Probability Distributions for Trees: Representations, Inference and Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, François; Gilleron, Rémi; Tommasi, Marc; Gilbert, Édouard

    2008-01-01

    We study probability distributions over free algebras of trees. Probability distributions can be seen as particular (formal power) tree series [Berstel et al 82, Esik et al 03], i.e. mappings from trees to a semiring K . A widely studied class of tree series is the class of rational (or recognizable) tree series which can be defined either in an algebraic way or by means of multiplicity tree automata. We argue that the algebraic representation is very convenient to model probability distributions over a free algebra of trees. First, as in the string case, the algebraic representation allows to design learning algorithms for the whole class of probability distributions defined by rational tree series. Note that learning algorithms for rational tree series correspond to learning algorithms for weighted tree automata where both the structure and the weights are learned. Second, the algebraic representation can be easily extended to deal with unranked trees (like XML trees where a symbol may have an unbounded num...

  15. Spanning Tree Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Hung Chen

    2012-01-01

    minimum cost spanning tree T in G such that the total weight in T is at most a given bound B. In this paper, we present two polynomial time approximation schemes (PTASs for the constrained minimum spanning tree problem.

  16. 对等网环境下基于树模型的对等节点的知识地图构建研究%Tree-based Construction Method on Knowledge Map for Peers on Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春秀; 赵捧未; 李东; 孙蕾

    2013-01-01

    针对P2P网络知识资源共享中的资源无结构化和缺乏有效的资源导航问题,本文采用知识地图理论对对等网节点知识资源进行统一表示和导航,给出了对等节点的树形知识地图模型,该模型包含三个基本要素:知识单元集合、关系集合和关系集合到知识单元有序偶集合上的映射.在此基础上,以本体概念树为知识资源分类标准,给出了基于树形知识地图模型的对等网节点知识地图的构建方法.并邀请领域专家对树形知识地图的性能进行评价,评价结果表明本文构建的树形知识地图在对等节点知识资源结构化、导航方面具有不错的性能,为有效表示和导航对等网上的知识资源奠定初步的理论基础.%To solve the problems in unstructured database and lack of knowledge resources navigation on Peer-to-Peer networks, a tree-type knowledge map model is presented based on the theory of knowledge map, the model consists of three key elements; knowledge units set, relationships set and the mapping from a relationships set to a ordered pair in knowledge units. On the basis of the model, using a ontology concepts tree as the classification criteria, a method on the construction of knowledge map is proposed for peers on peer-to-peer networks. In addition, the evaluation results given by three experts points that the tree-based method on the construction of knowledge map for peers on peer-to-peer networks has a good performance in peers' knowledge resources representation and navigation.

  17. Making Tree Ensembles Interpretable

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Tree ensembles, such as random forest and boosted trees, are renowned for their high prediction performance, whereas their interpretability is critically limited. In this paper, we propose a post processing method that improves the model interpretability of tree ensembles. After learning a complex tree ensembles in a standard way, we approximate it by a simpler model that is interpretable for human. To obtain the simpler model, we derive the EM algorithm minimizing the KL divergence from the ...

  18. Embeddings of Iteration Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, William

    1992-01-01

    This paper, dating from May 1991, contains preliminary (and unpublishable) notes on investigations about iteration trees. They will be of interest only to the specialist. In the first two sections I define notions of support and embeddings for tree iterations, proving for example that every tree iteration is a direct limit of finite tree iterations. This is a generalization to models with extenders of basic ideas of iterated ultrapowers using only ultrapowers. In the final section (which is m...

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of the Conterminous United States 201301 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree...

  20. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  1. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  2. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  3. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  4. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  5. The Wish Tree Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  6. The Wish Tree Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  7. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  8. A spatial model for sporadic tree species distribution in support of tree oriented silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Melini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This technical note describes how a spatial model for sporadic tree species distribution in the territory of the Unione di Comuni Montana Colline Metallifere (UCMCM was built using the Random Forest (RF algorithm and 48 predictors, including reflectance values from ground cover - provided by satellite sensors - and ecological factors. The  P.Pro.SPO.T. project - Policy and Protection of Sporadic tree species in Tuscany forest (LIFE 09 ENV/IT/000087 is currently carried out in this area with the purpose of initiating the implementation of tree oriented silviculture in the Tuscany forests. Tree oriented silviculture aims at obtaining both forest biodiversity protection and local production of valuable timber. After creating a map showing the probability of presence of sporadic tree species, it was possible to identify the most suitable areas for sporadic tree species which are under protection according to the regulation of the Tuscany Region.Using data and software provided free of charge, and applying the RF algorithm, distribution models could be developed in order to identify the most suitable areas for the application of tree oriented silviculture. This can provide a support to forestry planning that includes tree oriented silviculture, thus reducing its implementation cost.

  9. SILVA tree viewer: interactive web browsing of the SILVA phylogenetic guide trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Alan; Gerken, Jan; Quast, Christian; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2017-09-30

    Phylogenetic trees are an important tool to study the evolutionary relationships among organisms. The huge amount of available taxa poses difficulties in their interactive visualization. This hampers the interaction with the users to provide feedback for the further improvement of the taxonomic framework. The SILVA Tree Viewer is a web application designed for visualizing large phylogenetic trees without requiring the download of any software tool or data files. The SILVA Tree Viewer is based on Web Geographic Information Systems (Web-GIS) technology with a PostgreSQL backend. It enables zoom and pan functionalities similar to Google Maps. The SILVA Tree Viewer enables access to two phylogenetic (guide) trees provided by the SILVA database: the SSU Ref NR99 inferred from high-quality, full-length small subunit sequences, clustered at 99% sequence identity and the LSU Ref inferred from high-quality, full-length large subunit sequences. The Tree Viewer provides tree navigation, search and browse tools as well as an interactive feedback system to collect any kinds of requests ranging from taxonomy to data curation and improving the tool itself.

  10. Trees in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Degyi

    2008-01-01

    Trees are flourishing in Lhasa wherever the history exists. There is such a man. He has already been through cus-toms after his annual trek to Lhasa, which he has been doing for over twenty years in succession to visit his tree.Although he has been making this journey for so long,it is neither to visit friends or family,nor is it his hometown.It is a tree that is tied so profoundly to his heart.When the wind blows fiercely on the bare tree and winter snow falls,he stands be-fore the tree with tears of jo...

  11. Distributed Contour Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  12. Multisource Single-Tree Inventory in the Prediction of Tree Quality Variables and Logging Recoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vastaranta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The stem diameter distribution, stem form and quality information must be measured as accurately as possible to optimize cutting. For a detailed measurement of the stands, we developed and demonstrated the use of a multisource single-tree inventory (MS-STI. The two major bottlenecks in the current airborne laser scanning (ALS-based single-tree-level inventory, tree detection and tree species recognition, are avoided in MS-STI. In addition to airborne 3D data, such as ALS, MS-STI requires an existing tree map with tree species information as the input information. In operational forest management, tree mapping would be carried out after or during the first thinning. It should be highlighted that the tree map is a challenging prerequisite, but that the recent development in mobile 2D and 3D laser scanning indicates that the solution is within reach. In our study, the tested input tree map was produced by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and by using a Global Navigation Satellite System. Predictors for tree quality attributes were extracted from ALS data or digital stereo imagery (DSI and used in the nearest-neighbor estimation approach. Stem distribution was compiled by summing the predicted single-tree measures. The accuracy of the MS-STI was validated using harvester data (timber assortments and field measures (stem diameter, tree height. RMSEs for tree height, diameter, saw log volume and pulpwood volume varied from 4.2% to 5.3%, from 10.9% to 19.9%, from 28.7% to 43.5% and from 125.1% to 134.3%, respectively. Stand-level saw log recoveries differed from −2.2% to 1.3% from the harvester measurements, as the respective differences in pulpwood recovery were between −3.0% and 10.6%. We conclude that MS-STI improves the predictions of stem-diameter distributions and provides accurate estimates for tree quality variables if an accurate tree map is available.

  13. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  14. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  15. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  16. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  17. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  18. Choosing appropriate subpopulations for modeling tree canopy cover nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen G. Moisen; John W. Coulston; Barry T. Wilson; Warren B. Cohen; Mark V. Finco

    2012-01-01

    In prior national mapping efforts, the country has been divided into numerous ecologically similar mapping zones, and individual models have been constructed for each zone. Additionally, a hierarchical approach has been taken within zones to first mask out areas of nonforest, then target models of tree attributes within forested areas only. This results in many models...

  19. A bijection for covered maps, or a shortcut between Harer-Zagier's and Jackson's formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We consider maps on orientable surfaces. A map is unicellular if it has a single face. A covered map is a map with a marked unicellular spanning submap. For a map of genus g, the unicellular submap can have any genus g'=0,1,..,g. Our main result is a bijection between covered maps with n edges and genus g and pairs made of a plane tree with n edges and a unicellular bipartite map of genus g with n+1 edges. > > In the planar case, the covered maps are maps with a marked spanning tree (a.k.a. tree-rooted maps) and our bijection specializes into a construction previously described by the first author. A strong connection subsists between covered maps and tree-rooted maps in genus 1 (because a covered map is either a tree-rooted map or the dual of a tree-rooted map) and we thereby obtain a bijective explanation of a formula by Lehman and Walsh on the number of tree-rooted maps of genus 1. A more surprising byproduct of our bijection is an equivalence between an enumerative formula by Harer and Zagier concerning u...

  20. A support vector machine based test for incongruence between sets of trees in tree space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use of multi-locus data sets for phylogenetic reconstruction has increased the need to determine whether a set of gene trees significantly deviate from the phylogenetic patterns of other genes. Such unusual gene trees may have been influenced by other evolutionary processes such as selection, gene duplication, or horizontal gene transfer. Results Motivated by this problem we propose a nonparametric goodness-of-fit test for two empirical distributions of gene trees, and we developed the software GeneOut to estimate a p-value for the test. Our approach maps trees into a multi-dimensional vector space and then applies support vector machines (SVMs) to measure the separation between two sets of pre-defined trees. We use a permutation test to assess the significance of the SVM separation. To demonstrate the performance of GeneOut, we applied it to the comparison of gene trees simulated within different species trees across a range of species tree depths. Applied directly to sets of simulated gene trees with large sample sizes, GeneOut was able to detect very small differences between two set of gene trees generated under different species trees. Our statistical test can also include tree reconstruction into its test framework through a variety of phylogenetic optimality criteria. When applied to DNA sequence data simulated from different sets of gene trees, results in the form of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that GeneOut performed well in the detection of differences between sets of trees with different distributions in a multi-dimensional space. Furthermore, it controlled false positive and false negative rates very well, indicating a high degree of accuracy. Conclusions The non-parametric nature of our statistical test provides fast and efficient analyses, and makes it an applicable test for any scenario where evolutionary or other factors can lead to trees with different multi-dimensional distributions. The

  1. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  2. Bayesian Rose Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Charles; Heller, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical structure is ubiquitous in data across many domains. There are many hier- archical clustering methods, frequently used by domain experts, which strive to discover this structure. However, most of these meth- ods limit discoverable hierarchies to those with binary branching structure. This lim- itation, while computationally convenient, is often undesirable. In this paper we ex- plore a Bayesian hierarchical clustering algo- rithm that can produce trees with arbitrary branching structure at each node, known as rose trees. We interpret these trees as mixtures over partitions of a data set, and use a computationally efficient, greedy ag- glomerative algorithm to find the rose trees which have high marginal likelihood given the data. Lastly, we perform experiments which demonstrate that rose trees are better models of data than the typical binary trees returned by other hierarchical clustering algorithms.

  3. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  4. Comparison of galled trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Galled trees, directed acyclic graphs that model evolutionary histories with isolated hybridization events, have become very popular due to both their biological significance and the existence of polynomial-time algorithms for their reconstruction. In this paper, we establish to which extent several distance measures for the comparison of evolutionary networks are metrics for galled trees, and hence, when they can be safely used to evaluate galled tree reconstruction methods.

  5. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

  6. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

  7. Spatial Patterns of Trees from Airborne LiDAR Using a Simple Tree Segmentation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, S.; Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Franklin, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives for management of forest ecosystems on public land incorporate a focus on maintenance and restoration of ecological functions through silvicultural manipulation of forest structure. The spatial pattern of residual trees - the horizontal element of structure - is a key component of ecological restoration prescriptions. We tested the ability of a simple LiDAR individual tree segmentation method - the watershed transform - to generate spatial pattern metrics similar to those obtained by the traditional method - ground-based stem mapping - on forested plots representing the structural diversity of a large wilderness area (Yosemite NP) and a large managed area (Sierra NF) in the Sierra Nevada, Calif. Most understory and intermediate-canopy trees were not detected by the LiDAR segmentation; however, LiDAR- and field-based assessments of spatial pattern in terms of tree clump size distributions largely agreed. This suggests that (1) even when individual tree segmentation is not effective for tree density estimates, it can provide a good measurement of tree spatial pattern, and (2) a simple segmentation method is adequate to measure spatial pattern of large areas with a diversity of structural characteristics. These results lay the groundwork for a LiDAR tool to assess clumping patterns across forest landscapes in support of restoration silviculture. This tool could describe spatial patterns of functionally intact reference ecosystems, measure departure from reference targets in treatment areas, and, with successive acquisitions, monitor treatment efficacy.

  8. TreeViewJ: An application for viewing and analyzing phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Matthew W

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic trees are widely used to visualize evolutionary relationships between different organisms or samples of the same organism. There exists a variety of both free and commercial tree visualization software available, but limitations in these programs often require researchers to use multiple programs for analysis, annotation, and the production of publication-ready images. Results We present TreeViewJ, a Java tool for visualizing, editing and analyzing phylogenetic trees. The software allows researchers to color and change the width of branches that they wish to highlight, and add names to nodes. If collection dates are available for taxa, the software can map them onto a timeline, and sort the tree in ascending or descending date order. Conclusion TreeViewJ is a tool for researchers to visualize, edit, "decorate," and produce publication-ready images of phylogenetic trees. It is open-source, and released under an GPL license, and available at http://treeviewj.sourceforge.net.

  9. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas;

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  10. Symmetric M-tree

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Alan P

    2010-01-01

    The M-tree is a paged, dynamically balanced metric access method that responds gracefully to the insertion of new objects. To date, no algorithm has been published for the corresponding Delete operation. We believe this to be non-trivial because of the design of the M-tree's Insert algorithm. We propose a modification to Insert that overcomes this problem and give the corresponding Delete algorithm. The performance of the tree is comparable to the M-tree and offers additional benefits in terms of supported operations, which we briefly discuss.

  11. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

  12. A new decision tree learning algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yong; QI Fei-hu

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the generalization ability of binary decision trees, a new learning algorithm, the MMDT algorithm, is presented. Based on statistical learning theory the generalization performance of binary decision trees is analyzed, and the assessment rule is proposed. Under the direction of the assessment rule, the MMDT algorithm is implemented. The algorithm maps training examples from an original space to a high dimension featurespace, and constructs a decision tree in it. In the feature space, a new decision node splitting criterion, the max-min rule, is used, and the margin of each decision node is maximized using a support vector machine, to improve the generalization performance. Experimental results show that the new learning algorithm is much superior to others such as C4. 5 and OC1.

  13. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  14. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  15. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  16. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  17. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  18. Diameter distribution estimation with laser scanning based multisource single tree inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankare, Ville; Liang, Xinlian; Vastaranta, Mikko; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-10-01

    Tree detection and tree species recognition are bottlenecks of the airborne remote sensing-based single tree inventories. The effect of these factors in forest attribute estimation can be reduced if airborne measurements are aided with tree mapping information that is collected from the ground. The main objective here was to demonstrate the use of terrestrial laser scanning-derived (TLS) tree maps in aiding airborne laser scanning-based (ALS) single tree inventory (multisource single tree inventory, MS-STI) and its capability in predicting diameter distribution in various forest conditions. Automatic measurement of TLS point clouds provided the tree maps and the required reference information from the tree attributes. The study area was located in Evo, Finland, and the reference data was acquired from 27 different sample plots with varying forest conditions. The workflow of MS-STI included: (1) creation of automatic tree map from TLS point clouds, (2) automatic diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement from TLS point clouds, (3) individual tree detection (ITD) based on ALS, (4) matching the ITD segments to the field-measured reference, (5) ALS point cloud metric extraction from the single tree segments and (6) DBH estimation based on the derived metrics. MS-STI proved to be accurate and efficient method for DBH estimation and predicting diameter distribution. The overall accuracy (root mean squared error, RMSE) of the DBH was 36.9 mm. Results showed that the DBH accuracy decreased if the tree density (trees/ha) increased. The highest accuracies were found in old-growth forests (tree densities less than 500 stems/ha). MS-STI resulted in the best accuracies regarding Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.)-dominated forests (RMSE of 29.9 mm). Diameter distributions were predicted with low error indices, thereby resulting in a good fit compared to the reference. Based on the results, diameter distribution estimation with MS-STI is highly dependent on the forest

  19. TPZ: Trees for Photo-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, Robert

    2013-04-01

    TPZ, a parallel code written in python, produces robust and accurate photometric redshift PDFs by using prediction tree and random forests. The code also produces ancillary information about the sample used, such as prior unbiased errors estimations (giving an estimation of performance) and a ranking of importance of variables as well as a map of performance indicating where extra training data is needed to improve overall performance. It is designed to be easy to use and a tutorial is available.

  20. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  1. Integrated approach using data mining-based decision tree and object-based image analysis for high-resolution urban mapping of WorldView-2 satellite sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedianfar, Alireza; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd

    2016-04-01

    This paper integrates decision tree-based data mining (DM) and object-based image analysis (OBIA) to provide a transferable model for the detailed characterization of urban land-cover classes using WorldView-2 (WV-2) satellite images. Many articles have been published on OBIA in recent years based on DM for different applications. However, less attention has been paid to the generation of a transferable model for characterizing detailed urban land cover features. Three subsets of WV-2 images were used in this paper to generate transferable OBIA rule-sets. Many features were explored by using a DM algorithm, which created the classification rules as a decision tree (DT) structure from the first study area. The developed DT algorithm was applied to object-based classifications in the first study area. After this process, we validated the capability and transferability of the classification rules into second and third subsets. Detailed ground truth samples were collected to assess the classification results. The first, second, and third study areas achieved 88%, 85%, and 85% overall accuracies, respectively. Results from the investigation indicate that DM was an efficient method to provide the optimal and transferable classification rules for OBIA, which accelerates the rule-sets creation stage in the OBIA classification domain.

  2. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using a rotary cultivator. For yield mapping, olives were collected manually using rods to shake the tree...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  3. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  4. Agarwood-planted tree inventory in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turjaman, Maman; Hidayat, Asep

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has as a country that has a high diversity of agarwood-producing trees (APT) species compared to other countries in Asia. Unfortunately, the populations of APT species have declined significantly. The purpose of this study was to record and maps the agarwood-planted trees in Indonesia as a baseline for future management of this species. The questioners were distributed to 31 of provinces in Indonesia. The feedback came from 21 prefectures (67.7%), consisting from 121 regencies (36.6%) those in detail came from 579 district, 1,257 villages and 4,757 farmers group. The major of APT species planted by farmer groups are Aquilaria malaccensis, A. microcarpa, and Gyrinops versteegii. The potency of APT in Indonesia is 3.4 million trees, consisting from 0.2 million tree with DBH > 20 cm and 3.2 million tree with DBH Indonesia is located in Central Kalimantan (24.7%) followed by North Sumatera (17.9%). The prediction of agarwood products and its derivate will be obtained in 2020 with economic value might be reached 1.6 trillion rupiahs if the inoculation technique used the standard procedure recommended by FORDA. These results showed how huge the potential of APT will be developed in the future.

  5. A Note on Geodesically Bounded ℝ-Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that a complete geodesically bounded R-tree is the closed convex hull of the set of its extreme points. It is also noted that if X is a closed convex geodesically bounded subset of a complete R-tree Y, and if a nonexpansive mapping T:X→Y satisfies inf⁡{d(x,T(x:x∈X}=0, then T has a fixed point. The latter result fails if T is only continuous.

  6. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  7. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  8. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  9. Combinatorics of bicubic maps with hard particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2005-05-01

    We present a purely combinatorial solution of the problem of enumerating planar bicubic maps with hard particles. This is done by the use of a bijection with a particular class of blossom trees with particles, obtained by an appropriate cutting of the maps. Although these trees have no simple local characterization, we prove that their enumeration may be performed upon introducing a larger class of 'admissible' trees with possibly doubly occupied edges and summing them with appropriate signed weights. The proof relies on an extension of the cutting procedure allowing for the presence on the maps of special non-sectile edges. The admissible trees are characterized by simple local rules, allowing eventually for an exact enumeration of planar bicubic maps with hard particles. We also discuss generalizations for maps with particles subject to more general exclusion rules and show how to re-derive the enumeration of quartic maps with Ising spins in the present framework of admissible trees. We finally comment on a possible interpretation in terms of branching processes.

  10. Facilitation or competition? Tree effects on grass biomass across a precipitation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Moustakas

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are dominated by two distinct plant life forms, grasses and trees, but the interactions between them are poorly understood. Here, we quantified the effects of isolated savanna trees on grass biomass as a function of distance from the base of the tree and tree height, across a precipitation gradient in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results suggest that mean annual precipitation (MAP mediates the nature of tree-grass interactions in these ecosystems, with the impact of trees on grass biomass shifting qualitatively between 550 and 737 mm MAP. Tree effects on grass biomass were facilitative in drier sites (MAP≤550 mm, with higher grass biomass observed beneath tree canopies than outside. In contrast, at the wettest site (MAP = 737 mm, grass biomass did not differ significantly beneath and outside tree canopies. Within this overall precipitation-driven pattern, tree height had positive effect on sub-canopy grass biomass at some sites, but these effects were weak and not consistent across the rainfall gradient. For a more synthetic understanding of tree-grass interactions in savannas, future studies should focus on isolating the different mechanisms by which trees influence grass biomass, both positively and negatively, and elucidate how their relative strengths change over broad environmental gradients.

  11. LIMSUP DEVIATIONS ON TREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Aihua

    2004-01-01

    The vertices of an infinite locally finite tree T are labelled by a collection of i.i.d. real random variables {Xσ}σ∈T which defines a tree indexed walk Sσ = ∑θ<r≤σXr. We introduce and study the oscillations of the walk:Exact Hausdorff dimension of the set of such ξ 's is calculated. An application is given to study the local variation of Brownian motion. A general limsup deviation problem on trees is also studied.

  12. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees...... of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance...... in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts....

  13. Decision-Tree Formulation With Order-1 Lateral Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A compact symbolic formulation enables mapping of an arbitrarily complex decision tree of a certain type into a highly computationally efficient multidimensional software object. The type of decision trees to which this formulation applies is that known in the art as the Boolean class of balanced decision trees. Parallel lateral slices of an object created by means of this formulation can be executed in constant time considerably less time than would otherwise be required. Decision trees of various forms are incorporated into almost all large software systems. A decision tree is a way of hierarchically solving a problem, proceeding through a set of true/false responses to a conclusion. By definition, a decision tree has a tree-like structure, wherein each internal node denotes a test on an attribute, each branch from an internal node represents an outcome of a test, and leaf nodes represent classes or class distributions that, in turn represent possible conclusions. The drawback of decision trees is that execution of them can be computationally expensive (and, hence, time-consuming) because each non-leaf node must be examined to determine whether to progress deeper into a tree structure or to examine an alternative. The present formulation was conceived as an efficient means of representing a decision tree and executing it in as little time as possible. The formulation involves the use of a set of symbolic algorithms to transform a decision tree into a multi-dimensional object, the rank of which equals the number of lateral non-leaf nodes. The tree can then be executed in constant time by means of an order-one table lookup. The sequence of operations performed by the algorithms is summarized as follows: 1. Determination of whether the tree under consideration can be encoded by means of this formulation. 2. Extraction of decision variables. 3. Symbolic optimization of the decision tree to minimize its form. 4. Expansion and transformation of all nested conjunctive

  14. 基于SSON文档树的NoSQL数据库与关系数据库双向映射算法研究%The Research on the Bi-Directional Mapping Algorithm between NoSQL Database and RDB Based on BSON Document-Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉

    2016-01-01

    Analyzed SSON document's structure,the concept and structure of SSON Document-Tree is given by comparing methods of analogy,and the mapping strategy from NoSQL document database to relational database has been presented. Sased on this,the bi-directional mapping model between the documents in NoSQL database and the RDS schema is built and a bi-directional algorithm is given.%分析了SSON文档的结构,通过比较类似结构的映射方法,给出了SSON文档树的概念和结构,并提出NoSQL数据库文档到关系数据库的映射策略,在此基础上建立了SSON文档模式和关系模式之间的双向映射模型,并给出了双向映射算法。

  15. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  16. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree specie

  17. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...

  18. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  19. Tree-like tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Aval, Jean-Christophe; Nadeau, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce and study tree-like tableaux, which are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams in simple bijection with permutation tableaux and alternative tableaux. We exhibit an elementary insertion procedure on our tableaux which gives a clear proof that tableaux of size n are counted by n!, and which moreover respects most of the well-known statistics studied originally on alternative and permutation tableaux. Our insertion procedure allows to define in particular two simple new bijections between tree-like tableaux and permutations: the first one is conceived specifically to respect the generalized pattern 2-31, while the second one respects the underlying tree of a tree-like tableau.

  20. Full tree harvesting update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; White, K.

    1981-03-01

    An important harvesting alternative in North America is the Full Tree Method, in which trees are felled and transported to roadside, intermediate or primary landings with limbs and branches intact. The acceptance of Full Tree Systems is due to many factors including: labour productivity and increased demands on the forest for ''new products''. These conditions are shaping the future look for forest Harvesting Systems, but must not be the sole determinants. All harvesting implications, such as those affecting Productivity and silviculture, should be thoroughly understood. This paper does not try to discuss every implication, nor any particular one in depth; its purpose is to highlight those areas requiring consideration and to review several current North American Full Tree Systems. (Refs. 5).

  1. Individual tree crown delineation using localized contour tree method and airborne LiDAR data in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Yu, Bailang; Wu, Qiusheng; Huang, Yan; Chen, Zuoqi; Wu, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    Individual tree crown delineation is of great importance for forest inventory and management. The increasing availability of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data makes it possible to delineate the crown structure of individual trees and deduce their geometric properties with high accuracy. In this study, we developed an automated segmentation method that is able to fully utilize high-resolution LiDAR data for detecting, extracting, and characterizing individual tree crowns with a multitude of geometric and topological properties. The proposed approach captures topological structure of forest and quantifies topological relationships of tree crowns by using a graph theory-based localized contour tree method, and finally segments individual tree crowns by analogy of recognizing hills from a topographic map. This approach consists of five key technical components: (1) derivation of canopy height model from airborne LiDAR data; (2) generation of contours based on the canopy height model; (3) extraction of hierarchical structures of tree crowns using the localized contour tree method; (4) delineation of individual tree crowns by segmenting hierarchical crown structure; and (5) calculation of geometric and topological properties of individual trees. We applied our new method to the Medicine Bow National Forest in the southwest of Laramie, Wyoming and the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the central portion of the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S. The results reveal that the overall accuracy of individual tree crown delineation for the two study areas achieved 94.21% and 75.07%, respectively. Our method holds great potential for segmenting individual tree crowns under various forest conditions. Furthermore, the geometric and topological attributes derived from our method provide comprehensive and essential information for forest management.

  2. Fault Tree Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    to be Evaluated Manufacturer Location Seismic Susceptibility Flood Susceptibility Temperature Humidity Radiation Wear-out Susceptibility Test...For the category " Seismic Susceptibility," we might define several sensitivity levels ranging from no sensitivity to extreme sensitivity, and for more... Hanford Company, Richland, Wash- ington, ARH-ST-l 12, July 1975. 40. W.E. Vesely, "Analysis of Fault Trees by Kinetic Tree Theory," Idaho Nuclear

  3. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  4. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  5. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  6. Tree Improvement Glossary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

  7. Estimating Leaf Water Potential of Giant Sequoia Trees from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought-induced forest dieback events have motivated research on the mechanisms of tree survival and mortality during drought. Leaf water potential, a measure of the force exerted by the evaporation of water from the leaf surface, is an indicator of plant water stress and can help predict tree mortality in response to drought. Scientists have traditionally measured water potentials on a tree-by-tree basis, but have not been able to produce maps of tree water potential at the scale of a whole forest, leaving forest managers unaware of forest drought stress patterns and their ecosystem-level consequences. Imaging spectroscopy, a technique for remote measurement of chemical properties, has been used to successfully estimate leaf water potentials in wheat and maize crops and pinyon-pine and juniper trees, but these estimates have never been scaled to the canopy level. We used hyperspectral reflectance data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) to map leaf water potentials of giant sequoia trees (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in an 800-hectare grove in Sequoia National Park. During the current severe drought in California, we measured predawn and midday leaf water potentials of 48 giant sequoia trees, using the pressure bomb method on treetop foliage samples collected with tree-climbing techniques. The CAO collected hyperspectral reflectance data at 1-meter resolution from the same grove within 1-2 weeks of the tree-level measurements. A partial least squares regression was used to correlate reflectance data extracted from the 48 focal trees with their water potentials, producing a model that predicts water potential of giant sequoia trees. Results show that giant sequoia trees can be mapped in the imagery with a classification accuracy of 0.94, and we predicted the water potential of the mapped trees to assess 1) similarities and differences between a leaf water potential map and a canopy water content map produced from airborne hyperspectral data, 2

  8. Geometric Decision Tree

    CERN Document Server

    Manwani, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new algorithm for learning oblique decision trees. Most of the current decision tree algorithms rely on impurity measures to assess the goodness of hyperplanes at each node while learning a decision tree in a top-down fashion. These impurity measures do not properly capture the geometric structures in the data. Motivated by this, our algorithm uses a strategy to assess the hyperplanes in such a way that the geometric structure in the data is taken into account. At each node of the decision tree, we find the clustering hyperplanes for both the classes and use their angle bisectors as the split rule at that node. We show through empirical studies that this idea leads to small decision trees and better performance. We also present some analysis to show that the angle bisectors of clustering hyperplanes that we use as the split rules at each node, are solutions of an interesting optimization problem and hence argue that this is a principled method of learning a decision tree.

  9. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  10. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  11. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers create ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome ...

  12. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  13. On the neighbourhoods of trees

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Tree rearrangement operations typically induce a metric on the space of phylogenetic trees. One important property of these metrics is the size of the neighbourhood, that is, the number of trees exactly one operation from a given tree. We present an expression for the size of the TBR (tree bisection and reconnection) neighbourhood, thus answering a question first posed in [Annals of Combinatorics, 5, 2001 1-15].

  14. Cubic time algorithms of amalgamating gene trees and building evolutionary scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubetsky Vassily A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long recognized problem is the inference of the supertree S that amalgamates a given set {Gj} of trees Gj, with leaves in each Gj being assigned homologous elements. We ground on an approach to find the tree S by minimizing the total cost of mappings αj of individual gene trees Gj into S. Traditionally, this cost is defined basically as a sum of duplications and gaps in each αj. The classical problem is to minimize the total cost, where S runs over the set of all trees that contain an exhaustive non-redundant set of species from all input Gj. Results We suggest a reformulation of the classical NP-hard problem of building a supertree in terms of the global minimization of the same cost functional but only over species trees S that consist of clades belonging to a fixed set P (e.g., an exhaustive set of clades in all Gj. We developed a deterministic solving algorithm with a low degree polynomial (typically cubic time complexity with respect to the size of input data. We define an extensive set of elementary evolutionary events and suggest an original definition of mapping β of tree G into tree S. We introduce the cost functional c(G, S, f and define the mapping β as the global minimum of this functional with respect to the variable f, in which sense it is a generalization of classical mapping α. We suggest a reformulation of the classical NP-hard mapping (reconciliation problem by introducing time slices into the species tree S and present a cubic time solving algorithm to compute the mapping β. We introduce two novel definitions of the evolutionary scenario based on mapping β or a random process of gene evolution along a species tree. Conclusions Developed algorithms are mathematically proved, which justifies the following statements. The supertree building algorithm finds exactly the global minimum of the total cost if only gene duplications and losses are allowed and the given sets of gene trees satisfies a certain

  15. The inference of gene trees with species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution.

  16. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  17. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  18. Odds-On Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Let R^d -> A be a query problem over R^d for which there exists a data structure S that can compute P(q) in O(log n) time for any query point q in R^d. Let D be a probability measure over R^d representing a distribution of queries. We describe a data structure called the odds-on tree, of size O(n^\\epsilon) that can be used as a filter that quickly computes P(q) for some query values q in R^d and relies on S for the remaining queries. With an odds-on tree, the expected query time for a point drawn according to D is O(H*+1), where H* is a lower-bound on the expected cost of any linear decision tree that solves P. Odds-on trees have a number of applications, including distribution-sensitive data structures for point location in 2-d, point-in-polytope testing in d dimensions, ray shooting in simple polygons, ray shooting in polytopes, nearest-neighbour queries in R^d, point-location in arrangements of hyperplanes in R^d, and many other geometric searching problems that can be solved in the linear-decision tree mo...

  19. Reinforcement Learning Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R

    In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings.

  20. Improved self-organizing mapping tree algorithm and its application to interorganizational relationship classification%一种改进的自组织映射树算法及在组织际关系分类中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群洪; 刘震宇; 严静; 黄辉; 苏世彬

    2009-01-01

    The advantage and disadvantage of some kinds of the improved self-organizing neural network algorithm are discussed in the paper, and an dynamical binary-tree based self-organizing neural network is improved and implemented in detail. In the binary-tree, neunron nodes can be growing and pruning, and the self-organizing mapping structure is flexible, not needed to be determined in advance. DBTSONN1 algorithm uses single path to search the winning leaf nodes, and DBTSONN2 algorithm uses double path search, considering the hierarchical position of the winning node, which can improve the searching efficiency.By combining belief and action components of a transaction relationship, a key mediating variable set is developed to establish a database of measures, and the DBTSONN2 algorithm is applied to classify interorganizational relationship into four structures labeled "bilateral, recurrent, dominant partner, and discrete".%分析了自组织映射树各种改进算法的优缺点,改进和实现了一种基于动态二叉树的自组织神经网络(Improved dynamical binary-tree based self-organizing neural network,DBTSONN).在改进动态二叉树中神经元节点可以自动生长和剪除,无需在训练前预先确定网络结构.DBTSONN1算法采用单路径搜索最匹配叶节点(获胜神经元),DBTSONN2算法考虑了获胜神经元节点所在自组织二叉树的层次,采用双路径搜索获胜叶节点,提高了搜索效率.以交易关系的经济和行为维度建立起来的关键中介变量集为度量指标,使用该算法把组织际关系分为四种类型:双边关系、周期性关系、层级关系以及分散关系,验证该算法的效率,并分析这种组织际关系分类的实际意义.

  1. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Compartment 8 Winter Burns and TSI Map 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Forest Compartment 8 Winter Burns and TSI Map 1977. map also contains locations of know RCW trees in the compartment.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Tree Cover Configuration and Connectivity, Water Background Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The EnviroAtlas Durham, NC tree...

  3. EnviroAtlas Tree Cover Configuration and Connectivity, Water Background Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The 1-meter resolution tree...

  4. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  5. BOREAS TE-23 Map Plot Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Paul M.; Fournier, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-23 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected map plot data in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on canopy architecture and understory cover at the BOREAS tower flux sites and selected auxiliary sites from May to August 1994. Mapped plots (typical dimensions 50 m x 60 m) were set up and characterized at all BOREAS forested tower flux and selected auxiliary sites. Detailed measurement of the mapped plots included: (1) stand characteristics (location, density, basal area); (2) map locations diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees; (3) detailed geometric measures of a subset of trees (height, crown dimensions); and (4) understory cover maps. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  7. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  8. Tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  9. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  10. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  11. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Alexander; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compression benchmark tests while never being significantly worse on any individual file.

  12. Error-tolerant Tree Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for retrieving from a database of trees, all trees that match a given query tree approximately, that is, within a certain error tolerance. It has natural language processing applications in searching for matches in example-based translation systems, and retrieval from lexical databases containing entries of complex feature structures. The algorithm has been implemented on SparcStations, and for large randomly generated synthetic tree databases (some having tens of thousands of trees) it can associatively search for trees with a small error, in a matter of tenths of a second to few seconds.

  13. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  14. Tree cover changes in- and ouside protected areas in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, J.-C.

    Protected areas (PAs) are one of the main tools in the global conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems. This is also the case for China. However, only few studies have investigated protected areas´ efficiency in maintaining ecosystems and biodiversity. One way to investigate this is to look...... at tree cover changes inside the PAs and on the surrounding areas. Using MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields we mapped tree-cover changes between 2000-2010 in- and outside PAs in China. The PAs were extracted from the World Database on Protected Areas. Our aim were to investigated the following four...... desertification. In a further study will we investigate if there is a correlation between tree cover change and other variables, e.g. elevation and slope, inside and outside the PAs and also if HII correlates with overall tree cover change in China. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China...

  15. Assessment of student learning associated with tree thinking in an undergraduate introductory organismal biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James J; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Auvenshine, Stacie

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees provide visual representations of ancestor-descendant relationships, a core concept of evolutionary theory. We introduced "tree thinking" into our introductory organismal biology course (freshman/sophomore majors) to help teach organismal diversity within an evolutionary framework. Our instructional strategy consisted of designing and implementing a set of experiences to help students learn to read, interpret, and manipulate phylogenetic trees, with a particular emphasis on using data to evaluate alternative phylogenetic hypotheses (trees). To assess the outcomes of these learning experiences, we designed and implemented a Phylogeny Assessment Tool (PhAT), an open-ended response instrument that asked students to: 1) map characters on phylogenetic trees; 2) apply an objective criterion to decide which of two trees (alternative hypotheses) is "better"; and 3) demonstrate understanding of phylogenetic trees as depictions of ancestor-descendant relationships. A pre-post test design was used with the PhAT to collect data from students in two consecutive Fall semesters. Students in both semesters made significant gains in their abilities to map characters onto phylogenetic trees and to choose between two alternative hypotheses of relationship (trees) by applying the principle of parsimony (Occam's razor). However, learning gains were much lower in the area of student interpretation of phylogenetic trees as representations of ancestor-descendant relationships.

  16. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    , in particular we do not require that S ends with a unique symbol. This corresponds to considering the more general definition of implicit or extended suffix trees. Such general suffix trees have many applications and are for example needed to allow efficient updates when suffix trees are built online. We prove...

  17. Tree Modeling with Real Tree-Parts Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ke; Yan, Feilong; Sharf, Andrei; Deussen, Oliver; Huang, Hui; Chen, Baoquan

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a 3D tree modeling technique that utilizes examples of real trees to enhance tree creation with realistic structures and fine-level details. In contrast to previous works that use smooth generalized cylinders to represent tree branches, our method generates realistic looking tree models with complex branching geometry by employing an exemplar database consisting of real-life trees reconstructed from scanned data. These trees are sliced into representative parts (denoted as tree-cuts), representing trunk logs and branching structures. In the modeling process, tree-cuts are positioned in space in an intuitive manner, serving as efficient proxies that guide the creation of the complete tree. Allometry rules are taken into account to ensure reasonable relations between adjacent branches. Realism is further enhanced by automatically transferring geometric textures from our database onto tree branches as well as by guided growing of foliage. Our results demonstrate the complexity and variety of trees that can be generated with our method within few minutes. We carry a user study to test the effectiveness of our modeling technique.

  18. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats 1

  19. Certified Kruskal's Tree Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sternagel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first formalization of Kurskal's tree theorem in aproof assistant. The Isabelle/HOL development is along the lines of Nash-Williams' original minimal bad sequence argument for proving the treetheorem. Along the way, proofs of Dickson's lemma and Higman's lemma, as well as some technical details of the formalization are discussed.

  20. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  1. The TS-Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Krieger, Ralph; Afschari, Farzad;

    2008-01-01

    Continuous growth in sensor data and other temporal data increases the importance of retrieval and similarity search in time series data. Efficient time series query processing is crucial for interactive applications. Existing multidimensional indexes like the R-tree provide efficient querying fo...

  2. The TS-Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Krieger, Ralph; Afschari, Farzad

    2008-01-01

    Continuous growth in sensor data and other temporal data increases the importance of retrieval and similarity search in time series data. Efficient time series query processing is crucial for interactive applications. Existing multidimensional indexes like the R-tree provide efficient querying fo...

  3. Geophysical Experim Ents At Tree Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagrey, S. A. Al; Ismaeil, A.; Meissner, R.

    In the scope of the EU-research project WATERUSE we are developing a hardware and software for an integrated high -resolution hydrogeophysical techniques for monitoring water content and flow in soils and tree trunk and roots. With 9 partners the project aims to provide tools for the evaluation of water fluxes and its governing processes in the drier regions of Europe, in order to develop guidelines for the sustainable use of water resources. In this work we present results of some geoelectrical measurements carried out at some tree sites (including Japanese Wingnut, Poplar, Pine, Peach and Cork Oak) within the vadose root zone and at a tree trunk at Kiel (Germany) and Atalaia and Rico Frico (Portugal). For the dc resistivity measurements, the applied electrode array include the classical dipole- dipole, Wenner and Schlumberger as well as the mise àla masse technique. With the tree at the centre of site, the electrodes were distributed at the ground surface along radial star profiles at equal angular interval and at grids at 10 cm interval. In the mise à la masse the current electrodes C1 and C2 are placed inside the tree root and at infinity and the potential difference was measured between all other adjacent pair of electrodes. The data are inverted using a 2D and 3D inversion program packages adopted for this type of application. The results show distinctively the heterogeneities in the vadose zone resulting from effects of the root zone and different moisture content. Also the ring structure and zones of different fluid concentration within the trunk can be mapped and compared with a dying stem section conserved directly after their cut.

  4. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  5. Tree Formation Using Coordinate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are introducing a new method of tree formation, we propose a coordinate based method by which we can store and access tree structures. As we know in NLP, parsing is the most important module. The output of this module is generally parsed trees. Currently, TAG (Tree Adjoining Grammar is widely used grammar due to its linguistic and formal nature. It is simply tree generating system. The unit structure used in TAG is structured trees. So we used our new method to store trees where we worked on English to Hindi language. We worked on different sentences from English to Hindi, our method is the easiest way to manipulate tree. We have implemented within small corpus and for finite number of structures and further can be extended in future.

  6. Trees and spatial topology change in CDT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    Generalized causal dynamical triangulations (generalized CDT) is a model of two-dimensional quantum gravity in which a limited number of spatial topology changes is allowed to occur. We solve the model at the discretized level using bijections between quadrangulations and trees. In the continuum...... limit (scaling limit) the amplitudes are shown to agree with known formulas and explicit expressions are obtained for loop propagators and two-point functions. It is shown that from a combinatorial point of view generalized CDT can be viewed as the scaling limit of planar maps with a finite number...

  7. The Tree of Industrial Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring forth an interaction between evolutionary economics and industrial systematics. The suggested solution is to reconstruct the "family tree" of the industries. Such a tree is based on similarities, but it may also reflect the evolutionary history in industries...... finding of optimal industrial trees. The results are presented as taxonomic trees that can easily be compared with the hierarchical structure of existing systems of industrial classification....

  8. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  9. Protecting Trees Means Protecting Ourselves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国虹; 张超

    2016-01-01

    As everyone knows,spring is a planting season.Every year people all over China go out to plant trees.Trees can make our environment more beautifully~①.Trees can stop wind from blowing the earth and sand away.They can also prevent soil from being washed away by wa-

  10. Junction trees of general graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei WANG; Jianhua GUO

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the maximal prime subgraphs and their corresponding structure for any undirected graph.We introduce the notion of junction trees and investigate their structural characteristics,including junction properties,induced-subtree properties,running-intersection properties and maximum-weight spanning tree properties.Furthermore,the characters of leaves and edges on junction trees are discussed.

  11. Tree decompositions with small cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Fomin, F.V.

    2002-01-01

    The f-cost of a tree decomposition ({Xi | i e I}, T = (I;F)) for a function f : N -> R+ is defined as EieI f(|Xi|). This measure associates with the running time or memory use of some algorithms that use the tree decomposition. In this paper we investigate the problem to find tree decompositions

  12. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  13. A Class of Graceful Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继

    2000-01-01

    The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.

  14. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  15. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting

  16. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  17. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

  18. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  19. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  20. A suffix tree or not a suffix tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree τ on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is τ a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as τ? We place no restrictions on S, in part......In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree τ on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is τ a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as τ? We place no restrictions on S......, in particular we do not require that S ends with a unique symbol. This corresponds to considering the more general definition of implicit or extended suffix trees. Such general suffix trees have many applications and are for example needed to allow efficient updates when suffix trees are built online. Deciding...

  1. Fringe trees, Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and $m$-ary search trees

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Cecilia; Janson, Svante

    2016-01-01

    This survey studies asymptotics of random fringe trees and extended fringe trees in random trees that can be constructed as family trees of a Crump-Mode-Jagers branching process, stopped at a suitable time. This includes random recursive trees, preferential attachment trees, fragmentation trees, binary search trees and (more generally) $m$-ary search trees, as well as some other classes of random trees. We begin with general results, mainly due to Aldous (1991) and Jagers and Nerman (1984). T...

  2. PoInTree: A Polar and Interactive Phylogenetic Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carreras Marco; Gianti Eleonora; Sartori Luca; Plyte Simon Edward; Isacchi Antonella; Bosotti Roberta

    2005-01-01

    PoInTree (Polar and Innteractive Tree) is an application that allows to build, visualize, and customize phylogenetic trees in a polar, interactive, and highly flexible view. It takes as input a FASTA file or multiple alignment formats. Phylogenetic tree calculation is based on a sequence distance method and utilizes the Neighbor Joining (NJ) algorithm. It also allows displaying precalculated trees of the major protein families based on Pfam classification. In PoInTree, nodes can be dynamically opened and closed and distances between genes are graphically represented.Tree root can be centered on a selected leaf. Text search mechanism, color-coding and labeling display are integrated. The visualizer can be connected to an Oracle database containing information on sequences and other biological data, helping to guide their interpretation within a given protein family across multiple species.The application is written in Borland Delphi and based on VCL Teechart Pro 6 graphical component (Steema software).

  3. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Akbulut

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

  4. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  5. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1992-01-01

    FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

  6. Global Value Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  7. Do orthologous gene phylogenies really support tree-thinking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Darwin's Origin of Species, reconstructing the Tree of Life has been a goal of evolutionists, and tree-thinking has become a major concept of evolutionary biology. Practically, building the Tree of Life has proven to be tedious. Too few morphological characters are useful for conducting conclusive phylogenetic analyses at the highest taxonomic level. Consequently, molecular sequences (genes, proteins, and genomes likely constitute the only useful characters for constructing a phylogeny of all life. For this reason, tree-makers expect a lot from gene comparisons. The simultaneous study of the largest number of molecular markers possible is sometimes considered to be one of the best solutions in reconstructing the genealogy of organisms. This conclusion is a direct consequence of tree-thinking: if gene inheritance conforms to a tree-like model of evolution, sampling more of these molecules will provide enough phylogenetic signal to build the Tree of Life. The selection of congruent markers is thus a fundamental step in simultaneous analysis of many genes. Results Heat map analyses were used to investigate the congruence of orthologues in four datasets (archaeal, bacterial, eukaryotic and alpha-proteobacterial. We conclude that we simply cannot determine if a large portion of the genes have a common history. In addition, none of these datasets can be considered free of lateral gene transfer. Conclusion Our phylogenetic analyses do not support tree-thinking. These results have important conceptual and practical implications. We argue that representations other than a tree should be investigated in this case because a non-critical concatenation of markers could be highly misleading.

  8. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree transduc

  9. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  10. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  11. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  12. Source tree composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, de, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dividing software systems in components improves software reusability as well as software maintainability. Components live at several levels, we concentrate on the implementation level where components are formed by source files, divided over directory structures. Such source code components are usually strongly coupled in the directory structure of a software system. Their compilation is usually controlled by a single global build process. This entangling of source trees and build processes ...

  13. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young ( 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  14. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Cody E; Smith, Stephen A; Allman, James F; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M; Crandall, Keith A; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S; Katz, Laura A; Laughinghouse, H Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E; Owen, Christopher L; Ree, Richard H; Rees, Jonathan A; Soltis, Douglas E; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A

    2015-10-13

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips-the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics.

  15. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Cody E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Allman, James F.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Crandall, Keith A.; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T.; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S.; Katz, Laura A.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E.; Owen, Christopher L.; Ree, Richard H.; Rees, Jonathan A.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics. PMID:26385966

  16. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m(2)) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  17. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  18. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  19. Active flows on trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-11-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

  20. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  1. Mapping Deeply

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Wood

    2015-01-01

    This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, wate...

  2. Polynomial mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wŀadysŀaw

    1995-01-01

    The book deals with certain algebraic and arithmetical questions concerning polynomial mappings in one or several variables. Algebraic properties of the ring Int(R) of polynomials mapping a given ring R into itself are presented in the first part, starting with classical results of Polya, Ostrowski and Skolem. The second part deals with fully invariant sets of polynomial mappings F in one or several variables, i.e. sets X satisfying F(X)=X . This includes in particular a study of cyclic points of such mappings in the case of rings of algebrai integers. The text contains several exercises and a list of open problems.

  3. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  4. Gene tree correction for reconciliation and species tree inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swenson Krister M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case.

  5. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  6. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  7. Calibration and Validation of Landsat Tree Cover in the Taiga−Tundra Ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mannix Montesano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring current forest characteristics in the taiga−tundra ecotone (TTE at multiple scales is critical for understanding its vulnerability to structural changes. A 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-based tree canopy cover map has been calibrated and validated in the TTE with reference tree cover data from airborne LiDAR and high resolution spaceborne images across the full range of boreal forest tree cover. This domain-specific calibration model used estimates of forest height to determine reference forest cover that best matched Landsat estimates. The model removed the systematic under-estimation of tree canopy cover >80% and indicated that Landsat estimates of tree canopy cover more closely matched canopies at least 2 m in height rather than 5 m. The validation improved estimates of uncertainty in tree canopy cover in discontinuous TTE forests for three temporal epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010 by reducing systematic errors, leading to increases in tree canopy cover uncertainty. Average pixel-level uncertainties in tree canopy cover were 29.0%, 27.1% and 31.1% for the 2000, 2005 and 2010 epochs, respectively. Maps from these calibrated data improve the uncertainty associated with Landsat tree canopy cover estimates in the discontinuous forests of the circumpolar TTE.

  8. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  9. Joint compression and encryption using chaotically mutated Huffman trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Houcemeddine; Rhouma, Rhouma; Belghith, Safya

    2010-10-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme for joint compression and encryption using the Huffman codec. A basic tree is first generated for a given message and then based on a keystream generated from a chaotic map and depending from the input message, the basic tree is mutated without changing the statistical model. Hence a symbol can be coded by more than one codeword having the same length. The security of the scheme is tested against the known plaintext attack and the brute force attack. Performance analysis including encryption/decryption speed, additional computational complexity and compression ratio are given.

  10. Delay-induced driven patterns in coupled Cayley tree networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aradhana

    2013-01-01

    We study effects of delay in diffusively coupled logistic maps on the Cayley tree networks. We find that smaller coupling values exhibits sensitiveness for value of delay, and leads to different cluster patterns of self-organized and driven types. Whereas larger coupling strengths are very robust against change in delay values, and leads to stable driven clusters comprising only nodes from last generation of the Calaye tree. Furthermore, introduction of delay exhibits suppression as well as enhancement of synchronization depending upon coupling strength values, hence demonstrating richness of the model. To the end we relate the results with social conflicts and cooperation observed in families.

  11. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  12. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  13. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  14. Production and analysis of recombinant tree nut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Leanna N; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are a growing global concern as the number of affected individuals continues to rise. Unlike some food allergies, tree nuts can cause severe reactions that persist throughout life. The tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions: cashew, almond, hazelnut, walnut, pecan, Brazil nut, pistachio, and chestnut. The native allergenic proteins derived from tree nuts are frequently difficult to isolate and purify and may not be adequately represented in aqueous nut protein extracts. Consequently, defined recombinant allergens have become useful reagents in a variety of immunoassays aimed at the diagnosis of tree nut allergy, assessing cross-reactivity between various nuts and other seeds, mapping of IgE binding epitopes, and analyzing the effects of the food matrix, food processing, and gastric digestion on allergenicity. This review describes the approaches that can be used for the production of recombinant tree nut allergens and addresses key issues associated with their production and downstream applications.

  15. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    the German lowlands (e.g. Raab et al., 2015) and their potentially adverse effects on tree growth, these findings elucidate a yet unknown impact of past human activities on recent biological processes. Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W., 2001: The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften, 88, 37-41. Raab, A., Takla, M., Raab, T., Nicolay, A., Schneider, A., Rösler, H., Heußner, K.U., Bönisch, E., 2015. Pre-industrial charcoal production in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany): Detection and evaluation of a large charcoal-burning field by combining archaeological studies, GIS-based analyses of shaded-relief maps and dendrochronological age determination. Quaternary International, doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.09.041.

  16. Tree plastic bark

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Arroyo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

  17. Save a Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1999-10-01

    Starting in September 1925, JCE reproduced pictures of famous chemists or chemistry-related works of art as frontispieces. Often, the Journal included a biography or other article about the picture. The August 1945 frontispiece featured the largest cork oak in the United States. An accompanying article described the goals of the Cork Project to plant cork trees in suitable locations in the U.S., to compensate for uncertain European and African sources during World War II. The final frontispiece appeared in December 1956. To view supplementary material, please refer to JCE Online's supplementary links.

  18. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The fault-tree compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  20. The effects of urban warming on herbivore abundance and street tree condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions.

  1. The effects of urban warming on herbivore abundance and street tree condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Dale

    Full Text Available Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions.

  2. New Explorations for Decision Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the decision tree method is defined and used for finding the optimal solution of a Bayesian decision problem. And it is difficult to use the decision tree method to find the sub-optimal solution, not to mention to rank alternatives. This paper discusses how to use the decision tree method for the alternative selecting and ranking.A practical case study is given to illustrate the applicability.

  3. Gene Tree Discordance Causes Apparent Substitution Rate Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    Substitution rates are known to be variable among genes, chromosomes, species, and lineages due to multifarious biological processes. Here, we consider another source of substitution rate variation due to a technical bias associated with gene tree discordance. Discordance has been found to be rampant in genome-wide data sets, often due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). This apparent substitution rate variation is caused when substitutions that occur on discordant gene trees are analyzed in the context of a single, fixed species tree. Such substitutions have to be resolved by proposing multiple substitutions on the species tree, and we therefore refer to this phenomenon as Substitutions Produced by ILS (SPILS). We use simulations to demonstrate that SPILS has a larger effect with increasing levels of ILS, and on trees with larger numbers of taxa. Specific branches of the species trees are consistently, but erroneously, inferred to be longer or shorter, and we show that these branches can be predicted based on discordant tree topologies. Moreover, we observe that fixing a species tree topology when performing tests of positive selection increases the false positive rate, particularly for genes whose discordant topologies are most affected by SPILS. Finally, we use data from multiple Drosophila species to show that SPILS can be detected in nature. Although the effects of SPILS are modest per gene, it has the potential to affect substitution rate variation whenever high levels of ILS are present, particularly in rapid radiations. The problems outlined here have implications for character mapping of any type of trait, and for any biological process that causes discordance. We discuss possible solutions to these problems, and areas in which they are likely to have caused faulty inferences of convergence and accelerated evolution.

  4. A Critical Review on the Use of Support Values in Tree Viewers and Bioinformatics Toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Lucas; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2017-03-22

    Phylogenetic trees are routinely visualized to present and interpret the evolutionary relationships of species. Most empirical evolutionary data studies contain a visualization of the inferred tree with branch support values. Ambiguous semantics in tree file formats can lead to erroneous tree visualizations and therefore to incorrect interpretations of phylogenetic analyses. Here, we discuss problems that arise when displaying branch values on trees after rerooting. Branch values are typically stored as node labels in the widely-used Newick tree format. However, such values are attributes of branches. Storing them as node labels can therefore yield errors when rerooting trees. This depends on the mostly implicit semantics that tools deploy to interpret node labels. We reviewed ten tree viewers and ten bioinformatics toolkits that can display and reroot trees. We found that 14 out of 20 of these tools do not permit users to select the semantics of node labels. Thus, unaware users might obtain incorrect results when rooting trees. We illustrate such incorrect mappings for several test cases and real examples taken from the literature. This review has already led to improvements in eight tools. We suggest tools should provide options that explicitly force users to define the semantics of node labels.

  5. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuesheng; ZOU Qingsong

    2005-01-01

    We construct a tree wavelet approximation by using a constructive greedy scheme(CGS). We define a function class which contains the functions whose piecewise polynomial approximations generated by the CGS have a prescribed global convergence rate and establish embedding properties of this class. We provide sufficient conditions on a tree index set and on bi-orthogonal wavelet bases which ensure optimal order of convergence for the wavelet approximations encoded on the tree index set using the bi-orthogonal wavelet bases. We then show that if we use the tree index set associated with the partition generated by the CGS to encode a wavelet approximation, it gives optimal order of convergence.

  6. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  7. The Hill and the Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕文

    2007-01-01

    Once there was a well-known hill here. There were many lush trees, beautiful flowers and green grasses on it. One day, the hill said to the trees proudly, “Look, how beautiful I am! But you look so ugly on my back. It must be better if I could drive you away.” One of the trees said, “You won't have beautiful and green clothing without us trees? If you leave us, you will die away.” The hill laughed and said again,”I feel very ashamed for I am staying with you together. Sooner or later I will drive you all...

  8. Tree felling: a necessary evil

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...

  9. A Section-based Method For Tree Species Classification Using Airborne LiDAR Discrete Points In Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunjing, Y. C.; Hui, T.; Zhongjie, R.; Guikai, B.

    2015-12-01

    As a new approach to forest inventory utilizing, LiDAR remote sensing has become an important research issue in the past. Lidar researches initially concentrate on the investigation for mapping forests at the tree level and identifying important structural parameters, such as tree height, crown size, crown base height, individual tree species, and stem volume etc. But for the virtual city visualization and mapping, the traditional methods of tree classification can't satisfy the more complex conditions. Recently, the advanced LiDAR technology has generated new full waveform scanners that provide a higher point density and additional information about the reflecting characteristics of trees. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that it is feasible to detect individual overstorey trees in forests and classify species. But the important issues like the calibration and the decomposition of full waveform data with a series of Gaussian functions usually take a lot of works. What's more, the detection and classification of vegetation results relay much on the prior outcomes. From all above, the section-based method for tree species classification using small footprint and high sampling density lidar data is proposed in this paper, which can overcome the tree species classification issues in urban areas. More specific objectives are to: (1)use local maximum height decision and four direction sections certification methods to get the precise locations of the trees;(2) develop new lidar-derived features processing techniques for characterizing the section structure of individual tree crowns;(3) investigate several techniques for filtering and analyzing vertical profiles of individual trees to classify the trees, and using the expert decision skills based on percentile analysis;(4) assess the accuracy of estimating tree species for each tree, and (5) investigate which type of lidar data, point frequency or intensity, provides the most accurate estimate of tree species

  10. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  11. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  12. Distributed Merge Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  13. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  14. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  15. Probability mapping of iron pan presence in sandy podzols in South-West France, using digital soil mapping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richer-de-Forges, Anne C.; Saby, Nicolas P.A.; Mulder, V.L.; Larochea, B.; Arrouaysa, B.; Arrouaysa, D.

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated two different digital soil mapping methods for mapping the presence of iron pans in South-West France. The presence of iron pans limit rooting depth, thereby affecting available water content for plants and increasing vulnerability of trees to storms. In some cases, it may also

  16. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  17. Visualization of mappings between the gene ontology and cluster trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufi, Ilir; Kerren, Andreas; Aleksakhin, Vladyslav; Schreiber, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Ontologies and hierarchical clustering are both important tools in biology and medicine to study high-throughput data such as transcriptomics and metabolomics data. Enrichment of ontology terms in the data is used to identify statistically overrepresented ontology terms, giving insight into relevant biological processes or functional modules. Hierarchical clustering is a standard method to analyze and visualize data to find relatively homogeneous clusters of experimental data points. Both methods support the analysis of the same data set, but are usually considered independently. However, often a combined view is desired: visualizing a large data set in the context of an ontology under consideration of a clustering of the data. This paper proposes a new visualization method for this task.

  18. Trees, maps, and theorems effective communication for rational minds

    CERN Document Server

    Doumont, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    The book comprises five parts: first, fundamentals, then the written documents, oral presentations, and graphical displays, and finally the application of these ideas to more specific types of document.

  19. Sussing Merger Trees: A proposed Merger Tree data format

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Peter A; Tweed, Dylan; Benson, Andrew J; Croton, Darren; Elahi, Pascal; Henriques, Bruno; Iliev, Ilian T; Knebe, Alexander; Lux, Hanni; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Neyrinck, Mark; Pearce, Frazer R; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Schneider, Aurel; Srisawat, Chaichalit

    2015-01-01

    We propose a common terminology for use in describing both temporal merger trees and spatial structure trees for dark-matter halos. We specify a unified data format in HDF5 and provide example I/O routines in C, FORTRAN and PYTHON.

  20. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  1. Tree Decomposition based Steiner Tree Computation over Large Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact algorithm for the Steiner tree problem. The algorithm is based on certain pre-computed index structures. Our algorithm offers a practical solution for the Steiner tree problems on graphs of large size and bounded number of terminals.

  2. Alaska LandCarbon wetland distribution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Pastick, Neal J.

    2017-01-01

    This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program were re-classed into bog, fen, and other. NWI mapping of wetlands was only done for a portion of the area so a decision tree mapping algorithm was then developed to estimate bog, fen, and other across the state of Alaska using remote sensing and GIS spatial data sets as inputs. This data was used and presented in two chapters on the USGS Alaska LandCarbon Report.

  3. Mapping VADEMECUM

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The work plan for the implementation of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution under the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) includes the production of maps of critical loads, critical levels, and exceedances as a basis for developing potential abatement strategies for sulphur and nitrogen. This Vademecum is designed to provide guidance to those responsible for calculating and mapping critical loads, critical levels, and exceedances on a national or regional scale. Th...

  4. Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; French, Sue (Sue C.); Johnson-Asnicar, Brenda; Relf, Diane; Day, Susan D.; Nunnally, Richard, 1947-; Vest, John

    2009-01-01

    Trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines. This publication covers conflict resolution options and tree selection and planting when dealing with landscaping around power lines.

  5. i-Tree: Tools to assess and manage structure, function, and value of community forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, S.; Nowak, D.; Endreny, T. A.; Kroll, C.; Maco, S.

    2011-12-01

    Trees in urban communities can mitigate many adverse effects associated with anthropogenic activities and climate change (e.g. urban heat island, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and floods). To protect environmental and human health, managers need to make informed decisions regarding urban forest management practices. Here we present the i-Tree suite of software tools (www.itreetools.org) developed by the USDA Forest Service and their cooperators. This software suite can help urban forest managers assess and manage the structure, function, and value of urban tree populations regardless of community size or technical capacity. i-Tree is a state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed Windows GUI- or Web-based software that is freely available, supported, and continuously refined by the USDA Forest Service and their cooperators. Two major features of i-Tree are 1) to analyze current canopy structures and identify potential planting spots, and 2) to estimate the environmental benefits provided by the trees, such as carbon storage and sequestration, energy conservation, air pollution removal, and storm water reduction. To cover diverse forest topologies, various tools were developed within the i-Tree suite: i-Tree Design for points (individual trees), i-Tree Streets for lines (street trees), and i-Tree Eco, Vue, and Canopy (in the order of complexity) for areas (community trees). Once the forest structure is identified with these tools, ecosystem services provided by trees can be estimated with common models and protocols, and reports in the form of texts, charts, and figures are then created for users. Since i-Tree was developed with a client/server architecture, nationwide data in the US such as location-related parameters, weather, streamflow, and air pollution data are stored in the server and retrieved to a user's computer at run-time. Freely available remote-sensed images (e.g. NLCD and Google maps) are also employed to estimate tree canopy characteristics. As the demand for i-Tree

  6. Predicting tree heights for biomass estimates in tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Molto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of REDD+ mechanisms require reliable estimation of carbon stocks, especially in tropical forests that are particularly threatened by global changes. Even if tree height is a crucial variable to compute the above-ground forest biomass, tree heights are rarely measured in large-scale forest census because it requires consequent extra-effort. Tree height have thus to be predicted thanks to height models. Height and diameter of all trees above 10 cm of diameter were measured in thirty-three half-ha plots and nine one-ha plots throughout the northern French Guiana, an area with substantial climate and environmental gradients. We compared four different model shapes and found that the Michaelis–Menten shape was the most appropriate for the tree biomass prediction. Model parameters values were significantly different from one forest plot to another and neglecting these differences would lead to large errors in biomass estimates. Variables from the forest stand structure explained a sufficient part of the plot-to-plot variations of the height model parameters to affect the AGB predictions. In the forest stands dominated by small trees, the trees were found to have rapid height growth for small diameters. In forest stands dominated by larger trees, the trees were found to have the greatest heights for large diameters. The above-ground biomass estimation uncertainty of the forest plots was reduced by the use of the forest structure-based height model. It demonstrates the feasibility and the importance of height modeling in tropical forest for carbon mapping. Tree height is definitely an important variable for AGB estimations. When the tree heights are not measured in an inventory, they can be predicted with a height-diameter model. This model can account for plot-to plot variations in height-diameter relationship thank to variables describing the plots. The variables describing the stand structure of the plots are efficient for

  7. Refinement of Hyperspectral Image Classification with Segment-Tree Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method of segment-tree filtering to improve the classification accuracy of hyperspectral image (HSI. Segment-tree filtering is a versatile method that incorporates spatial information and has been widely applied in image preprocessing. However, to use this powerful framework in hyperspectral image classification, we must reduce the original feature dimensionality to avoid the Hughes problem; otherwise, the computational costs are high and the classification accuracy by original bands in the HSI is unsatisfactory. Therefore, feature extraction is adopted to produce new salient features. In this paper, the Semi-supervised Local Fisher (SELF method of discriminant analysis is used to reduce HSI dimensionality. Then, a tree-structure filter that adaptively incorporates contextual information is constructed. Additionally, an initial classification map is generated using multi-class support vector machines (SVMs, and segment-tree filtering is conducted using this map. Finally, a simple Winner-Take-All (WTA rule is applied to determine the class of each pixel in an HSI based on the maximum probability. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve HSI classification accuracy significantly. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed method and the current state-of-the-art methods, such as Extended Morphological Profiles (EMPs, Guided Filtering (GF, and Markov Random Fields (MRFs, suggests that our method is both competitive and robust.

  8. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  9. Temperature and tree growth [editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Tree growth helps US forests take up 12% of the fossil fuels emitted in the USA (Woodbury et al. 2007), so predicting tree growth for future climates matters. Predicting future climates themselves is uncertain, but climate scientists probably have the most confidence in predictions for temperature. Temperatures are projected to rise by 0.2 °C in the next two decades,...

  10. The Harary index of trees

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'; Feng, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The Harary index of a graph $G$ is recently introduced topological index, defined on the reverse distance matrix as $H(G)=\\sum_{u,v \\in V(G)}\\frac{1}{d(u,v)}$, where $d(u,v)$ is the length of the shortest path between two distinct vertices $u$ and $v$. We present the partial ordering of starlike trees based on the Harary index and we describe the trees with the second maximal and the second minimal Harary index. In this paper, we investigate the Harary index of trees with $k$ pendent vertices and determine the extremal trees with maximal Harary index. We also characterize the extremal trees with maximal Harary index with respect to the number of vertices of degree two, matching number, independence number, domination number, radius and diameter. In addition, we characterize the extremal trees with minimal Harary index and given maximum degree. We concluded that in all presented classes, the trees with maximal Harary index are exactly those trees with the minimal Wiener index, and vice versa.

  11. The Tree of Industrial Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring forth an interaction between evolutionary economics and industrial systematics. The suggested solution is to reconstruct the "family tree" of the industries. Such a tree is based on similarities, but it may also reflect the evolutionary history in industries ...

  12. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  13. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  14. Random Projection Trees Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dhesi, Aman

    2010-01-01

    The Random Projection Tree structures proposed in [Freund-Dasgupta STOC08] are space partitioning data structures that automatically adapt to various notions of intrinsic dimensionality of data. We prove new results for both the RPTreeMax and the RPTreeMean data structures. Our result for RPTreeMax gives a near-optimal bound on the number of levels required by this data structure to reduce the size of its cells by a factor $s \\geq 2$. We also prove a packing lemma for this data structure. Our final result shows that low-dimensional manifolds have bounded Local Covariance Dimension. As a consequence we show that RPTreeMean adapts to manifold dimension as well.

  15. Tree Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, R; Rivasseau, V

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new formalism for quantum field theory which is neither based on functional integrals, nor on Feynman graphs, but on marked trees. This formalism is constructive, i.e. it computes correlation functions through convergent rather than divergent expansions. It applies both to Fermionic and Bosonic theories. It is compatible with the renormalization group, and it allows to define non-perturbatively {\\it differential} renormalization group equations. It accommodates any general stable polynomial Lagrangian. It can equally well treat noncommutative models or matrix models such as the Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. Perhaps most importantly it removes the space-time background from its central place in QFT, paving the way for a nonperturbative definition of field theory in noninteger dimension.

  16. Rubbery Polya Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Barajas, Luis E; Müller, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Polya trees (PT) are random probability measures which can assign probability 1 to the set of continuous distributions for certain specifications of the hyperparameters. This feature distinguishes the PT from the popular Dirichlet process (DP) model which assigns probability 1 to the set of discrete distributions. However, the PT is not nearly as widely used as the DP prior. Probably the main reason is an awkward dependence of posterior inference on the choice of the partitioning subsets in the definition of the PT. We propose a generalization of the PT prior that mitigates this undesirable dependence on the partition structure, by allowing the branching probabilities to be dependent within the same level. The proposed new process is not a PT anymore. However, it is still a tail-free process and many of the prior properties remain the same as those for the PT.

  17. Fires on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We consider random dynamics on the edges of a uniform Cayley tree with $n$ vertices, in which edges are either inflammable, fireproof, or burt. Every inflammable edge is replaced by a fireproof edge at unit rate, while fires start at smaller rate $n^{-\\alpha}$ on each inflammable edge, then propagate through the neighboring inflammable edges and are only stopped at fireproof edges. A vertex is called fireproof when all its adjacent edges are fireproof. We show that as $n\\to \\infty$, the density of fireproof vertices converges to 1 when $\\alpha>1/2$, to 0 when $\\alpha<1/2$, and to some non-degenerate random variable when $\\alpha=1/2$. We further study the connectivity of the fireproof forest, in particular the existence of a giant component.

  18. Spatial Distribution and Site-Specific Spraying of Main Sucking Pests of Elm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, R; Iranipour, S

    2016-11-09

    Elm trees are important landscape trees and sucking insects weaken the elm trees and produce large amounts of honeydew. The main objectives of this study were to identify main honeydew-producing pests of elm trees and do site-specific spraying against these pests. To map the spatial distribution of the sucking pests in the large scale, the study area was divided into 40 × 40 m grids and one tree was chosen randomly from each grid (a total of 55 trees). These trees were sampled twice a year in 2011 and 2012. Each sample was a 30-cm branch terminal. Eight samples were taken from each tree in four cardinal directions and two canopy levels. The number of sucking insects and leaves of each sample were counted and recorded. Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using geostatistics. Kriging was used for producing prediction maps. Insecticide application was restricted to the regions with populations higher than threshold. To identify within-tree distribution of the honeydew-producing pests, six and four elm trees were chosen in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and sampled weekly. These trees were sampled as described previously. European elm scale (EES), Gossyparia spuria (Modeer) and two species of aphids were the dominant honeydew-producing pests. The results revealed that the effects of direction, canopy level and their interactions on insect populations were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Site-specific spraying decreased the amount of insecticides used by ca. 20%, while satisfactory control of the sucking pests and honeydew excretion was obtained. Considering the environmental and economic benefits of site-specific spraying, it is worth doing more complementary works in this area.

  19. TREE DECOMPOSITIONS OF MULTIGRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Minyong

    1999-01-01

    For a graph G, ifE(G) can be partitioned into several pairwise disjointsets as { E1, E2,……,El} such thatthe subgraph induced by Ei is a tree of orderki, (i=1,2, ……, l), then G is said to have a {k1,k2,……, kl}-tree-decomposition, denoted by {k1,k2,……, kl}∈G.For k≥1 and l≥0, a collection(G)(k,l) is the setof multigraphs such that G∈(G)(k,l) if and only if ε(G) = k(|G|-1)-l and ε(H)≤max{(k-1)(|H|-1), k(|H|-1)-l} for any subgraph H of G.We prove that (1) If k≥2, 0≤l≤3 and G∈(G)(k,l) of order n≥l+1, then {n,n,……, n-l}∈ G. (2) If k≥2 and G∈(G)(k,2) oforder n≥3, then {n,n,……, n,n-2}∈G and {n,n,……, n,n-1,n-1}∈G. (3) If k3 and G∈(G)(k,3) oforder n≥4, then {n,n,……, n,n-3}∈G ,{ n,n,……, n,n-1,n-2}∈ G and {n,n, ……, n,n-1,n-1,n-1}∈G.

  20. Automated identification and geometrical features extraction of individual trees from Mobile Laser Scanning data in Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs; Folly-Ritvay, Zoltán; Skobrák, Ferenc; Koenig, Kristina; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) is an evolving operational measurement technique for urban environment providing large amounts of high resolution information about trees, street features, pole-like objects on the street sides or near to motorways. In this study we investigate a robust segmentation method to extract the individual trees automatically in order to build an object-based tree database system. We focused on the large urban parks in Budapest (Margitsziget and Városliget; KARESZ project) which contained large diversity of different kind of tree species. The MLS data contained high density point cloud data with 1-8 cm mean absolute accuracy 80-100 meter distance from streets. The robust segmentation method contained following steps: The ground points are determined first. As a second step cylinders are fitted in vertical slice 1-1.5 meter relative height above ground, which is used to determine the potential location of each single trees trunk and cylinder-like object. Finally, residual values are calculated as deviation of each point from a vertically expanded fitted cylinder; these residual values are used to separate cylinder-like object from individual trees. After successful parameterization, the model parameters and the corresponding residual values of the fitted object are extracted and imported into the tree database. Additionally, geometric features are calculated for each segmented individual tree like crown base, crown width, crown length, diameter of trunk, volume of the individual trees. In case of incompletely scanned trees, the extraction of geometric features is based on fitted circles. The result of the study is a tree database containing detailed information about urban trees, which can be a valuable dataset for ecologist, city planners, planting and mapping purposes. Furthermore, the established database will be the initial point for classification trees into single species. MLS data used in this project had been measured in the framework of

  1. Tree species, tree genotypes and tree genotypic diversity levels affect microbe-mediated soil ecosystem functions in a subtropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Purahong, Witoon; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Dommert, Sven; Schöps, Ricardo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Tree species identity and tree genotypes contribute to the shaping of soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about how these two factors influence soil ecosystem functions is still lacking. Furthermore, in forest ecosystems tree genotypes co-occur and interact with each other, thus the effects of tree genotypic diversity on soil ecosystem functions merit attention. Here we investigated the effects of tree species, tree genotypes and genotypic diversity levels, alongside soil physicoch...

  2. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  3. Tree Coding of Bilevel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Presently, sequential tree coders are the best general purpose bilevel image coders and the best coders of halftoned images. The current ISO standard, Joint Bilevel Image Experts Group (JBIG), is a good example. A sequential tree coder encodes the data by feeding estimates of conditional...... probabilities to an arithmetic coder. The conditional probabilities are estimated from co-occurrence statistics of past pixels, the statistics are stored in a tree. By organizing the code length calculations properly, a vast number of possible models (trees) reflecting different pixel orderings can...... is one order of magnitude slower than JBIG, obtains excellent and highly robust compression performance. A multipass free tree coding scheme produces superior compression results for all test images. A multipass free template coding scheme produces significantly better results than JBIG for difficult...

  4. Quantum Computation and Decision Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Farhi, Edward; Gutmann, Sam

    1998-01-01

    Many interesting computational problems can be reformulated in terms of decision trees. A natural classical algorithm is to then run a random walk on the tree, starting at the root, to see if the tree contains a node n levels from the root. We devise a quantum mechanical algorithm that evolves a state, initially localized at the root, through the tree. We prove that if the classical strategy succeeds in reaching level n in time polynomial in n, then so does the quantum algorithm. Moreover, we find examples of trees for which the classical algorithm requires time exponential in n, but for which the quantum algorithm succeeds in polynomial time. The examples we have so far, however, could also be solved in polynomial time by different classical algorithms.

  5. High-resolution gravity and seismic-refraction surveys of the Smoke Tree Wash area, Joshua Tree National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Watt, Janet T.; Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2016-03-02

    We describe high-resolution gravity and seismic refraction surveys acquired to determine the thickness of valley-fill deposits and to delineate geologic structures that might influence groundwater flow beneath the Smoke Tree Wash area in Joshua Tree National Park. These surveys identified a sedimentary basin that is fault-controlled. A profile across the Smoke Tree Wash fault zone reveals low gravity values and seismic velocities that coincide with a mapped strand of the Smoke Tree Wash fault. Modeling of the gravity data reveals a basin about 2–2.5 km long and 1 km wide that is roughly centered on this mapped strand, and bounded by inferred faults. According to the gravity model the deepest part of the basin is about 270 m, but this area coincides with low velocities that are not characteristic of typical basement complex rocks. Most likely, the density contrast assumed in the inversion is too high or the uncharacteristically low velocities represent highly fractured or weathered basement rocks, or both. A longer seismic profile extending onto basement outcrops would help differentiate which scenario is more accurate. The seismic velocities also determine the depth to water table along the profile to be about 40–60 m, consistent with water levels measured in water wells near the northern end of the profile.

  6. Mapping Deeply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Wood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, water, electricity into the stuff of individual lives (sidewalk graffiti, wind chimes, barking dogs, and vice versa. Maps in the central transformer section of the atlas were to have charted this process in action, as in one showing the route of an individual newspaper into the neighborhood, then through the neighborhood to a home, and finally, as trash, out of the neighborhood in a garbage truck; though few of these had been completed when the project concluded in 1986. Resurrected in 1998 in an episode on Ira Glass’ This American Life, the atlas was finally published, as Everything Sings: Maps for a Narrative Atlas, in 2010 (and an expanded edition in 2013.

  7. Response of the regression tree model to high resolution remote sensing data for predicting percent tree cover in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Cenk; Berberoglu, Suha; Erdogan, Mehmet Akif; Tanriover, Anil Akin; Cilek, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Percent tree cover is the percentage of the ground surface area covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the plants. It is an important indicator to reveal the condition of forest systems and has a significant importance for ecosystem models as a main input. The aim of this study is to estimate the percent tree cover of various forest stands in a Mediterranean environment based on an empirical relationship between tree coverage and remotely sensed data in Goksu Watershed located at the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A regression tree algorithm was used to simulate spatial fractions of Pinus nigra, Cedrus libani, Pinus brutia, Juniperus excelsa and Quercus cerris using multi-temporal LANDSAT TM/ETM data as predictor variables and land cover information. Two scenes of high resolution GeoEye-1 images were employed for training and testing the model. The predictor variables were incorporated in addition to biophysical variables estimated from the LANDSAT TM/ETM data. Additionally, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) was incorporated to LANDSAT TM/ETM band settings as a biophysical variable. Stepwise linear regression (SLR) was applied for selecting the relevant bands to employ in regression tree process. SLR-selected variables produced accurate results in the model with a high correlation coefficient of 0.80. The output values ranged from 0 to 100 %. The different tree species were mapped in 30 m resolution in respect to elevation. Percent tree cover map as a final output was derived using LANDSAT TM/ETM image over Goksu Watershed and the biophysical variables. The results were tested using high spatial resolution GeoEye-1 images. Thus, the combination of the RT algorithm and higher resolution data for percent tree cover mapping were tested and examined in a complex Mediterranean environment.

  8. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  9. Tree mortality predicted from drought-induced vascular damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R. L.; Flint, Alan L.; Huang, Cho-ying; Flint, Lorraine E.; Berry, Joseph A.; Davis, Frank W.; Sperry, John S.; Field, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    The projected responses of forest ecosystems to warming and drying associated with twenty-first-century climate change vary widely from resiliency to widespread tree mortality1, 2, 3. Current vegetation models lack the ability to account for mortality of overstorey trees during extreme drought owing to uncertainties in mechanisms and thresholds causing mortality4, 5. Here we assess the causes of tree mortality, using field measurements of branch hydraulic conductivity during ongoing mortality in Populus tremuloides in the southwestern United States and a detailed plant hydraulics model. We identify a lethal plant water stress threshold that corresponds with a loss of vascular transport capacity from air entry into the xylem. We then use this hydraulic-based threshold to simulate forest dieback during historical drought, and compare predictions against three independent mortality data sets. The hydraulic threshold predicted with 75% accuracy regional patterns of tree mortality as found in field plots and mortality maps derived from Landsat imagery. In a high-emissions scenario, climate models project that drought stress will exceed the observed mortality threshold in the southwestern United States by the 2050s. Our approach provides a powerful and tractable way of incorporating tree mortality into vegetation models to resolve uncertainty over the fate of forest ecosystems in a changing climate.

  10. Automated construction of arterial and venous trees in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Abràmoff, Michael D; Garvin, Mona K

    2015-10-01

    While many approaches exist to segment retinal vessels in fundus photographs, only a limited number focus on the construction and disambiguation of arterial and venous trees. Previous approaches are local and/or greedy in nature, making them susceptible to errors or limiting their applicability to large vessels. We propose a more global framework to generate arteriovenous trees in retinal images, given a vessel segmentation. In particular, our approach consists of three stages. The first stage is to generate an overconnected vessel network, named the vessel potential connectivity map (VPCM), consisting of vessel segments and the potential connectivity between them. The second stage is to disambiguate the VPCM into multiple anatomical trees, using a graph-based metaheuristic algorithm. The third stage is to classify these trees into arterial or venous (A/V) trees. We evaluated our approach with a ground truth built based on a public database, showing a pixel-wise classification accuracy of 88.15% using a manual vessel segmentation as input, and 86.11% using an automatic vessel segmentation as input.

  11. Testing for the Influence of Light Availability on Tree-Ring Reconstructed Temperature at Sonora Pass, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Stine, A.

    2015-12-01

    Tree-ring width and density near treeline tend to covary with local interannual temperature, motivating the use of such records to reconstruct past temperature variability. However, recent work has introduced the possibility of multiple environmental factors contributing to tree growth in cold environments. We investigate the influence of small-scale light variability on tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from a treeline ecotone. We establish an experimental plot near Sonora Pass in the California Sierra Nevada (38.32N, 119.64W; elev. 3130 m). This treeline environment is dominated by whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) growing as individuals and in stands, providing an opportunity to test the sensitivity of mean growth rate and interannual variability to light availability. For each tree we quantify the local light environment using three approaches: (i.) geometrical estimates of shading from neighboring trees, (ii.) photographic estimates of shading from neighboring trees, and (iii.) geometric estimates of direct light availability resulting from aspect and local topography. Geometrical estimates of shading are made by mapping the relative position and crown dimensions of each tree in the plot in order to calculate a shading index that will be used to test hypotheses about the influence of shading on tree growth. Photographic estimates of tree-level shading are created by taking hemispheric photographs at the crown edge of each tree and calculating the effects of neighboring trees on direct and diffuse light availability using the Gap Light Analyzer software. To quantify tree growth, increment cores are collected from all trees in the plot to develop sub-chronologies of ring records grouped by different light environments. We hypothesize that trees growing in open areas or at edge of stands, which experience little inter-tree competition, would likely produce ring records more closely correlated with the temperature record; whereas trees growing in middle

  12. Urban Tree Classification Using Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Zs.; Koenig, K.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    Vegetation mapping in urban environments plays an important role in biological research and urban management. Airborne laser scanning provides detailed 3D geodata, which allows to classify single trees into different taxa. Until now, research dealing with tree classification focused on forest environments. This study investigates the object-based classification of urban trees at taxonomic family level, using full-waveform airborne laser scanning data captured in the city centre of Vienna (Austria). The data set is characterised by a variety of taxa, including deciduous trees (beeches, mallows, plane trees and soapberries) and the coniferous pine species. A workflow for tree object classification is presented using geometric and radiometric features. The derived features are related to point density, crown shape and radiometric characteristics. For the derivation of crown features, a prior detection of the crown base is performed. The effects of interfering objects (e.g. fences and cars which are typical in urban areas) on the feature characteristics and the subsequent classification accuracy are investigated. The applicability of the features is evaluated by Random Forest classification and exploratory analysis. The most reliable classification is achieved by using the combination of geometric and radiometric features, resulting in 87.5% overall accuracy. By using radiometric features only, a reliable classification with accuracy of 86.3% can be achieved. The influence of interfering objects on feature characteristics is identified, in particular for the radiometric features. The results indicate the potential of using radiometric features in urban tree classification and show its limitations due to anthropogenic influences at the same time.

  13. URBAN TREE CLASSIFICATION USING FULL-WAVEFORM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zs. Koma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation mapping in urban environments plays an important role in biological research and urban management. Airborne laser scanning provides detailed 3D geodata, which allows to classify single trees into different taxa. Until now, research dealing with tree classification focused on forest environments. This study investigates the object-based classification of urban trees at taxonomic family level, using full-waveform airborne laser scanning data captured in the city centre of Vienna (Austria. The data set is characterised by a variety of taxa, including deciduous trees (beeches, mallows, plane trees and soapberries and the coniferous pine species. A workflow for tree object classification is presented using geometric and radiometric features. The derived features are related to point density, crown shape and radiometric characteristics. For the derivation of crown features, a prior detection of the crown base is performed. The effects of interfering objects (e.g. fences and cars which are typical in urban areas on the feature characteristics and the subsequent classification accuracy are investigated. The applicability of the features is evaluated by Random Forest classification and exploratory analysis. The most reliable classification is achieved by using the combination of geometric and radiometric features, resulting in 87.5% overall accuracy. By using radiometric features only, a reliable classification with accuracy of 86.3% can be achieved. The influence of interfering objects on feature characteristics is identified, in particular for the radiometric features. The results indicate the potential of using radiometric features in urban tree classification and show its limitations due to anthropogenic influences at the same time.

  14. Generation of a Saturated Genetic Recombination Map for Avocado (Persea americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two large mapping populations of avocado consisting of 1582 trees were genotyped with 5050 SNP markers from transcribed genes using an Illumina Infinium SNP chip. A Florida mapping population consisted of 527 progeny from 'Tonnage' x 'Simmonds' and 249 from 'Simmonds' x 'Tonnage'. A California map...

  15. Ecological importance of large-diameter trees in a temperate mixed-conifer forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Swanson, Mark E; Freund, James A

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m(2). We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by a few large trees as opposed to many smaller trees.

  16. Investigation of Tree Spectral Reflectance Characteristics Using a Mobile Terrestrial Line Spectrometer and Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eetu Puttonen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile terrestrial hyperspectral imaging, individual trees often present large variations in spectral reflectance that may impact the relevant applications, but the related studies have been seldom reported. To fill this gap, this study was dedicated to investigating the spectral reflectance characteristics of individual trees with a Sensei mobile mapping system, which comprises a Specim line spectrometer and an Ibeo Lux laser scanner. The addition of the latter unit facilitates recording the structural characteristics of the target trees synchronously, and this is beneficial for revealing the characteristics of the spatial distributions of tree spectral reflectance with variations at different levels. Then, the parts of trees with relatively low-level variations can be extracted. At the same time, since it is difficult to manipulate the whole spectrum, the traditional concept of vegetation indices (VI based on some particular spectral bands was taken into account here. Whether the assumed VIs capable of behaving consistently for the whole crown of each tree was also checked. The specific analyses were deployed based on four deciduous tree species and six kinds of VIs. The test showed that with the help of the laser scanner data, the parts of individual trees with relatively low-level variations can be located. Based on these parts, the relatively stable spectral reflectance characteristics for different tree species can be learnt.

  17. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  18. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  19. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R. Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luis E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard C, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jorcely G.; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene G. A.; Camargo, José L. C.; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry L.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Ferreira, Leandro; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Gloor, Emanuel; Herault, Bruno; Herrera, Rafael; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Laurance, Susan; Lloyd, Jon; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben H.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morandi, Paulo; Neill, David A.; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Oliveira, Edmar A.; Lenza, Eddie; Palacios, Walter A.; Peñuela-Mora, Maria C.; Pipoly, John J.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Salomão, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; ter Steege, Hans; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; van der Hout, Peter; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; van der Meer, Peter J.; Vasquez, Rodolfo V.; Vieira, Simone A.; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Zagt, Roderick J.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change. PMID:27974517

  20. An Assessment of Differences in Tree Cover Measurements between Landsat and Lidar-derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Song, X. P.; Armston, J.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Zhao, F. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Huang, C.; Hansen, M.; Goetz, S. J.; Dubayah, R.

    2016-12-01

    Tree cover is one of the most important canopy structural variables describe interactions between atmosphere and biosphere, and is also linked to the function and quality of ecosystem services. Large-area tree cover measurements are traditionally based on multispectral satellite imagery, and there are several global products available at high to medium spatial resolution (30m-1km). Recent developments in lidar remote sensing, including the upcoming Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) lidar, offers an alternative means to map tree cover over broad geographical extents. However, differences in the definition of tree cover and the retrieval method can result in large discrepancies between products derived from multispectral imagery and lidar data, and can potentially impact their further use in ecosystem modelling and above-ground biomass mapping. To separate the effects of cover definition and retrieval method, we first conducted a meta-analysis of several tree cover data sets across different biogeographic regions using three publicly available Landsat-based tree cover products (GLCF, NLCD and GLAD), and two waveform and discrete return airborne lidar products. We found that, whereas Landsat products had low-moderate agreements (up to 40% mean difference) on tree cover estimates particularly at the high end (e.g. >80%), airborne lidar can provide more accurate and consistent measurements (mean difference definitions of tree cover (e.g. crown cover vs. fractional cover). We further recommended the use of lidar data as a complement or alternative to ultra-fine resolution images in training/validating Landsat-class images for large-area tree cover mapping.

  1. Some Results on Metric Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven

    2010-01-01

    Using isometric embedding of metric trees into Banach spaces, this paper will investigate barycenters, type and cotype, and various measures of compactness of metric trees. A metric tree ($T$, $d$) is a metric space such that between any two of its points there is an unique arc that is isometric to an interval in $\\mathbb{R}$. We begin our investigation by examining isometric embeddings of metric trees into Banach spaces. We then investigate the possible images $x_0=\\pi ((x_1+\\ldots+x_n)/n)$, where $\\pi$ is a contractive retraction from the ambient Banach space $X$ onto $T$ (such a $\\pi$ always exists) in order to understand the "metric" barycenter of a family of points $ x_1, \\ldots,x_n$ in a tree $T$. Further, we consider the metric properties of trees such as their type and cotype. We identify various measures of compactness of metric trees (their covering numbers, $\\epsilon$-entropy and Kolmogorov widths) and the connections between them. Additionally, we prove that the limit of the sequence of Kolmogorov...

  2. What Good Is a Tree?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lowell; Ponte; 史书碧

    1998-01-01

    文章开头说:Trees are so common and quiet that we pay them little mind. 其实,初见此标题——What Good Is a Tree?笔者也pay this essay little mind。这个题目还能够讲出多少新意来呢?不料,细读之后,竟不忍释手! Trees sustain our lives and our planet in a thousand practical ways. Trees do more than make life pleasant;they make life possible. 这是文章的两句主题句。读罢全文,认真一想,便觉这决非耸人听闻之言:无言的树,“挪死”的树,支撑着我们这个星球,庇护着天下的生灵!诸如: …they draw carbon dioxide from the air…and oxygen iS released. Without tree our entire world would be a much drier place. For centuries,the Chinese have derived medicines form the ginkgo tree. 让读者双眼一亮的是,文章提供了许多你我都不曾想到的有关树的信息: a.树木能彼此互通信息: …trees send unseen signals to each other.When willows are attacked bywebworms and tent caterpillars,they give off a chemical that alerts nearby trees.Theneighboring trees respond by pumping more tannin into their leaves,making them moredifficult for the insects tO digest。 更让人?

  3. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  4. Multiple-purpose trees for pastoral farming in New Zealand: with emphasis on tree legumes. [Lucerne Tree: Medick Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.J.G.; Macfarlane, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for soil conservation and agroforestry of several native and exotic legumes is discussed. Flowering period, chemical composition of leaves/pods, hardiness to frost and drought, timber value, forage potential for livestock and bees, ornamental value and other products are tabulated with information on up to 38 species. Two low-growing species that have proved useful for slope stabilization as well as forage are tree lucerne (Cytisus palmensis) and tree medick (Medicago arborea), the latter being shrubby and more suitable for cold districts. Gleditsia triacanthos is recommended as a shade and fodder tree for farm pasture.

  5. Memory effect in growing trees

    OpenAIRE

    Malarz, K.; Kulakowski, K.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the structure of a growing tree preserves an information on the shape of an initial graph. For the exponential trees, evidence of this kind of memory is provided by means of the iterative equations, derived for the moments of the node-node distance distribution. Numerical calculations confirm the result and allow to extend the conclusion to the Barabasi--Albert scale-free trees. The memory effect almost disappears, if subsequent nodes are connected to the network with more than o...

  6. Trees Are Useful to Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2005-01-01

    Trees are useful to man in three impor-tant ways. They provide him with wood and other products;they give him shade;they help prevent drought(干旱)and floods. Unfortunately,in many parts of the world, man has not realized that the third one is the most important. Two thousand years ago a rich and pow-erful country cut down its trees to build war-ships, with which to gain itself an empire. It gained the empire,however,without its trees, its soil became hard and poor. When the em-pire fell to pieces, the home c...

  7. Remote sensing survey of Chinese tallow tree in the Toledo Bend Reservoir area, Louisiana and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    We applied Hyperion sensor satellite data acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite in conjunction with reconnaissance surveys to map the occurrences of the invasive Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in the Toledo Bend Reservoir study area of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas. The rationale for application of high spectral resolution EO-1 Hyperion data was based on the successful use of Hyperion data in the mapping of Chinese tallow tree in southwestern Louisiana in 2005. In contrast to the single Hyperion image used in the 2005 project, more than 20 EO-1 Hyperion and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) images of the study area were collected in 2009 and 2010 during the fall senescence when Chinese tallow tree leaves turn red. Atmospherically corrected reflectance spectra of Hyperion imagery collected at ground and aerial observation locations provided the input datasets used in the program for spectral discrimination analysis. Discrimination analysis was used to identify spectral indicator sets to best explain variance contained in the input databases. The expectation was that at least one set of Hyperion-based indicator spectra would uniquely identify occurrences of red-leaf Chinese tallow tree; however, no combination of Hyperion-based reflectance datasets produced a unique identifier. The inability to discover a unique spectral indicator resulted primarily from relatively sparse coverage by red-leaf Chinese tallow tree within the study area (percentage of coverage was less than 5 percent per 30- by 30-meter Hyperion pixel). To enhance the performance of the spectral discrimination analysis, leaf and canopy spectra of Chinese tallow tree were added to the input datasets to guide the indicator selection. In addition, input databases were segregated by land class obtained from an ALI-based landcover classification in order to reduce the input variance and to promote spectral discrimination of red

  8. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometime...

  9. Mole Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  10. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia...

  11. Tree for all reasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, T.

    1980-04-01

    For centuries Chinese peasants have planted paulownia trees, not only for their beauty but also for their fast-growing characteristics - an amazing average of 0.37 cubic meters of timber per year. The leaves, flowers, fruits and bark can be used as medicines and, because of their high nitrogen content the leaves are used as fodder. But above all, paulownias are increasingly being used by Chinese peasants to boost grain output. In Lanka county, Henan province, for example, grain output has increased to an average of 5.25 tons per hectare from less than 0.75 tons in 1963 when paulownia interplanting as a system was introduced. They help crops to withstand sandstorms, droughts and frosts, they increase air humidity and reduce evaporation of moisture in the fields. They do not compete with crops for fertilizer and water since about 80% of their absorbing roots reach a depth of 40-100 cm, while most cereals roots are less than 40 cm.

  12. Detection and Segmentation of Small Trees in the Forest-Tundra Ecotone Using Airborne Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Hauglin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to expected climate change and increased focus on forests as a potential carbon sink, it is of interest to map and monitor even marginal forests where trees exist close to their tolerance limits, such as small pioneer trees in the forest-tundra ecotone. Such small trees might indicate tree line migrations and expansion of the forests into treeless areas. Airborne laser scanning (ALS has been suggested and tested as a tool for this purpose and in the present study a novel procedure for identification and segmentation of small trees is proposed. The study was carried out in the Rollag municipality in southeastern Norway, where ALS data and field measurements of individual trees were acquired. The point density of the ALS data was eight points per m2, and the field tree heights ranged from 0.04 to 6.3 m, with a mean of 1.4 m. The proposed method is based on an allometric model relating field-measured tree height to crown diameter, and another model relating field-measured tree height to ALS-derived height. These models are calibrated with local field data. Using these simple models, every positive above-ground height derived from the ALS data can be related to a crown diameter, and by assuming a circular crown shape, this crown diameter can be extended to a crown segment. Applying this model to all ALS echoes with a positive above-ground height value yields an initial map of possible circular crown segments. The final crown segments were then derived by applying a set of simple rules to this initial “map” of segments. The resulting segments were validated by comparison with field-measured crown segments. Overall, 46% of the field-measured trees were successfully detected. The detection rate increased with tree size. For trees with height >3 m the detection rate was 80%. The relatively large detection errors were partly due to the inherent limitations in the ALS data; a substantial fraction of the smaller trees was hit by no or just a few

  13. Falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural Melanesians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, P; Dakulala, P; Doolan, M

    Falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural Melanesia. A four year review of all admissions for trauma to the Provincial Hospital at Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. A questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villagers died from falls from trees before reaching hospital. Head and chest trauma were common causes of death. Many injured patients were boys. Forearm fractures were the most common injuries, but more serious injuries were also frequently encountered. Trees responsible for most deaths and injuries included the coconut palm, betel palm, mango, and breadfruit. There are many strategies for preventing such injuries; perhaps the most important is to stop small boys climbing tall trees. Such falls are a serious occupational hazard for many subsistence farmers.

  14. Shallow landsliding, root reinforcement, and the spatial distribution of trees in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J.J.; Schmidt, K.M.; Stock, J.D.; Dietrich, W.E.; Montgomery, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of root reinforcement on shallow landsliding has been well established through mechanistic and empirical studies, yet few studies have examined how local vegetative patterns influence slope stability. Because root networks spread outward from trees, the species, size, and spacing of trees should influence the spatial distribution of root strength. We documented the distribution and characteristics of trees adjacent to 32 shallow landslides that occurred during 1996 in the Oregon Coast Range. Although broadly classified as a conifer-dominated forest, we observed sparse coniferous and abundant hardwood trees near landslide scars in an industrial forest (Mapleton) that experienced widespread burning in the 19th century. In industrial forests that were burned, selectively harvested, and not replanted (Elliott State Forest), swordfern was ubiquitous near landslides, and we observed similar numbers of live conifer and hardwood trees proximal to landslide scarps. We demonstrate that root strength quantified in landslide scarps and soil pits correlates with a geometry-based index of root network contribution derived from mapping the size, species, condition, and spacing of local trees, indicating that root strength can be predicted by mapping the distribution and characteristics of trees on potentially unstable slopes. In our study sites, landslides tend to occur in areas of reduced root strength, suggesting that to make site-specific predictions of landslide occurrence slope stability analyses must account for the diversity and distribution of vegetation in potentially unstable terrain.

  15. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall W. Myster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1 groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2 the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a “shifting mosaic” view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  16. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myster, Randall W; Malahy, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees) and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular) patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1) groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2) the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a "shifting mosaic" view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  17. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta......(log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  18. Trees : relief for the city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Schoenmaker-van der Bijl, E.; Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Hoffman, M.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Mogelijkheden ter bestrijding van fijnstofThis brochure describes the underlying principles that form a basis for better-informed choices with regards to the management of trees and shrubs in cities and the design of functional planting schemes.

  19. Efficient Frequent Pattern Tree Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bujji Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule learning is a popular and well researched technique for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases in the area of data mining. The association rules are a part of intelligent systems. Association rules are usually required to satisfy a user-specified minimum support and a user-specified minimum confidence at the same time. Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms are very familiar algorithms for association rule mining. In this paper we are more concentrated on the Construction of efficient frequent pattern trees. Here, we present the novel frequent pattern trees and the performance issues. The proposed trees are fast and efficient trees helps to extract the frequent patterns. This paper provides the major advantages in the FP-Growth algorithm for association rule mining with using the newly proposed approach.

  20. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization...... that is suitable for large contour trees and efficiently conveys the topological structure of the most important isosurface components. This visualization is integrated into a histogram of the volume data; thus, it offers strictly more information than a traditional histogram. We present algorithms...... to automatically compute the graph layout and to calculate appropriate approximations of the contour tree and the surface area of the relevant isosurface components. The benefits of this new visualization are demonstrated with the help of several publicly available volume data sets....

  1. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  2. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  3. A Cubic Tree Taper Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodwin, Adrian N

    2009-01-01

    A flexible tree taper model based on a cubic polynomial is described. It is algebraically invertible and integrable, and can be constrained by one or two diameters, neither of which need be diameter at breast height (DBH...

  4. Discretization and implicit mapping dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2015-01-01

    This unique book presents the discretization of continuous systems and implicit mapping dynamics of periodic motions to chaos in continuous nonlinear systems. The stability and bifurcation theory of fixed points in discrete nonlinear dynamical systems is reviewed, and the explicit and implicit maps of continuous dynamical systems are developed through the single-step and multi-step discretizations. The implicit dynamics of period-m solutions in discrete nonlinear systems are discussed. The book also offers a generalized approach to finding analytical and numerical solutions of stable and unstable periodic flows to chaos in nonlinear systems with/without time-delay. The bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos in the Duffing oscillator are shown as a sample problem, while the discrete Fourier series of periodic motions and chaos are also presented. The book offers a valuable resource for university students, professors, researchers and engineers in the fields of applied mathematics, physics, mechanics,...

  5. Tree and tree-like species of Mexico: gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and tree ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricker; Héctor M. Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Trees or tree-like plants are defined here broadly as perennial, self-supporting plants with an adult height of at least 5 m (without ascending leaves or inflorescences), and with 1 or several erect stems with a diameter of at least 10 cm. We present an updated list of all Mexican tree species under that definition in the Gymnospermae (86 species, 38% endemic to Mexico), Monocotyledonae (75 species, 55% endemic), and Pteridophyta (9 species, none endemic). The list contains a total of 170 spe...

  6. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  7. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  8. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  9. Layered Working-Set Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Dujmović, Vida; Howat, John

    2009-01-01

    The working-set bound [Sleator and Tarjan, J. ACM, 1985] roughly states that searching for an element is fast if the element was accessed recently. Binary search trees, such as splay trees, can achieve this property in the amortized sense, while data structures that are not binary search trees are known to have this property in the worst case. We close this gap and present a binary search tree called a layered working-set tree that guarantees the working-set property in the worst case. The unified bound [Badoiu et al., TCS, 2007] roughly states that searching for an element is fast if it is near (in terms of rank distance) to a recently accessed element. We show how layered working-set trees can be used to achieve the unified bound to within a small additive term in the amortized sense while maintaining in the worst case an access time that is both logarithmic and within a small multiplicative factor of the working-set bound.

  10. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D.; Banbury, Barbara L.; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  11. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  12. A Tool for Displaying Syntactic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jerry L.

    A computer program for drawing syntactic phrase markers as trees is described. The program was developed for use on Texas Instruments Explorer Lisp machines. The tree is drawn by recursive descent, left to right. The tree-drawing function takes two arguments: (1) an atom constituting the tree, and (2) a font specification to be used in drawing the…

  13. Balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giraudo, Samuele

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals [T0, T1] where T0 and T1 are balanced trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce tree patterns and synchronous grammars to get a functional equation of the generating series enumerating balanced tree intervals.

  14. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  15. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  16. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  17. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...

  18. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions...

  19. VESGEN Software for Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis is an automated software that maps and quantifies effects of vascular regulators on vascular morphology by analyzing important vessel parameters. Quantification parameters include vessel diameter, length, branch points, density, and fractal dimension. For vascular trees, measurements are reported as dependent functions of vessel branching generation. VESGEN maps and quantifies vascular morphological events according to fractal-based vascular branching generation. It also relies on careful imaging of branching and networked vascular form. It was developed as a plug-in for ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, USA). VESGEN uses image-processing concepts of 8-neighbor pixel connectivity, skeleton, and distance map to analyze 2D, black-and-white (binary) images of vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites. VESGEN maps typically 5 to 12 (or more) generations of vascular branching, starting from a single parent vessel. These generations are tracked and measured for critical vascular parameters that include vessel diameter, length, density and number, and tortuosity per branching generation. The effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on vascular morphology and branching tested in human clinical or laboratory animal experimental studies are quantified by comparing vascular parameters with control groups. VESGEN provides a user interface to both guide and allow control over the users vascular analysis process. An option is provided to select a morphological tissue type of vascular trees, network or tree-network composites, which determines the general collections of algorithms, intermediate images, and output images and measurements that will be produced.

  20. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Mundry Marvin; Lott Paul-Ludwig; Sassenberg Christoph; Lorkowski Stefan; Fuellen Georg

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. Results We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in ...

  1. A bicriterion Steiner tree problem on graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Mirko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a formulation of bicriterion Steiner tree problem which is stated as a task of finding a Steiner tree with maximal capacity and minimal length. It is considered as a lexicographic multicriteria problem. This means that the bottleneck Steiner tree problem is solved first. After that, the next optimization problem is stated as a classical minimums Steiner tree problem under the constraint on capacity of the tree. The paper also presents some computational experiments with the multicriteria problem.

  2. Nest site characteristics of the Great-spotted Woodpecker in a bottomland riparian forest in the presence of invasive tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ónodi Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Hungary, in an old unmanaged riparian poplar-willow forest during the breeding seasons of 2014 and 2015. The occurrence of two invasive tree species, the green ash and boxelder, is significant in the study area, which influences negatively the populations of native riparian tree species in Central Europe. We studied Great-spotted Woodpecker nest sites in the presence of these invasive species. Throughout the study period, eight and twelve nesting cavity trees were mapped. Trees were recorded in 20-20 circular plots of 0.05 ha both for each mapped nest trees and random plots as well. Species, diameter at breast height and condition were recorded for each tree. Composition and diversity of nest site and random plots were compared. Distributions and preferences were calculated for nest tree use. Most of the recorded trees were invasive. Nest site plots had more native trees compared to random plots. Nest site showed higher diversity in terms of all three variables. Decayed and dead willow and white poplar hybrid trees were preferred for nesting. Diameter at breast height of nest trees was between 30-90 cm. Studies about cavity excavators in transformed habitats have high importance for nature conservation of riparian forests.

  3. Establishing a leaf proteome reference map for Ginkgo biloba provides insight into potential ethnobotanical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ginkgo (Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba L.) is an ancient medicinal and ornamental tree, there has not previously been any systematic proteomic study of the leaves. Herein we describe results from the initial study identifying abundant ginkgo leaf proteins and present a gel reference map. Pr...

  4. Map Reduce for DC4.5 and Ensemble Learning In Distributed Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available MapReduce one of the distributed computing techniques is integrated with decision tree classifier C4.5 in the distributed environment and ensemble learning with its classifier. This paper proposes an algorithm to classify, predict data using MapReduce for DC4.5 with ensemble learning. Proposed algorithm increases the accuracy and scalability of the data. Noise handling in the decision trees with respect to the distributed data is also handled here.

  5. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  6. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  7. Analyzing Underway Replenishments Through Spatial Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    dimensions of 1x1 day transit time and using the Pythagorean Theorem, it would take a CLF ship at least 1.4 days of total transit time to replenish a...Business Tree Map. (Available from http://www.smartmoney.com, 2012). This is a snapshot of the stock market after closing on August 14, 2012. Boxes...represent companies nested under a listed industry. Size of box is directly proportional to the size of their respective market capitalization

  8. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  9. View Dependent Sequential Point Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cheng Wang; Feng Wei; En-Hua Wu

    2006-01-01

    Sequential point trees provide the state-of-the-art technique for rendering point models, by re-arranging hierarchical points sequentially according to geometric errors running on GPU for fast rendering. This paper presents a view dependent method to augment sequential point trees by embedding the hierarchical tree structures in the sequential list of hierarchical points. By the method, two kinds of indices are constructed to facilitate the points rendering in an order mostly from near to far and from coarse to fine. As a result, invisible points can be culled view-dependently in high efficiency for hardware acceleration, and at the same time, the advantage of sequential point trees could be still fully taken. Therefore, the new method can run much faster than the conventional sequential point trees, and the acceleration can be highly promoted particularly when the objects possess complex occlusion relationship and viewed closely because invisible points would be in a high percentage of the points at finer levels.

  10. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2016-07-28

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

  11. An Integrated Map of Soybean Physical Map and Genetic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhaoming; LI Hui; WU Qiong; SUN Yanan; LIU Chunyan; HU Guohua; CHEN Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop in the world, and it is a main source of plant proteins and oil. A lot of soybean genetic maps and physical maps have been constructed, but there are no integrated map between soybean physical map and genetic map. In this study, soybean genome sequence data, released by JGI (US Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute), had been downloaded. With the software Blast 2.2.16, a total of 161 super sequences were mapped on the soybean public genetic map to construct an integrated map. The length of these super sequences accounted for 73.08% of all the genome sequence. This integrated map could be used for gene cloning, gene mining, and comparative genome of legume.

  12. Negative Tree Reweighted Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of lower bounds on the log partition function of a Markov random field which makes use of a reversed Jensen's inequality. In particular, our method approximates the intractable distribution using a linear combination of spanning trees with negative weights. This technique is a lower-bound counterpart to the tree-reweighted belief propagation algorithm, which uses a convex combination of spanning trees with positive weights to provide corresponding upper bounds. We develop algorithms to optimize and tighten the lower bounds over the non-convex set of valid parameter values. Our algorithm generalizes mean field approaches (including naive and structured mean field approximations), which it includes as a limiting case.

  13. On the tree stability risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Yamuna; Preti, Federico; Errico, Alessandro; Penna, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing models for predicting how root anchorage and tree bracing could influence tree stability. This work presents the results of different experiments aimed at evaluating the mechanical response of plate roots to pulling tests. Pulling tests have been executed with increasing soil water content and soil of different texture. Different types of tree bracing have been examined for evaluating its impact on plant stiffness. Root plate was anchored with different systems for evaluating the change in overturning resistance. The first results indicate that soil water content contributed to modify both the soil cohesion and the stabilizing forces. Wind effect, slope stability and root reinforcement could be better quantified by means of such a results.

  14. Human Impacts Affect Tree Community Features of 20 Forest Fragments of a Vanishing Neotropical Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Miranda, Pedro L. S.; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  15. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  16. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  17. Cyclic renormalization and automorphism groups of rooted trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, Hyman; Rockmore, Daniel; Tresser, Charles

    1996-01-01

    The theme of the monograph is an interplay between dynamical systems and group theory. The authors formalize and study "cyclic renormalization", a phenomenon which appears naturally for some interval dynamical systems. A possibly infinite hierarchy of such renormalizations is naturally represented by a rooted tree, together with a "spherically transitive" automorphism; the infinite case corresponds to maps with an invariant Cantor set, a class of particular interest for its relevance to the description of the transition to chaos and of the Mandelbrot set. The normal subgroup structure of the automorphism group of such "spherically homogeneous" rooted trees is investigated in some detail. This work will be of interest to researchers in both dynamical systems and group theory.

  18. 基于道路网络的时空索引方法IMon-tree%Spatiotemporal index for moving objects in networks: IMon-tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 罗磊

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the shortcoming of the Mon-tree index, a method called IMon-tree (Improved Mon-tree) index was proposed. It included three layers: the top layer used grids to index roads; the bottom layer was used to index the objects' moving information; the middle, which connected the above two layers, was to complete the mapping from roads to moving information. In order to implement trajectory query, the hash table was used to save the moving information of objects. Trie experimental results show that the IMon-tree index has a better performance than TMN-tree on trajectory query. As to the average response time of the spatiotemporal query algorithm, the IMon-tree is 65 percent of the Mon-tree, and is 81 percent of the TMN-tree. Therefore, the suggested method can be applied to all kinds of geodatabases and geographic information systems.%针对Mon-tree索引的不足提出一种基于道路网络的时空索引方法IMon-tree.索引分三层,项部用四叉树网格来索引道路网络,底部二维R树用来索引物体的运动信息,中部单链表将上述两层连接起来,完成从道路到运动信息的映射.为了支持轨迹查询,用哈希表将物体的运动信息组织起来.对比实验表明IMon-tree轨迹查询比TMN-tree性能更好,时空查询算法平均响应时间是Mon-tree的65%,是TMN-tree的81%.该方法可应用于各种空间数据库以及地理信息系统.

  19. Unit 02 - Maps and Map Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 55, CC in GIS; Rhind, David

    1990-01-01

    This unit explores the map analysis roots of GIS. It discusses cartography and its relationship to GIS, including topics such as map types and characteristics, the concept of scale, map projections, applications of maps, computer-assisted cartography and geographic data display and analysis.

  20. Some Inequalities for Tree Martingales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-jun He; You-liang Hou

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study tree martingales and proved that if 1 ≤α, β<∞, 1 ≤ p <∞ then for every predictable tree martingale f = (ft, t ∈ T) and E[σ(P)(f)] <∞ , E[ S(P)(f)] <∞, it holds that ‖(S(p)t(f),t ∈T)‖Mα∞≤Cαβ‖f‖pαβ,‖(σ(p)t(f),t ∈T)‖Mα∞≤ Cαβ‖f‖pαβ,where Cαβ depends only on α and β.

  1. Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The universal phylogenetic tree not only spans all extant life, but its root and earliest branchings represent stages in the evolutionary process before modern cell types had come into being. The evolution of the cell is an interplay between vertically derived and horizontally acquired variation. Primitive cellular entities were necessarily simpler and more modular in design than are modern cells. Consequently, horizontal gene transfer early on was pervasive, dominating the evolutionary dynamic. The root of the universal phylogenetic tree represents the first stage in cellular evolution when the evolving cell became sufficiently integrated and stable to the erosive effects of horizontal gene transfer that true organismal lineages could exist.

  2. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asynchronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....

  3. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asyncronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....

  4. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...... as communication is asynchronous. The total number of messages sent during a construction of a spanning tree is at most 2E+3NlogN. The maximal message size is loglogN+log(maxid)+3, where maxid is the maximal processor identity....

  5. Automated Generation of Attack Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error-prone and impractica......Attack trees are widely used to represent threat scenarios in a succinct and intuitive manner, suitable for conveying security information to non-experts. The manual construction of such objects relies on the creativity and experience of specialists, and therefore it is error...

  6. Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…

  7. Water Transport in Trees--An Artificial Laboratory Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, K.; Razpet, N.; Cepic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Water transport in tall trees is an everyday phenomenon, seldom noticed and not completely understood even by scientists. As a topic of current research in plant physiology it has several advantages for presentation within school physics lectures: it is interdisciplinary and clearly shows the connection between physics and biology; the…

  8. Tree Height Calculator: An Android App for Estimating Tree Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burca, V. S.; Htet, N. M.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally, measuring tree height requires a collection of different tools - clinometer, transit, pencil, paper, laptop computer. Results are recorded manually and entered into a spreadsheet or database for future calculation and analysis. Tree Height Calculator is a mobile Android app the integrates the various steps in this process thereby improving the accuracy and dramatically reducing the time required to go from taking measurements to analyzing data. Given the user's height and the distance from the base of the tree (which can be downloaded into the app from a server), the app uses the phone's orientation sensor to calculate the angle of elevation. A simple trigonometric formula is then used to calculate and record the tree's height in the phone's database. When the phone has a WiFi connection, the data are transmitted to a server, from where they can be downloaded directly into a spreadsheet. The application was first tested in an Environmental Science laboratory at Trinity College. On the first trial, 103 data samples were collected, stored, and uploaded to the online database with only couple of dropped data points. On the second trial, 98 data samples were gathered with no loss of data. The app combined the individual measurements taken by the students in the lab, reducing the time required to produce a graph of the class's results from days to hours.

  9. Symposium on nitrogen fixation in tropical trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.

    1984-01-01

    A special issue containing the proceedings of an international symposium held on 19-24 September 1983 at Rio de Janeiro. Some 35 papers were presented in six sessions: Importance of leguminous trees (2 papers); Occurrence of leguminous trees (5); Nitrogen fixation in trees (12); Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees (7); Nutrition of leguminous trees (5); and Agroforestry systems (4). Recommendations of the symposium are presented on p. 341-344 (Pt, En), and a List of nitrogen fixing trees which should receive immediate attention in Brazil (26 species) is given on p. 345.

  10. Edge-Disjoint Fibonacci Trees in Hypercube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhumathi Raman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fibonacci tree is a rooted binary tree whose number of vertices admit a recursive definition similar to the Fibonacci numbers. In this paper, we prove that a hypercube of dimension h admits two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-2, two edge-disjoint Fibonacci trees of height h-4 and so on, as subgraphs. The result shows that an algorithm with Fibonacci trees as underlying data structure can be implemented concurrently on a hypercube network with no communication latency.

  11. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  12. On Tree-Based Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Louxin

    2016-07-01

    A large class of phylogenetic networks can be obtained from trees by the addition of horizontal edges between the tree edges. These networks are called tree-based networks. We present a simple necessary and sufficient condition for tree-based networks and prove that a universal tree-based network exists for any number of taxa that contains as its base every phylogenetic tree on the same set of taxa. This answers two problems posted by Francis and Steel recently. A byproduct is a computer program for generating random binary phylogenetic networks under the uniform distribution model.

  13. The Geometry of the Neighbor-Joining Algorithm for Small Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Eickmeyer, Kord

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Eickmeyer et al. showed that the tree topologies outputted by the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm and the balanced minimum evolution (BME) method for phylogenetic reconstruction are each determined by a polyhedral subdivision of the space of dissimilarity maps ${\\R}^{n \\choose 2}$, where $n$ is the number of taxa. In this paper, we will analyze the behavior of the Neighbor-Joining algorithm on five and six taxa and study the geometry and combinatorics of the polyhedral subdivision of the space of dissimilarity maps for six taxa as well as hyperplane representations of each polyhedral subdivision. We also study simulations for one of the questions stated by Eickmeyer et al., that is, the robustness of the NJ algorithm to small perturbations of tree metrics, with tree models which are known to be hard to be reconstructed via the NJ algorithm.

  14. A method for generating stochastic 3D tree models with Python in Autodesk Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Stojanović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for generating 3D tree models using stochastic L-systems with stochastic parameters and Perlin noise. L-system is the most popular method for plant modeling and Perlin noise is extensively used for generating high detailed textures. Our approach is probabilistic. L-systems with a random choice of parameters can represent observed objects quite well and they are used for modeling and generating realistic plants. Textures and normal maps are generated with combinations of Perlin noises what make these trees completely unique. Script for generating these trees, textures and normal maps is written with Python/PyMEL/NumPy in Autodesk Maya.

  15. Skeleton-based botanic tree diameter estimation from dense LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Lindenbergh, R.; Mementi, M.; Raman, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    New airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurement systems, like the FLI-MAP 400 System, make it possible to obtain high density data containing far more information about single objects, like trees, than traditional airborne laser systems. Therefore, it becomes feasible to analyze geometr

  16. Remote Sensing Protocols for Parameterizing an Individual, Tree-Based, Forest Growth and Yield Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    IT TO THE ORIGINATOR . ERDC/CERL TR-14-18 iii Contents Abstract... original pixel size of 0.25m, the following segmenta- tion parameters seemed to generate the best (visually compared to origi- nal imagery...Penelope Morgan. 2006. “Regression Modeling and Mapping of Coniferous Forest Basal Area and Tree Density from Discrete- Return LIDAR and

  17. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  18. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  19. Role of tree on simulating rainfall-triggered landslides in a small forested watershed, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Im, S.; Lee, C.; Woo, C.

    2011-12-01

    Tree plays significant role on landslide initiation, but little is known about its effects on assessing landslide susceptibility. Especially, it is more important to take tree effect on slope stability into account of landslide assessment in the place, where the dominant type of occurred landslide is a shallow landslide or a debris flow, like Korea. In this study, rainfall interception by tree canopy, soil reinforcement by tree root, and driving force by tree weight were incorporated with a landslide model to know how the occurrence of tree exerts an effect on landslide initiation. Rainfall interception module, based on the Rutter model, was integrated to a dynamic shallow landslide model, TRIGRS, to estimate effective rainfall which finally reached slope surface. The slope stability sub-model in TRIGRS was also revised with a modified infinite slope stability scheme which can take the effects of tree root cohesion and tree weight into account. The integrated model was conducted to assess landslide susceptibility of a small landslide-occurred watershed in Bonghwa, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea where was damaged by heavy rainfall on July 24, 2008. A DEM with 5 m resolution was generated from digital terrain map, and hydrological and geological parameters of the model were directly measured in the study sites. Especially, more than 100 samples of soil depth were collected in situ using penetration test, and they were interpolated to cover whole study area by a spline method. The result showed that, on average, factor of safety (FS) over the whole study area was higher in the integrated model than original TRIGRS. However, the integrated model calculated relatively lower FSs even in some areas where soil depth was shallow than TRIGRS. It was because of increased driving force by considering tree weight in slope stability analysis. Despite of further analysis in various conditions, results reveal that tree can affect landslide initiation with different hydrologic and

  20. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    onto tree-space is not available. Using tree-space and its shortest paths, a variety of statistical properties, such as mean, principal component, hypothesis testing and linear discriminant analysis can be defined. For some of these properties it is still an open problem how to compute them; others......Statistical analysis of anatomical trees is hard to perform due to differences in the topological structure of the trees. In this paper we define statistical properties of leaf-labeled anatomical trees with geometric edge attributes by considering the anatomical trees as points in the geometric...... space of leaf-labeled trees. This tree-space is a geodesic metric space where any two trees are connected by a unique shortest path, which corresponds to a tree deformation. However, tree-space is not a manifold, and the usual strategy of performing statistical analysis in a tangent space and projecting...