WorldWideScience

Sample records for lycosa tarantula araneae

  1. Species delimitation and phylogeography of Aphonopelma hentzi (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae: cryptic diversity in North American tarantulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A Hamilton

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to reconstruct the phylogeny of the hentzi species group and sister species in the North American tarantula genus, Aphonopelma, using a set of mitochondrial DNA markers that include the animal "barcoding gene". An mtDNA genealogy is used to consider questions regarding species boundary delimitation and to evaluate timing of divergence to infer historical biogeographic events that played a role in shaping the present-day diversity and distribution. We aimed to identify potential refugial locations, directionality of range expansion, and test whether A. hentzi post-glacial expansion fit a predicted time frame.A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to analyze a 2051 base pair (bp mtDNA data matrix comprising aligned fragments of the gene regions CO1 (1165 bp and ND1-16S (886 bp. Multiple species delimitation techniques (DNA tree-based methods, a "barcode gap" using percent of pairwise sequence divergence (uncorrected p-distances, and the GMYC method consistently recognized a number of divergent and genealogically exclusive groups.The use of numerous species delimitation methods, in concert, provide an effective approach to dissecting species boundaries in this spider group; as well they seem to provide strong evidence for a number of nominal, previously undiscovered, and cryptic species. Our data also indicate that Pleistocene habitat fragmentation and subsequent range expansion events may have shaped contemporary phylogeographic patterns of Aphonopelma diversity in the southwestern United States, particularly for the A. hentzi species group. These findings indicate that future species delimitation approaches need to be analyzed in context of a number of factors, such as the sampling distribution, loci used, biogeographic history, breadth of morphological variation, ecological factors, and behavioral data, to make truly integrative decisions about what constitutes an evolutionary lineage recognized as a

  2. Posibles relaciones entre el hábitat de Lycosa fasciiventris(Dufour) (Aranae, Lycosidae) y su comportamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Escobar, Joaquín

    1986-01-01

    Se describe el hábitat y los nidos de Lycosa fasciiventris DUFOUR (Araneae, lycosidae);asimismo se estudian algunos parámetros poblacionales de tres localizaciones: densidad, distan-cia entre nidos y proporción entre individuos adultos e individuos subadultos. Se estudia la correlación entre el tamaño de la araña y la profundidad y el diámetro delnido y se discute su relación con el comportamiento de la araña The habitat and nests of Lycosa fasciiventris DUFOUR (Araneae, Lycosidae) are ...

  3. Tarantula spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002855.htm Tarantula spider bite To use the sharing features on this ... This article describes the effects of a tarantula spider bite. The class of insects to which the ...

  4. Morphological characterization of the venom apparatus in the wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis (Laxmann, 1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yigit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis (Laxmann, 1770 (Lycosidae: Araneae is distributed throughout central and eastern Europe, including Russia, Kazakhistan and Turkey. This study describes the venom apparatus morphology of L. singoriensis through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Its structure follows the general architecture observed in other spiders. Generally, a venom apparatus is composed by a pair of venom glands and chelicerae. L. singoriensis chelicerae are robust and consist of a stout basis and a movable apical segment (fang. The fang rests in a groove on the basal segment that is covered by different types of hair. L. singoriensis venom glands present equal size and measure about 4 mm in length. Each gland is enclosed by irregular muscular layers.

  5. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.

  6. In Tarantula Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The largest emission nebula in the sky, the Tarantula Nebula (also known as NGC 2070 or 30 Doradus ) is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) , one of the satellite galaxies to our own Milky Way system. Seen far down in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years, this beautiful nebula measures more than 1000 light-years across and extends over more than one third of a degree, almost, but not quite the size of the full moon. It received its descriptive name because of the unusual shape. It is a splendid object with a central cluster of hot and luminous young stars that powers strong emission from hydrogen and oxygen gas, making the Tarantula Nebula an easy and impressive target for observations, even with the unaided eye. It is well visible from ESO's mountain observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile and it has been the object of innumerable research programmes with many different telescopes. The present images of the Tarantula Nebula were obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. This advanced digital camera has already produced many impressive pictures, cf. the WFI Photo Gallery [1]. As the name indicates, the WFI has a comparatively large field-of-view, 34 x 34 arcmin 2 , and it is therefore well suited to show the full extent of this stunning nebula. The WFI image PR Photo 14a/02 has been produced from 15 individual WFI-exposures obtained in September 2000. Details are available below about the way it was made. A large number of different and colourful objects are seen in this amazing image. The very complex nebulosity is prominent in most of the field; it predominantly emits red light from hydrogen atoms (the H-alpha spectral line at wavelength 656.2 nm) and green-blue light from hydrogen atoms (H-beta line at 486.2 nm) and oxygen ions (two [O III] lines at 495.7 and 500.7 nm). This emission is excited by the strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by hot young stars in

  7. TARANTULA 2011 in JWL++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Haylett, D; Vitello, P

    2011-10-27

    Using square zoning, the 2011 version of the kinetic package Tarantula matches cylinder data, cylinder dead zones, and cylinder failure with the same settings for the first time. The key is the use of maximum pressure rather than instantaneous pressure. Runs are at 40, 200 and 360 z/cm using JWL++ as the host model. The model also does run-to-detonation, thin-pulse initiation with a P-t curve and air gap crossing, all in cylindrical geometry. Two sizes of MSAD/LX-10/LX-17 snowballs work somewhat with these settings, but are too weak, so that divergent detonation is a challenge for the future. Butterfly meshes are considered but do not appear to solve the issue.

  8. "Tarantula keratitis": a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAnena, L

    2013-09-01

    A case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a two-week history of a red, irritated right eye after handling a Chilean Rose Tarantula at an exotic pet exhibition. Examination revealed innumerable microscopic hairs embedded at all levels of the cornea. He was commenced on steroid drops with subjective and objective improvement at follow up.

  9. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  10. Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these spiders are not dangerous. They live in nests in the ground and are pretty timid, avoiding people whenever they can. What a Bite Looks and Feels Like If a person gets bitten by a tarantula, the bite will probably feel a lot like a bee sting , with pain in the area of the ...

  11. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  12. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; Trundle, C.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here, we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample.

  14. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markova, N.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Graefener, G.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Appellaniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartts, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi- epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  16. Symphony of colours in the Tarantula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 1058 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, ESO and Danny LaCrue Symphony of colours in the Tarantula The Tarantula is situated 170 000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in the southern sky and is clearly visible to the naked eye as a large milky patch. Astronomers believe that this smallish irregular galaxy is currently going through a violent period in its life. It is orbiting around the Milky Way and has had several close encounters with it. It is believed that the interaction with the Milky Way has caused an episode of energetic star formation - part of which is visible as the Tarantula Nebula. Just above the centre of the image there is a huge cluster of very hot stars called R136. The stars in R136 are also among the most massive stars we know. R136 is also a very young cluster, its oldest stars being 'just' 5 million years old or so. Its smallest stars, however, are still forming, so astronomers observe R136 to try to understand the early stages of stellar evolution. Near the lower edge of the image we find the star cluster Hodge 301. Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than R136. Some of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have already exploded as supernovae. The shockwave from this explosion has compressed the gas in the Tarantula into the filaments and sheets that are seen around the cluster. This mosaic of the Tarantula Nebula consists of images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and was created by 23 year old amateur astronomer Danny LaCrue. The image was constructed by 15 individual exposures taken through three narrow-band filters allowing light from ionised oxygen (501 nm, shown as blue), hydrogen-alpha (656 nm, shown as green) and ionised sulphur (672 nm, shown as red). The exposure time for the individual WFPC2 images vary between 800 and 2800 seconds in each filter. The Hubble data have been superimposed onto images taken through matching narrow-band filters with the

  17. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well.

  18. The Tarantula Festival: Joy and Distress in Upper Aragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tarantism (a mythically-based, ritualized reaction to the bite of the dreaded tarantula in the belief that the victim could only be cured by music and dance had existed in Italy since time immemorial; yet it manifested itself also in Spain, where it has been far less studied, at least from the perspective of cultural history. Tarantism was certainly known in Aragon until well into the 20th century, as reported by informants in Fraga (Huesca who recall “The Tarantula Festival,” by which all forms of individual suffering were communally exorcised through the power of sympathy and neighbourly solidarity.

    El tarantismo (fenómeno mítico-ritual según el cual quienes eran picados por la temida tarántula sólo podían recuperarse mediante la música y el baile se manifestó desde antiguo en Italia, pero también en España, donde no ha sido tan estudiado, al menos desde la perspectiva de la historia cultural. De la vigencia de dicho fenómeno en Aragón hasta bien entrado el siglo XX dan cuenta las entrevistas en Fraga (Huesca con varios informantes acerca de la llamada “Fiesta de la Tarántula”: una forma comunitaria de exorcizar todo tipo de desgracias individuales, gracias al poder de la compasión y la solidaridad vecinal.

  19. Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga , from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Cifuentes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901, is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male of P. verdolaga sp. nov. is distinguished by the palpal bulb with broad embolus, poorly developed apical keel (A, prolateral inferior keel (PI and prolateral accessory keel (PAc present but poorly developed, and retrolateral keel (R of similar length as A. Females are distinguished by the morphology of spermatheca with a wide base and very short oval seminal receptacles, which are curved toward the center. This is the thirteenth species described in Pamphobeteus and the sixth species reported from Colombia. The species description is complemented by a molecular characterization of a partial CO1 sequence.

  20. Description and molecular characterization of a new species of tarantula, Pamphobeteus verdolaga , from Colombia (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes, Yeimy; Estrada-Gomez, Sebastián; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Perafán, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new species of Pamphobeteus Pocock, 1901, is described from the Colombian Andes, Medellín, Antioquia. The biochemistry and molecular characteristics of the venom of this new species (previously identified as Pamphobeteus aff. nigricolor ) has been already described. A detailed taxonomic study, comparing this species with holotypes and additional material of Pamphobeteus species, allowed us to recognize it as new, and to describe it here as Pamphobeteus verdolaga sp. nov. The male o...

  1. Discovery of the Critically Endangered Tarantula Species of the Genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, From Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

  2. Robust Trapdoor Tarantula Haploclastus validus Pocock, 1899: notes on taxonomy, distribution and natural history (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Thrigmopoeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Mirza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.

  3. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  4. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Kostanjšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  5. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2017-05-10

    Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.

  6. Menemerus fagei new to Malta and Europe (Araneae: Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freudenschuss, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Menemerus fagei Berland & Millot 1941 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Maltese Islands is reported and discussed. It is the 20th jumping spider species for Malta and a new record for Europe.

  7. Tarantula toxins use common surfaces for interacting with Kv and ASIC ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanchan; Zamanian, Maryam; Bae, Chanhyung; Milescu, Mirela; Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Tilley, Drew C; Sack, Jon T; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Kim, Jae Il; Swartz, Kenton J

    2015-05-07

    Tarantula toxins that bind to voltage-sensing domains of voltage-activated ion channels are thought to partition into the membrane and bind to the channel within the bilayer. While no structures of a voltage-sensor toxin bound to a channel have been solved, a structural homolog, psalmotoxin (PcTx1), was recently crystalized in complex with the extracellular domain of an acid sensing ion channel (ASIC). In the present study we use spectroscopic, biophysical and computational approaches to compare membrane interaction properties and channel binding surfaces of PcTx1 with the voltage-sensor toxin guangxitoxin (GxTx-1E). Our results show that both types of tarantula toxins interact with membranes, but that voltage-sensor toxins partition deeper into the bilayer. In addition, our results suggest that tarantula toxins have evolved a similar concave surface for clamping onto α-helices that is effective in aqueous or lipidic physical environments.

  8. LyeTxI-b, a Synthetic Peptide Derived From Lycosa erythrognatha Spider Venom, Shows Potent Antibiotic Activity in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo V. M. Reis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial peptide LyeTxI isolated from the venom of the spider Lycosa erythrognatha is a potential model to develop new antibiotics against bacteria and fungi. In this work, we studied a peptide derived from LyeTxI, named LyeTxI-b, and characterized its structural profile and its in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities. Compared to LyeTxI, LyeTxI-b has an acetylated N-terminal and a deletion of a His residue, as structural modifications. The secondary structure of LyeTxI-b is a well-defined helical segment, from the second amino acid to the amidated C-terminal, with no clear partition between hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces. Moreover, LyeTxI-b shows a potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative planktonic bacteria, being 10-fold more active than the native peptide against Escherichia coli. LyeTxI-b was also active in an in vivo model of septic arthritis, reducing the number of bacteria load, the migration of immune cells, the level of IL-1β cytokine and CXCL1 chemokine, as well as preventing cartilage damage. Our results show that LyeTxI-b is a potential therapeutic model for the development of new antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. New species of Southeast Asian Dwarf Tarantula from Thailand: Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 (Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narin Chomphuphuang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new record of the tarantula genus Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 from Thailand is described. Distributional data, natural history, morphological characters, and illustrations of male and female are provided. The Thai specimens belong to a new species, Phlogiellus longipalpus sp. n. The diagnosis of the new species and related species are discussed.

  10. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  11. Observations on the use of tarantula burrows by the anurans Leptodactylus bufonius (Leptodactylidae and Rhinella major (Bufonidae in the Dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Schalk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some species of anurans have been observed utilizing burrows of other animals, such as rodents and tarantulas. Here we report the observations of two anuran species, Leptodactylus bufonius and Rhinella major, utilizing the burrows of tarantulas (Acanthoscurria sp.; Family Theraphosidae in the dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia. Both species of anurans never co-occurred with tarantulas in the burrows and used burrows that were wider in diameter and closer to breeding ponds as compared to the total available tarantula burrows in the area. These burrows may serve as refuges from predators, especially for conspicuous, calling males.

  12. Explosive Model Tarantula V1/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17: #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2009-05-01

    Tarantula V1 is a kinetic package for reactive flow codes that seeks to describe initiation, failure, dead zones and detonation simultaneously. The most important parameter is P1, the pressure between the initiation and failure regions. Both dead zone formation and failure can be largely controlled with this knob. However, V1 does failure with low settings and dead zones with higher settings, so that it cannot fulfill its purpose in the current format. To this end, V2 is under test. The derivation of the initiation threshold P0 is discussed. The derivation of the initiation pressure-tau curve as an output of Tarantula shows that the initiation package is sound. A desensitization package is also considered.

  13. Morphological adaptations of Porrhomma spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae) inhabiting soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Laška, V.; Mikula, J.; Tuf, I.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2011), s. 355-357 ISSN 0161-8202 Grant - others:National Research Programme II(CZ) 2B06101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Araneae * soil profile * troglomorphisms Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.626, year: 2011

  14. Spiders (Araneae) as polyphagous natural enemies in orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogya, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spiders (Araneae) occur in high abundance in all terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystems. They are a very heterogeneous group of animals with different hunting tactics and therefore they play very different ecological roles. At family level these tactics are rather similar thus

  15. The sale of tarantulas in Cambodia for food or medicine: is it sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sale of tarantulas for either human consumption or for preparation of medicines has become more widespread in Cambodia over the last 10-20 years. With increased media exposure, the trade seems to be increasing, but there are serious questions as to its sustainability because of possible over-collecting of the spiders and also loss of habitats. This note outlines some of the fundamental questions that need to be addressed if this spider trade is to be sustainable or else we could see the loss of an important link in the forest food chain.

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Kennedy, M.B.; Dufton, P.L.; Howarth, I.D.; Walborn, N.R.; Markova, N.; Clark, J.S.; de Mink, S.E.; de Koter, A.; Dunstall, P.R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; McEvoy, C.M.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.D.; Vink, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. IX. The interstellar medium seen through diffuse interstellar bands and neutral sodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, J.Th.; Bailey, M.; Tatton, B.L.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C.J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Howarth, I.D.; Richter, P.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.; Walborn, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Dor) is a spectacular star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), seen through gas in the Galactic disc and halo. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) offer a unique probe of the diffuse, cool-warm gas in these regions. Aims. The aim is to use DIBs

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. III. A very massive star in apparent isolation from the massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestenlehner, J.M.; Vink, J.S.; Gräfener, G.; Najarro, F.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P.A.; Doran, E.; Friedrich, K.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Soszynski, I.; Taylor, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    VFTS 682 is located in an active star-forming region, at a projected distance of 29 pc from the young massive cluster R136 in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was previously reported as a candidate young stellar object, and more recently spectroscopically revealed as a

  19. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT. V. THE STAR CLUSTER HODGE 301: THE OLD FACE OF 30 DORADUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cignoni, M. [Department of Physics—University of Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo, 3 Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Sabbi, E.; Marel, R. P. van der; Aloisi, A.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Tosi, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gallagher, J. S. III [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Marchi, G. de [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J., E-mail: michele.cignoni@unipi.it [European Space Agency and Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Based on color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) from the Hubble Space Telescope  Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) survey, we present the star formation history of Hodge 301, the oldest star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula. The HTTP photometry extends faint enough to reach, for the first time, the cluster pre-main sequence (PMS) turn-on, where the PMS joins the main sequence. Using the location of this feature, along with synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, we find that Hodge 301 is older than previously thought, with an age between 26.5 and 31.5 Myr. From this age, we also estimate that between 38 and 61 Type II supernovae exploded in the region. The same age is derived from the main sequence turn-off, whereas the age derived from the post-main sequence stars is younger and between 20 and 25 Myr. Other relevant parameters are a total stellar mass of ≈8800 ± 800  M {sub ⊙} and average reddening E ( B − V ) ≈ 0.22–0.24 mag, with a differential reddening δE ( B − V ) ≈ 0.04 mag.

  20. Lessons from a tarantula: new insights into muscle thick filament and myosin interacting-heads motif structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Koubassova, Natalia; Pinto, Antonio; Gillilan, Richard; Tsaturyan, Andrey; Padrón, Raúl

    2017-10-01

    The tarantula skeletal muscle X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that the myosin heads were helically arranged on the thick filaments. Electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained relaxed tarantula thick filaments revealed four helices of heads allowing a helical 3D reconstruction. Due to its low resolution (5.0 nm), the unambiguous interpretation of densities of both heads was not possible. A resolution increase up to 2.5 nm, achieved by cryo-EM of frozen-hydrated relaxed thick filaments and an iterative helical real space reconstruction, allowed the resolving of both heads. The two heads, "free" and "blocked", formed an asymmetric structure named the "interacting-heads motif" (IHM) which explained relaxation by self-inhibition of both heads ATPases. This finding made tarantula an exemplar system for thick filament structure and function studies. Heads were shown to be released and disordered by Ca 2+ -activation through myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation, leading to EM, small angle X-ray diffraction and scattering, and spectroscopic and biochemical studies of the IHM structure and function. The results from these studies have consequent implications for understanding and explaining myosin super-relaxed state and thick filament activation and regulation. A cooperative phosphorylation mechanism for activation in tarantula skeletal muscle, involving swaying constitutively Ser35 mono-phosphorylated free heads, explains super-relaxation, force potentiation and post-tetanic potentiation through Ser45 mono-phosphorylated blocked heads. Based on this mechanism, we propose a swaying-swinging, tilting crossbridge-sliding filament for tarantula muscle contraction.

  1. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project - VI. Identification of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars using Machine Learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksoll, Victor F.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Anderson, Jay; Lennon, Daniel J.; Cignoni, Michele; de Marchi, Guido; Smith, Linda J.; Tosi, Monica; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2018-05-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) has provided an unprecedented photometric coverage of the entire star-burst region of 30 Doradus down to the half Solar mass limit. We use the deep stellar catalogue of HTTP to identify all the pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars of the region, i.e., stars that have not started their lives on the main-sequence yet. The photometric distinction of these stars from the more evolved populations is not a trivial task due to several factors that alter their colour-magnitude diagram positions. The identification of PMS stars requires, thus, sophisticated statistical methods. We employ Machine Learning Classification techniques on the HTTP survey of more than 800,000 sources to identify the PMS stellar content of the observed field. Our methodology consists of 1) carefully selecting the most probable low-mass PMS stellar population of the star-forming cluster NGC2070, 2) using this sample to train classification algorithms to build a predictive model for PMS stars, and 3) applying this model in order to identify the most probable PMS content across the entire Tarantula Nebula. We employ Decision Tree, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine classifiers to categorise the stars as PMS and Non-PMS. The Random Forest and Support Vector Machine provided the most accurate models, predicting about 20,000 sources with a candidateship probability higher than 50 percent, and almost 10,000 PMS candidates with a probability higher than 95 percent. This is the richest and most accurate photometric catalogue of extragalactic PMS candidates across the extent of a whole star-forming complex.

  2. A case of zootherapy with the tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer, 1875 in traditional medicine of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo Roberto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In practically every human culture, the use of arthropods as medicinal resources has been reported. In Mexico, the Mayan people mainly use plants but occasionally also animals and minerals in their medicine. This article is the first to report the traditional use of the tarantula Brachypelma vagans by medicine men in the Chol community, an ancient indigenous group that inhabits the southeastern part of Mexico. We also describe the utility of such arachnids in traditional medicine. Methods This study was carried out in different Chol communities in the states of Chiapas and Campeche (southeastern Mexico from 2003 until 2007. We interviewed the local medicine men, patients and non-Chol people in each village visited to collect information about the rituals involved and the effectiveness of this traditional medicine and also their opinion of this traditional medicine. Results In all independent villages, the people who present an illness called 'aire de tarantula' or tarantula wind with symptoms including chest pain, coughing and asthma, were treated by the medicine man (called 'hierbatero' with a tarantula-based beverage. From village to village, the beverage has a similar base composition but some variations occur in additional ingredients depending on the individual medicine man. Like in all traditional Mayan medicine, the ritual of the ceremony consists of drinking the tarantula-based beverage and this is principally accompanied by chants and burning of incense. Conclusions The recipe of the tarantula-based beverage and the procedure of this ritual ceremony were fairly constant in all the villages visited. Our work shows that despite the tarantula's bad image in several cultures, in others positive use is made of these spiders, as in modern medicine.

  3. Competitive interactions between a native spider (Frontinella communis, Araneae: Linyphiidae) and an invasive spider (Linyphia triangularis, Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, Julie V.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous reports of spiders that have become established outside of their native ranges, but few studies examine their impact on native spiders. We examined the effect of the European hammock spider Linyphia triangularis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) on the native bowl-and-doily spider Frontinella communis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. First, we added L. triangularis to established plots of F. communis. Significantly more F. communis abandoned their webs when L. triangularis were added compared to control plots. Second, we tested whether F. communis were deterred from building webs in areas where L. triangularis was established. Significantly fewer F. communis built webs on plots with L. triangularis than on control plots. In both experiments, L. triangularis sometimes took over webs of F. communis or incorporated F. communis webs into their own webs, but F. communisnever took over or incorporated L. triangularis webs. Competition between L. triangularis and F. communis for both webs and web sites may contribute to the decline of F. communis.

  4. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Zhou, Xi; Nguyen, Phuong Tran; Zhang, Yunxiao; Hu, Zhaotun; Zhang, Changxin; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; DeCaen, Paul G; Liang, Songping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V s) are activated by transiting the voltage sensor from the deactivated to the activated state. The crystal structures of several bacterial Na V s have captured the voltage sensor module (VSM) in an activated state, but structure of the deactivated voltage sensor remains elusive. In this study, we sought to identify peptide toxins stabilizing the deactivated VSM of bacterial Na V s. We screened fractions from several venoms and characterized a cystine knot toxin called JZTx-27 from the venom of tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao as a high-affinity antagonist of the prokaryotic Na V s Ns V Ba (nonselective voltage-gated Bacillus alcalophilus ) and NaChBac (bacterial sodium channel from Bacillus halodurans ) (IC 50 = 112 nM and 30 nM, respectively). JZTx-27 was more efficacious at weaker depolarizing voltages and significantly slowed the activation but accelerated the deactivation of Ns V Ba, whereas the local anesthetic drug lidocaine was shown to antagonize Ns V Ba without affecting channel gating. Mutation analysis confirmed that JZTx-27 bound to S3-4 linker of Ns V Ba, with F98 being the critical residue in determining toxin affinity. All electrophysiological data and in silico analysis suggested that JZTx-27 trapped VSM of Ns V Ba in one of the deactivated states. In mammalian Na V s, JZTx-27 preferably inhibited the inactivation of Na V 1.5 by targeting the fourth transmembrane domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of peptide antagonist for prokaryotic Na V s. More important, we proposed that JZTx-27 stabilized the Ns V Ba VSM in the deactivated state and may be used as a probe to determine the structure of the deactivated VSM of Na V s.-Tang, C., Zhou, X., Nguyen, P. T., Zhang, Y., Hu, Z., Zhang, C., Yarov-Yarovoy, V., DeCaen, P. G., Liang, S., Liu, Z. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel. © FASEB.

  5. An Investigation of Amphitheater-Headed Canyon Distribution, Morphology Variation, and Longitudinal Profile Controls in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.

    2014-12-01

    Amphitheater-headed canyons are primarily distinguished from typical fluvial channels by their abrupt headwall terminations. A key goal in the study of river canyons is to establish a reliable link between form and formation processes. This is of particular significance for Mars, where, if such links can be established, amphitheater-headed canyons could be used to determine ancient erosion mechanisms and, by inference, climate conditions. Type examples in arid regions on Earth, such as in Escalante River, Utah, previously have been interpreted as products of groundwater seepage erosion. We investigate amphitheater-headed canyons in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa where variations in canyon head morphology may hold clues for the relative roles of rock properties and fluvial and groundwater processes. In lower Escalante, amphitheaters are only present where canyons have breached the Navajo Sandstone - Kayenta Formation contact. In some canyons, amphitheater development appears to have been inhibited by an abundance of coarse bedload. In Tarantula Mesa, canyons have a variety of headwalls, from amphitheaters to stepped knickzones. Headwall morphology distribution is directly related to the spatially variable presence of knickpoint-forming, fine-grained interbeds within cliff-forming sandstones. Amphitheaters only form where the sandstone unit is undisrupted by these interbeds. Finally, most canyons in Escalante and Tarantula Mesa, regardless of substrate lithology, amphitheater presence, or groundwater spring intensity, are well described by a slope-area power law relationship with regionally constant concavity and normalized steepness indices. This suggests that all channels here are subject to the same erosion rates, independent of groundwater weathering intensity. Thus: 1) variations in canyon headwall form do not necessary relate to differences in fluvial history, 2) stratigraphic variations are clearly of importance in sedimentary canyon systems, and 3) although

  6. Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NP Dinamithra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment with calcium is beneficial in relieving the pain and muscle spasms caused by Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata.

  7. Taxonomy, systematics and biology of the Australian halotolerant wolf spider genus Tetralycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae: Artoriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker W. Framenau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian wolf spider genus Tftralycosa Roewer, 1960, with Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909 (junior synonym of Lycosa oraria L. Koch, 1877 as type species, is revised to include 13 species, eight of which are described as new here: Tetralycosa adarca sp. nov., T. alteripa (McKay, 1976, T. arabanae Framenau, Gotch & Austin, 2006, T. baudinettei sp. nov., T. caudex sp. nov., T. eyrei (Hickman, 1944, T. floundersi sp. nov., T. halophila sp. nov., T. oraria (L. Koch, 1876, T. orariola sp. nov., T. williamsi sp. nov., T. wundurra (McKay, 1979 comb. nov. and T. rebecca sp. nov. Members of Tetralycosa are halotolerant, exclusively inhabiting saline environments such as coastal beaches, and mound springs, clay pans and salt lakes in the Australian interior. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus identified a monophyletic clade of eight species that live permanently on the barren surface of salt lakes suggesting a single radiation into this extremely inhospitable habitat. Some of these Tetralycosa species are currently known from single salt lakes only and with increasing disturbances of these systems by mining, agriculture and recreational use, research effort should be increased to study their ecology and conservation status.

  8. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an alternative braking mechanism, possibly magnetic fields, is thus required to explain the present-day rotational properties of the O-type stars in 30 Dor. The presence of a sizeable population of fast rotators is compatible with recent population synthesis computations that

  9. Competition between introduced and native spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.D.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The European sheet-web spider Linyphia triangularis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) has become established in Maine, where it often reaches very high densities. Two lines of evidence from previous work suggest that L. triangularis affects populations of the native linyphiid spider Frontinella communis. First, F. communis individuals are relatively scarce in both forest and coastal habitat where L. triangularis is common, but more common where L. triangularis is at low density. Second, in field experiments, F. communis species are less likely to settle in experimental plots when L. triangularis is present, and F. communis disappears from study plots when L. triangularis is introduced. Here we test two mechanisms that may underlie these patterns. First, we tested whether L. triangularis invades and usurps the webs of F. communis. When spiders were released onto webs of heterospecifics, L. triangularis was more likely to take over or share webs of F. communis than the reverse. We also observed natural takeovers of F. communis webs. Second, we explored the hypothesis that L. triangularis reduces prey availability for native species. We sampled flying prey in areas with L. triangularis and those where it had been removed, and found no effect of spider presence on measured prey density. We also found no effect of prey supplementation on web tenacity in F. communis, suggesting that F. communis movements are not highly dependent on prey availability. We conclude that web takeover is likely more important than prey reduction in driving negative effects of L. triangularis on F. communis.

  10. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of bacteriophage WO in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qian; Qiao, Huping; Gao, Jin; Yun, Yueli; Liu, Fengxiang; Peng, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Phage WO is a bacteriophage found in Wolbachia. Herein, we represent the first phylogenetic study of WOs that infect spiders (Araneae). Seven species of spiders (Araneus alternidens, Nephila clavata, Hylyphantes graminicola, Prosoponoides sinensis, Pholcus crypticolens, Coleosoma octomaculatum, and Nurscia albofasciata) from six families were infected by Wolbachia and WO, followed by comprehensive sequence analysis. Interestingly, WO could be only detected Wolbachia-infected spiders. The relative infection rates of those seven species of spiders were 75, 100, 88.9, 100, 62.5, 72.7, and 100 %, respectively. Our results indicated that both Wolbachia and WO were found in three different body parts of N. clavata, and WO could be passed to the next generation of H. graminicola by vertical transmission. There were three different sequences for WO infected in A. alternidens and two different WO sequences from C. octomaculatum. Only one sequence of WO was found for the other five species of spiders. The discovered sequence of WO ranged from 239 to 311 bp. Phylogenetic tree was generated using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the orf7 gene sequences. According to the phylogenetic tree, WOs in N. clavata and H. graminicola were clustered in the same group. WOs from A. alternidens (WAlt1) and C. octomaculatum (WOct2) were closely related to another clade, whereas WO in P. sinensis was classified as a sole cluster.

  11. Discovery of a distinct superfamily of Kunitz-type toxin (KTT from tarantulas.

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    Chun-Hua Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kuntiz-type toxins (KTTs have been found in the venom of animals such as snake, cone snail and sea anemone. The main ancestral function of Kunitz-type proteins was the inhibition of a diverse array of serine proteases, while toxic activities (such as ion-channel blocking were developed under a variety of Darwinian selection pressures. How new functions were grafted onto an old protein scaffold and what effect Darwinian selection pressures had on KTT evolution remains a puzzle. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the presence of a new superfamily of ktts in spiders (TARANTULAS: Ornithoctonus huwena and Ornithoctonus hainana, which share low sequence similarity to known KTTs and is clustered in a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree of KTT evolution. The representative molecule of spider KTTs, HWTX-XI, purified from the venom of O. huwena, is a bi-functional protein which is a very potent trypsin inhibitor (about 30-fold more strong than BPTI as well as a weak Kv1.1 potassium channel blocker. Structural analysis of HWTX-XI in 3-D by NMR together with comparative function analysis of 18 expressed mutants of this toxin revealed two separate sites, corresponding to these two activities, located on the two ends of the cone-shape molecule of HWTX-XI. Comparison of non-synonymous/synonymous mutation ratios (omega for each site in spider and snake KTTs, as well as PBTI like body Kunitz proteins revealed high Darwinian selection pressure on the binding sites for Kv channels and serine proteases in snake, while only on the proteases in spider and none detected in body proteins, suggesting different rates and patterns of evolution among them. The results also revealed a series of key events in the history of spider KTT evolution, including the formation of a novel KTT family (named sub-Kuntiz-type toxins derived from the ancestral native KTTs with the loss of the second disulfide bridge accompanied by several dramatic sequence modifications

  12. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  13. A new species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae without stridulatory organ, from southern Peru

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    Nelson Ferretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

  14. The Tarantula Nebula as a template for extragalactic star forming regions from VLT/MUSE and HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Castro, Norberto; Evans, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1-2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae from vicinity of Jagodina, Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 10 years, based on personal collectings, 21 species from 14 genera of Salticidae (Araneae are recorded from vicinity of Jagodina: Ballus chalybeius, Carrhotus xanthogramma, Evarcha arcuata, Evarcha falcata, Heliophanus auratus, Heliophanus cupreus, Heliophanus flavipes, Heliophanus kochii, Icius hamatus, Icius subinermis, Leptorchestes berolinensis, Macaroeris nidicolens, Marpissa muscosa, Marpissa nivoyi, Mendoza canestrinii, Pellenes tripunctatus, Phintella castriesiana, Phlegra fasciata, Pseudeuophrys erratica, Pseudeuophrys lanigera, Salticus scenicus. All those species are provided with habitat notes and global distribution. New records for the spider fauna of Serbia are Heliophanus kochii (Simon 1868, Icius subinermis (Simon, 1937, Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846 and Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868.

  16. Compositional changes in spider (Araneae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient near a Danish town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváth, R.; Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L

    2014-01-01

    Spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied over two years by pitfall trapping along an urbanisation gradient of forested habitats (rural forest - suburban forest fragment - urban forest fragment) in a Danish town, using the Globenet protocol. During the two years, we collected 4340 individuals of 90...... species, with money spiders (Linyphiidae) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) being most numerous. One species, Ero aphana, was new to the Danish fauna. In 2004, 45-47 species were captured in the habitats in various stages of urbanisation, while in 2005 (with a smaller collection effort), 28 (urban) - 37 (rural...

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey . XXIV. Stellar properties of the O-type giants and supergiants in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Grin, N. J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; Puls, J.; Markova, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Castro, N.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; García, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; van Kempen, B.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The Tarantula region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the richest population of spatially resolved massive O-type stars known so far. This unmatched sample offers an opportunity to test models describing their main-sequence evolution and mass-loss properties. Aims: Using ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to determine stellar, photospheric and wind properties of 72 presumably single O-type giants, bright giants and supergiants and to confront them with predictions of stellar evolution and of line-driven mass-loss theories. Methods: We apply an automated method for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O stars combining the non-LTE stellar atmosphere model fastwind with the genetic fitting algorithm pikaia to determine the following stellar properties: effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, helium abundance, and projected rotational velocity. The latter has been constrained without taking into account the contribution from macro-turbulent motions to the line broadening. Results: We present empirical effective temperature versus spectral subtype calibrations at LMC-metallicity for giants and supergiants. The calibration for giants shows a +1kK offset compared to similar Galactic calibrations; a shift of the same magnitude has been reported for dwarfs. The supergiant calibrations, though only based on a handful of stars, do not seem to indicate such an offset. The presence of a strong upturn at spectral type O3 and earlier can also not be confirmed by our data. In the spectroscopic and classical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, our sample O stars are found to occupy the region predicted to be the core hydrogen-burning phase by state-of-the-art models. For stars initially more massive than approximately 60 M⊙, the giant phase already appears relatively early on in the evolution; the supergiant phase develops later. Bright giants, however, are not

  18. SVM-based prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins identifies toxin innovation in an Australian tarantula.

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    Emily S W Wong

    Full Text Available Spider neurotoxins are commonly used as pharmacological tools and are a popular source of novel compounds with therapeutic and agrochemical potential. Since venom peptides are inherently toxic, the host spider must employ strategies to avoid adverse effects prior to venom use. It is partly for this reason that most spider toxins encode a protective proregion that upon enzymatic cleavage is excised from the mature peptide. In order to identify the mature toxin sequence directly from toxin transcripts, without resorting to protein sequencing, the propeptide cleavage site in the toxin precursor must be predicted bioinformatically. We evaluated different machine learning strategies (support vector machines, hidden Markov model and decision tree and developed an algorithm (SpiderP for prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins. Our strategy uses a support vector machine (SVM framework that combines both local and global sequence information. Our method is superior or comparable to current tools for prediction of propeptide sequences in spider toxins. Evaluation of the SVM method on an independent test set of known toxin sequences yielded 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, we sequenced five novel peptides (not used to train the final predictor from the venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes to test the accuracy of the predictor and found 80% sensitivity and 99.6% 8-mer specificity. Finally, we used the predictor together with homology information to predict and characterize seven groups of novel toxins from the deeply sequenced venom gland transcriptome of S. plumipes, which revealed structural complexity and innovations in the evolution of the toxins. The precursor prediction tool (SpiderP is freely available on ArachnoServer (http://www.arachnoserver.org/spiderP.html, a web portal to a comprehensive relational database of spider toxins. All training data, test data, and scripts used are available from

  19. Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2011-08-05

    The voltage sensors of domains II and IV of sodium channels are important determinants of activation and inactivation, respectively. Animal toxins that alter electrophysiological excitability of muscles and neurons often modify sodium channel activation by selectively interacting with domain II and inactivation by selectively interacting with domain IV. This suggests that there may be substantial differences between the toxin-binding sites in these two important domains. Here we explore the ability of the tarantula huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV) to inhibit the activity of the domain II and IV voltage sensors. HWTX-IV is specific for domain II, and we identify five residues in the S1-S2 (Glu-753) and S3-S4 (Glu-811, Leu-814, Asp-816, and Glu-818) regions of domain II that are crucial for inhibition of activation by HWTX-IV. These data indicate that a single residue in the S3-S4 linker (Glu-818 in hNav1.7) is crucial for allowing HWTX-IV to interact with the other key residues and trap the voltage sensor in the closed configuration. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that the five corresponding residues in domain IV are all critical for endowing HWTX-IV with the ability to inhibit fast inactivation. Our data suggest that the toxin-binding motif in domain II is conserved in domain IV. Increasing our understanding of the molecular determinants of toxin interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels may permit development of enhanced isoform-specific voltage-gating modifiers.

  20. Tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibits neuronal sodium channels by binding to receptor site 4 and trapping the domain ii voltage sensor in the closed configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Zhu, Weiguo; Moczydlowski, Edward; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2008-10-03

    Peptide toxins with high affinity, divergent pharmacological functions, and isoform-specific selectivity are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a number of interesting inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism for their interaction with VGSCs. We show that huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a 35-residue peptide from tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena venom, preferentially inhibits neuronal VGSC subtypes rNav1.2, rNav1.3, and hNav1.7 compared with muscle subtypes rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Of the five VGSCs examined, hNav1.7 was most sensitive to HWTX-IV (IC(50) approximately 26 nM). Following application of 1 microm HWTX-IV, hNav1.7 currents could only be elicited with extreme depolarizations (>+100 mV). Recovery of hNav1.7 channels from HWTX-IV inhibition could be induced by extreme depolarizations or moderate depolarizations lasting several minutes. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis indicated that the toxin docked at neurotoxin receptor site 4 located at the extracellular S3-S4 linker of domain II. Mutations E818Q and D816N in hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by approximately 300-fold, whereas the reverse mutations in rNav1.4 (N655D/Q657E) and the corresponding mutations in hNav1.5 (R812D/S814E) greatly increased the sensitivity of the muscle VGSCs to HWTX-IV. Our data identify a novel mechanism for sodium channel inhibition by tarantula toxins involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4. In contrast to scorpion beta-toxins that trap the IIS4 voltage sensor in an outward configuration, we propose that HWTX-IV traps the voltage sensor of domain II in the inward, closed configuration.

  1. First record of Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 (Araneae, Theraphosidae) in Argentina and notes on its natural history in Misiones province

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo; Copperi, Maria Sofia; Schwerdt, Leonela Vanesa; Pompozzi, Gabriel Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    This is the first record for the tarantula Vitalius longisternalis Bertani, 2001 in Parana and Araucaria Forests, Misiones province, northeastern Argentina. Specimens were found at Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Wildlife Reserve. Data on its natural history is provided. Fil: Ferretti, Nelson Edgardo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico la Plata. Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (i); Argentina. Universidad Nacional de ...

  2. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...

  3. A new species of Hortipes (Araneae, Corinnidae, the first spider with an insertable retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Henrard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hortipes gigapophysalis (Araneae, Corinnidae is a new species described from both sexes from montane forest on Mt Nimba, eastern Guinea. The species is remarkable for its long, whip-shaped retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA on the male palp. The structure apparently has an insertable function as the epigyne of the female contains a separate set of ducts starting from a central concavity that is unique in the genus. This duct system is apparently meant to receive the supple RTA. This type of structural arrangement has never previously been found in spiders.

  4. Pharmacological characterization of potent and selective NaV1.7 inhibitors engineered from Chilobrachys jingzhao tarantula venom peptide JzTx-V.

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    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available Identification of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 inhibitors for chronic pain therapeutic development is an area of vigorous pursuit. In an effort to identify more potent leads compared to our previously reported GpTx-1 peptide series, electrophysiology screening of fractionated tarantula venom discovered the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide JzTx-V from the Chinese earth tiger tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. The parent peptide displayed nominal selectivity over the skeletal muscle NaV1.4 channel. Attribute-based positional scan analoging identified a key Ile28Glu mutation that improved NaV1.4 selectivity over 100-fold, and further optimization yielded the potent and selective peptide leads AM-8145 and AM-0422. NMR analyses revealed that the Ile28Glu substitution changed peptide conformation, pointing to a structural rationale for the selectivity gains. AM-8145 and AM-0422 as well as GpTx-1 and HwTx-IV competed for ProTx-II binding in HEK293 cells expressing human NaV1.7, suggesting that these NaV1.7 inhibitory peptides interact with a similar binding site. AM-8145 potently blocked native tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S channels in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons, exhibited 30- to 120-fold selectivity over other human TTX-S channels and exhibited over 1,000-fold selectivity over other human tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R channels. Leveraging NaV1.7-NaV1.5 chimeras containing various voltage-sensor and pore regions, AM-8145 mapped to the second voltage-sensor domain of NaV1.7. AM-0422, but not the inactive peptide analog AM-8374, dose-dependently blocked capsaicin-induced DRG neuron action potential firing using a multi-electrode array readout and mechanically-induced C-fiber spiking in a saphenous skin-nerve preparation. Collectively, AM-8145 and AM-0422 represent potent, new engineered NaV1.7 inhibitory peptides derived from the JzTx-V scaffold with improved NaV selectivity and biological activity in blocking action potential firing in both

  5. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.

  6. Antibacterial activity of venom from funnel web spider Agelena labyrinthica (Araneae: Agelenidae

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    M Benli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics has been increasing steadily, the need for combating these pathogens requires new pharmaceutical agents. To produce these substances, new models have been developed in recent decades. In our study, the venom of Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757 (Araneae: Agelenidae was tested against ten bacterial strains, specifically, testing 1/100, 1/10 and 1/1 fractions of diluted venom against these bacteria. While the 1/100 dilution was successful in only one of ten bacterial strains, the 1/10 and the 1/1 were effective on six of ten bacterial strains. The most effective results, among these three different concentrations, were observed on Bacillus subtilis. The other five strains that were also sensitive to the dilutions showed similar inhibition zones. Morphological alterations on bacterial cells and comparison with normal cells were accomplished by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The venom-treated cells, due to their loss of cytoplasm, shrank and presented cell wall depression.

  7. BROAD BALMER WINGS IN BA HYPER/SUPERGIANTS DISTORTED BY DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS: FIVE EXAMPLES IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION FROM THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Sabbi, Elena, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  8. Spiders from the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: Part III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida Aranhas da Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil: Parte III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 is described for the first time and Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, a species introduced from Europe, is recorded for the first time on the island of Fernando de Noronha, state of Pernambuco. The latter, along with T. lyonneti (Audouim, 1826 recorded from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, is the second species of this genus to be reported from Brazil. The spiders were collected with pitfall traps in five points of the island. Ecological data showed that Gnaphosidae was the fifth best sampled spider family, with 179 specimens, belonging to two species, T. kulczynskii and Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii was the most abundant with 118 adults while Z. hortenciae was represented by only 21 adults. Both species were collected during the dry and wet seasons but T. kulczynskii was more abundant during the wet season while Z. hortenciae was more abundant during the dry season. The male:female ratio for the dry season was similar for both species but in the wet season it was three times higher for T. kulczynskii.A fêmea de Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 é descrita pela primeira vez. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, uma espécie de origem européia, é registrada pela primeira vez na Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, no estado de Pernambuco. Junto com T. lyonneti (Audouin, 1826, já registrado para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é a segunda espécie do gênero introduzida no Brasil. As aranhas foram coletadas com armadilhas de solo em cinco pontos da ilha e os dados ecológicos detectados para Gnaphosidae foram de que esta foi a quinta família melhor amostrada dentre Araneae, com 179 espécimes de duas espécies, T. kulczynskii e Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii foi mais abundante com 118 adultos enquanto Z. hortenciae teve 21 adultos coletados. Ambas foram coletadas nas estações seca e chuvosa, sendo que T. kulczynskii foi mais

  9. Inferring species trees from gene trees in a radiation of California trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus.

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    Jordan D Satler

    Full Text Available The California Floristic Province is a biodiversity hotspot, reflecting a complex geologic history, strong selective gradients, and a heterogeneous landscape. These factors have led to high endemic diversity across many lifeforms within this region, including the richest diversity of mygalomorph spiders (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, and kin in North America. The trapdoor spider genus Aliatypus encompasses twelve described species, eleven of which are endemic to California. Several Aliatypus species show disjunct distributional patterns in California (some are found on both sides of the vast Central Valley, and the genus as a whole occupies an impressive variety of habitats.We collected specimens from 89 populations representing all described species. DNA sequence data were collected from seven gene regions, including two newly developed for spider systematics. Bayesian inference (in individual gene tree and species tree approaches recovered a general "3 clade" structure for the genus (A. gulosus, californicus group, erebus group, with three other phylogenetically isolated species differing slightly in position across different phylogenetic analyses. Because of extremely high intraspecific divergences in mitochondrial COI sequences, the relatively slowly evolving 28S rRNA gene was found to be more useful than mitochondrial data for identification of morphologically indistinguishable immatures. For multiple species spanning the Central Valley, explicit hypothesis testing suggests a lack of monophyly for regional populations (e.g., western Coast Range populations. Phylogenetic evidence clearly shows that syntopy is restricted to distant phylogenetic relatives, consistent with ecological niche conservatism.This study provides fundamental insight into a radiation of trapdoor spiders found in the biodiversity hotspot of California. Species relationships are clarified and undescribed lineages are discovered, with more geographic sampling likely to

  10. Speciation on a conveyor belt: sequential colonization of the hawaiian islands by Orsonwelles spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Arnedo, Miquel; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2003-02-01

    Spiders of the recently described linyphiid genus Orsonwelles (Araneae, Linyphiidae) are one of the most conspicuous groups of terrestrial arthropods of Hawaiian native forests. There are 13 known Orsonwelles species, and all are single- island endemics. This radiation provides an excellent example of insular gigantism. We reconstructed the cladistic relationships of Orsonwelles species using a combination of morphological and molecular characters (both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) within a parsimony framework. We explored and quantified the contribution of different character partitions and their sensitivity to changes in the traditional parameters (gap, transition, and transversion costs). The character data show a strong phylogenetic signal, robust to parameter changes. The monophyly of the genus Orsonwelles is strongly supported. The parsimony analysis of all character evidence combined recovered a clade with of all the non-Kauai Orsonwelles species; the species from Kauai form a paraphyletic assemblage with respect to the latter former clade. The biogeographic pattern of the Hawaiian Orsonwelles species is consistent with colonization by island progression, but alternative explanations for our data exist. Although the geographic origin of the radiation remains unknown, it appears that the ancestral colonizing species arrived first on Kauai (or an older island). The ambiguity in the area cladogram (i.e., post-Oahu colonization) is not derived from conflicting or unresolved phylogenetic signal among Orsonwelles species but rather from the number of taxa on the youngest islands. Speciation in Orsonwelles occurred more often within islands (8 of the 12 cladogenic events) than between islands. A molecular clock was rejected for the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated by using the nonparametric rate smoothing method of Sanderson (1997, Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:1218-1231) and the available geological data for calibration. The results suggest that the

  11. Chromosome mapping of dragline silk genes in the genomes of widow spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Zhao

    Full Text Available With its incredible strength and toughness, spider dragline silk is widely lauded for its impressive material properties. Dragline silk is composed of two structural proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. While previous studies have characterized the genes that encode the constituent proteins of spider silks, nothing is known about the physical location of these genes. We determined karyotypes and sex chromosome organization for the widow spiders, Latrodectus hesperus and L. geometricus (Araneae, Theridiidae. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map the genomic locations of the genes for the silk proteins that compose the remarkable spider dragline. These genes included three loci for the MaSp1 protein and the single locus for the MaSp2 protein. In addition, we mapped a MaSp1 pseudogene. All the MaSp1 gene copies and pseudogene localized to a single chromosomal region while MaSp2 was located on a different chromosome of L. hesperus. Using probes derived from L. hesperus, we comparatively mapped all three MaSp1 loci to a single region of a L. geometricus chromosome. As with L. hesperus, MaSp2 was found on a separate L. geometricus chromosome, thus again unlinked to the MaSp1 loci. These results indicate orthology of the corresponding chromosomal regions in the two widow genomes. Moreover, the occurrence of multiple MaSp1 loci in a conserved gene cluster across species suggests that MaSp1 proliferated by tandem duplication in a common ancestor of L. geometricus and L. hesperus. Unequal crossover events during recombination could have given rise to the gene copies and could also maintain sequence similarity among gene copies over time. Further comparative mapping with taxa of increasing divergence from Latrodectus will pinpoint when the MaSp1 duplication events occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of silk gene linkage patterns.

  12. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT. III. PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG AND RESULTING CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; Marel, R. P. van der; Panagia, N.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Arab, H.; Gordon, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA—European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Associate Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marchi, G. De [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); III, J. S. Gallagher [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Tosi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boyer, M. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Mink, S. E. de, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,”University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2016-01-15

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (∼0.5 M{sub ⊙}) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color–magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  13. Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.

  14. Dispatch from the field: ecology of ground-web-building spiders with description of a new species (Araneae, Symphytognathidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. (Araneae: Symphytognathidae) was discovered during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description and accompanying ecological study were completed as course activities. To assess the ecology of this species, which belongs to the ground-web-building spider community, three habitat types were surveyed: riparian forest, recently inundated riverine forest, and oil palm plantation. Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. is the most abundant ground-web-building spider species in riparian forest; it is rare or absent from the recently inundated forest and was not found in a nearby oil palm plantation. The availability of this taxonomic description may help facilitate the accumulation of data about this species and the role of inundated riverine forest in shaping invertebrate communities. PMID:24891829

  15. Dispatch from the field: ecology of ground-web-building spiders with description of a new species (Araneae, Symphytognathidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. (Araneae: Symphytognathidae was discovered during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description and accompanying ecological study were completed as course activities. To assess the ecology of this species, which belongs to the ground-web-building spider community, three habitat types were surveyed: riparian forest, recently inundated riverine forest, and oil palm plantation. Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. is the most abundant ground-web-building spider species in riparian forest; it is rare or absent from the recently inundated forest and was not found in a nearby oil palm plantation. The availability of this taxonomic description may help facilitate the accumulation of data about this species and the role of inundated riverine forest in shaping invertebrate communities.

  16. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the Northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

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    Eugen Nițu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalău" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous, 9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous, 125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- and necrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalău primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slătioara, Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles (Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing of species richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  17. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

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    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  18. The tarantula toxins ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV differentially interact with human Nav1.7 voltage sensors to inhibit channel activation and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2010-12-01

    The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.7 plays a crucial role in pain, and drugs that inhibit hNa(v)1.7 may have tremendous therapeutic potential. ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), cystine knot peptides from tarantula venoms, preferentially block hNa(v)1.7. Understanding the interactions of these toxins with sodium channels could aid the development of novel pain therapeutics. Whereas both ProTx-II and HWTX-IV have been proposed to preferentially block hNa(v)1.7 activation by trapping the domain II voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, we show that specific residues in the voltage-sensor paddle of domain II play substantially different roles in determining the affinities of these toxins to hNa(v)1.7. The mutation E818C increases ProTx-II's and HWTX-IV's IC(50) for block of hNa(v)1.7 currents by 4- and 400-fold, respectively. In contrast, the mutation F813G decreases ProTx-II affinity by 9-fold but has no effect on HWTX-IV affinity. It is noteworthy that we also show that ProTx-II, but not HWTX-IV, preferentially interacts with hNa(v)1.7 to impede fast inactivation by trapping the domain IV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration. Mutations E1589Q and T1590K in domain IV each decreased ProTx-II's IC(50) for impairment of fast inactivation by ~6-fold. In contrast mutations D1586A and F1592A in domain-IV increased ProTx-II's IC(50) for impairment of fast inactivation by ~4-fold. Our results show that whereas ProTx-II and HWTX-IV binding determinants on domain-II may overlap, domain II plays a much more crucial role for HWTX-IV, and contrary to what has been proposed to be a guiding principle of sodium channel pharmacology, molecules do not have to exclusively target the domain IV voltage-sensor to influence sodium channel inactivation.

  19. Influence of spider silk on refugia preferences of the recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.

  20. Mapping the interaction site for the tarantula toxin hainantoxin-IV (β-TRTX-Hn2a) in the voltage sensor module of domain II of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianfu; Luo, Ji; Meng, Er; Ding, Jiuping; Liang, Songping; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    Peptide toxins often have pharmacological applications and are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a group of potential VGSC inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism of their interaction with VGSCs. In this study, we showed that hainantoxin-IV (β-TRTX-Hn2a, HNTX-IV in brief), a 35-residue peptide from Ornithoctonus hainana venom, preferentially inhibited rNav1.2, rNav1.3 and hNav1.7 compared with rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. hNav1.7 was the most sensitive to HNTX-IV (IC50∼21nM). In contrast to many other tarantula toxins that affect VGSCs, HNTX-IV at subsaturating concentrations did not alter activation and inactivation kinetics in the physiological range of voltages, while very large depolarization above +70mV could partially activate toxin-bound hNav1.7 channel, indicating that HNTX-IV acts as a gating modifier rather than a pore blocker. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the toxin bound to site 4, which was located on the extracellular S3-S4 linker of hNav1.7 domain II. Mutants E753Q, D816N and E818Q of hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by 2.0-, 3.3- and 130-fold, respectively. In silico docking indicated that a three-toed claw substructure formed by residues with close contacts in the interface between HNTX-IV and hNav1.7 domain II stabilized the toxin-channel complex, impeding movement of the domain II voltage sensor and inhibiting hNav1.7 activation. Our data provide structural details for structure-based drug design and a useful template for the design of highly selective inhibitors of a specific subtype of VGSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecology of the plant-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    René Fourie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida in the Grassland Biome, foliage-dwelling and grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae were collected in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve in the central Free State Province from November 2005 to August 2007. Foliage-dwelling spiders were collected from three common tree or shrub species (Acacia karroo, Searsia ciliata and Searsia lancea and grass-dwellers from four contrasting grasslands (uniform Themeda triandra, mixed, weedy and woodland grasslands. From the grass layer, 1649 spiders were collected, representing 15 families and 82 species, whilst 496 tree-dwelling spiders were collected that represented 17 families and 52 species. There was some overlap in the fauna of the two strata, resulting in a total of 108 species from 18 families being collected. The Araneidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae were consistently the most abundant in all grassland types and tree species, although Salticidae were scarce on A. karroo. Assemblage analysis indicates high similarity and overlap in the fauna of the four grassland types, suggesting that the structural complexity of grasslands has a limited effect on species composition. In contrast, the foliage-dwelling assemblages were more distinct, with only some overlap between the faunas of S. ciliata and A. karroo, suggesting a stronger vegetation structural effect in shaping arboreal spider assemblages. The isolation of trees and shrubs within the extensive grassy habitat may contribute to the more unique fauna and lower species richness of the woody vegetation. Conservation implications: This study uncovered a rich diversity of plant-dwelling spiders from central South Africa. Grassland faunas show considerable temporal variation and some variability in microhabitat preferences, and sampling protocols should take this into account when spiders are considered in management plans and biodiversity surveys in reserves and private land.

  2. Ecology of the plant-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Fourie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida in the Grassland Biome, foliage-dwelling and grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae were collected in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve in the central Free State Province from November 2005 to August 2007. Foliage-dwelling spiders were collected from three common tree or shrub species (Acacia karroo, Searsia ciliata and Searsia lancea and grass-dwellers from four contrasting grasslands (uniform Themeda triandra, mixed, weedy and woodland grasslands. From the grass layer, 1649 spiders were collected, representing 15 families and 82 species, whilst 496 tree-dwelling spiders were collected that represented 17 families and 52 species. There was some overlap in the fauna of the two strata, resulting in a total of 108 species from 18 families being collected. The Araneidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae were consistently the most abundant in all grassland types and tree species, although Salticidae were scarce on A. karroo. Assemblage analysis indicates high similarity and overlap in the fauna of the four grassland types, suggesting that the structural complexity of grasslands has a limited effect on species composition. In contrast, the foliage-dwelling assemblages were more distinct, with only some overlap between the faunas of S. ciliata and A. karroo, suggesting a stronger vegetation structural effect in shaping arboreal spider assemblages. The isolation of trees and shrubs within the extensive grassy habitat may contribute to the more unique fauna and lower species richness of the woody vegetation. Conservation implications: This study uncovered a rich diversity of plant-dwelling spiders from central South Africa. Grassland faunas show considerable temporal variation and some variability in microhabitat preferences, and sampling protocols should take this into account when spiders are considered in management plans and biodiversity surveys in reserves and private land.

  3. Aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida em copas da palmeira Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Leandro Dênis Battirola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis palmeiras de Attalea phalerata foram amostradas durante a fase aquática (cheia no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (fevereiro/2001, utilizando-se a metodologia de nebulização de copas "canopy fogging". Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição, distribuição espacial, guildas comportamentais, biomassa e sazonalidade da comunidade de Araneae em copas dessa palmeira que forma adensamentos monodominantes, típicos nessa região. Um total de 1326 aranhas foram coletadas em 99 m² de área amostral (13,4 + 8,2 indivíduos/m², representando 20 famílias, sendo Salticidae e Araneidae as mais abundantes. A biomassa total de 704 aranhas em três palmeiras correspondeu a 0.6172 mg de peso seco (0,0123+ 0,04 mg/m². Dez guildas comportamentais demonstraram a coexistência de diferentes espécies em um mesmo habitat. Representantes de Salticidae, Oonopidae e Ctenidae dominaram entre as caçadoras, e Araneidae e Dictynidae, dentre as tecelãs. A análise de distribuição espacial demonstrou que a maior abundância de aranhas ocorreu na região central da copa, provavelmente devido à quantidade de recursos disponíveis nesse local. A comparação desses resultados com aqueles obtidos durante o período de seca, demonstra diferenças sazonais influenciadas pelo pulso de inundação, principalmente com relação à composição das famílias amostradas entre os períodos de seca e cheia.Ecological aspects of a community of Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida at the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Six palm trees of Attalea phalerata were sampled during the aquatic phase (high water in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001 using canopy fogging. The objective was to evaluate the composition, spatial distribution, behavioural guilds, biomass and seasonality of the community of Araneae at the crowns of these palm trees, which form monospecific stands that are typical of this region. A total

  4. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01

  5. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  6. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n. , Caribena gen. n. , and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n. , Avicularia lynnae sp. n. , and Avicularia caei sp. n. . Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to

  7. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y

  8. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

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    Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno

    Full Text Available Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females.We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula, a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females.In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these

  9. Community structure and composition of litter spiders (Arachnida: Araneae and influence of macro-climatic factors on Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil

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    Renan Castro Santana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spiders are a diverse group and are considered to be good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to variation in biotic and abiotic factors.  Despite this the taxonomy of the Araneae is poorly known, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions.  The use of spider guilds can improve our understanding of the dynamics of spider communities, and in this paper we analyse the influence of climatic factors on guilds and species dominance of spiders within the leaf litter layer of a semi-deciduous forest in the tropical savanna Cerrado, Brazil. The study site was Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, a fragment of 90ha, in Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil.  Spiders were sampled from November 2006 to August 2007 using pitfall traps that remained open for seven days on each of four occasions.  Overall 4139 spiders from 35 families and 118 species were collected. The main families were Salticidae (28%, Linyphiidae (27%, Lycosidae (12% and Theridiidae (11%.  In terms of richness the main families were: Theridiidae, Salticidae, Corinnidae and Araneidae, with 18, 16, 15 and 13 species respectively. The overall Shannon-Wiener (H’ diversity was 3.6. The rainy season showed higher values than the dry season for abundance (2,868 and 1,271 respectively, richness (100 and 71 and diversity (3,296 and 3,237.  The families Theridiidae, Corinnidae and Salticidae presented more species in both dry and wet seasons.  Observed climatic variation (rainfall, humidity and temperature between seasons influenced the community structure of ground-dwelling spiders. 

  10. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo-Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Araneae: Theraphosidae, which were dragged backwards to the nest by the wasp. The nest was excavated before hunting. This is the first description of the behavior of Pepsis montezuma.

  11. Comportamiento sexual de Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae

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    Marco A. Benamú

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.

  12. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  13. A revision of Neodiplothele (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Barychelidae

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    Hector M.O. Gonzalez-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Sasoninae Neodiplothele Mello-Leitão, 1917 is revised and now includes eight species. Neodiplothele can be distinguished from other Sasoninae by the absence of the posterior median spinnerets and differs Neotropical relatives as Cosmopelma by the absence of cuspules on coxae of leg I and Paracenobiopelma by the absence of cuspules on the labium. The male of N. irregularis Mello-Leitão, 1917 and N. picta Vellard, 1924 are described and illustrated for the first time. Neodiplothele leonardosi Mello-Leitão, 1939 is considered a junior synonym of N. irregularis. Five new species are described from Brazil: N. aureus sp. nov. from the states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, and Minas Gerais, N. itabaiana sp. nov. from Sergipe, N. martinsi sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Minas Gerais, N. indicattii sp. nov. from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, N. caucaia sp. nov. from Ceará, Goiás, and Mato Grosso do Sul. Two informal groups are proposed based on genitalia morphology: irregularis group and picta group. An identification key and new distribution records for all known species are given.

  14. Comportamiento sexual de Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae Sexual behavior of Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae

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    Marco A. Benamú

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (courtship, mating and post-mating of A. veniliae. The spiders were collected in transgenic soybean crops located in Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and reared under laboratory conditions. Based on observations of 20 couples (with virgin females, behavioral units of male and female in terms of postures and movements, including details on duration and frequency, were described at all stages of sexual activity (courtship, mating and post-mating. Courtship exhibited the greatest number and duration of behavioral units in both sexes. Male and female had a sequence of 16 and nine units, respectively, being the frequency of repetitions of the units significantly higher in the male. Mating was brief and males used a single palp to fill only one of the female spermathecae, after which the female became unreceptive. Mating had two behavioral units in the male and only one in the female. During post-mating males had three and females two behavioral units. The average duration of the whole sexual behavior was 541.90±123.1 seconds for the male and 338.20±74.1 seconds for the female. Alpaida veniliae females rarely accept a second mating with the same or another male (remating, indicating a strict monogamy. In 46% of observed mating, the female cannibalized the male after it. Females became unattractive after mating, since stop producing sex pheromones, causing a reduction of the male vibratory courtship. The high cost of courtship, including the risk of cannibalism, would reinforce the selectivity of males towards receptive virgin females.

  15. Of Tears and Tarantulas: Folk Religiosity, de Martino’s Ethnology, and the Italian South

    OpenAIRE

    Falasca Zamponi, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Italian ethnographer Ernesto de Martino’s investigation of ritual crying in Southern Italy, bringing to the fore the role ethnology was called to play as a new twentieth-century discipline that emerged from the forced encounter between powerful “advanced” nations and societies “without history.”  Ethnology sought to analyze the impact of cultural norms on a world increasingly polarized between the inevitable march towards rational modernity and the appeal of a magical...

  16. On some African Oecobius and Zimiris (Araneae, Oecobiidae and Gnaphosidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brignoli, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Some records are published of Oecobius annulipes Lucas, 1849, O. cellariorum (Dugès, 1836) — new for Tunisia —, O. putus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876, and O. templi O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876 (♂ ♀ illustrated, new for Sudan). Zimiris doriai Simon, 1882, is recorded from Sudan (new for this country, ♂

  17. Vision in the nocturnal wandering spider Leucorchestris arenicola (Araneae: Sparassidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R

    2008-01-01

    At night the Namib Desert spider Leucorchestris arenicola performs long-distance homing across its sand dune habitat. By disabling all or pairs of the spiders' eight eyes we found that homing ability was severely reduced when vision was fully abolished. Vision, therefore, seems to play a key role...... in the posterior and anteriomedian eyes, and at approximately 540 nm in the anteriolateral eyes. Theoretical calculations of photon catches showed that the eyes are likely to employ a combination of spatial and temporal pooling in order to function at night. Under starlit conditions, the raw spatial and temporal...... resolution of the eyes is insufficient for detecting any visual information on structures in the landscape, and bright stars would be the only objects visible to the spiders. However, by summation in space and time, the spiders can rescue enough vision to detect coarse landscape structures. We show that L...

  18. Revision of the neotropical genus Xeropigo (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Danni Roberto Santos; Bonaldo, Alexandre B.

    2007-01-01

    O gênero Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 é revisado, com a proposição de sete novas espécies neotropicais: X. candango, sobre machos e fêmeas de Brasília, Distrito Federal e Goiás, Brasil; X. rheimsae, machos de Goiás, Brasil; X. camilae, sobre machos e fêmeas do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. cotijuba, machos e fêmeas da Guiana e do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. pachitea, machos e fêmeas de Huánuco e Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, fêmeas de Junin e Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, mach...

  19. A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127

  20. A Revision of the genus Ceratogyrus Pocock (Araneae: Theraphosidae

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    J.I. De Wet

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The African genus Ceratogyrus of the family Theraphosidae is revised, with notes of its natural history. Seven species are recognised and distinguished in a key. Six species, namely C. bechuanicus Pocock, C. brachycephalus Hewitt, C. darlingii Pocock, C. dolichocephalus Hewitt, C. marshalli Pocock and C. sanderi Strand are redescribed and figured, C. cornuatus is newly described and figured and C. schultzei Pocock is synonymized with C. bechuanicus. Lectotypes are designated for four species namely, C. brachycephalus, C. darlingii, C. dolichocephalus and C. marshalli. Distributional data is given for all seven species.

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of Gnaphosidae (Arachnida: Araneae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some additions were made on arachnofauna in Turkey. We recorded Drassodex Murphy, 2007 genus and six gnaphosid species: Drassodex hypocrita (Simon, 1878), Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall, 1834), Echemus angustifrons (Westring, 1861), Setaphis gomerae (Schmidt, 1981), Trachyzelotes fuscipes (L.

  2. A new species of Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae from Tunisia

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    Carles Ribera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles, L. mrazig sp. n., found in Tunisia is described and illustrated. The male bulb shows a high degree of morphological similarity to that of L. gaucho from Brazil, but the proportions of the palpal segments and the general colouration of the body reveal significant differences between the two species. A distance analysis of the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cox1 reveals that the specimen from Tunisia shows high genetic distance from L. gaucho (more than 20%. The American species L. gaucho and L. laeta form a sister group to the Mediterranean representatives (L. rufescens and the Tunisian specimen.

  3. Two new spiders from Sumatra (Araneae, Telemidae and Ochyroceratidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brignoli, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Apneumonella jacobsoni n. sp. is described (♀, ♂ unknown; typ. loc.: Fort de Kock, Sumatra, Indonesia); this species, which can be distinguished from all other known Telemids by general morphology, genitalia, chelicerae, etc., is provisionally included in Apneumonella; the differential characters

  4. Cave-dwelling pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae: a review

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pholcidae are ubiquitous spiders in tropical and subtropical caves around the globe, yet very little is known about cave-dwelling pholcids beyond what is provided in taxonomic descriptions and faunistic papers. This paper provides a review based on a literature survey and unpublished information, while pointing out potential biases and promising future projects. A total of 473 native (i.e. non-introduced species of Pholcidae have been collected in about 1000 caves. The large majority of cave-dwelling pholcids are not troglomorphic; a list of 86 troglomorphic species is provided, including 21 eyeless species and 21 species with strongly reduced eyes. Most troglomorphic pholcids are representatives of only two genera: Anopsicus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1938 and Metagonia Simon, 1893. Mexico is by far the richest country in terms of troglomorphic pholcids, followed by several islands and mainland SE Asia. The apparent dominance of Mexico may partly be due to collectors’ and taxonomists’ biases. Most caves harbor only one pholcid species, but 91 caves harbor two and more species (up to five species. Most troglomorphic pholcids belong to two subfamilies (Modisiminae, Pholcinae, very few belong to Smeringopinae and Arteminae, none to Ninetinae. This is in agreement with the recent finding that within Pholcidae, microhabitat changes in general are concentrated in Modisiminae and Pholcinae.

  5. Prey capture by the crab spider Misumena calycina (Araneae: Thomisidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Douglass H

    1979-01-01

    Crab spiders Misumena calycina (L.) in pasture rose Rosa carolina flowers regularly attacked bumble bees, smaller bees, and syrphid flies that visited these flowers. Attacks reached a maximum rate of over 20/h during mid morning, but only 1.6% of the most important prey item, bumble bees, were captured. The next most important food source, the most frequently taken item, syrphid flies Toxomerus marginatus (Say), were captured in 39% of the attempts. Since these flies have a biomass only 1/60th that of bumble bees, they comprised a much less important food source than did bumble bees. Spiders would obtain over 7% more food by specializing on bumble bees than by attacking all insect visitors, and as much as 20% more food at certain times of the day. However, they did not show a tendency to specialize at any time.

  6. Micro-scale heterogeneity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coarse-scale studies that focus on species distributions and richness neglect heterogeneity that may be present at finer scales. Studies of arthropod assemblage structure at fine (1 × 1 km) scales are rare, but important, because these are the spatial levels at which real world applications are viable. Here we investigate ...

  7. First record of Walckenaeria clavicornis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; van Helsdingen, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    An adult male Walckenaeria clavicornis Emerton 1882 (unicornis-group of species in Wackenaeria) was found on 5 February 1998 at about 35 m distance from a parking place on the Amsterdam University grounds in the Netherlands. It was hiding in a dark small cavity in wet ground under a dark plate of

  8. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  9. Phylogeny with introgression in Habronattus jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Robert, Geneviève; Maddison, Wayne P

    2018-02-22

    Habronattus is a diverse clade of jumping spiders with complex courtship displays and repeated evolution of Y chromosomes. A well-resolved species phylogeny would provide an important framework to study these traits, but has not yet been achieved, in part because the few genes available in past studies gave conflicting signals. Such discordant gene trees could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in recently diverged parts of the phylogeny, but there are indications that introgression could be a source of conflict. To infer Habronattus phylogeny and investigate the cause of gene tree discordance, we assembled transcriptomes for 34 Habronattus species and 2 outgroups. The concatenated 2.41 Mb of nuclear data (1877 loci) resolved phylogeny by Maximum Likelihood (ML) with high bootstrap support (95-100%) at most nodes, with some uncertainty surrounding the relationships of H. icenoglei, H. cambridgei, H. oregonensis, and Pellenes canadensis. Species tree analyses by ASTRAL and SVDQuartets gave almost completely congruent results. Several nodes in the ML phylogeny from 12.33 kb of mitochondrial data are incongruent with the nuclear phylogeny and indicate possible mitochondrial introgression: the internal relationships of the americanus and the coecatus groups, the relationship between the altanus, decorus, banksi, and americanus group, and between H. clypeatus and the coecatus group. To determine the relative contributions of ILS and introgression, we analyzed gene tree discordance for nuclear loci longer than 1 kb using Bayesian Concordance Analysis (BCA) for the americanus group (679 loci) and the VCCR clade (viridipes/clypeatus/coecatus/roberti groups) (517 loci) and found signals of introgression in both. Finally, we tested specifically for introgression in the concatenated nuclear matrix with Patterson's D statistics and D FOIL . We found nuclear introgression resulting in substantial admixture between americanus group species, between H. roberti and the clypeatus group, and between the clypeatus and coecatus groups. Our results indicate that the phylogenetic history of Habronattus is predominantly a diverging tree, but that hybridization may have been common between phylogenetically distant species, especially in subgroups with complex courtship displays.

  10. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  11. Aberrante Epigynenbildungen bei der Wolfspinne Pardosa palustris (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of aberrant epigyne shape in Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758 are described. Characteristic is the absence of the posterior lateral parts of the septum. Possible causes, such as `genital damage` during mating or the effects of parasite infestation, are discussed.

  12. Ontogenetic development and reproduction of Zorocrates guerrerensis (Araneae: Zoropsidae

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    Dolejš, Petr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zorocrates guerrerensis Gertsch & Davis, 1940 is a Mexican cribellate spider with almost no information about its biology. As the species could potentially be of medical interest, it was decided to study basic aspects of its life history under laboratory conditions. The life cycle lasts a year, with spiders undergoing up to 12 instars to reach maturity. The courtship behaviour includes tactile communication. Copulation consists of two palpal insertions, each with a single haematodochal expansion. Both males and females can mate more than once; components of the first and second copulation do not differ. On average, the total copulation duration lasts for more than five minutes. Some details of the copulation process are discussed and compared with those of other lycosoids.

  13. Pandava laminata, eine weitere nach Deutschland importierte Spinnenart (Araneae: Titanoecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pandava laminata (Thorell, 1878 was recorded for the first time from Germany at the Cologne Zoo. The species was most likely introduced with plants or cargo from Southeast Asia. Characters important for identification at species, genus and family level are listed and partly illustrated.

  14. Erster Nachweis der Springspinne Evarcha jucunda (Araneae: Salticidae in Deutschland

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    Ludy, Claudia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of the jumping spider Evarcha jucunda was discovered in the fruit department of a general store in Gießen, Germany. The species has obviously been introduced with transported fruit from mediterranean countries.

  15. Two new Thiratoscirtus species from Gabon (Araneae, Salticidae, Thiratoscirtinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of jumping spiders, Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri (♂ and Th. lamboji (♀, are described from Gabon, one of the least explored areas of the Afrotropics. Both species live in rainforest, at the forest floor. They are members of a very poorly known subfamily of salticids, the Thiratoscirtinae.

  16. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

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    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  17. Boden- und baumstammbewohnende Linyphiidae des Hienheimer Forstes (Bayern (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Ulrich

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of a forest ecology research project by the University of Munich’s faculty of Forestry, involving the comparison of forests designed to reflect varying degrees of naturalness. Spiders on the ground and on trunks in four different forests in the Hienheimer Forst were caught with 24 ground photo eclectors, 8 arboreal eclectors and with 40 pitfall traps. Habitat requirements were measured and analysed with particular attention to forest soil. Abiotic parameters and the structure of the litter layer were recorded. The most frequent spiders were the Linyphiidae, Agelenidae and Amaurobidae.63 species of the family Linyphiidae were caught. One half of the Linyphiidae-species could be found on trunks of oak and spruce (eclector fauna. In terms of the number of spider species and in the portion of rare and endangered species there were almost no differences between commercial forest areas and conservation areas. The differences are not as great as the original classification according to closeness to the natural state had led us to expect.

  18. Morphological separation of the Central European Trochosa females (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepner, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult females of the five Central European wolf spiders Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, T. robusta (Simon, 1876, T. ruricola (DeGeer, 1778, T. spinipalpis (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1895, and T. terricola Thorell, 1856 were morphologically analysed. We defined sets of continuous and binary (presence/absence variables. Continuous data of various epigynal and carapace dimensions were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Using the PC loadings each individual was plotted along the PC axis in order to find gaps(overlaps between the species. The binary data sets were subjected to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA in order to find characters that clearly separate the five Trochosa species. Using PCA only individuals of T.robusta and T.ruricola and of T.robusta and T.hispanica could be separated from each other. Using HCA all five species could clearly be separated by epigynal and vulval characteristics."

  19. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the spider family Penestomidae (Araneae, Entelegynae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Haddad, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting character evidence and a scarcity of male specimens has historically made placement of the spider subfamily Penestominae Simon problematic. The Penestominae was recently removed from the family Eresidae and promoted to family rank based on the results of a molecular phylogenetic study; a

  1. Spider (Araneae) communities of scree slopes in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Klimeš, Leoš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2005), s. 280-289 ISSN 0161-8202 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : scree slopes * environmental factors * ice formation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2005

  2. First record of spider Mermessus trilobatus (Araneae) in South Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, M.; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Hussein, Hany; Sehnal, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 15-17 ISSN 1802-212X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant - others:projekt MOBITAG(CZ) 7FP-REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mermessus trilobatus * Eperigone trilobata * spreading Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://fzp.ujep.cz/Veda/Edice/StudiaOecologica/SO_1-2012_web.pdf

  3. Czech Republic – the type material of spiders (Araneae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Kůrka, A.; Buchar, J.; Řezáč, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 174, 1-4 (2005), s. 13-64 ISSN 0139-9543 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : spider s * type material * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. Three newly recorded Linyphiid spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Yeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Linyphiid spiders, Caviphantes pseudosaxetorum Wunderlich, 1979, Erigone edentata Saito and Ono, 2001, and Savignia kawachiensis Oi, 1960, are reported for the first time from Korea with taxonomic illustrations and redescription. In this study, the genus Caviphantes Oi, 1960 is also newly recorded to Korean spider fauna.

  5. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

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    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  6. 78 FR 72622 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 11 Tarantula...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... attach multiple pieces of information, our preferred format is a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel. By hard... addresses the petition. Evaluation of Petition The 11 species named in the petition include six species... species is endemic to the southern Western Ghats, in southern India. The species is reported from six...

  7. Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    NP Dinamithra; S Sivansuthan; P Johnson; JGP Nishshanka

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment wit...

  8. Revisão do gênero neotropical Xeropigo (Araneae,Corinnidae, Corinninae Revision of the neotropical genus Xeropigo (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae

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    Danni Roberto Santos De Souza

    Full Text Available O gênero Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 é revisado, com a proposição de sete novas espécies neotropicais: X. candango, sobre machos e fêmeas de Brasília, Distrito Federal e Goiás, Brasil; X. rheimsae, machos de Goiás, Brasil; X. camilae, sobre machos e fêmeas do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. cotijuba, machos e fêmeas da Guiana e do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. pachitea, machos e fêmeas de Huánuco e Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, fêmeas de Junin e Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, machos de Beni, Bolívia. As espécies previamente conhecidas, X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, a espécie-tipo, descrita da Ilha de Santa Helena, Oceano Atlântico, mas também conhecida das Américas do Sul e Central, e X. smedigari (Caporiacco, 1955 do norte da Venezuela e Trinidad, são re-diagnosticadas. Novos registros, ilustrações de X. tridentiger e chave para todas as espécies conhecidas são fornecidos.The genus Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 is revised, with the proposition of seven neotropical new species: X. candango, based in males and females from Brasília, Distrito Federal and Goiás, Brazil; X. rheimsae, males from Goiás, Brazil; X. camilae, males and females from north and middle west Brazil; X. cotijuba, males and females from Guiana and north and middle west Brazil; X. pachitea, males and females from Huánuco and Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, females from Junin and Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, males from Beni, Bolivia. The previously known species, X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, the type-species, described from Santa Helena Island, Atlantic Ocean, but also known from South and Central Americas, and X. smedigari (Caporiacco, 1955 from north Venezuela and Trinidad, are rediagnosed. New records and illustrations of X. tridentiger and a key for all known species are given.

  9. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae en hábitats antropogénicos Diversity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in anthropogenic habitats

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    Marco Antonio Desales-Lara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de ciudades constituye la transformación más drástica, fundamental e irreversible de los sistemas naturales, reemplazando todo componente biótico y abiótico original del lugar. Entre los artrópodos que han podido adaptarse a los ambientes urbanos se encuentran las arañas. Se encontraron 41 especies en el interior de 12 casas de 2 niveles de la ciudad de Toluca, ubicadas en 4 ambientes con diferente grado de urbanización, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2009 a agosto del 2010. Por primera vez se empleó un método sistematizado para recolecta de arañas en el interior de las viviendas. La diversidad de arañas fue diferente en cada uno de los ambientes muestreados; el índice de Shannon (H' mostró que la diversidad de arañas es mayor en las casas que presentan jardín en el ambiente urbano, por lo que no se apoya la hipótesis del disturbio intermedio. El número de arañas encontradas fue mayor en el primer nivel de las viviendas que en el segundo, por lo que se proponen 3 hipótesis para explicar esta diferencia. Se propone la prueba de Olmstead-Tukey para determinar los 4 niveles de sinantropismo (N. S., ya que la prueba engloba valores utilizados en los índices de densidad e infestación (ocupación.City-building is the most drastic, fundamental and irreversible transformation of natural environments, replacing all original biotic and abiotic components of the site. Spiders are among the arthropods that have become adapted to urban environments. We found 41 species within 12 two-story houses of the city of Toluca, located in 4 environments with different degrees of urbanization, during the period September 2009-August 2010. For the first time a systematic method was used to collect spiders inside houses with even collecting efforts. The diversity of spiders is different in each of the sampled environments, the Shannon index (H ' indicated that the diversity of spiders was higher in houses with gardens in the urban environment, so it does not support the hypothesis of intermediate disturbance. The number of spiders found is higher on the first level of houses than on the second, and 3 hypotheses are proposed to explain this difference. The Olmstead-Tukey test is proposed to determine the 4 levels of synanthropism (N. S., since the test includes values used in the density and infestation rates (occupation.

  10. Seasonal patterns of parasitism of the tropical spiders Theridion evexum (Araneae, Theridiidae and Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae, Araneidae by the wasps Zatypota petronae and Polysphincta gutfreundi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Barrantes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rates of parasitism of Theridion evexum by the parasitoid wasp Zatypota petronae, and Allocyclosa bifurca by Polysphincta gutfreundi, were followed for two years. Parasitism of T. evexum was very low (mean 1.39+1.8%, and restricted to nearly seven months of the year. Parasitism of A. bifurca was higher (mean 7.8+7.6%, and did not show a seasonal pattern. Reproduction of the host spider T. evexum was highly seasonal, with only one, highly coordinated generation per year, while adults of A. bifurca were present year round. Short-term autocorrelation on parasitism rates over time at different sites suggest that P. gutfreundi tend to return to the same sites to hunt hosts over periods of a few weeks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 749-754. Epub 2008 June 30.Las tasas de parasitismo de Theridion evexum por la avispa parasitoide Zatypota petronae y de Allocyclosa bifurca por Polysphincta gutfreundi fueron estudiadas durante dos años. El parasitismo en T. evexum fue muy bajo (promedio 1.39+1.8% y restringido a aproximadamente siete meses del año. El parasitismo en A. bifurca fue más alto (promedio 7.8+7.6% y no mostró un claro patrón estacional. La reproducción de la araña hospedera T. evexum fue muy estacional, con solamente una generación por año, mientras que los adultos de A. bifurca estuvieron presentes todo el año. Autocorrelaciones de las tasas de parasitismo entre censos consecutivos en diferentes sitios sugiere que P. gutfreundi tiende a retornar a los mismos sitios para parasitar las arañas hospederas durante algunas semanas.

  11. A new Agraecina spider species from the Balkan Peninsula (FYR Macedonia) (Araneae: Liocranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltshev, Christo; Wang, Chunxia

    2016-05-30

            Specimens were collected using pitfall traps. Coloration is described from alcohol-preserved specimens. Specimens were examined and measured using a Wild M5A stereomicroscope. Further details were studied and measured under an Olympus BX41 compound microscope. All drawings were made using a drawing apparatus attached to a Leica stereomicroscope. Male palps and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after they were dissected from the spiders' bodies. Photos were taken with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. The images were montaged using Helicon Focus image stacking software. Measurements of the legs are taken from the dorsal side. Total length of the body includes the chelicerae. All measurements were taken in mm. Abbreviations used in text include: AME, anterior median eyes; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; EM, embolus; MA, median apophysis; CD, copulatory duct; ST, spermatheca; fe, femur; pa, patella; ti, tibia; mt, metatarsus; p, prolateral; d, dorsal; r, retrolateral; v, ventral. Type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural History (NMNHS), Sofia, Bulgaria.

  12. Alpaida (Araneae: Araneidae from the Amazon Basin and Ecuador: new species, new records and complementary descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Saturnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Alpaida, A. levii and A. yanayacu, the male of A. iquitos Levi, 1988 and the female of A. gurupi Levi, 1988 are described and illustrated for the first time. Alpaida levii, described from the states of Pará and Amazonas, is closely related to A. delicata (Keyserling, 1892, but differs in that males have a curved and distally pointed terminal apophysis, and females have the epigynum longer than wide and a drop-shaped median lobe. Alpaida yanayacu is only known from Ecuador and is characterized by long and rounded lateral lobes in ventral view and median lobe wide at base. A brief discussion about the morphological similarity among A. levii, A. delicata and A. truncata (Keyserling, 1865 is presented. Based on the information provided, new diagnoses are proposed for A. delicata and A. truncata. New records of A. antonio Levi, 1988, A. bicornuta (Taczanowski, 1878, A. boa Levi, 1988, A. deborae Levi, 1988, A. delicata, A. erythrothorax (Taczanowski, 1873, A. guimaraes Levi, 1988, A. guto Abrahim & Bonaldo, 2008, A. gurupi, A. iquitos, A. leucogramma (White, 1841, A. murtinho Levi, 1988, A. negro Levi, 1988, A. rossi Levi, 1988, A. septemmammata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889, A. simla Levi, 1988, A. tayos Levi, 1988, A. truncata, A. urucuca Levi, 1988, A. utiariti Levi, 1988 and A. veniliae Levi, 1988 are presented.

  13. Revision of the orb-weaving spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, Arno A; Kesster, Cynara C; Da Silva, Estevam L Cruz

    2015-02-25

    The araneid spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 is revised. Five of the seven previously known species, V. arenata (Walckenaer, 1841), V. lampra Soares & Camargo, 1948, V. meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892), V. undecimvariolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) and V. zebra (Keyserling, 1892), are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, 37 new species of Verrucosa from the Neotropical region are described and illustrated: V. cachimbo n. sp., V. tarapoa n. sp., V. scapofracta n. sp., V. carara n. sp., V. latigastra n. sp., V. guatopo n. sp., V. cuyuni n. sp., V. benavidesae n. sp., V. rancho n. sp., V. excavata n. sp., V. meta n. sp., V. levii n. sp., V. chanchamayo n. sp., V. manauara n. sp., V. brachiscapa n. sp., V. macarena n. sp., V. pedrera n. sp., V. lata n. sp., V. galianoae n. sp., V. suaita n. sp., V. coroico n. sp., V. florezi n. sp., V. hoferi n. sp., V. caninde n. sp., V. opon n. sp., V. silvae n. sp., V. avilesae n. sp., V. tuberculata n. sp., V. alvarengai n. sp., V. apuela n. sp., V. bartica n. sp., V. cajamarca n. sp., V. canje n. sp., V. cuyabenoensis n. sp., V. sergipana n. sp., V. simla n. sp. and V. rhea n. sp. Mahadiva reticulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 is removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841) and is recognized as a valid species, Verrucosa reticulata. Araneus cylicophorus Badcock, 1932 is transferred to Verrucosa by Mello-Leitão (1946) removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) and recognized as a valid species. The male of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) is described for the first time. Distributional maps are provided for all species.

  14. Redescription of the orb-weaving spider Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Jobi, Malamel J; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-02-02

    The orb-weaving spider genus Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 (Araneidae) is notable for its pronounced sexual size dimorphism. Gasteracantha females are characterized by having a highly sclerotized "spiny" abdomen varying in relative size and number of spines, as well as abdomen dorsally and ventrally provided with varying numbers of sigillae (Cambridge 1879). The genus currently includes 70 described species and 31 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2014). The Oriental species Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) was originally described from Ramnad (now known as Ramanathapuram) in Tamilnadu State of Southern India based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s). The female of this species has been described and illustrated several times by various authors. Its male is only known from the description of Simon (1895). Simon's original description of the male of G. geminata was supported by two simple but beautiful and informative illustrations: a retrolateral view of the cephalothorax and a dorsal view of the abdomen (Simon 1895, figs. 886, 887). However we lack a clear and detailed description of the male genitalia. The present paper provides detailed redescription of G. geminata and illustrations of the male pedipalp. 

  15. Two new species and new records of Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam L. C. da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nine species of Syntrechalea F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 are known, six of them occurring in Brazil. In this study, two new species of of this genus are described and illustrated from the states of Amazonas and Tocantins, northern Brazil. Syntrechalea neblina sp.nov. can be distinguished from all known species by the bifurcated guide of the median apophysis. Syntrechalea robusta sp.nov. can be distinguished from all known species by the wider and concave ectal division of the retrolateral tibial apophysis. Additionally, new records of S. adis Carico, 2008, S. brasilia Carico, 2008, S. caporiacco Carico, 2008, S. napoensis Carico, 2008, S. syntrechaloides (Mello-Leitão, 1941 and S. tenuis F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 are provided.

  16. Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Mariajosé; Andía, Juan Manuel

    2014-07-02

    Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described and illustrated; Alpaida losamigos n. sp. based on females from Madre de Dios, and Alpaida penca n. sp. based on females and males from Cajamarca.

  17. Zur Identifikation einer nach Deutschland eingeschleppten Kammspinnenart (Araneae: Ctenidae: Phoneutria boliviensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data and a drawing of the epigyne of Phoneutria boliviensis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, recently recorded from Germany, are presented. The specimen was introduced with cargo (bananas from Brazil. Characters of the single female are illustrated to facilitate identification in the future, since in the two recent revisions of the genus no drawing of the epigyne of P. boliviensis was included. Another case of introduction from 1998 of an unidentified subadult Phoneutria specimen, probably P. boliviensis too, with bananas from Ecuador is documented.

  18. Curicaberis, a new genus of Sparassidae from North and Central America (Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparassinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Cristina A

    2015-09-04

    The genus Curicaberis gen. nov. is described to include the type species, Curicaberis ferrugineus (C.L. Koch, 1836) comb. nov., and eight other species transferred from Olios Walckenaer, 1837: C. abnormis (Keyserling, 1884) comb. nov., C. annulatus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) comb. nov., C. bibranchiatus (Fox, 1937) comb. nov., C. ensiger (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) comb. nov., C. ferrugineus (C.L. Koch, 1836) comb. nov., C. luctuosus (Banks, 1898) comb. nov., C. minax (O. Pickard-Cambridge,1896) comb. nov., C. manifestus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1890) comb. nov., and C. peninsulanus (Banks, 1898) comb. nov.. All species are redescribed and illustrated. The males of C. ferrugineus comb. nov. and C. luctuosus comb. nov., and the female of C. annulatus comb. nov. are described and illustrated for the first time. Twenty-three new species are described: C. azul sp. nov. (♂) from Veracruz, C. catarinas sp. nov. (♀) from Chihuahua, C. chamela sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. eberhardi sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. jalisco sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), and C. urquizai sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Jalisco, C. culiacan sp. nov. (♂) from Sinaloa, C. cuyutlan sp. nov. (♂) from Colima, C. durango sp. nov. (♂) from Durango, C. elpunto sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. sanpedrito sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. tortugero sp. nov. (♀), C. yerba sp. nov. (♀) and C. zapotec sp. nov. (♂) from Oaxaca, C. huitiupan sp. nov. (♂), from Chiapas, C. pedregal sp. nov. (♂) from Distrito Federal, C. potosi sp. nov. (♀) from San Luis Potosí, C. puebla sp. nov. (♀) from Puebla, C. tepic sp. nov. (♀) from Nayarit, and C. mitla sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Veracruz and Oaxaca, C. chiapas sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Chiapas and Tabasco, all in Mexico, C. granada sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Granada and Manágua in Nicaragua and Guanacaste in Costa Rica, and C. bagaces sp. nov. (♀), from Guanacaste, Costa Rica. An identification key and distribution maps are provided for all known species.

  19. On the taxonomy of Trechaleidae (Araneae: Lycosoidea from Colombia and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Enna O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 from Cusco, Peru and two new species of Caricelea SILVA & LISE, 2007 based in males collected in Cusco, Peru are described. Enna echarate sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species by the two lateral excavations on the epigynal middle field. Caricelea apurimac sp. nov. an be distinguished from the other members of the genus, by the larger lamellar projection (LP on the median apophysis that covers most of the guide. Caricelea camisea sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the genus, by the smaller lamellar projection and the smaller and acute ental division of the retrolateral apophysis. The males of Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 are described and illustrated for the first time. Trechalea numida Mello-Leitão, 1943 and Trechalea limai Mello-Leitão, 1941 are transferred to Thaumasia Perty, 1833 (Pisauridae and Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 (Trechaleidae as species inquirenda and nomen dubium, respectively. New records of Hesydrus aurantius (Mello-Leitão, 1942, Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005, Enna maya Silva, Lise & Carico, 2008 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 from Colombia and Peru are presented.

  20. Taxonomic notes on the crab spider genera Stephanopoides and Isaloides (Araneae: Thomisidae: Stephanopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renato Augusto; Barros, Bruno Augusto Reis

    2015-05-08

    According to current catalogues, two species are allocated to the genus Parastephanops F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900. The examination of the type of Parastephanops cognatus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892) (type-species of Parastephanops) has revealed the presence of a high cephalic region, legs with dark metatarsus and apex of tibia, and triangular epigynum with median ridge, all diagnostic features of Stephanopoides Keyserling, 1880. However, the female of P. echinatus (Banks, 1914) has a low cephalic region, a median ocular quadrangle longer than wide and a large atrium of the epigynum, which are diagnostic features of Isaloides F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900. Thus, Parastephanops is synonymized with Stephanopoides and its two species, P. cognatus and P. echinatus, are redescribed, illustrated and assigned to Stephanopoides and Isaloides, respectively. We also propose that Pyresthesis berlandi Caporiacco, 1947 is a junior synonym of Stephanopoides simoni Keyserling, 1880 based on shape and arrangement of the epigynal plate, copulatory ducts and spermathecae.

  1. Abundant and rare spiders on tree trunks in German forests (Arachnida, Araneae

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    Blick, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna active on the bark of trees in forests on eight sites in different regions in Germany was investigated. Trunk eclectors at about 2-4 meters height on living trees were used in different regions of Germany (SW Bavaria, Hesse, Brandenburg between 1990 and 2003. In Hesse eclectors were also used on dead beech trees (standing and lying. In this study data, mainly from beech (Fagus sylvatica and spruce (Picea abies, from May to October are compared – whole year samples (including winter are only available from Hesse. A total of 334 spider species were recorded with these bark traps, i.e. about one third of the spider species known from Germany. On average, each of the eight regions yielded 140.5 (± 26.2 species, each single tree 40.5 (± 12.2 species and 502 (± 452 adult spiders per season (i.e. May to Oct.. The 20 most abundant species are listed and characterised in detail. Six of the 20 species were not known to be abundant on bark, three prefer conifers and three beech/broadleaf. Even in winter (December-March there was a remarkably high activity on the trunks. However, only a few species occur exclusively or mainly in winter. Finally, the rarity of some bark spider species is discussed and details (all known records in Germany, phenology of four of them are presented (Clubiona leucaspis, Gongylidiellum edentatum, Kratochviliella bicapitata, Oreonetides quadridentatus. The diversity and importance of the spider fauna on bark in Central Europe is still underestimated.

  2. Daddy-long-leg giants: revision of the spider genus Artema Walckenaer, 1837 (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Shlomi Aharon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first revision of Artema Walckenaer, 1837, a genus consisting of large and phylogenetically interesting species. Even though Artema is not species-rich (now eight nominal species, it has suffered from poor descriptions and synonymies. Our main goal was to gather all available material and to clarify species limits. Four species are easily distinguished from other congeners: Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837, the type species; A. kochi Kulczyński, 1901 (revalidated; A. bunkpurugu Huber & Kwapong, 2013; and A. nephilit sp. nov. All other species are problematic for varying reasons: species limits are unclear between A. doriae Thorell, 1881 and A. transcaspica Spassky, 1934; A. magna Roewer, 1960 and A. ziaretana (Roewer, 1960 are problematic because they are based on female and juvenile types respectively and little new material is available. The material available to us suggests the existence of a few further species; however, they are not formally described, either because of small sample sizes (Artema sp. a and A. sp. b are represented by only one specimen each or because of unclear species limits (between Artema sp. c, A. transcaspica and A. doriae.This study is the first serious step towards understanding the genus. Intensive collecting effort is needed in order to fully clarify species limits.

  3. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo AV; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. New information Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival. PMID:29104441

  4. Five new species of Phintella Strand, 1906 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Wuling Mountains, China

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    Yi Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Phintella are described from the Wuling Mountains, China: Phintella arcuata sp. n. (male and female, Phintella levii sp. n. (female, Phintella panda sp. n. (female, Phintella pulcherrima sp. n. (male and female, and Phintella wulingensis sp. n. (female. Distribution data, detailed morphological characteristics, and illustrations of body and genital organs are presented.

  5. A new species of Masteria (Araneae: Dipluridae: Masteriinae from southeastern Brazil

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    Denis Rafael Pedroso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995 from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.

  6. Intersexual trophic niche partitioning in an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae.

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    Stano Pekár

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes ("intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis", or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output ("sexual selection hypothesis". The latter may lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning.Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae and body size of males, females and juveniles demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size, and larger than ants captured by juveniles and males. Female fecundity was highly positively correlated with female body mass, which reflects foraging success during the adult stage. Females in laboratory experiments preferred the large ant sub-castes and displayed higher capture efficiency. In contrast, males occupied a different trophic niche and showed reduced foraging effort and reduced prey capture and feeding efficiency compared with females and juveniles.Our data indicate that female-biased dimorphism in trophic morphology and body size correlate with sex-specific reproductive strategies. We propose that intersexual trophic niche partitioning is shaped primarily by fecundity selection in females, and results from sex-differences in the route to successful reproduction where females are selected to maximize energy intake and fecundity, while males switch from foraging to invest in mating effort.

  7. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  8. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

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    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  9. Revisão do gênero neotropical Xeropigo (Araneae,Corinnidae, Corinninae)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza,Danni Roberto Santos; Bonaldo,Alexandre B.

    2007-01-01

    O gênero Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 é revisado, com a proposição de sete novas espécies neotropicais: X. candango, sobre machos e fêmeas de Brasília, Distrito Federal e Goiás, Brasil; X. rheimsae, machos de Goiás, Brasil; X. camilae, sobre machos e fêmeas do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. cotijuba, machos e fêmeas da Guiana e do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. pachitea, machos e fêmeas de Huánuco e Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, fêmeas de Junin e Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, mach...

  10. Distribution, habitat affinities and phenology of the Micrargus herbigradus-species group (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Konrad; Rozwałka, Robert; Wesołowska, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    We review the known information on the distribution and habitat affinities of the Micrargus herbigradus -species group in Poland. The analysis is based on a thorough literature survey, our own materials, and verification of some older collections. We give new diagnostic drawings and review the characters that are useful in identification of species within the group. Three species are present in Poland: M. herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854), M. apertus (O.-P. Cambridge, 1870) and M. georgescuae Millidge, 1976. The latter is recorded for the first time in the country, and we add numerous new localities for the two former species. Micrargus herbigradus is common and widespread in Poland, living in various habitats, with only a slight preference to forests. In contrast, M. apertus is widely distributed but rarely found, while its affinity to forests is the highest within the group. The records of this species are most numerous in lowland forests (up to c. 300 m a.s.l), but it can also be found at higher altitudes. M. georgescuae is found only in montane habitats, both in the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains, from above 650 m a.s.l. The adults of all three species occur the whole year round, but seem to be most abundant in May and June.

  11. The first fossil spider (Araneae: Palpimanoidea) from the Lower Jurassic (Grimmen, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Dunlop, Jason A

    2014-12-11

    The first Lower Jurassic (Lias) spider is described as Seppo koponeni n. gen. & n. sp. from a single female specimen from Grimmen, Germany. It most likely belongs to the Palpimanoidea, on account of the presence of cheliceral peg teeth and other features consistent with palpimanoid families, though its familial placement is uncertain. Its presence in the region at that time concurs with ideas about the more widespread presence of palpimanoids across the world in the early Mesozoic, before the break-up of Pangaea.

  12. A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2011-10-23

    Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species extends the fossil record of the family by approximately 35 Ma and of the genus Nephila by approximately 130 Ma, making it the longest ranging spider genus known. Nephilidae originated somewhere on Pangaea, possibly the North China block, followed by dispersal almost worldwide before the break-up of the supercontinent later in the Mesozoic. The find suggests that the palaeoclimate was warm and humid at this time. This giant fossil orb-weaver provides evidence of predation on medium to large insects, well known from the Daohugou beds, and would have played an important role in the evolution of these insects.

  13. On the diversity of some soil and cave spiders (Aranea: Arachnida from Serbia

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    Ćurčić Božidar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 46 species from 14 families: Pholcidae (2, Dysderidae (3 Eresidae (1, Linyphiidae (11, Tetragnathidae (3, Araneidae (4, Lycosidae (5, Agelenidae (4, Amaurobiidae (2, Liocranidae (1, Gnaphosidae (2 Philodromidae (1, Thomisidae (2 and Salticidae (5 were established from 29 localities in Serbia. Five species: Dysderocrates silvestris Deeleman-Reinhold (Dysderidae, Centromerus obenbergeri (Kulczyński, 1897 (Linyphiidae, Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, Trochosa spinipalpis (O. P.-Cambridge (Lycosidae and Philodromus praedatus O. P.-Cambridge are new to the Serbian spider fauna; the most diverse is the family Linyphiidae which is represented by 11 species. At the time, the spiders of Serbia are represented by 633 species, belonging to 224 genera and 36 families.

  14. Bodenbesiedelnde Spinnen (Arachnida, Araneae eines Kiefernforstes bei Stücken in Brandenburg, Deutschland

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    Nicolai, Volker

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground inhabiting spiders were investigated during the vegetation periods of , 1998 and 2000 in four pine forests of Brandenburg, Germany. 1995 three of them were managed in different ways and one area served as a control. In total 105 different species were found and the lowest number of species was found on the control area. Due to the management the pine forests got opened and xerophilous species could settle the areas. In total a heterogeneous species community was found on each area. From year to year high rates of species turnover were measured even for the dominant species (> 5 % of all collected individuals per area and year. Some endangered species in Brandenburg were collected as well.

  15. Evolution of karyotype, sex chromosomes, and meiosis in mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, J.; Kořínková, T.; Krkavcová, L.; Musilová, J.; Forman, M.; Ávila Herrera, I. M.; Haddad, C. R.; Vítková, Magda; Henriques, S.; Palacios Vargas, J. G.; Hedin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 2 (2013), s. 377-408 ISSN 0024-4066 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110808; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0813; Univerzita Karlova v Praze(CZ) SVV-2013-267205; Univerzita Karlova v Praze(CZ) SVV-2012-265202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : achiasmatic * chromosome pairing * deactivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12056/pdf

  16. Sex chromosome pairing and extensive NOR polymorphism in Wadicosa fidelis (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forman, M.; Nguyen, Petr; Hůla, V.; Král, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-49 ISSN 1424-8581 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110808; MSM ČR(CZ) LA10036; MSM ČR(CZ) SVV 2013-267205; GA JU(CZ) 137/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 059/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : arachnid * ectopic recombination * facultative Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  17. Ontogenesis, gender, and molting influence the venom yield in the spider Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontoge...

  18. Two new species of the spider genus Alpaida (Araneae: Araneidae from restinga areas in Brazil

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    Gracielle F. Braga-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Alpaida O.P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described based on male and female specimens from seven restinga areas from northeastern to southern Brazil. Alpaida teresinha sp. nov., from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, differs from other species of the genus in the wider lobe of the conductor, the concave median apophysis and with the posterior lobe ventrally positioned, and the wrinkled distal projection of the terminal apophysis in males. Females can be recognized by having widely spaced epigynal lips and by the narrow epigynal notch in ventral view. Alpaida toninho sp. nov., from Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, can be distinguished by the round lobes of the terminal apophysis, and by the median apophysis with a distal lobe and a projection in males, and by the epigynum elliptical, with a short scape in females.

  19. Modeling distribution of Phoneutria bahiensis (Araneae: Ctenidae: an endemic and threatened spider from Brazil

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    Marcelo A Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.

  20. Intraspecific non-sexual interactions of Grammostola schulzei (Araneae: Theraphosidae under laboratory conditions

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    Nelson E Ferretti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.Hay pocos estudios detallados sobre las interacciones intraespecíficas de arañas migalomorfas. Por lo tanto, se describe el comportamiento de individuos conspecíficos de Grammostola schulzei durante interacciones nosexuales en condiciones de laboratorio. Se confrontaron y observaron pares de individuos involucrando machos adultos, hembras adultas y juveniles en condiciones de locatarios y visitantes, totalizando 115 encuentros. Cuando dos hembras adultas se enfrentaron, retrocedieron o lucharon adoptando elevaciones anteriores e intentos de mordeduras que usualmente resultaron en arañas visitantes heridas. Cuando se enfrentaron hembras con juveniles, frecuentemente se observó canibalismo sobre los juveniles. Los juveniles expuestos a otros juveniles o hembras retrocedieron o realizaron golpes con patas delanteras y tamborileos de palpos, los cuales constituyen unidades de comportamiento comunes durante el cortejo de los machos. Los machos adultos cortejaron y trabaron a algunos juveniles, mientras que los juveniles los evitaron o rechazaron el enganche. Los comportamientos observados durante las interacciones intraespecíficas podrían jugar un papel importante en la distribución espacial y podrían generar adaptaciones al territorialismo.

  1. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael

    2011-07-01

    In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

  2. Türkiye Örümcek Listesine Katkılar (Araneae:Gnaphosidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gubim

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Gnaphosidae is one of the familiar families of spiders in. Turkey. There are many researchers carrying out ... In the diagnosis of the spider species collected from the research area, the following literature by Simon ..... The fauna, ecology and systematics of the ground- living spiders in the Northeast Anatolia ...

  3. Aliens in Europe: updates on the distributions of Modisimus culicinus and Micropholcus fauroti (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber, Bernhard A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The pholcid spiders Modisimus culicinus (Simon, 1893 and Micropholcus fauroti (Simon, 1887 are pantropical species that have spread around the world at least several decades ago. Here we present numerous new records for both species, most of which fall into the expected latitudes, i.e. between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (93% and 87% of records respectively. However, we also report the first records for M. culicinus from Central Europe (Germany and Czech Republic, >50°N and the first European record for M. fauroti from outside of Belgium (Germany. The fact that in both species several specimens have been found at more than one locality suggests that they may already be in the stage of establishment and spreading in Europe. Finally, we present an updated identification key to the genera of Pholcidae in Europe.

  4. A survey of the East Palaearctic Lycosidae (Araneae). 9. Genus Xerolycosa Dahl, 1908 (Evippinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusik, Yuri M.; Kovblyuk, Mykola M.; Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three species of Xerolycosa: Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westring, 1861), Xerolycosa miniata (C.L. Koch, 1834) and Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963), occurring in the Palaearctic Region are surveyed, illustrated and redescribed. Arctosa mongolica Schenkel, 1963 is removed from synonymy with Xerolycosa nemoralis and transferred to Xerolycosa, and the new combination Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963) comb. n. is established. One new synonymy, Xerolycosa undulata Chen, Song et Kim, 1998 syn. n. from Heilongjiang = Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963), is proposed. In addition, one more new combination is established, Trochosa pelengena (Roewer, 1960) comb. n., ex Xerolycosa. PMID:21998514

  5. Revalidating the taxonomic position of the Indian Ischnocolus spp. (Araneae: Theraphosidae

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    M. Siliwal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.

  6. Revisiting the spider genus Eutichurus Simon, 1897 (Araneae, Eutichuridae): new species and complementary descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldo, Alexandre B; Lise, Arno A; RamÍrez, MartÍn J; Saturnino, Regiane

    2018-02-21

    Six new species of the genus Eutichurus Simon, 1897 are described: E. murgai new species (based on male and female) and E. paredesi new species (male) from Peru; E. cumbia new species (female) and E. tequendama new species (male) from Colombia; E. yungas new species (male and female) from Bolivia, and E. nancyae new species (male and female) from Brazil. The males of E. marquesae Bonaldo, 1994, E. madre Bonaldo, 1994 and E. zarate Bonaldo, 1994 are described for the first time. Eutichurus brescoviti Bonaldo, 1994, described on males, is synonymized with E. tropicus (L. Koch, 1866), previously known only from females. New records for E. ibiuna Bonaldo, 1994, E. ravidus Simon, 1897, E. putus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. silvae Bonaldo, 1994, E. lizeri Mello-Leitão, 1938, E. saylapampa Bonaldo, 1994, E. tropicus and E. manu Bonaldo, 1994 are presented. A key to all species of Eutichurus is provided, variation in the epigynal morphology of E. ibiuna is recorded and the fine morphology of E. marquesae is documented.

  7. New leaf- and litter-dwelling species of the genus Pholcus from Southeast Asia (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata Huber sp. nov., P. uludong Huber sp. nov., and P. bukittimah Huber sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan Huber sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litter-dwellers that build domed sheet webs on the undersides of large dead leaves on the ground. The other four species are assigned to newly created species groups: the P. tambunan group with two species from northern Borneo: P. tambunan Huber sp. nov. and P. bario Huber sp. nov.; and the P. domingo group with two species from the Philippines, Mindanao: P. domingo Huber sp. nov. and P. matutum Huber sp. nov. These latter four species are leaf-dwellers that build barely visible silk platforms tightly attached to the undersides of live leaves. The main rationale for this paper is to provide part of the taxonomic and natural history background for upcoming phylogenetic and evolutionary (microhabitat shifts analyses.

  8. Why is Madagascar special? The extraordinarily slow evolution of pelican spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Hannah M; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Griswold, Charles E; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period. The motivation for this study was to unravel the signature of diversification in an ancient lineage by comparing an area known for major geoclimatic upheavals (Madagascar) versus other areas where the environment has been relatively stable. Archaeid spiders are an ancient paleoendemic group with unusual predatory behaviors and spectacular trophic morphology that likely have been on Madagascar since its isolation. We examined disparities between Madagascan archaeids and their non-Madagascan relatives regarding timing of divergence, rates of trait evolution, and distribution patterns. Results reveal an increased rate of adaptive trait diversification in Madagascan archaeids. Furthermore, geoclimatic events in Madagascar over long periods of time may have facilitated high species richness due to montane refugia and stability, rainforest refugia, and also ecogeographic shifts, allowing for the accumulation of adaptive traits. This research suggests that time alone, coupled with more ancient geoclimatic events allowed for the different patterns in Madagascar. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Spiders (Araneae of selected sinkholes of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic

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    Vladimír Hula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present faunistic data about spiders in selected sinkholes of northern part of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area. Time of collection was established in the following terms: 24 March 2010 – 22 September 2010. We collected altogether 5742 adult specimens which were determined to 59 species of 14 families. We found two very rare spiders (critically endangered Porrhomma errans and endangered Walckenaeria monoceros and several interesting, rarely collected bioindicator species (Alopecosa trabalis, Mecopisthes silus, Zelotes longipes. From the bioindicative evaluation point of view, 44% of found species belong to species with connection to natural habitats, 37% belong to species preferring semi-natural habitats, and 19% belong to species of disturbed habitats. From the relictness point of view, majority of species was of the expansive category (53%, 40% of class II relicts, and only 7% of class I relicts. Sink holes did not increase total biodiversity of agricultural land too much because of their relative small size.

  10. Synaphridae of Madagascar (Araneae: Araneoidea): A New Family Record for the Afrotropical Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The spider family Synaphridae is reported for the first time from Madagascar. Three new species are described. Africepheia gen. nov. is established for A. madagascariensis sp. nov.; two species of Synaphris Simon, 1894 are described: S. schlingeri sp. nov. and S. toliara sp. nov. Diagnostic

  11. Diplocephalus komposchi n. sp., a new species of erigonine spider (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasowszky, Norbert; Bauder, Julia; Hepner, Martin

    2017-05-16

    The erigonine cladistic analyses of Hormiga (2000) and Miller & Hormiga (2004) demonstrated unambiguous support for a sister-taxon relationship between the genera Diplocephalus and Savignia. These genera, in addition to others, are commonly placed in the Savignia-group. Although the Savignia-group is not monophyletic as it was originally circumscribed by Millidge (1977), it contains a monophyletic core of genera that has been supported in various cladistic analyses, starting with Hormiga (2000). According to the most recent phylogenetic study (Frick et al. 2010), a clade within the Savignia-group included Diplocephalus along with Araeoncus, Dicymbium, Erigonella, Glyphesis and Savignia. Frick et al. (2010) included three Diplocephalus species - cristatus, latifrons and picinus - in their cladistic analyses. While D. latifrons and D. picinus were found to be the most basal species of the Savignia-group, D. cristatus was the most distal one.

  12. Silk fibers and silk-producing organs of Harpactea rubicunda (C. L. Koch 1838) (Araneae, Dysderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajer, Jaromír; Malý, Jan; Reháková, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the silk spinning apparatus and silks of Harpactea rubicunda spiders. Three types of silk secretions that are produced by three kinds of silk spinning glands (ampullate, piriform, and pseudaciniform) and released through three types of spigots, were confirmed for both adult and juvenile spiders. Silk secretions for the construction of spider webs for shelter or retreat are produced by the pseudaciniform silk glands. Silk secretions that are released from spigots in the course of web construction are not processed by the legs during the subsequent process of hardening. Pairs of nanofibril bundles seemed to be part of the basic microarchitecture of the web silk fibers as revealed by AFM. These fiber bundles frequently not only overlap one another, but occasionally also interweave. This structural variability may strengthen the spider web. High-resolution AFM scans of individual nanofibrils show a distinctly segmented nanostructure. Each globular segment is ∼30-40 nm long along the longitudinal axis of the fiber, and resembles a nanosegment of artificial fibroin described by Perez-Rigueiro et al. (2007). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Veneno de Latrodectus mactans de Chile (Araneae, Theridiidae: su efecto sobre músculo liso

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    Fernando Romero M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El veneno de arañas del género Latrodectus induce contracción de músculo liso de mamíferos, postulándose como posible mecanismo la liberación de mediadores adrenérgicos y colinérgicos. El veneno de Latrodectus mactans de Chile contiene neurotoxinas que inducen actividad contráctil en músculo liso en forma parcialmente independiente de actividades adrenérgicas y colinérgicas, lo que deja abiertas interrogantes sobre el mecanismo de acción del veneno. La respuesta tónica en músculo liso depende de la movilidad de los iones sodio (Na+ y calcio (Ca2+ y, más es-pecíficamente, de la concentración de Ca2+ citoplasmático. Una de las vías de ingreso del calcio al músculo liso, además de los canales tipo L de Ca2+ , es el intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ . En el presente trabajo se estudia la posible participación de este intercambiador en la respuesta tónica inducida por el veneno sobre músculo liso del conducto deferente de rata, en un modelo de órgano aislado. Utilizando bloqueadores de canales de Na+ (amiloride y Ca2+ (nifedipina y una solución estimuladora del intercambiador (Tyrode pobre en sodio, se realizaron registros de tensión isométrica inducida por el veneno. Simultáneamente al uso de nifedipina, se registraron las variaciones de la [Ca2+] citoplasmática mediante microfluorimetría. Se observó que la inhibición de la contracción en presencia de amiloride depende de su concentración, mostrando una participación de los canales de Ca2+ dependientes de voltaje en la contracción. En presencia de nifedipina, la contracción inducida por el veneno sólo fue parcialmente inhibida, y la microfluorimetría mostró un aumento de la concentración de Ca2+ citoplasmático en presencia del bloqueador, lo que indica una participación de otros mecanismos para el ingreso de Ca2+ a la célula. Por último, al disminuir la concentración de Na+ extracelular se estimuló la contracción tónica en un 30.7%, atribuible, al menos en parte, al intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ . Estos resultados permiten proponer que el intercambiador Na+/Ca2+ se encuentra activo durante la contracción tónica inducida por el veneno de L. mactans de Chile y podría ser uno de los responsables del desarrollo de tensión.The venoms of Latrodectus sp. have been reported to induce contraction probably mediated by adrenergic and cholinergic transmitters. We have demonstrated that the venom of Chilean Latrodectus mactans contains neurotoxins that induce a contraction partially independent of transmitters release. Transmembrane mobility of Na+ and Ca2+ ions and more specifically, the increase of cytoplasmic calcium concentration are responsible for tonic contraction in smooth muscle. Calcium may enter the cell by several ways, such as the voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels and the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger. This study aimed to examine the participation of this exchanger in the tonic contraction of smooth muscle in vas deferent of rat induced by the venom of the Chilean spider L. mactans. Blockers of Na+ channels (amiloride and Ca2+ L-type channels (nifedipine, and a stimulator of the exchanger (modified Tyrode, Na+ 80 mM were used. Simultaneously, variations of the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ were registered by microfluorimetry (Fura-2 indicator in the presence of nifedipine. In presence of amiloride, dose-dependent inhibition of venom-induced contraction was observed, suggesting the participation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels. The contraction was only partially inhibited by nifedipine and the Ca2+ cytoplasmic concentration increased, as assessed by the microfluorimetric registration. Finally, the venom-induced contraction increased in the presence of modified Tyrode, probably due to the action of the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger. Taken together, our results support the idea that the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger is active and may be, at least in part, responsible for the contraction induced by the venom of Chilean L. mactans.

  14. On the identity of the type species of the genus Telema (Araneae, Telemidae

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    Chunxia Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telema tenella Simon, 1882, the type species of genus Telema, is the only species of family Telemidae reported from Europe and all other 39 congeners occur far from it. However, it has never been properly described. In this paper T. tenella is redescribed and illustrated.

  15. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. (Araneae, Nesticidae, with notes on the Mediterranean cave species

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    Martina Pavlek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and illustrates a new genus and a new species belonging to the family Nesticidae based on morphology and supported by molecular data. The new genus, Kryptonesticus gen. nov., groups eight species spread from Bulgaria and Turkey to Croatia, including Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Crete. As a result, seven new combinations are proposed: K. eremita (Simon, 1879 comb. nov., K. arenstorffi (Kulczyński, 1914 comb. nov., K. fagei (Kratochvíl, 1933 comb. nov., K. beroni (Deltshev, 1977 comb. nov., K. beshkovi (Deltshev, 1979 comb. nov., K. henderickxi (Bosselaers, 1998 comb. nov. and K. dimensis (López-Pancorbo, Kunt & Ribera, 2013 comb. nov., all ex Nesticus. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of both sexes and its phylogenetic relationships with closely related species are discussed based on morphological and molecular data (the cox1, rrn and H3 genes. In addition, the species of this new genus (except for K. eremita are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and some of them show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  16. Nesticus baeticus sp. n., a new troglobitic spider species from south-west Europe (Araneae, Nesticidae

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    Carles Ribera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new troglobitic species, Nesticus baeticus sp. n. (♂♀, inhabiting the karst landscapes of the high part of the Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park (NE Jaén, Spain where it has been found in 8 caves is diagnosed and described, its distribution and habitat are also analyzed. The new species belongs to the Iberian species group that includes N. luquei, N. lusitanicus and N. murgis. Evolutionary relationships of the Iberian Nesticus species are discussed on the basis of morphological and molecular data (cox1 and rrnL.

  17. A revision of the Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon (Araneae: Philodromidae

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    A. Van den Berg

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.

  18. A revision of the Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon (Araneae: Philodromidae

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    A. Van den Berg

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.

  19. Genus-specificity of araneophagy of linyphiid spiders and spiders of other families (Arachnida, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2009-01-01

    We found genus specificity of predation by spiders on other spiders in captivity which surpass them in body size (araneophagy). Adult specimens of three species of the linyphiid genus Walckenaeria which were successively tested for araneophagy (in the laboratory) in the order of first species

  20. Palpimanid spiders from Guyana: new species of the genera Fernandezina and Otiothops (Araneae, Palpimanidae, Otiothopinae

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    Grismado Cristian J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the spider family Palpimanidae from Guyana are described: Fernandezina takutu, the first species of this genus known from this country andOtiothops giralunas, that seems to be the sister species of O. goloboffi Grismado, 1996 from northwestern Argentina.

  1. A check list of the spider fauna of the Western Soutpansberg, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

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    S.H. Foord

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of its geological history and geographical location the Soutpansberg constitutes a refuge for a high diversity of organisms. The Western Soutpansberg forms part of the Savanna Biome and is presently the area with the highest concentration of Natural Heritage Sites in South Africa. A unique private initiative is under way to improve its national and international conservation status in a bid to conserve the mountain. A checklist of the spider species of the Western Soutpansberg collected over a five-year period is presented. Forty-six families, represented by 109 genera and 127 species have been collected. Of the species collected, 81 (64 % were wandering spiders and 46 (36 % web builders. The Thomisidae have the highest number of species (15 followed by the Araneidae and the Salticidae with 10 species each. Ninety-six genera are represented by a single species. Ninety six percent of the species collected are new records for the area. This survey is the first for the area and forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.

  2. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

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    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  3. Some faunistical remarks on spiders of the genus Haplodrassus (Araneae: Gnaphosidae from Turkey

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    Seyyar O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic features of Haplodrassus mediterraneus Levy, 2004 and Haplodrassus silvestris (Blackwall, 1833, which are recorded for the first time in Turkey, are presented in this paper. Digital and SEM photographs of genitalia of the new recorded species are presented together with their zoogeographical distributions.

  4. Phenotypic integration in a series of trophic traits: tracing the evolution of myrmecophagy in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Michalko, Radek; Korenko, Stanislav; Sedo, Ondřej; Líznarová, Eva; Sentenská, Lenka; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2013-02-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of prey specificity (stenophagy). Yet little light has so far been shed on the process of evolution of stenophagy in carnivorous predators. We performed a detailed analysis of a variety of trophic adaptations in one species. Our aim was to determine whether a specific form of stenophagy, myrmecophagy, has evolved from euryphagy via parallel changes in several traits from pre-existing characters. For that purpose, we studied the trophic niche and morphological, behavioural, venomic and physiological adaptations in a euryphagous spider, Selamia reticulata. It is a species that is branching off earlier in phylogeny than stenophagous ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion (both Zodariidae). The natural diet was wide and included ants. Laboratory feeding trials revealed versatile prey capture strategies that are effective on ants and other prey types. The performance of spiders on two different diets - ants only and mixed insects - failed to reveal differences in most fitness components (survival and developmental rate). However, the weight increase was significantly higher in spiders on the mixed diet. As a result, females on a mixed diet had higher fecundity and oviposited earlier. No differences were found in incubation period, hatching success or spiderling size. S. reticulata possesses a more diverse venom composition than Zodarion. Its venom is more effective for the immobilisation of beetle larvae than of ants. Comparative analysis of morphological traits related to myrmecophagy in the family Zodariidae revealed that their apomorphic states appeared gradually along the phylogeny to derived prey-specialised genera. Our results suggest that myrmecophagy has evolved gradually from the ancestral euryphagous strategy by integrating a series of trophic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The spider fauna of Scragh Bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland (Arachnida: Araneae)

    OpenAIRE

    Helsdingen, van, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The spider fauna of Scragh Bog, a quacking bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland, was investigated for the first time. The presence of 53 species could be established, two of which are new to Ireland (Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop), Porrhomma oblitum (O.P.-Cambridge)), while 30 represent new county records [Philodromus aureolus (Clerck), Tibellus maritimus (Meigen), Misumena vatia (Clerck), Oxyptila trux (Blackwall), Neon reticulatus (Blackwall), Sitticus caricis (Westring), Pirata hygrophilus Tho...

  6. The spider fauna of Scragh Bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland (Arachnida: Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The spider fauna of Scragh Bog, a quacking bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland, was investigated for the first time. The presence of 53 species could be established, two of which are new to Ireland (Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop), Porrhomma oblitum (O.P.-Cambridge)), while 30 represent new county

  7. On Munduruku, a new Theraphosid genus from Oriental Amazonia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae

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    Laura T. Miglio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.

  8. A revision of ant-mimicking spiders of the family Corinnidae (Araneae) in the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Robert J

    2015-05-20

    The Corinnidae of the western Pacific are revised. The formerly sparassid genus Anchognatha Thorell, 1881, and the gnaphosid genus Battalus Karsch, 1878, are transferred to the Castianeirinae. The Corinninae include only the introduced Creugas gulosus Thorell, 1878 and Medmassa christae sp. nov. from the northern Torres Strait islands. Medmassa pallipes (L. Koch, 1873) and Medmassa pusilla Simon, 1896 are newly synonymised with Creugas gulosus. The Castianeirinae from the Western Pacific including Australia includes Battalus Karsch, 1878, Copa Simon, 1886, Leichhardteus Raven & Baehr, 2013, Nyssus Walckenaer, 1805, Poecilipta Simon, 1897, and eight new genera: Disnyssus gen. nov., Iridonyssus gen. nov., Kolora gen. nov., Leptopicia gen. nov., Melanesotypus gen. nov., Nucastia gen. nov., Ozcopa gen. nov. and Ticopa gen. nov. Battalus includes B. adamparsonsi sp. nov., B. baehrae sp. nov., B. bidgemia sp. nov., B. byrneae sp. nov., B. diadens sp. nov., B. helenstarkae sp. nov., B. microspinosus sp. nov., B. rugosus sp. nov., B. spinipes Karsch, 1878, B. wallum sp. nov., B. zuytdorp sp. nov. and B. semiflavus (Simon, 1896), new combination (transferred from Medmassa). Copa, an otherwise African and Sri Lankan genus, includes C. kabana sp. nov. Disnyssus gen. nov. includes D. helenmirrenae sp. nov. and D. judidenchae sp. nov. Iridonyssus gen. nov. includes I. auripilosus sp. nov., I. formicans sp. nov., I. kohouti sp. nov. and I. leucostaurus sp. nov. Kolora gen. nov. includes K. cushingae sp. nov., K. cooloola sp. nov. and K. lynneae sp. nov., and K. sauverubens (Simon, 1896) new combination (transferred from Corinnomma Karsch, 1880). Leichhardteus includes Leichhardteus yagan sp. nov., Leichhardteus evschlingeri sp. nov., Leichhardteus strzelecki sp. nov., as well as eight recently described species. Leptopicia gen. nov. includes only Methesis bimaculata (Simon, 1896) new combination (transferred from Methesis Simon, 1896). Melanesotypus guadal gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Solomon Islands. Nucastia gen. nov., includes N. culburra sp. nov., N. eneabba sp. nov., N. muncoonie sp. nov., N. supunnoides sp. nov. and N. virewoods sp. nov.; Medmassa fusca Hogg, 1900 is transferred to Nucastia but is considered a nomen dubium. The genera Anchognatha and Supunna Simon, 1897 are junior synonyms of Nyssus, which includes Supunna albopunctatus (Hogg, 1896), Anchognatha avida Thorell, 1881, Nyssus coloripes Walckenaer, 1805, N. emu sp. nov., Agroeca insularis L. Koch, 1873 (from Fiji and the Solomon Islands), N. jaredwarden sp. nov., N. jonraveni sp. nov., N. loureedi sp. nov., N. luteofinis sp. nov., N. paradoxus sp. nov., N. pseudomaculatus sp. nov., N. robertsi sp. nov., N. semifuscus sp. nov., N. wendyae sp. nov. and N. yuggera sp. nov. Supunna funerea (Simon, 1896) and Supunna albomaculata (Rainbow, 1902) are junior synonyms of Nyssus albopunctatus; Supunna picta (L. Koch, 1873) and Storena auripes Rainbow, 1916 are junior synonyms of Nyssus coloripes Walckenaer, 1805. Ozcopa gen. nov. includes O. chiunei sp. nov., O. colloffi sp. nov., O. margotandersenae sp. nov., O. mcdonaldi sp. nov., O. monteithi sp. nov. and O. zborowskii sp. nov. Poecilipta includes P. carnarvon sp. nov., P. contorqua sp. nov., P. davidi sp. nov., P. elvis sp. nov., P. formiciforme (Rainbow, 1904) comb. nov. (transferred from Corinnomma), P. gloverae sp. nov., P. harveyi sp. nov., P. kgari sp. nov., P. samueli sp. nov., P. janthina Simon, 1896, P. kohouti sp. nov., P. lugubris sp. nov., P. marengo sp. nov., P. metallica sp. nov., P. micaelae sp. nov., P. qunats sp. nov., P. rawlinsonae sp. nov., P. ruthae Santana & Raven, sp. nov., P. smaragdinea (Simon, 1909) new combination (transferred from Supunna), P. tinda sp. nov., P. venusta Rainbow, 1904, P. waldockae sp. nov., P. wallacei sp. nov., P. yambuna sp. nov., and P. zbigniewi sp. nov. Ticopa gen. nov. includes T. australis sp. nov., T. carnarvon sp. nov., T. chinchilla sp. nov., T. dingo sp. nov., T. hudsoni sp. nov., and T. longbottomi sp. nov. For comparative purposes, males of the South-east Asian Corinnomma severum (Thorell, 1881) (the type-species) and C. javanum Simon, 1905 are figured and supplementary notes provided. Liocranum australiensis L. Koch, 1873 is transferred from Medmassa to Miturga where it is a nomen dubium. One hundred and eight species are treated in this work, of which 77 are new, 21 existing species are recognised; five existing genera are recognised, two are placed in synonymy, eight new genera are added; and one species is transferred to Miturgidae and another is listed as a nomen dubium. The Australian corinnid fauna includes 14 genera and 97 species.

  9. The mechanical properties of the non-sticky spiral in Nephila orb webs (Araneae, Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselberg, Thomas; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-10-01

    Detailed information on web geometry and the material properties of the various silks used enables the function of the web's different structures to be elucidated. In this study we investigated the non-sticky spiral in Nephila edulis webs, which in this species is not removed during web building. This permanent non-sticky spiral shows several modifications compared with others, e.g. temporary non-sticky spirals - it is zigzag shaped and wrapped around the radial thread at the elongated junctions. The material properties of the silk used in the non-sticky spiral and other scaffolding structures (i.e. radii, frame and anchor threads) were comparable. However, the fibre diameters differed, with the non-sticky spiral threads being significantly smaller. We used the measured data in a finite element (FE) model of the non-sticky spiral in a segment of the web. The FE analysis suggested that the observed zigzag index resulted from the application of very high pre-stresses to the outer turns of the non-sticky spiral. However, final pre-stress levels in the non-sticky spiral after reorganisation were down to 300 MPa or 1.5-2 times the stress in the radii, which is probably closer to the stress applied by the spider during web building.

  10. Integrative taxonomy of Leptonetela spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae, with descriptions of 46 new species

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    Chun-Xia Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment (COI. The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971. Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008 comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872; the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela (Lin & Li, 2010 comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta. The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela notabilis (Lin & Li, 2010 comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti (Lin & Li, 2010 comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata (Chen et al., 2010 because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied.

  11. Two newly recorded species of the spider families Theridiidae and Clubionidae (Arachnida: Araneae from Korea

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    Sue-Yeon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yaginumena maculosa (Yoshida and Ono 2000 of Theridiidae and Clubiona corrugata (Bösenberg and Strand 1906 of Clubionidae are reported for the first time from Korea with taxonomic illustrations.

  12. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro; Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo Av; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival.

  13. Nueva especie del género Arctosa (Araneae, Lycosidae del sur de Brazil

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    Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie del género Arctosa C. L. a Koch, 1848, en base a material procedente de Sapiranga, sur del Brasil. Los miembros de este género por lo general excavan refugios pequeños en los bordes arenosos de los lagos, sin embargo, esta nueva especie se encuentra debajo de rocas en los bordes de rios pequeños. Se puede encontrar hembras con ootecas y machos durante todo el año, aunque son más abundantes en el período del verano.

  14. Catálogo de las arañas (Araneae de la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Ferrández, M. A.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this catalogue we seek to compile information about spiders in Comunidad de Madrid in order to evaluate the level of our knowledge in the context of the Iberian fauna as well as to promote studies leading to their conservation. For this catalogue we have compiled information coming from both published and unpublished mentions from university thesis, classified specimens from the collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales and the results of a specific sampling carried out by M. A. Ferrández and H. Fernández de Céspedes in the San Agustín de Guadalix area. The nomenclature is based on Platnick’s world catalogue (2005 as well as on Morano’s work on the ibero-balearic fauna (2005 both available on the net. For each species we include: locality of record, UTM coordinates, original publication name and bibliographical references or museum where the material is kept. Madrid’s fauna of spiders has 261 species at present, belonging to 133 genera from 36 different families, 52% of which are cited from first time (marked with *. The general conclusion is that there is very little data about most species, those that do exist are often outdated and they lack relevant information about biological cycles, ecology, etc. There are still great many species to be recorded in the fauna of Madrid and estimates range between 350 and 400 species in total. It must be pointed that 24 out of 261 total species are endemic species from the Iberian Peninsula, some only collected very recently: Ozyptila umbraculorum (2002, Clubiona aducta, Parachtes teruelis (2005 and Amphiledorus balnearicus (in this paper.

    Con la confección del presente catálogo se pretende recopilar la información faunística disponible sobre las arañas de la Comunidad de Madrid, valorar el grado de conocimiento en el contexto de la fauna ibérica, así como impulsar los estudios encaminados a su conservación. Para su elaboración se han recopilado las citas publicadas, las citas inéditas de diferentes Tesis Doctorales y de licenciatura, el material identificado que se conserva en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales y los resultados de un muestreo puntual realizado por dos de los autores (M.A. Ferrández y H. Fernández de Céspedes en las proximidades de San Agustín de Guadalix. La nomenclatura está basada tanto en el catálogo mundial de Platnick (2005 como en el realizado para la fauna ibero-balear por uno de los autores, Morano (2005, disponible actualmente en internet. Para cada especie se incluyen las localidades de captura, su coordenada UTM, el nombre con el que fue publicada la cita y la referencia bibliográfica o el museo donde esta depositado el material. También se añade un apartado de distribución donde se proporciona la distribución mundial y la ibérica. La fauna de arañas de Madrid cuenta en el momento actual con un total de 261 especies repartidas en 132 géneros de 36 familias distintas, de las cuales un total de 52 se publican por primera vez (las señaladas mediante un *. La conclusión general es que se poseen pocos datos de la mayoría de las especies, los datos que hay son en muchos casos antiguos y no aportan información relevante sobre los ciclos biológicos, ecología, etc. Sin duda quedan muchas especies por encontrar en la fauna madrileña y no es descabellado estimar entre 350 y 400 las especies totales de dicha fauna. También es de destacar la presencia de 24 endemismos ibéricos, algunos de ellos recolectados en fecha reciente, como Ozyptila umbraculorum (2002, Clubiona aducta, Parachtes teruelis, o Amphiledorus balnearicus (2005, esta última capturada en los muestreos de San Agustín de Guadalix.

  15. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

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    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The araneoid spider family Micropholcommatidae Hickman, previously containing 34 southern-temperate species in eight genera, is relimited and revised at the generic level to include 18 genera from Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Chile. Three subfamilies are proposed, and a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the family is presented as a result of two morphological cladistic analyses, used to test the phylogenetic position and phylogeny of the known micropholcommatid taxa. These cladistic analyses inferred a monophyletic Micropholcommatidae, belonging to the diverse araneoid symphytognathidan lineage, with the families Anapidae, Symphytognathidae and Micropholcommatidae further united by the newly proposed 'EbCY' clade. The genus Teutoniella Brignoli, previously included in the Micropholcommatidae, was found to be most closely related to an undescribed genus from South Africa, together forming a distinctive ‘teutoniellid’ lineage within the EbCY clade. The subfamily Micropholcommatinae Hickman, new rank contains the bulk of micropholcommatid diversity, with three tribes, 15 genera and 45 described species. The micropholcommatine tribe Micropholcommatini Hickman, new rank includes the nominate genus Micropholcomma Crosby & Bishop, along with three additional genera from Australasia and Chile: Micropholcomma has eight species, including the type, M. caeligenum Crosby & Bishop, and M. junee sp. n.; Pua Forster is monotypic, with P. novaezealandiae Forster; Tricellina Forster & Platnick is also monotypic, with T. gertschi (Forster & Platnick; and Austropholcomma gen. n. has two species, including the type A. florentine sp. n., and A. walpole sp. n. The micropholcommatine tribe Textricellini Hickman, new rank is a diverse and distinctive lineage, including all species previously described in the genus Textricella Hickman, which is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Eterosonycha Butler syn. n.; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster, erected by Forster (1959 for P. punctata, is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Taphiassa (syn. n.. The endemic Tasmanian genus Olgania Hickman has five species, including the type O. excavata Hickman, O. cracroft sp. n., O. eberhardi sp. n., O. troglodytes sp. n. and O. weld sp. n. The subfamily Gigiellinae subfam. n. includes only one genus from south-eastern Australia and Chile, Gigiella gen. n., described for the two species G. milledgei sp. n. and G. platnicki sp. n. The distribution, diversity and Gondwanan biogeography of the Micropholcommatidae are discussed, and natural history information is provided where known; webs and egg sacs of Taphiassinae are described for the first time. Species level monographic coverage is provided for those faunas of conservation or biogeographic significance, including the largely undescribed Western Australian fauna, the Lord Howe Island fauna, the Tasmanian cave fauna and the southern Chilean fauna, with other species of conservation or biogeographic importance also described. In total, 26 new species, 12 new genera, one new tribe and two new subfamilies are described, taking the total documented micropholcommatid fauna to 58 species.  

  16. Erste Nachweise sowie Kenntnisse zur Biologie von Cyclosa oculata (Araneae: Araneidae in der Schweiz

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    Zschokke, Samuel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The orb-web spider Cyclosa oculata (Walckenaer, 1802 was found at eleven localities in north-western Switzerland. All records were from wildflower strips ("Buntbrachen" with a relatively high proportion of dried vegetation from the previous year, a relatively low vegetation height and a low proportion of grasses in the vegetation. C. oculata built its vertical orb-web near the ground, deep in the vegetation. Among ecribellate orb-web spiders in Central Europe, C. oculata is unique because it sometimes builds rudimentary webs on which it stays, because it builds its cocoons into the web, and because its stabilimentum is long-lasting and consists largely of debris. Based on our observations, we deduce that the stabilimentum of C. oculata serves as camouflage.

  17. Comparative study of the femoral organ in Zodarion spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2007), s. 105-112 ISSN 1467-8039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : exocrine gland * golgi apparatus * mitochondria * setae * smooth endoplasmic reticulum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2007

  18. Tisaniba, a new genus of marpissoid jumping spiders from Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Xia; Maddison, Wayne P

    2014-08-14

    Six new species of marpissoid jumping spiders from Sarawak, Borneo, are described in the new genus Tisaniba Zhang & Maddison. They are the type species, T. mulu Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., as well as the species T. bijibijan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. dik Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. kubah Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. selan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., and T. selasi Zhang & Maddison sp. nov. The spiders are small and brown to black, living in leaf litter in the tropical forest. Phylogenetic analyses based on 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that they are a distinctive group within the marpissoids. Diagnostic illustrations and photographs of living spiders are provided for all species.

  19. New species and new records of ground spiders (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaki, Maria; Russell-Smith, Anthony

    2017-10-04

    New taxonomic data on the ground spiders of the family Gnaphosidae from the island of Cyprus are presented. Three species are proposed as new to science (Drassyllus cyprius sp. n., Setaphis mccowani sp. n., Zelotes limnatis sp. n.). The male of Synaphosus shirin Ovtsharenko, Levy & Platnick, 1994 and the female of Zelotes zekharya Levy, 2009 are described for the first time. The transfer of Zelotes helvolus (O.P. Cambridge, 1872) and Z. helvoloides Levy, 1998 (the latter not recorded in Cyprus) to Cryptodrassus is proposed. The mismatching of male and female of C. helvoloides is discussed, and the female originally described as C. helvoloides is transferred to C. helvolus. Micaria pallipes (Lucas, 1846) is here recorded and the synonymy with Castanilla marchesii Caporiacco, 1936 is rejected, while the paralectotype of Castanilla marchesii is here assigned to Leptodrassex algericus Dalmas, 1919. Finally a male Poecilochroa still not attributed to a known or new species is described.

  20. Comparative transcriptomics of Entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae), with emphasis on molecular evolution of orphan genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, David E; Hedin, Marshal

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology is rapidly transforming the landscape of evolutionary biology, and has become a cost-effective and efficient means of collecting exome information for non-model organisms. Due to their taxonomic diversity, production of interesting venom and silk proteins, and the relative scarcity of existing genomic resources, spiders in particular are excellent targets for next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. In this study, the transcriptomes of six entelegyne spider species from three genera (Cicurina travisae, C. vibora, Habronattus signatus, H. ustulatus, Nesticus bishopi, and N. cooperi) were sequenced and de novo assembled. Each assembly was assessed for quality and completeness and functionally annotated using gene ontology information. Approximately 100 transcripts with evidence of homology to venom proteins were discovered. After identifying more than 3,000 putatively orthologous genes across all six taxa, we used comparative analyses to identify 24 instances of positively selected genes. In addition, between ~ 550 and 1,100 unique orphan genes were found in each genus. These unique, uncharacterized genes exhibited elevated rates of amino acid substitution, potentially consistent with lineage-specific adaptive evolution. The data generated for this study represent a valuable resource for future phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary research, and our results provide new insight into the forces driving genome evolution in taxa that span the root of entelegyne spider phylogeny.

  1. Genera of euophryine jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), with a combined molecular-morphological phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Maddison, Wayne P

    2015-03-27

    Morphological traits of euophryine jumping spiders were studied to clarify generic limits in the Euophryinae and to permit phylogenetic classification of genera lacking molecular data. One hundred and eight genera are recognized within the subfamily. Euophryine generic groups and the delimitation of some genera are reviewed in detail. In order to explore the effect of adding formal morphological data to previous molecular phylogenetic studies, and to find morphological synapomorphies, eighty-two morphological characters were scored for 203 euophryine species and seven outgroup species. The morphological dataset does not perform as well as the molecular dataset (genes 28S, Actin 5C; 16S-ND1, COI) in resolving the phylogeny of Euophryinae, probably because of frequent convergence and reversal. The formal morphological data were mapped on the phylogeny in order to seek synapomorphies, in hopes of extending the phylogeny to include taxa for which molecular data are not available. Because of homoplasy, few globally-applicable morphological synapomorphies for euophryine clades were found. However, synapomorphies that are unique locally in subclades still help to delimit euophryine generic groups and genera. The following synonyms of euophryine genera are proposed: Maeotella with Anasaitis; Dinattus with Corythalia; Paradecta with Compsodecta; Cobanus, Chloridusa and Wallaba with Sidusa; Tariona with Mopiopia; Nebridia with Amphidraus; Asaphobelis and Siloca with Coryphasia; Ocnotelus with Semnolius; Palpelius with Pristobaeus; Junxattus with Laufeia; Donoessus with Colyttus; Nicylla, Pselcis and Thianitara with Thiania. The new genus Saphrys is erected for misplaced species from southern South America.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of Leptonetela spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae), with descriptions of 46 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Xu, Xin; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2017-11-18

    Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment ( COI ). The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971). Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872; the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta . The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela ; Leptonetela notabilis (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta ; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata (Chen et al., 2010) because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied.

  3. Freyinae, a major new subfamily of Neotropical jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, G B

    2015-11-02

    Freyinae, new subfamily, is described for a group of genera of Neotropical jumping spiders that can be distinguished from other non-ant mimic salticoid Neotropical salticids by having the following three morphological features: a slightly more elongate carapace, a distinctive prolateral tibial macrosetae arrangement (medially placed subdistal and subproximal macrosetae, with a subdorsal medial macroseta in some males), and an unusual dorsoventrally thick tegulum basal division (although one or two of these features are sometimes lost). It includes 20 genera previously considered valid, of which 19 are retained: Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Aphirape C.L. Koch, 1850, Asaracus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava Simon, 1902, Chira Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Edilemma Ruiz & Brescovit, 2006, Eustiromastix Simon, 1902, Freya C.L. Koch, 1850, Frigga C.L. Koch, 1850, Kalcerrytus Galiano, 2000, Nycerella Galiano, 1982, Onofre Ruiz & Brescovit, 2007, Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Phiale C.L. Koch, 1846, Rishaschia Makhan, 2006, Sumampattus Galiano, 1983, Trydarssus Galiano, 1995, Tullgrenella Mello‑Leitão, 1941, and Wedoquella Galiano, 1984. Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 (and its synonym Uspachus Galiano, 1995) is synonymized with Pachomius, new synonymy. New genera described in the subfamily are: Drizztius, Leptofreya, Megafreya, Philira, Tarkas, Triggella, and Xanthofreya. The following nomenclatorial changes are made: New synonyms: Freya demarcata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) grisea (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) emarginata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) and Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea paradoxa (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea (Peckham & Peckham, 1896); Pachomius (sub Phiale) maculosus (Chickering, 1946) = Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) mediocava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) maculatipes (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) simplicicava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) bifurcata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901). New combinations: Capidava rufithorax Simon, 1902 = Drizztius rufithorax; Freya frontalis Banks, 1929 = Eustiromastix frontalis; Chira (sub Attus) spinipes (Taczanowski, 1872) = Eustiromastix spinipes; Freya (sub Euophrys) ambigua (C.L. Koch, 1846) = Leptofreya ambigua; Freya (sub Cyrene) bifurcata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya bifurcata; Freya (sub Cyrene) laticava (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya laticava; Freya (sub Cyrene) longispina (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Leptofreya longispina; Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius bilo-batus; Phiale (sub Cyrene) hieroglyphica (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius hieroglyphicus; Phiale (sub Cyrene) niveoguttata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Pachomius niveoguttatus; Romitia (sub Euophrys) albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878) = Pachomius albipalpis; Romitia (sub Euophrys) andina (Taczanowski, 1878) = Pachomius andinus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) bahiensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius bahiensis; Romitia (sub Uspachus) columbiana (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius columbianus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius juquiaensis; Romitia (sub Phiale) ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846) = Pachomius ministerialis; Romitia (sub Uspachus) misionensis (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius misionensis; Romitia nigra Caporiacco, 1947 = Pachomius nigrus; Romitia (sub Uspachus) patellaris (Galiano, 1995) = Pachomius patellaris; Chira (sub Diagondas) micans (Simon, 1902) = Philira micans; Chira superba Caporiacco, 1947 = Philira superba; Freya (sub Cyrene) maculatipes (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Tarkas maculatipes; Freya (sub Cyrene) bifida (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella bifida; Freya infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella infuscata; Freya (sub Cyrene) minuta (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Triggella minuta; Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Xanthofreya albosignata; Freya arraijanica Chickering, 1946 = Xanthofreya arraijanica; Phiale (sub Cyrene) bicuspidata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Xantho-freya bicuspidata; Freya chionopogon Simon, 1902 = Xanthofreya chionopogon; Freya (sub Heraclea) rustica (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Xanthofreya rustica. Combinations restored: Phiale (sub Pachomius) flavescens (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Pachomius flavescens; Phiale (sub Pachomius) similis (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Pachomius similis. Invalid name: Freya dyali Roewer 1951 is an invalid replacement name for Euophrys trifasciata "Dyal 1935", which was a redescription of Euophrys trifasciata C.L. Koch, 1846, not a homonym. New species: Drizztius geminensis. First female descriptions and transfers of mismatched females: First descriptions for Asaracus megacephalus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava biuncata Simon, 1902, and Phiale formosa (Banks, 1909); the true female of Eustiromastix spinipes is described, and its mismatched female is identified as the female of Eustiromastix falcatus Galiano, 1981; the mismatched female of Freya (sub Cyrene) prominens (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) is identified as the female of Xanthofreya rustica; the misidentified female of X. rustica is identified as the female of Leptofreya bifurcata. Lectotypes: designated for Cyrene bifida F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901 and Cyrene formosa Banks, 1909. New synapomorphy: a constricted proximal end of the cymbium of the male palp is an apparent new synapomorphy for Salticoida.

  4. Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular system of basal araneomorph spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstorf, Katarina; Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-11-01

    The superfamily Austrochiloidea (Austrochilidae and Gradungulidae) take a pivotal position in araneomorph spider phylogeny. In this discussion crevice weaver spiders (Filistatidae) are of equal interest. Especially data from these phylogenetically uncertain yet basal off branching groups can enlighten our understanding on the evolution of organ systems. In the course of a survey on the evolutionary morphology of the circulatory system in spiders we therefore investigated the hemolymph vascular system in two austrochiloid and one filistatid species. Additionally some data on a hypochilid and a gradungulid species are included. Using up-to-date morphological methods, the vascular systems in these spiders are visualized three dimensionally. Ground pattern features of the circulatory systems in austrochiloid spiders are presented and the data discussed along recent lines of phylogenetic hypotheses. Special topics highlighted are the intraspecific variability of the origins of some prosomal arteries and the evolutionary correlation of respiratory and circulatory systems in spiders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  6. A new species of Berinda (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from the eastern Aegean Islands, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissner, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new ground spider, Berinda idae Lissner spec. nov. is described from material collected in Kalymnos and Nisyros of the Dodecanese Islands, as well as Santorini and Christiani of the Thira island complex, Cyclades, Greece. The affinity of this species to ist congeners is briefly discussed.

  7. A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae in the Tirana district, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.

  8. Ein Beitrag zur Springspinnenfauna Spaniens mit drei Erstnachweisen für die Balearen (Araneae, Salticidae

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    Schäfer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several collection trips on the Spanish mainland and Mallorca, 18 species of jumping spiders were recorded, including three species discovered for the first time in the Balearic Islands: Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826, Heliophanus ramosus Wesołowska, 1986 and Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846. In addition, the first European record of Heliophanus stylifer Simon, 1878 is corrected: it refers to a misidentified female of Heliophanus ramosus Wesołowska, 1986; accordingly, H. stylifer has to be removed from the European checklist.

  9. Das Weibchen von Erigonoplus justus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875 (Araneae: Linyphiidae

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    Thaler, Konrad

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The rare erigonine Erigonoplus justus was recently discovered at a xerothermic site in Rheinland-Pfalz. Its female is described for the first time. The species is new for Germany. Habitat preference, phenology and distribution area of E. justus are briefly discussed.

  10. Redescription of the poorly known crab spider Firmicus bivittatus (Araneae: Thomisidae

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    Deltshev, Christo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Firmicus bivittatus Simon, 1895 was described from the Edough Mt, Algeria, based on one male only. Here, a redescription and new illustrations of the species based on the existing type material is presented. The female is figured for the first time.

  11. Zodarion ohridense (Araneae: Zodariidae – a new record for Central Europe

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    Krejčí, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zodarion ohridense Wunderlich, 1973 was found to be introduced in an abandoned stone quarry near Kolín in the Czech Republic. The Central European species of Zodarion are discussed.

  12. Maro lehtineni (Araneae: Linyphiidae – a spider species new to the fauna of Poland

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    Wiśniewski, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rare linyphiid spider species Maro lehtineni Saaristo, 1971 was recorded in the Polish part of the Sudetes, in the Giant Mountains (in Polish Karkonosze. Five males were found on one of the sloping transition mires in the spring and early summer of 2011 and 2012. We provide new figures for identification of this species, and summarize and discuss data on its distribution, characteristic habitats and phenology.

  13. Neue Funde von Atypus muralis (Araneae: Atypidae in Sachsen-Anhalt

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    Trost, Martin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new records of the spider Atypus muralis Bertkau, 1890 in the valleys of the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of Saxony-Anhalt in Middle Germany. All specimens were males, caught by pitfall traps in xerothermic steppic grasslands on steep slopes. The geographic distribution of Atypus muralis in the eastern parts of Germany and habitat traits are discussed with special reference to regional climate, vegetation type and soil conditions. The phenology of aboveground activity of Atypus muralis males is shown.

  14. First record of the alien spider species Mermessus trilobatus (Araneae: Linyphiidae in Ukraine

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    Hirna, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mermessus trilobatus (Emerton, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Ukraine. Ist presence represents the easternmost boundary of this species in Europe. One male was found in the glacial cirque of the mountain massif Svydivets’ in the Ukrainian Carpathians at an altitude of 1495 m. The locality is a mountain stream, the banks of which have been moderately grazed by sheep. Information on the distribution of this species in Central and Eastern Europe is given.

  15. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  16. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena from Western Australia

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    Laura Miglio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n. (from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon, Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology.

  17. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae in Central Texas Caves

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    Joel Ledford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.

  18. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    This is the first genus-level phylogeny of the subfamily Mynogleninae. It is based on 190 morphological characters scored for 44 taxa: 37 mynoglenine taxa (ingroup) representing 15 of the 17 known genera and seven outgroup taxa representing the subfamilies Stemonyphantinae, Linyphiinae (Linyphiin...

  19. Postharvest fumigation of California table grapes with ozone to control Western black widow spider (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of Western black widow spider (BWS), Latrodectus hesperus (Chamberlin and Ivie), in fresh table grapes destined for export from California USA. Mature adult female black widow spiders were contained in separate gas-permeable cages within a flo...

  20. Evolution of stenophagy in spiders (Araneae): evidence based on the comparative analysis of spider diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Coddington, Jonathan A; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Stenophagy (narrow diet breadth) represents an extreme of trophic specialization in carnivores, but little is known about the forces driving its evolution. We used spiders, the most diversified group of terrestrial predators, to investigate whether stenophagy (1) promoted diversification; (2) was phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily derived state; and (3) was determined either by geographical distribution and foraging guild. We used published data on the prey of almost 600 species. Six categories of stenophagy were found: myrmecophagy, araneophagy, lepidopterophagy, termitophagy, dipterophagy, and crustaceophagy. We found that the species diversity of euryphagous genera and families was similar to stenophagous genera and families. At the family level, stenophagy evolved repeatedly and independently. Within families, the basal condition was oligophagy or euryphagy. Most types of stenophagy were clearly derived: myrmecophagy in Zodariidae; lepidopterophagy in Araneidae; dipterophagy in Theridiidae. In contrast, araneophagy was confined to basal and intermediate lineages, suggesting its ancestral condition. The diet breadth of species from the tropics and subtropics was less diverse than species from the temperate zone. Diet breadth was lower in cursorial spiders compared to web-building species. Thus, the evolution of stenophagy in spiders appears to be complex and governed by phylogeny as well as by ecological determinants. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Spider (Araneae) predations on white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera in subtropical rice ecosystems, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qin; Wang, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Tang, Qi-Yi; Hu, Yang; Qiao, Fei; Heong, Kong Luen; Cheng, Jia-An

    2017-06-01

    Spiders are effective biological control agents in rice ecosystems, but the comparative study of predations among main spider species under field conditions has not been fully explored owing to a lack of practical methodology. In this study, more than 6000 spiders of dominant species were collected from subtropical rice ecosystems to compare their predations on Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (white-backed planthopper, WBPH) using DNA-based gut content analysis. The positive rates for all spider taxa were closely related to prey densities, as well as their behaviors and niches. The relationships of positive rates to prey planthopper densities for Pardosa pseudoannulata (Böes. et Str.), Coleosoma octomaculata (Böes. et Str.), Tetragnatha maxillosa Thorell and Ummeliata insecticeps (Böes. et Str.) under field conditions could be described using saturated response curves. Quantitative comparisons of predations among the four spider species confirmed that P. pseudoannulata and C. octomaculata were more rapacious than U. insecticeps and T. maxillosa under field conditions. A comparison of ratio of spiders to WBPH and positive rates between fields revealed that biological control by spiders could be effectively integrated with variety resistance. Generalist spiders could follow up WBPH population timely, and assemblages of spiders coupled with variety resistance could effectively suppress WBPH population. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Three spider species of the genus Mimetus Hentz, 1832 (Araneae, Mimetidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with three species of the genus Mimetus from China, including M. echinatus Wang, 1990, M. lamelliformis sp. n. (male, and M. wangi sp. n. (female and male. M. lamelliformis differs from the related species M. echinatus Wang, 1990 by: cymbial tip with several slender long macrosetae; cymbium boat-shaped, length/width ratio about 3/1 in retrolateral view; vexillum about 1/2 length of cymbium in retrolateral view. M. wangi sp. n. differs from the related species M. sinicus Song & Zhu, 1993 by: the opisthosoma with a pair of distinct outgrowths in the dorsum; sperm duct nearly horizontal; spermathecae kidney shaped and contiguous. Photos of body and copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the locality map are provided.

  3. Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae with notes on habits and conservation status

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    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877 are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.

  4. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 7 (2011), s. 593-603 ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prey specificity * stenophagy * predatory behaviour * trophic niche * spider Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  5. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  6. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera

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    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  7. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae) parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-01-01

    A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  8. Redescription of Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979 (Araneae: Dysderidae with the first description of the female

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    Recep Sulhi Ozkutuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The redescription of dysderid spider Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979, on the basis of newly collected material is provided. The female of this species, previously unknown, is described here for the first time.

  9. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus (Araneae: Eresidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Cariani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stegodyphus lineatus spiders live in groups consisting of closely related individuals. There appears to be no discrimination against related individuals as mates but females mate multiply, despite the fact that matings are shown to carry a cost. We have developed eight polymorphic dinucleotide...

  10. Die Gemeine Baldachinspinne, Linyphia triangularis (Araneae: Linyphiidae, Europäische Spinne des Jahres 2014

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    Hörweg, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2014, Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757, is presented. For the first time it is a linyphiid spider, a hammock-weaver. Its characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, web, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.

  11. Parasitization of a huntsman spider (Arachnida: Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropoda venatoria by a mermithid nematode (Nematoda: Mermithidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin P. Ranade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a mermithid worm from a huntsman spider Heteropoda venatoria was witnessed at Buxa Tiger Reserve, West Bengal.  It appears to be a first record of the spider family Sparassidae serving as a host for a member of the family Mermithidae. 

  12. Distribution and habitats of the water spider Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck, 1757 (Araneae, Cybaeidae in Turkey

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    Seyyar O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The water spider Argyroneta aquatica has been found in different parts of Turkey, and its distribution is presented with a list of new localities. Observations on the ecology of the species are provided, and its habitats are photographed from the collection sites. The data indicate that A. aquatica was usually found in eutrophic ponds, marshes, and small lakes in Turkey.

  13. A revision of the spider genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae. I. Species from Western Asia

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    Sergei Zonstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 is found to be represented in Western Asia by 16 species: ♂♀ R. adjarica sp. nov. (Georgia, ♂ R. anadolu sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂ R. arthuri Kunt & Yağmur, 2010 (Turkey, ♂ R. birecikensis sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. dunini sp. nov. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, ♂♀ R. hyrcanica Dunin, 1988 (Azerbaijan, ♂ R. marusiki sp. nov. (Iran, ♂ R. mazandaranica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran, ♂♀ R. micropa (Ausserer, 1871 (Turkey, ♀ R. nana sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. niedermeyeri (Brignoli, 1972 (Iran, ♂♀ R. pontica (Spassky, 1937 (Russia, Georgia, ♀ R. sinani sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. turcica sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. vonwicki Zonstein, 2000 (Iran and ♂♀ R. zaitzevi (Charitonov, 1948 (Azerbaijan, Georgia = ♀ Brachythele recki Mcheidze, 1983, syn. nov. Eight species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of R. micropa and R. zaitzevi, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are also provided.

  14. First record of genus Siler Simon, 1889 (Araneae: Salticidae from India

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    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The jumping spider Siler semiglaucus (Simon, 1901 has been newly reported from India, based on specimens studied from South India. These spiders were observed feeding on all life stages of Technomyrmex ants. 

  15. Occurrence and redescription of Sipalolasma arthrapophysis (Gravely, 1915(Araneae: Barychelidae: Barychelinae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During a recent biodiversity survey a rare Brush-footed trapdoor spider, Sipalolasma arthrapophysis (Gravely, 1915 was recorded from the State of Andhra Pradesh, India for the first time and the second record from India. A detailed description with photographs and illustrations of the male is provided

  16. Die Vierfleck-Zartspinne, Anyphaena accentuata (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Europäische Spinne des Jahres 2015

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    Hörweg, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2015, Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802, is presented. For the first time it is a representative of the anyphaenid sac spiders. Its characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.

  17. First record of the jumping spider Epocilla praetextata Thorell, 1887 (Araneae: Salticidae from India

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    A. Kananbala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A salticidae spider Epocilla praetextata Thorell, 1887 is reported for the first time from India.  The present record is from Manipur, northeastern India, which shares an International border with Myanmar.  This is the 3rd species of the genus Epocilla recorded in India.  We provide the description and drawings of diagnostic characteristics for this species along with photographs.

  18. A new genus and new species of diplurid spider (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Dipluridae from northeast India

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    Zeeshan A. Mirza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new diplurid genus and species is described from northeast India based on a single female specimen from Jampui hills. Orientothele gen. nov. is placed in the subfamily Diplurinae based on the presence of one row of teeth on the chelicerae. The new genus and species can be diagnosed from most diplurid genera in lacking lyra on the prolateral face of maxilla, paired claw with one row of teeth, maxilla with numerous cuspules, scopulae absent on all legs, and spermathecae consisting of two elongate stalks with bulbous receptacles at their tips which are bent inwards. Ischnothele indicola Tikader, 1969 is here treated as incertae sedis with regards to its generic placement in light of the discovery of Orientothele gen. nov.

  19. Die Konusspinne Cyclosa conica (Araneae: Araneidae ist die Europäische Spinne des Jahres 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörweg, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2016, Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772, is presented. Its appearance and characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.

  20. Some spiders (Araneae new to the Hungarian fauna, including three genera and one famil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of new species of spiders to Hungary: Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck, 1758, Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876, Oecobius maculatus Simon, 1870 and Pandava laminata (Thorell, 1878. We also report Clubiona neglecta O. P.-Cambridge, 1862 (previously only mentioned in a table in a Hungarian-language dissertation. The genus Acantholycosa (Dahl, 1908 was hitherto unknown in Hungary, yet expected to occur. The family Oecobiidae Blackwall, 1862 is new to the Hungarian fauna. The Southeast-Asian neozoon Pandava laminata is also recorded as new to Hungary. All further species found to be new to the Hungarian fauna or described in Hungary after the most recent publication of a Hungarian spider checklist are briefly mentioned.

  1. Intersexual Trophic Niche Partitioning in an Ant-Eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekár, Stanislav; Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.

    2011-01-01

    lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants...... that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae) and body size of males, females and juveniles...... demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism) in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size...

  2. The first report of the widow spider Latrodectus elegant (Araneae: Theridiidae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kananbala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The widow spider genus Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805, in India is represented by three species L. erythromelas Schmidt & Klaas, 1991, L. geometricus C.L. Koch, 1841 and L. hasselti Thorell, 1870. In this paper, we report the occurrence of Lactrodectus elegans Thorell, 1898 for the first time from India. We provide additional information on taxonomy and natural history based on the specimens collected from Manipur.

  3. Neue Nachweise der Gerandeten Wasserspinne Dolomedes plantarius in Brandenburg (Araneae: Pisauridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harms, Danilo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The great raft spider, Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1757, is a rare and endangered species in Germany and other European countries. Current data on its distribution and ecology are briefly reviewed. Five new (or overlooked localities for this spider from the Spreewald-region of Brandenburg in eastern Germany are provided, together with an updated distribution map. One record, based on the authors’ own collections, is described and figured in detail, with the egg-carrying female discovered in reeds at the edge of a fairly large body of open water. Both direct and indirect protective measures for the habitats of this species in the Spreewald-region are recommended.

  4. Drei für Deutschland neue Zwergspinnen aus dem bayerischen Alpenraum (Araneae: Linyphiidae, Erigoninae

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    Muster, Christoph

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available During the survey of epigeous spider communities in the Bavarian Alps (Germany, Upper Bavaria, three species of Erigoninae were recorded from Germany for the first time. Micrargus alpinus and Silometopus rosemariae are endemic species of the Alps, Panamomops palmgreni is endemic to the Alpine mountain system. For each species present knowledge on distribution, habitat and phenology is summarized. As Micrargus alpinus was described in 1997, faunistic and ecological data are still very poor. Niche differentiation between the closely related species of the Micrargus herbigradus-group is discussed.

  5. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  6. THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY: THE FASTEST ROTATING O-TYPE STAR AND SHORTEST PERIOD LMC PULSAR-REMNANTS OF A SUPERNOVA DISRUPTED BINARY?

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    Dufton, P. L.; Dunstall, P. R.; Fraser, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Brott, I. [University of Vienna, Department of Astronomy, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Cantiello, M.; Langer, N. [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Mink, S. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henault-Brunet, V.; Taylor, W. D. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Howarth, I. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lennon, D. J. [ESA, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Markova, N., E-mail: p.dufton@qub.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy with NAO, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 136, 4700 Smoljan (Bulgaria)

    2011-12-10

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of an extremely rapidly rotating late O-type star, VFTS102, observed during a spectroscopic survey of 30 Doradus. VFTS102 has a projected rotational velocity larger than 500 km s{sup -1} and probably as large as 600 km s{sup -1}; as such it would appear to be the most rapidly rotating massive star currently identified. Its radial velocity differs by 40 km s{sup -1} from the mean for 30 Doradus, suggesting that it is a runaway. VFTS102 lies 12 pc from the X-ray pulsar PSR J0537-6910 in the tail of its X-ray diffuse emission. We suggest that these objects originated from a binary system with the rotational and radial velocities of VFTS102 resulting from mass transfer from the progenitor of PSR J0537-691 and the supernova explosion, respectively.

  7. Description of a new species of the spider genus Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae from Colombia Descrição de uma nova espécie de Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae da Colômbia

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    Estevam L. C. da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Syntrechalea F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 is described and illustrated based on material collected in Loreto Mocagua, Colombia. Representatives of this spider genus exhibit an arboreal foraging behavior and are distinguished from the other genera of Trechaleidae by the flattened carapace, long legs and flexible metatarsi and tarsi. New records on the distribution of Syntrechalea tenuis F.O.P.Cambridge, 1902 in Colombia are presented.Uma espécie nova do gênero Syntrechalea F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 é descrita e ilustrada, a partir de material coletado em Loreto Mocagua, Colômbia. Os representantes deste gênero apresentam o hábito arbóreo de forragear e são distinguidos dos demais gêneros de Trechaleidae pela carapaça achatada,pernas longas e metatarsos e tarsos flexíveis. Novos registros de distribuição de Syntrechalea tenuis F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 na Colômbia são apresentados.

  8. Descrição da fêmea de Sphecozone tincta (Araneae, Linyphiidae e novas ocorrências no Brasil Description of the female of Sphecozone tincta (Araneae, Linyphiidae and news records from Brazil

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    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A fêmea de Sphecozone tincta Millidge, 1991 é descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. O macho também é ilustrado. Novos registros são fornecidos para Sphecozone cristata Millidge, 1991, S. rostrata Millidge, 1991 e S. rubescens O. P.-Cambridge, 1870.The female of Sphecozone tincta Millidge, 1991 is described and illustrated for the first time. The male also is illustrated. News records are given for Sphecozone cristata Millidge, 1991, S. rostrata Millidge, 1991 and S. rubescens O. P.-Cambridge, 1870.

  9. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro áreas: floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF; reflorestamento de araucária (R; reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio acidental (NPF. Considerando os dois métodos de amostragem (Monólito e armadilhas de solo, foram identificadas 20 famílias de aranhas associadas às áreas. O método das armadilhas de solo foi mais eficiente, capturando 19 das 20 famílias registradas, enquanto o do Monólito extraiu apenas dez destas famílias de aranhas. A abundância de famílias de aranhas e o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H foram afetados pelo método de coleta utilizado, sendo os valores destes atributos sempre superiores na NF e inferiores na NPF. A análise de correspondência (AC demonstrou que existe separação espacial entre as áreas estudadas. Sugere-se que as modificações na abundância de famílias de aranhas de solo sejam provocadas principalmente pelas intervenções antrópicas que as florestas de araucária vêm sofrendo nos últimos anos.

  10. Revisão de Anyphaeninae Bertkau a nível de gêneros na Região Neotropical (Araneae, Anyphaenidae Revision of Anyphaeninae Bertkau at genera level in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Anyphaenidae

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    Antonio Domingos Brescovit

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Anyphaeninae is revised at genera level in the Neotropical region. Anyphaeninae is diagnosed by the tracheal spiracle approximately in the midway of venter or between the midway of venter and the epigastric groove; retromargin of chelicerae with more than four denticles; and male palp with tegulum basket-like or cup-like, without the basal lightly sclerotized area. The subfamily contais 32 genera, 14 of which are new: Aljassa (type species Teudis annulipes Caporiacco, Buckupiella (type species B. imperatriz sp.n., from Brazil and Argentina, Hatitia (type species H.yhuaia sp.n., from Peru Iguarima (type species Anyphaena censoria Keyserling, Ilocomba (type species I. marta sp.n., from Colombia, Italaman (type species I. santamarina sp.n., from Brazil, Colombia and Argentine, Jessica (type species Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão, Katissa (type from Jamaica, Otoniela (type species O. adisi sp.n., from Brazil, Pippuhana (type species P. gandu sp.n., from Brazil, Timbuka (type species T. boquete sp.n., from Costa Rica, Panamá and Colômbia, Umuara (type species Clubiona fasciata Blackwall, Xiruana (type species Aysha gracilipes Keyserling. Other new species and the male of Bromelina zuniala are described: Iguarima pichinha and Lepajan edwardsi from Ecuador; Temnida rosário, Umuara pydanieli and U. juquia from Brazil; Umuara junin, Hatitia conchaque from Peru; Ilcomba perija from Colombia. Twelve new synonyms are presenteei: Wuljilopsis keyserlingi soares & Camargo witn W. tenuips (Keyserling; Teudis foliatus Schmidt with Patrera ruber (F.O.P. - Cambridge; Teudis moreirae Mello-Leitão with Teudis angusticeps (Keyserling; Anyphaena rufibarbis Mello-Leitão with Jessica osoriana (Mello-Leitão; Aysha cinereoviítata Mello-Leitão with Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Teudis bucolicus Chickering with Katissa simplicipalpis (Simon; Gayenna minutissima Petrunkevitch with Lupetíiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; Teudis adfabilis (Keyserling and Teudis leucochlorus Mello-Leitão with Umuara fasciata (Blackwall; Aysha fulviceps Keyserling with Xiruana gracilipes (Keyserling; Aysha mandibularis (Keyserling with Aljassa subpallida (L. Koch. Seventy new combinations are presented: Wulfilopsis frenata (Keyserling; W. pygmaea (Keyserling; W. tenuipes (Keyserling; W. tripunctata (Mello-Leitão; Patrera apora (Chamberlin; P.armata (Chickering; P.auricoma (L. Koch; P. cita (Keyserling; P. lauta (Chickering; P. longipes (Keyserling; P. procera (Keyserling; P. puta (O.P.-Cambridge; P. ruber (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. stylifer (F.O.P.-Cambridge; P. virgata (Keyserling; Teudis bicornutus (Tullgren; T. buelowae (Mello-Leitão; T. comstocki (Soares & Camargo; T. morenus (Mello-Leitão; Jessica campesina (Bauab-Vianna; J. glabra (Keyserling; J. goodnight (Soares & Camargo; J. osoriana (Mello-Leitão; J. erythrostoma (Mello- Leitão; J. rubricephala (Mello-Leitão; Iguarima censoria (Keyserling; Katissa delicatula (Banks; K. elegans (Banks; K. lycosoides (Chickering; K. simplicipalpis (Simon; K. zimarae (Reimoser; Otoniella quadrivittata (Simon; Lupettiana mordax (O.P.-Cambridge; L. parvula (Banks; L. perpusilla (Banks; L. spinosa (Bryant; Timbuka bogotensis (L. Koch; T. granadensis (Keyserling; T. larvata (O.P.-Cambridge, T. masseneti (Berland; T.meridiana (L. Koch; Tafana quelchii (pocock; T. silhavyi (Caporiacco; T. straminea (L. Koch; Umuara fascia J(Blackwall; Aysha basilisca (Mello-Leitâo; A. diversicolor (Keyserling; A. heraldica (Mello-Leitão; A. gentilis (Keyserling; A. helvola (Keyserling; A. robusta (Keyserling; A. rubro- maculata (Keyserling; A. striolata (Keyserling; A. subruba (Keyserling; Xiruana affinis (Mello-Leitão; X. gracilipes (Keyserling; X. hirsuta (Mello-Leitão; X. tetraseta (Mello-Leitão; Aljassa annulipes (Caporiacco; A. notata (Keyserling; A. poicila (Chamberlin; A. subpallida(L. Koch; A. venezuelica (Caporiacco; Pippuhana calcar (Bryant; H. donaldi (Chickering; P. unicolor (Keyserling; Hatitia defolonguei (Berland; H. riveti (Berland; H. sericea (L. Koch. Two spedes are revalidated: Sillus dubius (Chickering and Hatitia defolongli (Berland. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are here designated for eigth species: Anyphaena censoria Keyserling, 1891; A. adfabilis Keyserling, 1891. A simplicipalpis Simon, 1897; Aysha septena Franganillo, 1935; A. cinereovittata Mello-Leitão, 1945; Osoriella osoriana Mello-Leitão, 1922; Teudis sordidus Mello-Leitão, 1941 e Temnida simplex Simon, 1896. A key to 32 genera of Anyphaeninae are provided. Diagnoses, descriptions and illustrations are provided for the genera and species included in this work.

  11. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Gephyroctenus (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae Revisão do gênero de aranhas neotropicais Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae

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    Daniele Polotow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936 is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (espécie-tipo G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936, é revisado. Três espécies descritas neste gênero são sinonimizadas com espécies de outros gêneros: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, com Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, com Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, e G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, com Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Oito novas espécies são descritas: G. portovelho sp. nov., dos Estados de Rondônia e Amazonas, Brasil; G. divisor sp. nov. e G. acre sp. nov., do Estado do Acre, Brasil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. e G. mapia sp. nov., do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil; G. juruti sp. nov., do Department de Loreto, Peru e Estado do Pará, Brazil; e G. panguana sp. nov., do Department de Huanuco, Peru. Os machos do gênero podem ser distinguidos pela presença de uma fenda retrolateral no címbio, origem retrolateral do êmbolo, êmbolo longo e fino, apófise média com um gancho subdistal e projeção hialina na base do êmbolo no palpo, e as fêmeas podem ser distinguidas pelos campo mediano e campos laterais fundidos em uma única placa, aberturas copulatórias localizadas em um átrio e dutos copulatórios alongados no epígino. Observações de campo sobre o comportamento de caça de formigas em embaúbas (Cecropia são fornecidas para duas espécies deste gênero, G. philodromoides e G. mapia sp. nov.

  12. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas con viviendas de la ciudad de México (Zona Metropolitana Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae associated with houses in México city (Metropolitan area

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    César Gabriel Durán-Barrón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La ecología urbana es un área de investigación relativamente reciente. Los ecosistemas urbanos son aquellos definidos como ambientes dominados por el hombre. Con el proceso de urbanización, insectos y arácnidos silvestres aprovechan los nuevos microhábitats que las viviendas humanas ofrecen. Se revisaron arañas recolectadas dentro de 109 viviendas durante los años de 1985 a 1986, 1996 a 2001 y 2002 a 2003. Se cuantificaron 1 196 organismos , los cuales se determinaron hasta especie. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 familias, 52 géneros y 63 especies de arañas sinantrópicas. Se utilizaron 3 índices (ocupación, densidad y estacionalidad y un análisis de intervalos para sustentar la siguiente clasificación: accidentales (índice de densidad de 0-0.9, ocasionales (1-2.9, frecuentes (3.0-9.9 y comunes (10 en adelante. Se comparan las faunas de arañas sinantrópicas de 5 países del Nuevo Mundo.Urban ecology is a relatively new area of research, with urban ecosystems being defined as environments dominated by humans. Insects and arachnids are 2 groups that successfully exploit the habitats offered by human habitations. We analyzed the occurrence and densities of spiders found in houses in México City. We used material collected between 1985 and 2003. We recorded 1 196 spiders from 109 houses. The list includes 25 families, 52 genera and 63 species of synanthropic spiders. Indices of ocupation, density and seasonality, as well as rank analyses were used to make the following classification of synanthropism: accidental (density index 0-0.9, occasional (1-2.9, frequent (3.0-9.9 and common (10 or more. The synanthropic spider faunas of 5 New World countries are compared.

  13. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

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    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Corinninae is characterized and diagnosed. Two synapomorphies are hypothesized for the subfamily, both regarding the male palpal reservoir, which is primarily coiled and presents a sclerotized distal sector. Seventeen genera are recognized, six of which are new: Abapeba (type species Corinna lacertosa Simon, Erendira (type species Corinna pallidoguttata Simon, Septentrinna (type species Corinna bicalcarata Simon, Simonestus (type species Diestus validus Simon, Tapixaua (type species T. callida sp. nov. and Tupirinna (type species T. rosae sp. nov.. The genera Creugas Thorell, Falconina Brignoli and Paradiestus Mello-Leitão are revalidated. Diestus Simon and Lausus Simon are newly synonymized with Corinna C. L. Koch. Chemmis Simon is included in the synonymy of Megalostrata Karsch. Hypsinotus L. Koch is removed from the synonymy of Corinna and included in the synonymy of Creugas. Thirteen new species are described: Septentrinna yucatan and S. potosi from Mexico; Tupirinna rosae from Venezuela and Brazil; Tapixaua callida from Brazil and Peru; Abapeba hoeferi, A. rioclaro, A. taruma, Corinna ducke, C. colombo, C. mourai, C. recurva and Parachemmis manauara from Brazil; Creugas lisei from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Twenty seven species are redescribed. Fifty eight new combinations are presented: from Chemmis, Septentrinna steckleri (Gertsch; from Corinna, Abapeba abalosi (Mello-Leitão, A. cleonei (Petrunkevitch, A. echinus (Simon, A. grassima (Chickering, A. guanicae (Petrunkevitch, A. lacertosa (Simon, A. luctuosa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. lugubris (Schenkel, A. pennata (Caporiacco, A. kochi (Petrunkevitch, A. saga (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. wheeleri (Petrunkevitch, Creugas annamae (Gertsch & Davis, C. apophysarius (Caporiacco, C. bajulus (Gertsch, C. bellator (L. Koch, C. bicuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. epicureanus (Chamberlin, C. falculus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. mucronatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. navus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. nigricans (C. L. Koch, C. plumatus (L. Koch, C. praeceps (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. silvaticus (Chickering, C. uncatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Erendira luteomaculatta (Petrunkevitch, E. pallidoguttata (Simon, E. subsignata (Simon, Falconina albomaculosa (Schmidt, F. crassipalpis (Chickering, F. gracilis (Keyserling, Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch, Paradiestus egregius (Simon, P. giganteus (Karsch, P. penicillatus (Mello-Leitão, P. vitiosus (Keyserling, Septentrinna bicalcarata (Simon, S. paradoxa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, S. retusa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Simonestus pseudobulbolus (Caporiacco, S. robustus (Chickering, S. semiluna (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, Stethorrhagus maculatus (L. Koch and Xeropigo smedigari (Caporiacco; from Diestus, Corinna alticeps (Keyserling, C. kochi (Simon, Simonestus occidentalis (Schenkel, S. separatus (Schmidt and S. validus (Simon; from Lausus, Corinna grandis (Simon and Abapeba sicarioides (Mello-Leitão; from Medmassa, Corinna andina (Simon and C. venezuelica (Caporiacco; from Megalostrata, Erendira atrox (Caporiacco and Erendira pictitorax (Caporiacco; from Parachemmis, Tupirinna trilineata (Chickering. Five combinations are restaured: Corinna aenea Simon, Creugas cinnamius Simon, Creugas gulosus Thorell, Falconina melloi (Schenkel, Paradiestus aurantiacus Mello-Leitão. Twenty five new synonymies are proposed: Diestus altifrons Mello-Leitão with Corinna nitens (Keyserling; Corinna tomentosa Simon, C. tridentina Mello-Leitão, Hypsinotus flavipes Keyserling, H. humilis Keyserling and Xeropigo scutulatus Simon with Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard-Cambridge; Corinna cribosa Mello-Leitão and C. stigmatica Simon with Falconina gracilis (Keyserling; Corinna casueta Chickering with SIMONestus separatus (Schmidt; Corinna abnormis Petrunkevitch, C. antillana BRYANT, C. consobrina Simon, C. inornata Kraus, C. nervosa F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. wolleboeki Banks, Creugas cetratus Simon, C. senegalensis Simon and Hypsinotus gracilipes Keyserling with Creugas gulosus Thorell; Chemmis frederici Simon, Delozeugma formidabile O. Pickard-Cambridge, D. mordicans O. Pickard-Cambridge, Megalostrata sperata Kraus and M. venifica KARSCH with Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch; Megalostrata lohmanderi Caporiacco with Erendira atrox (Caporiacco; Corinna tenubra Chickering with Parachemmis fuscus Chickering. One new name, Creugas berlandi, is erected for Corinna bellatrix Schmidt. Males of Creugas cinnamius, Corinna kochi, Methesis semirufa Simon, Paradiestus aurantiacus, Septentrinna steckleri and Xeropigo smedigari, the females of Paradiestus giganteus, Septentrinna bicalcarata and the adult female of S. steckleri are described for the first time.

  14. A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Sarah C

    2011-01-01

    The spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 occurs in both the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics and contains nearly half of the species in the family Selenopidae Simon, 1897. In this paper the members of the genus Selenops found in North America, Central America, and on islands of the Caribbean are revised, excluding Cuban endemics. No taxonomic changes are currently made to the species from the southwestern United States. In total, 21 new species are described, including Selenops arikoksp. n., Selenops chamelasp. n., Selenops amonasp. n., Selenops bawekasp. n., Selenops bocacanadensissp. n., Selenops enriquillosp. n, Selenops ixchelsp. n., Selenops huetocatlsp. n., Selenops kalinagosp. n., Selenops oviedosp. n., Selenops morrosp. n., Selenops deniasp. n., Selenops duansp. n., Selenops malinalxochitlsp. n., Selenops oricuajosp. n., Selenops petenajtoysp. n., Selenops guerrerosp. n., Selenops makimakisp. n., Selenops souligasp. n., Selenops wilmotorumsp. n., and Selenops wilsonisp. n. Six species names were synonymized: Selenops lunatus Muma, 1953 syn. n. =Selenops candidus Muma, 1953; Selenops tehuacanus Muma 1953 syn. n., Selenops galapagoensis Banks, 1902 syn. n. and Selenops vagabundus Kraus, 1955 syn. n. = Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880; Selenops santibanezi Valdez-Mondragón, 2010 syn. n. = Selenops nigromaculatus Keyserling, 1880; and Selenops salvadoranus Chamberlin, 1925 syn. n. = Selenops bifurcatus Banks, 1909. Lectotypes are designated for the following three species: Selenops marginalis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900 (♂), Selenops morosus Banks, 1898 (♂), and Selenops mexicanus Keyserling, 1880 (♀). The female neotype is designated for Selenops aissus Walckenaer, 1837. The males of Selenops bani Alayón-García, 1992 and Selenops marcanoi Alayón-García, 1992 are described for the first time, and the females of Selenops phaselus Muma, 1953 and Selenops geraldinae Corronca, 1996 are described for the first time. Almost all species are redescribed, barring Cuban endemics and a few species recently described. New illustrations are provided, including those of the internal female copulatory organs, many of which are illustrated for the first time. A key to species is also provided as are new distributional records.

  15. Description of the hitherto unknown males of Argiope reinwardti (Doleschall, 1859) and Cyrtophora monulfi Chrysanthus, 1960 (Araneae, Argiopidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysanthus, Fr.

    1972-01-01

    During 1970 Dr. M. H. Robinson, Mrs. B. Robinson and Miss Y. Lubin, of the Bishop Museum Field Station in Wau (T.P.N.G.) studied Argiopid spiders in that part of eastern New Guinea. They collected many specimens and sent them to me for identification. Among these materials there were the hitherto

  16. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae: Araneoidea: Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all newly described here. In the Theridiosomatidae: Epeirotypus dalong n. sp., Ogulnius barbandrewsi n. sp., Baalzebub nemesis n. sp., Theridiosoma diwang n. sp., Theridiosoma shuangbi n. sp., Zoma dibaiyin n. sp., Wendilgarda muji n. sp., Coddingtonia euryopoides n. gen., n. sp.; in the Mysmenidae: Mysmena changouzi n. sp., Mysmena jinlong n. sp., Mysmena bizi n. sp., Mysmena goudao n. sp., Mysmena haban n. sp., Mysmena shibali n. sp., Simaoa yaojia n. gen., n. sp., Simaoa kavanaugh n. sp., Simaoa maku n. sp., Simaoa bianjing n. sp., Gaoligonga changya n. gen., n. sp., Gaoligonga zhusun n. sp., Mosu nujiang n. gen., n. sp., Mosu huogou n. sp., Chanea suukyii n. gen., n. sp., Maymena paquini n. sp., Maymena kehen n. sp.; in the Anapidae: Gaiziapis zhizhuba n. gen., n. sp.; in the Symphytognathidae: Patu jidanweishi n. sp., Patu qiqi n. sp., Patu xiaoxiao n. sp., Crassignatha pianma n. sp., Crassignatha yinzhi n. sp., Crassignatha quanqu n. sp., Crassignatha yamu n. sp., Crassignatha ertou n. sp., Crassignatha gudu n. sp., Crassignatha longtou n. sp. The first species of Zoma Saaristo, 1996 (previously monotypic, known from the Seychelles and Maymena Gertsch, 1960 (previously known from the Americas are reported from China. The genus Crassignatha Wunderlich, 1995 (previously known from a single male from Malaysia is represented by seven new Chinese species and is transferred to Symphytognathidae. The first Epeirotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 species from beyond the Neotropics is described, although the presence of the genus in Asia was previously noted. Notes on morphological characters exhibited by this fauna and implications for the limits and diagnosis of some symphytognathoid families are given. Dichotomous keys to species are provided. Quantitative biodiversity analysis suggests a high degree of endemism for symphytognathoids in the Gaoligongshan.

  17. Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Gergin A; Nikolova, Nadya I; Sobel, Crystal N; Hebert, Paul D N; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2013-11-26

    Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 10-20 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum Churchill, but the other species represents a range extension from the USA. The first description of the female of S. monticola was also presented. As well, one probable new species of Alopecosa (Lycosidae) was recognized. This study provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for the spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding reliably identifies spiders in the Churchill fauna. The capacity of DNA barcoding to enable the identification of otherwise taxonomically ambiguous specimens (juveniles, females) also represents a major advance for future monitoring efforts on this group.

  18. Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed. PMID:27551189

  19. First records of Spermophora kerinci, Nesticella mogera and Pseudanapis aloha on the European Mainland (Araneae: Pholcidae, Nesticidae, Anapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The alien spider species Spermophora kerinci Huber, 2005, Nesticella mogera (Yaginuma, 1972 and Pseudanapis aloha Forster, 1959 are recorded from greenhouses in Germany. These are the first records from the European mainland. All these species have recently been found in the British Isles.

  20. Influence of Crop Management and Environmental Factors on Wolf Spider Assemblages (Araneae: Lycosidae) in an Australian Cotton Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Dalila; Whitehouse, Mary E A; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-02-01

    Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are the most abundant ground-hunting spiders in the Australian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) agroecosystems. These spiders have potential in controlling pest bollworms, Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in minimum-tilled fields. A study was carried out during a wet growing season (2011-2012) in Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia, to determine how different crop rotations and tillage affect wolf spider assemblages in cotton fields. Spider abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between simple plots (no winter crop) and complex plots (cotton-wheat Triticum aestivum L.-vetch Vicia benghalensis L. rotation). However, the wolf spider biodiversity, as expressed by the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson's indices, was significantly higher in complex plots. Higher biodiversity reflected a more even distribution of the most dominant species (Venatrix konei Berland, Hogna crispipes Koch, and Tasmanicosa leuckartii Thorell) and the presence of more rare species in complex plots. T. leuckartii was more abundant in complex plots and appears to be sensitive to farming disturbances, whereas V. konei and H. crispipes were similarly abundant in the two plot types, suggesting higher resilience or recolonizing abilities. The demographic structure of these three species varied through the season, but not between plot types. Environmental variables had a significant effect on spider assemblage, but effects of environment and plot treatment were overshadowed by the seasonal progression of cotton stages. Maintaining a high density and even distribution of wolf spiders that prey on Helicoverpa spp. should be considered as a conservation biological control element when implementing agronomic and pest management strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Description of the male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 and a new species of Bistriopelma from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae

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    Radan Kaderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The male of Bistriopelma matuskai Kaderka 2015 is described and illustrated, the species is rediagnosed and complemented by new biogeographical data. Additionally, a new species of Bistriopelma, B. titicaca sp. nov., from the Puno region in Peru is described, diagnosed and illustrated. An updated general description and distribution map of Bistriopelma are provided.

  2. First record of Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) from Greenland (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, Jørgen; Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    The linyphiid spider Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) is reported new to Greenland. A single female was pitfall trapped in South-West Greenland at Kobbefjord in the summer of 2016 constituting the first record of this species in the Nearctic ecozone. The habitat in which the Greenland...

  3. Molecular insights into species phylogeny, biogeography, and morphological stasis in the ancient spider genus Hypochilus (Araneae: Hypochilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, M C

    2001-02-01

    The spider genus Hypochilus is currently restricted to cool, moist microhabitats in three widely separated montane regions of North America, providing an opportunity to study both deep (i.e., continental level) and shallow (within montane region) biogeographic history. Members of the genus also retain many plesiomorphic morphological characteristics, inviting the study of comparative rates of morphological evolution. In this paper, Hypochilus phylogeny and associated evolutionary problems are addressed using both new molecular (28S nDNA and CO1 mtDNA) and previously published (K. M. Catley, 1994, Am. Mus. Nov. 3088, 1-27) morphological data. Although the molecular data provide limited resolution of root placement within Hypochilus, most analyses are at least consistent with morphology-supported montane relationships of (Rockies (California, Appalachian)). The monophyly of Hypochilus species distributed in the California mountains is ambiguous, with several analyses indicating that this fauna may be paraphyletic with respect to a monophyletic Appalachian lineage. The montane regions differ in consistent ways in depths of both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic divergence. Molecular clock analyses, in combination with arthropod-based mtDNA rate calibrations, suggest that the regional faunas are of different ages and that speciation in all faunas likely occurred prior to the Pleistocene. Limited intraspecific sampling reveals extraordinarily high levels of mtDNA cytochrome oxidase sequence divergence. These extreme divergences are most consistent with morphological stasis at the species level, despite preliminary evidence that Hypochilus taxa are characterized by fragmented population structures. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-01-01

    The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of human keratinocyte cell viability; the female Sicarius ornatus venom was more efficient than male. We show here, for the first time, that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D. These results may suggest that envenomation by this Sicarius spider has the potential to cause similar pathological events as that caused by Loxosceles envenomation. Our results also suggest that, in addition to the interspecific differences, intraspecific variations in the venoms composition may play a role in the toxic potential of the New World Sicarius venoms species.

  5. A revision of the purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 (Araneae, Atypidae in the Afrotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Fourie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 is revised in the Afrotropical Region. Following examination of the female type material, C. transvaalica Hewitt, 1916 is removed from synonymy with C. simoni Pocock, 1903 and revalidated. The females of both species are redescribed and their males described for the first time. While C. simoni is very widespread across tropical Africa, C. transvaalica is endemic to northern South Africa. Four new species are described, all known only from males: C. megae sp. n. (Zimbabwe, C. meridionalis sp. n. (South Africa, C. namibica sp. n. (Namibia and C. tibialis sp. n. (Ivory Coast and Togo. Notes are presented on the biology of each species.

  6. On the Afrotropical genus Holmelgonia (Araneae, Linyphiidae, with the description of three new species from the Albertine Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Nzigidahera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Holmelgonia were found in the mountain forest of Kibira National Park in Burundi: H. afromontana sp. nov. (♂♀, H. bosnasutus sp. nov. (♂♀ and H. disconveniens sp. nov. (♂. A key to the males in the genus, now containing 17 species, is provided.

  7. Around the World in Eight Million Years: Historical Biogeography and Evolution of the Spray Zone Spider Amaurobioides (Araneae: Anyphaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opell, Brent D.; Haddad, Charles R.; Raven, Robert J.; Soto, Eduardo M.; Ramírez, Martín J.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related organisms with transoceanic distributions have long been the focus of historical biogeography, prompting the question of whether long-distance dispersal, or tectonic-driven vicariance shaped their current distribution. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere continents, this question deals with the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass, which has also affected global wind and oceanic current patterns since the Miocene. With the advent of phylogenetic node age estimation and parametric bioinformatic advances, researchers have been able to disentangle historical evolutionary processes of taxa with greater accuracy. In this study, we used the coastal spider genus Amaurobioides to investigate the historical biogeographical and evolutionary processes that shaped the modern-day distribution of species of this exceptional genus of spiders. As the only genus of the subfamily Amaurobioidinae found on three Southern Hemisphere continents, its distribution is well-suited to study in the context of Gondwanic vicariance versus long-distance, transoceanic dispersal. Ancestral species of the genus Amaurobioides appear to have undergone several long-distance dispersal events followed by successful establishments and speciation, starting from the mid-Miocene through to the Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of all present-day Amaurobioides species is estimated to have originated in Africa after arriving from South America during the Miocene. From Africa the subsequent dispersals are likely to have taken place predominantly in an eastward direction. The long-distance dispersal events by Amaurobioides mostly involved transoceanic crossings, which we propose occurred by rafting, aided by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the West Wind Drift. PMID:27732621

  8. A new species of jumping spider Neonella Gertsch, with notes on the genus and male identification key (Araneae, Salticidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gonzalo D.; Argañaraz, Carina I.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American genus Neonella Gertsch, 1936 consists of very small jumping spiders whose biology is not well known. The genus currently includes eleven valid species, of which eight are known from both sexes and two are only known from one sex. This paper describes and illustrates a new species Neonella acostae sp. n., demonstrates male palpal variation in Neonella montana Galiano, 1988, and provides some information on the ecology of three sympatric species. New records of Neonella montana and Neonella minuta Galiano, 1965 are reported. Because the previously described species of Neonella were well illustrated and diagnosed, a dichotomous key to males is given along with genital illustrations of both sexes for all known species. PMID:26692804

  9. Three new species of tube-dwelling spider genus Ariadna Audouin, 1826 (Araneae: Segestriidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliwal, Manju; Yadav, Archana; Kumar, Dolly

    2017-12-05

    The tube-dwelling spider family Segestriidae is represented in India by only two species, Ariadna nebulosa Simon, 1906 and Segestria inda Simon, 1906. Both species are known only from their type localities. For about 96 years, there has been no report of these spiders from the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe three new species based on female specimens from India. Ariadna vansda sp. nov. from Gujarat; A. molur sp. nov., and A. chhotae sp. nov. from Karnataka.

  10. Three new species and the first known males of the Andean spider genus Orinomana Strand (Araneae, Uloboridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismado, Cristian J; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2015-12-02

    Three new species of the uloborid genus Orinomana Strand, O. penelope n. sp. from Ecuador, O. viracocha n. sp. from Peru, and O. florezi n. sp. from Colombia, are described. Additionally, the male of O. ascha Grismado, from Northwestern Argentina, is described for the first time. This material includes the first males known of the genus, providing diagnostic characters for its recognition; the complex and massive embolus with several branches is proposed as a synapomorphy of the genus.

  11. Three new species of the genus Trachelas (Araneae: Trachelidae) from an oak forest inside the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Quiroz, F Andrés; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando

    2015-08-07

    Three new species of the spider genus Trachelas L. Koch, 1872 are described and included in the speciosus group based on the following features: embolus as a separate sclerite from the tegulum with no basal coils, legs with a conspicuous fringe of long trichobothria and narrow copulatory ducts coiled irregularly. The new species described are: T. crassus sp. n., T. ductonuda sp. n. and T. odoreus sp. n. A total of 46 specimens were collected in an oak forest near Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico. Most individuals were collected on low vegetation using beating trays and direct collecting at night. Additional images are available at www.unamfcaracnolab.com.

  12. Phylogenetic affinities of Phobetinus to other pirate spider genera (Araneae: Mimetidae) as indicated by spinning field morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Mark A; Harms, Danilo; Benjamin, Suresh P

    2013-09-01

    Spinnerets from Phobetinus sagittifer and an undescribed Phobetinus species were examined by scanning electron microscopy to gain a better understanding of this genus' relationships to other genera in the family Mimetidae. Consistent with placement of Phobetinus in Mimetinae, females possessed two synapomorphies of this subfamily; enlarged cylindrical silk gland spigots with domed shafts and a single cylindrical spigot per posterior lateral spinneret (PLS). Spinning field features overall suggest Phobetinus is most closely related to Mimetus, followed by Australomimetus, then Ero. A possible synapomorphy of a clade including Mimetus and Phobetinus is a pair of modified piriform silk gland spigots on each anterior lateral spinneret of adult males located adjacent to the secondary major ampullate silk gland tartipore. These spigots were present in P. sagittifer; however, similarly positioned spigots in the undescribed species were not obviously modified (i.e., wider or with larger openings relative to the other piriform spigots). Close affinity to Mimetus was also indicated by tartipore-accommodated PLS aciniform silk glands in both Phobetinus species. These have been consistently observed in Mimetus, but not in Australomimetus or Ero. Somatic and genitalic drawings of P. sagittifer are provided to aid identification and similarities are noted between male pedipalps of Mimetus and Phobetinus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hess Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of human keratinocyte cell viability; the female Sicarius ornatus venom was more efficient than male. CONCLUSION: We show here, for the first time, that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D. These results may suggest that envenomation by this Sicarius spider has the potential to cause similar pathological events as that caused by Loxosceles envenomation. Our results also suggest that, in addition to the interspecific differences, intraspecific variations in the venoms composition may play a role in the toxic potential of the New World Sicarius venoms species.

  14. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kovblyuk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: H. bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; H. dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866; H. isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; H. minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879; H. kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; H. pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; H. signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839 and H. umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866. The occurrence of H. cognatus (Westring, 1861 in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species H. dalmatensis and H. isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes. These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of H. dalmatensis is in May-July, and that of H. isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for H. deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and H. pugnans (Simon, 1880.

  15. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine) and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovblyuk, Mykola M; Kastrygina, Zoya A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: Haplodrassus bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866); Haplodrassus isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; Haplodrassus minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879); Haplodrassus kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; Haplodrassus pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839) and Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866). The occurrence of Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861) in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species Haplodrassus dalmatensis and Haplodrassus isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes). These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of Haplodrassus dalmatensis isin May-July, and that of Haplodrassus isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for Haplodrassus deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and Haplodrassus pugnans (Simon, 1880).

  16. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    for novel partners is also expected to maximize male lifetime reproductive success by allowing males to increase the number of mates. We investigated male and female preference for novel or former mating partners in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by offering females novel males (polyandry) or the same male...

  17. Dispatch from the field: ecology of ground-web-building spiders with description of a new species (Araneae, Symphytognathidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, J. A.; Schilthuizen, M.; Burmester, J. L.; van der Graaf, L.; Merckx, V.; Jocqué, M.; Kessler, P. J. A.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Breeschoten, T.; Broeren, R.; Bouman, R.; Chua, W.-J.; Feijen, F.; Fermont, T.; Groen, K.; Groen, M.; Kil, N. J. C.; de Laat, H. A.; Moerland, M. S.; Moncoquet, C.; Panjang, E.; Philip, A. J.; Roca-Eriksen, R.; Rooduijn, B.; van Santen, M.; Swakman, V.; Evans, M. N.; Evans, L. J.; Love, K.; Joscelyne, S. H.; Tober, A. V.; Wilson, H. F.; Ambu, L. N.; Goossens, B.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1076 ISSN 1314-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borneo * Crassignatha * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://biodiversitydatajournal.com/articles.php?id=1076#articles.php?id=1076&_suid=140136443701508137781001837112

  18. Evaluation of the Systematic Status of Geographical Variations in Arcuphantes hibanus (Arachnida: Araneae: Linyphiidae), with Descriptions of Two New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takafumi; Ihara, Yoh; Kumasaki, Yusuke; Baba, Yuki G; Tomikawa, Ko

    2017-08-01

    The systematic status of geographical variants of Arcuphantes hibanus Saito, 1992 belonging to the A. longiscapus species group, indigenous to western Honshu and Shikoku, Japan, was evaluated using morphological and molecular data. Two species, A. enmusubi Ihara, Nakano and Tomikawa, sp. nov. and A. occidentalis Ihara, Nakano and Tomikawa, sp. nov., are described, and A. hibanus is redescribed with redefinition of its taxonomic status. These three species are diagnosed by the characteristics of paracymbium, pseudolamella, and epigynal basal part. Phylogenetic trees obtained with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA markers showed that the variants are mutually genetically highly diverged. However, the mtDNA phylogenies failed to recover the monophyly of A. hibanus redefined herein. Contrary to the mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, a neighbor-network analysis of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 sequences of A. hibanus, A. enmusubi and A. occidentalis spiders showed that each of them forms a cluster. The results of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses in each of the three species are briefly discussed, along with their taxonomic identities.

  19. Seasonal Population Dynamics of a Specialized Termite-Eating Spider (Araneae: Ammoxenidae) and its Prey (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haddad, C. R.; Brabec, Marek; Pekár, S.; Fourie, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2016), s. 105-110 ISSN 0031-4056 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14762S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : activity * phenology * predator-prey dynamics * specialist * termite Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2016

  20. The biodiversity and species composition of the spider community of Marion Island, a recent survey (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Khoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Marion Island, the larger of the Prince Edward Islands, lies in the sub-Antarctic biogeographic region in the southern Indian Ocean. From previous surveys, four spider species are known from Marion. The last survey was undertaken in 1968. During this study a survey was undertaken over a period of four weeks on the island to determine the present spider diversity and to record information about the habitat preferences and general behaviour of the species present. Three collection methods (active search, Tullgren funnels and pitfall traps were used, and spiders were sampled from six habitat sites. A total of 430 spiders represented by four families were collected, Myro kerguelenesis crozetensis Enderlein, 1909 and M. paucispinosus Berland, 1947 (Desidae, Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826 (Linyphiidae, Cheiracanthium furculatum Karsch, 1879 (Miturgidae and an immature Salticidae. The miturgid and salticid are first records. Neomaso antarticus (Hickman, 1939 (Linyphiidae was absent from samples, confirming that the species might have been an erroneous record.

  1. Faunistical data on the spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the Lacul Dracului bog complex with new data for the Romanian fauna

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    GALLE Robert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains faunistical data obtained by the joint research of Babeş-Bolyai and Szeged University. 44 species of 15 families were identified from Lacul Dracului marsh-complex (Harghita Mountains. Meioneta similis (Kulczynski 1926 is new for the Romanian fauna. Furthermore the occurrences of two questionable species [Kaestneria pullata (O.P.-Cambridge, 1863 and Trichoncus saxicola (O.P.- Cambridge, 1861] are proved.

  2. Can ant-eating Zodarion spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae) develop on a diet optimal for euryphagous arthropod predators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekar, Stano; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    . Such adaptations may then entail trade-offs in handling and utilization of alternative prey. To investigate behavioural as well as nutritional adaptations and the occurrence of the corresponding trade-offs in two ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion [Zodarion atlanticum Pekár & Cardoso and Zodarion germanicum...... (C. L. Koch)], spiders are reared on two diets: ants (i.e. their preferred prey) and fruit flies (i.e. an alternative prey that is nutritionally optimal for euryphagous spiders). Food consumption is observed and several fitness-related life-history parameters are measured. Although spiders readily...... accept ants, more than one-third of 35 spiders refuse to consume fruit flies and starve. Furthermore, severe hunger does not induce these individuals to accept fruit flies. Starving spiders die before moulting to the second stadium. Spiders that eat fruit flies increase only little and slowly in weight...

  3. Voracious male spiders that kill adult females of their own species (genera Walckenaeria, Diplostyla, Neriene, Meta, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the popular belief that adult female spiders often kill and eat their adult male partners in the context of copulation, we present a few instances of adult male spiders killing and eating adult females of their own species in the laboratory. However, in line with the popular belief,

  4. How dietary plant nectar affects the survival, growth, and fecundity of a cursorial spider Cheiracanthium inclusum (Araneae: Miturgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Pfannenstiel, R S

    2009-10-01

    We measured the effects of plant nectar consumption on Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Miturgidae), an agriculturally important spider. Newly emerged spiderlings were reared on the eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) at four prey densities, 1, 5, 25, or 125 eggs, three times a week, with or without nectar. Nectar came from the extrafloral nectaries of Indian almond, Terminalia cattapa L. (Combretaceae). The addition of nectar to prey (1) allowed spiderlings on the 1-egg diet to survive longer and molt many more times; (2) allowed virtually all of the spiderlings on the 5-egg diet to become small adults and 50% to mate and reproduce versus those without nectar, none of which matured to adulthood; and (3) increased fecundity of females on 5-egg and 25-egg diets to the level of females fed five times the amount of prey. These results show that spiders that feed on nectar increase their fitness with increased survival, growth, and fecundity, particularly when density of prey is inadequate or marginal.

  5. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  6. Diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) in roadside verges with grey hair-grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Schaffers, A.P.; Sykora, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    Roadside verges in densely populated areas are often a significant addition to the total semi-natural area and as such may contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Furthermore, they can enhance the ecological cohesion of a region, especially when the existing nature reserves are small and/or

  7. Signal complexity and modular organization of the courtship behaviours of two sibling species of wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarle, Alberto; Isaia, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we compare the courtship behaviours of Pardosa proxima and P. vlijmi, two species of wolf spiders up to now regarded as "ethospecies", by means of motion analysis methodologies. In particular, we investigate the features of the signals, aiming at understanding the evolution of the courtship and its role in species delimitation and speciation processes. In our model, we highlight a modular structure of the behaviours and the presence of recurring units and phases. According to other similar cases concerning animal communication, we observed one highly variable and one stereotyped phase for both species. The stereotyped phase is here regarded as a signal related to species identity or an honest signal linked directly to the quality of the signaler. On the contrary, the variable phase aims to facilitate signal detection and assessment by the female reducing choice costs or errors. Variable phases include cues arisen from Fisherian runaway selection, female sensory exploitation and remaining of past selections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šedo, Onřej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.

  9. Around the World in Eight Million Years: Historical Biogeography and Evolution of the Spray Zone Spider Amaurobioides (Araneae: Anyphaenidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sara Ceccarelli

    Full Text Available Closely related organisms with transoceanic distributions have long been the focus of historical biogeography, prompting the question of whether long-distance dispersal, or tectonic-driven vicariance shaped their current distribution. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere continents, this question deals with the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass, which has also affected global wind and oceanic current patterns since the Miocene. With the advent of phylogenetic node age estimation and parametric bioinformatic advances, researchers have been able to disentangle historical evolutionary processes of taxa with greater accuracy. In this study, we used the coastal spider genus Amaurobioides to investigate the historical biogeographical and evolutionary processes that shaped the modern-day distribution of species of this exceptional genus of spiders. As the only genus of the subfamily Amaurobioidinae found on three Southern Hemisphere continents, its distribution is well-suited to study in the context of Gondwanic vicariance versus long-distance, transoceanic dispersal. Ancestral species of the genus Amaurobioides appear to have undergone several long-distance dispersal events followed by successful establishments and speciation, starting from the mid-Miocene through to the Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of all present-day Amaurobioides species is estimated to have originated in Africa after arriving from South America during the Miocene. From Africa the subsequent dispersals are likely to have taken place predominantly in an eastward direction. The long-distance dispersal events by Amaurobioides mostly involved transoceanic crossings, which we propose occurred by rafting, aided by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the West Wind Drift.

  10. Nutrient intake determines post-maturity molting in the golden orb-web spider Nephila pilipes (Araneae: Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ren-Chung; Zhang, Shichang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Chia-Yi; Chou, Yi-Ling; Ye, Hui-Ying; Piorkowski, Dakota; Liao, Chen-Pan; Tso, I-Min

    2017-06-15

    While molting occurs in the development of many animals, especially arthropods, post-maturity molting (PMM, organisms continue to molt after sexual maturity) has received little attention. The mechanism of molting has been studied intensively; however, the mechanism of PMM remains unknown although it is suggested to be crucial for the development of body size. In this study, we investigated factors that potentially induce PMM in the golden orb-web spider Nephila pilipes , which has the greatest degree of sexual dimorphism among terrestrial animals. We manipulated the mating history and the nutrient consumption of the females to examine whether they affect PMM. The results showed that female spiders under low nutrition were more likely to molt as adults, and mating had no significant influence on the occurrence of PMM. Moreover, spiders that underwent PMM lived longer than those that did not and their body sizes were significantly increased. Therefore, we concluded that nutritional condition rather than mating history affect PMM. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Variation in the Stabilimenta of Cyclosa fililineata Hingston, 1932, and Cyclosa morretes Levi, 1999 (Araneae: Araneidae, in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Gonzaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the characteristics of the stabilimenta constructed by two species of Cyclosa, describing the variations within and among five populations. Both species constructed stabilimenta composed entirely of silk (linear and spiral types or of silk and debris (linear, detritus clusters and complex types. The vertical linear detritus type was the most frequent structure for adult females of both species, whereas stabilimenta consisting of detritus clusters were more frequent for juveniles of C. morretes. The latter structures appeared to be an intermediate state towards the linear continuous type usually found in adults. The other types were rarely found, and silk stabilimenta were to be constructed only when detritus was not available. The substitution of silk by detritus indicated that both materials function as camouflage in C. morretes and C. fililineata webs. The positions occupied by the spiders within the detritus column (and in some cases the orientation of the stabilimenta varied markedly within populations, and the unpredictability of their location could be important in reducing the risks of predation. The hypothesis that stabilimenta constitute defensive devices was indirectly corroborated by the observation that spider’s body width and length were, respectively, strongly correlated with the width and length of the stabilimenta.

  12. The Philippine hair wax spiders and their relatives: revision of the Pholcus bicornutus species group (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We revise the Southeast Asian Pholcus bicornutus group in which males are characterized by a unique pair of horns on their ocular area, each of which carries at its tip a brush of hairs. In two species, the two hair brushes are ‘glued’ or ‘waxed’ together by an unidentified substance into a very consistently curved and pointed single median tip. In the other five species known, the hairs are unglued. We present a first revision of ocular modifications in Pholcidae and identify twenty supposedly independent origins. Most cases are in Pholcinae, and all but one case are limited to the male, suggesting sexual selection as the main driving force in the evolution of ocular modifications in Pholcidae. Previously, the Pholcus bicornutus group consisted of four species limited to the Philippines. We describe four new species, including three species from the Philippines (P. olangapo Huber, sp. nov.; P. kawit Huber, sp. nov.; P. baguio Huber, sp. nov. and the first representative from outside the Philippines (P. mulu Huber, sp. nov. from Sarawak, NE Borneo and provide new records and SEM data for three previously described species.

  13. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of Gujarat University Campus, Ahmedabad, India with additional description of Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv A. Prajapati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a checklist of spiders based on a survey made from August 2013 to July 2014 in Gujarat University Campus, an urban area located in the middle of Ahmadabad City, Gujarat State. A total of 77 species of spiders belonging to 53 genera and 20 families of spiders were recorded from the study area represented by 31.74% of the total 63 families reported from India. Salticidae was found to be the most dominant family with 18 species from 14 genera. Guild structure analysis revealed six feeding guilds, namely stalkers, orb-web builders, space-web builders, ambushers, foliage hunters and ground runners. Stalkers and orb-web builders were the most dominant feeding guilds representing 28.58% and 20.78% respectively among all studied guilds. Species Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976 is reported for the first time from Gujarat with additional description and detailed genitalic illustrations.

  14. Ein Beitrag zur Springspinnenfauna der Balearen mit dem Erstnachweis von Heliophanus stylifer für Europa (Araneae, Salticidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A female of the jumping spider Heliophanus stylifer Simon, 1878 was found in the s’Albufera natural park on the Balearic Island of Mallorca (Spain). This species is new to Europe. Seven additional jumping spider species were recorded, including the first records of Heliophanus apiatus, Icius hamatus and Menemerus taeniatus for the Balearic Islands.

  15. Cryptic elevational zonation in trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus janus complex) from the California southern Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of ecological niche conservatism versus niche divergence in promoting montane speciation remains an important topic in biogeography. Here, our aim was to test whether lineage diversification in a species complex of trapdoor spiders corresponds with riverine barriers or with an ecological gradient associated with elevational tiering. Aliatypus janus was sampled from throughout its range, with emphasis on populations in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We collected multi-locus genetic data to generate a species tree for A. janus and its close relatives. Coalescent based hypothesis tests were conducted to determine if genetic breaks within A. janus conform to riverine barriers. Ecological niche models (ENM) under current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions were generated and hypothesis tests of niche conservatism and divergence were performed. Coalescent analyses reveal deeply divergent genetic lineages within A. janus, likely corresponding to cryptic species. Two primary lineages meet along an elevational gradient on the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. ENMs under both current and LGM conditions indicate that these groups occupy largely non-overlapping niches. ENM hypothesis testing rejected niche identity between the two groups, and supported a sharp ecological gradient occurring where the groups meet. However, the niche similarity test indicated that the two groups may not inhabit different background niches. The Sierra Nevada Mountains provide a natural laboratory for simultaneously testing ecological niche divergence and conservatism and their role in speciation across a diverse range of taxa. Aliatypus janus represents a species complex with cryptic lineages that may have diverged due to parapatric speciation along an ecological gradient, or been maintained by the evolution of ecological niche differences following allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spinning Gland Transcriptomics from Two Main Clades of Spiders (Order: Araneae) - Insights on Their Molecular, Anatomical and Behavioral Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Bittencourt, Daniela; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Kirst, Matias; Motta, Paulo C.; Rech, Elibio L.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium) to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae) and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade). Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily) were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i) anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii) behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution. PMID:21738742

  18. Exposure of Brown Recluse and Brown Widow Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae, Theridiidae) to a Commercial Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Hoddle, Mark S; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Thoms, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control. We demonstrated that a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with an accumulated dosage of 162 oz-h per 1,000 ft(3) at 21°C over 25 h (≈1.7 × the drywood termite dosage) directed at termites was sufficient to kill adult brown recluse and brown widow spiders. The effectiveness of commercial fumigation practices to control spiders, and particularly their egg sacs, warrants further study. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Dean H; Starrett, James; Westphal, Michael F; Hedin, Marshal

    2015-10-01

    We use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to infer both species boundaries and species relationships within California nemesiid spiders. Higher-level phylogenetic data show that the California radiation is monophyletic and distantly related to European members of the genus Brachythele. As such, we consider all California nemesiid taxa to belong to the genus Calisoga Chamberlin, 1937. Rather than find support for one or two taxa as previously hypothesized, genetic data reveal Calisoga to be a species-rich radiation of spiders, including perhaps dozens of species. This conclusion is supported by multiple mitochondrial barcoding analyses, and also independent analyses of nuclear data that reveal general genealogical congruence. We discovered three instances of sympatry, and genetic data indicate reproductive isolation when in sympatry. An examination of female reproductive morphology does not reveal species-specific characters, and observed male morphological differences for a subset of putative species are subtle. Our coalescent species tree analysis of putative species lays the groundwork for future research on the taxonomy and biogeographic history of this remarkable endemic radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Erstnachweis von Evarcha michailovi in Deutschland (Araneae: Salticidae sowie weitere für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern neue Spinnenarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The jumping spider Evarcha michailovi Logunov 1992 was recorded as new to Germany from a nature reserve in the south of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in a dry heathland habitat. Furthermore, the first records of the jumping spiders Evarcha laetabunda (C. L. Koch, 1846, Philaeus chrysops (Poda, 1761 and Sitticus inexpectus Logunov & Kronestedt, 1997, the comb-footed spider Crustulina sticta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861 and the crab spider Heriaeus graminicola (Doleschall, 1852 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania are reported.

  1. Do really all wolf spiders carry spiderlings on their opisthosomas? The case of Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Araneae: Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolejš, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wolf spider females are characterised by carrying cocoons attached to their spinnerets. Emerged spiderlings are carried on the females’ opisthosomas, with the exception of three Japanese lycosid species who carry spiderlings on empty cocoons. Here, the same behaviour is recorded in a European spider: the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. Spiderlings of this species do not try to climb on the female’s opisthosoma, even when they are adopted by a female of a species with a normal pulli-carrying behaviour. This behaviour occurs in Trechaleidae and four unrelated species of Lycosidae inhabiting wet habitats and is therefore regarded as an adaptation to the unsuitable environment.

  2. Spinning gland transcriptomics from two main clades of spiders (order: Araneae--insights on their molecular, anatomical and behavioral evolution.

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    Francisco Prosdocimi

    Full Text Available Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade. Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution.

  3. On Levymanus, a remarkable new spider genus from Israel, with notes on the Chediminae (Araneae, Palpimanidae

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    Sergei Zonstein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Levymanus gershomi gen. n. et sp. n., is described from southern Israel. The eye arrangement and structure of the male palp indicate that this genus belongs to Chediminae Simon, 1893. Levymanus gen. n. differs from other chedimine genera by its unusually long and slender legs, an elongate body, a unique shape of the bipartite thoracic fovea, reduced leg scopulae, smaller spinnerets, and other characters, which are presumably apomorphic. We propose two taxonomic changes: 1 based on widely spaced lateral eyes the Western African genus Badia Roewer, 1961 is transferred from Chediminae to Palpimaninae, and 2 Fernandezina gyirongensis Hu & Li, 1987 from China, based on palpal morphology, is transferred to the Asian genus Steriphopus Simon, 1887 for a new combination Steriphopus gyirongensis (Hu & Li, 1987 comb. n.

  4. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vöcking, Oliver; Uhl, Gabriele; Michalik, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present), decapsulated (secretion sheath absent) and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated). After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process.

  5. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Small scale endemism in Brazil's Atlantic Forest: 14 new species of Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae), each known from a single locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2015-04-07

    In an ongoing mega-transect project that aims at analyzing pholcid spider diversity and distribution in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, many species appear restricted to small geographic ranges. Of the 84 species collected between 2003 and 2011 at 17 sites between Bahia and Santa Catarina, 51 species (61%) were found at only one locality. The present paper focuses on such species in the genus Mesabolivar, and compares diversity and distribution patterns of this genus within and outside the Atlantic Forest. The percentage of species known from single localities is higher in the Atlantic Forest (34 of 52 species; 65%) than outside the Atlantic Forest (10 of 25; 40%). Distribution rages of species in the Atlantic Forest are significantly smaller than of species outside the Atlantic Forest (mean maximum distances between localities: 184 versus 541 km; medians: 10 km versus 220 km). The following species are newly described (arranged from north to south), each currently known from the respective type locality only: M. caipora; M. kathrinae; M. bonita; M. pau (Bahia); M. monteverde; M. perezi (Espírito Santo); M. giupponii; M. goitaca; M. sai (Rio de Janeiro); M. tamoio; M. unicornis; M. gabettae; M. inornatus (São Paulo); M. itapoa (Santa Catarina).

  7. First record of Hypsocephalus dahli in Switzerland with a review of ist distribution, ecology and taxonomy (Araneae, Linyphiidae

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    Frick, Holger

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider species Hypsocephalus dahli (Lessert, 1909 is recorded for the first time in Switzerland from museum material collected in 1974. The information given in the literature and unpublished data on this rare species are summarised including an annotated distribution map. All published pictures of males are compared with the holotype. Figures of the male palp and the vulva of the Swiss specimens are provided.

  8. On the ecology of the cursorial spider Odo bruchi (Araneae: Zoridae in a grassland natural reserve from central Argentina

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    Gabriel Pompozzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ernesto Tornquist” Provincial Park (ETPP is located inside the Ventania system (Argentina and was created to protect one of the last relicts of pampean grasslands. Even though many studies have looked at the vertebrate faunal diversity, biology, and conservation in this Park, few studies have been dedicated to arthropods. Among these, spiders have been used as ecological indicators to evaluate nature conservation status, nevertheless, basic information on their distribution and ecology is necessary for their use as indicator taxa in this region. Thus the goal of this study was to present the phenology and demography of the spider Odo bruchi, a cursorial spider present in the ETPP. For this, spiders were sampled bimonthly using pitfall traps between September 2009-2010 (first year, and March 2011-2012 (second year. A total of 10 traps were placed every 10m along a transect of 100m parallel to the longest axis of a grassland slope with native vegetation. Traps were filled with 1 500mL of ethylene glycol, that were examined and refilled every 60 day period. We collected a total of 799 specimens in two years. Juveniles were the most abundant reaching 47.8% of the total, while males corresponded to 27.8% and females 24.4%. We found significant differences in the mean abundance of O. bruchi: the abundance during spring-summer (Nov-Dec-Jan-Feb was significantly higher than the other periods of the two years period. Moreover, we found an even abundance distribution throughout the year in the entire study. This work represents one of the first contributions to the ecology of this spider family in the area. Also, our results comprise relevant information to encourage future studies on this spider species as a bio-indicator of the conservation status of pampean grasslands.

  9. A new large trapdoor spider species of the genus Heligmomerus Simon 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae from Western Ghats, India

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    Rajesh V. Sanap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of trapdoor spider, Heligmomerus maximus sp. nov. is described from southern Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. The new species differs from known species of the genus from India and Sri Lanka in possessing a band of thorn-like spinules on coxa IV. Moreover it is the largest species of the genus with adult females reaching a length up to 32 mm and the burrows are shallow compared with other species of the genus.

  10. The Striated Parachute Spider Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: a note on taxonomy, distribution and conservation status

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    M. Siliwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The known distribution range of Poecilotheria striata Pocock, 1895 in India is from Mysuru in the north to Thiruvananthapuram in the south. During the recent surveys in northern Karnataka, P. striata was recorded from six locations in Dandeli and nearby areas in the Uttara Kannada District. With the new records from Uttara Kannada, the distribution range of this species extends to the northern part of the Western Ghats by ca. 400km from Mysuru. Additional records on distribution of P. striata are also provided from various surveys carried out in the last 10 years. Based on these new records, the IUCN Red List status of P. striata is recommended to be reassessed as Near Threatened. Additional information on the morphology and natural history of P. striata is provided in the paper.

  11. Addition to araneofauna of Andhra Pradesh, India: occurrence of three species of Argyrodes Simon, 1864 (Araneae: Theridiidae

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    S.M.M. Javed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three spider species, namely, Argyrodes nephilae Taczanowski, 1872, A. argentatus O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 and A. flavescens O.P.-Cambridge, 1880 from the family Theridiidae from Andhra Pradesh for the first time. A. nephilae constitutes the first record of this species from India. All the species have been recorded from the webs of Araneidae spiders.

  12. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae

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    E. Richard Hoebeke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes in North America.

  13. Kettle Holes in the Agrarian Landscape: Isolated and Ecological Unique Habitats for Carabid Beetles (Col.: Carabidae and Spiders (Arach.: Araneae

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    Platen Ralph

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kettle holes are small depressional wetlands and because of the high variability of site factors they are potential hotspots of biodiversity in the monotone arable land. We investigated eight kettle holes and two agrarian reference biotopes for carabid beetles and spiders. The animals were captured with pitfall traps from May to August 2005, along with surveys of the soil and vegetation. We asked whether each kettle hole has specific ecological properties which match with characteristic carabid beetle and spider coenoses and whether they represent isolated biotopes. Differences in the composition of ecological and functional groups of carabid beetles and spiders between the plots were tested with an ANOVA. The impact of the soil variables and vegetation structure on the distribution of species was analyzed with a Redundancy Analysis. The assemblage similarities between the kettle hole plots were calculated by the Wainstein-Index. Ecological groups and habitat preferences of carabid beetles had maximal expressions in seven different kettle holes whereas most of the ecological characteristics of the spiders had maximal expression in only two kettle holes. High assemblage similarity values of carabid beetle coenoses were observed only in a few cases whereas very similar spider coenoses were found between nearly all of the kettle holes. For carabid beetles, kettle holes represent much more isolated habitats than that for spiders. We concluded that kettle holes have specific ecological qualities which match with different ecological properties of carabid beetles and spiders and that isolation effects affect carabid beetles more than spiders.

  14. How did the spider cross the river? Behavioral adaptations for river-bridging webs in Caerostris darwini (Araneae: Araneidae.

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    Matjaž Gregorič

    Full Text Available Interspecific coevolution is well described, but we know significantly less about how multiple traits coevolve within a species, particularly between behavioral traits and biomechanical properties of animals' "extended phenotypes". In orb weaving spiders, coevolution of spider behavior with ecological and physical traits of their webs is expected. Darwin's bark spider (Caerostris darwini bridges large water bodies, building the largest known orb webs utilizing the toughest known silk. Here, we examine C. darwini web building behaviors to establish how bridge lines are formed over water. We also test the prediction that this spider's unique web ecology and architecture coevolved with new web building behaviors.We observed C. darwini in its natural habitat and filmed web building. We observed 90 web building events, and compared web building behaviors to other species of orb web spiders.Caerostris darwini uses a unique set of behaviors, some unknown in other spiders, to construct its enormous webs. First, the spiders release unusually large amounts of bridging silk into the air, which is then carried downwind, across the water body, establishing bridge lines. Second, the spiders perform almost no web site exploration. Third, they construct the orb capture area below the initial bridge line. In contrast to all known orb-weavers, the web hub is therefore not part of the initial bridge line but is instead built de novo. Fourth, the orb contains two types of radial threads, with those in the upper half of the web doubled. These unique behaviors result in a giant, yet rather simplified web. Our results continue to build evidence for the coevolution of behavioral (web building, ecological (web microhabitat and biomaterial (silk biomechanics traits that combined allow C. darwini to occupy a unique niche among spiders.

  15. Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae

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    Jason Bond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of 40 species of the predominately Californian trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon, 1891. Thirty-three of these species are newly described: A. dantrippi, A. cabrillo, A. pennjillettei, A. asmodaeus, A. nateevansi, A. chiricahua, A. icenoglei, A. isabella, A. muiri, A. barackobamai, A. sinnombre, A. hedinorum, A. aguacaliente, A. chemehuevi, A. sarlacc, A. derhamgiulianii, A. anzaborrego, A. serrano, A. mikeradtkei, A. edwardabbeyi, A. killerdana, A. cahuilla, A. satleri, A. elisabethae, A. fornax, A. lucerne, A. fisheri, A. bonoi, A. cajalco, A. sierra, A. huntington, A. dorothealangeae, and A. chavezi. Most of these species are restricted to the California Floristic Province, a known biodiversity hotspot. Of the 40 recognized species, over half are considered to be imperiled or vulnerable and two have likely gone extinct over the past half-century; the conservation status of only 11 species is considered to be secure. Using 73 quantitative and qualitative morphological characters I propose a preliminary phylogeny for the genus that recognizes four major lineages: the Atomarius, Simus, Hesperus, and Sierra species groups. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis indicates that adaptations favoring the invasion of the arid desert habitats of southern California have evolved multiple times across the group. The existence of both desert and non - desert species in three of the four species groups makes this genus an ideal candidate for the study of the evolutionary ecology of desert arthropods. A set of molecular characters based on the contiguous mitochondrial DNA genes 16S-tRNA valine-12S is used in an independent analysis to assist in placement of specimens into species. The taxonomy section explicitly identifies the concept employed in species delimitation. Niche based distribution models are constructed to predict the ranges of species for which an adequate number of sampling sites were known.

  16. Dispatch from the field II: the mystery of the red and blue Opadometa male (Araneae, Tetragnathidae, Opadometa sarawakensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Christian; Rambonnet, Liselotte; Koets, Lianne; Barth, Nadine; van der Linden, Corné; Geml, József; Schilthuizen, Menno; Burger, Richard; Goossens, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Males of Opadometa are difficult to associate with conspecific females, and sex-matching errors may persist in the taxonomic literature. Recommended best practices for definitive sex matching in this genus suggest finding a male in the web of a female, or better yet, mating pairs. New information A male Opadometa was observed hanging on a frame line of the web of a female Opadometa sarawakensis, a species for which the male was previously undescribed. This occurred during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description was completed as a course activity. PMID:29674940

  17. Along Came a Spider: Using Live Arthropods in a Predator-Prey Activity

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    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2011-01-01

    We developed a predator-prey activity with eighth-grade students in which they used wolf spiders ("Lycosa carolinensis"), house crickets ("Acheta domestica"), and abiotic factors to address how (1) adaptations in predators and prey shape their interaction and (2) abiotic factors modify the interaction between predators and…

  18. Expression of a wolf spider toxin in tobacco inhibits the growth of microbes and insects

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    Abstract Lycotoxin I, from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis), is an amphipathic pore-forming peptide that has antimicrobial and anti-insect activity. Constitutive expression of a lycotoxin I odified for oral toxicity to insects in tobacco (Nicotiana abacum) conferred significantly enhanced resis...

  19. Effects of different cultivation techniques on vineyard fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulas, J.; Kutasi, Cs.; Mark, V.; Balog, A.

    2002-01-01

    Green covering compared to soil cultivation enhanced the number of individuals of Araneae living on or near soil. No differences between the different soil management systems were found for the number of individuals of Staphylinidae and Carabidae. The typical main species of the two systems were different for all groups analyzed (Araneae, Staphylinidae and Carabidae).

  20. Notes on the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) with description of four new species from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; De Souza Castanheira, Pedro; Prado, AndrÉ Wanderley do

    2018-04-11

    Four new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil are illustrated and described based on males and females from the following municipalities: Alpaida imperatrix new species (Macaé and Rio de Janeiro); Alpaida imperialis new species (Mendes and Rio de Janeiro); Alpaida marista new species (Mendes and Pinheiral); and Alpaida mendensis new species (Mendes). Furthermore, two new synonymies are herein proposed: Alpaida lanei Levi, 1988 = Alpaida atomaria (Simon, 1895) and Alpaida caxias Levi, 1988 = Alpaida tijuca Levi, 1988, alongside new records for both species and also Alpaida venger Castanheira Baptista, 2015.

  1. The genus Clubiona Latreille, 1904 (Araneae: Clubionidae) in the Maghreb, with notes on the genevensis group and new records from the Mediterranean Region.

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    Bosmans, Robert; Henrard, Arnaud; Benhalima, Souâd; Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida

    2017-11-22

    A survey of the members of the genus Clubiona Latreille, 1904 in the Maghreb is presented. The presence of Clubiona comta C. L. Koch, 1839, C. dinienis Simon, 1878, C. leucaspis Simon, 1932, C. phragmitis C. L. Koch 1843 and C. vegeta Simon, 1918 is confirmed. Clubiona pseudosimilis Mikhailov, 1990, from the eastern Mediterranean is new to Africa and Portugal. A specimen of C. neglecta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1862, cited from Morocco in the past, was misidentified and appears to be C. pseudoneglecta Wunderlich, 1994. The species is new to Algeria and Spain. Two new synonyms are revealed: Clubiona baborensis Denis, 1937 from Algeria = C. diniensis Simon, 1878 N. Syn. and Clubiona venusta Pavesi, 1880 from Tunisia = Selamia reticulata (Simon, 1870) N. Syn. Clubiona mandibularis Lucas, 1846 is considered a Nomen dubium. The comta group is redefined and the "genevensis subgroup" is elevated to species group, including two subgroups. A key and illustrations to the species of the genevensis group are presented and all the species occurring in the Maghreb are illustrated.

  2. Cebrennus Simon, 1880 (Araneae: Sparassidae): a revisionary up-date with the description of four new species and an updated identification key for all species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Peter

    2014-04-17

    The spider genus Cebrennus Simon, 1880 is revised again after thirteen years. Four new species are described: Cebrennus atlas spec. nov. from Morocco (female), C. flagellatus spec. nov. from Afghanistan (male), C. laurae spec. nov. from Canary Islands (male), and C. rechenbergi spec. nov. from Morocco (male and female). Cebrennus clercki (Audouin, 1826) comb. nov. is transferred from Philodromidae to Sparassidae and considered a nomen dubium. The holotype of C. aethiopicus Simon, 1880 is illustrated for the first time. Cebrennus tunetanus Simon, 1885 is re-described by illustrating its copulatory organs and some somatic characters, the internal duct system is shown for the first time supporting its placement in Cebrennus. An updated identification key for all species is provided. New records of Cebrennus species are listed: C. wagae (Simon, 1874) is recorded from Libya and Malta for the first time, the latter representing the first record for the entire genus from Europe. C. kochi (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) is recorded from Syria, C. aethiopicus from Sudan for the first time. Records from the Canary Islands and from Afghanistan extend the known generic distribution range further to the West and East. Behavioural aspects (burrowing, escaping, mating) of C. rechenbergi and partly of C. villosus (Jézéquel & Junqua, 1966) are described. Photographs of this behaviour as well as of the habitus of several species are provided.

  3. On the genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 with the first record of the genus Atelidea Simon, 1895 from India (Araneae: Tetragnathidae, Leucauginae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2017-11-23

    The tetragnathid spider genus Tylorida Simon, 1894 is reviewed in India. The relationship of Tylorida with Orsinome Thorell, 1890 is discussed and illustrated. The taxonomic significance of male chelicerae of Tylorida spp. is discussed and an identification key based on the features of male chelicerae to separate Indian Tylorida spp. is provided. A new species, Tylorida flava sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Two new transfers and four new synonyms are proposed: Orsinome marmorea Pocock, 1901 and Tylorida culta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869) are transferred to Tylorida and Mesida Kulczyn'ski, 1911 respectively, Tylorida cylindrata (Wang, 1991) and Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 are synonymised with Tylorida marmorea (Pocock, 1901) comb. nov., Tylorida nicobarensis (Tikader, 1977) is synonymised with Tylorida striata (Thorell, 1877) and Leucauge pondae Tikader, 1970 is synonymised with Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877). The biology, natural history and intraspecific variations of T. marmorea comb. nov. are noted. The occurrence of intraspecific variations and colour polymorphism in T. ventralis is discussed and two colour morphs (Silver and Yellow morphs) and three varieties (varieties I, II & III) for the species are recognised. Additionally, the genus Atelidea Simon, 1895 is recorded for the first time from India and provided the description and illustration of Atelidea nona sp. nov.. The current distribution of Atelidea is mapped.

  4. Description of the lynx spiders of a canopy fogging project in northern Borneo (Araneae: Oxyopidae), with description of a new genus and six new species of Hamataliwa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeleman - Reinhold, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    All oxyopid spider species collected in a long-term ecological canopy project in northern Borneo are described. A total of nine species in three genera could be established, one of which belongs to a new genus. Four species could be assigned to known species, five are described as new species in the

  5. Ist das Zeigerwertsystem Ellenbergs zur autökologischen Charakterisierung von Spinnenarten geeignet? Beispielhafte Darstellung an der Bodenspinne Comaroma simoni (Arachnida, Araneae, Anapidae

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    Kropf, Christian

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for autoecological characterization of spider species is presented. It is based on the indicator value system of ELLENBERG and provides preliminary information, especially for rarely found species by comparing several different habitats. The use of this method is exemplified for the soil-spider Comaroma simoni BERTKAU, 1889 and the autecology of this species is discussed.

  6. Postembryonic development of Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934, L. laeta (Nicolet, 1849 and L. gaucho Gertsch, 1967 (Araneae; Sicariidae breeding under conditions of monospecific diet

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    Emanuel Marques da Silva

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of monospecific feeding on the post-embryonic development of L. intermedia, L. laeta and L. gaucho was evaluated. Two hundred and ten spiderlings were individualized in containers (120 ml, 105 being fed with Tenebrio molitor larvae and 105 with Pycnoscelus surinamensis nymphs. In the three species, the number of molts varied according to the diet. The number of spiders that reached maturity was lower in L. gaucho. In L. intermedia, the duration of the post-embryonic period was greater when larvae are fed. Mortality was higher in the second instar in the three species, the highest frequency being registered for L. gaucho. The data provided evidence that monospecific feeding influenced the post-embryonic development of the studied species. This influence might intensified by specific characteristics such as origin, habits and habitats.

  7. Revision of the genus Spermophora Hentz in Southeast Asia and on the Pacific Islands, with descriptions of three new genera (Araneae: Pholcidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to delimit ‘true’ Spermophora, i.e. the group of species most closely related to the type species S. senoculata (Dugès). Apart from the type species, only three previously described species are included in this core group (S. estebani Simon, S. paluma Huber, S.

  8. Revalidation of Acanthinozodium Denis, 1966 with description of three new species and discovery of a remarkable male palpal character (Araneae, Zodariidae

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    Rudy Jocqué

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus name Acanthinozodium Denis, 1966 is considered available and valid, with A. spinulosum Denis, 1966 as its type species. The genus is characterized by the presence of ventral rows of long setae on the femora, large anterior median eyes and a large, dorsal, crater-like pit on the cymbium. Zodariellum Andreeva & Tyschenko, 1968 is removed from its synonymy and now only contains its type species Z. surprisum Andreeva & Tyschenko, 1968. Three new Acanthinozodium species are described: A. crateriferum sp. nov. (♂♀ from Ethiopia, A. sahelense sp. nov. (♂♀ from a wide range in the Sahel region and A. quercicola sp. nov. (♂ from Morocco. The genus appears to have a large distribution in and around the Sahara. The possible function of the cymbial pit is discussed.

  9. Taxonomic revision and insights into the speciation mode of the spider Dysdera erythrina species-complex (Araneae : Dysderidae): sibling species with sympatric distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, M.; Arnedo, M.A.; Opatová, V.; Musilová, J.; Řezáčová, Veronika; Král, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2018), s. 10-54 ISSN 1445-5226 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : holokinetic * interspecific recognition * karyotype evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2016

  10. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatova, Vera; Arnedo, Miquel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source of colonisation. In addition, T. maroccanus may harbour several cryptic species. PMID:25494329

  11. The life and adventures of an eight-legged castaway: Colonization and diversification of Philisca ghost spiders on Robinson Crusoe Island (Araneae, Anyphaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Eduardo M; Labarque, Facundo M; Ceccarelli, F Sara; Arnedo, Miquel A; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime; Ramírez, Martín J

    2017-02-01

    Oceanic archipelagoes, by their young origin and isolation, provide privileged settings to study the origin and diversification of species. Here, we study the anyphaenid spider genus Philisca, endemic to the Valdivian temperate rainforest, which includes species living both on the mainland as well as on the Robison Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernández archipelago. Anyphaenids, as many spiders, are potentially good colonizers due their ability for ballooning, an airborne dispersal mediated by strands of silk that are caught in the wind. We use a molecular approach to estimate both the phylogenetic relationships and the timeframe of species diversification of Philisca, with the aim to infer its evolutionary history. We further estimate the rates of speciation on both the insular and continental Philisca species and score the microhabitat used by each species and their sizes as a proxy to evaluate ecological niche diversification within the island. Most analyses support the monophyly of Philisca, with the exclusion of Philisca tripunctata. Our results reveal colonization from a single lineage that postdated the origin of the island, followed by rapid (∼2Ma) diversification. The ancestral microhabitat was most likely leaf-dwelling but we identify two independent microhabitat shifts. Our data provides evidence that Philisca has undergone an adaptive radiation on the Robison Crusoe Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Small organic solutes in sticky droplets from orb webs of the spider Zygiella atrica (Araneae; Araneidae): β-alaninamide is a novel and abundant component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Mark A; Pu, Qinglin; Zercher, Charles K; Neefus, Christopher D; Tillinghast, Edward K

    2012-10-01

    In northeastern North America, Zygiella atrica often build their orb webs near the ocean. We analyzed individual field-built Z. atrica webs to determine if organic low-molecular-mass solutes (LMM) in their sticky droplets showed any unusual features not previously seen in orb webs of other species living in less salty environments. While two of the three most abundant organic LMM (putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and GABamide (4-aminobutanamide)) are already well-known from webs of inland spiders, the third major LMM, β-alaninamide (3-aminopropanamide), a homolog of GABamide, has not been detected in sticky droplets from any other araneoid spiders (27 species). It remains to be established, however, whether or not use of β-alaninamide is related to proximity to saltwater. We observed variability in organic LMM composition in Z. atrica webs that appeared to be influenced more by an undetermined factor associated with different collecting locations and/or collection dates than by different genders or instars. Shifts in composition when adult females were transferred from the field to the laboratory were also observed. Structural similarities and inverse correlations among β-alaninamide, GABamide, and N-acetylputrescine suggest that they may form a series of LMM fulfilling essentially the same, as yet unknown, role in the webs of those species in which they occur. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Two new species of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae, Pholcidae from Tajikistan, with the first description of female Pholcus sidorenkoi Dunin, 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Dong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 are described from Tajikistan: Pholcus saidovi Yao & Li sp. nov. (♂♀ and P. shuguanensis Yao & Li sp. nov. (♂. The female of P. sidorenkoi Dunin, 1994 is reported for the first time. All belong to the P. nenjukovi species group.

  15. Dietary and prey-capture adaptations by which Zodarion germanicum, an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae), specialises on the Formicinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekár, S.; Toft, Søren; Hrusková, M.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the biology of spiders that specialise on ants as prey, but previous studies have tended to envisage the level of adaptation as being to ants as a group. In this paper, we provide evidence that Zodarion germanicum is a spider that has dietary and venom...... adaptations by which it targets a particular subset of ants, the subfamily Formicinae. We reared spiders from first instar in the laboratory on three different diets: formicine ants only, myrmicine ants only and mixed (both formicine and myrmicine ants). Fitness-related life-history parameters were determined......, and we found that the spiders on the formicine-only diet lived longer and grew at a faster rate. Lipid, carbon and nitrogen compositions of ants were analysed, but we found no evidence of formicines differing from myrmicines in macro-nutrient content. This suggests that effects on longevity and growth...

  16. Algunos aspectos ecológicos de “tarántulas” (Araneae: Theraphosidae en dos tipos de bosques en San Juan Bautista, Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reátegui Suárez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados muestran la presencia de tarántulas del área de concesión de la empresa Perufish Aquarium EIRL, quebrada Yanayacu, río Itaya, Loreto. Reportándose un total de 5 especies de la familia Theraphosidae. Las 5 especies estuvieron en los bosques de colinas bajas moderadamente disectadas y 3 de estas en el bosque de colinas bajas ligeramente disectadas. Las especies más abundantes fueron Megaphobema velvetosoma con 64.3% y Cyriocosmus sellatus con 35%. El tamaño promedio de la abertura de las madrigueras varió en relación al tamaño de las especies, la más grande correspondió a Megaphobema velvetosoma con un promedio de 66,6 mm, y la más pequeña a Acanthoscurria ferina con un promedio de 21 mm. La temperatura del interior de las madrigueras varió de 25,2°C a 25,7°C y la humedad relativa de 88% a 88,7%. Las madrigueras se encontraron en el suelo con una capa de hojarasca que varió de 2,7 a 4,9 cm. Las especies de tarántulas se distribuyeron formando grupos en las zonas evaluadas. Las muestras de tarántulas se encuentran depositadas en la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana y en la empresa Perufish Aquarium EIRL.

  17. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.

  18. Typhlonesticus gocmeni sp. n., a new cave-dwelling blind spider species from the Aegean region of Turkey (Araneae, Nesticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Ribera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the troglobitic spider genus Typhlonesticus is described from specimens found in Keloğlan Cave (Denizli Province, Dodurgalar Town, Turkey. Typhlonesticus gocmeni sp. n. is described on the basis of both sexes; and its phylogenetic relationships with closely related European genera and species are discussed based on morphological and molecular data (the cox1, rrnL and H3 genes. Three new combinations are proposed: Typhlonesticus idriacus (Roewer, 1931, comb. n., Typhlonesticus morisii (Brignoli, 1975 comb. n. and Typhlonesticus obcaecatus (Simon, 1907, comb. n. all ex. Nesticus.

  19. Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Jérôme; Vetter, Richard S

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Re-description of Xysticus bimaculatus L. Koch, 1867 (Araneae, Thomisidae and characterization of its subsocial lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Ruch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiders have become an important model to study the evolution of sociality, but a lack of their detailed natural history and taxonomy hinders broader comparative studies. Group-living crab spiders (Thomisidae provide an excellent contrast to other social spiders since they lack a communal capture web, which was thought to be a critical factor in the evolution of sociality. Only three non-webbuilding crab-spider species are known to be subsocial or social, all of which belong to the genus Diaea Thorell, 1869. The aim of this study is to describe the social lifestyle of Xysticus bimaculatus L. Koch, 1867 for the first time. Furthermore, we present a detailed re-description of this species and discuss its taxonomic implications. Like other subsocial crab spiders, X. bimaculatus builds nests from tree leaves. Nests contain up to 38 spiders and sometimes several adult females, indicating the species may be at a transitory stage between subsociality and permanent sociality.

  1. Studies on Tropical Pholcidae I Panjange, a new genus of Indo-Australian Leaf- and rock-dwelling Pholcid spiders (Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeleman-Reinhold, C.L.; Deeleman, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The study of tropical spiders was taken up in the last part of the nineteenth century by Thorell, Simon and others, but since then passed through a long dormant stage. Only during the last few decades there was some revival. In particular numerous spider species from leaf-litter, ground debris, etc.

  2. Occurrence and habitat selection of Arctosa cinerea (fabr., 1777) (Araneae, lycosidae) in exhausted opencast brown coal mining areas in central Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail A. Al Hussein [Martin-Luther-University, Halle (Germany). Institute of Zoology

    2002-07-01

    Investigations upon spider communities were led through in eight exhausted opencast mining areas in Saxony-Anhalt in the years 1996-1998. A total of 111 investigation sites were examined, at 14 sites the wolf spider Arctosa cinerea (Lycosidae) could be proved by means of pitfall traps and also by visual control. All these sites were situated near waters and were characterized by sandy soil with gravel and coal. With the exception of two sites, where Phragmites communities and Juncus sp. as well as Salix and Betula trees were growing, the sites were nearly bare of vegetation. With these investigations, results about the activity period and ecological requirements of A. cinerea under the specific conditions of the exhausted open-cast mining areas in Central Germany were obtained. A. cinerea was captured over the whole investigation period in pitfall traps, with the exception of the winter months. Maximum activity was observed from May until September. In most cases more females than males were captured. It seems worth to notice that A. cinerea nearly constantly occurred together with Argenna patula (Dictynidae), which is known as halotolerant.

  3. Discovery of the first telemid spider (Araneae, Telemidae) from South America, and the first member of the family bearing a stridulatory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine; Tapia, Elicio

    2015-09-21

    The genus Kinku n. gen. is established for the first telemid spider found in South America. The new species, Kinku turumanya n. sp. is characterized by the unique conformation of the male palp and the presence of an abdominal anterioventral stridulatory organ.

  4. The Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Flowering Plants on Sheet-Web and Wolf Spider Populations (Araneae: Lycosidae and Linyphiidae) and Its Importance for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabawy, El-Said M; Tsuda, Katsuo; Sakamaki, Yositaka; Oda, Asahi; Ushijima, Yurie

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify the treatment that increases the populations of spiders, which are effective predators in agroecosystems. In 2013 and 2014 the experimental eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) field was two different treatments, organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer treatment, and in 2014 we surrounded organic fertilizer plots with the flowering plants mealy cup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Analysis using repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant influences of fertilizer type on the numbers of linyphiid spiders and Collembola in 2013. In 2014, the numbers of Collembola, thrips, and lycosid and linyphiid spider were higher in organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment comparing with the chemical fertilizer treatment. Moreover, the numbers of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) were significantly lower in the organic fertilizer with flowering plants treatment than in chemical fertilizers treatment. Finally, we expect that Thysanoptera and Collembola were important alternative prey for linyphiid and lycosid spiders and the use of organic fertilizer and flowering plants enhanced the density of these spiders, and may increase their effectiveness in suppressing the populations of H. vigintioctopunctata (F.). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Using Global and Regional Species Distribution Models (SDM) to Infer the Invasive Stage of Latrodectus geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucare-Ríos, Andrés; Bizama, Gustavo; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2016-12-01

    The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwellings, but also in agricultural sectors. However, the invasive process and potential distribution of this invasive species across the American continent are completely unknown. In this context, using a combination of both global and regional niche models, it is possible to hypothesize the invasive phase of the species as well as the geographic space where these different phases occur. By comparing the global and regional niches of L. geometricus, we examined its invasive process and potential distribution across the American continent. This work is an innovative approach to understanding the invasion of the brown widow spider in this area and the ecological processes that underlie this invasion. In this context, the global and regional niche comparison constitutes an appropriate tool to account for the complexities of the invasive process, generating different hypotheses amenable to being tested in future studies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Arañas (Arachnida : Araneae de un muestreo estival en el Robledal de Orgi, Valle de Ultzama (Navarra, Norte se España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Castro, A. Barriuso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado un análisis faunístico de las arañas capturadas en el Robledal de Orgi durante un muestreo estival del año 2002. Los métodos de captura utilizados fueron : batido de la vegetación, trampas de intercepción de suelo, bandeja de color y captura directa. En total se capturaron 350 individuos adultos y se determinaron 100 especies repartidas en 23 familias. Se encontraron 6 nuevas citas para la Peninsula Ibérica. La diversidad taxonómica del robledal fue alta compararda con otros bosques europeos, aunque no se muestreó de forma sistemática durante un ciclo anual completo y no se abarcó toda la heterogeneidad del bosque. La composición faunística presentó baja proporción de especies con preferencias forestales y alta de amplia distribución geográfica.

  7. On some minuscule spiders (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae, Symphytognathidae) from the Chocó region of Ecuador with the description of ten new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine; Tapia, Elicio

    2017-11-01

    The spider families Theridiosomatidae and Symphytognathidae found in the Chocó region of Ecuador are examined, a total of 16 and 69 adult specimens were collected respectively in a series of expeditions. In the family Theridiosomatidae, eight new species are described in four different genera; Chthonos kuyllur n. sp.; Naatlo mayzana n. sp.; Ogulnius laranka n. sp., O. paku n. sp.; Theridiosoma ankas n. sp., T. esmeraldas n. sp., T. kullki n. sp., and T. sacha n. sp. We present the first record of the family Symphytognathidae for Ecuador with the description of two new species in two different genera: Anapistula equatoriana n. sp. and Symphytognatha cabezota n. sp.

  8. A survey of the spider family Nesticidae (Arachnida, Araneae in Asia and Madagascar, with the description of forty-three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three new species of Nesticidae are described from China, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar, and two new junior synonyms are suggested. A new genus, Speleoticus gen. n., is described with Nesticus navicellatus Liu & Li, 2013 as the type species, and four species are transferfed from Nesticus, i.e., Speleoticus globosus (Liu & Li, 2013, comb. n., S. libo (Chen & Zhu, 2005, comb. n., S. navicellatus (Liu & Li, 2015, comb. n. and S. uenoi (Yaginuma, 1972, comb. n. The new species described in this paper belong to four genera and are: Hamus cornutus sp. n. (♂♀, H. kangdingensis sp. n. (♂, H. luzon sp. n. (♀, H. mangunensis sp. n. (♂, Nescina kohi sp. n. (♂♀, Nesticella baiseensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. baobab sp. n. (♂, N. caeca sp. n. (♂♀, N. chongqing sp. n. (♀, N. dazhuangensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. fuliangensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. gazuida sp. n. (♀, N. gongshanensis sp. n. (♀, N. griswoldi sp. n. (♂♀, N. hongheensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. huomachongensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. jingpo sp. n. (♀, N. kaohsiungensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. lisu sp. n. (♂♀, N. liuzhaiensis sp. n. (♀, N. nandanensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. phami sp. n. (♂♀, N. potala sp. n. (♀, N. qiaoqiensis sp. n. (♀, N. qiongensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. robusta sp. n. (♂♀, N. rongtangensis sp. n. (♂, N. sanchaheensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. sulawesi sp. n. (♀, N. sumatrana sp. n. (♂, N. tibetana sp. n. (♂♀, N. vanlang sp. n. (♀, N. wanzaiensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. xiongmao sp. n. (♂♀, N. xixia sp. n. (♂♀, N. yanbeiensis sp. n. (♂♀, N. yao sp. n. (♀, N. zhiyuani sp. n. (♂♀, Pseudonesticus dafangensis sp. n. (♂♀, P. miao sp. n. (♂♀, P. spinosus sp. n. (♂♀, P. wumengensis sp. n. (♀, P. ziyunensis sp. n. (♂♀. Nesticella inthanoni (Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980, syn. n. is synonymised with N. mollicula (Thorell, 1898; N. taiwan Tso & Yoshida, 2000, syn. n. is synonymised with N. odonta (Chen, 1984. The female of Nesticella connectens Wunderlich, 1995, so far unknown, is described and recorded from Thailand. Nesticidae are reported from Madagascar for the first time. Nesticella nepalensis (Hubert, 1973 is recorded for the first time from China. Types of Nesticella odonta (Chen, 1984, N. songi Chen & Zhu, 2004 and N. yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 are re-examined and photographed. The entire genus Nesticella is reviewed, and four species groups are recognised. DNA barcodes of the new species are obtained to confirm their correct identifications.

  9. A revised and dated phylogeny of cobweb spiders (Araneae, Araneoidea, Theridiidae): A predatory Cretaceous lineage diversifying in the era of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; May-Collado, Laura J; Pekár, Stano; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Cobweb spiders (Theridiidae) are highly diverse from the perspective of species richness, morphological diversity, variety of web architecture, and behavioral repertoires. The family includes over 50% of social spiders, a behavioral rarity among the order, and members of the family are furthermore the subject of research on venom, silk biomechanics, kleptoparasitism and web building, among other traits. Theridiidae is one of the most abundant groups of spiders, and thus key insect predators in many different ecosystems and is among relatively few spider families that show high degree of myrmecophagy. Modern comparative studies on all these fronts are best buttressed on a phylogenetic foundation. Our goal here is to offer a revised, dated, phylogenetic hypothesis for the family by summarizing previously published data from multiple molecular and morphological studies through data-mining, and adding novel data from several genera. We also test the hypothesis that the origin and diversification of cobweb spiders coincides with that of ants on which many species specialize as prey. The new phylogeny is largely congruent with prior studies and current taxonomy and should provide a useful tool for theridiid classification and for comparative analyses. Nevertheless, we also highlight the limitations of currently available data-the state of the art in Theridiidae phylogenetics-offering weak support for most of the deeper nodes in the phylogeny. Thus the need is clear for modern phylogenomic approaches to obtain a more solid understanding, especially of relationships among subfamilies. We recover the monophyly of currently recognized theridiid subfamilies with the exception of some enigmatic 'pholcommatines' (Styposis, Phoroncidia) and putative 'hadrotarsines' (Audifia, Tekellina) whose placement is uncertain in our analyses. Theridiidae dates back some 100 mya to the Cretaceous, a period of diversification in flowering plants and many groups of insects, including ants. The origin of cobweb spiders, and hence the cobweb-a speciallized trap for pedestrian prey-coincides with a major diversification shift in ants. The family becomes abundant in fossil record 50-40 mya as ants also diversify and reach dominance and contemporary patterns of abundances of theridiids and ants show the same trends, with increasing relative abundance towards the equator and at lower altitudes. We find that among orbiculariae, lineages that specialize on ant prey are non-randomly clustered within Theridiidae. Given these findings we hypothesize that the origin of the gumfoot web was a stepping stone that facilitated the capture of ants and resulted in specialized myrmecophagy in a number of 'basal' theridiids. We also document a subsequent loss in myrmecophagy, and associated increase in speciation rates, as 'recent' theridiid groups evolve diverse web forms and many return to the capture of aerial prey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The current state of knowledge on the neuroactive compounds that affect the development, mating and reproduction of spiders (Araneae) compared to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadro, Marta; Bednarek, Agata; Babczyńska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders. This is the first article that takes into account the occurrence, action and role of hormones and neuropeptides in spiders. In addition, the suggestions for possible ways to study these compounds in Araneomorphae spiders are unique and cannot be found in the arachnological literature.

  11. Nephila clavipes spiders (Araneae: Nephilidae) keep track of captured prey counts: testing for a sense of numerosity in an orb-weaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rafael L; Briceño, R D; Briceño-Aguilar, Eduardo; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavipes golden orb-web spiders accumulate prey larders on their webs and search for them if they are removed from their web. Spiders that lose larger larders (i.e., spiders that lose larders consisting of more prey items) search for longer intervals, indicating that the spiders form memories of the size of the prey larders they have accumulated, and use those memories to regulate recovery efforts when the larders are pilfered. Here, we ask whether the spiders represent prey counts (i.e., numerosity) or a continuous integration of prey quantity (mass) in their memories. We manipulated larder sizes in treatments that varied in either prey size or prey numbers but were equivalent in total prey quantity (mass). We then removed the larders to elicit searching and used the spiders' searching behavior as an assay of their representations in memory. Searching increased with prey quantity (larder size) and did so more steeply with higher prey counts than with single prey of larger sizes. Thus, Nephila spiders seem to track prey quantity in two ways, but to attend more to prey numerosity. We discuss alternatives for continuous accumulator mechanisms that remain to be tested against the numerosity hypothesis, and the evolutionary and adaptive significance of evidence suggestive of numerosity in a sit-and-wait invertebrate predator.

  12. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical pirate spiders of the genus Gelanor Thorell, 1869 (Araneae, Mimetidae) with the description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Ligia R; Hormiga, Gustavo

    2016-01-12

    We revise the Neotropical spider genus Gelanor Thorell, 1869 (Mimetidae). Gelanor is distributed from northeast Mexico to southern Uruguay , from sea level to 1,600 m. We describe five new species of Gelanor and report eleven new synonymies. Gelanor is here circumscribed to include ten species: Gelanor fortuna new species, Gelanor juruti new species, Gelanor moyobamba new species, Gelanor siquirres new species, Gelanor waorani new species, Gelanor altithorax Keyserling, 1893 (= Gelanor lanei Soares, 1941 new synonymy), Gelanor consequus O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 (= Gelanor depressus Chickering, 1956 new synonymy, Gelanor gertschi Chickering, 1947 new synonymy and Gelanor heraldicus Petrunkevitch, 1925 new synonymy), Gelanor innominatus Chamberlin, 1916, Gelanor latus (Keyserling, 1881) (= Gelanor mixtus O. P.-Cambridge, 1899 new synonymy, Gelanor mabelae Chickering, 1947 new synonymy, Gelanor ornatus Schenkel, 1953 new synonymy and Gelanor proximus Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy) and Gelanor zonatus (C.L. Koch, 1845) (= Gelanor distinctus O-P. Cambridge, 1899 new synonymy, Gelanor insularis Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy and Gelanor obscurus Mello-Leitão, 1929 new synonymy). In addition, we describe for the first time the males of G. altithorax and G. consequus. Species descriptions are provided for all ten species in the genus, together with a compilation of available data, including type specimens, type localities and morphological diagnoses. Light and electron microscope images and updated data on known geographical distributions, are also provided. We also discuss the phylogenetic placement of Gelanor in Mimetidae.

  13. Evolutionary morphology of the male reproductive system, spermatozoa and seminal fluid of spiders (Araneae, Arachnida)--current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín J

    2014-07-01

    The male reproductive system and spermatozoa of spiders are known for their high structural diversity. Spider spermatozoa are flagellate and males transfer them to females in a coiled and encapsulated state using their modified pedipalps. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the present state of knowledge of the primary male reproductive system, sperm morphology and the structural diversity of seminal fluids with a focus on functional and evolutionary implications. Secondly, we conceptualized characters for the male genital system, spermiogenesis and spermatozoa for the first time based on published and new data. In total, we scored 40 characters for 129 species from 56 families representing all main spider clades. We obtained synapomorphies for several taxa including Opisthothelae, Araneomorphae, Dysderoidea, Scytodoidea, Telemidae, Linyphioidea, Mimetidae, Synotaxidae and the Divided Cribellum Clade. Furthermore, we recovered synspermia as a synapomorphy for ecribellate Haplogynae and thus propose Synspermiata as new name for this clade. We hope that these data will not only contribute to future phylogenetic studies but will also stimulate much needed evolutionary studies of reproductive systems in spiders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875. PMID:21594031

  15. The spider collection (Arachnida: Araneae of the Zoological Museum of the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, with new species records for Iran

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    Zamani, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The spider collection of the Zoological Museum of the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection was studied during the summer of 2014. A total of 180 specimens, belonging to 25 families, 60 genera and 77 species were documented. Of these, the following nine species could be recorded from Iran for the first time: Alopecosa schmidti (Hahn, 1835, Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802, Crustulina sticta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861, Enoplognatha mordax (Thorell, 1875, Ero tuberculata (De Geer, 1778, Salticus zebraneus (C. L. Koch, 1837, Pardosa aenigmatica Tongiorgi, 1966, Pardosa nebulosa (Thorell, 1872 and Tmarus piochardi (Simon, 1866. Morphological and geographical data are provided for the newly recorded species. Two species (P. aenigmatica and T. piochardi are illustrated and a map of localities is given.

  16. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae.

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    Vera Opatova

    Full Text Available Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source of colonisation. In addition, T. maroccanus may harbour several cryptic species.

  17. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatova, Vera; Arnedo, Miquel A

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source of colonisation. In addition, T. maroccanus may harbour several cryptic species.

  18. Pavouci (Araneae) mokřadů u Krásného Lesa (Krušné hory)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Hajer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2003), s. 33-36 ISSN 1214-2573 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907; CEZ:MSM 134300002 Keywords : Spider s * Oedothorax gibbosus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  19. Formation of primary sperm conjugates in a haplogyne spider (Caponiidae, Araneae) with remarks on the evolution of sperm conjugation in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Elisabeth; Michalik, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Sperm conjugation, where two or more sperm are physically united, is a rare but widespread pheno-menon across the animal kingdom. One group well known for its different types of sperm conjugation are spiders. Particularly, haplogyne spiders show a high diversity of sperm traits. Besides individual cleistospermia, primary (synspermia) and secondary (coenospermia, "spermatophore") sperm conjugation occurs. However, the evolution of sperm conjugates and sperm is not understood in this group. Here, we look at how sperm are transferred in Caponiidae (Haplogynae) in pursuit of additional information about the evolution of sperm transfer forms in spiders. Additionally, we investigated the male reproductive system and spermatozoa using light- and transmission electron-microscopy and provide a 3D reconstruction of individual as of well as conjugated spermatozoa. Mature spermatozoa are characterized by an extremely elongated, helical nucleus resulting in the longest spider sperm known to date. At the end of spermiogenesis, synspermia are formed by complete fusion of four spermatids. Thus, synspermia might have evolved early within ecribellate Haplogynae. The fused sperm cells are surrounded by a prominent vesicular area. The function of the vesicular area remains still unknown but might be correlated with the capacitation process inside the female. Further phylogenetic and functional implications of the spermatozoa and sperm conjugation are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae), with recommendations for spider bite management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maureen; Dippenaar, Ansie; Frean, John; Hunt, Richard H

    2017-06-30

    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as 'running spiders', these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.

  1. A new species of Psilocymbium with the description of the male and new records of P. lineatum at South Brazil (Araneae: Linyphiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Psilocymbium Millidge, 1991 can be recognized by the presence of a non-flagelliform, rigid and spiral shaped embolus, the absence of a cymbial basal excavation on the palp (males, and by having prolonged spermathecae on the epigynum and strong pedipalp setae (females. In this paper Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov., is described based on male and female specimens from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: prominent tibial apophysis with gauged distal projection, acute dorsal cymbial apex and acute cymbial proximal region of the palp (male; fertilization ducts distant from each other and the coiled copulatory ducts of the female epigynum. The male of P. lineatum (Millidge, 1991 is described and recorded for the first time in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  2. A wolf in sheep's clothing: The description of a fly resembling jumping spider of the genus Scoturius Simon, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Huriini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Robert; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2018-01-01

    Fly resemblance in arthropods is much less common than e.g., resemblance to ants or wasps, and has been mainly observed in beetles. Putative fly mimicry in arachnids has been reported only from the jumping spider genus Saitis. However, recent literature has attributed the fly-resembling characteristics in Saitis to sexual signalling during courtship. The lack of observation of fly mimicry in spiders is not surprising as flies belong to the most important prey item group of spiders. In this study, a new fly-resembling species of the jumping spider tribe Huriini, Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov., from the pre-Andean Chiquitano forest at the Bolivian orocline is described and illustrated. The new species was tentatively placed into Scoturius because the epigynum has a single large elliptical opening. Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of this tribe by a combination of following characteristics: epigynum with a large anterior elliptical atrium and initial portion of the copulation ducts dilated as a chamber (shared with Urupuyu); relatively joined copulation openings and short copulation ducts; kidney-shaped spermathecae, advanced at the atrium level. Several somatic features, two of them found exclusively in S. dipterioides sp. nov., increase the resemblance to flies. The Huriini are currently the only spider tribe that is suggested to feature fly mimics.

  3. Natural history of the trapdoor spider Idiops joida Gupta et al 2013 (Araneae: Idiopidae from the Western Ghats in India

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    Neha Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat preferences and burrow characteristics of trapdoor spiders, Idiops joida Gupta et al 2013, within Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby reserve forests of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, Western Ghats, India, from January 2010 to April 2010. We sampled 293 plots using 5 m2 quadrats, randomly placed in six habitat types at four localities. Spiders showed patchy distribution throughout the study area. The density of I. joida was highest in uncanopied habitats having sparse vegetation or bare grounds. Steep slopes were strongly preferred by spiders. Burrow characteristics of I. joida, such as burrow diameter, depth, and lid thickness, were independent of habitat type.

  4. Addition of a spider family for Uruguay: First record of Iviraiva pachyura (Mello-Leitão, 1935 (Araneae: Hersiliidae, with notes on its natural history and distribution

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    Álvaro Laborda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record for the species Iviraiva pachyura and for the family Hersiliidae in Uruguay.  Data presented represent the southernmost record for the species.  Figures of living specimens, copulatory organs and a description of the egg sac are provided. The distribution of the species is shown and discussed. 

  5. Redescription, distribution and status of the Karwar Large Burrowing Spider Thrigmopoeus truculent us Pocock, 1899 (Araneae: Theraphosidae, a Western Ghats endemic ground mygalomorph

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    M. Siliwal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Thrigmopoeus is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, and is so far represented by two species: Thrigmopoeus truculentus Pocock, 1899 and T. insignis Pocock, 1899. The distribution of T. truculentus was considered to be restricted to its type locality until a few populations were identified in other places. In this paper we provide detail morphometry and characters used in modern-day taxonomy to redescribe the female of T. truculentus, with additional notes on its distribution, range extension, burrow and habitat.

  6. Diversidad de arañas (Araneae, Araneomorphae en la selva de montaña: un caso de estudio en las Yungas Argentinas

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    Rubio, Gonzalo D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spider diversity from yungas vegetation in northwestern Argentina is studied, integrating two levels: local (α diversity, community structures and a projection at regional level of diversity (β diversity. Twenty six sites in Salta Province were sampled, representing different ambient/altitudinal strata of yungas sensu stricto (SP= pedemontane rainforest, SM= montane rainforest and BM= montane forest, yungas sensu lato (Cc-s= yungas central and southern sectors connectivity areas, YT= transitional yungas, and Chaco Serrano sites (ChS as contrast. The sampling was carried out seasonally for one year taking 10 samples of vegetation with G-Vac method. A total of 6412 spiders, 188 species and 34 families were obtained (only yungas. Theridiidae, Anyphaenidae and Linyphiidae were dominant. The highest richness was observed in Araneidae, Salticidae and Theridiidae. >em>Chibchea salta (Pholcidae, Dubiaranea msp111 (Linyphiidae and Mysmena msp110 (Mysmenidae were dominant species. Relevant differences in species composition and abundance highlighted two groups of environment (Cc-s+SP+YT+ChS vs. (SM+BM. Dictynidae, Oxyopidae and Philodromidae are associated with lower altitudinal floors (Cc-s, YT, ChS. The greatest species richness and diversity were recorded in SP and YT. The highest similarity was recorded in SM and BM; the major differences were observed in Cc-s and ChS compared with the other ambient, except with SP. Complementarity and similarity indices and coefficients revealed high β diversity in the region. Thus, it is suggested that besides reinforcing protection in transitional levels Yungas (the most disturbed and diverse habitats for spiders, conservation management in the area should be directed towards promoting natural spatial heterogeneity of Yungas, giving special emphasis to habitat mosaics that constitute each different stratum.Se estudia la diversidad de arañas de vegetación de las yungas del noroeste argentino, integrando dos escalas: local (diversidad α, estructura de comunidades y su proyección a diversidad regional (diversidad β. Se muestrearon 26 sitios en la provincia de Salta, representando diferentes ambientes/pisos altitudinales de yungas sensu stricto (SP= selva pedemontana, SM= selva montana, BM= bosque montano, yungas sensu lato (Cc-s= conectividad entre centro y sur de yungas, YT= yungas en transición y sitios de Chaco Serrano (ChS como contraste. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante un año, tomando 10 muestras con G-Vac (aspirador entomológico sobre vegetación. Se obtuvo un total de 6412 ejemplares, representando 188 especies y 34 familias (sólo yungas. Theridiidae, Anyphaenidae y Linyphiidae fueron dominantes. La mayor riqueza correspondió a Araneidae, Salticidae y Theridiidae. Especies dominantes fueron Chibchea salta (Pholcidae, Dubiaranea msp111 (Linyphiidae y Mysmena msp110 (Mysmenidae. Diferencias relevantes en composición y abundancia separan dos grupos de ambientes: (Cc-s+SP+YT+ChS vs. (SM+BM. Dictynidae, Oxyopidae y Philodromidae se asocian a pisos de menor altitud (Cc-s, YT, ChS. Los ambientes SP y YT contienen la mayor riqueza específica y diversidad, mientras que SM y BM presentaron la mayor similitud. En Cc-s y ChS se observaron las mayores diferencias con los demás ambientes, excepto SP. La complementariedad y coeficientes e índices de similitud revelaron alta diversidad β en la región. En consecuencia, se sugiere que además de reforzar la protección en los pisos transicionales de yungas (hábitats más deteriorados y diversos para las arañas, la gestión de conservación debería estar orientada en toda el área a promover la heterogeneidad espacial natural de las Yungas, haciendo especial hincapié en el mosaico de hábitats que constituyen cada estrato diferente.

  7. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: First record of the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae from India with description of three new species from the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.

  8. The response of spider (Araneae assemblages to structural heterogeneity and prey abundance in sub-montane vegetation modified by conservation grazing

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    Peter Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of experimental livestock grazing regimens (4 treatments×6 replicates on spiders via habitat structure and prey abundance was investigated on sub-montane habitats in the Southern Highlands of Scotland. The study, 2002–2004 included a baseline survey under the prior, commercial sheep grazing regimen and two assessments of spider assemblages post-treatment: commercial stocking density of sheep; 1/3 stocking density with sheep; 1/3 stocking density cattle with sheep; and no grazing. Spiders were sampled with a suction sampler, five sucks at each of 25 sample units by 24 plots (600 samples in 2003 and 2004, ca. 320 in 2002. Spider abundance and species richness increased under reduced stocking density, mixed herbivore and ungrazed treatments indirectly via changes in vegetation structure and prey abundance. The results refuted a meta-analysis that concluded species richness of spiders is unaffected by grazing. Grazing regimens caused turnover in species composition more than the net difference in species richness suggested, implying that no single, optimal grazing regimen will support as many species as a patchwork under varied grazing management. Conservation grazing benefits spiders and will have significant benefits for food webs in sub-montane ecosystems but the period to equilibrium after changes to grazing requires further investigation.

  9. The spider genus Kukulcania in South America (Araneae: Filistatidae): a redescription of K. brevipes (Keyserling) and new records of K. hibernalis (Hentz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2013-11-06

    Two species of the spider genus Kukulcania are known from South America. Kukulcania brevipes (Keyserling), originally described from Peru, is here diagnosed, illustrated and redescribed, with several new records provided for eastern Peru and northern Chile. The synanthropic Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz) is illustrated and diagnosed, with several new records extending the distribution of this species from northern Venezuela to southern Brazil.

  10. Mating-induced sexual inhibition in the jumping spider Servaea incana (Araneae: Salticidae: A fast-acting and long-lasting effect.

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    Vivian Mendez

    Full Text Available Mating-induced sexual inhibition has been studied extensively as an important facet of many insect mating systems but remains little understood in spiders. Once mated, females of many spider species become unreceptive and aggressive toward males, but the speed of onset and persistence of this effect are not known. Addressing this gap, the present study considers (1 mating tendency of virgins, latency to remating, and lifetime mating frequency and (2 how quickly sexual inhibition is expressed after the first mating in female Servaea incana jumping spiders. Encounters between males and females took place in two contexts that simulated locations where mating occurs in nature: in the light away from nests ('in the open' and in low light within the shelter of silken retreats ('at a retreat'. Virgin females exhibited high receptivity levels in both contexts but sexual inhibition was induced immediately after their first copulation. The most common tendency was for just one mating in a lifetime, and few females mated more than twice. Context also had an effect on female mating tendency, as virgin females in the open rejected more males before accepting their first mate than did virgin females in retreats. Considering only those females that did remate, females in the open tended to reject fewer males before remating. Given low levels of female remating, virgin females appear to be at a premium for male reproductive fitness in S. incana jumping spiders and this is a likely explanation for protandry found in nature.

  11. μ-Theraphotoxin-An1a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rates, Breno; Prates, Maura V; Verano-Braga, Thiago

    2013-01-01

    Tarantulas are included in the mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae. Although the pharmacological diversity of theraphosid toxins (theraphotoxins) is broad, studies dedicated to the characterization of biologically active molecules from the theraphosid genus Acanthoscurria have been restricted...

  12. An Annotated List of Tick (Acari: Ixodida) Common Names Authored by Harry Hoogstraal (1917-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to the comparatively recent rules promulgated by the American Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Arachnids (2003), most of... Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Arachnids (2003) Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. American Tarantula Society, accessible online

  13. Litter dwelling mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Microstigmatidae, Nemesiidae from Araucaria forests in southern Brazil, with the description of five new species Aranhas migalomorfas que habitam a serapilheira (Araneae: Microstigmatidae, Nemesiidae de florestas de Araucária no sul do Brasil, com a descrição de cinco espécies novas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P. Indicatti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Six mygalomorph spiders species belonging to two families, were collected in the Centro de Pesquisa e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, São Francisco de Paula, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five of those species, five are new. Microstigmatidae: Xenonemesia araucaria sp. nov., males differ from those of X. platensis Goloboff, 1988 and X. otti Indicatti, Lucas & Brescovit, 2007 by the curved and very long embolus in the male palp. Females differ from the remaining species of the genus in the seminal receptacle very long and sinuous or twisted. Nemesiidae: Acanthogonatus ericae sp. nov. - males resemble those of A. tacuariensis (Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1982 and A. quilocura Goloboff, 1995 by the serrated, curved and long embolus but are distinguished by the presence of a flange on the apex of the embolus. Females differ from the remaining Acanthogonatus by the short copulatory ducts, arising from the apex of the basal dome. Stenoterommata arnolisei sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining species of the genus by the large sub-apical area of bulb, with a great number of keels, extending to the median region in the male palp and by the long copulatory ducts and spermathecae arising from internal border of basal dome in the female genitalia. S. grimpa sp. nov.: males resemble those of S. arnolisei sp. nov. by the shape of the palpal bulb and by the short embolus, but differ in the keels, restricted to the apical region. Females differ from remaining Stenoterommata by the presence of two spermathecae in the rounded fused basal dome. S. curiy sp. nov.: males resemble those of S. grimpa sp. nov. by the shape of palpal bulb and the very short embolus, but differ by the translucid keels restricted to the larger distal region. The presence of S. palmar Goloboff, 1995 is confirmed for Brazil. Males of S. palmar are distinguished from the remaining species of the genus by the long, slender and slightly distally curved embolus. Females are distinguished by the single spermathecae arising from the basal third or median area of the long and triangular basal dome. All spiders were collected with pitfall trapping at six distinct areas (two Araucaria forest areas, two secondary forests and two Pinus spp. Silvicultural plantations over a period of 20 months. Abundance data between areas was compared for S. arnolisei sp. nov. and X. araucaria sp. nov. based on the mean catches of spiders in each area. No clear habitat preference was shown for each of the species, suggesting broad habitat tolerances. Phenological data were obtained through the abundance in each trapping period; results suggest an overwintering reproductive pattern for S. arnolisei sp. nov. and a spring-summer pattern for X. araucaria sp. nov.Seis espécies de aranhas migalomorfas, pertencentes a duas famílias foram coletadas no Centro de Pesquisa e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Destas, cinco são novas. Microstigmatidae: Xenonemesia araucaria sp. nov., machos diferem de X. platensis Goloboff, 1988 e X. otti Indicatti, Lucas & Brescovit, 2007 pelo êmbolo do bulbo longo e curvado. Fêmeas diferem das outras espécies do gênero pelo receptáculo seminal longo e sinuoso ou espiralado. Nemesiidae: Acanthogonatus ericae sp. nov. - machos se parecem com A. tacuariensis (Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1982 e A. quilocura Goloboff, 1995 pelo êmbolo longo e curvado, com serrilha na região apical, mas diferencia-se pela presença de uma flange no ápice do êmbolo. Fêmeas diferem do restante das espécies de Acanthogonatus pelos ductos copulatórios curtos, originando-se do ápice da base do domo da espermateca. Stenoterommata arnolisei sp. nov. difere do restante das espécies do gênero pela área subapical do bulbo larga, com um grande número de quilhas, estendendo-se da região mediana no palpo e pelo ducto copulatório longo e espermateca originando-se da borda interna do domo da base da genitália da fêmea. S. grimpa sp. nov.: machos aproximam-se dos de S. arnolisei sp. nov. pela forma do bulbo e pelo êmbolo curto, mas diferem pelas quilhas restritas a região apical. Fêmeas diferem do restante das espécies de Stenoterommata pela presença de duas espermatecas no domo que é arredondado e fundido. S. curiy sp. nov.: machos aproximam-se dos de S. grimpa sp. nov. pela forma do bulbo e pelo êmbolo curto, mas diferem pelas quilhas translúcidas e restritas a região distal que é larga. A presença de S. palmar Goloboff, 1995 é confirmada para o Brasil. Machos de S. palmar são distinguidos do restante das espécies do gênero pelo êmbolo longo, delgado e levemente curvado distalmente. Fêmeas são distinguidas pela espermateca de base simples, e originando-se da área do terço basal ou mediano do comprimento e domo basal triangular. Todas as aranhas foram coletadas com armadilhas de solo em seis áreas distintas (duas de floresta com Araucária, duas de floresta secundária e duas de silvicultura de Pinus spp. em um período de 20 meses. Os dados de abundância entre as áreas foram comparados para S. arnolisei sp. nov. e X. araucaria sp. nov. baseado na média de aranhas capturadas em cada área. Nenhuma preferência de habitat foi notada, sugerindo ampla tolerância das espécies aos habitats. Dados de fenologia foram obtidos diretamente da abundância em cada período de coleta e os resultados sugerem um padrão reprodutivo para o inverno de S. arnolisei sp. nov. e entre a primavera e o verão de X. araucaria sp. nov.

  14. Sobre o gênero Phoroncidia: nova espécie, ecologia e descrição do macho de P. reimoseri com novas ocorrências para o sul do Brasil (Araneae, Theridiidae On the genus Phoroncidia: new species, ecology and description of the male of P. reimoseri and new records for southern Brazil (Araneae, Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phoroncidia piratini sp. nov. do estado do Rio Grande do Sul é descrita e ilustrada, com base em espécimes de ambos os sexos. O macho de P. reimoseri Levi, 1964 é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez e novos registros são fornecidos. Dados ecológicos de ambas as espécies são apresentados.Phoroncidia piratini sp. nov. from state of Rio Grande do Sul is described and illustrated, based on males and females. The male of P. reimoseri Levi, 1964 is described and illustrated for the first time and new records are provided. Ecological data are presented for both species.

  15. A novel relationship between ants a leafhopper (Hymenoptera: Formicidae; Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, F. M.; Schlick-Steiner, B.C.; Holzinger, W.; Komposch, Ch.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Sanetra, M.; Christian, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 101, - (2004), s. 689-692 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : araneae * auchenorrhyncha * honeydew Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.657, year: 2004

  16. African Zoology - Vol 50, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arachnida: Araneae) in a central South African grassland habitat · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Nesting ecology of Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca in north-eastern Algeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactaceae) invasion on beetle and spider diversity in Kruger National Park, South Africa Abstract · Vol 43, No 2 (2008) - Articles Micro-scale heterogeneity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa: A comparative survey ...

  18. Differential response of communities of plants, snails, ants and spiders to long-term mowing in a small-scale experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pech, P.; Dolanský, J.; Hrdlička, R.; Lepš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 115-124 ISSN 1585-8553 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Araneae * biodiversity * Formicidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2015

  19. Dead-wood addition promotes non-saproxylic epigeal arthropods but effects are mediated by canopy openness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seibold, S.; Bässler, C.; Baldrian, Petr; Reinhard, L.; Thorn, S.; Ulyshen, M.D.; Weiss, I.; Müller, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 204, DEC 1 (2016), s. 181-188 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Araneae * Coleoptera * Collembola Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016

  20. Investigating the influence of farm-scape geospatial characteristics on spider diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is an important aspect of sustainable crop management and agricultural production. Maintaining biodiversity within agricultural ecosystems, especially in regards to predator species, promotes natural pest control and many other ecosystem services. Spiders (Araneae) often prey upon commo...

  1. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  2. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothalil A. Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, S. albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported.

  3. On Chilean Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae: first description of the males of L. surca and L. coquimbo, new records of L. laeta and three remarkable new species from coastal deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832 spiders are infamous for their medical importance, but a taxonomic picture of the genus is still far from complete. In this study, the Chilean species of Loxosceles are described and mapped. The males of Loxosceles surca Gertsch, 1967 and L. coquimbo Gertsch, 1967 are described for the first time. Three new species with narrow distributions are described from central and northern Chile: Loxosceles diaguita sp. nov. from the Antofagasta Region, L. pallalla sp. nov. from Coquimbo and L. vallenar sp. nov. from Atacama. The first two species are remarkable in their morphology and do not fit into any of Gertsch’s species groups, suggesting that Chile still harbours an undiscovered phylogenetic diversity of the genus. New distribution records for Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849 are provided throughout Chile.

  4. Estudio comparativo de las comunidades de arañas (Araneae en cultivos de algodón convencional y transgénico en el departamento del Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Gómez Galvis

    2005-01-01

    modificado (Bollgard en el municipio de Espinal, departamento del Tolima, Colombia. Se colectaron un total de 2.764 arañas; 1.259 fueron colectadas en el algodón convencional y 1.505 en el algodón Bt. Se registraron 83 morfoespecies en 17 familias para el algodón convencional y 86 morfoespecies en 20 familias para el algodón Bt. Las familias más abundantes fueron Theridiidae y Linyphiidae para los dos cultivos. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las diversidades de los dos cultivos por lo que se concluye que la comunidad de arañas en el cultivo de algodón convencional es similar a la comunidad del cultivo de algodón Bt. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los estratos vegetativo y suelo en los dos tipos de cultivo. Para el estrato vegetativo hubo una mayor abundancia de individuos en el algodón convencional (501 comparado con el algodón Bt (493. Sin embargo, esta diferencia no fue significativa. En este estrato vegetativo la familia más abundante fue Theridiidae para los dos tipos de cultivos. En el estrato suelo hubo una mayor abundancia de arañas en el cultivo Bt, determinada principalmente por la  amilia Linyphiidae con 759 individuos. Los gremios de arañas registrados en general para los cultivos de algodón convencional y Bt fueron tejedoras en sábana, tejedoras orbiculares, tejedoras irregulares, tejedoras en embudo, errantes en suelo, errantes en follaje, cazadoras al acecho y cazadoras en emboscada. El gremio más abundante fue el de tejedoras en sábana determinado por la extraordinaria abundancia de la familia Linyphiidae. En términos generales la composición, abundancia, riqueza y diversidad entre los dos cultivos fue similar, que lleva a concluir que no existe un efecto negativo del algodón Bt sobre la aracnofauna y que estos organismos, dado su papel depredador, pueden formar parte de un plan de manejo de plagas como controladores biológicos. Adicionalmente, se destacó la presencia de las especies Erigoninae 1, Theridion sp.1 y Theridula sp.2, como importantes para los cultivos de algodón.

  5. On the trapdoor spiders of Mexico: description of the first new species of the spider genus Aptostichus from Mexico and the description of the female of Eucteniza zapatista (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro; Cortez-Roldán, Mayra R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the spider genus Aptostichus Simon, 1891 is described from a cave in Huautla de Jiménez, Oaxaca, Mexico: Aptostichus sabinae sp. n. This species represents the first new species described from Mexico and the southernmost record in North America for the genus so far. Aptostichus sabinae sp. n. represents the forty-first species described for the genus, which has the highest species diversity in the family Euctenizidae. Eucteniza zapatista is redescribed based on five new males and the first known female from the Parque Nacional La Malinche (PNLM), Tlaxcala Mexico. Eucteniza zapatista is the fourth species of the genus where a female is known, and one of fourteen species described for the genus to date. PMID:28138292

  6. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  7. The enigmatic Otway odd-clawed spider (Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997, Gradungulidae, Araneae: Natural history, first description of the female and micro-computed tomography of the male palpal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently described cribellate gradungulid Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997 is endemic to the Great Otway National Park (Victoria, Australia and known from only one male and a few juvenile specimens. In a recent survey we recorded 47 specimens at several localities across the western part of the Great Otway National park. Our field data suggest that this species is dependant on the microclimate in the hollows of old myrtle beech trees since other hollow trees were very much less inhabited. Furthermore, we describe the female for the first time and study the male palpal organ by using X-ray microtomography. The female genitalia are characterized by eight spermathecae which are grouped in two quartets. The spermophor resembles the general organization of gradungulids, but is similar to Kaiya Gray, 1987 by a convoluted appearance within the embolus. The muscle 30 is located in the cymbium and resembles the organization of other non-entelegyne Araneomorphae.

  8. Comments on “A new species of genus Thomisus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae: Thomisidae from Telangana, India and a detailed description of Thomisus projectus Tikader, 1960” by Pravalikha & Srinivasulu, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Description of Thomisus telanganaensis Pravalikha & Srinivasulu, 2015 based on two females and their interpretation as intraspecific variation, are likely to be distinct Thomisus species. Further, the proposed endemicity of poorly studied species Thomisus projectus Tikader, 1960 in Pravalikha & Srinivasulu (2015 is doubtful and based on distributional records cited from two dubious publications. Overall, the shortcomings in Pravalikha & Srinivasulu (2015 reflect need for revision of the genus Thomisus Walckenaer, 1805. 

  9. On the trapdoor spiders of Mexico: description of the first new species of the spider genus Aptostichus from Mexico and the description of the female of Eucteniza zapatista (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valdez-Mondragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Aptostichus Simon, 1891 is described from a cave in Huautla de Jiménez, Oaxaca, Mexico: Aptostichus sabinae sp. n. This species represents the first new species described from Mexico and the southernmost record in North America for the genus so far. Aptostichus sabinae sp. n. represents the forty-first species described for the genus, which has the highest species diversity in the family Euctenizidae. Eucteniza zapatista is redescribed based on five new males and the first known female from the Parque Nacional La Malinche (PNLM, Tlaxcala Mexico. Eucteniza zapatista is the fourth species of the genus where a female is known, and one of fourteen species described for the genus to date.

  10. Pertumbuhan Populasi dan Oviposisi Wereng Hijau, Nephotettix virescens Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Berkaitan dengan saat Padi Keluar Malai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiarta

    1996-12-01

    more eggs on early maturing variety after flowering stage than that on late maturing variety before flowering stage (p< 0.01; t-test in the pot experiment. Those field and pot experiment facts indicated that the first generation of adult emigrant influenced the population fluctuation in the fields, because the density of predator, Lycosa, was lower in the early maturing variety than in the late maturing variety in the wet season crop of 1994/1995 and it was similar in the dry season crop of 1995.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Southernmost record in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrino, Romina G; González, Alda; Barneche, Jorge; Tornesello Galván, Julieta; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; López Lastra, Claudia C

    The aim of this study was to identify entomopathogenic fungi infecting spiders (Araneae) in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The Araneae species identified was Stenoterommata platensis. The pathogens identified were Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel Jones & Samson and Ophiocordyceps caloceroides (Berk & M.A. Curtis). This study constitutes the southernmost records in the world and contributes to expanding the knowledge of the biodiversity of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The response of sward-dwelling arthropod communities to reduced grassland management intensity in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helden Alvin J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared arthropod taxon richness, diversity and community structure of two replicated grassland husbandry experiments to investigate effects of reduced management intensity, as measured by nutrient input levels (390, 224 and 0 kg/ha per year N in one experiment, and 225 and 88 kg/ha per year N in another. Suction sampling was used to collect Araneae, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, with Araneae and Coleoptera also sampled with pitfall trapping. Univariate analyses found no significant differences in abundance and species density between treatments. However, with multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in arthropod community structure between treatments in both experiments.

  13. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Cultural and Critical Studies Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Cultural and Critical Studies Division section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "'Grimm' News Indeed--'Madstones,' Clever Toads, and Killer Tarantulas: Fairy-Tale Briefs in Wild West Newspapers" (Paulette Kilmer); "The First Amendment and the Doctrine of Corporate Personhood: Collapsing the Press-Corporation…

  15. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael

    imaging (MRI) and CT. Various species (tarantula, horseshoe crab, carp, haddock, lungfish, axolotl) were subjected to multi-slice MRI and CT protocols to produce 2D images of body slices, followed by volume rendering producing 3D digital models of animal anatomy with applications for visualising specific...

  16. Report of the unannounced inspection at Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital, Crumlin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAnena, L

    2013-09-01

    A case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a two-week history of a red, irritated right eye after handling a Chilean Rose Tarantula at an exotic pet exhibition. Examination revealed innumerable microscopic hairs embedded at all levels of the cornea. He was commenced on steroid drops with subjective and objective improvement at follow up.

  17. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    , in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within...

  18. 75 FR 32728 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List van Rossem's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... sufficient information with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other publications) to... bill shape (less angular gonys), and from the subspecies of eastern North America (G. n. aranea) by its... degradation of water quality and a reduction in the amount of irrigated agricultural areas (CBD 2009, p. 9...

  19. African Zoology - Vol 37, No 1 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of Eilica (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Moira J. FitzPatrick, 109–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15627020.2002.11657162 ...

  20. Spider diversity in relation to habitat heterogeneity and an altitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using pitfall traps, wandering spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) were sampled in a nested design from three different localities in the mountainous arid ecosystem of South Sinai at low, middle, and high altitudes. Habitat type and altitude were clearly different among the three localities. Spider diversity per trap varied spatially ...

  1. Assessing local scale impacts of Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assemblages were significantly different from uninvaded control sites. This study suggests that the current density of O. stricta does not significantly affect spider species richness, density or assemblages but that beetle assemblages are significantly affected. Key words: Araneae, arthropods, Coleoptera, invasion impacts, ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wesotowska*, Wanda. Vol 44, No 1 (2009) - Articles A new species of Asemonea from Zambia (Araneae: Salticidae: Lyssomaninae) Abstract. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  3. The use of social Stegodyphus spider retreats as nest-lining by pale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pale chanting-goshawk (Melierax canorus) incorporates silk nests (hereafter 'retreats') of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola (Araneae: Eresidae) in the construction of the nest-lining of their own nests. This study investigates whether pale chanting-goshawks in the Little Karoo, South Africa, show a preference for ...

  4. Do ant mimics imitate cuticular hydrocarbons of their models?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Jiroš, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2011), s. 1193-1199 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Araneae * betesian mimicry * defence * Formicidae Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.493, year: 2011

  5. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the

  6. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forest of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that many litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudo scorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe (Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et...

  7. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forests of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudoscorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe(Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et al. 2006; Kappes 2006; Jabin et al. 2007) and...

  8. Two groups of epigeic arthropods differ in colonising of piedmont quarries: the necessity of multi-taxa and life-history traits approaches in the monitoring studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Spitzer, Lukáš; Konvička, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-184 ISSN 1585-8553 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Araneae * bioindicators * Carabidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2008

  9. Integrating immunomarking with ecological and behavioural approaches to assess predation of Helicoverpa spp. larvae by wolf spiders in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) are abundant soil-dwelling predators found in cotton fields and can contribute important pest management services. These spiders can kill and consume larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) that survive foraging on Bt cotton and desce...

  10. Influence of the biogeospatial environment on the distribution of spider communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maintenance of local biodiversity is an important aspect of the long-term sustainability of agricultural production. Maintaining biodiversity, especially in regards to predator species, promotes natural pest control and many other ecosystem services. Spiders (Araneae) often prey upon common pest...

  11. De Novo Adult Transcriptomes of Two European Brittle Stars: Spotlight on Opsin-Based Photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Delroisse

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to obtain a deeper and more complete view of transcriptomes. For non-model or emerging model marine organisms, NGS technologies offer a great opportunity for rapid access to genetic information. In this study, paired-end Illumina HiSeqTM technology has been employed to analyse transcriptomes from the arm tissues of two European brittle star species, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea. About 48 million Illumina reads were generated and 136,387 total unigenes were predicted from A. filiformis arm tissues. For O. aranea arm tissues, about 47 million reads were generated and 123,324 total unigenes were obtained. Twenty-four percent of the total unigenes from A. filiformis show significant matches with sequences present in reference online databases, whereas, for O. aranea, this percentage amounts to 23%. In both species, around 50% of the predicted annotated unigenes were significantly similar to transcripts from the purple sea urchin, the closest species to date that has undergone complete genome sequencing and annotation. GO, COG and KEGG analyses were performed on predicted brittle star unigenes. We focused our analyses on the phototransduction actors involved in light perception. Firstly, two new echinoderm opsins were identified in O. aranea: one rhabdomeric opsin (homologous to vertebrate melanopsin and one RGR opsin. The RGR-opsin is supposed to be involved in retinal regeneration while the r-opsin is suspected to play a role in visual-like behaviour. Secondly, potential phototransduction actors were identified in both transcriptomes using the fly (rhabdomeric and mammal (ciliary classical phototransduction pathways as references. Finally, the sensitivity of O.aranea to monochromatic light was investigated to complement data available for A. filiformis. The presence of microlens-like structures at the surface of dorsal arm plate of O. aranea could potentially explain phototactic

  12. Temporal Activity Patterns of the Spider Wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in a Disturbed Lower Montane Rainforest (Manizales, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo-Giraldo, Carlos; Rodriguez, Juanita; Pitts, James P.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the temporal activity pattern of the spider wasp Pepsis montezuma Smith (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in a disturbed lower montane rainforest, which is located in the city of Manizales, Colombia, at an altitude of 2,150 m. Females of this species are diurnal with two peaks of activity: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon. During the morning, nectar foraging occurred at Baccharis latifolia. During the afternoon, females hunted for tarantulas of the genus Pamphobeteus (Aran...

  13. Radioprotective effectiveness of some zootoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernigorova, L.A.; Lebedev, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the effectiveness of a new class of radioprotective agents, polypeptides, obtained from zootoxins of scorpion, tarantula, Lathrodectes tredecimguttatus, and bee under conditions of a short-term and long-term irradiation. The peptide fraction of the sorption venom, butoxin, was most radioprotective: it provided 65% survival after LD 98/30 . Butoxin exerted a stimulatory effect on the hypophysis-adrenal system and haemopoiesis of intact and irradiated animals

  14. Antihyperalgesic effects of ProTx-II, a Nav1.7 antagonist, and A803467, a Nav1.8 antagonist, in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamei, Junzo; Tanaka,Ken-ichiro; Sekino,Shota; Ikegami,Megumi; Ikeda,Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Ken-ichiro Tanaka,1,2, Shota Sekino,1 Megumi Ikegami,1 Hiroko Ikeda,1 Junzo Kamei11Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, JapanAbstract: The present study investigated the effects of intrathecal administration of ProTx-II (tarantula venom peptide) and A803467 (5-[4-chloro-phenyl]-furan-2-carboxyli...

  15. Potential distribution of the endangered spider Macrothele calpeiana(Araneae, Hexathelidae) and the impact of climate warming%一种濒危大疣蛛的潜在分布区域以及气候变暖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto JIMENEZ-VALVERDE; Jorge M. LOBO

    2007-01-01

    本研究的目的是 i)确定伊比利亚半岛一种大疣蛛(Macrothele calpeiana)分布的气候相关性以预测其潜在分布,ii) 详细阐述该物种在伊比利亚半岛的分布假说,iii) 通过推断模型预测确认该物种在北非和整个地中海地区的适合区域,iv) 预测气候变暖对蜘蛛潜在分布区的影响.基于物种的存在、远离目前环境条件下的可能缺失以及其它的气候参数,使用广义线性模型发展了潜在分布的可预测模型.蜘蛛在伊比利亚半岛上的潜在分布远大于目前已知的分布区,延伸到尚未发现蜘蛛分布的葡萄牙广大地区.本文提出了该种大疣蛛在适合分布区域内没有分布的历史因素.北非具有适合该物种的条件但却没有该属物种的分布支持了大疣蛛(Macrothele)祖先的东方起源假说.对地中海地区蜘蛛分布的推断突出显示了阿根廷地区有合适的分布区,该地区也发现有另一种欧洲大疣蛛.气候变暖将对现存于伊比利亚的M.calpeiana种群产生负面影响,因为气候变暖将减少并破碎化蜘蛛在北非的潜在栖息地.目前,急需确认在葡萄牙广大地区是否存在蜘蛛物种,发展对该属的系统发育研究以确定大疣蛛属起源和扩散史的理论.%The aims of this contribution are i) to identify major climate correlates of the distribution of Macrothele calpeiana(Walckenaer, 1805) in the Iberian Peninsula in order to predict its potential distribution; ii) to elaborate a hypothesis for the distribution of the spider in the Iberian Peninsula; iii) to identify suitable places for the species in both North Africa and the entire Mediterranean region through extrapolation of model predictions; and iv) to predict the impact of climate warming on the potential spider distribution. Generalized Linear Models were used to develop a potential distribution predictive model. Potential Iberian Peninsula distribution extends through a large part of Portugal where the spider has not been found. Historical factors are proposed as contributors to the absence of M.calpeiana from suitable areas. Existence of suitable conditions for the species in North Africa, and the absence of the genus there, favours the oriental origin of a Macrothele ancestor. Extrapolation to the Mediterranean region highlighted suitable territory in the Aegean area, where M.cretica Kulczynski, 1903, the other European Macrothele species, is found. Climate warming will negatively affect the existing Iberian M.calpeiana populations because it will reduce and fragment potential North African habitat. Confirmation of species presence, or absence, in much of Portugal and North Africa is a priority, as well as the development of phylogenetic studies of the genus to establish a solid hypothesis of Macrothele origin and dispersion history.

  16. Comunidades de arañas (Arachnida:Araneae asociadas al dosel de bosques de tierra firme e igapó en la Estación Biológica Mosiro Itájura (Caparú, Vaupés, Amazonia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rosario Benavides Silva

    2004-07-01

    de epífitas y hojarasca permitió encontrar especies e incluso familias que no se encontraron con el primer método. Al comparar los microhábitats de hojarasca y epífitas con el follaje, en los dos primeros se encontraron arañas activas nocturnas y que por lo tanto en las horas del día generalmente permanecen ocultas, razón por la cual no se encontraron en el follaje; este hecho muestra que este tipo de microhábitats contribuyen a los estimativos de riqueza de especies para el dosel. Igualmente en estos microhábitats (hojarasca y epífitas se hallaron arañas del suborden Mygalomorpha (tarántulas, las cuales no habían sido reportadas en estudios de dosel. El hallazgo en el dosel amazónico del 83% de las  familias de arañas reportadas para el país, evidencia el importante papel que desempeña este estrato en los bosques tropicales.

  17. Composición y distribución espacio-temporal de las comunidades de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae en el sistema de cultivo maíz-soya de la altillanura plana colombiana, municipio de Puerto López, Meta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Perafán Liévano

    2004-07-01

    sistema. La composición y diversidad de arañas en términos generales no se ve afectada durante las diferentes etapas del sistema de cultivo, pero sí entre los ecosistemas aledaños, los cuales promueven un aumento en la diversidad dentro de los cultivos y además determinan la fauna de arañas que se dispersa hacia estos.

  18. Viniční terasy jako refugia pro výskyt xerotermních druhů pavouků (Araneae) a jejich bioindikační využití v hodnocení kvality životního prostředí a úrovně biodiverzity

    OpenAIRE

    Košulič, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale decline of traditionally managed early-successional habitats caused by the joint effects of agricultural intensification and abandonment of marginal lands has resulted in a critical reduction of xerophilous arthopods throughout Europe. The question is whether newly generated early-successional sites of human-made habitats (in this case vineyard terraces) may partially compensate this habitat loss. My research, therefore, focusses on spiders as model organisms to determine the ...

  19. Viewing behaviour of spider phobics and non-phobics in the presence of threat and safety stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, W G T; Tierney, K J; Reinhardt-Rutland, A H; Vivekananda-Schmidt, P

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether spider phobics and spider non-phobics differ in attending to threat and safety stimuli in close proximity, or spatially separated. A sample group of 16 spider-phobic and 16 spider-non-phobic volunteers were drawn from a student population on the basis of their scores on Watts and Sharrock's Spider Phobia Questionnaire. Attention was assessed by way of participants' viewing behaviour using an ASL 501 head-mounted eye-tracking system. In a control condition, participants viewed a neutral stimulus (a TV video) in the absence of the threat stimulus. In two experimental conditions, the threat stimulus (a live Chilean rose tarantula) was introduced (a) immediately beside the safety stimulus (the only exit of the experimental room), or (b) away from the safety stimulus. In the experimental conditions, phobics reduced their viewing of the TV and increased their viewing of the tarantula and of the exit; the biggest changes occurred when tarantula and exit were together. Phobics also made more eye motions across the experimental room. Our results are consistent with previous research employing reaction time to a neutral stimulus as dependent measure. In addition, our results suggest that phobics scan the environment as part of safety behaviour. We suggest that exposure treatments to reduce spider phobia may be facilitated by encouraging patients to stop environmental scanning. Copyright 2004 The British Psychological Society

  20. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  1. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators

    OpenAIRE

    Mogren, Christina L.; Walton, William E.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aqu...

  2. Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899; M. proxima (Séguy, 1926 and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966 are collected for the first time at the Federal District.

  3. Factors affecting invertebrate assemblages in bryophytes of the Litovelské Luhy National Nature Reserve, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Božanić, B.; Hradílek, Z.; Machač, O.; Pižl, Václav; Šťáhlavský, F.; Tufová, J.; Véle, A.; Tuf, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-206 ISSN 0324-0770 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/155/08; GA MŽP(CZ) IGA PrF/2010/001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chilopoda * Diplopoda * Oniscidea * Araneae * Pseudoscorpiones * Opiliones * Formicidae * Lumbricidae * Litovelské Pomoraví Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2013

  4. In search for a compromise between biodiversity conservation and human health protection in restoration of fly ash deposits: effect of anti-dust treatments on five groups of artropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Černá, Ilona; Straka, J.; Kočárek, P.; Malenovský, I.; Tichánek, F.; Šebek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 14 (2016), s. 13653-13660 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 160/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aculeata * Araneae * Auchenorrhyncha Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-015-4382-1

  5. Can periodically drained ponds have any potential for terrestrial arthropods conservation? A pilot survey of spiders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2012), s. 635-639 ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anthropogenic sites * Araneae * colonisation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2012

  6. Pharmacological characterisation of the highly NaV1.7 selective spider venom peptide Pn3a

    OpenAIRE

    Deuis, J. R.; Dekan, Z.; Wingerd, J. S.; Smith, J. J.; Munasinghe, N. R.; Bhola, R. F.; Imlach, W. L.; Herzig, V.; Armstrong, D. A.; Rosengren, K. J.; Bosmans, F.; Waxman, S. G.; Dib-Hajj, S. D.; Escoubas, P.; Minett, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, μ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits NaV1.7 (IC50 0.9 nM) with at least 40-1000-fold selectivity over all other NaV subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by NaV1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed...

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of the highly NaV1.7 selective spider venom peptide Pn3a

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer R. Deuis; Zoltan Dekan; Joshua S. Wingerd; Jennifer J. Smith; Nehan R. Munasinghe; Rebecca F. Bhola; Wendy L. Imlach; Volker Herzig; David A. Armstrong; K. Johan Rosengren; Frank Bosmans; Stephen G. Waxman; Sulayman D. Dib-Hajj; Pierre Escoubas; Michael S. Minett

    2017-01-01

    Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, ?-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits NaV1.7 (IC50 0.9?nM) with at least 40?1000-fold selectivity over all other NaV subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by NaV1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed...

  8. Properties of O dwarf stars in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabín-Sanjulián, Carolina; VFTS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We perform a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 105 presumably single O dwarf stars in 30 Doradus, located within the Large Magellanic Cloud. We use mid-to-high resolution multi-epoch optical spectroscopic data obtained within the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Stellar and wind parameters are derived by means of the automatic tool iacob-gbat, which is based on a large grid of fastwind models. We also benefit from the Bayesian tool bonnsai to estimate evolutionary masses. We provide a spectral calibration for the effective temperature of O dwarf stars in the LMC, deal with the mass discrepancy problem and investigate the wind properties of the sample.

  9. The dancing plague: a public health conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L J; Cavanagh, J; Rankin, J

    1997-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass, frenzied dancing affected large populations in various parts of Europe from the thirteenth century and lasted, on and off, for three centuries. The exact aetiology of the Dancing Plague (or Dancing Mania) is still unclear. Retrospective historical review of this public health problem reveals claims for causative factors including demonic possession, epilepsy, the bite of a tarantula, ergot poisoning and social adversity. It seems unlikely that Dancing Mania resulted from a single cause but rather resulted from multiple factors combining with a predisposing cultural background and triggered by adverse social circumstances. Dancing Mania remains one of the unresolved mysteries of public health.

  10. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  11. Citrus-orchard ground harbours a diverse, well-established and abundant ground-dwelling spider fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, C.; Molla, O.; Vanaclocha, P.; Monton, H.; Melic, A.; Castanera, P.; Urbaneja, A.

    2011-07-01

    Ground-dwelling spider assemblages comprise one of the most representative predatory groups to be found in many crops. There is some evidence of the role that ground-dwelling spiders play in controlling certain citrus pests; however, there are almost no studies about the abundance and composition of this predatory group in citrus orchards. A three-year survey conducted using pitfall traps in three citrus orchards in Eastern Spain yielded more than five-thousand ground-dwelling spiders belonging to more than 50 species and 20 families. Wandering families such as Lycosidae, Gnaphosidae and Zodariidae were the most numerous in terms of captures. The generalist predator Pardosa cribata Simon (Araneae: Lycosidae) was the most common species, representing a quarter of all captures, followed by Zodarion cesari Pekar. (Araneae: Zodariidae) and Trachyzelotes fuscipes (Koch) (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Spiders were active throughout the year with a peak population in summer. The species abundance data for the three spider assemblages sampled fitted a log normal statistical model which is consistent with a well-established community. The presence of a cover crop provided higher abundance of alternative prey and consequently higher abundance and diversity of ground-dwelling spiders. This work demonstrates that the citrus-orchard ground harbours a diverse and abundant ground-dwelling spider fauna, which is also active throughout the year. A challenge for future studies will be to establish conservation management strategies for these predators, that will improve biological control of those citrus pests that inhabit or spend part of their life cycle on the orchard floor. (Author) 49 refs.

  12. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  13. Spiders in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun K; Bhate, Chinmoy; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Spider bites represent an unusual and potentially over-represented clinical diagnosis. Despite a common fear of spiders, known as arachnophobia, current knowledge suggests that only a small number of families within the order Araneae are medically relevant. Moreover, most cutaneous spider reactions, including both evenomations and physical trauma, produce mild, local symptoms which may be managed with supportive care alone. The differential diagnosis for spider bites may be broad, especially if the offending arachnid is not seen or found. We describe a series of spiders relevant to the dermatologist in the United States.

  14. Food Composition of the Snake-Eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans Ménétriés, 1832 (Reptilia: Sauria: Lacertidae from Gökçeada (Imbros, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Varol Tok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the food composition of the snake-eyed lizard (Ophisops elegans, from Gökçeada (Imbros, Çanakkale, Turkey. A total of 94 preys were determined in thedigestive systems of 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females examined in the study. Insects (67%constitute most of its food composition. Major prey groups in the food composition are included inAranea (13%, Lepidoptera (13%, Coleoptera (19%, and Homoptera (20% in numeric proportion.No significant difference was observed between sexes considering food composition.

  15. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarato, Anthony, E-mail: acammara@burnham.org [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Craig, Roger [Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Lehman, William [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are {approx}20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  16. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungan, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2008-02-05

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in 0 reactive flow JWL++ and Linked Cheetah V4, mostly at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. The physical basis of the input parameters is considered.

  17. Gender, gender roles, and anxiety: perceived confirmability of self report, behavioral avoidance, and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissecting Diffuse X-ray Emission in 30 Doradus with T-ReX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    30 Doradus (the Tarantula Nebula) offers us a microscope on starburst astrophysics, having endured 25 Myrs of the birth and death of the most massive stars known. Across 30 Dor's 250-pc extent, stellar winds and supernovae have carved its ISM into an amazing display of arcs, pillars, and bubbles. For over 40 years, we have also known that 30 Dor is a bright X-ray emitter, so its familiar stars and cold ISM structures suffer irradiation by multi-million-degree plasmas. The 2-Ms Chandra X-ray Visionary Project ``The Tarantula -- Revealed by X-rays'' (T-ReX) exploits Chandra's fine spatial resolution and the ACIS-I field of view to study ISM interfaces on 1--10 pc scales across the entire 30 Dor complex. Here we give preliminary results from ongoing analyses of these data, focusing on the diffuse X-ray emission. Massive star winds and cavity supernovae over the millenia have contributed to a broad mix of X-ray-emitting plasmas and absorbing columns, showing that 30 Dor's hot ISM is just as complex and confusing as that seen at colder temperatures.

  19. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarato, Anthony; Craig, Roger; Lehman, William

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are ∼20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  20. METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE DAN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA TERHADAP SERANGGA BUKAN HAMA SASARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Andrographis paniculata to the natural enemies of Nephotettix virescens and non-target insect pests. This research was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Subang District, West Java in the wet season 2013/2014. The method of research used a split plot design with four replications. The main plot was IR66, Inpari 9, and Ciherang varieties. Subplot was the application of M. anisopliae, A. paniculata, and control. Observations were carried out five times started at nursery (2 weeks after seedling, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after planting using insect nets, double swing 10 times on each plot observations. The results show M. anisopliae and A. paniculata not adversely affect on non-target insect pests such as Chironomid and natural enemies of N. virescens namely Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Sepedon sp., damselfly, Tipulidae sp., Telenomus sp., dragonfly, and Tetrastichus sp.. Efficacy of M. anisopliae and A. paniculata as one of the control strategies that are environmentally friendly and proved not harmful to non-target insect pests.

  1. PENGARUH DOSIS SUBLETAL EKSTRAK SAMBILATA (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES TERHADAP AKTIVITAS MUSUH ALAMI DAN KEPERIDIAN WERENG HIJAU, NEPHOTETTIX VIRESCENS DISTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiarta dan Dede Kusdiaman .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sublethal doses of sambilata extract to the fecundity and natural enemies activity of the green leafhopper, Nepothettix virescens Distant. Sambilata (Andrographis paniculata is a tropical herb which has antifeeding property and could reduce rice tungro virus transmission by the rice green leafhopper (GLH, Nephotettix virescens.  Series of test were conducted to clarify the effect of sublethal doses of sambilata to the fecundity and natural enemies activity of the GLH. The objective of the test was to know wether sublethal dose of sambilata could cause physiological or ecological resurgence. The results of test showed that foliar spraying of sambilata extract at concentration of 100 and 1000 ppm to rice seedlings reduced the GLH females’s fecundity. Spraying sambilata extract up to dose of 100 ppm on rice seedlings and GLH did not reduce Lycosa preying activity. Egg parasitoid activity was not affected by sambilata application on rice seedlings bore GLH eggs. Thus  the probability of sublethal dose of sambilata to cause physiological or ecological resurgence was low.

  2. The Spider Venom Peptide Lycosin-II Has Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Clinically Isolated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides have been accepted as excellent candidates for developing novel antibiotics against drug-resistant bacteria. Recent studies indicate that spider venoms are the source for the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we isolated and characterized an antibacterial peptide named lycosin-II from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. It contains 21 amino acid residue lacking cysteine residues and forms a typical linear amphipathic and cationic α-helical conformation. Lycosin-II displays potent bacteriostatic effect on the tested drug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from hospital patients, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, which has presented a huge challenge for the infection therapy. The inhibitory ability of lycosin-II might derive from its binding to cell membrane, because Mg2+ could compete with the binding sites to reduce the bacteriostatic potency of lycosin-II. Our data suggest that lycosin-II might be a lead in the development of novel antibiotics for curing drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  3. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  4. Male genital mutilation in the high-mountain goblin spider, Unicorn catleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Matías A; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2011-01-01

    Male genital mutilation is a common mechanism by which males reduce sperm competition by plugging female insemination ducts with different parts of its own genital system. This behavior is frequent in many spider families but is uncommon in Haplogynae. The reproductive biology of Dysderoidea is not well studied and the data is fragmentary; male genital mutilation has been reported only for one species of Oonopidae. This study provides evidence of male genital mutilation in Unicorn catleyi Platnick and Brescovit (Araneae: Oonopidae). Pieces of the embolus were found in the female posterior receptaculum. This behavior is a strategy used by the males in order to guarantee their paternity and not for escape from female attacks as has been reported for other species of Araneae, since cannibalism is unlikely in this species. The presence of embolus in the posterior receptaculum suggests this is the first place where sperm is received. The similarity of the female genitalia of U. catleyi to those of Orsolobidae, along with sclerotization of the seminal duct in the male copulatory bulb that is also present in Orchestina, Xiombarg, and Orsolobidae, provide strong evidence of the basal position of this genus in the family Oonopidae.

  5. Streblidae de murciélagos de Lima: dos citas nuevas para Perú Streblidae of bats from Lima: two new cites for Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo L. Claps

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de Streblidae para el departamento Lima (Perú, que parasitan a tres especies de murciélagos de la familia Phyllostomidae: Anoura geoffroyi Gray, Carollia perspicillata (Linneo y Desmodus rotundus (Geoffroy. Se amplía la distribución geográfica de Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, Exastinion clovisi (Pessôa & Guimarães, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, Speiseria ambigua Kessel y Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati (Diptera, Streblidae, dado que se registran por primera vez en el departamento, y A. modestini y E. clovisi se mencionan por primera vez en Perú.New distributional records for bat ectoparasites (Streblidae, are presented for the Department of Lima (Perú. They were reported as collected on bats of the family Phyllostomidae: Anoura geoffroyi Gray, Carollia perspicillata (Linneo and Desmodus rotundus (Geoffroy. The distribution of Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, Exastinion clovisi (Pessôa & Guimarães, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, Speiseria ambigua Kessel and Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati (Diptera, Streblidae, is extended to the Department of Lima, and Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi are added to the fauna of Perú.

  6. High throughput techniques to reveal the molecular physiology and evolution of digestion in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2016-09-07

    Spiders are known for their predatory efficiency and for their high capacity of digesting relatively large prey. They do this by combining both extracorporeal and intracellular digestion. Whereas many high throughput ("-omics") techniques focus on biomolecules in spider venom, so far this approach has not yet been applied to investigate the protein composition of spider midgut diverticula (MD) and digestive fluid (DF). We here report on our investigations of both MD and DF of the spider Nephilingis (Nephilengys) cruentata through the use of next generation sequencing and shotgun proteomics. This shows that the DF is composed of a variety of hydrolases including peptidases, carbohydrases, lipases and nuclease, as well as of toxins and regulatory proteins. We detect 25 astacins in the DF. Phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding transcript(s) in Arachnida suggests that astacins have acquired an unprecedented role for extracorporeal digestion in Araneae, with different orthologs used by each family. The results of a comparative study of spiders in distinct physiological conditions allow us to propose some digestion mechanisms in this interesting animal taxon. All the high throughput data allowed the demonstration that DF is a secretion originating from the MD. We identified enzymes involved in the extracellular and intracellular phases of digestion. Besides that, data analyses show a large gene duplication event in Araneae digestive process evolution, mainly of astacin genes. We were also able to identify proteins expressed and translated in the digestive system, which until now had been exclusively associated to venom glands.

  7. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the Ndumo Game Reserve, Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Haddad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida were collected in the Ndumo Game Reserve (Maputaland, South Africa during 11 collecting trips in the period 2000–2006. Sampling was undertaken by various methods in eight broad habitat types: Acacia tortilis savanna; Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree forests; deciduous broadleaf woodland; Ficus (wild fig tree forests; floodplain vegetation; riparian forest; sand forest; and subtropical bush. In total, 457 species of arachnids were collected, representing six orders, 59 families and 240 determined genera. The most diverse order was the Araneae (46 families, 431 spp., followed by the Pseudoscorpiones (6 families, 12 spp., Scorpiones (3 families, 8 spp., Opiliones (2 families, 3 spp., Solifugae (1 family, 2 spp. and Amblypygi (a single species. The most diverse families all belonged to the Araneae: Salticidae (82 spp., Thomisidae (56 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp.. The spider diversity is the highest recorded from any protected area in South Africa so far, and represents approximately 22 % of the country’s spider fauna. The habitat and guild associations of each species are provided.

  8. Are amphitheater headed canyons indicative of a particular formative process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, A. J.; Whipple, K. X.; Johnson, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tributary canyons with amphitheater-shaped heads have previously been interpreted as evidence for groundwater seepage erosion, particularly in environments where fluvial processes are assumed to be negligible. However, some have questioned whether this canyon morphology is truly diagnostic of a particular formative process. We seek to determine the relative roles of fluvial and groundwater-related processes and the strength of stratigraphic control on the Colorado Plateau through a combination of fieldwork and GIS analysis. Amphitheater valleys may have overhanging or steep-sided headwalls with a semicircular plan-view pattern. It is reasonable to assume that this form is a result of focused erosion at the base of the headwall (i.e. sapping). Two frequently cited agents may lead to undermining: plunge-pool scour at the base of waterfalls and seepage induced weathering and erosion where the groundwater table intersects the land surface. Both processes are enhanced where weaker, less permeable layers underlie stronger cap rock. We conducted preliminary fieldwork in two locations on the Colorado Plateau, where there are many classic examples of amphitheater headed canyons. The Escalante River landscape is highly variable with a range of canyon and valley-head forms, many of which cut through the thick Navajo Sandstone into the underlying shale and sand of the Kayenta Formation. Northeast of Escalante National Monument, at the base of the Henry Mountains, is Tarantula Mesa. The canyons there are also considerably variable, with nearly all containing at least one abrupt amphitheater knickpoint at the valley head or farther downstream. Our observations are presented here with an analysis of the canyon profiles, surrounding topography, and potential structural controls. We have found that nearly all amphitheaters in both locales show signs of groundwater seepage weathering and plausibly seepage erosion. However, many also contain plunge pools and evidence of substantial

  9. The ultraviolet extinction properties of the 30 Dor Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2018-01-01

    Recent investigation of the extinction law in 30 Dor and the Tarantula Nebula, at optical and near infrared wavelengths, has revealed a ratio of total to selective extinction RV=AV/E(B-V) of about 4.5. This indicates a larger proportion of large grains than in the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. Possible origins include coalescence of small grains, grain growth, selective destruction of small grains, and fresh injection of large grains. From a study of the ultraviolet extinction properties of three Wolf-Rayet stars in 30 Dor (R 139, R 140, R 145), observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer, we show that the excess of large grains does not come at the expense of small grains, which are still present. Fresh injection of large grains by supernova explosions appears to be the dominant mechanism.

  10. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  11. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Boyle, Glen M; McIntyre, Lachlan; Nolan, Matthew J; Parsons, Peter G; Smith, Jennifer J; Tribolet, Leon; Loukas, Alex; Liddell, Michael J; Rash, Lachlan D; Daly, Norelle L

    2017-10-27

    Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA 366 , containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA 366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  12. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA366, containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  13. A verified spider bite and a review of the literature confirm Indian ornamental tree spiders (Poecilotheria species) as underestimated theraphosids of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Joan; von Dechend, Margot; Mordasini, Raffaella; Ceschi, Alessandro; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Literature on bird spider or tarantula bites (Theraphosidae) is rare. This is astonishing as they are coveted pets and interaction with their keepers (feeding, cleaning the terrarium or taking them out to hold) might increase the possibility for bites. Yet, this seems to be a rare event and might be why most theraphosids are considered to be harmless, even though the urticating hairs of many American species can cause disagreeable allergic reactions. We are describing a case of a verified bite by an Indian ornamental tree spider (Poecilotheria regalis), where the patient developed severe, long lasting muscle cramps several hours after the bite. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on bites of these beautiful spiders and conclude that a delayed onset of severe muscle cramps, lasting for days, is characteristic for Poecilotheria bites. We discuss Poecilotheria species as an exception from the general assumption that theraphosid bites are harmless to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Bechsgaard, Jesper S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Duan, Jinjie; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Gupta, Vikas; Jiang, Xuanting; Cheng, Ling; Fan, Dingding; Feng, Yue; Han, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Wu, Zongze; Liao, Li; Settepani, Virginia; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Vanthournout, Bram; Wang, Tobias; Zhu, Yabing; Funch, Peter; Enghild, Jan J.; Schauser, Leif; Andersen, Stig U.; Villesen, Palle; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bilde, Trine; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk. PMID:24801114

  15. A Massive Star Census of the Starburst Cluster R136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul

    2012-10-01

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive census of the most massive stars in the central parsec {4"} of the starburst cluster, R136, which powers the Tarantula Nebula in the LMC. R136 is both sufficiently massive that the upper mass function is richly populated and young enough that its most massive stars have yet to explode as supernovae. The identification of very massive stars in R136, up to 300 solar masses, raises general questions of star formation, binarity and feedback in young massive clusters. The proposed STIS spectral survey of 36 stars more massive than 50 solar masses within R136 is ground-breaking, of legacy value, and is specifically tailored to a} yield physical properties; b} detect the majority of binaries by splitting observations between Cycles 19 and 20; c} measure rotational velocities, relevant for predictions of rotational mixing; d} quantify mass-loss properties for very massive stars; e} determine surface compositions; f} measure radial velocities, relevant for runaway stars and cluster dynamics; g} quantify radiative and mechanical feedback. This census will enable the mass function of very massive stars to be measured for the first time, as a result of incomplete and inadequate spectroscopy to date. It will also perfectly complement our Tarantula Survey, a ground-based VLT Large Programme, by including the most massive stars that are inaccessible to ground-based visual spectroscopy due to severe crowding. These surveys, together with existing integrated UV and optical studies will enable 30 Doradus to serve as a bona-fide template for unresolved extragalactic starburst regions.

  16. Air Gaps, Size Effect, and Corner-Turning in Ambient LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Hernandez, A; Cabacungen, C; Fried, L; Garza, R; Glaesemann, K; Lauderbach, L; Liao, S; Vitello, P

    2007-05-30

    Various ambient measurements are presented for LX-17. The size (diameter) effect has been measured with copper and Lucite confinement, where the failure radii are 4.0 and 6.5 mm, respectively. The air well corner-turn has been measured with an LX-07 booster, and the dead-zone results are comparable to the previous TATB-boosted work. Four double cylinders have been fired, and dead zones appear in all cases. The steel-backed samples are faster than the Lucite-backed samples by 0.6 {micro}s. Bare LX-07 and LX-17 of 12.7 mm-radius were fired with air gaps. Long acceptor regions were used to truly determine if detonation occurred or not. The LX-07 crossed at 10 mm with a slight time delay. Steady state LX-17 crossed at 3.5 mm gap but failed to cross at 4.0 mm. LX-17 with a 12.7 mm run after the booster crossed a 1.5 mm gap but failed to cross 2.5 mm. Timing delays were measured where the detonation crossed the gaps. The Tarantula model is introduced as embedded in the Linked Cheetah V4.0 reactive flow code at 4 zones/mm. Tarantula has four pressure regions: off, initiation, failure and detonation. A report card of 25 tests run with the same settings on LX-17 is shown, possibly the most extensive simultaneous calibration yet tried with an explosive. The physical basis of some of the input parameters is considered.

  17. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  18. Cell-penetrating recombinant peptides for potential use in agricultural pest control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2012-09-28

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  19. Effects of reconstruction of a pre-European vertebrate assemblage on ground-dwelling arachnids in arid Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Colin J; Hayward, Matthew W; Gibb, Heloise

    2015-06-01

    Species loss can result in changes in assemblage structure and ecosystem function through ecological cascades. Australian vertebrate assemblages changed significantly following European colonisation, which resulted in the establishment of invasive vertebrates and the loss of native marsupials, many of which consume invertebrates. Conservation focusses on the removal of invasive carnivores and the reintroduction of regionally extinct species to fenced sites, resulting in what could be considered a reconstruction of pre-European vertebrate assemblages. In semi-arid Australian spinifex mallee ecosystems, we asked: (1) what is the effect of reconstructed pre-European vertebrate assemblages on native arachnid assemblages? and (2) what direct or indirect mechanisms (predation, disturbance and/or competition) could plausibly be responsible for these effects? We compared sites with reconstructed vertebrate assemblages with paired control sites. Arachnids were sampled using pitfall trapping and direct searching. Hypotheses regarding mechanisms were tested using scat analysis (predation) and by comparing burrow depth (disturbance) and scorpion mass (competition) between control and reconstructed sites. The dominant dune scorpion, Urodacus yaschenkoi, was less abundant and a wolf spider (Lycosa gibsoni species group) more abundant in reconstructed sites. Differences in spider assemblage composition were marginally non-significant. Scat analysis confirmed native vertebrate predation on scorpions and we found no evidence that competition or disturbance affected scorpions. We, thus, suggest that changes in spider assemblages may have resulted from ecological cascades via decreases in dune scorpions. The loss of omnivorous mammals and other changes associated with the invasion of carnivores may, therefore, have had broad-reaching consequences for native arachnid assemblages in Australian ecosystems.

  20. Struktur Komunitas Artropoda pada Ekosistem Padi tanpa Perlakuan Pestisida

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    Eddy Mahrub

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, rice ecosystem was les stable because the structure of natural community often change, and it may cause decrease in the natural biodiversity. The research has been done in the lowland ricefield during wet and dry season without pesticides application. Observation was started when the plant (IR64 was 7 days old after transplanting with interval of 8 days until one week before harvest, to collect the arthropods from each samples. The objectives were to study the structure of community of arthropods during wet and dry season and to study food web chain in natural ecosystem and its implementation in the Integrated Pest Management Program. The results showed that in rice ecosystem four arthropod groups or guilds, was found i.e. Pests, Predators, Parasites and Neutral Arthropods. The diversity and species abundance of arthropods were high but the highest abundance of arthropods was found on the member of certain order and family only. The population of pest was lower than predator. The relative abundance of pests were 5.75% in wet season and 8.57% in dry season, while predators were 27.96% in wet season and 33.88% in dry season. The population density of spider predators especially Lycosa sp. during wet and dry season were very high. It was supported by the abundant of neutral arthropods as alternate prey when the pest population was very low. This condition may support negative feed back interaction and increase the potential of natural control in the absence of pesticide application. Key words: predator, parasite, neutral arthropod

  1. Feeding ecology of the endemic rain frog Pristimantis jubatus (craugastoridae) in Munchique national park, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Juan Carlos; Velasquez, Leonardo Lucas; Cardenas Henao, Heiber; Posso Gomez, Carmen Elisa

    2012-01-01

    We studied the diet of the rain frog Pristimantis jubatus based on stomach and intestinal contents of 29 individuals from three different localities at Munchique National Park, Colombia. The diet was composed exclusively of arthropods, comprising a total of 66 preys which were in 32 taxa. The most frequent dietary items were Diptera and Hymenoptera, 19.7 % and 16.7 % respectively, followed by Araneae (15.1 %) and Coleoptera (12.1 %). Plant consumption was considered incidental because of its low frequency. This species showed no preference for any type of prey, with a high value of niche breadth (0.68) indicating a generalist diet. Adults and juveniles occupy different perch height. Habitat use and the variety of items found show P. jubatus as a species that can consume any kind of arthropod available in the strata of the forest where it is foraging.

  2. Parasitoids of boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and resident predators in kaolin-treated cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leme Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous use of control methods is essential to reach success in managing arthropod pests. The current study investigated the effect of kaolin application on resident predators in the cotton plant canopy and parasitism of boll weevil on abscised squares in the field, and parasitism of boll weevil in the laboratory. Predators Araneae, Formicidae, Chrysopidae, and Coccinellidae showed similar seasonal densities for kaolin-treated and untreated cotton fields as well as the emergence rate of the parasitoids Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Catolaccus grandis Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae from abscised field-collected structures. Under laboratory conditions, the parasitism of boll weevil larvae infesting squares was similar when treated and untreated squares with kaolin were offered to the parasitoid under free choice test. Therefore, the results show that spraying cotton fields with kaolin does not affect the natural biological control by parasitoids of boll weevil and pink bollworm and resident predators naturally occurring in cotton fields.

  3. Matching global and regional distribution models of the recluse spider Loxosceles rufescens: to what extent do these reflect niche conservatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucare-Ríos, A; Nentwig, W; Bizama, G; Bustamante, R O

    2018-06-08

    The Mediterranean recluse spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Sicariidae) is a cosmopolitan spider that has been introduced in many parts of the world. Its bite can be dangerous to humans. However, the potential distribution of this alien species, which is able to spread fairly quickly with human aid, is completely unknown. Using a combination of global and regional niche models, it is possible to analyse the spread of this species in relation to environmental conditions. This analysis found that the successful spreading of this species varies according to the region invaded. The majority of populations in Asia are stable and show niche conservatism, whereas in North America this spider is expected to be less successful in occupying niches that differ from those in its native region and that do not support its synanthropic way of living. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Biological impacts of alcohol fuel emission on selected pollinator, predatory and nutrient-cycling insects and arachnids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Eliscu, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral effects of methanol, ethanol, indolene, and formaldehyde emissions on selected arthropods are related to different relative organismic activities, metabolic rates, and respiratory demands. Various species of important pollinators, predators, and nutrient-cycling insects and arachnids respond differently to tailpipe and elevated levels of emissions. A gradient of responses is related to metabolism and trophic niche. Orders tested included various Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola, Thysanura, Araneae, Acarina, and Opiliones. Responses included narcosis, spatial disorientation, cardiac arrhythmia, flight muscle and walking leg dysfunction, decreased feeding efficiency and prey capture success ratios, and increased positive thigmotaxis. Tolerance appears to be inversely related to oxygen demand of the arthropods tested, with active fliers most susceptible, weak fliers midscale, and non-fliers most tolerant. Electronic monitoring of heart, brain, and muscle characteristics suggests neuronal and neurosynaps disruptions from alcohols and formaldehyde, and neuromuscular effects from indolene in most arthropods tested.

  5. Distribution and importance of spiders inhabiting a Brazilian sugar cane plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria Piovesan Rinaldi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna (Araneae of a sugar eane plantation was surveyed monthly by hand colteetion and beating vegetation in sugar cane fields across Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Composition and rchness (family and species where identifieation to species was possible microhabitat preferenees were reeorded, and diversity and evenness indices were calculated. A total of 1291 spiders belonging to 73 species and 20 families were collected. The most diverse families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae, and the most abundant ones were Theridiidae, Saltieidae, Anyphaenidae, and Araneidae, Seven species represented 58.6% of the total fauna, with Crysso pulcherrima (Mello-Leitão,1917 (Theridiidae composing 28.2%. About 65% of the spiders occupied the upper part of the plants (above 20 cm. Five spider species were present in the sugar cane throughout crop development. Evidence of spiders feeding on sugar cane pest species was observed.

  6. The effect of wounds on desiccation of prey: implications for a predator with extra-oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Douglass H

    1998-06-01

    Predators that inject prey with proteolytic enzymes, thereby breaking down their tissues for subsequent ingestion, run the risk that desiccation will hinder eventual retrieval of resources from these prey. Wounds made in capture might exacerbate this problem. However, desiccation rates of small syrphid flies Toxomerusmarginatus (Diptera: Syrphidae) killed by juvenile crab spiders Misumena vatia (Araneae: Thomisidae) and intact dead syrphid flies did not differ over the normal period of feeding, though desiccation rates in shade and sun differed several-fold. Neither the size of the spider (and presumably the size of the wounds it inflicted) nor the location of the wounds on the flies' bodies affected desiccation rates. Thus, this tactic of prey handling does not exact an added processing cost on Misumena.

  7. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétillon, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  8. Ecotoxicological effects of buprofezin on fecundity, growth, development, and predation of the wolf spider Pirata piratoides (Schenkel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingling; Xu, Muqi; Cao, Hong; Dai, Jiayin

    2008-11-01

    The toxicological effects of buprofezin, an insect growth regulator, on the fecundity, development, and pest control potential of the wolf spider Pirata piratoides (Schenkel) (Araneae: Lycosidae) were investigated in the laboratory. It was shown that buprofezin had low toxicity to P. piratoides and that the median lethal dosage (LD(50)) 48 h and 10% lethal dosage (LD(10)) after topical application for female spiders were 653 and 316 mg buprofezin/mg fresh weight of spider, respectively. Buprofezin significantly reduced the percent hatching of spiders' eggs but had only a slight effect on egg production. No negative effects on the development and growth were observed. However, spider predation rates were strongly affected: Insecticide-treated females predated on fewer prey than the controls, and their predation rate did not recover even 5 days after insecticide application. This indicated that their pest control potential might be influenced by buprofezin, and the use of buprofezin in biological control of insects is discussed.

  9. The effect of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target spiders: Part I. Direct effects on Lepthyphantes tenuis under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, A J; Bell, J R; Wilcox, A; Boatman, N D

    2001-11-01

    We examined the toxic effects of glyphosate to adult female Lepthyphantes tenuis (Araneae, Linyphiidae), a common spider of agricultural habitats. The overspray technique was used to investigate the effect of the herbicide on forty individuals in each of six glyphosate treatments (2160, 1440, 1080, 720, 360 and 180 g ha-1) and a distilled water control. Spiders collected from the wild were individually placed in exposure chambers and checked every 24 h over a 72-h experimental period. Mortality of L tenuis remained at less than 10% in all treatments at 24 and 48 h after spray application, and only increased marginally (to 13%) after 72 h. These results support other limited data which suggest that glyphosate is 'harmless' to non-target arthropods. More extended laboratory testing to investigate any side-effects of glyphosate on the life history of L tenuis and other non-beneficial invertebrates is required.

  10. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  11. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  12. Urbanization alters communities of flying arthropods in parks and gardens of a medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagucki, Edward; Burdine, Justin D; McCluney, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization. Flying arthropods were sampled from 30 gardens and parks along an urbanization gradient in Toledo, Ohio, during July and August 2016, using elevated pan traps. A variety of potential predictor variables were also recorded at each site. We collected a total of 2,369 individuals representing nine orders. We found that flying arthropod community composition was associated with percent impervious surface and canopy cover. Overall flying arthropod abundance was negatively associated with percent impervious surface and positively associated with distance to city center. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), and Araneae (spiders) were positively associated with distance to city center. Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (flies), and Araneae were negatively associated with percent impervious surface. Both distance to city center and percent impervious surface are metrics of urbanization, and this study shows how these factors influence flying arthropod communities in urban gardens and city parks, including significant reductions in taxa that contain pollinators and predators important to urban agriculture and forestry. A variety of environmental factors also showed significant associations with responses (e.g. canopy cover and soil moisture), suggesting these factors may underlie or modulate the urbanization

  13. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  14. Organic vs. organic - soil arthropods as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in greenhouse system experiment under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzaric, Suzana; Ceglie, F G; Depalo, L; Al Bitar, L; Mimiola, G; Tittarelli, F; Burgio, G

    2017-11-23

    Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation. Monitoring of soil fauna was performed by using pitfall traps and seven taxa were considered: Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Araneae, Opiliones, Isopoda, Myriapoda, and Collembola. Results demonstrated high potential of ASC cultivation as a technique for beneficial soil arthropod conservation in OGH conditions. SUBST system was dominated by Collembola in all crops, while AGROMAN and AGROCOM had more balanced relative abundance of Isopoda, Staphylinidae, and Aranea. Opiliones and Myriapoda were more affected by season, while Carabidae were poorly represented in the whole monitoring period. Despite the fact that all three production systems are in accordance with the European Union regulation on organic farming, findings of this study displayed significant differences among them and confirmed the suitability of soil arthropods as bioindicators in protected systems of organic farming.

  15. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of two peptide LyeTx I derivatives modified with the chelating agent HYNIC for radiolabeling with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuscaldi, Leonardo Lima; Dos Santos, Daniel Moreira; Pinheiro, Natália Gabriela Silva; Araújo, Raquel Silva; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Resende, Jarbas Magalhães; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; de Lima, Maria Elena; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic methods and imaging techniques are not able to differentiate septic and aseptic inflammation. Thus, reliable methods are sought to provide this distinction and scintigraphic imaging is an interesting option, since it is based on physiological changes. In this context, radiolabeled antimicrobial peptides have been investigated as they accumulate in infectious sites instead of aseptic inflammation. The peptide LyeTx I, from the venom of Lycosa erythrognatha, has potent antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study aimed to synthesize LyeTx I derivatives with the chelating compound HYNIC, to evaluate their antimicrobial activity and to radiolabel them with (99m)Tc. Two LyeTx I derivatives, HYNIC-LyeTx I (N-terminal modification) and LyeTx I-K-HYNIC (C-terminal modification), were synthesized by Fmoc strategy and purified by RP-HPLC. The purified products were assessed by RP-HPLC and MALDI-ToF-MS analysis. Microbiological assays were performed against S. aureus (ATCC® 6538) and E. coli (ATCC® 10536) in liquid medium to calculate the MIC. The radiolabeling procedure of LyeTx I-K-HYNIC with (99m)Tc was performed in the presence of co-ligands (tricine and EDDA) and reducing agent (SnCl2 (.) 2H2O), and standardized taking into account the amount of peptide, reducing agent, pH and heating. Radiochemical purity analysis was performed by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel strips and the radiolabeled compound was assessed by RP-HPLC and radioactivity measurement of the collected fractions. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test (p-values EDDA). The binding of HYNIC to the N-terminal portion of LyeTx I seems to affect its activity against bacteria. Nevertheless, the radiolabeling of the C-terminal derivative, LyeTx I-K-HYNIC, must be better investigated to optimize the radiolabeled compound, in order to use it as a specific imaging agent to distinguish septic and aseptic inflammation.

  16. Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and below-ground arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Gossner, Martin M; Diekötter, Tim; Drees, Claudia; Ferlian, Olga; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Smith, Henrik G

    2017-05-01

    Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Below-ground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than above-ground arthropods. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest) and within land-use types (local management intensity) on the trait diversity and composition in below- and above-ground arthropod communities. We used data on 722 arthropod species living above-ground (Auchenorrhyncha and Heteroptera), primarily in soil (Chilopoda and Oribatida) or at the interface (Araneae and Carabidae). Our results show that trait diversity of arthropod communities is not primarily reduced by intense local land use, but is rather affected by differences between land-use types. Communities of Auchenorrhyncha and Chilopoda had significantly lower trait diversity in grassland habitats as compared to forests. Carabidae showed the opposite pattern with higher trait diversity in grasslands. Grasslands had a lower proportion of large Auchenorrhyncha and Carabidae individuals, whereas Chilopoda and Heteroptera individuals were larger in grasslands. Body size decreased with land-use intensity across taxa, but only in grasslands. The proportion of individuals with low mobility declined with land-use intensity in Araneae and Auchenorrhyncha, but increased in Chilopoda and grassland Heteroptera. The proportion of carnivorous individuals increased with land-use intensity in Heteroptera in forests and in Oribatida and Carabidae in grasslands. Our results suggest that gradients in management intensity across land-use types will not generally reduce trait diversity in multiple taxa, but will exert strong trait filtering within

  17. Pharmacological characterisation of the highly NaV1.7 selective spider venom peptide Pn3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuis, Jennifer R; Dekan, Zoltan; Wingerd, Joshua S; Smith, Jennifer J; Munasinghe, Nehan R; Bhola, Rebecca F; Imlach, Wendy L; Herzig, Volker; Armstrong, David A; Rosengren, K Johan; Bosmans, Frank; Waxman, Stephen G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Escoubas, Pierre; Minett, Michael S; Christie, Macdonald J; King, Glenn F; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J; Wood, John N; Vetter, Irina

    2017-01-20

    Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel Na V 1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, μ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits Na V 1.7 (IC 50 0.9 nM) with at least 40-1000-fold selectivity over all other Na V subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by Na V 1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed no analgesic activity in formalin-, carrageenan- or FCA-induced pain in rodents when administered systemically. A broad lack of analgesic activity was also found for the selective Na V 1.7 inhibitors PF-04856264 and phlotoxin 1. However, when administered with subtherapeutic doses of opioids or the enkephalinase inhibitor thiorphan, these subtype-selective Na V 1.7 inhibitors produced profound analgesia. Our results suggest that in these inflammatory models, acute administration of peripherally restricted Na V 1.7 inhibitors can only produce analgesia when administered in combination with an opioid.

  18. Relating Line Width and Optical Depth for CO Emission in the Large Mgellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Evan; Wong, Tony; Bandurski, Jeffrey; MC3 (Mapping CO in Molecular Clouds in the Magellanic Clouds) Team

    2018-01-01

    We investigate data produced from ALMA observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using 12CO(2–1) and 13CO(2–1) emission. The spectral line width is generally interpreted as tracing turbulent rather than thermal motions in the cloud, but could also be affected by optical depth, especially for the 12CO line (Hacar et al. 2016). We compare the spectral line widths of both lines with their optical depths, estimated from an LTE analysis, to evaluate the importance of optical depth effects. Our cloud sample includes two regions recently published by Wong et al. (2017, submitted): the Tarantula Nebula or 30 Dor, an HII region rife with turbulence, and the Planck cold cloud (PCC), located in a much calmer environment near the fringes of the LMC. We also include four additional LMC clouds, which span intermediate levels of star formation relative to these two clouds, and for which we have recently obtained ALMA data in Cycle 4.

  19. At the Mercy of Gaia: Deep Ecologial Unrest and America's fall as Nature's Nation in Kingdom of the Spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Lillemose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks as the animal horror genre as a way to discuss current notions of ecology in relation to a specific American idea of being "Nature's Nation". The central work for the discussion is the movie Kingdom of the Spiders (1977 by John Cardos, which depicts how a small Arizona town is taken over by a "swarm" of tarantulas. Without any obvious explanation the spiders slowly but steadily invade the town and start killing both other animals and humans until they have completely covered the town in their web. The paper connects the movie to a long tradition of fiction describing how nature turns on humans and reverses the power relation be-tween man and nature that is fundamental to modernity. Moreover, the paper connects the movie to Maurice Maeterlincks ideas of swarm communities as mani-fested by ants and termites to argue that these communities are ecologically superior to the the communities of man-made civilisation. Finally, the paper discusses Kingdom of the Spiders and animal horror in general in relation to recent ideas of non-human ecologies and critiques of anthropocentrism and makes the point that these works of fiction serve as both dramatic and philosophical visions of a world without humans.

  20. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers scanning the skies as part of ESO's VISTA Magellanic Cloud survey have now obtained a spectacular picture of the Tarantula Nebula in our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This panoramic near-infrared view captures the nebula itself in great detail as well as the rich surrounding area of sky. The image was obtained at the start of a very ambitious survey of our neighbouring galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, and their environment. The leader of the survey team, Maria-Rosa Cioni (University of Hertfordshire, UK) explains: "This view is of one of the most important regions of star formation in the local Universe - the spectacular 30 Doradus star-forming region, also called the Tarantula Nebula. At its core is a large cluster of stars called RMC 136, in which some of the most massive stars known are located." ESO's VISTA telescope [1] is a new survey telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile (eso0949). VISTA is equipped with a huge camera that detects light in the near-infrared part of the spectrum, revealing a wealth of detail about astronomical objects that gives us insight into the inner workings of astronomical phenomena. Near-infrared light has a longer wavelength than visible light and so we cannot see it directly for ourselves, but it can pass through much of the dust that would normally obscure our view. This makes it particularly useful for studying objects such as young stars that are still enshrouded in the gas and dust clouds from which they formed. Another powerful aspect of VISTA is the large area of the sky that its camera can capture in each shot. This image is the latest view from the VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey (VMC). The project will scan a vast area - 184 square degrees of the sky (corresponding to almost one thousand times the apparent area of the full Moon) including our neighbouring galaxies the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The end result will be a detailed study of the star formation history and three

  1. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  2. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide gomesin on the global gene expression profile, virulence and biofilm formation of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogaça, Andréa C; Zaini, Paulo A; Wulff, Nelson A; da Silva, Patrícia I P; Fázio, Marcos A; Miranda, Antônio; Daffre, Sirlei; da Silva, Aline M

    2010-05-01

    In the xylem vessels of susceptible hosts, such as citrus trees, Xylella fastidiosa forms biofilm-like colonies that can block water transport, which appears to correlate to disease symptoms. Besides aiding host colonization, bacterial biofilms play an important role in resistance against antimicrobial agents, for instance antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we show that gomesin, a potent AMP from a tarantula spider, modulates X. fastidiosa gene expression profile upon 60 min of treatment with a sublethal concentration. DNA microarray hybridizations revealed that among the upregulated coding sequences, some are related to biofilm production. In addition, we show that the biofilm formed by gomesin-treated bacteria is thicker than that formed by nontreated cells or cells exposed to streptomycin. We have also observed that the treatment of X. fastidiosa with a sublethal concentration of gomesin before inoculation in tobacco plants correlates with a reduction in foliar symptoms, an effect possibly due to the trapping of bacterial cells to fewer xylem vessels, given the enhancement in biofilm production. These results warrant further investigation of how X. fastidiosa would respond to the AMPs produced by citrus endophytes and by the insect vector, leading to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these molecules on bacterial virulence.

  3. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Hénaut

    Full Text Available Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  4. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.

  5. Experimental flights using a small unmanned aircraft system for mapping emergent sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher; Preston, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and Parallel Inc. conducted experimental flights with the Tarantula Hawk (T-Hawk) unmanned aircraft system (UAS ) at the Dyer and Cottonwood Ranch properties located along reaches of the Platte River near Overton, Nebraska, in July 2013. We equipped the T-Hawk UAS platform with a consumer-grade digital camera to collect imagery of emergent sandbars in the reaches and used photogrammetric software and surveyed control points to generate orthophotographs and digital elevation models (DEMS ) of the reaches. To optimize the image alignment process, we retained and/or eliminated tie points based on their relative errors and spatial resolution, whereby minimizing the total error in the project. Additionally, we collected seven transects that traversed emergent sandbars concurrently with global positioning system location data to evaluate the accuracy of the UAS survey methodology. The root mean square errors for the elevation of emergent points along each transect across the DEMS ranged from 0.04 to 0.12 m. If adequate survey control is established, a UAS combined with photogrammetry software shows promise for accurate monitoring of emergent sandbar morphology and river management activities in short (1–2 km) river reaches.

  6. Porting Initiation and Failure into Linked CHEETAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Clark; Vitello, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Linked CHEETAH is a thermo-chemical code coupled to a 2-D hydrocode. Initially, a quadratic-pressure dependent kinetic rate was used, which worked well in modeling prompt detonation of explosives of large size, but does not work on other aspects of explosive behavior. The variable-pressure Tarantula reactive flow rate model was developed with JWL++ in order to also describe failure and initiation, and we have moved this model into Linked CHEETAH. The model works by turning on only above a pressure threshold, where a slow turn-on creates initiation. At a higher pressure, the rate suddenly leaps to a large value over a small pressure range. A slowly failing cylinder will see a rapidly declining rate, which pushes it quickly into failure. At a high pressure, the detonation rate is constant. A sequential validation procedure is used, which includes metal-confined cylinders, rate-sticks, corner-turning, initiation and threshold, gap tests and air gaps. The size (diameter) effect is central to the calibration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  7. A Tank Bromeliad Favors Spider Presence in a Neotropical Inundated Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between ‘Aechmea-areas’ and ‘control-areas’ of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests. PMID:25494055

  8. Caracterización espeleológica e inventario biológico de la Caverna del Diablo en el municipio de Becerril, Departamento del Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Vides-Navarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize the most important aspects of the Devil´s cave, including biophysical, geological, speleological and morphological components. Methods: A descriptive research from observations in situ, specific technical work of topography, geology, speleology and biology, along with study of related literature has been conducted. Results: The methods used allowed us to learn about the natural richness inside the cave, with outstanding karst landforms (speleothems, presence of fish, crustaceans and other organisms that might be endemic. The information obtained indicates that the origin of the cavity is due to fluvial erosion processes and forced circulation of streams, evidenced in its shaped rosary surface on the interior walls of the structure. Landforms are mostly at the entrance of the cavity in varieties like Stalactites, Castings, Sandsicles and Gours. The biophysical component is the most distinctive aspect of the cave, consisting in a good dynamic of ventilation, permanent presence of water, high humidity and variety of wildlife, including taxa as Chiroptera, Araneae, Anura, Lepidoptera, Blattodea stand, Rodents, Oligochaeta, Dermaptera, siluriform and Decapods. Conclusions: Lithologically, the cavity is framed in limestone rocks rich in organic matter with variation in surface color belonging to the La Luna Formation, the low humidity of the cavity at its entrance and high carbonate content favored the formation of large numbers of speleothems. The inside observations and studies on the water stream showed that biophysical conditions of this place are suitable to house a rich diversity of wildlife.

  9. Effects of Formica ants on soil fauna-results from a short-term exclusion and a long-term natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Lisette; Bengtsson, Jan; Persson, Tryggve

    2003-02-01

    Wood ants (Formica spp.) were hypothesised to affect the composition and greatly reduce the abundance of large-sized soil fauna by predation. This was tested in two ways. Firstly, a 4-year-long experimental study was carried out in a mixed forest. Five ant-free 1.3-m(2) plots were created by fenced exclosures within an ant territory. Five nearby plots had fences with entrances for the ants. In addition, five non-fenced control plots were selected. Soil fauna (e.g. Coleoptera, Diptera larvae, Collembola and Araneae) was sampled during the summers of 1997-2000. The soil fauna was affected by the exclosures but there was no detectable effect of ants on the soil fauna. Secondly, soil fauna was studied within a large-scale natural experiment in which the long-term (30 years) effects of red wood ants could be assessed inside and outside ant territories. This long-term natural experiment revealed no significant effects of ants on the abundance or composition of soil fauna. The results from the two studies indicate that the effects of wood ants on soil fauna are fairly small. The hypothesis that wood ants are key-stone predators on soil fauna could, thus, not be supported.

  10. Influences of extreme weather, climate and pesticide use on invertebrates in cereal fields over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Julie A; Wheatley, Christopher J; Aebischer, Nicholas J; Moreby, Stephen J; Duffield, Simon J; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Morecroft, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Cereal fields are central to balancing food production and environmental health in the face of climate change. Within them, invertebrates provide key ecosystem services. Using 42 years of monitoring data collected in southern England, we investigated the sensitivity and resilience of invertebrates in cereal fields to extreme weather events and examined the effect of long-term changes in temperature, rainfall and pesticide use on invertebrate abundance. Of the 26 invertebrate groups examined, eleven proved sensitive to extreme weather events. Average abundance increased in hot/dry years and decreased in cold/wet years for Araneae, Cicadellidae, adult Heteroptera, Thysanoptera, Braconidae, Enicmus and Lathridiidae. The average abundance of Delphacidae, Cryptophagidae and Mycetophilidae increased in both hot/dry and cold/wet years relative to other years. The abundance of all 10 groups usually returned to their long-term trend within a year after the extreme event. For five of them, sensitivity to cold/wet events was lowest (translating into higher abundances) at locations with a westerly aspect. Some long-term trends in invertebrate abundance correlated with temperature and rainfall, indicating that climate change may affect them. However, pesticide use was more important in explaining the trends, suggesting that reduced pesticide use would mitigate the effects of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  12. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Musuh Alami Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae pada Pertanaman Cabai Merah di Kecamatan Pakem, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrival Hendrival

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci was conducted in the chili pepper fields in Sub-district of Pakem, District of Sleman, The Special Province of Yogyakarta during the dry season of May-October 2009. The aims of this research were to study the diversity and abundance of parasitoid and predator species associated with B. tabaci. Samplings of insect species were done using yellow pan trap, sweep net, direct observation of insects colonized young leaves, and collection of nymphs for B. tabaci. Measurement of insect diversity was calculated using Shannon’s index diversity and Evenness index. Nine species of insect predator were identified, i.e. Harmonia octomaculata (Fabricius, Menochilus sexmaculata (Fabricius, Scymnus sp., Micraspis inops Mulsant, Coccinella sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Linyphiidae sp.1 (Araneae, and Syrphidae sp.1 (Diptera. Eretmocerus sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae was the only parasitoid found in the nymphs B. tabaci collected and has the potential to control B. tabaci in the red pepper fields.

  13. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  14. Ecological effects and animal risk assessment of radiation pollution in Russia and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutsky, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ecological after-effects of long-term radiation pollution, animal biodiversity changes and life-cycle assessment of model species of soil invertebrates mammals, birds, reptiles have been studied in 1968-1994 in the former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Kazachstan). There has been observed an initial reduction of animal biodiversity community structure in Kyshtym (south Ural) and Chernobyl polluted areas and a low return to the former ecosystems. The secondary changes and side-effects for the active migrants (insects, birds, mammals) have been registered. The most valid bioindicators and biomarkers of radioactive pollution may be stable populations of reptiles, birds, earthworms, centipede, microarthropods. The radioactive soil pollution exerts the greatest impact on the permanent soil dwelling animals. As direct effects it has been seen the appreciable reduction of population density disturbance of the breeding process, degradation of species diversity community structure. In fact a soil with high level 90 Sr and a radiation 1--3 R/day containing 10-fold reduction of population soil inhabit millipedes earthworms, insect larvae, Enchytraeidae aranea. The accumulation of radionuclides by terrestrial and soil animals effects of trophic levels, zoogenical radionuclides migration have been studied in polluted ecosystems of South Ural and Chernobyl

  15. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M; Malow, Tara L F; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32-211 morphospecies, and 24-128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications.

  17. Food habits of the southwestern willow flycatcher during the nesting season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2003-01-01

    The food habits and prey base of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) are not well known. We analyzed prey remains in 59 fecal samples from an intensively-studied population of this flycatcher at the Kern River Preserve in southern California. These samples were collected during the nesting season in 1996 and 1997 from adults caught in mist nets, and from nestlings temporarily removed from the nest for banding. A total of 379 prey individuals were identified in the samples. Dominant prey taxa, both in total numbers and in percent occurrence, were true bugs (Hemiptera), flies (Diptera), and beetles (Coleoptera). Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), spiders (Araneae), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) were also common items. Diet composition was significantly different between years, due to a large difference in the numbers of spiders between 1996 and 1997. There was also a significant difference between the diet of young and adults, with the diet of young birds having significantly higher numbers of odonates and beetles. There was a trend toward diet differences between males and females, but this was not significant at the P = 0.05 level.

  18. A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Wirth, Stefan; Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) reveals the phoretic deutonymph of a fossil astigmatid mite (Acariformes: Astigmata) attached to a spider's carapace (Araneae: Dysderidae) in Eocene (44–49 Myr ago) Baltic amber. Details of appendages and a sucker plate were resolved, and the resulting three-dimensional model demonstrates the potential of tomography to recover morphological characters of systematic significance from even the tiniest amber inclusions without the need for a synchrotron. Astigmatids have an extremely sparse palaeontological record. We confirm one of the few convincing fossils, potentially the oldest record of Histiostomatidae. At 176 µm long, we believe this to be the smallest arthropod in amber to be CT-scanned as a complete body fossil, extending the boundaries for what can be recovered using this technique. We also demonstrate a minimum age for the evolution of phoretic behaviour among their deutonymphs, an ecological trait used by extant species to disperse into favourable environments. The occurrence of the fossil on a spider is noteworthy, as modern histiostomatids tend to favour other arthropods as carriers. PMID:22072283

  19. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  20. A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Wirth, Stefan; Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S; Withers, Philip J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-06-23

    High-resolution phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) reveals the phoretic deutonymph of a fossil astigmatid mite (Acariformes: Astigmata) attached to a spider's carapace (Araneae: Dysderidae) in Eocene (44-49 Myr ago) Baltic amber. Details of appendages and a sucker plate were resolved, and the resulting three-dimensional model demonstrates the potential of tomography to recover morphological characters of systematic significance from even the tiniest amber inclusions without the need for a synchrotron. Astigmatids have an extremely sparse palaeontological record. We confirm one of the few convincing fossils, potentially the oldest record of Histiostomatidae. At 176 µm long, we believe this to be the smallest arthropod in amber to be CT-scanned as a complete body fossil, extending the boundaries for what can be recovered using this technique. We also demonstrate a minimum age for the evolution of phoretic behaviour among their deutonymphs, an ecological trait used by extant species to disperse into favourable environments. The occurrence of the fossil on a spider is noteworthy, as modern histiostomatids tend to favour other arthropods as carriers.