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Sample records for lycosa tarantula araneae

  1. Species delimitation and phylogeography of Aphonopelma hentzi (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae: cryptic diversity in North American tarantulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A Hamilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to reconstruct the phylogeny of the hentzi species group and sister species in the North American tarantula genus, Aphonopelma, using a set of mitochondrial DNA markers that include the animal "barcoding gene". An mtDNA genealogy is used to consider questions regarding species boundary delimitation and to evaluate timing of divergence to infer historical biogeographic events that played a role in shaping the present-day diversity and distribution. We aimed to identify potential refugial locations, directionality of range expansion, and test whether A. hentzi post-glacial expansion fit a predicted time frame. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to analyze a 2051 base pair (bp mtDNA data matrix comprising aligned fragments of the gene regions CO1 (1165 bp and ND1-16S (886 bp. Multiple species delimitation techniques (DNA tree-based methods, a "barcode gap" using percent of pairwise sequence divergence (uncorrected p-distances, and the GMYC method consistently recognized a number of divergent and genealogically exclusive groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of numerous species delimitation methods, in concert, provide an effective approach to dissecting species boundaries in this spider group; as well they seem to provide strong evidence for a number of nominal, previously undiscovered, and cryptic species. Our data also indicate that Pleistocene habitat fragmentation and subsequent range expansion events may have shaped contemporary phylogeographic patterns of Aphonopelma diversity in the southwestern United States, particularly for the A. hentzi species group. These findings indicate that future species delimitation approaches need to be analyzed in context of a number of factors, such as the sampling distribution, loci used, biogeographic history, breadth of morphological variation, ecological factors, and behavioral data, to make truly integrative decisions about what

  2. Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chris A; Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group's taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (Aphonopelma apacheum, Aphonopelma minchi, Aphonopelma rothi, Aphonopelma schmidti, Aphonopelma stahnkei = Aphonopelma chalcodes; Aphonopelma arnoldi = Aphonopelma armada; Aphonopelma behlei, Aphonopelma vogelae = Aphonopelma marxi; Aphonopelma breenei = Aphonopelma anax; Aphonopelma chambersi, Aphonopelma clarum, Aphonopelma cryptethum, Aphonopelma sandersoni, Aphonopelma sullivani = Aphonopelma eutylenum; Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, Aphonopelma wichitanum = Aphonopelma hentzi; Aphonopelma heterops = Aphonopelma moderatum; Aphonopelma jungi, Aphonopelma punzoi = Aphonopelma vorhiesi; Aphonopelma brunnius, Aphonopelma chamberlini, Aphonopelma iviei, Aphonopelma lithodomum, Aphonopelma smithi, Aphonopelma zionis = Aphonopelma iodius; Aphonopelma phanum, Aphonopelma reversum = Aphonopelma steindachneri), 14 new species (Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., Aphonopelma catalina sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei sp. n., Aphonopelma johnnycashi sp. n., Aphonopelma madera sp. n., Aphonopelma mareki sp. n., Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro sp. n., Aphonopelma superstitionense sp. n., and Aphonopelma xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (Aphonopelma baergi, Aphonopelma cratium, Aphonopelma hollyi

  3. A Revision of the Selenocosmiine Tarantula Genus Phlogiellus Pocock 1897 (Araneae: Theraphosidae, with Description of 4 New Species

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    Steven C. Nunn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tarantula genus Phlogiellus (Pocock 1897 is revised. The genus is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine genera for the first time along with a new generic description. The tribe Yamiini (Kishida 1920 is diagnosed against all other selenocosmiine tribes. All Phlogiellus species are diagnosed from all congeners; all species are mapped. Complete dichotomous keys for both sexes of all species are included. Where appropriate, intraspecific variation is discussed. Four new species are described: P. bogadeki sp. nov. from Hong Kong, P. johnreylazoi sp. nov. from Palawan Island, Philippines, P. moniqueverdezae sp. nov. from Ranong, Thailand, and P. pelidnus sp. nov. from Sabah, Borneo. The type species P. atriceps (Pocock 1897 holotype male is redescribed and the male P. baeri (Simon 1877 is described in detail for the first time. The validity of P. inermis (Ausserer 1871 is confirmed. Relationships between all known selenocosmiine genera and Phlogiellus from the Philippines are discussed and several character traits are newly diagnosed. The tribe Phlogiellini (West et al. 2012 is a junior synonym of Yamiini (Kishida 1920. Selenocosmia orophila (Thorell 1897 from Myanmar, Selenocosmia insulana (Hirst 1909 from Djampea (= Jampea Island, and Selenocosmia obscura (Hirst 1909 from Sarawak, Borneo, are transferred to Phlogiellus, altering the specific names to Phlogiellus orophilus (Thorell 1897 comb. nov., Phlogiellus insulanus (Hirst 1909 comb. nov., and Phlogiellus obscurus (Hirst 1909 comb. nov. Phlogiellus subarmatus (Thorell 1891 is transferred to Chilobrachys (Karsch 1891, becoming Chilobrachys subarmatus (Thorell 1891 comb. nov. Phlogiellus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014 is transferred to Orphnaecus (Simon 1892, becoming Orphnaecus kwebaburdeos (Barrion-Dupo et al., 2014 comb. nov. Phlogiellus ornatus (Thorell 1897 and Phlogiellus nebulosus (Rainbow 1899 are considered species inquirenda. Phlogiellus baeri (Simon 1877 is no longer

  4. Tarantula spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002855.htm Tarantula spider bite To use the sharing features on this ... This article describes the effects of a tarantula spider bite. This article is for information only. DO ...

  5. Cytogenetic studies of three Lycosidae species from Argentina (Arachnida, Araneae

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    María A. Chemisquy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies of the family Lycosidae (Arachnida: Araneae are scarce. Less than 4% of the described species have been analyzed and the male haploid chromosome numbers ranged from 8+X 1 X 2 to 13+X 1 X 2 . Species formerly classified as Lycosa were the most studied ones. Our aim in this work was to perform a comparative analysis of the meiosis in " Lycosa " erythrognatha Lucas, " Lycosa " pampeana Holmberg and Schizocosa malitiosa (Tullgren. We also compared male and female karyotypes and characterized the heterochromatin of " L. " erythrognatha . The males of the three species had 2n = 22, n = 10+X 1 X 2 , all the chromosomes were telocentric and there was generally a single chiasma per bivalent. In " Lycosa " pampeana , which is described cytogenetically for the first time herein, the bivalents and sex chromosomes showed a clustered arrangement at prometaphase I. The comparison of the male/female karyotypes (2n = 22/24 of " Lycosa " erythrognatha revealed that the sex chromosomes were the largest of the complement and that the autosomes decreased gradually in size. The analysis of the amount, composition and distribution of heterochromatin with C-banding and staining with DAPI- and CMA 3 - showed that " Lycosa " erythrognatha had little GC-rich heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. In addition, the actual occurrence of the genus Lycosa in the Southern Hemisphere is discussed.

  6. Morphological characterization of the venom apparatus in the wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis (Laxmann, 1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Yigit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis (Laxmann, 1770 (Lycosidae: Araneae is distributed throughout central and eastern Europe, including Russia, Kazakhistan and Turkey. This study describes the venom apparatus morphology of L. singoriensis through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Its structure follows the general architecture observed in other spiders. Generally, a venom apparatus is composed by a pair of venom glands and chelicerae. L. singoriensis chelicerae are robust and consist of a stout basis and a movable apical segment (fang. The fang rests in a groove on the basal segment that is covered by different types of hair. L. singoriensis venom glands present equal size and measure about 4 mm in length. Each gland is enclosed by irregular muscular layers.

  7. Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Shawkey, Matthew D; Blackledge, Todd A

    2015-11-01

    Slight shifts in arrangement within biological photonic nanostructures can produce large color differences, and sexual selection often leads to high color diversity in clades with structural colors. We use phylogenetic reconstruction, electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and optical modeling to show an opposing pattern of nanostructural diversification accompanied by unusual conservation of blue color in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). In contrast to other clades, blue coloration in phylogenetically distant tarantulas peaks within a narrow 20-nm region around 450 nm. Both quasi-ordered and multilayer nanostructures found in different tarantulas produce this blue color. Thus, even within monophyletic lineages, tarantulas have evolved strikingly similar blue coloration through divergent mechanisms. The poor color perception and lack of conspicuous display during courtship of tarantulas argue that these colors are not sexually selected. Therefore, our data contrast with sexual selection that typically produces a diverse array of colors with a single structural mechanism by showing that natural selection on structural color in tarantulas resulted in convergence on similar color through diverse structural mechanisms.

  8. The FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Markova, N; Bastian, N; Beletsky, Y; Bestenlehner, J; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; Carraro, G; Clark, J; Crowther, P; de Koter, A; de Mink, S; Doran, E; Dufton, P; Dunstall, P; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Henault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Howarth, I; Langer, N; Lennon, D; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Smartt, S; Stroud, V; Taylor, W; van Loon, J; Vink, J; Walborn, N

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi-epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  9. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.

  10. TARANTULA 2011 in JWL++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Haylett, D; Vitello, P

    2011-10-27

    Using square zoning, the 2011 version of the kinetic package Tarantula matches cylinder data, cylinder dead zones, and cylinder failure with the same settings for the first time. The key is the use of maximum pressure rather than instantaneous pressure. Runs are at 40, 200 and 360 z/cm using JWL++ as the host model. The model also does run-to-detonation, thin-pulse initiation with a P-t curve and air gap crossing, all in cylindrical geometry. Two sizes of MSAD/LX-10/LX-17 snowballs work somewhat with these settings, but are too weak, so that divergent detonation is a challenge for the future. Butterfly meshes are considered but do not appear to solve the issue.

  11. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  12. "Tarantula keratitis": a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAnena, L

    2013-09-01

    A case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a two-week history of a red, irritated right eye after handling a Chilean Rose Tarantula at an exotic pet exhibition. Examination revealed innumerable microscopic hairs embedded at all levels of the cornea. He was commenced on steroid drops with subjective and objective improvement at follow up.

  13. Biochemical and pharmacological study of venom of the wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis

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    ZH Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis is a large and venomous spider distributed throughout northwestern China. Like other spider venoms, the wolf spider venom is a chemical cocktail. Its protein content is 0.659 mg protein/mg crude venom as determined by the Lowry method. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the venom peptides are highly diverse and may be divided into three groups characterized by three independent molecular ranges: 2,000 to 2,500 Da, 4,800 to 5,500 Da and 7,000 to 8,000 Da, respectively. This molecular distribution differs substantially from those of most spider venoms studied so far. This wolf spider venom has low neurotoxic action on mice, but it can induce hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Furthermore, the venom shows antimicrobial activity against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  14. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

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    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  15. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  16. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both ste

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markova, N.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Graefener, G.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Appellaniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartts, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi- epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  19. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; Trundle, C.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here, we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample.

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markova, N.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Graefener, G.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Appellaniz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartts, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; Taylor, W.D.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi- epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the venom glands of the Chinese wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqun; Chen, Jinjun; Tang, Xing; Wang, Fan; Jiang, Liping; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Meichi; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2010-01-01

    The wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis is a hunting spider with a widespread distribution in northwest China. The venom gland of spiders, which is a very specialized secretory tissue, can secrete abundant and complex toxin components. To extensively examine the transcripts expressed in the venom glands of L. singoriensis, we generated 833 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a directional cDNA library. Toxin-like sequences account for 69.1% of these ESTs, 17.3% are similar to cellular transcripts and 13.6% have no significant similarity to any known sequences. Here, we identified 223 novel toxin-like sequences, which can be classified into six different superfamilies; that means a novel potential source of ligands for varied ion channels was discovered. With the aid of Gene Ontology terms and homology to eukaryotic orthologous groups, the annotation of cellular transcripts revealed some cellular processes important for the toxin secretion of venom glands including protein synthesis, protein folding, tuned post-translational processing and trafficking, etc.

  2. A survey of the venom of the spider Lycosa vittata by biochemical, pharmacological and transcriptomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Changjun; Tan, Huaxin; Wang, Hengyun; Jiang, Yinjie; Liang, Songping; Zhang, Fuping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    Lycosa vittata, mainly distributed in the southwest of China, is a medium-sized and venomous spider, whose venom remains unexplored so far. This study aims to present an overview of the venom. It mainly consisted of diverse peptides and exhibited inhibitory effects on voltage-gated ion channels in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, with a strongest inhibition on tetrodotoxin-sensitive and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Interestingly, it exerted cytotoxicity to cancer cells, with approximately 10-fold selectivity on PC-3 over others, implying the existence of selective anti-PC-3 agents in the venom. Moreover, 51 toxin-like peptides were deduced from the venom gland transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses suggested their structures might have some distinguished properties and their predicted functions were consistent with the venom activities. This study suggests that the venom is an attractive source of neurotoxins with therapeutic significance, and provides references for the structure and function investigation of specific toxins in the future.

  3. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well.

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Beletsky, Y; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; Clark, J S; Crowther, P A; De Koter, A; de Mink, S; Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Henault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Howarth, I D; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Smartt, S J; Stroud, V E; Taylor, W D; Trundle, C; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R

    2009-01-01

    The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1,000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample. Ultimately, quantitative analysis of every star, paying particular attention to the effects of rotational mixing and binarity, will be used to address fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution.

  5. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational overview and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, E; Lennon, D J; van der Marel, R P; Aloisi, A; Boyer, M L; Cignoni, M; de Marchi, G; de Mink, S E; Evans, C J; Gallagher, J S; Gordon, K; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Koekemoer, A M; Larsen, S S; Panagia, N; Ryon, J E; Smith, L J; Tosi, M; Zaritsky, D

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (< 0.5 Mo). HTTP utilizes the capability of HST to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow band H$\\alpha$ images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early Universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time with parcsec-scale resolution. In this fir...

  6. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; De Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H(alpha) images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

  7. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT: UNRAVELING TARANTULA'S WEB. I. OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; De Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA-European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cignoni, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); De Marchi, G. [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gallagher, J. S. III; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tosi, M., E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

    2013-09-15

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M{sub Sun }). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H{alpha} images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

  8. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; de Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. Tmesiphantes hypogeus sp. nov. (Araneae, Theraphosidae, the first troglobitic tarantula from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bertani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, is described from sandstone/quartizitic caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. This is the fifth species of the genus and the first record of a troglobitic mygalomorph in Brazil. A key is presented for all Tmesiphantes species.

  10. Antimicrobial potential of lycosin-I, a cationic and amphiphilic peptide from the venom of the spider Lycosa singorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H; Ding, X; Meng, S; Liu, C; Wang, H; Xia, L; Liu, Z; Liang, S

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are significant components of the innate immune system and play indispensable roles in the resistance to bacterial infection. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of lycosin-I, a 24-residue cationic anticancer peptide derived from Lycosa singorensis with high structural similarity to several cationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides. The antimicrobial activity of lycosin-I against 27 strains of microbes including bacteria and fungi was examined and compared with that of the Xenopus-derived AMP magainin 2 using a microdilution assay. Lycosin-I inhibited the growth of most microorganisms at low micromolar concentrations, and was a more potent inhibitor than magainin 2. Lycosin-I showed rapid, selective and broad-spectrum bactericidal activity and a synergistic effect with traditional antibiotics. In vivo, it showed potent bactericidal activity in a mouse thigh infection model. High Mg2+ concentrations reduced the antibacterial effect of lycosin-I, implying that the peptide might directly interact with the bacterial cell membrane. Uptake of the fluorogenic dye SYTOX and changes in the surface of lycosin-Itreated bacterial cells observed by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that lycosin-I permeabilized the cell membrane, resulting in the rapid bactericidal effect. Taken together, our findings indicate that lycosin-I is a promising peptide with the potential for the development of novel antibacterial agents.

  11. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Kostanjšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  12. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project - IV. The extinction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino; Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, Daniel; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Cignoni, Michele; Grebel, Eva K.; Larsen, Søren; Zaritsky, Dennis; Zeidler, Peter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Aloisi, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    We report on the study of interstellar extinction across the Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus), in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using observations from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project in the 0.3-1.6 μm range. The considerable and patchy extinction inside the nebula causes about 3500 red clump stars to be scattered along the reddening vector in the colour-magnitude diagrams, thereby allowing an accurate determination of the reddening slope in all bands. The measured slope of the reddening vector is remarkably steeper in all bands than in the the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. At optical wavelengths, the larger ratio of total-to-selective extinction, namely RV = 4.5 ± 0.2, implies the presence of a grey component in the extinction law, due to a larger fraction of large grains. The extra large grains are most likely ices from supernova ejecta and will significantly alter the extinction properties of the region until they sublimate in 50-100 Myr. We discuss the implications of this extinction law for the Tarantula Nebula and in general for regions of massive star formation in galaxies. Our results suggest that fluxes of strongly star-forming regions are likely to be underestimated by a factor of about 2 in the optical.

  13. Menemerus fagei new to Malta and Europe (Araneae: Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freudenschuss, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Menemerus fagei Berland & Millot 1941 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Maltese Islands is reported and discussed. It is the 20th jumping spider species for Malta and a new record for Europe.

  14. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2017-05-10

    Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.

  15. Robust Trapdoor Tarantula Haploclastus validus Pocock, 1899: notes on taxonomy, distribution and natural history (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Thrigmopoeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Mirza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Haploclastus is endemic to India and is represented by six species. One of the species H. validus Pocock, 1899 was described from Matheran and has remained poorly known in terms of its natural history and distribution. During recent surveys the species was for the first time found again since its description nearly 110 years ago. Based on the new material collected it is redescribed and data on its natural history and distribution are added. It is the first record of an Indian theraphosid spider, which closes its burrow with a trapdoor.

  16. Periumbilical Pain with Radiation to Both Legs Following Tarantula Bite; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Pouraghaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tarantulas have recently become as pets in most parts of the world that increased the probability of encountering emergency physicians with patients hurt with these spiders. Their attacks usually do not cause general manifestation, however there are some case reports in this regard. Here, a 40-year-old man was reported who was referred to the emergency department with severe periumbilical pain that radiated to both legs and diagnosed as a victim of tarantula bite. Such symptoms usually are belonging to other spiders like Black Widow spider, but it seems that tarantula can mimic them in some cases, too.

  17. Periumbilical Pain with Radiation to Both Legs Following Tarantula Bite; a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouraghaei, Mahboob; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Mashhadi, Ibrahim; Mahmoudieh, Taranoom

    2015-01-01

    Tarantulas have recently become as pets in most parts of the world that increased the probability of encountering emergency physicians with patients hurt with these spiders. Their attacks usually do not cause general manifestation, however there are some case reports in this regard. Here, a 40-year-old man was reported who was referred to the emergency department with severe periumbilical pain that radiated to both legs and diagnosed as a victim of tarantula bite. Such symptoms usually are belonging to other spiders like Black Widow spider, but it seems that tarantula can mimic them in some cases, too.

  18. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. IV. The extinction law

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, Guido; Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, Daniel; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Cignoni, Michele; Grebel, Eva K; Larsen, Soeren; Zaritsky, Dennis; Zeidler, Peter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Aloisi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    We report on the study of interstellar extinction across the Tarantula nebula (30 Doradus), in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using observations from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project in the 0.3 - 1.6 micron range. The considerable and patchy extinction inside the nebula causes about 3500 red clump stars to be scattered along the reddening vector in the colour-magnitude diagrams, thereby allowing an accurate determination of the reddening slope in all bands. The measured slope of the reddening vector is remarkably steeper in all bands than in the the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. At optical wavelengths, the larger ratio of total-to-selective extinction, namely Rv = 4.5 +/- 0.2, implies the presence of a grey component in the extinction law, due to a larger fraction of large grains. The extra large grains are most likely ices from supernova ejecta and will significantly alter the extinction properties of the region until they sublimate in 50 - 100 Myr. We discuss the implications of this extinction la...

  19. The Tarantula Festival: Joy and Distress in Upper Aragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tarantism (a mythically-based, ritualized reaction to the bite of the dreaded tarantula in the belief that the victim could only be cured by music and dance had existed in Italy since time immemorial; yet it manifested itself also in Spain, where it has been far less studied, at least from the perspective of cultural history. Tarantism was certainly known in Aragon until well into the 20th century, as reported by informants in Fraga (Huesca who recall “The Tarantula Festival,” by which all forms of individual suffering were communally exorcised through the power of sympathy and neighbourly solidarity.

    El tarantismo (fenómeno mítico-ritual según el cual quienes eran picados por la temida tarántula sólo podían recuperarse mediante la música y el baile se manifestó desde antiguo en Italia, pero también en España, donde no ha sido tan estudiado, al menos desde la perspectiva de la historia cultural. De la vigencia de dicho fenómeno en Aragón hasta bien entrado el siglo XX dan cuenta las entrevistas en Fraga (Huesca con varios informantes acerca de la llamada “Fiesta de la Tarántula”: una forma comunitaria de exorcizar todo tipo de desgracias individuales, gracias al poder de la compasión y la solidaridad vecinal.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). III. (Sabbi+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; de Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-02-01

    Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP; HST 12939, PI Elena Sabbi + HST 12499, PI Danny Lennon) was awarded 60 orbits of HST time in cycle 20 to survey the entire Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus), using both the UVIS and the IR channels of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), and, in parallel, the Wide Field Channel (WFC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). See log of the observations (from 2011 Oct 03 to 2013 Sep 17) in table 1. (2 data files).

  1. The optical imaging of tarantula hair corneal injury: One case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuedong; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2017-09-01

    Tarantulas belonging to the Theraphosidae family are more and more popular as family pets. Ocular injuries caused by tarantulas are reported in several articles. We hereby report the first known case of ocular injury caused by a tarantula in China and observed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A 22-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with one-week history of red and irritated left eye after she grabbed her molting Chilean Rose Tarantula. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 on both eyes. Her left eyelid was slightly red and edema. Slit-lamp examination found that more than a dozen of microscopic barbed hairs embedded into the cornea. AS-OCT showed that barbed hairs embedded in the cornea in different direction and the length of the hairs ranged from 173μm to 395μm. The anterior chamber was quiet with normal fundus and intraocular pressure. Topical steroid treatment was prescribed and the response was good. No corneal opacity or intraocular inflammation was observed after topical steroid treatment for one month. As exotic pets become more and more popular, the importance of wearing ocular protection when handling tarantulas should be emphasized when they are sold. Tarantulas are unsuitable pet for children. When a patient presents with an unusual red eye, pet-keeping history, spiders included, should be asked. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Revision of the Australian Union-Jack wolf spiders, genus Tasmanicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W; Baehr, Barbara C

    2016-12-23

    The Australian wolf spider (Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833) genus Tasmanicosa Roewer, 1959 with Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905 as type species is revised to include 14 species: T. godeffroyi (L. Koch, 1865), comb. nov. (= Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.; = Lycosa zualella Strand, 1907, syn. nov.; = Lycosa woodwardi Simon, 1909, syn. nov.); T. fulgor sp. nov.; T. gilberta (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov.; T. harmsi sp. nov.; T. hughjackmani sp. nov.; T. kochorum sp. nov.; T. leuckartii (Thorell, 1870), comb. nov. (= Lycosa molyneuxi Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. musgravei (McKay, 1974) comb. nov.; T. phyllis (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov. (= Lycosa stirlingae Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. ramosa (L. Koch, 1877), comb. nov.; T. salmo sp. nov.; T. semicincta (L. Koch, 1877) comb. nov.; T. stella sp. nov.; and T. subrufa (Karsch, 1878) comb. nov. Within the Australian wolf spider fauna, the genus Tasmanicosa can be diagnosed by the distinct pattern of radiating light and dark lines forming a "Union-Jack" pattern on the carapace. Male pedipalp morphology identifies the genus as part of the subfamily Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 due to the presence of a transverse tegular apophysis with dorsal groove guiding the embolus during copulation. However, genital morphology is variable and a synapomorphy based on male pedipalp or female epigyne morphology could not be identified. Members of Tasmanicosa are comparatively large spiders (body length ca. 12-30 mm), that build a shallow burrow, which is sometimes covered with a flimsy trapdoor. Species of Tasmanicosa are largely a Bassian faunal element with preference for open woodlands and/or floodplains, although some species can be found into the semi-arid Australian interior. Two Australian wolf spider species may represent Tasmanicosa based on their original descriptions, but due to immature types in combination with the somatic similarities of all Tasmanicosa species, cannot be identified with certainty. They are therefore considered nomina dubia

  3. Spiders (Araneae) as polyphagous natural enemies in orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogya, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spiders (Araneae) occur in high abundance in all terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystems. They are a very heterogeneous group of animals with different hunting tactics and therefore they play very different ecological roles. At family level these tactics are rather similar thus properties a

  4. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) using sequences from the 12S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and NADH1 genes: implications for classification, biogeography, and the evolution of web building behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas P; Framenau, Volker W; Donnellan, Stephen C; Harvey, Mark S; Park, Yung-Chul; Austin, Andrew D

    2006-03-01

    Current knowledge of the evolutionary relationships amongst the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) is based on assessment of morphological similarity or phylogenetic analysis of a small number of taxa. In order to enhance the current understanding of lycosid relationships, phylogenies of 70 lycosid species were reconstructed by parsimony and Bayesian methods using three molecular markers; the mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, NADH1, and the nuclear gene 28S rRNA. The resultant trees from the mitochondrial markers were used to assess the current taxonomic status of the Lycosidae and to assess the evolutionary history of sheet-web construction in the group. The results suggest that a number of genera are not monophyletic, including Lycosa, Arctosa, Alopecosa, and Artoria. At the subfamilial level, the status of Pardosinae needs to be re-assessed, and the position of a number of genera within their respective subfamilies is in doubt (e.g., Hippasa and Arctosa in Lycosinae and Xerolycosa, Aulonia and Hygrolycosa in Venoniinae). In addition, a major clade of strictly Australasian taxa may require the creation of a new subfamily. The analysis of sheet-web building in Lycosidae revealed that the interpretation of this trait as an ancestral state relies on two factors: (1) an asymmetrical model favoring the loss of sheet-webs and (2) that the suspended silken tube of Pirata is directly descended from sheet-web building. Paralogous copies of the nuclear 28S rRNA gene were sequenced, confounding the interpretation of the phylogenetic analysis and suggesting that a cautionary approach should be taken to the further use of this gene for lycosid phylogenetic analysis.

  5. Effects of Tarantula cubensis D6 on aflatoxin-induced injury in biochemical parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mürsel; Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Sarıca, Zeynep Soyer

    2015-07-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites that have adverse effects on humans and animals. Tarantula cubensis D6 is used as a homeopathic medicine for different purposes. The present study investigates the effects of Tarantula cubensis D6 on the oxidant-antioxidant balance and some biochemical parameters against exposure to aflatoxin. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley female rats were used and evenly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control. Groups 2, 3, and 4 received 200 μl/kg.bw/day Tarantula cubensis D6 (applied subcutaneously), 400 μg/kg.bw/day total aflatoxin (approximately 80% AF B1, 10% AF B2, 6 %AF G1, and 4% AF G2), and 200 μl/kg.bw/day Tarantula cubensis D6 plus 400 μg/kg.bw/day total aflatoxin, respectively, for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, blood samples and some organs (liver, kidney, brain, and spleen) were taken from all the animals. Oxidative stress markers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and some biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN, creatinine, AST, ALT and ALP, total protein, albumin) were evaluated in blood samples and tissues. Aflatoxin caused negative changes in all oxidative stress parameters and some biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin). Administration of Tarantula cubensis D6 partly alleviated aflatoxin-induced negative changes. Our results indicated that Tarantula cubensis D6 partially neutralized the deleterious effects of aflatoxin. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: I. Introduction and observational overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Taylor, W.D.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Sana, H.A.A.; de Koter, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Carraro, G.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.M.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.A.; Cantiello, M.; Clark, J.S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.R.; Friedrich, K.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Izzard, R.G.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.H.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) is an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here we introduce our scientific motivations and give an overview of the survey targets, includi

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. I. Introduction and observational overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Taylor, W.D.; de Koter, A.; Brott, I.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) is an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here we introduce our scientific motivations and give an overview of the survey targets, includi

  8. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  9. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Linnea M.; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Kirk S Zigler

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave co...

  10. Chemically mediated burrow recognition in the Mexican tarantula Brachypelma vagans female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Ariane; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; Legal, Luc; Williams, Trevor; Hénaut, Yann

    2008-12-01

    Chemically mediated communication is common in spiders but has been poorly studied in burrowing tarantulas. This study aimed to determine whether chemical cues influence the behaviour of females of Brachypelma vagans, a Mexican species of tarantula, during encounters with previously inhabited burrows or with extracts from the silk of conspecific females. In laboratory choice tests, female tarantulas entered a burrow that had previously been inhabited by a conspecific female significantly more frequently than a burrow that had never been inhabited. The identity of the previous inhabitant also affected the number of spiders that chose to enter a burrow. Spiders were quicker to choose and enter a burrow previously inhabited by themselves than a burrow previously inhabited by a conspecific or a burrow that had not been previously inhabited. Hexane, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of conspecific silk elicited different responses from female tarantulas when extracts were placed on filter paper disks at one end of an experimental arena with a control filter paper disk, on to which the corresponding solvent alone had been pipetted, placed on the other end of the arena. Spiders showed the strongest responses to hexane extracts of silk, with a significant preference to move towards the hexane extract and a significantly greater period of time spent in proximity to the hexane extract compared to the control disk. Overall and in contrast to expectations, tarantulas were most strongly attracted to the cues left by other conspecific females. As encounters between B. vagans females usually lead to aggression and mortality of one of the participants, we conclude that chemical cues are not signals that are deliberately released by burrow-inhabiting females but may inadvertently escape and cannot be easily suppressed.

  11. Lipoprotein-induced phenoloxidase-activity in tarantula hemocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sven; Schmidt, Juliane; Hoeger, Ulrich; Decker, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Phenoloxidases play vital roles in invertebrate innate immune reactions, wound closure and sclerotization processes in arthropods. In chelicerates, where phenoloxidases are lacking, phenoloxidase-activity can be induced in the oxygen carrier hemocyanin in vitro by proteolytic cleavage, incubation with the artificial inducer SDS, or lipids. The role of protein-protein interaction has up to now received little attention. This is remarkable, as lipoproteins - complexes of proteins and lipids - are present at high concentrations in arthropod hemolymph. We characterized the three lipoproteins present in tarantula hemolymph, two high-density lipoproteins and one very high-density lipoprotein, and show that the two high-density lipoproteins have distinct structures: the more abundant high-density lipoprotein is an ellipsoid particle with axes of ~22.5 nm and ~16.8 nm, respectively. The second high-density lipoprotein, present only in trace amount, is a large discoidal lipoprotein with a diameter of ~38.4 nm and an on-edge thickness of ~7.1 nm. We further demonstrate that the interaction between lipoproteins and hemocyanin induces phenoloxidase activity in hemocyanin, and propose that this activation is due to protein-protein interaction rather than protein-lipid interaction, as neither lipid micelles nor lipid monomers were found to be activating. Activation was strongest in the presence of high-density lipoproteins; very high-density lipoproteins were found to be non-activating. This is the first time that the ability of lipoproteins to induce phenoloxidase activity of hemocyanin has been demonstrated, thus adding novel aspects to the function of lipoproteins apart from their known role in nutrient supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Explosive Model Tarantula V1/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17: #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P

    2009-05-01

    Tarantula V1 is a kinetic package for reactive flow codes that seeks to describe initiation, failure, dead zones and detonation simultaneously. The most important parameter is P1, the pressure between the initiation and failure regions. Both dead zone formation and failure can be largely controlled with this knob. However, V1 does failure with low settings and dead zones with higher settings, so that it cannot fulfill its purpose in the current format. To this end, V2 is under test. The derivation of the initiation threshold P0 is discussed. The derivation of the initiation pressure-tau curve as an output of Tarantula shows that the initiation package is sound. A desensitization package is also considered.

  13. The effects of Tarantula cubensis venom on open wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Satar, N Y; Cangul, I T; Topal, A; Kurt, H; Ipek, V; Onel, G I

    2017-02-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histopathological effects of two different dosages of alcohol extract of Tarantula cubensis (Theranekron) on open wounds. A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Tarantula cubensis extract (TCE1, n=8) 1/10 diluted, TCE (TCE2, n=8), and (3) vehicle-control (0.2 ml of 96 % ethanol, n=8) groups. Experimental full-thickness 1 x 1cm wounds were created on dorsum skin. TCE or vehicle were given systemically by subcutaneous injections on postoperative days 1 and 4. Wound planimetry and procurement of biopsies was performed on days 4, 8, 12 and 16. The mean non-epithelialised wound area in the vehicle-control group was significantly larger than in the TCE1 group on days 4, 8, 12 and 16, and in the TCE2 group on days 8, 12 and 16 (pwound contraction was significantly higher in the TCE1 and TCE2 groups than in the vehicle control group on days 8, 12 and 16 (pwound healing was characterised by a significant decrease in the neutrophil counts and a significant increase in neovascularisation; neither were effected by TCE. Our results suggest that alcohol extract of Tarantula cubensis accelerates epithelialisation and, thus, has beneficial effects on open wound healing in rats.

  14. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumbalennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Miles, Fernando; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio; Miglio, Laura Tavares

    2014-01-01

    We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera). We describe and illustrate Bumbalennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.

  15. Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumba lennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez-Miles

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose the name Bumba as a new name for Maraca, preoccupied by Maraca Hebard, 1926 (Orthoptera. We describe and illustrate Bumba lennoni, a new theraphosid species from Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. This species differs from the other species of the genus in the extremely reduced keel on male palpal organ and in the higher number of labial and maxillary cuspules. Females additionally differ in the spermathecal morphology. As a consequence of the name replacement, three new combinations are established.

  16. The sale of tarantulas in Cambodia for food or medicine: is it sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sale of tarantulas for either human consumption or for preparation of medicines has become more widespread in Cambodia over the last 10-20 years. With increased media exposure, the trade seems to be increasing, but there are serious questions as to its sustainability because of possible over-collecting of the spiders and also loss of habitats. This note outlines some of the fundamental questions that need to be addressed if this spider trade is to be sustainable or else we could see the loss of an important link in the forest food chain.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: O-stars in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (Ramirez-Agudelo+ 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabin-Sanjulian, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Grafener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-09-01

    Projected rotational velocity measurements of 216 O-type stars observed at multi-epochs as part as the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. We measured projected rotational velocities by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied on a set of isolated spectral lines. (2 data files).

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. III. A very massive star in apparent isolation from the massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestenlehner, J.M.; Vink, J.S.; Gräfener, G.; Najarro, F.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P.A.; Doran, E.; Friedrich, K.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Soszynski, I.; Taylor, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    VFTS 682 is located in an active star-forming region, at a projected distance of 29 pc from the young massive cluster R136 in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was previously reported as a candidate young stellar object, and more recently spectroscopically revealed as a

  19. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project V. The star cluster Hodge 301: the old face of 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Cignoni, M; van der Marel, R P; Lennon, D J; Tosi, M; Grebel, E K; Gallagher, J S; Aloisi, A; de Marchi, G; Gouliermis, D A; Larsen, S; Panagia, N; Smith, L J

    2016-01-01

    Based on color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) from the Hubble Space Telescope Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) survey, we present the star formation history (SFH) of Hodge~301, the oldest star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula. The HTTP photometry extends faint enough to reach, for the first time, the cluster pre-main sequence (PMS) turn-on, where the PMS joins the main sequence. Using the location of this feature, along with synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, we find that Hodge~301 is older than previously thought, with an age between 26.5 and 31.5 Myr. From this age, we also estimate that between 38 and 61 supernovae Type-II exploded in the region. The same age is derived from the main sequence turn-off, whereas the age derived from the post-main sequence stars is younger and between 20 and 25 Myr. Other relevant parameters are a total stellar mass of $\\approx 8800\\,\\pm 800$M$_{\\odot}$ and average reddening E(B$-$V) $\\approx 0.22-0.24$ mag, with a differential reddening $\\delta$E(B$-$V...

  20. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project V. The Star Cluster Hodge 301: The Old Face of 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Lennon, D. J.; Tosi, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Aloisi, A.; de Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Larsen, S.; Panagia, N.; Smith, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    Based on color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) from the Hubble Space Telescope Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) survey, we present the star formation history of Hodge 301, the oldest star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula. The HTTP photometry extends faint enough to reach, for the first time, the cluster pre-main sequence (PMS) turn-on, where the PMS joins the main sequence. Using the location of this feature, along with synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, we find that Hodge 301 is older than previously thought, with an age between 26.5 and 31.5 Myr. From this age, we also estimate that between 38 and 61 Type II supernovae exploded in the region. The same age is derived from the main sequence turn-off, whereas the age derived from the post-main sequence stars is younger and between 20 and 25 Myr. Other relevant parameters are a total stellar mass of ≈8800 ± 800 M ⊙ and average reddening E(B - V) ≈ 0.22-0.24 mag, with a differential reddening δE(B - V) ≈ 0.04 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. Rotational properties of the O-type star population in the Tarantula region

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Sana, H; de Koter, A; Sabín-Sanjulían, C; de Mink, S E; Dufton, P L; Gräfener, G; Evans, C J; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2013-01-01

    The 30 Doradus (30\\,Dor) region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (also known as the Tarantula Nebula) is the nearest massive starburst region, containing the richest sample of massive stars in the Local Group. It is the best possible laboratory to investigate aspects of the formation and evolution of massive stars. Here, we focus on rotation which is a key parameter in the evolution of these objects. We establish the projected rotational velocity, $v_{e}\\sin i$, distribution of an unprecedented sample of 216 radial velocity constant ($\\rm{\\Delta RV\\, \\leq\\, 20 \\,km s^{-1}}$) O-type stars in 30\\,Dor observed in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). The distribution of $v_{e}\\sin i$ shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 $\\rm{km s^{-1}}$ and a high-velocity tail extending up to $\\sim$600 $\\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Around 75% of the sample has 0 $\\leq\\, v_{e}\\sin i \\leq$ 200 $\\rm{km s^{-1}}$ with the other 25% distributed in the high-velocity tail. The presence of the low-velocity peak is consi...

  2. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bar

  3. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. II. Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the Starburst Cluster NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Cignoni, M; van der Marel, R P; Tosi, M; Zaritsky, D; Anderson, J; Lennon, D J; Aloisi, A; de Marchi, G; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Smith, L J; Zeidler, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of the massive ionizing cluster of 30 Doradus, NGC 2070. We recovered the star formation history by comparing deep optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence to post- main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the star formation in the region: i) exceeded the average LMC rate ~ 20 Myr ago; ii) accelerated dramatically ~ 7 Myr ago; and iii) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass funct...

  4. Explosive Model Tarantula 4d/JWL++ Calibration of LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Vitello, P A

    2008-09-30

    Tarantula is an explosive kinetic package intended to do detonation, shock initiation, failure, corner-turning with dead zones, gap tests and air gaps in reactive flow hydrocode models. The first, 2007-2008 version with monotonic Q is here run inside JWL++ with square zoning from 40 to 200 zones/cm on ambient LX-17. The model splits the rate behavior in every zone into sections set by the hydrocode pressure, P + Q. As the pressure rises, we pass through the no-reaction, initiation, ramp-up/failure and detonation sections sequentially. We find that the initiation and pure detonation rate constants are largely insensitive to zoning but that the ramp-up/failure rate constant is extremely sensitive. At no time does the model pass every test, but the pressure-based approach generally works. The best values for the ramp/failure region are listed here in Mb units.

  5. A case of zootherapy with the tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer, 1875 in traditional medicine of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo Roberto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In practically every human culture, the use of arthropods as medicinal resources has been reported. In Mexico, the Mayan people mainly use plants but occasionally also animals and minerals in their medicine. This article is the first to report the traditional use of the tarantula Brachypelma vagans by medicine men in the Chol community, an ancient indigenous group that inhabits the southeastern part of Mexico. We also describe the utility of such arachnids in traditional medicine. Methods This study was carried out in different Chol communities in the states of Chiapas and Campeche (southeastern Mexico from 2003 until 2007. We interviewed the local medicine men, patients and non-Chol people in each village visited to collect information about the rituals involved and the effectiveness of this traditional medicine and also their opinion of this traditional medicine. Results In all independent villages, the people who present an illness called 'aire de tarantula' or tarantula wind with symptoms including chest pain, coughing and asthma, were treated by the medicine man (called 'hierbatero' with a tarantula-based beverage. From village to village, the beverage has a similar base composition but some variations occur in additional ingredients depending on the individual medicine man. Like in all traditional Mayan medicine, the ritual of the ceremony consists of drinking the tarantula-based beverage and this is principally accompanied by chants and burning of incense. Conclusions The recipe of the tarantula-based beverage and the procedure of this ritual ceremony were fairly constant in all the villages visited. Our work shows that despite the tarantula's bad image in several cultures, in others positive use is made of these spiders, as in modern medicine.

  6. Evolution of supercontraction in spider silk: structure-function relationship from tarantulas to orb-weavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Cecilia; Blackledge, Todd Alan

    2010-10-15

    Spider silk is a promising biomaterial with impressive performance. However, some spider silks also 'supercontract' when exposed to water, shrinking by up to ∼50% in length. Supercontraction may provide a critical mechanism to tailor silk properties, both for future synthetic silk production and by the spiders themselves. Several hypotheses are proposed for the mechanism and function of supercontraction, but they remain largely untested. In particular, supercontraction may result from a rearrangement of the GPGXX motif within the silk proteins, where G represents glycine, P proline and X is one of a small subset of amino acids. Supercontraction may prevent sagging in wet orb-webs or allow spiders to tailor silk properties for different ecological functions. Because both the molecular structures of silk proteins and how dragline is used in webs differ among species, we can test these hypotheses by comparing supercontraction of silk across diverse spider taxa. In this study we measured supercontraction in 28 spider taxa, ranging from tarantulas to orb-weaving spiders. We found that silk from all species supercontracted, except that of most tarantulas. This suggests that supercontraction evolved at least with the origin of the Araneomorphae, over 200 million years ago. We found differences in the pattern of evolution for two components of supercontraction. Stress generated during supercontraction of a restrained fiber is not associated with changes in silk structure and web architecture. By contrast, the shrink of unrestrained supercontracting fibers is higher for Orbiculariae spiders, whose silk contains high ratios of GPGXX motifs. These results support the hypothesis that supercontraction is caused by a rearrangement of GPGXX motifs in silk, and that it functions to tailor silk material properties.

  7. 一种新的从新疆穴居狼蛛中鉴定的细胞裂解肽%Identification of a Novel Cytolytic Peptide from Wolf Spider Lycosa singoriensis(in English)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇群; 代龙军; 陈金军; 蒋立平; 刘中华; 梁宋平

    2009-01-01

    Spider venoms are chemically complex cocktails, in which peptides are the principal constituents of most spider venoms. Here we investigated a new cytotoxic peptide with an average molecular mass of 7 335.33, named LSTX-A1, isolated from the venom of wolf spider Lycosa singoriensis. LSTX-A1 contains 65 residues and possesses an amidated C-terminal phenylalanine-residue. In this paper we studied the cytolytic activity of LSTX-A1. Our results revealed that LSTX-A1 exerts cytotoxic and antitumor efficacy. It induced 42% hemolysis at a concentration of 100 μmol/L. And LSTX-A1 inhibits the proliferation of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with an IC50 values about 22 μmol/L.%蜘蛛粗毒中富含生物活性物质,尤其以多肽类成分为主.分离鉴定了新疆穴居狼蛛粗毒中一种新的细胞裂解肽,命名为LSTX-A1,其分子量为7 335.33,含有65个氨基酸残基,且羧基端残基酰胺化.研究了LSTX-A1的细胞裂解作用,结果显示,在100 μmol/L浓度引起42%红细胞溶血.同时LSTX-A1具有抗肿瘤作用,能抑制HeLa细胞的增殖,其,IC50剂量为22μmol/L.

  8. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of bacteriophage WO in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qian; Qiao, Huping; Gao, Jin; Yun, Yueli; Liu, Fengxiang; Peng, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Phage WO is a bacteriophage found in Wolbachia. Herein, we represent the first phylogenetic study of WOs that infect spiders (Araneae). Seven species of spiders (Araneus alternidens, Nephila clavata, Hylyphantes graminicola, Prosoponoides sinensis, Pholcus crypticolens, Coleosoma octomaculatum, and Nurscia albofasciata) from six families were infected by Wolbachia and WO, followed by comprehensive sequence analysis. Interestingly, WO could be only detected Wolbachia-infected spiders. The relative infection rates of those seven species of spiders were 75, 100, 88.9, 100, 62.5, 72.7, and 100 %, respectively. Our results indicated that both Wolbachia and WO were found in three different body parts of N. clavata, and WO could be passed to the next generation of H. graminicola by vertical transmission. There were three different sequences for WO infected in A. alternidens and two different WO sequences from C. octomaculatum. Only one sequence of WO was found for the other five species of spiders. The discovered sequence of WO ranged from 239 to 311 bp. Phylogenetic tree was generated using maximum likelihood (ML) based on the orf7 gene sequences. According to the phylogenetic tree, WOs in N. clavata and H. graminicola were clustered in the same group. WOs from A. alternidens (WAlt1) and C. octomaculatum (WOct2) were closely related to another clade, whereas WO in P. sinensis was classified as a sole cluster.

  9. Competition between introduced and native spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.D.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The European sheet-web spider Linyphia triangularis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) has become established in Maine, where it often reaches very high densities. Two lines of evidence from previous work suggest that L. triangularis affects populations of the native linyphiid spider Frontinella communis. First, F. communis individuals are relatively scarce in both forest and coastal habitat where L. triangularis is common, but more common where L. triangularis is at low density. Second, in field experiments, F. communis species are less likely to settle in experimental plots when L. triangularis is present, and F. communis disappears from study plots when L. triangularis is introduced. Here we test two mechanisms that may underlie these patterns. First, we tested whether L. triangularis invades and usurps the webs of F. communis. When spiders were released onto webs of heterospecifics, L. triangularis was more likely to take over or share webs of F. communis than the reverse. We also observed natural takeovers of F. communis webs. Second, we explored the hypothesis that L. triangularis reduces prey availability for native species. We sampled flying prey in areas with L. triangularis and those where it had been removed, and found no effect of spider presence on measured prey density. We also found no effect of prey supplementation on web tenacity in F. communis, suggesting that F. communis movements are not highly dependent on prey availability. We conclude that web takeover is likely more important than prey reduction in driving negative effects of L. triangularis on F. communis.

  10. Effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on righting reflex and hemolymph gas analysis variables for Chilean rose tarantulas (Grammostola rosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Trevor T; Mitchell, Mark A; Watson, Megan K; Clark-Price, Stuart C; McMichael, Maureen A

    2014-06-01

    To determine the safety, efficacy, and effects on hemolymph gas analysis variables of sevoflurane anesthesia in Chilean rose tarantulas (Grammostola rosea). 12 subadult Chilean rose tarantulas of unknown sex. Spiders were anesthetized in a custom chamber with sevoflurane (5% in oxygen [1.0 L/min]), then allowed to recover in 100% oxygen. Righting reflex was evaluated every 3 minutes during anesthesia to determine time to anesthetic induction and recovery. Hemolymph samples were collected from an intracardiac location prior to and after induction of anesthesia and evaluated to determine various gas analysis variables. Mean ± SD induction and recovery times were 16 ± 5.91 minutes and 29 ± 21.34 minutes, respectively. Significant differences were detected for Po2, base excess, and glucose and ionized magnesium concentrations between hemolymph samples obtained before anesthesia and those obtained after induction of anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results of this study suggested that the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic agent for Chilean rose tarantulas was safe and effective. Various hemolymph sample gas analysis values changed during anesthesia.

  11. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    OpenAIRE

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bark and under the ‘loose’ bark fragments at a height of 160-175 cm from the ground. Algae, mosses and fungi are important resources for the corticolous fauna. Crevices in the tree trunk and loose bar...

  12. A new species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae without stridulatory organ, from southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

  13. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zonstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962 (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. alexandri Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♀ Z. akhanii Marusik & Zamani, 2015 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 (Cyprus, ♂♀ Z. beshkentica (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. brignoliana sp. nov. (Iran, ♂♀ Z. ferghanensis sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. feti sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. halepensis sp. nov. (Syria, ♀ Z. huberi sp. nov. (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. inderensis Ponomarev, 2005 (Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. kunti sp. nov. (Cyprus, Turkey, ♂♀ Z. logunovi sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ♂♀ Z. maracandica (Charitonov, 1946 (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. martynovae (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. medica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. minoica sp. nov. (Greece, ♀ Z. minuta sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. persica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂ Z. psammodroma sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1911, the type species (Egypt, Israel, ♂♀ Z. spinimana sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. wunderlichi sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan and ♀ Z. zonsteini Fomichev & Marusik, 1969 (Kazakhstan. Twelve above-listed species are newly described, and males of Z. annulipes, Z. beshkentica, Z. maracandica and Z. martynovae are described for the first time. Two new combinations are established: Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 comb. nov., ex Filistata, and Pholcoides monticola (Spassky, 1941 comb. nov., ex Zaitunia. New data on distribution of the considered taxa are provided.

  14. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims: We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods: We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. By modeling simultaneously the observed binary fraction, the distributions of the amplitudes of the radial velocity variations and the distribution of the time scales of these variations, we constrain the intrinsic current binary fraction and period and mass-ratio distributions. Results: We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35 ± 0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20 km s-1. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51 ± 0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f(log 10P/d) ~ (log 10P/d)π (with log 10P/d in the range 0.15-3.5) and f(q) ~ qκ with 0.1 ≤ q = M2/M1 ≤ 1.0. The power-law indexes that best reproduce the observed quantities are π = -0.45 ± 0.30 and κ = -1.0 ± 0.4. The period distribution that we obtain thus favours shorter period systems compared to an Öpik law (π = 0). The mass ratio distribution is slightly skewed towards low mass ratio systems but remains incompatible with a random sampling of a classical mass function (κ = -2.35). The binary fraction seems mostly uniform across the field of view and independent of the spectral types and luminosity classes. The binary fraction in the outer

  16. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring: I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, L A; Taylor, W; Barbá, R; Bonanos, A; Crowther, P; Damineli, A; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Grin, N J; Hénault-Brunet, V; Langer, N; Lennon, D; Lockwood, S; Apellániz, J Maíz; Moffat, A F J; Neijssel, C; Norman, C; Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Richardson, N D; Schootemeijer, A; Shenar, T; Soszyński, I; Tramper, F; Vink, J S

    2016-01-01

    Massive binaries (MBs) play a crucial role in the Universe and knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters (OPs) is important for a wide range of topics, from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels, from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors. Yet, no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity monitoring of 102 MBs in the 30 Dor. In this paper, we analyse 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined and 31 double-lined spectroscopic binaries. Overall, the OPs and binary fraction are remarkably similar across the 30 Dor region and compared to existing Galactic samples (GSs). This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of MBs. A small difference is found in the distribu...

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXI. Stellar spin rates of O-type spectroscopic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; de Mink, S E; Hénault-Brunet, V; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Tramper, F; Gräfener, G; Evans, C J; Vink, J S; Dufton, P L; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    The initial distribution of spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their elusive formation process. It also sets a key initial condition for stellar evolution and is thus an important ingredient in stellar population synthesis. So far, most studies have focused on single stars. Most O stars are however found in multiple systems. By establishing the spin-rate distribution of a sizeable sample of O-type spectroscopic binaries and by comparing the distributions of binary sub-populations with one another as well as with that of presumed single stars in the same region, we aim to constrain the initial spin distribution of O stars in binaries, and to identify signatures of the physical mechanisms that affect the evolution of the massive stars spin rates. We use ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) to establish the projected equatorial rotational velocities (\\vrot) for components of 114 spectroscopic binaries in 30 Doradus. The \\vrot\\ values a...

  18. The massive monsters living deep in the Tarantula nebula: How massive are they really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mink, Selma

    2013-10-01

    The recent suggestion that stars with masses in excess of about 300 solar masses exist in the dense star cluster R136 at heart of the Tarantula Nebula received wide interest. It reopened the debate about the upper stellar-mass limit of the initial mass function {IMF} and it raised the question whether pair-instability supernovae - originally thought exclusively originate from first generation of pop III stars - can occur in the vicinity of Milky Way.A major challenge hampering mass estimates of the most massive stars is crowding and unresolved companions. High-resolution imaging from the ground and with HST reaching resolutions of about 0.1 arcsec resolved the brightest source in R136 into three separate components. Unfortunately, the extreme crowding and faintness of the targets prohibits ground-based facilities to reach further towards mili-arcsecond resolution.We propose to exploit the new full two-dimensional calibration program of Fine Guidance Sensor {Nelan, Prop ID 13175} to probe the most luminous stars in R136 for previously unseen companions down to a resolution of 12 mili-arsecond, exploring the separation of about 500-5000 AU. Furthermore, we will characterize the claimed source R136-a1B and if needed revise downward the mass estimates of the most massive stars known date.

  19. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XIV. The O-Type Stellar Content of 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, N R; Simon-Diaz, S; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Taylor, W D; Evans, C J; Markova, N; Lennon, D J; de Koter, A

    2014-01-01

    Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, of which 213 O-type are of sufficient quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found. (2) A group of extremely rapidly rotating main-sequence objects has been isolated, including the largest $v\\sin i$ values known, the spatial and radial-velocity distributions of which suggest ejection from the two principal ionizing clusters. (3) Several new examples of the evolved, rapidly rotating Onfp class show similar evidence. (4) No fewer than 48 members of the Vz category, hypothesized to be on or near the ZAMS, are found in this sample; in contrast to the rapid rotators, they are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, supporting their interpretation as very young objects, as do their relatively faint absolute magnitudes. (5) A surprisingly large fraction of the mai...

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Sana, H; de Koter, A; Sabín-Sanjulían, C; de Mink, S E; Dufton, P L; Gräfener, G; Evans, C J; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Using ground based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Doradus (30 Dor). Methods. We measured projected rotational velocities, \\vrot, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied on a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, $\\rm{P(\\veq)}$, of the equatorial rotational velocity, \\veq. Results. The distribution of \\vrot\\ shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 \\kms\\ and a high-velocity tail extending up to $\\sim$600 \\kms. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution $\\rm{P(\\veq)}$ with around 80% of the sample having 0 $<$ \\veq\\, $\\leq\\, 300$ \\kms\\ and the other 20% distributed in the high-velocity region. Conclusions. Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20%\\...

  1. Rotational velocities of single and binary O-type stars in the Tarantula Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; de Koter, A; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Tramper, F; Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Gräfener, G; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2014-01-01

    Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, $v_e\\sin i$, of $\\sim$330 O-type objects, i.e. $\\sim$210 spectroscopic single stars and $\\sim$110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30\\,Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the $v_e\\sin i$ distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100\\,$\\rm{km s^{-1}}$. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tai...

  2. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey I: Introduction and observational overview

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Henault-Brunet, V; Sana, H; de Koter, A; Simon-Diaz, S; Carraro, G; Bagnoli, T; Bastian, N; Bestenlehner, J M; Bonanos, A Z; Bressert, E; Brott, I; Campbell, M A; Cantiello, M; Clark, J S; Costa, E; Crowther, P A; de Mink, S E; Doran, E; Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P R; Friedrich, K; Garcia, M; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Herrero, A; Howarth, I D; Izzard, R G; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Ramirez, O H; Sabin, C; Smartt, S J; Stroud, V E; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) is an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here we introduce our scientific motivations and give an overview of the survey targets, including optical and near-infrared photometry and comprehensive details of the data reduction. One of the principal objectives was to detect massive binary systems via variations in their radial velocities, thus shaping the multi-epoch observing strategy. Spectral classifications are given for the massive emission-line stars observed by the survey, including the discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star (VFTS 682, classified as WN5h), 2' to the northeast of R136. To illustrate the diversity of objects encompassed by the survey, we investigate the spectral properties of sixteen targets identified by Gruendl & Chu from Spitzer photometry as candidate young stellar objects or stars with notable mid-infrared excesses. Detailed ...

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey II: R139 revealed as a massive binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, W D; Sana, H; Walborn, N R; de Mink, S E; Stroud, V E; Alvarez-Candal, A; Barbá, R H; Bestenlehner, J M; Bonanos, A Z; Brott, I; Crowther, P A; de Koter, A; Friedrich, K; Gräfener, G; Hénault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Kaper, L; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Morrell, N; Monaco, L; Vink, J S

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery that R139 in 30 Doradus is a massive spectroscopic binary system. Multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of R139 was obtained as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, revealing a double-lined system. The two components are of similar spectral types; the primary exhibits strong C III 4650 emission and is classified as an O6.5 Iafc supergiant, while the secondary is an O6 Iaf supergiant. The radial-velocity variations indicate a highly eccentric orbit with a period of 153.9 days. Photometry obtained with the Faulkes Telescope South shows no evidence for significant variability within an 18 month period. The orbital solution yields lower mass limits for the components of M1sin^3 i = 78 \\pm 8 Msun and M2sin^3 i = 66 \\pm 7 Msun. As R139 appears to be the most massive binary system known to contain two evolved Of supergiants, it will provide an excellent test for atmospheric and evolutionary models.

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Howarth, I D; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars ...

  5. Nukuhiva Berland, 1935 is a troglobitic wolf spider (Araneae: Lycosidae), not a nursery-web spider (Pisauridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W; Lehtinen, Pekka T

    2015-10-07

    The monotypic genus Nukuhiva Berland, 1935 with N. adamsoni (Berland, 1933) as type species, is re-described and transferred from the Pisauridae Simon, 1890 (fishing or nursery-web spiders) to the Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833 (wolf spiders) based on genitalic and somatic characters. Nukuhiva adamsoni, originally described from French Polynesia, appears to inhabit mountainous habitats of volcanic origin. Its troglobitic morphology--comparatively small eyes and pale, uniform coloration--suggest it to be associated with subterranean habitats such as caves or lava tubes, similar to the Hawaiian troglobitic species Lycosa howarthi Gertsch, 1973 and Adelocosa anops Gertsch, 1973.

  6. La araneofauna (Araneae reciente y fósil de Chiapas, México The extant and fossil spider fauna (Araneae from Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel García-Villafuerte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies actuales y fósiles de arañas (Araneae registradas para Chiapas. Hasta el momento se registran 464 especies actuales, distribuidas en 281 géneros y 56 familias. Las familias con mayor diversidad son Salticidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae y Gnaphosidae. Se proporcionan los géneros y especies en sinonimia, así como los géneros y especies que han sido transferidos a otras familias, y las especies transferidas a otros géneros dentro de la misma familia. Se han registrado 36 especies fósiles incluidas en ámbar. La taxonomía de arañas actuales y la de fósiles no son disciplinas completamente independientes. El género Hemirrhagus (Teraphosidae es un nuevo registro para Chiapas.A list of the recent and extinct species of spiders (Araneae that have been recorded from Chiapas is presented. To date 464 recent species have been registered, distributed in 281 genera and 56 families. The most diverse families are Salticidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Gnaphosidae. The genera and species in synonymy are listed, as are the genera and species that have been transferred to other families, and the species transferred to other genera within the same family. 36 fossil species included in amber have also been recorded. The taxonomy of recent and fossil spiders should not be independent. Genus Hemirrhagus (Teraphosidae is newly recorded from Chiapas.

  7. Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report

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    NP Dinamithra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment with calcium is beneficial in relieving the pain and muscle spasms caused by Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata.

  8. Influence of prescribed fire on carabid beetle (Carabidae) and spider (Araneae) assemblages in forest litter in southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Robert W. Peck

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if prescribed fire affects spider (Araneae) and carabid beetle (Carabidae) abundance, and whether the magnitude of this effect varies with time since fire. Within mixed conifer stands; nine understory fuels-reduction burns, ranging from

  9. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 low-velocity peak is consistent with what has been found in other studies for late O- and early B-type stars. Conclusions: Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an alternative braking mechanism, possibly magnetic fields, is thus required to explain the present

  10. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey III: A very massive star in apparent isolation from the massive cluster R136

    CERN Document Server

    Bestenlehner, Joachim M; Gräfener, G; Najarro, F; Evans, C J; Bastian, N; Bonanos, A Z; Bressert, E; Crowther, P A; Doran, E; Friedrich, K; Hénault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Sana, H; Soszynski, I; Taylor, W D

    2011-01-01

    VFTS 682 is located in an active star-forming region, at a projected distance of 29 pc from the young massive cluster R136 in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was previously reported as a candidate young stellar object, and more recently spectroscopically revealed as a hydrogen-rich Wolf-Rayet (WN5h) star. Our aim is to obtain the stellar properties, such as its intrinsic luminosity, and to investigate the origin of VFTS 682. To this purpose, we model optical spectra from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey with the non-LTE stellar atmosphere code CMFGEN, as well as the spectral energy distribution from complementary optical and infrared photometry. We find the extinction properties to be highly peculiar (RV ~4.7), and obtain a surprisingly high luminosity log(L/Lsun) = 6.5 \\pm 0.2, corresponding to a present-day mass of ~150Msun. The high effective temperature of 52.2 \\pm 2.5kK might be explained by chemically homogeneous evolution - suggested to be the key process in the path towards long ...

  11. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. IX. The interstellar medium seen through Diffuse Interstellar Bands and neutral sodium

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Tatton, Benjamin L; Apellaniz, Jesus Maiz; Crowther, Paul A; de Koter, Alex; Evans, Christopher J; Henault-Brunet, Vincent; Howarth, Ian D; Richter, Philipp; Sana, Hugues; Simon-Diaz, Sergio; Taylor, William; Walborn, Nolan R

    2012-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (30 Dor) is a spectacular star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud, seen through gas in the Galactic Disc and Halo. Diffuse Interstellar Bands offer a unique probe of the diffuse, cool-warm gas in these regions. The aim is to use DIBs as diagnostics of the local interstellar conditions, whilst at the same time deriving properties of the yet-unknown carriers. Spectra of over 800 early-type stars from the VLT Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS) were analysed. Maps were created, separately, for the Galactic and LMC absorption in the DIBs at 4428 and 6614 Ang and - in a smaller region near the central cluster R136 - neutral sodium (Na I D); we also measured the DIBs at 5780 and 5797 Ang. The maps show strong 4428 and 6614 Ang DIBs in the quiescent cloud complex to the south of 30 Dor but weak absorption in the harsher environments to the north (bubbles) and near the OB associations. The Na maps show at least five kinematic components in the LMC and a shell-like structure surrounding R136,...

  12. Isolation of an orally active insecticidal toxin from the venom of an Australian tarantula.

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    Margaret C Hardy

    Full Text Available Many insect pests have developed resistance to existing chemical insecticides and consequently there is much interest in the development of new insecticidal compounds with novel modes of action. Although spiders have deployed insecticidal toxins in their venoms for over 250 million years, there is no evolutionary selection pressure on these toxins to possess oral activity since they are injected into prey and predators via a hypodermic needle-like fang. Thus, it has been assumed that spider-venom peptides are not orally active and are therefore unlikely to be useful insecticides. Contrary to this dogma, we show that it is possible to isolate spider-venom peptides with high levels of oral insecticidal activity by directly screening for per os toxicity. Using this approach, we isolated a 34-residue orally active insecticidal peptide (OAIP-1 from venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes. The oral LD50 for OAIP-1 in the agronomically important cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was 104.2±0.6 pmol/g, which is the highest per os activity reported to date for an insecticidal venom peptide. OAIP-1 is equipotent with synthetic pyrethroids and it acts synergistically with neonicotinoid insecticides. The three-dimensional structure of OAIP-1 determined using NMR spectroscopy revealed that the three disulfide bonds form an inhibitor cystine knot motif; this structural motif provides the peptide with a high level of biological stability that probably contributes to its oral activity. OAIP-1 is likely to be synergized by the gut-lytic activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin (Bt expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops, and consequently it might be a good candidate for trait stacking with Bt.

  13. Male palp organ morphology of three species of ground spiders (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

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    Zakharov, Boris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed morphological account of the male copulatory organs of three species of ground spiders, Sergiolus capulatus, Herpyllus propinquus and Callilepis pluto (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, is presented. The large sclerites (subtegulum, tegulum and embolus appear to be homologous in all spiders. Sergiolus and Zelanda have a plesiomorphic palp organization. The increased complexity in the male bulb organization creates a locking mechanism that fixes the male palp position during intercourse in Callilepis, as well as in Encoptarthria, Trachyzelotes and Zelotes. The palp of Herpyllus, together with Anzacia, Drassodes and Intruda, demonstrates progressive modification of the male bulb.

  14. Contribution to the knowledge of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae from vicinity of Jagodina, Central Serbia

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    Stanković, B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 10 years, based on personal collectings, 21 species from 14 genera of Salticidae (Araneae are recorded from vicinity of Jagodina: Ballus chalybeius, Carrhotus xanthogramma, Evarcha arcuata, Evarcha falcata, Heliophanus auratus, Heliophanus cupreus, Heliophanus flavipes, Heliophanus kochii, Icius hamatus, Icius subinermis, Leptorchestes berolinensis, Macaroeris nidicolens, Marpissa muscosa, Marpissa nivoyi, Mendoza canestrinii, Pellenes tripunctatus, Phintella castriesiana, Phlegra fasciata, Pseudeuophrys erratica, Pseudeuophrys lanigera, Salticus scenicus. All those species are provided with habitat notes and global distribution. New records for the spider fauna of Serbia are Heliophanus kochii (Simon 1868, Icius subinermis (Simon, 1937, Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846 and Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868.

  15. Discovery of a distinct superfamily of Kunitz-type toxin (KTT from tarantulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kuntiz-type toxins (KTTs have been found in the venom of animals such as snake, cone snail and sea anemone. The main ancestral function of Kunitz-type proteins was the inhibition of a diverse array of serine proteases, while toxic activities (such as ion-channel blocking were developed under a variety of Darwinian selection pressures. How new functions were grafted onto an old protein scaffold and what effect Darwinian selection pressures had on KTT evolution remains a puzzle. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the presence of a new superfamily of ktts in spiders (TARANTULAS: Ornithoctonus huwena and Ornithoctonus hainana, which share low sequence similarity to known KTTs and is clustered in a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree of KTT evolution. The representative molecule of spider KTTs, HWTX-XI, purified from the venom of O. huwena, is a bi-functional protein which is a very potent trypsin inhibitor (about 30-fold more strong than BPTI as well as a weak Kv1.1 potassium channel blocker. Structural analysis of HWTX-XI in 3-D by NMR together with comparative function analysis of 18 expressed mutants of this toxin revealed two separate sites, corresponding to these two activities, located on the two ends of the cone-shape molecule of HWTX-XI. Comparison of non-synonymous/synonymous mutation ratios (omega for each site in spider and snake KTTs, as well as PBTI like body Kunitz proteins revealed high Darwinian selection pressure on the binding sites for Kv channels and serine proteases in snake, while only on the proteases in spider and none detected in body proteins, suggesting different rates and patterns of evolution among them. The results also revealed a series of key events in the history of spider KTT evolution, including the formation of a novel KTT family (named sub-Kuntiz-type toxins derived from the ancestral native KTTs with the loss of the second disulfide bridge accompanied by several dramatic sequence modifications

  16. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring. I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W.; Barbá, R.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Crowther, P.; Damineli, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Grin, N. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Lockwood, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Neijssel, C.; Norman, C.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Richardson, N. D.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shenar, T.; Soszyński, I.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Massive binaries play a crucial role in the Universe. Knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters is important for a wide range of topics from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels and from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors, yet no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. Aims: The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity (RV) monitoring of 102 massive binaries in the 30 Doradus region. Methods: In this paper we analyze 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined (SB1) and 31 double-lined (SB2) spectroscopic binaries. Results: Overall, the binary fraction and orbital properties across the 30 Doradus region are found to be similar to existing Galactic samples. This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of massive binary systems. A small difference is found in the distribution of orbital periods, which is slightly flatter (in log space) in 30 Doradus than in the Galaxy, although this may be compatible within error estimates and differences in the fitting methodology. Also, orbital periods in 30 Doradus can be as short as 1.1 d, somewhat shorter than seen in Galactic samples. Equal mass binaries (q> 0.95) in 30 Doradus are all found outside NGC 2070, the central association that surrounds R136a, the very young and massive cluster at 30 Doradus's core. Most of the differences, albeit small, are compatible with expectations from binary evolution. One outstanding exception, however, is the fact that earlier spectral types (O2-O7) tend to have shorter orbital periods than later spectral types (O9.2-O9.7). Conclusions: Our results point to a relative universality of the incidence rate of massive binaries and their orbital properties in the

  17. Is more better? Sexual confusion during courtship between two sympatric and synchronic tarantulas: Acanthoscurria suina and Eupalaestrus weijenberghi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Costa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When two similar species co-occur in time and space, strong mechanisms isolating them from each other are expected. Acanthoscurria suina Pocock, 1903 and Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell, 1894 are two sympatric and synchronic tarantulas that inhabit burrows in Uruguay's meadows. Here we test how and when reproductive isolation operates between these species. We exposed females of each species simultaneously to two males: either one male of each species, or two males of the same species. Males courted females of both species. Contrary to expectations, however, females of A. suina responded more effusively to heterospecific than to conspecific males, whereas females of E. weijenberghi only responded to conspecific males. Clasping (prelude of mating was only recorded for couples of the same species. Females of A. suina at first seem to prefer the stronger body vibrations performed by heterospecific courting males than by males of their own species.

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey VI: Evidence for rotation of the young massive cluster R136

    CERN Document Server

    Hénault-Brunet, V; Evans, C J; Sana, H; Bastian, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D; Markova, N; Bressert, E; de Koter, A; van Loon, J Th

    2012-01-01

    Although it has important ramifications for both the formation of star clusters and their subsequent dynamical evolution, rotation remains a largely unexplored characteristic of young star clusters (few Myr). Using multi-epoch spectroscopic data of the inner regions of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, we search for rotation of the young massive cluster R136. From the radial velocities of 36 apparently single O-type stars within a projected radius of 10 pc from the centre of the cluster, we find evidence, at the 95% confidence level, for rotation of the cluster as a whole. We use a maximum likelihood method to fit simple rotation curves to our data and find a typical rotational velocity of ~3 km/s. When compared to the low velocity dispersion of R136, our result suggests that star clusters may form with at least ~20% of the kinetic energy in rotation.

  19. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XV. VFTS\\,822: a candidate Herbig B[e] star at low metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kalari, V M; Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Clark, J S; Ellerbroek, L; de Koter, A; Lennon, D J; Taylor, W D

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of the B[e] star VFTS 822 in the 30 Doradus star-forming region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, classified by optical spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and complementary infrared photometry. VFTS 822 is a relatively low-luminosity (log $L$ = 4.04 $\\pm$ 0.25 $L_{\\odot}$) B8[e] star. In this Letter, we evaluate the evolutionary status of VFTS 822 and discuss its candidacy as a Herbig B[e] star. If the object is indeed in the pre-main sequence phase, it would present an exciting opportunity to measure mass accretion rates at low metallicity spectroscopically, to understand the effect of metallicity on accretion rates.

  20. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported.

  1. FAUNISTICAL DATA REGARDING SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE FROM SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA WITH MENTION OF SOME RARE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUMA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the faunistical study made in the south-eastern Romania in the summers of 2004 and 2006. We found 118 species of araneae belonging to 21 families. Among them there were some rare species: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772 mentioned for the third time in Romania, Hariaeus melloteei (Simon, 1886 mentioned for the second time in our country and Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1890.

  2. Web placement in sympatric linyphiid spiders ( Arachnida, Araneae): Individual foraging decisions reveal inter-specific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberstein, Marie Elisabeth

    1998-02-01

    The distribution of two sympatric web spiders, Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch) and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was studied on an area of forest regrowth in eastern Austria. Both species utilised significantly different heights on young conifer trees to construct their webs. F. frutetorum selected higher vegetation layers, whereas N. radiata constructed its webs, closer to the ground. This distribution may either be evidence of competition for web space or it may reflect specific distribution patterns unrelated to spider density. An experiment showed that when spiders of either species were released onto vacant trees they selected similar vegetation heights for web construction. On trees already occupied by a heterospecific individual however, F. frutetorum placed its webs significantly higher and N. radiata significantly lower compared to web placement on vacant trees suggesting that F. frutetorum and N. radiata compete for web space.

  3. The oldest haplogyne spider (Araneae: Plectreuridae), from the Middle Jurassic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A.; Huang, Diying

    2010-05-01

    New fossil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from Middle Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China are described as Eoplectreurys gertschi gen. et sp. nov. and referred to the modern haplogyne family Plectreuridae. This small family is restricted to southwestern USA, Mexico, and the adjacent Caribbean area today and hitherto has only a sparse Cenozoic fossil record. The morphology of Eoplectreurys is remarkably similar to modern forms and thus demonstrates great evolutionary conservatism. This new discovery not only extends the fossil record of the family by at least 120 Ma to the Middle Jurassic but also supports the hypothesis of a different distribution of the family in the past than today and subsequent extinction over much of its former range.

  4. Compositional changes in spider (Araneae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient near a Danish town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváth, R.; Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L

    2014-01-01

    Spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied over two years by pitfall trapping along an urbanisation gradient of forested habitats (rural forest - suburban forest fragment - urban forest fragment) in a Danish town, using the Globenet protocol. During the two years, we collected 4340 individuals of 90...... species, with money spiders (Linyphiidae) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) being most numerous. One species, Ero aphana, was new to the Danish fauna. In 2004, 45-47 species were captured in the habitats in various stages of urbanisation, while in 2005 (with a smaller collection effort), 28 (urban) - 37 (rural......) species were captured. Twenty-five percent of the collected species occurred in all habitats, but about half of them were only collected in one of the urbanisation stages. The number of shared species was the highest between the suburban and urban habitats. The highest similarities between assemblages...

  5. Martin Kreuels & Sascha Buchholz (2006: Ökologie, Verbreitung und Gefährdungsstatus der Webspinnen Nordrhein-Westfalens – Erste überarbeitete Fassung der Roten Liste der Webspinnen (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch, Oliver-David

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available book review: Martin Kreuels & Sascha Buchholz (2006: Ökologie, Verbreitung und Gefährdungsstatus der Webspinnen Nordrhein-Westfalens – Erste überarbeitete Fassung der Roten Liste der Webspinnen (Arachnida: Araneae.

  6. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. II. The Star-formation History of the Starburst Region NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; Aloisi, A.; de Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Smith, L. J.; Zeidler, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation (SF) of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of 30 Doradus, the starburst region NGC 2070. We recovered the SF history by comparing deep optical and near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main-sequence to post-main-sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the SF using intermediate- and low-mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC 2070 experienced prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the SF in the region (1) exceeded the average LMC rate ≈ 20 Myr ago, (2) accelerated dramatically ≈ 7 Myr ago, and (3) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass function down to 0.5 {M}⊙ . The average internal reddening E(B-V) is found to be between 0.3 and 0.4 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Dufton, P L; Howarth, I D; Walborn, N R; Markova, N; Clark, J S; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Dunstall, P R; Hénault-Brunet, V; Apellániz, J Maíz; McEvoy, C M; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or...

  8. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIII: On the nature of O Vz stars in 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Sabín-Sanjulián, C; Herrero, A; Walborn, N R; Puls, J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Evans, C J; Brott, I; de Koter, A; Garcia, M; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Sana, H; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS. We test the hypothesis of O Vz stars (characterized by having HeII4686 stronger in absorption than other He lines in their blue-violet spectra) being at a younger evolutionary stage than are normal O-type dwarfs. METHODS. We have performed a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 38 O Vz and 46 O V stars, identified by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We obtained the stellar and wind parameters of both samples using the FASTWIND stellar atmosphere code and the IACOB-GBAT grid-based automatic tool. In the framework of a differential study, we compared the physical and evolutionary properties of both samples, regarding Teff, logg, logQ and logL. We also investigated the predictions of the FASTWIND code about the O Vz phenomenon. RESULTS. We find a differential distribution of objects in terms of effective temperature, with O Vz stars dominant at intermediate values. The O Vz stars in 30 Doradus tend to be younger and less luminous, a...

  9. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey IV: Candidates for isolated high-mass star formation in 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Bressert, E; Evans, C J; Sana, H; Hénault-Brunet, V; Goodwin, S P; Parker, R J; Gieles, M; Bestenlehner, J M; Vink, J S; Taylor, W D; Crowther, P A; Longmore, S N; Gräfener, G; Apellániz, J Maíz; de Koter, A; Cantiello, M; Kruijssen, J M D

    2012-01-01

    Whether massive stars can occasionally form in relative isolation or if they require a large cluster of lower-mass stars around them is a key test in the differentiation of star formation theories as well as how the initial mass function of stars is sampled. Previous attempts to find O-type stars that formed in isolation were hindered by the possibility that such stars are merely runaways from clusters, i.e., their current isolation does not reflect their birth conditions. We introduce a new method to find O-type stars that are not affected by such a degeneracy. Using the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and additional high resolution imaging we have identified stars that satisfy the following constraints: 1) they are O-type stars that are not detected to be part of a binary system based on RV time series analysis; 2) they are designated spectral type O7 or earlier ; 3) their velocities are within 1\\sigma of the mean of OB-type stars in the 30 Doradus region, i.e. they are not runaways along our line-of-sight; 4) ...

  10. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VII. A low velocity dispersion for the young massive cluster R136

    CERN Document Server

    Hénault-Brunet, V; Sana, H; Gieles, M; Bastian, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Taylor, W D; Bressert, E; Crowther, P A; van Loon, J Th

    2012-01-01

    Detailed studies of resolved young massive star clusters are necessary to determine their dynamical state and evaluate the importance of gas expulsion and early cluster evolution. In an effort to gain insight into the dynamical state of the young massive cluster R136 and obtain the first measurement of its velocity dispersion, we analyse multi-epoch spectroscopic data of the inner regions of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Following a quantitative assessment of the variability, we use the radial velocities of non-variable sources to place an upper limit of 6 km/s on the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of stars within a projected distance of 5 pc from the centre of the cluster. After accounting for the contributions of undetected binaries and measurement errors through Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the true velocity dispersion is likely between 4 and 5 km/s given a range of standard assumptions about the binary distribution. This...

  11. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXV. Surface nitrogen abundances of O-type giants and supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Grin, N J; de Koter, A; Sana, H; Puls, J; Brott, I; Crowther, P A; Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Graefener, G; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; van Loon, J Th; Markova, N; de Mink, S E; Najarro, F; Schneider, F R N; Taylor, W D; Tramper, F; Vink, J S; Walborn, W R

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, rotation-induced chemical mixing in massive stars has far reaching evolutionary consequences, affecting the sequence of morphological phases, lifetimes, nucleosynthesis, and supernova characteristics. Using a sample of 72 presumably single O-type giants to supergiants observed in the context of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to investigate rotational mixing in evolved core-hydrogen burning stars initially more massive than $15\\,M_\\odot$ by analysing their surface nitrogen abundances. Using stellar and wind properties derived in a previous VFTS study, we constrained the nitrogen abundance by fitting the equivalent widths of relatively strong lines that are sensitive to changes in the abundance of this element. Given the quality of the data, we constrained the nitrogen abundance in 38 cases; for 34 stars only upper limits could be derived, which includes almost all stars rotating at $v_\\mathrm{e}\\sin i >200\\,\\mathrm{km s^{-1}}$. We analysed the nitrogen abundance as a function of ...

  12. Description of the male Hymenoepimecis japi Sobczak et al. 2009 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae parasitoid of Leucauge roseosignata Mello-Leitão 1943 (Araneae: Tetragnathidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF. Sobczak

    Full Text Available The male of Hymenoepimecis japi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae is described and illustrated. The specimen was collected in a modified web (cocoon web of Leucauge roseosignata (Araneae, Tetragnathidae made in a laboratory. Both, host and parasitoid were collected in Reserva Biológica Serra do Japi, located in Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

  13. De vuurspindoder Eoferreola rhombica, een voor Nederland nieuwe spinnendoder, en haar bijzondere waard: de Lentevuurspin Eresus sandaliatus (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae; Araneae: Eresidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, I.P.; Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Eoferreola rhombica, a pompilid new to the Dutch fauna, and its remarkable host, Eresus sandaliatus (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae; Araneae: Eresidae) In 1998 a female specimen of Eoferreola rhombica (Christ, 1791) was collected in a road-verge on the Veluwe. The nearest populations of this species are fo

  14. A new species of Hortipes (Araneae, Corinnidae, the first spider with an insertable retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Henrard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hortipes gigapophysalis (Araneae, Corinnidae is a new species described from both sexes from montane forest on Mt Nimba, eastern Guinea. The species is remarkable for its long, whip-shaped retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA on the male palp. The structure apparently has an insertable function as the epigyne of the female contains a separate set of ducts starting from a central concavity that is unique in the genus. This duct system is apparently meant to receive the supple RTA. This type of structural arrangement has never previously been found in spiders.

  15. Properties and Mechanism of the Mechanosensitive Ion Channel Inhibitor GsMTx4, a Therapeutic Peptide Derived from Tarantula Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Philip A; Suchyna, Thomas M; Sachs, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) are found in all types of cells ranging from Escherichia coli to morning glories to humans. They seem to fall into two families: those in specialized receptors, such as the hair cells of the cochlea, and those in cells not clearly differentiated for sensory duty. The physiological function of the channels in nonspecialized cells has not been demonstrated, although their activity has been demonstrated innumerable times in vitro. The only specific reagent to block MSCs isGsMTx4, a 4-kDa peptide isolated from tarantula venom. Despite being isolated from venom, it is nontoxic to mice. GsMTx4 is specific for an MSC subtype, the nonselective cation channels that may be members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. GsMTx4 acts as a gating modifier, increasing the energy of the open state relative to the closed state. The mirror image D enantiomer of GsMTx4 is equally active, so mode of action is not via the traditional lock and key model. GsMTx4 probably acts in the boundary lipid of the channel by changing local curvature and mechanically stressing the channel toward the closed state. Despite the lack of definitive physiological data on the function of the cationic MSCs, GsMTx4 may prove useful as a drug or lead compound that can affect physiological processes. These processes would be those driven by mechanical stress, such as blood vessel autoregulation, stress-induced contraction of smooth muscle, and Ca(2+) loading in muscular dystrophy. © 2007, Elsevier Inc. All right reserved.

  16. SVM-based prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins identifies toxin innovation in an Australian tarantula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S W Wong

    Full Text Available Spider neurotoxins are commonly used as pharmacological tools and are a popular source of novel compounds with therapeutic and agrochemical potential. Since venom peptides are inherently toxic, the host spider must employ strategies to avoid adverse effects prior to venom use. It is partly for this reason that most spider toxins encode a protective proregion that upon enzymatic cleavage is excised from the mature peptide. In order to identify the mature toxin sequence directly from toxin transcripts, without resorting to protein sequencing, the propeptide cleavage site in the toxin precursor must be predicted bioinformatically. We evaluated different machine learning strategies (support vector machines, hidden Markov model and decision tree and developed an algorithm (SpiderP for prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins. Our strategy uses a support vector machine (SVM framework that combines both local and global sequence information. Our method is superior or comparable to current tools for prediction of propeptide sequences in spider toxins. Evaluation of the SVM method on an independent test set of known toxin sequences yielded 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, we sequenced five novel peptides (not used to train the final predictor from the venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes to test the accuracy of the predictor and found 80% sensitivity and 99.6% 8-mer specificity. Finally, we used the predictor together with homology information to predict and characterize seven groups of novel toxins from the deeply sequenced venom gland transcriptome of S. plumipes, which revealed structural complexity and innovations in the evolution of the toxins. The precursor prediction tool (SpiderP is freely available on ArachnoServer (http://www.arachnoserver.org/spiderP.html, a web portal to a comprehensive relational database of spider toxins. All training data, test data, and scripts used are available from

  17. Intersexual variations in the pharmacological properties of Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae) spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the biochemical, insecticidal and neurotoxic properties of venom from both sexes of the Australian spider Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Insecticidal properties were tested in crickets, while in vitro neurotoxicity was determined in an avian skeletal muscle preparation. Some intersexual differences in venom composition were identified by rp-HPLC and by LC-MS, but the majority of components were found in venoms of both sexes. Injecting the venom into crickets revealed that venom from male specimens was slightly more potent, while female venom induced more prominent effects in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. The results from the chick assay suggest the presence of at least two vertebrate-active neurotoxins. A pre-synaptic neurotoxin may explain the reversible inhibition of muscle twitches and the unaffected response to nicotinic agonists at medium concentrations of female and medium to high concentrations of male venom. In addition, the presence of a neurotoxin that blocks post-synaptic nicotinic receptors might explain the irreversible inhibition of muscle twitches and the reduced response to nicotinic agonists at high concentrations (5-10 microg/ml) of venom from female specimens only.

  18. First Record of the Mediterranean Recluse Spider Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zamani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles rufescens, commonly known as the Mediterranean Recluse or Mediterranean Fiddle-Back Spider is recorded from Iran for the first time. The genus Loxosceles contains 103 accepted species, two of them (including L. rufescens are cosmopolitan. All Loxosceles species tested so far possess necrotic venoms, which is a unique characteristic among the Order Araneae. Considering this characteristic, it is of medical importance to determine a specific geographical distribution of these spiders. Collecting methods include visual inspection and direct hand collecting. All of the specimens were collected in Tehran. Six specimens of both sexes were collected from parks, houses and apartments. The characteristics of the genus, which are the unique arrangement of six eyes in three diads, the violin shaped mark on the cephalothorax, and the short tibia of adult male palpi with narrow base and it's embolus which is about as long as the width of the globular bulb were observed and recorded. Having the cytotoxicity of the venom and its urban distribution in mind, L. rufescens is probably among the more important spider species of Iran. Since there are no reports of loxoscelism from Iran, we assume that the bites are either infrequent or misdiagnosed. Therefore further studies are needed to clarify the medical importance degree of this species.

  19. Co-segregation of sex chromosomes in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jeffrey G; Felt, Kristen D; Doan, Ryan N; Nedo, Alexander O; Ellison, Cassondra A; Paliulis, Leocadia V

    2017-02-23

    During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario. We found that male L. mactans has two distinct X chromosomes, X1 and X2. The X chromosomes join together to form a connection that is present in prometaphase I but is lost during metaphase I, before the autosomes disjoin at anaphase I. We found that both X chromosomes form stable unipolar orientations to the same pole that assure their co-segregation at anaphase I. Using micromanipulation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy, we studied this unusual chromosome behavior to explain how it may fit the current dogma of chromosome distribution during cell division.

  20. Antibacterial activity of venom from funnel web spider Agelena labyrinthica (Araneae: Agelenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Benli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics has been increasing steadily, the need for combating these pathogens requires new pharmaceutical agents. To produce these substances, new models have been developed in recent decades. In our study, the venom of Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757 (Araneae: Agelenidae was tested against ten bacterial strains, specifically, testing 1/100, 1/10 and 1/1 fractions of diluted venom against these bacteria. While the 1/100 dilution was successful in only one of ten bacterial strains, the 1/10 and the 1/1 were effective on six of ten bacterial strains. The most effective results, among these three different concentrations, were observed on Bacillus subtilis. The other five strains that were also sensitive to the dilutions showed similar inhibition zones. Morphological alterations on bacterial cells and comparison with normal cells were accomplished by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The venom-treated cells, due to their loss of cytoplasm, shrank and presented cell wall depression.

  1. Hymenoepimecis neotropica (Brues & Richardson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae parasitoid of Araneus omnicolor (Keyserling (Araneae, Araneidae: first host record and new occurrence to Brazil Hymenoepimecis neotropica (Brues & Richardson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae parasitoide de Araneus omnicolor (Keyserling (Araneae, Araneidae: primeiro registro do hospedeiro e nova ocorrência para o Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jober Fernando Sobczak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoepimecis neotropica (Brues & Richardson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Pimplinae parasitoid of Araneus omnicolor (Keyserling (Araneae, Araneidae: first host record and new occurrence to Brazil. The species of the genus Hymenoepimecis occur only in Neotropical region, being recognized for using as their hosts spiders which build orbicular webs. That wasp was described occurring only in the Guyana. This work expands the geographical distribution of the species to Brazil and records the spider Araneus omnicolor (Araneae, Araneidae as its host. Furthermore, it provides information about the natural history of this interaction.Hymenoepimecis neotropica (Brues & Richardson (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae parasitoide de Araneus omnicolor (Keyserling (Araneae, Araneidae: primeiro registro do hospedeiro e nova ocorrência para o Brasil. Espécies do gênero Hymenoepimecis ocorrem somente na região Neotropical, sendo reconhecidas por utilizarem, como hospedeiras, aranhas que constroem teias orbiculares. Essa vespa foi descrita ocorrendo somente na Guiana. Este trabalho amplia a distribuição geográfica da espécie para o Brasil e registra a aranha Araneus omnicolor (Araneae, Araneidae como sua hospedeira. Além disso, fornece informações sobre a história natural desta interação.

  2. Spiders from the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: Part III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida Aranhas da Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil: Parte III: Gnaphosidae (Araneae: Arachnida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 is described for the first time and Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, a species introduced from Europe, is recorded for the first time on the island of Fernando de Noronha, state of Pernambuco. The latter, along with T. lyonneti (Audouim, 1826 recorded from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, is the second species of this genus to be reported from Brazil. The spiders were collected with pitfall traps in five points of the island. Ecological data showed that Gnaphosidae was the fifth best sampled spider family, with 179 specimens, belonging to two species, T. kulczynskii and Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii was the most abundant with 118 adults while Z. hortenciae was represented by only 21 adults. Both species were collected during the dry and wet seasons but T. kulczynskii was more abundant during the wet season while Z. hortenciae was more abundant during the dry season. The male:female ratio for the dry season was similar for both species but in the wet season it was three times higher for T. kulczynskii.A fêmea de Zimiromus hortenciae Buckup & Brescovit, 1993 é descrita pela primeira vez. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii (Bösemberg, 1902, uma espécie de origem européia, é registrada pela primeira vez na Ilha de Fernando de Noronha, no estado de Pernambuco. Junto com T. lyonneti (Audouin, 1826, já registrado para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é a segunda espécie do gênero introduzida no Brasil. As aranhas foram coletadas com armadilhas de solo em cinco pontos da ilha e os dados ecológicos detectados para Gnaphosidae foram de que esta foi a quinta família melhor amostrada dentre Araneae, com 179 espécimes de duas espécies, T. kulczynskii e Z. hortenciae. Trachyzelotes kulczynskii foi mais abundante com 118 adultos enquanto Z. hortenciae teve 21 adultos coletados. Ambas foram coletadas nas estações seca e chuvosa, sendo que T. kulczynskii foi mais

  3. Neuropeptide discovery in the Araneae (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Arachnida): elucidation of true spider peptidomes using that of the Western black widow as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-03-01

    The public deposition of large transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) datasets for the Araneae (true spiders) provides a resource for determining the structures of the native neuropeptides present in members of this chelicerate order. Here, the Araneae TSA data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts using the recently deduced neuropeptide precursors from the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus as query templates. Neuropeptide-encoding transcripts from five spiders, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Stegodyphus mimosarum, Stegodyphus lineatus, Stegodyphus tentoriicola and Acanthoscurria geniculata, were identified, including ones encoding members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. A total of 156 distinct peptides were predicted from the precursor proteins deduced from the S. mimosarum transcripts, with 65, 26, 21 and 12 peptides predicted from those deduced from the A. geniculata, L. tredecimguttatus, S. lineatus and S. tentoriicola sequences, respectively. Among the peptides identified were variant isoforms of FLP, orcokinin and TRP, peptides whose structures are similar to ones previously identified from L. hesperus. The prediction of these atypical peptides from multiple spiders suggests that they may be broadly conserved within the Araneae rather than being species-specific variants. Taken collectively, the data described here greatly expand the number of known Araneae neuropeptides, providing a foundation for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in this important Chelicerate order.

  4. Chromosome mapping of dragline silk genes in the genomes of widow spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae.

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    Yonghui Zhao

    Full Text Available With its incredible strength and toughness, spider dragline silk is widely lauded for its impressive material properties. Dragline silk is composed of two structural proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. While previous studies have characterized the genes that encode the constituent proteins of spider silks, nothing is known about the physical location of these genes. We determined karyotypes and sex chromosome organization for the widow spiders, Latrodectus hesperus and L. geometricus (Araneae, Theridiidae. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map the genomic locations of the genes for the silk proteins that compose the remarkable spider dragline. These genes included three loci for the MaSp1 protein and the single locus for the MaSp2 protein. In addition, we mapped a MaSp1 pseudogene. All the MaSp1 gene copies and pseudogene localized to a single chromosomal region while MaSp2 was located on a different chromosome of L. hesperus. Using probes derived from L. hesperus, we comparatively mapped all three MaSp1 loci to a single region of a L. geometricus chromosome. As with L. hesperus, MaSp2 was found on a separate L. geometricus chromosome, thus again unlinked to the MaSp1 loci. These results indicate orthology of the corresponding chromosomal regions in the two widow genomes. Moreover, the occurrence of multiple MaSp1 loci in a conserved gene cluster across species suggests that MaSp1 proliferated by tandem duplication in a common ancestor of L. geometricus and L. hesperus. Unequal crossover events during recombination could have given rise to the gene copies and could also maintain sequence similarity among gene copies over time. Further comparative mapping with taxa of increasing divergence from Latrodectus will pinpoint when the MaSp1 duplication events occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of silk gene linkage patterns.

  5. Dissecting 30 Doradus: Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the starburst cluster NGC2070 from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, Michele

    2015-08-01

    I will present new results on the star formation history of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). Here the focus is on the starburst cluster NGC2070. The star formation history is derived by comparing the deepest ever optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence (PMS) to post-main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. I will discuss the detailed star formation history, initial mass function and reddening distribution and how these relate to previous studies of this starburst region.

  6. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey X: Evidence for a bimodal distribution of rotational velocities for the single early B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P R; Evans, C J; Brott, I; de Mink, S E; Howarth, I D; Kennedy, M; McEvoy, C; Potter, A T; Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W; Vink, J S

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Projected rotational velocities (\\vsini) have been estimated for 334 targets in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey that do not manifest significant radial velocity variations and are not supergiants. They have spectral types from approximately O9.5 to B3. The estimates have been analysed to infer the underlying rotational velocity distribution, which is critical for understanding the evolution of massive stars. Methods: Projected rotational velocities were deduced from the Fourier transforms of spectral lines, with upper limits also being obtained from profile fitting. For the narrower lined stars, metal and non-diffuse helium lines were adopted, and for the broader lined stars, both non-diffuse and diffuse helium lines; the estimates obtained using the different sets of lines are in good agreement. The uncertainty in the mean estimates is typically 4% for most targets. The iterative deconvolution procedure of Lucy has been used to deduce the probability density distribution of the rotational velocities. R...

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey . XXIV. Stellar properties of the O-type giants and supergiants in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Grin, N. J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; Puls, J.; Markova, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Castro, N.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; García, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; van Kempen, B.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The Tarantula region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the richest population of spatially resolved massive O-type stars known so far. This unmatched sample offers an opportunity to test models describing their main-sequence evolution and mass-loss properties. Aims: Using ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to determine stellar, photospheric and wind properties of 72 presumably single O-type giants, bright giants and supergiants and to confront them with predictions of stellar evolution and of line-driven mass-loss theories. Methods: We apply an automated method for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O stars combining the non-LTE stellar atmosphere model fastwind with the genetic fitting algorithm pikaia to determine the following stellar properties: effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, helium abundance, and projected rotational velocity. The latter has been constrained without taking into account the contribution from macro-turbulent motions to the line broadening. Results: We present empirical effective temperature versus spectral subtype calibrations at LMC-metallicity for giants and supergiants. The calibration for giants shows a +1kK offset compared to similar Galactic calibrations; a shift of the same magnitude has been reported for dwarfs. The supergiant calibrations, though only based on a handful of stars, do not seem to indicate such an offset. The presence of a strong upturn at spectral type O3 and earlier can also not be confirmed by our data. In the spectroscopic and classical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, our sample O stars are found to occupy the region predicted to be the core hydrogen-burning phase by state-of-the-art models. For stars initially more massive than approximately 60 M⊙, the giant phase already appears relatively early on in the evolution; the supergiant phase develops later. Bright giants, however, are not

  8. A new troglomorphic species of Harmonicon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Dipluridae) from Pará, Brazil, with notes on the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Denis Rafael; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Harmonicon F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae) is described, from a medium-sized lateritic cave in Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil. The male holotype and only specimen known of H. cerberus sp. n. was found near the entrance of Pequiá cave. This taxon is the fourth species described and the southernmost record for the genus. The new species displays some troglomorphic characteristics, such as reduction and merging of the posterior median and both pairs of lateral eyes and pale yellow to light brown coloration. Both characters are diagnostic when compared to the normal separated eyes and reddish to dark brown of other Harmonicon species. Other diagnostic characteristics are isolated, long, rigid setae distal to the lyra and the shape of the copulatory bulb. This is the second troglomorphic mygalomorph species from Brazil and the first from the Amazonian region. PMID:24715775

  9. Dispatch from the field: ecology of ground-web-building spiders with description of a new species (Araneae, Symphytognathidae

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    Jeremy Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. (Araneae: Symphytognathidae was discovered during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description and accompanying ecological study were completed as course activities. To assess the ecology of this species, which belongs to the ground-web-building spider community, three habitat types were surveyed: riparian forest, recently inundated riverine forest, and oil palm plantation. Crassignatha danaugirangensis sp. n. is the most abundant ground-web-building spider species in riparian forest; it is rare or absent from the recently inundated forest and was not found in a nearby oil palm plantation. The availability of this taxonomic description may help facilitate the accumulation of data about this species and the role of inundated riverine forest in shaping invertebrate communities.

  10. The six-eyed sand spiders of the genus Sicarius (Araneae: Haplogynae: Sicariidae) from the Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ivan L F; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2013-01-04

    In this paper we revise the species of Sicarius (Araneae: Sicariidae) from the Brazilian Caatinga, the largest tropical dry forest nucleus in the world. We redescribe, designate a neotype and provide new records for Sicarius tropicus (Mello- Leitão, 1936), the only species previously known from the region, and describe three new species: S. cariri n. sp., S. diadorim n. sp. and S. ornatus n. sp. We report high intraspecific variation in the genitalic morphology of these species, especially in females. We also provide anecdotal observations on natural history and behavior of these species, including diet, mating behavior and clutch size. We include an identification key for Brazilian Caatinga species of Sicarius.

  11. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the Northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

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    Eugen Nițu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalău" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous, 9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous, 125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- and necrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalău primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slătioara, Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles (Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing of species richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  12. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  13. Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa en Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.

  14. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXV. Surface nitrogen abundances of O-type giants and supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, N. J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; de Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Puls, J.; Brott, I.; Crowther, P. A.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; van Loon, J. Th.; Markova, N.; de Mink, S. E.; Najarro, F.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Theoretically, rotation-induced chemical mixing in massive stars has far reaching evolutionary consequences, affecting the sequence of morphological phases, lifetimes, nucleosynthesis, and supernova characteristics. Aims: Using a sample of 72 presumably single O-type giants to supergiants observed in the context of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to investigate rotational mixing in evolved core-hydrogen burning stars initially more massive than 15 M⊙ by analysing their surface nitrogen abundances. Methods: Using stellar and wind properties derived in a previous VFTS study we computed synthetic spectra for a set of up to 21 N ii-v lines in the optical spectral range, using the non-LTE atmosphere code FASTWIND. We constrained the nitrogen abundance by fitting the equivalent widths of relatively strong lines that are sensitive to changes in the abundance of this element. Given the quality of the data, we constrained the nitrogen abundance in 38 cases; for 34 stars only upper limits could be derived, which includes almost all stars rotating at νesini> 200 km s-1. Results: We analysed the nitrogen abundance as a function of projected rotation rate νesini and confronted it with predictions of rotational mixing. We found a group of N-enhanced slowly-spinning stars that is not in accordance with predictions of rotational mixing in single stars. Among O-type stars with (rotation-corrected) gravities less than log gc = 3.75 this group constitutes 30-40 percent of the population. We found a correlation between nitrogen and helium abundance which is consistent with expectations, suggesting that, whatever the mechanism that brings N to the surface, it displays CNO-processed material. For the rapidly-spinning O-type stars we can only provide upper limits on the nitrogen abundance, which are not in violation with theoretical expectations. Hence, the data cannot be used to test the physics of rotation induced mixing in the regime of high spin rates

  15. Revision of the funnel-web spider genus Novalena (Araneae: Agelenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Morales, Julieta; Jiménez, María Luisa

    2017-05-05

    The Western Hemisphere genus Novalena Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 (Araneae: Agelenidae) is revised. The genus now includes a total of 53 species, of which 40 are new species from USA, Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica: N. ajusco sp. nov. (♀), N. alamo sp. nov. (♂), N. alvarezi sp. nov. (♀), N. atzimbo sp. nov. (♀), N. bosencheve sp. nov. (♂), N. chamberlini sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. cieneguilla sp. nov. (♀), N. cintalapa sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. clara sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. comaltepec sp. nov. (♀), N. creel sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. dentata sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. divisadero sp. nov. (♀), N. durango sp. nov. (♀), N. franckei sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. garnica sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. gibarrai sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. irazu sp. nov. (♀), N. iviei sp. nov. (♂), N. ixtlan sp. nov. (♂), N. jiquilpan sp. nov. (♀), N. leonensis sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. mexiquensis sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. oaxaca sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. paricutin sp. nov. (♀), N. perote sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. plata sp. nov. (♀), N. poncei sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. popoca sp. nov. (♀), N. prieta sp. nov. (♀), N. puebla sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. punta sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. rothi sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. saltoensis sp. nov. (♀), N. sinaloa sp. nov. (♀), N. tacana sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. triunfo sp. nov. (♀), N. valdezi sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. victoria sp. nov. (♀), and N. volcanes sp. nov. (♀). Nine are previously described species: N. annamae (Gertsch & Davis 1940), N. attenuata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902), N. bipartita (Kraus 1955), N. calavera Chamberlin & Ivie 1942, N. costata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902), N. laticava (Kraus 1955), N. orizaba (Banks 1898), N. shlomitae (García-Villafuerte 2009), and N. simplex (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902). Four new synonyms are proposed: N. pina Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 = N. intermedia (Chamberlin & Gertsch 1930); N. idahoana (Gertsch 1934) and N. wawona Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 = N. lutzi (Gertsch 1933); N. tolucana (Gertsch & Davis 1940) = N. approximata

  16. Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available book review: Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

  17. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...... muelleri Wendland (Arecaceae) and Solanum inaequilaterum Domin, (Solanaceae), both of them densely covered with thorns. The epigynal morphology of Laetesia raveni n. sp. varies intraspecifically. Live individuals and several of their dome-shaped sheet webs are illustrated....

  18. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. III. Photometric Catalog and Resulting Constraints on the Progression of Star Formation in the 30 Doradus Region

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, E; Anderson, J; Cignoni, M; van der Marel, R P; Zaritsky, D; de Marchi, G; Panagia, N; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Gallager, J S; Smith, L J; Sana, H; Aloisi, A; Tosi, M; Evans, C J; Arab, H; Boyer, M; de Mink, S E; Gordon, K; Koekemoer, A M; Larsen, S S; Ryon, J E; Zeidler, P

    2015-01-01

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (~0.5 solar masses) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). We observed 30 Doradus in the near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function (PSF) fitting across all the bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color-magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically signifi...

  19. Structural and Functional Diversity of Peptide Toxins from Tarantula Haplopelma hainanum (Ornithoctonus hainana) Venom Revealed by Transcriptomic, Peptidomic, and Patch Clamp Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Ya; Huang, Yong; He, Quan-Ze; Luo, Ji; Zhu, Li; Lu, Shan-Shan; Liu, Jin-Yan; Huang, Peng-Fei; Zeng, Xiong-Zhi; Liang, Song-Ping

    2015-05-29

    Spider venom is a complex mixture of bioactive peptides to subdue their prey. Early estimates suggested that over 400 venom peptides are produced per species. In order to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this impressive diversity, transcriptomics based on second generation high throughput sequencing was combined with peptidomic assays to characterize the venom of the tarantula Haplopelma hainanum. The genes expressed in the venom glands were identified, and the bioactivity of their protein products was analyzed using the patch clamp technique. A total of 1,136 potential toxin precursors were identified that clustered into 90 toxin groups, of which 72 were novel. The toxin peptides clustered into 20 cysteine scaffolds that included between 4 and 12 cysteines, and 14 of these groups were newly identified in this spider. Highly abundant toxin peptide transcripts were present and resulted from hypermutation and/or fragment insertion/deletion. In combination with variable post-translational modifications, this genetic variability explained how a limited set of genes can generate hundreds of toxin peptides in venom glands. Furthermore, the intraspecies venom variability illustrated the dynamic nature of spider venom and revealed how complex components work together to generate diverse bioactivities that facilitate adaptation to changing environments, types of prey, and milking regimes in captivity.

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XVII. Physical and wind properties of massive stars at the top of the main sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Bestenlehner, Joachim M; Vink, Jorick S; Najarro, F; de Koter, A; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Crowther, P A; Hénault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Schneider, F R N; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W D; Walborn, N R

    2014-01-01

    The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant Hii regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O to denser WNh star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between op...

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XVI. The optical+NIR extinction laws in 30 Doradus and the photometric determination of the effective temperatures of OB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Barbá, R H; Gräfener, G; Bestenlehner, J M; Crowther, P A; García, M; Herrero, A; Sana, H; Simón-Díaz, S; Taylor, W D; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R

    2014-01-01

    Context: The commonly used extinction laws of Cardelli et al. (1989) have limitations that, among other issues, hamper the determination of the effective temperatures of O and early B stars from optical+NIR photometry. Aims: We aim to develop a new family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus, check their general applicability within that region and elsewhere, and apply them to test the feasibility of using optical+NIR photometry to determine the effective temperature of OB stars. Methods: We use spectroscopy and NIR photometry from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and optical photometry from HST/WFC3 of 30 Doradus and we analyze them with the software code CHORIZOS using different assumptions such as the family of extinction laws. Results: We derive a new family of optical+NIR extinction laws for 30 Doradus and confirm its applicability to extinguished Galactic O-type systems. We conclude that by using the new extinction laws it is possible to measure the effective temperatures of OB stars with moderate uncertain...

  2. Determining with SEM, structure of the venom apparatus in the tube web spider, Segestria florentina (Araneae: Segestriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Cebesoy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe functional morphological features of venom apparatus in the tube web spider, Segestria florentina (Rossi, 1790 (Araneae: Segestriidae by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The venom apparatus is situated in the anterior part of the prosoma, and is composed of a pair of venom glands and chelicerae. The chelicera of S. florentina has two parts: basal segment and a movable articulated apical segment (fang. The cheliceral fang rests in a groove on the basal segment of chelicerae. A venom hole is located on the subterminal part of each fang. A pair of venom glands is completely separate but similar to each other within the prosoma. Each venom gland is surrounded by striated muscle bundles, such as with the capsules. The venom, produced in the venom glands, is carried by venom ducts passing throughout the chelicerae. Each venom gland has its own venom duct, chelicera and fang. The venom is excreted from the venom pore on the subterminal part of the fang by means of muscular contractions covering the venom gland.

  3. The complete mitogenome of a jumping spider Carrhotus xanthogramma (Araneae: Salticidae) and comparative analysis in four salticid mitogenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The complete mitogenome of the jumping spider Carrhotus xanthogramma was determined and comparative analysis among four salticid mitogenomes was conducted. The circular genome is 14,563 bp in size and contains a complete set of genes that usually present in the metazoa. All of the 13 protein-coding genes begin with a typical ATN codon and stop with the canonical stop codons, except for ND4 and ND4L genes with an incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNAs cannot be formed the fully paired acceptor stems and seven out of them cannot be folded into the typical cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures. The tRNA (Glu) gene translocates its position as compared to the mitogenomes of other three determined jumping spiders. The A+T content of the majority strand and the A+T-rich region are 75.1 and 80%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships based on concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods indicated that mitogenome sequences were useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae.

  4. Influence of spider silk on refugia preferences of the recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.

  5. SPIDER DIVERSITY (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE OF THE TEA PLANTATION AT SERANG VILLAGE, KARANGREJA SUB-DISTRICT, DISTRICT OF PURBALINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianti Sibarani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiders are crucial in controlling insect pest population. The various cultivation managements such as fertilizer and pesticide application, weeding, pruning, harvesting, and cropping system affect their diversity. In the plantation, vegetation diversification has applied various practices, including monoculture, and intercropping, which influence the spider community. Thus, this study was intended to determine the spider abundance and diversity of the tea plantation, and the intercropping field (tea and strawberry at Serang village, Karangreja Sub-District, District of Purbalingga. A survey and purposive sampling techniques were conducted, then the spiders were hand collected. Shannon-Wiener diversity (H’, Evenness (E, Simpson’s dominance (D, and Sorensen’s similarity (IS indices were used to measure the spider diversity. The results revealed a total number of 575 individual spiders from 10 families, i.e., Araneae, Araneidae, Clubionidae, Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Nephilidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae, Tetragnathidae, Theridiidae, and Thomisidae. Araneidae was the most abundant in both fields. The total abundance of spiders in tea plantation (379 individuals, however, was greater than that in the intercropping field (196 individuals. Shannon-Wiener diversity reached H’= 1.873 in the plantation, and H’= 1.975 in the intercropping field.

  6. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. III. Photometric Catalog and Resulting Constraints on the Progression of Star Formation in the 30 Doradus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; De Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (˜0.5 M⊙) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color-magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. Three Peptide Modulators of the Human Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel 1.7, an Important Analgesic Target, from the Venom of an Australian Tarantula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yuen Chow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium (NaV channels are responsible for propagating action potentials in excitable cells. NaV1.7 plays a crucial role in the human pain signalling pathway and it is an important therapeutic target for treatment of chronic pain. Numerous spider venom peptides have been shown to modulate the activity of NaV channels and these peptides represent a rich source of research tools and therapeutic lead molecules. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of NaV1.7-active peptides in the venom of an Australian Phlogius sp. tarantula and to characterise their potency and subtype selectivity. We isolated three novel peptides, μ-TRTX-Phlo1a, -Phlo1b and -Phlo2a, that inhibit human NaV1.7 (hNaV1.7. Phlo1a and Phlo1b are 35-residue peptides that differ by one amino acid and belong in NaSpTx family 2. The partial sequence of Phlo2a revealed extensive similarity with ProTx-II from NaSpTx family 3. Phlo1a and Phlo1b inhibit hNaV1.7 with IC50 values of 459 and 360 nM, respectively, with only minor inhibitory activity on rat NaV1.2 and hNaV1.5. Although similarly potent at hNaV1.7 (IC50 333 nM, Phlo2a was less selective, as it also potently inhibited rNaV1.2 and hNaV1.5. All three peptides cause a depolarising shift in the voltage-dependence of hNaV1.7 activation.

  8. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT. III. PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG AND RESULTING CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; Marel, R. P. van der; Panagia, N.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Arab, H.; Gordon, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA—European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Associate Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marchi, G. De [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); III, J. S. Gallagher [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Tosi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boyer, M. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Mink, S. E. de, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,”University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2016-01-15

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (∼0.5 M{sub ⊙}) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color–magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  9. Spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.

  10. A reconsideration of the classification of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae based on three nuclear genes and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Bond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc. is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1γ, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1 the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2 the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1 the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK; (2 establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3 the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae. In addition to these changes, we propose a "road map

  11. The ability of spiderlings of the widow spider Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) to pass through different size mesh screen: implications for exclusion from air intake ducts and greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Flanders, Christopher P; Rust, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Experiments tested the ability of newly emerged spiderlings of a black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae), to crawl through brass screen of various mesh size. The purpose was to determine whether immatures of these medically important spiders could be excluded from buildings. In horizontal orientation, black widow spiderlings were able to easily pass through mesh with openings of 0.83 mm and were prevented from passing in four of five tests with mesh of 0.59-mm openings. Spiderlings also readily pass through 0.83-mm mesh in vertical orientation. Our laboratory studies indicate that the mesh size sufficient for exclusion is too small for practical use in most cases, although there are some specialized situations where such small mesh might be useful. The results are discussed in regard to actual conditions found in typical commercial building situations.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two orb-weaving spider Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis (Strand, 1918) and Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Araneae: Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenomes of Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis and Hypsosinga pygmaea are determined to be 14,402 and 14,193 bp in length, with the A + T content of 75.7% and 76.1%, respectively. All protein-coding genes in both spiders start with the initiation codons (ATT, ATA, TTA or TTG) that are usually used in Araneae mitogenomes, and terminate with canonical stop codon TAA or TAG except for ND5 in both spiders and ND4L in H. pygmaea, which end with the incomplete codon TA or T instead. Most of the tRNAs lack the potential to form the typically cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures and none of tandem repeats are present in the control regions of both spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the Bayesian inference dataset shows a good resolution of relationship of C. nagasakiensis and H. pygmaea in Araneidae.

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVII. Physical and wind properties of massive stars at the top of the main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestenlehner, J. M.; Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.; Najarro, F.; de Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Evans, C. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.

    2014-10-01

    The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant H ii regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O star winds to denser WNh Wolf-Rayet star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain both stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between optically thin O star winds and optically thick hydrogen-rich WNh Wolf-Rayet winds. Our results suggest the existence of a "kink" between both mass-loss regimes, in agreement with recent Monte Carlo simulations. For the optically thick regime, we confirm the steep dependence on the classical Eddington factor Γe from previous theoretical and observational studies. The transition occurs on the main sequence near a luminosity of 106.1L⊙, or a mass of 80 ... 90 M⊙. Above this limit, we find that - even when accounting for moderate wind clumping (with fv = 0.1) - wind mass-loss rates are enhanced with respect to standard prescriptions currently adopted in stellar evolution calculations. We also show that this results in substantial helium surface enrichment. Finally, based on our spectroscopic analyses, we are able to provide the most accurate ionising fluxes for VMS known to date, confirming the pivotal role of VMS in ionising and

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae) using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S; Roberts, J Dale

    2008-03-01

    The spider family Micropholcommatidae is an enigmatic taxon of uncertain limits and uncertain affinities. Various phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed for the family, but these hypotheses have never been tested with a robust phylogenetic analysis. The existence of similar Australasian and New World taxa, the possibility of morphological convergence associated with extreme 'smallness', and the apparent paucity of synapomorphic morphological characters, have all clouded generic relationships in this group. We used fragments from two nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S) to test the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the Micropholcommatidae. The analyses incorporated 50 ingroup spider species, including 23 micropholcommatid species and representatives from 14 other spider families. Ribosomal RNA secondary structures were inferred for the V3-V5 region of the 18S rRNA gene, and Domain II of the 28S rRNA gene of Hickmania troglodytes [Higgins, E.T., Petterd, W.F., 1883. Description of a new cave-inhabiting spider, together with notes on mammalian remains from a recently discovered cave in the Chudleigh district. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasman. 1882, 191-192]. These secondary structures were used to guide multiple sequence alignments, and determine the position and nature of indels in different taxa. Secondary structure information was also incorporated into a structurally partitioned rRNA analysis in MrBayes Version 3.1.2, using a doublet model of nucleotide substitution. This structurally partitioned rRNA analysis provided a less resolved but more conservative and informative estimate of phylogeny than an otherwise identical, unpartitioned rDNA analysis. With the exception of the Chilean species Teutoniella cekalovici [Platnick, N.I., Forster, R.R., 1986. On Teutoniella, an American genus of the spider family Micropholcommatidae (Araneae, Palpimanoidea). Am. Mus. Novit. 2854, 1-9], the family Micropholcommatidae was found to be monophyletic with three

  15. Aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida em copas da palmeira Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dênis Battirola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis palmeiras de Attalea phalerata foram amostradas durante a fase aquática (cheia no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (fevereiro/2001, utilizando-se a metodologia de nebulização de copas "canopy fogging". Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição, distribuição espacial, guildas comportamentais, biomassa e sazonalidade da comunidade de Araneae em copas dessa palmeira que forma adensamentos monodominantes, típicos nessa região. Um total de 1326 aranhas foram coletadas em 99 m² de área amostral (13,4 + 8,2 indivíduos/m², representando 20 famílias, sendo Salticidae e Araneidae as mais abundantes. A biomassa total de 704 aranhas em três palmeiras correspondeu a 0.6172 mg de peso seco (0,0123+ 0,04 mg/m². Dez guildas comportamentais demonstraram a coexistência de diferentes espécies em um mesmo habitat. Representantes de Salticidae, Oonopidae e Ctenidae dominaram entre as caçadoras, e Araneidae e Dictynidae, dentre as tecelãs. A análise de distribuição espacial demonstrou que a maior abundância de aranhas ocorreu na região central da copa, provavelmente devido à quantidade de recursos disponíveis nesse local. A comparação desses resultados com aqueles obtidos durante o período de seca, demonstra diferenças sazonais influenciadas pelo pulso de inundação, principalmente com relação à composição das famílias amostradas entre os períodos de seca e cheia.Ecological aspects of a community of Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida at the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Six palm trees of Attalea phalerata were sampled during the aquatic phase (high water in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001 using canopy fogging. The objective was to evaluate the composition, spatial distribution, behavioural guilds, biomass and seasonality of the community of Araneae at the crowns of these palm trees, which form monospecific stands that are typical of this region. A total

  16. 华模蛛科——采自中国的蜘蛛目一新科(蛛形纲,蜘蛛目)%SINOPIMOIDAE, A NEW SPIDER FAMILY FROM CHINA (ARACHNIDA, ARANEAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枢强; WUNDERLICH J(o)rg

    2008-01-01

    The new spider family Sinopimoidae fam. nov. (Araneae, Araneoidea), with inopimoa bicolor gen. nov. et sp. nov., is described from a tropical rainforest in Southwest China.%记述了采自我国云南西双版纳雨林的1新科,华模蛛科Sinopimoidae fam.nov.,1新属,华模蛛属Sinopimoa gen.nov.,1新种,双色华模蛛Sinopimoa bicolor sp.nov..模式标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所.

  17. Composición de la fauna de Araneae (Arachnida de la Reserva provincial Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

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    Gilberto Avalos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición y diversidad de la comunidad de arañas de la Reserva provincial iberá, Corrientes, Argentina. Se realizaron capturas en bosque y pastizal en Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza y Estancia Rincón por medio de las técnicas de muestreo: trampas "pit-fall", tamizado, golpeteo de follaje, observación directa y red de arrastre. Las arañas se agruparon en gremios y se compiló un inventario. La similitud entre localidades y unidades ambientales se midió con el índice de Jaccard, y se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon, equitabilidad, dominancia de Berger-Parker, y la diversidad beta y gamma. Para estimar la riqueza de especies se utilizó Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 y 2. En total se recolectaron 4 138 arañas, se identificaron 33 familias y 150 especies de Araneomorphae, y dos familias y dos especies de Mygalomorphae. Cinco especies son nuevos registros para Argentina y 11 para la provincia de Corrientes. Araneidae fue la familia más abundante (39.8%, seguida por Salticidae (10.9%, Anyphaenidae (7.9%, Tetragnathidae (7.4%, Lycosidae (5.5%, y las restantes familias representaron menos del 5% de la captura total. El gremio de arañas tejedoras de telas orbiculares fue el de mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies. Entre las unidades ambientales, la mayor abundancia, riqueza y diversidad se verificó en el bosque de Colonia Pellegrini y en el pastizal de Paraje Galarza. La diversidad a fue alta, representó el 89% de la diversidad gamma, y la diversidad ß constituyó el 11% restante. Según los diferentes índices se capturó entre el 67% y el 97% de las especies que están presentes en la Reserva.Composition of the Araneae (Arachnida fauna of the provincial Iberá Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina. A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rincón (iberá province Reserve. Pit fall

  18. Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it or try to play with it. These spiders will not bite you unless they feel threatened — if you leave them alone, they will leave you alone. For Teens For ... Stung Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit ...

  19. Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Goodacre, Sara; Masta, Susan E; Taylor, Martin I; Arnedo, Miquel A; Penney, David; Kenny, John; Creer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput sequencing. Here we assess the effectiveness of a wide range of targeted long-range PCR strategies, encapsulating single and dual fragment primer design approaches to provide full mitogenomic coverage within the Araneae (Spiders). Despite extensive rounds of optimisation, full mitochondrial genome PCR amplifications were stochastic in most taxa, although 454 Roche sequencing confirmed the successful amplification of 10 mitochondrial genomes out of the 33 trialled species. The low success rates of amplification using long-Range PCR highlights the difficulties in consistently obtaining genomic amplifications using currently available DNA polymerases optimised for large genomic amplifications and suggests that there may be opportunities for the use of alternative amplification methods.

  20. Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Briscoe

    Full Text Available The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput sequencing. Here we assess the effectiveness of a wide range of targeted long-range PCR strategies, encapsulating single and dual fragment primer design approaches to provide full mitogenomic coverage within the Araneae (Spiders. Despite extensive rounds of optimisation, full mitochondrial genome PCR amplifications were stochastic in most taxa, although 454 Roche sequencing confirmed the successful amplification of 10 mitochondrial genomes out of the 33 trialled species. The low success rates of amplification using long-Range PCR highlights the difficulties in consistently obtaining genomic amplifications using currently available DNA polymerases optimised for large genomic amplifications and suggests that there may be opportunities for the use of alternative amplification methods.

  1. Die epigäische Spinnenzönose (Araneae auf Schotterbänken der Mittelgebirgsbäche und -flüsse im Rheinischen Schiefergebirge

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    Smit, Janna

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider communities on gravel bars along streams in lower montainous areas of Northern Hess were investigated. Eight streams differently altered by human impact were studied: four small streams without weirs and impoundments, two regulated small streams and two larger regulated streams. The sampling sites were located in one kilometer streches of the upper, middle and lower reach of each small stream, respectively. In addition the gravel bars in several floodplain sections of larger streams were investigated. Altogether 592 quantitative samples of spiders were made. 7027 spiders (Araneae comprising 77 species were encountered. Only two species (Oedothorax agrestis, Pirata knorri make up more than 70 percent of all spiders captured. Erigone atra and Erigone dentipalpis were frequently foung along all streams investigated. While Diplocephalus permixtus and Diplocephalus protuberans were only encountered along the small streams, Oedothorax retusus and Pardosa amentata were predominantly recorded on gravelbars of large streams. Diplocephalus protuberans was recorded for the first time in Hesse. The mean abundances (median ranged between 4 and 28 individuals/m2. 198 individuals/m2 have been the maximum of abundance.

  2. Preliminary review of Indian Eumenophorinae (Araneae: Theraphosidae with description of a new genus and five new species from the Western Ghats.

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    Zeeshan A Mirza

    Full Text Available The theraphosid spider genera Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Neoheterophrictus Siliwal & Raven, 2012 are rediagnosed in this paper and a new genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. is described from Southern Western Ghats. Four new species (two each of Heterophrictus and Neoheterophrictus and one of Sahydroaraneus gen. nov. are described from the Western Ghats. Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 is removed from the synonymy of Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900 and is treated as a junior synonym of Heterophrictus blatteri (Gravely, 1935. Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 is transferred to the genus Neoheterophrictus, Neoheterophrictus bhori (Gravely, 1915 new combination. The genus, Sahydroaraneus gen. nov., resembles tarantula belonging to the genus, Neoheterophrictus but differs with respect to structure of tibial apophysis and spermathecae. Detailed ultra-structure of setae type of the Indian Eumenophorinae is presented for the first time along with notes on their biogeography. Common elements among Africa, Madagascar and India like the Eumenophorinae and several other mygalomorph spiders advocate mygalomorphae as an important group for evolutionary investigation due to their inability for long distance dispersal rendering the members restrictive in distribution.

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XIX. B-type Supergiants - Atmospheric Parameters and Nitrogen Abundances to Investigate the Role of Binarity and the Width of the Main Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    McEvoy, C M; Evans, C J; Kalari, V M; Markova, N; Simón-Díaz, S; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R; Crowther, P A; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Dunstall, P R; Hénault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Schneider, F R N; Taylor, W D

    2014-01-01

    TLUSTY non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen (N) abundances for 34 single and 18 binary B-type supergiants (BSGs). The effects of flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of BSGs across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the BSGs it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities (vsini) and N abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post RSG objects. For the BSGs in the Tarantula and previous FLAMES surveys, most have small vsini. About 10% have larger vsini (>100 km/s) but surprisingly these show little or no N enhancement. All the cooler BSGs have low vsini of <70km/s and high N abundance estimates, implying t...

  4. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  5. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., Avicularia lynnae sp. n., and Avicularia caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected

  6. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyraporagen. n., Caribenagen. n., and Antillenagen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianaesp. n., Avicularia lynnaesp. n., and Avicularia caeisp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate

  7. Araneofauna (Arachnida: Araneae en cultivos de algodón (Gossypium hirsutum transgénicos y convencionales en el norte de Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Melina Soledad Almada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt, algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC y con control químico (ALCCC. Semanalmente, se capturaron arañas, con una red entomológica de arrastre, paño vertical de 1m y trampas de caída. Asimismo se recolectaron 1 255 ejemplares (16 familias y 32 especies. Siete familias se presentaron en los tres tratamientos, donde predomino Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04% y Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%. El gremio cazadoras por emboscada (n=1 053, 83.91%, “Tejedoras de telas orbiculares” (n=85, 6.77% y “Cazadoras al acecho” (n=53, 4.22% fueron las más abundantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en los índices de diversidad entre tratamientos. Las arañas se presentaron durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, con picos en las semanas de floración y madurez de las capsulas, además la mayor abundancia la encontramos en el ALBt. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro sobre la comunidad de arañas en cultivos de algodón para Argentina.Arachnofauna (Araneae: Araneae in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypiumhirsutum in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina. Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt, conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC, and

  8. The stridulatory setae of Acanthoscurria suina (Araneae, Theraphosidae and their possible role in sexual communication: an experimental approach Las setas estridulatorias de Acanthoscurria suina (Araneae, Theraphosidae y su posible rol en la comunicación sexual: una aproximación experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pérez-Miles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialized setae placed on proximal segments of appendages in tarantulas have been related to sound production (stridulation, used in defense or sexual communication. The surface structure of called stridulatory setae of Acanthoscurria suina Pocock, 1903 was studied by SEM. Three morphological types of setae were recognized and at least two of them could be involved in stridulation. Their role in sexual communication was tested by experimental removal. Our results showed no differences in the sexual success between the setaeless and control individuals. Consequently, a defensive function for stridulatory setae seems to be more likely than a sexual function.Las setas especializadas que las tarántulas presentan en los segmentos proximales de los apéndices han sido relacionadas con la producción de sonidos (estridulación, utilizados en defensa o comunicación sexual. La estructura superficial de las setas llamadas estridulatorias en Acanthoscurria suina Pocock, 1903 fue estudiada mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Tres patrones morfológicos de setas fueron reconocidos y al menos dos de ellos podrían estar involucrados en la estridulación. Su rol en la comunicación sexual fue estudiado mediante remoción experimental. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias en el éxito sexual entre individuos sin setas e individuos control. Consecuentemente, parece más probable una función defensiva que sexual para dichas setas.

  9. Identification and Characterization of ProTx-III [μ-TRTX-Tp1a], a New Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Inhibitor from Venom of the Tarantula Thrixopelma pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda C; Dekan, Zoltan; Rosengren, K Johan; Erickson, Andelain; Vetter, Irina; Deuis, Jennifer R; Herzig, Volker; Alewood, Paul F; King, Glenn F; Lewis, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Spider venoms are a rich source of ion channel modulators with therapeutic potential. Given the analgesic potential of subtype-selective inhibitors of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels, we screened spider venoms for inhibitors of human NaV1.7 (hNaV1.7) using a high-throughput fluorescent assay. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel NaV1.7 inhibitor, μ-TRTX-Tp1a (Tp1a), isolated from the venom of the Peruvian green-velvet tarantula Thrixopelma pruriens. Recombinant and synthetic forms of this 33-residue peptide preferentially inhibited hNaV1.7 > hNaV1.6 > hNaV1.2 > hNaV1.1 > hNaV1.3 channels in fluorescent assays. NaV1.7 inhibition was diminished (IC50 11.5 nM) and the association rate decreased for the C-terminal acid form of Tp1a compared with the native amidated form (IC50 2.1 nM), suggesting that the peptide C terminus contributes to its interaction with hNaV1.7. Tp1a had no effect on human voltage-gated calcium channels or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at 5 μM. Unlike most spider toxins that modulate NaV channels, Tp1a inhibited hNaV1.7 without significantly altering the voltage dependence of activation or inactivation. Tp1a proved to be analgesic by reversing spontaneous pain induced in mice by intraplantar injection in OD1, a scorpion toxin that potentiates hNaV1.7. The structure of Tp1a as determined using NMR spectroscopy revealed a classic inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif. The molecular surface of Tp1a presents a hydrophobic patch surrounded by positively charged residues, with subtle differences from other ICK spider toxins that might contribute to its different pharmacological profile. Tp1a may help guide the development of more selective and potent hNaV1.7 inhibitors for treatment of chronic pain.

  10. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y

  11. Short and long-term effects of three neurotoxic insecticides on biological and behavioural attributes of the orb-web spider Alpaida veniliae (Araneae, Araneidae): implications for IPM programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamú, Marco A; Schneider, Marcela I; González, Alda; Sánchez, Norma E

    2013-09-01

    Soybean pest control in Argentina is done just by chemical control using broad-spectrum pesticides. Alpaida veniliae (Araneae, Araneidae) is one of the most abundant spider species of the orb web weaver guild in soybean, and it is considered a very important polyphagous predator, attacking different insects' families. The objective of this study was to determine if neurotoxic insecticides commonly used in soybean crops and a new active ingredient registered in Argentina (spinosad) adversely affected survival, prey consumption, mating behaviour, web building and reproductive capacity of A. veniliae females, under standard laboratory conditions. Spinosad was the most harmful insecticide due to high acute toxicity, even at lower concentrations than those registered for its field use and for its sublethal effects also. Cypermethrin caused several sublethal effects although its acute toxicity on spider was lower than other insecticides. It reduced prey consumption, affected web building, caused abnormalities in eggs sacs and decreased drastically the fecundity and fertility at sublethal concentrations. Endosulfan did not reduce prey consumption but it affected web building, caused abnormalities in eggs sacs and egg masses, and decreased the fecundity and fertility. Spinosad was also the compound with the most drastic effect on web building, it did not reduce prey consumption and fecundity, but fertility was reduced and abnormalities in egg sacs and egg masses were observed. The use of these insecticides in IPM programs according to their potential toxicity on spider communities is discussed.

  12. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

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    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  13. 海南捕鸟蛛毒素-Ⅵ,一种新型的抑制昆虫电压门控钠通道失活的狼蛛神经毒素%Hainantoxin-Ⅵ, A Novel Tarantula Neurotoxin Inhibiting Insect Voltage-gated Sodium Channel Inactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞兰; 潘建议; 肖玉成; 王美迟; 梁宋平

    2008-01-01

    The neurotoxin peptide, hainantoxin-Ⅵ (HNTX- Ⅵ), has been isolated from the venom of Chinese tarantula Ornithoconus hainana by a combination of ion exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The toxin was found to contain 34 amino acid residues with 6 conserved cysteine residues. The effects of HNTX-VI on voltage-gated sodium channels were studied via whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Although several inhibitors of mammalian neuronal sodium channel activation (hainantoxin Ⅰ-Ⅴ) had been characterized from the same venom, the present study indicated that HNTX-Ⅵ had the ability to slow the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channels in Cockroach Periplaneta Americana dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons in a similar manner to δ-atractoxins. After HNTX-Ⅵ treatment, steady-state sodium channel inactivation became incomplete, leading to a non-inactivating component at potentials more positive than - 55 mV. The novel function of the tarantula toxin HNTX-Ⅵ not only supplies a useful tool for exploring the gating mechanisms of sodium channels but also provides theoretical foundations for exploiting novel and safe insecticides.%通过阳离子交换和反相HPLC柱层析从海南捕鸟蛛(Ornithoconus hainana)粗毒中分离到一种新型的神经毒素,海南捕鸟蛛毒素-Ⅵ(HNTX-Ⅵ),由34个氨基酸残基组成,含有6个保守的半胱氨酸残基.运用全细胞膜片钳技术,研究了HNTX-Ⅵ对电压门控钠通道的影响.先前从海南捕鸟蛛粗毒中分离到的几种毒素,具有抑制哺乳动物钠通道激活的特性.本文研究结果表明,HNTX-Ⅵ能以类似于δ-atractoxins作用方式延缓蜚蠊背侧不成对中间(dorsal unpaired median,DUM)神经细胞的钠通道的失活,且导致钠通道稳态失活变得不完全,在预钳制电压大于-55 mV时形成不完全失活结构.HNTX-Ⅵ的这种新的功能不仅为探索钠通道的门控机制提供了有用的工具,也为开发新的安全的杀虫剂提供理论基础.

  14. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

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    Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula, a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient

  15. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field

  16. Community structure and composition of litter spiders (Arachnida: Araneae and influence of macro-climatic factors on Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Castro Santana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spiders are a diverse group and are considered to be good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to variation in biotic and abiotic factors.  Despite this the taxonomy of the Araneae is poorly known, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions.  The use of spider guilds can improve our understanding of the dynamics of spider communities, and in this paper we analyse the influence of climatic factors on guilds and species dominance of spiders within the leaf litter layer of a semi-deciduous forest in the tropical savanna Cerrado, Brazil. The study site was Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, a fragment of 90ha, in Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil.  Spiders were sampled from November 2006 to August 2007 using pitfall traps that remained open for seven days on each of four occasions.  Overall 4139 spiders from 35 families and 118 species were collected. The main families were Salticidae (28%, Linyphiidae (27%, Lycosidae (12% and Theridiidae (11%.  In terms of richness the main families were: Theridiidae, Salticidae, Corinnidae and Araneidae, with 18, 16, 15 and 13 species respectively. The overall Shannon-Wiener (H’ diversity was 3.6. The rainy season showed higher values than the dry season for abundance (2,868 and 1,271 respectively, richness (100 and 71 and diversity (3,296 and 3,237.  The families Theridiidae, Corinnidae and Salticidae presented more species in both dry and wet seasons.  Observed climatic variation (rainfall, humidity and temperature between seasons influenced the community structure of ground-dwelling spiders. 

  17. Notes on Mediterranean Theridiidae (Araneae – II

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    Barbara Knoflach

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic and faunistic amendments are provided for 15 species and one subspecies of comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae of the Mediterranean region, in the genera Anatolidion, Episinus, Heterotheridion, Theridion and Theridula. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Anatolidion osmani Wunderlich, 2008 and Theridion crinigerum Simon, 1881 are synonymised with T. gentile Simon, 1881, making it the type species of the monotypic genus Anatolidion Wunderlich, 2008. Episinus albescens Denis, 1965 is synonymised with E. algiricus Lucas, 1846, Theridion xinjiangense (Hu & Wu, 1989 with Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873. Theridion aelleni Hubert, 1970 is removed from synonymy of Theridion spinitarse O. P.-Cambridge, 1876 and transferred to Theridula. The recent transfer of Theridion pinicola Simon, 1873 and T. genistae Simon, 1873 into Paidiscura has to be rejected. Theridion genistae turanicum Charitonov, 1946 from Uzbekistan is raised to species level. New faunistic records are presented for Theridion pinicola from North Africa, Anatolidion gentile, Theridion genistae and T. hemerobium from Greece. Several poorly known (sub-species are redescribed: Anatolidion gentile, Episinus maculipes numidicus Kulczynski, 1905, Theridion genistae, T. glaucinum Simon, 1881, T. musivum Simon, 1873, T. pinicola, T. pyrenaeum Denis, 1944, T. semitinctum Simon, 1914 and T. spinitarse O. P.-Cambridge, 1876.

  18. Selten nachgewiesene Spinnenarten aus Deutschland (Arachnida: Araneae

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    Jäger, Peter

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Some interesting records collected from 1990 to 1999 are reported. First records of Holocnemus pluchei for Rheinland-Pfalz and Baden-Württemberg and of Uloborus plumipes for Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein are listed. The occurrence of Heteropoda venatoria in Germany is confirmed by recent records in warmhouses in Berlin. Pardosa saturatior is collected from the Bavarian part of the Alps (National Park Berchtesgaden. Information on biology and taxonomy of Pardosa saturatior, Holocnemus pluchei and Heteropoda venatoria are given.

  19. Desarrollo postembrionario de Latrodectus variegatus (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Iife cicle of Latrodectus variegatus from cocoons collected in Bariloche, Argentina, is described. In stage IV (first free stage) 361 individually bred spiders were isolated and fed Drosophila melanogaster in the juvenile stage and Musca domestica after wards. "Stage 1" is the stage following eclosion. For the study of survival, and average Iife expectancy, a week wa The Iife cicle of Latrodectus variegatus from cocoons collected in Bariloche, Argentina, is described. In stage IV (firs...

  20. Comportamiento sexual de Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae

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    Marco A. Benamú

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.

  1. Latrodectus mactans nach Deutschland eingeschleppt (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.

  2. Latrodectus mactans nach Deutschland eingeschleppt (Araneae: Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775 was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.

  3. Latrodectus mactans nach Deutschland eingeschleppt (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) was recorded from Germany. The species was most likely introduced with cargo from Chicago, USA. Characters of the single female are illustrated for future identification.

  4. Taxonomic notes on Agroeca (Araneae, Liocranidae

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    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroeca gaunitzi Tullgren, 1952 is stated here to be a junior synonym of A. proxima (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871. The illustrations of the male palp attributed to A. proxima in papers by Tullgren of 1946 and 1952 in fact show A. inopina O. P.-Cambridge, 1886. The record of A. inopina from Finland, quite outside its known distribution range, was based on a misidentification. It is argued that the type species of the genus Agroeca Westring, 1861 should be A. proxima (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871, not A. brunnea (Blackwall, 1833 as currently applied. Protagroeca Lohmander, 1944 is placed as an objective synonym of Agroeca Westring, 1861.

  5. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

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    Bauer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  6. A revision of Neodiplothele (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Barychelidae

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    Hector M.O. Gonzalez-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Sasoninae Neodiplothele Mello-Leitão, 1917 is revised and now includes eight species. Neodiplothele can be distinguished from other Sasoninae by the absence of the posterior median spinnerets and differs Neotropical relatives as Cosmopelma by the absence of cuspules on coxae of leg I and Paracenobiopelma by the absence of cuspules on the labium. The male of N. irregularis Mello-Leitão, 1917 and N. picta Vellard, 1924 are described and illustrated for the first time. Neodiplothele leonardosi Mello-Leitão, 1939 is considered a junior synonym of N. irregularis. Five new species are described from Brazil: N. aureus sp. nov. from the states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, and Minas Gerais, N. itabaiana sp. nov. from Sergipe, N. martinsi sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Minas Gerais, N. indicattii sp. nov. from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, N. caucaia sp. nov. from Ceará, Goiás, and Mato Grosso do Sul. Two informal groups are proposed based on genitalia morphology: irregularis group and picta group. An identification key and new distribution records for all known species are given.

  7. Comportamiento sexual de Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae Sexual behavior of Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae

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    Marco A. Benamú

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (courtship, mating and post-mating of A. veniliae. The spiders were collected in transgenic soybean crops located in Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and reared under laboratory conditions. Based on observations of 20 couples (with virgin females, behavioral units of male and female in terms of postures and movements, including details on duration and frequency, were described at all stages of sexual activity (courtship, mating and post-mating. Courtship exhibited the greatest number and duration of behavioral units in both sexes. Male and female had a sequence of 16 and nine units, respectively, being the frequency of repetitions of the units significantly higher in the male. Mating was brief and males used a single palp to fill only one of the female spermathecae, after which the female became unreceptive. Mating had two behavioral units in the male and only one in the female. During post-mating males had three and females two behavioral units. The average duration of the whole sexual behavior was 541.90±123.1 seconds for the male and 338.20±74.1 seconds for the female. Alpaida veniliae females rarely accept a second mating with the same or another male (remating, indicating a strict monogamy. In 46% of observed mating, the female cannibalized the male after it. Females became unattractive after mating, since stop producing sex pheromones, causing a reduction of the male vibratory courtship. The high cost of courtship, including the risk of cannibalism, would reinforce the selectivity of males towards receptive virgin females.

  8. Kleptoparasites or commensals? Effects of Argyrodes antipodianus (Araneae: Theridiidae) on Nephila plumipes (Araneae: Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grostal, Paul; Walter, David Evans

    1997-08-01

    Argyrodes antipodianus is a small kleptobiotic spider that steals prey from webs of the large orb-weaving spider Nephila plumipes, and sometimes removes the web itself. We used experiments in a greenhouse to test how the presence of the kleptobiont, differences in food availability, and web damage affected fitness of the web owner. After 49 days, N. plumipes with four A. antipodianus on their webs gained 55% less weight and relocated their webs 4.5 times as often as spiders with no kleptobionts. Increased web relocation and decreased weight gain may have resulted from reduced prey levels or from web damage by A. antipodianus. A second experiment demonstrated that hosts gained weight at the feeding rate used in the first experiment, but not at lower rates. Web relocation rate also varied with feeding rate, but in a non-linear manner. Web loss was evaluated in a separate experiment, by manually removing one-quarter of the web every 5 days for 30 days; however, neither weight gain nor rate of web relocation were affected. We conclude that A. antipodianus is a true kleptoparasite that can reduce the growth rate of its host N. plumipes, but that neither food theft nor web damage alone explain increased web relocation rates.

  9. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  10. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Crespo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841 and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island.

  11. Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneae) op akkers - biologie en plaagbestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Helsdingen, van P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spinnen vormen een soortenrijke groep van predatoren. In vrijwel geen terrestrisch habitattype ontbreken soorten uit deze orde. Door hun kolonisatiesnelheid en de diversiteit aan prooivangsttechnieken kunnen spinnen van groot belang zijn voor plaagbestrijding op akkers. In deze bijdrage behandelen w

  12. Color pattern changes in Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae

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    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 presents ontogenetic changes of its coloration pattern throughout its development. After emergence from the eggs, spiderlings are bluish, with metallic and/or iridescent nuances. The juveniles have a vertically directed black stripe in the central region of abdomen dorsum and three horizontally directed black stripes in the abdomen dorsum. Adults are completely black. These coloration differences between juveniles and adults of the same species appear to be a strategy to avoid the intraspecific competition.Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 apresenta mudanças ontogenéticas no seu padrão de coloração. Após emergirem dos ovos, as pequenas aranhas são azuladas, com nuances metálicas. Os juvenis possuem uma listra negra na região central do dorso do abdômen orientada no sentido vertical e três listras negras no dorso do abdômen orientadas horizontalmente. Os adultos são totalmente negros. Acredita-se que a diferença na coloração entre indivíduos de instares diferentes dentro de uma mesma espécie seja uma estratégia para se evitar a competição intraespecífica.

  13. Three new species of Neodrassex (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from Brazil

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    Ricardo Ott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Neodrassex Ott, 2012 are described from Brazil: N. cachimbo sp. nov. from state of Pará, N. nordeste sp. nov. from state of Piauí and N. ibirapuita sp. nov. from state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  14. A new species of Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Pedro de S. Castanheira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alpaida venger sp. nov. is described based on males and females from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This species seems to be related to Alpaida scriba (Mello-Leitão, 1940 and Alpaida alticeps (Keyserling, 1879 due to similar body shape and color, but is easily distinguished by the very elongated median apophysis, the massive lobe of tegulum and the hooked paracymbium of male palp. Females have elongated epigyne as A. scriba, but can be distinguished by the wider lips and shorter scape.

  15. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  16. Novo gênero Neotropical de Spintharinae (Araneae, Theridiidae

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    Maria Aparecida L. Marques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neopisinus gen. nov. é proposto com designação da espécie-tipo Neopisisnus fiapo sp. nov., com base em ambos os sexos, do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Neopisinus distingue-se de todos os gêneros de Spintharinae pelo palpo do macho com enorme condutor trífido, com duas projeções afiladas e uma com ápice bifurcado; pela forma característica da apófise tegular de theridioideos com um lobo terminal e outro dorsal. Nas fêmeas, epígino com aberturas inconspícuas junto à fenda transversal no terço anterior e, internamente, por um espessamento mediano-longitudinal tubular, por onde correm os ductos de copulação em seu percurso inicial. Neopisinus urucu sp. nov. é descrita do norte do Brasil, com base em ambos os sexos. Sete espécies são transferidas de Episinus para Neopisinus: N. bigibbosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1896, N. bruneoviridis (Mello-Leitão, 1948, N. cognatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1893, N. gratiosus (Bryant, 1940, N. longipes (Keyserling, 1884, N. putus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1894 e N. recifensis (Levi, 1964. São descritos pela primeira vez o macho de N. longipes e a fêmea de N. recifensis. Novas ocorrências e ilustrações são apresentadas para N. bruneoviridis.

  17. Vision in the nocturnal wandering spider Leucorchestris arenicola (Araneae: Sparassidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R

    2008-01-01

    in the posterior and anteriomedian eyes, and at approximately 540 nm in the anteriolateral eyes. Theoretical calculations of photon catches showed that the eyes are likely to employ a combination of spatial and temporal pooling in order to function at night. Under starlit conditions, the raw spatial and temporal...

  18. Walckenaeria simplex neu für Deutschland (Araneae, Linyphiidae

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    Kielhorn, Karl-Hinrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The rare money spider Walckenaeria simplex Chyzer, 1894 was found in 2007 near the city of Meißen (Germany on a rock overlooking the river Elbe. This is the northernmost occurrence of the species. W. simplex is distributed from Central to South Eastern Europe. The species is thermophilous and prefers wooded slopes with a southern exposition.

  19. Two new Tegenaria species (Araneae: Agelenidae) from Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolzern, Angelo; Crespo, Luís; Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel

    2009-01-01

    The genera complex Tegenaria/Malthonica is a problematic spider group of the family Agelenidae. Besides taxonomical problems, new European species are described on a regular basis. Here two species from Portugal, Tegenaria barrientosi sp. n. and Tegenaria incognita sp. n., are described. Both...

  20. A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127

  1. Aberrante Epigynenbildungen bei der Wolfspinne Pardosa palustris (Araneae, Lycosidae

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    Martin, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of aberrant epigyne shape in Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758 are described. Characteristic is the absence of the posterior lateral parts of the septum. Possible causes, such as `genital damage` during mating or the effects of parasite infestation, are discussed.

  2. Back in Europe: Quamtana spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae in Germany

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    Huber, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two undescribed species of the African pholcid spider genus Quamtana have been found in German greenhouses and plant markets since 2012. Both species seem to have established stable populations. This genus has not been previously recorded from Europe, except for a fossil specimen in Eocene amber from the Paris Basin that was tentatively assigned to Quamtana and that is estimated to date from 53 million years ago. Since the actual geographic origins of the two species (probably South and/or tropical Africa are unknown, we do not formally describe them.

  3. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae in Australia and Asia

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    Sarah Crews

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spider family Selenopidae Simon occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, currently containing nearly 200 species in five genera. We relimit and revise the family to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and Asia. The family Selenopidae is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul and Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous errors in the definition. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: S. bursarius Karsch, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, S. ollarius Zhu, Sha, and Chen, and S. radiatus Latreille, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha, and Chen is recognized as a junior synonym of S. radiatus, syn. n. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with A. baginawa sp. n., and is known only from the Philippine island of Mindoro. Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with G. careus sp. n., and is known only from Papua New Guinea. Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and has 24 species: K. australiensis (L. Koch comb. n., K. gangarie sp. n., K. monteithi sp. n., K. alanlongbottomi sp. n., K. keithlongbottomi sp. n., K. larryoo sp. n., K. jarrit sp. n., K. marrayagong sp. n., K. raveni sp. n., K. badgeradda sp. n., K. burbidgei sp. n., K. karrawarla sp. n., K. julianneae sp. n., K. martamarta sp. n., K. manaayn sp. n., K. vadlaadambara sp. n., K. pilkingtoni sp. n., K. deserticola sp. n., K. ngarutjaranya sp. n., K. francesae sp. n., K. toolbrunup sp. n., the type species K. ellenae sp. n., K. jenniferae sp. n., and K. dawara sp. n. The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal: M. agumbensis (Tikader, comb. n., the type of the genus M. mahishasura sp. n., M. montigenus (Simon, comb. n., M. nilgirensis (Reimoser comb. n., and M. shiva sp. n. The genus Pakawops gen. n. is monotypic and contains P. formosanus (Kayashima comb. n. known only from Taiwan. Finally, Selenops aculeatus Simon is transferred to the genus Siamspinops, forming the new combination S. aculeatus (Simon comb. n. The distribution and diversity of the Australasian selenopid fauna is discussed. Keys are provided to all of the selenopid genera and to the species of Karaops and Makdiops.

  4. Miscellaneous notes on European and African Cheiracanthium species (Araneae: Miturgidae

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    Bayer, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The African species Cheiracanthium furculatum Karsch, 1879 was recognised as being introduced to Germany and is re-described and illustrated in the present study. C. tenuipes Roewer, 1961 is recognised as a junior synonym of C. africanum Lessert, 1921 (new synonymy; both subspecies of C. strasseni Strand, 1915, namely C. strasseni strasseni Strand, 1915 and C. strasseni aharonii Strand, 1915, are recognised as junior synonyms of C. mildei L. Koch, 1864 (new synonymies. Photographic images of the copulatory organs of the types of C. cretense Roewer, 1928, recently synonymised with C. mildei, are provided and discussed in the course of intraspecific variation in C. mildei. The female holotype of C. rehobothense Strand, 1915 is re-described and illustrated. Relations of C. rehobothense to other Cheiracanthium species are discussed.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the spider family Penestomidae (Araneae, Entelegynae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Haddad, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting character evidence and a scarcity of male specimens has historically made placement of the spider subfamily Penestominae Simon problematic. The Penestominae was recently removed from the family Eresidae and promoted to family rank based on the results of a molecular phylogenetic study; a

  6. Loxosceles spider bite in Turkey (Loxosceles rufescens, Sicariidae, Araneae

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    N. Yigit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Loxoscelism is caused by envenomation by spiders that belong to the Loxosceles genus. In loxoscelism, a local necrotic lesion appears and, in many cases, loxoscelism or necrotic araneism is considered a serious public health problem. There is no diagnostic test available to help the physician make a diagnostic or therapeutic decision. Here, we report the case of a severe dermonecrotic araneism (loxoscelism in Turkey probably due to the bite of Loxosceles rufescens. There was little erythema at the beginning, followed by severe necrosis after 20 days, and skin grafting was needed although the case was treated.

  7. Envenomation by spiders of the genus Hololena (Araneae: Agelenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2012-09-01

    Three verified bites from Hololena spiders (Family Agelenidae) are presented here. Two male victims, each over 100 kg weight (bitten by female spiders), experienced headaches and 4-h episodes of vomiting. A female bite victim (bitten by a male spider) experienced minor reaction. None sought medical attention; symptoms resolved in a few days. Although these incidents were not serious, reactions in the male victims were more dynamic than usual generic spider bites (minor edema, minor erythema). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Lycosidae and Pisauridae (Araneae) of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1959-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this paper the species of spiders belonging to the families Lycosidae and Pisauridae, known from the Netherlands, are described and figured. In addition a number of species, which possibly may occur in the Netherlands though they have not yet been found here hitherto, are mentioned i

  9. Reproductive behavior and seasonal occurrence of Psecas viridipurpureus (Salticidae, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa-Feres; Romero; Gonçalves-De- Freitas E; Feres

    2000-05-01

    The reproductive behavior and the seasonal occurrence of Psecas viridipurpureus were studied at the Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista, a small conservation area in the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil (49 degrees 22'50"W and 20 degrees 48'36"S). P. viridipurpureus occurred on "gravatá", a bromeliaceous plant (Bromelia balansae, Bromeliaceae) which does not accumulate rain water. During the courtship display the couple occupied the median region of the "gravatá" leaves, with the male always located in a higher position than the female. The males of P. viridipurpureus showed a complex courtship behavior, which included five motor patterns. The courtship and mating behavior occurred preponderantly during the rainy season and the juvenile recruitment between December and July. The retreat of P. viridipurpureus differs from the Salticidae pattern, since the egg sacs are covered with a plain silk cover and are not wrapped in cocoons.

  10. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

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    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  11. Food caching in orb-web spiders (Araneae: Araneoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion de Crespigny, Fleur E.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Caching or storing surplus prey may reduce the risk of starvation during periods of food deprivation. While this behaviour occurs in a variety of birds and mammals, it is infrequent among invertebrates. However, golden orb-web spiders, Nephila edulis, incorporate a prey cache in their relatively permanent web, which they feed on during periods of food shortage. Heavier spiders significantly reduced weight loss if they were able to access a cache, but lost weight if the cache was removed. The presence or absence of stored prey had no effect on the weight loss of lighter spiders. Furthermore, N. edulis always attacked new prey, irrespective of the number of unprocessed prey in the web. In contrast, females of Argiope keyserlingi, who build a new web every day and do not cache prey, attacked fewer new prey items if some had already been caught. Thus, a necessary pre-adaptation to the evolution of prey caching in orb-web spiders may be a durable or permanent web, such as that constructed by Nephila.

  12. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Berlandiella (Araneae, Philodromidae

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    Arno Antonio Lise

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Berlandiella Mello-Leitão, 1929 is revised and the three known species, Berlandiella insignis Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Rio de Janeiro, B. magna Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, and B. polyacantha Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, are redescribed and illustrated. Lectotypes for Berlandiella insignis, B. magna and B. polyacantha are designated. Descriptions and illustrations of three new species are presented: B. robertae sp. nov. (Brazil and Argentina, B. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brazil and B. querencia sp. nov. (Brazil. The geographical distribution of the representatives of the genus is presented.

  13. Spiders (Araneae) in the pesticide world: an ecotoxicological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano

    2012-11-01

    Being one of the most abundant and species-rich groups of natural enemies occurring in all agroecosystems, spiders are variably affected by pesticide applications. Here, a review is given of research on spider ecotoxicology. More than 40 species of spiders and almost 130 pesticides (acaricides, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides) have been tested so far in the field or under laboratory conditions. Field studies show that the degree of population reduction following pesticide application is a function of a number of factors inherent to pesticides, crops and spider species (guilds). These studies also revealed indirect effects via habitat and prey disruption. Among laboratory studies, a number of papers have investigated only the direct lethal effect. A meta-analysis of these data reveals that spiders are mainly affected by acaricides and insecticides, particularly neurotoxic substances. Currently, ecotoxicological research on spiders is focused more on direct sublethal effects on a variety of behavioural traits (locomotion, predation, web-building, reproduction, development) and physiology. Yet a standardised approach to the evaluation of sublethal effects is lacking. A few studies have provided some evidence for hormesis in spiders. Future research should be more concentrated on sublethal effects and the estimation of long-term changes in spider populations as a result of pesticide treatment. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Morphological separation of the Central European Trochosa females (Araneae, Lycosidae

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    Hepner, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult females of the five Central European wolf spiders Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, T. robusta (Simon, 1876, T. ruricola (DeGeer, 1778, T. spinipalpis (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1895, and T. terricola Thorell, 1856 were morphologically analysed. We defined sets of continuous and binary (presence/absence variables. Continuous data of various epigynal and carapace dimensions were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Using the PC loadings each individual was plotted along the PC axis in order to find gaps(overlaps between the species. The binary data sets were subjected to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA in order to find characters that clearly separate the five Trochosa species. Using PCA only individuals of T.robusta and T.ruricola and of T.robusta and T.hispanica could be separated from each other. Using HCA all five species could clearly be separated by epigynal and vulval characteristics."

  15. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  16. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) Of Milbridge, Washington County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings; Frank Jr. Graham

    2007-01-01

    An inventory or spiders associated with diverse habitats of Milbridge, a 6,290-ha area of the East Coastal BioPhysical Region, yielded 6,979 individuals of 19 families, 145 genera, and 302 species (4 unknown). Species richness per genus ranged from 1 to 13, with 88 genera represented by a single species. Total species composition favored web spinners over hunters;...

  17. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  18. The deep phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae

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    Wayne Maddison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to resolve better the deep relationships among salticid spiders, we compiled and analyzed a molecular dataset of 169 salticid taxa (and 7 outgroups and 8 gene regions. This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes – wingless and myosin heavy chain. Both of these genes, and especially the better sampled wingless, confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes. The cocalodines are placed as sister to lapsiines, in a broader clade with the spartaeines. Cocalodines, lapsiines, and spartaeines are each supported as monophyletic, though the first two have no known morphological synapomorphies. The lyssomanines appear to be non-monophyletic, of three separate groups: (1 Lyssomanes plus Chinoscopus, (2 Onomastus, and (3 the remainder of Old World species. Several previously-inferred relationships continue to be supported: hisponines as sister to the Salticoida, Amycoida as sister to the remaining Salticoida, and Saltafresia as monophyletic. The relationship of Salticus with Philaeus and relatives is now considered well enough corroborated to move the latter into the subfamily Salticinae. A new clade consisting of the Plexippoida + Aelurilloida + Leptorchesteae + Salticinae is recognized. Nungia is found to be an astioid, and Echeclus, Gedea and Diplocanthopoda to be hasariines. The euophryines are corroborated as monophyletic. The agoriines Agorius and Synagelides are salticoids, within the sister group to amycoids, but their further placement is problematical, perhaps because of their nuclear ribosomal genes’ high GC bias, as also seen in the similarly problematic Eupoa.

  19. Boden- und baumstammbewohnende Linyphiidae des Hienheimer Forstes (Bayern (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Ulrich

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of a forest ecology research project by the University of Munich’s faculty of Forestry, involving the comparison of forests designed to reflect varying degrees of naturalness. Spiders on the ground and on trunks in four different forests in the Hienheimer Forst were caught with 24 ground photo eclectors, 8 arboreal eclectors and with 40 pitfall traps. Habitat requirements were measured and analysed with particular attention to forest soil. Abiotic parameters and the structure of the litter layer were recorded. The most frequent spiders were the Linyphiidae, Agelenidae and Amaurobidae.63 species of the family Linyphiidae were caught. One half of the Linyphiidae-species could be found on trunks of oak and spruce (eclector fauna. In terms of the number of spider species and in the portion of rare and endangered species there were almost no differences between commercial forest areas and conservation areas. The differences are not as great as the original classification according to closeness to the natural state had led us to expect.

  20. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

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    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  1. Two new Thiratoscirtus species from Gabon (Araneae, Salticidae, Thiratoscirtinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of jumping spiders, Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri (♂ and Th. lamboji (♀, are described from Gabon, one of the least explored areas of the Afrotropics. Both species live in rainforest, at the forest floor. They are members of a very poorly known subfamily of salticids, the Thiratoscirtinae.

  2. Nopyllus, a new South American Drassodinae spider genus (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nopyllus gen. nov. is proposed to include Apopyllus isabelae Brescovit & Lise, 1993 and Nopyllus vicente sp. nov. from southern Brazil. Nopyllus gen. nov. is close to Apodrassodes Vellard, 1924 and Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984, can be distinguished from both genera by the absence of a dorsal abdominal scutum in males, the absence of a median apophysis on bulb, the curved, narrow and reniform cymbium, and by the presence of a very conspicuous cymbial basal projection.

  3. Erster Nachweis der Springspinne Evarcha jucunda (Araneae: Salticidae in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy, Claudia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of the jumping spider Evarcha jucunda was discovered in the fruit department of a general store in Gießen, Germany. The species has obviously been introduced with transported fruit from mediterranean countries.

  4. O gênero Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo (Araneae, Nesticidae no Brasil The genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo (Araneae, Nesticidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Nesticella é registrado pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Duas espécies novas são descritas e ilustradas: Nesticella murici sp. nov. da Bahia, Alagoas e Sergipe, com base em espécimes de ambos os sexos, e Nesticella ducke sp. nov. do Amazonas, conhecida apenas pela fêmea.The genus Nesticella is recorded for the first time from Brazil. Two new species are described and illustrated: Nesticella murici sp. nov. from Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe, based on males and female and Nesticella ducke sp. nov. from Amazonas, on a female.

  5. On the Neotropical genus Cybaeodamus (Araneae, Zodariidae, Storeninae Sobre o gênero Neotropical Cybaeodamus (Araneae, Zodariidae, Storeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno A. Lise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the spider genus Cybaeodamus Mello-Leitão, 1938 are described and illustrated: C. meridionalis sp. nov. from Brazil and Argentina, C. taim sp. nov. from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, C. brescoviti sp. nov. and C. tocantins sp. nov. from setentrional region of Brazil. For the species Cybaeodamus enigmaticus (Mello-Leitão, 1939, C. lycosoides (Nicolet, 1849 and C. ornatus Mello-Leitão, 1938, new illustrations based on the examination of the types are presented. The species Cybaeodamus nigrovittatus Mello-Leitão, 1941 which the holotype is an immature specimen, C. pallidus (Mello-Leitão, 1943 which the type was not located, C. rastellifer (Mello-Leitão, 1940 and C. scottae Mello-Leitão, 1941, both described upon juvenile specimens, all from Argentina, are considered as species inquirendae.Neste trabalho são descritas e ilustradas quatro espécies novas do gênero Cybaeodamus Mello-Leitão, 1938: C. meridionalis sp. nov. do Brasil e Argentina, C. taim sp. nov. do Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai, C. brescoviti sp. nov. e C. tocantins sp. nov. do Brasil setentrional. Para as espécies Cybaeodamus enigmaticus (Mello-Leitão, 1939, C. lycosoides (Nicolet, 1849 e C. ornatus Mello-Leitão, 1938 são apresentadas novas ilustrações a partir do exame do material-tipo. As espécies Cybaeodamus nigrovittatus Mello-Leitão, 1941 cujo holótipo é um indivíduo jovem, C. pallidus (Mello-Leitão, 1943 da qual o tipo não foi localizado, C. rastellifer (Mello-Leitão, 1940 e C. scottae Mello-Leitão, 1941, ambas com tipos juvenis, todas da Argentina, são consideradas species inquirendae.

  6. [Arachnofauna (araneae: Araneae) in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypium hirsutum) in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Melina Soledad; Sosa, María Ana; González, Alda

    2012-06-01

    Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 51, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1053, 83.91%), "Orb weavers" (n=85, 6.77%) and "Stalkers" (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider's community in cotton crops.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXIII: two massive double-lined binaries in 30~Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Howarth, Ian D; Dunstall, P R; Evans, C J; Almeida, L A; Bonanos, A Z; Clark, J S; Langer, N; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Soszynski, I; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the characteristics of two newly discovered short-period, double-lined, massive binary systems, VFTS 450 (O9.7$\\;$II--Ib$\\,$+$\\,$O7::) and VFTS 652 (B1$\\;$Ib$\\,+\\,$O9:$\\;$III:). We perform model-atmosphere analyses to characterise the photospheric properties of both members of each binary (denoting the `primary' as the spectroscopically more conspicuous component). Radial velocities and optical photometry are used to estimate the binary-system parameters. We estimate $T_{\\rm eff}=27$ kK, $\\log{(g)}=2.9$ (cgs) for the VFTS 450 primary spectrum (34kK, 3.6: for the secondary spectrum); and $T_{\\rm eff} = 22$kK, $\\log{(g)}=2.8$ for the VFTS 652 primary spectrum (35kK, 3.7: for the secondary spectrum). Both primaries show surface nitrogen enrichments (of more than 1 dex for VFTS 652), and probable moderate oxygen depletions relative to reference LMC abundances. We determine orbital periods of 6.89d and 8.59d for VFTS 450 and VFTS 652, respectively, and argue that the primaries must be close to filli...

  8. Two Remarkable Spectroscopic Categories of Young O Stars from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, Nolan R; Taylor, William D; Simon-Diaz, Sergio; Evans, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    The spectral and spatial characteristics of two special categories of O stars found in the VFTS dataset are presented. One of them comprises very rapid rotators, including several more extreme than any previously known. These objects are distributed around the peripheries of the main 30 Doradus clusters, suggesting a runaway nature for which their radial velocities already provide preliminary supporting evidence. The other category consists of a large number of Vz stars, previously hypothesized on spectroscopic grounds to be on or very near the ZAMS. Their distribution is the inverse of that of the rapid rotators: the Vz are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, plus a newly recognized band of recent and current star formation to the north, which provides strong circumstantial evidence for their extreme youth.

  9. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    CERN Document Server

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; Dunstall, P R; Evans, C J; Henault-Brunet, V; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Ramirez-Agudelo, O H; Taylor, W D; Walborn, N R; Clark, J S; Crowther, P A; Herrero, A; Gieles, M; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Vink, J S

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods. We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. Results. We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35\\pm0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20km/s. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51\\pm0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f_P ~ (log P)^\\pi\\ (with 0.15 7.8', i.e. approx117 pc) and among the O9.7 I/II objects are however significantly lower than expected from statistical fluctuations. Conclusions. Using simple evolutionary considerations, we estimate that over 50% of the current O star population in 30 Dor will exchange mass with ...

  10. Revisão do gênero neotropical Xeropigo (Araneae,Corinnidae, Corinninae Revision of the neotropical genus Xeropigo (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae

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    Danni Roberto Santos De Souza

    Full Text Available O gênero Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 é revisado, com a proposição de sete novas espécies neotropicais: X. candango, sobre machos e fêmeas de Brasília, Distrito Federal e Goiás, Brasil; X. rheimsae, machos de Goiás, Brasil; X. camilae, sobre machos e fêmeas do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. cotijuba, machos e fêmeas da Guiana e do norte e centro-oeste do Brasil; X. pachitea, machos e fêmeas de Huánuco e Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, fêmeas de Junin e Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, machos de Beni, Bolívia. As espécies previamente conhecidas, X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, a espécie-tipo, descrita da Ilha de Santa Helena, Oceano Atlântico, mas também conhecida das Américas do Sul e Central, e X. smedigari (Caporiacco, 1955 do norte da Venezuela e Trinidad, são re-diagnosticadas. Novos registros, ilustrações de X. tridentiger e chave para todas as espécies conhecidas são fornecidos.The genus Xeropigo O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1882 is revised, with the proposition of seven neotropical new species: X. candango, based in males and females from Brasília, Distrito Federal and Goiás, Brazil; X. rheimsae, males from Goiás, Brazil; X. camilae, males and females from north and middle west Brazil; X. cotijuba, males and females from Guiana and north and middle west Brazil; X. pachitea, males and females from Huánuco and Cajamarca, Peru; X. perene, females from Junin and Loreto, Peru; X. brescoviti, males from Beni, Bolivia. The previously known species, X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, the type-species, described from Santa Helena Island, Atlantic Ocean, but also known from South and Central Americas, and X. smedigari (Caporiacco, 1955 from north Venezuela and Trinidad, are rediagnosed. New records and illustrations of X. tridentiger and a key for all known species are given.

  11. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae en hábitats antropogénicos Diversity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in anthropogenic habitats

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    Marco Antonio Desales-Lara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de ciudades constituye la transformación más drástica, fundamental e irreversible de los sistemas naturales, reemplazando todo componente biótico y abiótico original del lugar. Entre los artrópodos que han podido adaptarse a los ambientes urbanos se encuentran las arañas. Se encontraron 41 especies en el interior de 12 casas de 2 niveles de la ciudad de Toluca, ubicadas en 4 ambientes con diferente grado de urbanización, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2009 a agosto del 2010. Por primera vez se empleó un método sistematizado para recolecta de arañas en el interior de las viviendas. La diversidad de arañas fue diferente en cada uno de los ambientes muestreados; el índice de Shannon (H' mostró que la diversidad de arañas es mayor en las casas que presentan jardín en el ambiente urbano, por lo que no se apoya la hipótesis del disturbio intermedio. El número de arañas encontradas fue mayor en el primer nivel de las viviendas que en el segundo, por lo que se proponen 3 hipótesis para explicar esta diferencia. Se propone la prueba de Olmstead-Tukey para determinar los 4 niveles de sinantropismo (N. S., ya que la prueba engloba valores utilizados en los índices de densidad e infestación (ocupación.City-building is the most drastic, fundamental and irreversible transformation of natural environments, replacing all original biotic and abiotic components of the site. Spiders are among the arthropods that have become adapted to urban environments. We found 41 species within 12 two-story houses of the city of Toluca, located in 4 environments with different degrees of urbanization, during the period September 2009-August 2010. For the first time a systematic method was used to collect spiders inside houses with even collecting efforts. The diversity of spiders is different in each of the sampled environments, the Shannon index (H ' indicated that the diversity of spiders was higher in houses with gardens in the urban environment, so it does not support the hypothesis of intermediate disturbance. The number of spiders found is higher on the first level of houses than on the second, and 3 hypotheses are proposed to explain this difference. The Olmstead-Tukey test is proposed to determine the 4 levels of synanthropism (N. S., since the test includes values used in the density and infestation rates (occupation.

  12. Notes on the Venezuelan jumping spiders described by Caporiacco (Araneae, Salticidae Notas sobre as aranhas papa-mosca venezuelanas descritas por Caporiacco (Araneae, Salticidae

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    Gustavo R. S. Ruiz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The type specimens of 15 nominal salticid species from Venezuela described by Lodovico di Caporiacco were examined. In this paper we present brief redescriptions when deemed necessary as well as three new synonymies: Aculeobreda Caporiacco, 1955 = Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896; Sidusa variegata Caporiacco, 1955 = Simonurius quadratarius (Simon, 1901; Sitticus cabellensis Prószynski, 1971 = Pseudattulus incertus Caporiacco, 1955; and five new transferences: Aculeobreda hadzji Caporiacco, 1955 = Pachomius hadzji (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Dendryphantes franganilloi Caporiacco, 1955 = Metacyrba franganilloi (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Evarcha venezuelica Caporiacco, 1955 = Asaracus venezuelicus (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Pseudamphidraus femellus Caporiacco, 1955 = Marma femella (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Scopocira sexspinosa Caporiacco, 1955 = Sassacus sexspinosus (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov. Phintodes craneae Caporiacco, 1955, described based on a juvenile, must be treated as species inquirenda.Os exemplares-tipo de 15 espécies nominais de Salticidae da Venezuela descritas por Lodovico di Caporiacco são examinados. Neste trabalho são apresentadas breves redescrições quando necessário, e três novas sinonímias: Aculeobreda Caporiacco, 1955 = Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896; Sidusa variegata Caporiacco, 1955 = Simonurius quadratarius (Simon, 1901; Sitticus cabellensis Prószynski, 1971 = Pseudattulus incertus Caporiacco, 1955; e cinco novas transferências: Aculeobreda hadzji Caporiacco, 1955 = Pachomius hadzji (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Dendryphantes franganilloi Caporiacco, 1955 = Metacyrba franganilloi (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Evarcha venezuelica Caporiacco, 1955 = Asaracus venezuelicus (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Pseudamphidraus femellus Caporiacco, 1955 = Marma femella (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov.; Scopocira sexspinosa Caporiacco, 1955 = Sassacus sexspinosus (Caporiacco, 1955 comb. nov. Phintodes craneae Caporiacco, 1955, descrita a partir de um jovem, é tratada como species inquirenda.

  13. Revisão das aranhas do gênero Lupettiana Brescovit (Araneae, Anyphaenidae, Anyphaeninae Revision of the spider genus Lupettiana Brescovit (Araneae, Anyphaenidae, Anyphaeninae

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    Antonio D. Brescovit

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luppetiana Brescovit, 1996 composed actually by nine species, from which five are herein described as new is revised: L. manauara from Brazil; L. levii from Dominican Republic; L. eberhardi from Costa Rica; L. piedra from Cuba; and L. bimini from Bahamas Islands. The species L. perpusilla (Banks, 1909 is synonymyzed with L. parvula (Banks, 1903. Lectotype and paralectotype of L. parvula are designated. The known geographical distribution of the genus ranges from United States of America to north of Brazil.

  14. On the genus Radulphius Keyserling in southeastern Brazil (Araneae, Miturgidae, Eutichurinae Sobre o gênero Radulphius Keyserling na região sudeste do Brasil (Araneae, Miturgidae

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    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The male of Radulphius lane Bonaldo & Buckup, 1995 from São Paulo Atlantic Forest, is described for the first time. Radulphius baiaxaba Bonaldo & Buckup, 1995 from Bahia/Espírito Santo is synonymized with R. laticeps Keyserling, 1891 for southern Brazil. New records of both species are presented.O macho de Radulphius lane Bonaldo & Buckup, 1995 da Mata Atlântica paulista, é descrito pela primeira vez. Radulphius baiaxaba Bonaldo & Buckup, 1995 descrita para os limites entre Bahia/Espírito Santo é sinonimizada com R. laticeps Keyserling, 1891 descrita para o sudeste do Brasil. Novos registros de ocorrência de ambas as espécies são apresentados.

  15. Sobre algumas espécies do gênero Eustala (Araneae, Araneidae do Brasil On some species of the genus Eustala (Araneae, Araneidae from Brazil

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    Maria Rita M. Poeta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Duas espécies de Eustala Simon, 1895 são descritas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: Eustala belissima sp. nov. e Eustala crista sp. nov., representadas por ambos os sexos. A fêmea de E. itapocuensis Strand, 1916 e os machos de E. nasuta Mello-Leitão, 1939, E. perfida Mello-Leitão, 1947 e E. secta Mello-Leitão, 1945, são descritos pela primeira vez. Novas ocorrências do Brasil são listadas para Eustala illicita (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 e E. sagana (Keyserling, 1893.Two species of Eustala Simon, 1895 from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil are described: Eustala belissima sp. nov. and Eustala crista sp. nov., based on males and females. The female of Eustala itapocuensis Strand, 1916, and the males of E. nasuta Mello-Leitão, 1939, E. perfida Mello-Leitão, 1947 and E. secta Mello-Leitão, 1945 are described for the first time. New records from Brazil are listed for Eustala illicita (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 and E. sagana (Keyserling, 1893.

  16. Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae in tank bromeliads from Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Microhabitat selection and co-occurrence of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae and Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae, in tank bromeliads were investigated. Thermal conditions, inside and outside the plants, were measured in order to verify if the temperature of the water that accumulates inside the plant affects the behavior of these species. Measurements of foliar parameters were taken in order to evaluate if and how plant structure affects spider abundance and microhabitat selection. Apparently, differences in plant structure do not affect either spider abundance or microhabitat selection. No microhabitat preference was observed and co-ocurrence of both species was a random event. In addition, notes on the distribution range of P. rufonigrum and the description of N. fuxico sp. nov. from State of Sergipe, Brazil are presented.Foram estudadas a seleção de microhabitat e co-ocorrência de Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Theraphosidae e Nothroctenus fuxico sp. nov. (Ctenidae em bromélias-tanque. A condição da temperatura dentro e fora das plantas foi medida para verificar se a temperatura da água acumulada dentro da bromélia afeta algum aspecto comportamental das aranhas que ali vivem. Medidas dos parâmetros foliares foram realizadas para avaliar se a estrutura das plantas chega a afetar a abundância ou a seleção de microhabitat dessas aranhas. Aparentemente, as diferenças na estrutura das duas espécies de bromélias estudadas não afetam nem a abundância, nem a seleção de microhabitat de P. rufonigrum e N. fuxico sp. nov. A preferência e co-ocorrência de ambas as espécies de aranhas parece ser um evento ao acaso. Adicionalmente, apresenta-se notas sobre os limites de distribuição de P. rufonigrum e descreve-se N. fuxico sp. nov. do Estado de Sergipe, Brasil.

  17. Duas novas espécies de Labicymbium (Araneae: Linyphiidae do sul do Brasil Two new species of Labicymbium (Araneae: Linyphiidae from south of Brazil

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    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho duas novas espécies de Labicymbium Millidge, 1991 do Brasil são descritas: Labicymbium otti sp. nov. e Labicymbium curitiba sp. nov. Espécimes de L. otti sp. nov. foram coletados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul e são caracterizados pela presença de uma apófise suprategular distal projetada, paracímbio com margem arredondada e radix menos desenvolvido. A fêmea dessa espécie apresenta ductos copulatórios curtos formando uma alça na porção posterior. Espécimes de L. curitiba sp. nov., coletados no estado do Paraná, apresentam uma apófise suprategular distal proeminente e arredondada, esclerito hematodocal basal sobre o subtégulo, tíbia do palpo longa, processo cimbial retromediano menos afilado do que aqueles das espécies próximas, paracímbio com projeção sobre o subtégulo e esclerito hematodocal basal. Labicymbium rusticulum (Keyserling, 1891 é registrada de outras localidades do estado do Rio Grande do Sul.In this paper, two new species of Labicymbium Millidge, 1991 from Brazil are described: Labicymbium otti sp. nov. and Labicymbium curitiba sp. nov. Specimens of L. otti sp. nov. were collected from the State of Rio Grande do Sul and are characterized by the presence of an distal suprategular apophyses projected, paracymbium with round margin and radix little developed. The female of this species have copulatory ducts shorter forming a loop in posterior portion. Labicymbium curitiba sp. nov., from the State of Paraná, depicts a distal suprategular apophysis prominent and round, basal hematodochal sclerite on the subtegulum, palpal tibia long, retromedian cymbial process less pointed than those of the close species, paracymbium with projection on the subtegulum and basal hematodochal sclerite. Labicymbium rusticulum (Keyserling, 1891 is reported from new locations in the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  18. Descriptions of four kleptoparasitic spiders of the genus Mysmenopsis (Araneae, Mysmenidae) and their potential host spider species in the genus Linothele (Araneae, Dipluridae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine; Tapia, Elicio

    2015-06-12

    Four new species of the genus Mysmenopsis are described: M. onorei n. sp., M. otonga n. sp., M. fernandoi n. sp. and M. chiquita n. sp. All species were collected in diplurid webs and are therefore assumed to be kleptoparasitic. Five potential host species of the genus Linothele (Dipluridae) that were collected with the symbionts are also described: Linothele yanachanka n. sp., L. pukachumpi n. sp., L. zaia n. sp., L. tsachilas n. sp. and L. quori n. sp.

  19. Seasonal patterns of parasitism of the tropical spiders Theridion evexum (Araneae, Theridiidae and Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae, Araneidae by the wasps Zatypota petronae and Polysphincta gutfreundi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae

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    Gilbert Barrantes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rates of parasitism of Theridion evexum by the parasitoid wasp Zatypota petronae, and Allocyclosa bifurca by Polysphincta gutfreundi, were followed for two years. Parasitism of T. evexum was very low (mean 1.39+1.8%, and restricted to nearly seven months of the year. Parasitism of A. bifurca was higher (mean 7.8+7.6%, and did not show a seasonal pattern. Reproduction of the host spider T. evexum was highly seasonal, with only one, highly coordinated generation per year, while adults of A. bifurca were present year round. Short-term autocorrelation on parasitism rates over time at different sites suggest that P. gutfreundi tend to return to the same sites to hunt hosts over periods of a few weeks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 749-754. Epub 2008 June 30.Las tasas de parasitismo de Theridion evexum por la avispa parasitoide Zatypota petronae y de Allocyclosa bifurca por Polysphincta gutfreundi fueron estudiadas durante dos años. El parasitismo en T. evexum fue muy bajo (promedio 1.39+1.8% y restringido a aproximadamente siete meses del año. El parasitismo en A. bifurca fue más alto (promedio 7.8+7.6% y no mostró un claro patrón estacional. La reproducción de la araña hospedera T. evexum fue muy estacional, con solamente una generación por año, mientras que los adultos de A. bifurca estuvieron presentes todo el año. Autocorrelaciones de las tasas de parasitismo entre censos consecutivos en diferentes sitios sugiere que P. gutfreundi tiende a retornar a los mismos sitios para parasitar las arañas hospederas durante algunas semanas.

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. IV: Candidates for isolated high-mass star formation in 30 Doradus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressert, E.; Bastian, N.; Evans, C.J.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Goodwin, S.P.; Parker, R.J.; Gieles, M.; Bestenlehner, J.M.; Vink, J.S.; Taylor, W.D.; Crowther, P.A.; Longmore, S.N.; Gräfener, G.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; de Koter, A.; Cantiello, M.; Kruijssen, J.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Whether massive stars (≳30 M⊙) can occasionally form in relative isolation (e.g. in clusters with M < 100 M⊙) or if they require a large cluster of lower-mass stars around them is a key test in the differentiation of star-formation theories as well as how the initial mass function of stars is sample

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VI. Evidence for rotation of the young massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hénault-Brunet, V.; Gieles, M.; Evans, C.J.; Sana, H.; Bastian, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.; Markova, N.; Bressert, E.; de Koter, A.; van Loon, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Although it has important ramifications for both the formation of star clusters and their subsequent dynamical evolution, rotation remains a largely unexplored characteristic of young star clusters (few Myr). Using multi-epoch spectroscopic data of the inner regions of 30 Doradus in the Large

  2. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VII. A low velocity dispersion for the young massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hénault-Brunet, V.; Evans, C.J.; Sana, H.; Gieles, M.; Bastian, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Taylor, W.D.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P.A.; van Loon, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed studies of resolved young massive star clusters are necessary to determine their dynamical state and evaluate the importance of gas expulsion and early cluster evolution. In an effort to gain insight into the dynamical state of the young massive cluster R136 and obtain the first measurement

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey XX. The nature of the X-ray bright emission line star VFTS 399

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J S; Broos, P S; Townsley, L K; Taylor, W D; Walborn, N R; Bird, A J; Sana, H; de Mink, S E; Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Schneider, F R N; Soszyński, I

    2015-01-01

    The stellar population of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains a subset of apparently single, rapidly rotating O-type stars. The physical processes leading to the formation of this cohort are currently uncertain. One member of this group, the late O-type star VFTS 399, is found to be unexpectedly X-ray bright for its bolometric luminosity - in this study we aim to determine its physical nature and the cause of this behaviour. We find VFTS 399 to be an aperiodic photometric variable with an apparent near-IR excess. Its optical spectrum demonstrates complex emission profiles in the lower Balmer series and select HeI lines - taken together these suggest an OeBe classification. The highly variable X-ray luminosity is too great to be produced by a single star, while the hard, non-thermal nature suggests the presence of an accreting relativistic companion. Finally, the detection of periodic modulation of the X-ray lightcurve is most naturally explained under the assumption that ...

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey - XI. A census of the hot luminous stars and their feedback in 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, E I; de Koter, A; Evans, C J; McEvoy, C; Walborn, N R; Bastian, N; Bestenlehner, J M; Grafener, G; Herrero, A; Kohler, K; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Schneider, F R N; Taylor, W D; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S

    2013-01-01

    We compile the first comprehensive census of hot luminous stars in the 30 Doradus (30 Dor) star forming region of the LMC. The census extends to a radius of 10arcmin (150pc) from the central cluster, R136. Stars were selected photometrically and combined with the latest spectral types. 1145 candidate hot luminous stars were identified of which >700 were considered genuine early type stars that contribute to feedback. We assess the spectroscopic completeness to be 85% in outer regions (>5pc) but fall to 35% in the vicinity of R136, giving a total of 500 hot luminous stars with spectroscopy. Stellar calibrations and models were used to obtain their physical parameters before integrated values were compared to global observations and the population synthesis code, Starburst99. The 31 W-R and Of/WN stars made large contributions to the total ionising and wind luminosities of ~40% and ~50%, respectively. Stars with Minit>100Msun also showed high contributions to the global feedback, ~25% in both cases. Such massiv...

  5. Aliens in Europe: updates on the distributions of Modisimus culicinus and Micropholcus fauroti (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Huber, Bernhard A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The pholcid spiders Modisimus culicinus (Simon, 1893 and Micropholcus fauroti (Simon, 1887 are pantropical species that have spread around the world at least several decades ago. Here we present numerous new records for both species, most of which fall into the expected latitudes, i.e. between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (93% and 87% of records respectively. However, we also report the first records for M. culicinus from Central Europe (Germany and Czech Republic, >50°N and the first European record for M. fauroti from outside of Belgium (Germany. The fact that in both species several specimens have been found at more than one locality suggests that they may already be in the stage of establishment and spreading in Europe. Finally, we present an updated identification key to the genera of Pholcidae in Europe.

  6. Revisiting the taxonomy of the rare and tiny comb-footed spider Carniella brignolii (Araneae, Theridiidae

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    Thaler-Knoflach, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carniella brignolii Thaler & Steinberger, 1988 was first described based on a male from Austria and still belongs to the rare, scarcely studied species. Based on material from Germany and Switzerland the hitherto unknown female now can be assigned and presented. In this context a new synonymy is also proposed: The cave-dwelling, troglomorphic C. mihaili (Georgescu, 1989 from Romania, originally established as new genus Marianana, is synonymised with C. brignolii.

  7. Das Weibchen von Erigonoplus justus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875 (Araneae: Linyphiidae

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    Thaler, Konrad

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The rare erigonine Erigonoplus justus was recently discovered at a xerothermic site in Rheinland-Pfalz. Its female is described for the first time. The species is new for Germany. Habitat preference, phenology and distribution area of E. justus are briefly discussed.

  8. Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Wolf Spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae after Cadmium Exposure

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    Chang-Chun Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pardosa pseudoannulata is one of the most common wandering spiders in agricultural fields and a potentially good bioindicator for heavy metal contamination. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which spiders respond to heavy metals at the molecular level. In the present study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of the spiders and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs after cadmium exposure. We obtained 60,489 assembled unigenes, 18,773 of which were annotated in the public databases. A total of 2939 and 2491 DEGs were detected between the libraries of two Cd-treated groups and the control. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that metabolism processes and digestive system function were predominately enriched in response to Cd stress. At the cellular and molecular levels, significantly enriched pathways in lysosomes and phagosomes as well as replication, recombination and repair demonstrated that oxidative damage resulted from Cd exposure. Based on the selected DEGs, certain critical genes involved in defence and detoxification were analysed. These results may elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying spiders’ responses to heavy metal stress.

  9. Intersexual Trophic Niche Partitioning in an Ant-Eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekár, Stanislav; Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes (“intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis”), or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output (“sexual selection hypothesis”). The latter may...... lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants...... demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism) in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size...

  10. Ernährungsbiologie und Nahrungsspektrum der Gerandeten Jagdspinne Dolomedes fimbriatus (Araneae: Pisauridae

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    Poppe, Sabine

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available In 369 individuals of feeding Dolomedes fimbriatus (all stages/sizes living in moorlands of Northwestern Germany, field studies were carried out, in particular concerning relations of spider size, kind/size of prey and lurking-site as well. Findings reveal extremely variable food types, depending on seasonal fluctuations of active prey species and of lurking-sites of Dolomedes. Largest prey (relative to spider size is not captured by the big sized preadults or adults, but by juveniles of 6-9mm length. The prey spectrum comprises also syntopical spiders and opilionids. Surprisingly cannibalism among Dolomedes individuals is rahter requent in spring and autumn and may serve to maintain the population when prey is rare.

  11. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

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    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The araneoid spider family Micropholcommatidae Hickman, previously containing 34 southern-temperate species in eight genera, is relimited and revised at the generic level to include 18 genera from Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Chile. Three subfamilies are proposed, and a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the family is presented as a result of two morphological cladistic analyses, used to test the phylogenetic position and phylogeny of the known micropholcommatid taxa. These cladistic analyses inferred a monophyletic Micropholcommatidae, belonging to the diverse araneoid symphytognathidan lineage, with the families Anapidae, Symphytognathidae and Micropholcommatidae further united by the newly proposed 'EbCY' clade. The genus Teutoniella Brignoli, previously included in the Micropholcommatidae, was found to be most closely related to an undescribed genus from South Africa, together forming a distinctive ‘teutoniellid’ lineage within the EbCY clade. The subfamily Micropholcommatinae Hickman, new rank contains the bulk of micropholcommatid diversity, with three tribes, 15 genera and 45 described species. The micropholcommatine tribe Micropholcommatini Hickman, new rank includes the nominate genus Micropholcomma Crosby & Bishop, along with three additional genera from Australasia and Chile: Micropholcomma has eight species, including the type, M. caeligenum Crosby & Bishop, and M. junee sp. n.; Pua Forster is monotypic, with P. novaezealandiae Forster; Tricellina Forster & Platnick is also monotypic, with T. gertschi (Forster & Platnick; and Austropholcomma gen. n. has two species, including the type A. florentine sp. n., and A. walpole sp. n. The micropholcommatine tribe Textricellini Hickman, new rank is a diverse and distinctive lineage, including all species previously described in the genus Textricella Hickman, which is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Eterosonycha Butler syn. n.; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster, erected by Forster (1959 for P. punctata, is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Taphiassa (syn. n.. The endemic Tasmanian genus Olgania Hickman has five species, including the type O. excavata Hickman, O. cracroft sp. n., O. eberhardi sp. n., O. troglodytes sp. n. and O. weld sp. n. The subfamily Gigiellinae subfam. n. includes only one genus from south-eastern Australia and Chile, Gigiella gen. n., described for the two species G. milledgei sp. n. and G. platnicki sp. n. The distribution, diversity and Gondwanan biogeography of the Micropholcommatidae are discussed, and natural history information is provided where known; webs and egg sacs of Taphiassinae are described for the first time. Species level monographic coverage is provided for those faunas of conservation or biogeographic significance, including the largely undescribed Western Australian fauna, the Lord Howe Island fauna, the Tasmanian cave fauna and the southern Chilean fauna, with other species of conservation or biogeographic importance also described. In total, 26 new species, 12 new genera, one new tribe and two new subfamilies are described, taking the total documented micropholcommatid fauna to 58 species.  

  12. On the diversity of some soil and cave spiders (Aranea: Arachnida from Serbia

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    Ćurčić Božidar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 46 species from 14 families: Pholcidae (2, Dysderidae (3 Eresidae (1, Linyphiidae (11, Tetragnathidae (3, Araneidae (4, Lycosidae (5, Agelenidae (4, Amaurobiidae (2, Liocranidae (1, Gnaphosidae (2 Philodromidae (1, Thomisidae (2 and Salticidae (5 were established from 29 localities in Serbia. Five species: Dysderocrates silvestris Deeleman-Reinhold (Dysderidae, Centromerus obenbergeri (Kulczyński, 1897 (Linyphiidae, Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, Trochosa spinipalpis (O. P.-Cambridge (Lycosidae and Philodromus praedatus O. P.-Cambridge are new to the Serbian spider fauna; the most diverse is the family Linyphiidae which is represented by 11 species. At the time, the spiders of Serbia are represented by 633 species, belonging to 224 genera and 36 families.

  13. The spider fauna of Scragh Bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland (Arachnida: Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The spider fauna of Scragh Bog, a quacking bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland, was investigated for the first time. The presence of 53 species could be established, two of which are new to Ireland (Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop), Porrhomma oblitum (O.P.-Cambridge)), while 30 represent new county recor

  14. Four new spider species of the family Theridiosomatidae (Arachnida, Araneae from caves in Laos

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    Yucheng Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the spider family Theridiosomatidae are described from caves in Laos: Alaria cavernicola sp. n. (♂♀, A. navicularis sp. n., (♂♀ A. bicornis sp. n. (♂♀, Chthonopes thakekensis sp. n. (♀. Diagnoses and illustrations for all new taxa are given. All holotypes are deposited in the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (SMF.

  15. A new genus of Neotropical spiders of the family Sparassidae (Arachnida: Araneae

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    Elaine Cristina Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nungara gen. nov. is proposed to include the type species, Nungara niveomaculata (Mello-Leitão, 1941 comb. nov., transferred from Olios Walckenaer, 1837 and two new species, described from males and females: N. anama sp. nov., from the states of Sergipe, Alagoas and Espírito Santo, and N. gaturama sp. nov., from the states of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo, all in Brazil. The new genus is distinguished from all other Neotropical sparassid genera by the presence of a deep tegular groove on the male palpal bulb and a hood-like projection on the median septum of the female epigyne. In addition, Olios fuscovariatus Mello-Leitão, 1943, Stasina koluene Mello-Leitão, 1941 and Polybetes proximus Mello-Leitão, 1943 are transferred to Nungara gen. nov. and considered junior synonyms of N. niveomaculata . All species are described and illustrated and a distribution map is provided.

  16. On the identity of the type species of Actinopus tarsalis (Araneae: Actinopodidae

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    Laura T. Miglio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The type species of the Neotropical Actinopus, A. tarsalis Perty, 1833, is redescribed based on material from the type locality, the state of Piauí, Brazil. The species appears to be restricted to northeastern Brazil and is newly recorded from the state of Sergipe. An old record from the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rejected. Actinopus tarsalis differs from other species of the genus by details of the male copulatory bulb: tegular apophysis absent, robust embolar base, inserted basally at a right angle (90°; embolar apices apex flattened and expanded, arrow-shaped in dorsal view.

  17. A check list of the spider fauna of the Karoo National Park, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

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    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the spider species of the Karoo National Park collected over a period of 10 years is presented. Thirty-eight families, represented by 102 genera and 116 species have been collected. Of these species, 76 (66.4 were wanderers and 39 (33.6 web builders. The Araneidae have the highest number of species (14 followed by the Thomisidae (10 and the Gnaphosidae (8, while 14 families are represented by a single species. Information on spider guilds, their habitat preference and web types is provided. This study forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.

  18. Functional morphology of the respiratory organs in the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides (Arachnida, Araneae, Pholcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Morphometric evaluation of the lungs of male and female cellar spiders (Pholcus phalangioideus) was carried out in 2 test groups with different body masses (mean value 10.8, males, and 26.6 mg, females). Males have significant higher lung volume to body mass ratios (2.49 vs. 2.13 × 10(-3) cm(3) g(-1)), which might result from the differences in body mass between sexes. Moreover, males have slightly more respiratory surface area per body mass (8.2 vs. 7.7 cm(2) g(-1)) and a little bit larger morphological diffusing capacities for oxygen (9.3 vs. 8.2 nmol s(-1) g(-1) kPa(-1)) than females, but both values were not significant. Metabolic rates were measured using flow through respirometry under video tracking: the CO2 release of male and female spiders was measured. Resting rates were 1.7 (males) and 1.5 nmol s(-1) g(-1) (females). Gluing of one spiracle did not influence the resting metabolic rate. Factorial scopes during stimulation to maximum metabolic rates were about 12 in intact animals, while elimination of one spiracle reduced the factorial scope to 5.2. Comparison with other araneomorph spiders strengthens the hypothesis that tracheae in spiders increase the metabolic rates of the tracheated species and do not only replace reduced lung capacity.

  19. First evidence of neurons in the male copulatory organ of a spider (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Elisabeth; Hammel, Jörg U; Michalik, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Spider males have evolved a remarkable way of transferring sperm by using a modified part of their pedipalps, the so-called palpal organ. The palpal organ is ontogenetically derived from tarsal claws; however, no nerves, sensory organs or muscles have been detected in the palpal bulb so far, suggesting that the spider male copulatory organ is numb and sensorily blind. Here, we document the presence of neurons and a nerve inside the male palpal organ of a spider for the first time. Several neurons that are located in the embolus are attached to the surrounding cuticle where stresses and strains lead to a deformation (stretching) of the palpal cuticle on a local scale, suggesting a putative proprioreceptive function. Consequently, the male copulatory organ of this species is not just a numb structure but likely able to directly perceive sensory input during sperm transfer. In addition, we identified two glands in the palpal organ, one of which is located in the embolus (embolus gland). The embolus gland appears to be directly innervated, which could allow for rapid modulation of secretory activity. Thus, we hypothesize that the transferred seminal fluid can be modulated to influence female processes.

  20. A new species of Tmesiphantes (Araneae, Theraphosidae from the state of Pará, Brazil

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    Hector M. O. Gonzalez-Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tmesiphantes Simon, 1892, T. aridai sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three males and three females collected at the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Santarém, state of Pará, Brazil. Males can be distinguished from T. perp Guadanucci & Silva, 2012 by the palpal bulb with an inconspicous tegular basal projection, but presenting a very slender embolus with shorter keels not extending to the tip, and from T. nubilus Simon, 1892 by the tibial apophysis with two similarly sized branches, the prolateral one with a strong spine on the retrolateral margin. Females resemble T. nubilus by the aspect of the seminal receptacle but the constriction near the apex is less evident and apex shape is irregular. The new species represents the first record of Tmesiphantes from the Amazonian region, bringing the total number of species to eight.

  1. On the taxonomy of Latonigena auricomis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, with notes of geographical distribution and natural history

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    Carolina Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male of Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 is described for the first time and the female is redescribed. New records are provided for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Notes on the natural history and a potential distribution model of the species are presented in the Neotropical Region.

  2. New species of Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae from Rondônia, Brazil

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    André A. Nogueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We described a new species of spider, Alpaida clarindoi sp. nov. (Araneidae, from the southwestern Amazon forest. The new species is distinguished from most Alpaida by the presence of a pair of shoulders spines. Females can be separated from similar species by the subquadrangular shape of the epigynum, and males by the shape of the terminal apophysis and the tegulum, which possess an apical pointed tip. Alpaida clarindoi sp. nov. is described based on both sexes.

  3. On Munduruku, a new Theraphosid genus from Oriental Amazonia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae

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    Laura T. Miglio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.

  4. First record of Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål in Brazil (Araneae, Araneidae

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    Éder Sandro Soares Álvares

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtophora Simon, 1864 comprises 36 species that occur in the Old World and Australia. Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål, 1775 is widespread and has been introduced in the Neotropical region, in Colombia and Hispaniola. Here is presented the first record of this species in Brazil, in the municipalities of Belo Horizonte and Prudente de Morais, State of Minas Gerais. The specimens studied show variations in coloration and in the abdomen's format, but the genital structure is the same as observed in specimens of C. citricola.Cyrtophora Simon, 1864 compreende 36 espécies que ocorrem no Velho Mundo e Austrália. Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål, 1775 é uma espécie de ampla distribuição e que foi introduzida na região Neotropical, na Colombia e em Hispaniola. Aqui é apresentada a primeira ocorrência desta espécie no Brasil, nas cidades de Belo Horizonte e Prudente de Morais, Minas Gerais. Os espécimes estudados apresentam variações na coloração e no formato do abdome, mas a estrutura genital é a mesma observada em espécimes de C. citricola.

  5. Chaco ansilta new species from Mendoza province, Western Argentina (Araneae: Nemesiidae

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    NELSON FERRETTI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Chaco Tullgren, 1905 is described and illustrated from the Andean foothills of Mendoza province, western Argentina. This is the tenth species of the genus and the first record of Chaco in Mendoza. An updated key is presented for all Chaco species. The cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix resulted in the consensus tree: (C. obscura, C. tucumana, C. castanea, (C. socos + C. tigre (C. tecka (C. sanjuanina (C. Patagonia + C. ansilta sp. nov..

  6. On the Amazonian species of the genus Scytodes Latreille (Arachnida, Araneae, Scytodidae

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    Cristina A. Rheims

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Scytodes Latreille, 1804 are newly described: Scytodes iara sp. nov. and S. caure sp. nov. from Amazonas; S. mapinguari sp. nov. from Amazonas and Roraima; S. curupira sp. nov. from Amazonas and Rondônia; S. saci sp. nov. from Roraima; and S. jurupari sp. nov., S. tinkuan sp. nov. and S. caipora sp. nov. from Acre. In addition, the female of S. altamira Rheims & Brescovit, 2000 is described and new records are presented for S. auricula Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. fusca Walckenaer, 1837, S. longipes Lucas, 1844, S. martiusi Brescovit & Höfer, 1999, S. piroca Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. romitii Caporiacco, 1947 and S. vieirae Rheims & Brescovit, 2000.Oito novas espécies de Scytodes Latreille, 1804 são descritas: Scytodes iara sp. nov. e S. caure sp. nov. do Amazonas; S. mapinguari sp. nov. do Amazonas e de Roraima; S. curupira sp. nov. do Amazonas e de Rondônia; S. saci sp. nov. de Roraima; e S. jurupari sp. nov., S. tinkuan sp. nov. e S. caipora sp. nov. do Acre. A fêmea de S. altamira Rheims & Brescovit, 2000 é descrita e novos registros são apresentados para S. auricula Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. fusca Walckenaer, 1837, S. longipes Lucas, 1844, S. martiusi Brescovit & Höfer, 1999, S. piroca Rheims & Brescovit, 2000, S. romitii Caporiacco, 1947 e S. vieirae Rheims & Brescovit, 2000.

  7. Neodrassex, a new genus of the Leptodrassex group (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from South America

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    Ricardo Ott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The new genus Neodrassex is proposed to include two new species of Gnaphosidae from Brazil. Neodrassex aureus sp. nov. is described from Amazonas, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states, and N. iguatemi sp. nov. is described from Paraná state. Neodrassex gen. nov. is characterized by small size, pale coloration, large anterior median eyes surrounded by black pigmentation, absence of a dorsal abdominal scutum in males and by the cheliceral dentition with 2-3 teeth on the promargin and 2-4 on the retromargin. The new genus is tentatively placed at the Leptodrassex group.

  8. Redescription of the poorly known crab spider Firmicus bivittatus (Araneae: Thomisidae

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    Deltshev, Christo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Firmicus bivittatus Simon, 1895 was described from the Edough Mt, Algeria, based on one male only. Here, a redescription and new illustrations of the species based on the existing type material is presented. The female is figured for the first time.

  9. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  10. Revalidating the taxonomic position of the Indian Ischnocolus spp. (Araneae: Theraphosidae

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    M. Siliwal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.

  11. New genus with two new species of the Family Nemesiidae (Araneae: Mygalomorphae from Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Manju Siliwal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The new genus, Damarchilus gen. nov., is proposed with descriptions of two new species, Damarchilus nigricus sp. nov. and Damarchilus rufus sp. nov., from northeast India. External characters for the new genus and new species are examined and illustrated. In addition, the natural history of the species is provided.

  12. New records and geographical distribution of ctenid spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.

  13. A new species of Masteria (Araneae: Dipluridae: Masteriinae from southeastern Brazil

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    Denis Rafael Pedroso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995 from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.

  14. Sublethal effects of two neurotoxican insecticides on Araneus pratensis (Araneae: Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamú, M A; Schneider, M I; Pineda, S; Sanchez, N E; Gonzalez, A

    2007-01-01

    Spiders are important predators of several agricultural pests and they play an important role as indicators of ecosystem disturb. In Argentina, soybean crop has increased from the introduction of transgenic soybean resistant to glyphosate. This expansion produced an increase in the use of conventional and non-selective pesticides to control soybean pests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the side effects of subletal concentrations of two neurotoxican insecticides with a different mode of action: endosulfan (Glex, 35%, 25 mg/l a.i.) and spinosad (Tracer, 48%, 30 and 3 mg/l a.i) on Araneus pratensis. The insecticides were applied by ingestion of the treated prey (Musca domestica), and the effects on mortality, prey consumption, web building, mating, ootheca construction and fecundity were determined. Spinosad (30 mg/l a.i.) produced higher mortality than endosulfan (25 mg/l a.i.). Tremors and non-coordinated movements were observed in this treatment. The prey consumption was significantly reduced by the two insecticides (approximately 40% lower than control). The spider web building was significantly affected by the two insecticides, but spinosad had a greater effect. Though mating was not affected by both pesticides, abnormal oothecas and dehydrated eggs were observed. This work reports that sublethal concentrations representing approximately from 25 to 2.5% of the maximum field recommended concentrations (105 and 120 mg/l a.i., respectively) showed negative effects on A. pratensis. The consequences of these effects on role of A. pratensis as a natural mortality factor of soybean pests are discussed.

  15. Why is Madagascar special? The extraordinarily slow evolution of pelican spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Hannah M; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Griswold, Charles E; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period. The motivation for this study was to unravel the signature of diversification in an ancient lineage by comparing an area known for major geoclimatic upheavals (Madagascar) versus other areas where the environment has been relatively stable. Archaeid spiders are an ancient paleoendemic group with unusual predatory behaviors and spectacular trophic morphology that likely have been on Madagascar since its isolation. We examined disparities between Madagascan archaeids and their non-Madagascan relatives regarding timing of divergence, rates of trait evolution, and distribution patterns. Results reveal an increased rate of adaptive trait diversification in Madagascan archaeids. Furthermore, geoclimatic events in Madagascar over long periods of time may have facilitated high species richness due to montane refugia and stability, rainforest refugia, and also ecogeographic shifts, allowing for the accumulation of adaptive traits. This research suggests that time alone, coupled with more ancient geoclimatic events allowed for the different patterns in Madagascar. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. One new species of the genus Belisana Thorell, 1898 (Araneae, Pholcidae from northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh-Sac Pham

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One new species Belisana denticulata sp. n. (♂ is reported from northern Vietnam based on material collected by fogging the forest canopy. This species resembles B. scharffi Huber, 2005, but can be distinguished by relatively long distance between proximal parts of proximo-lateral apophysis and distal apophysis on male chelicerae, by presence of a nearly saddle-shaped prolateral sclerite on procursus, and by different shape of retrolateral membranous flap on procursus. Type specimens are deposited in the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology in Hanoi.

  17. A Common Evaluation Setting for Just.Ask, Open Ephyra and Aranea QA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pires, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Question Answering (QA) is not a new research field in Natural Language Processing (NLP). However in recent years, QA has been a subject of growing study. Nowadays, most of the QA systems have a similar pipelined architecture and each system use a set of unique techniques to accomplish its state of the art results. However, many things are not clear in the QA processing. It is not clear the extend of the impact of tasks performed in earlier stages in following stages of the pipelining process. It is not clear, if techniques used in a QA system can be used in another QA system to improve its results. And finally, it is not clear in what setting should be these systems tested in order to properly analyze their results.

  18. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba;

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2) and morpholog......New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...... was also detected and its conservation implications are discussed....

  19. Genetiese, morflogiese en gedragsstudies van Cyrtophora spp . (Araneae: Araneidae in Suid Afrika

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    P.Z.N. Franzini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinnekoppe van die genusCyrtophoravorm deel van die familieAraneidaeen staan algemeenbekend as tent-web spinnekoppe te danke aan die unieke vorm van hul web. ‘n Totaal van 41Cyrtophora spp.is in die hele wêreld bekend en vyf van hulle is uit Afrika aangeteken, maar geen formeel in Suid-Afrika nie.

  20. The first report of the widow spider Latrodectus elegant (Araneae: Theridiidae from India

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    A. Kananbala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The widow spider genus Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805, in India is represented by three species L. erythromelas Schmidt & Klaas, 1991, L. geometricus C.L. Koch, 1841 and L. hasselti Thorell, 1870. In this paper, we report the occurrence of Lactrodectus elegans Thorell, 1898 for the first time from India. We provide additional information on taxonomy and natural history based on the specimens collected from Manipur.

  1. Studies in Liocranidae (Araneae: a new afrotropical genus featuring a synapomorphy for the Cybaeodinae

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    Rudy Jocqué

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cteniogaster, a new genus of small ground spiders is described from Kenya and Tanzania. It encompasses seven new species, three of which are known from both sexes: C. toxarchus sp. nov., the type species, C. conviva sp. nov. and C. hexomma sp. nov. Three species are known from females only: C. lampropus sp. nov., C. sangarawe sp. nov. and C. taxorchis sp. nov. and one only from males: C. nana sp. nov. The new genus can be recognised by the presence of a posterior ventral abdominal field of strong setae and anterior lateral spinnerets with enlarged piriform gland spigots in males. A cladistic analysis attributes the genus to Liocranidae, Cybaeodinae. The results of the analysis performed do not produce an unequivocal autapomorphy for Liocranidae, but provide a combination of non-homoplasious character changes that offers significant potential for recognising genera as Liocranidae. Moreover, robust apomorphies are determined within Liocranidae for the subfamilies Liocraninae and Cybaeodinae. Based on these findings Toxoniella Warui & Jocqué, 2002 is transferred from Gallieniellidae to Liocranidae, Cybaeodinae. Jacaena Thorell, 1897, Plynnon Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 and Teutamus Thorell, 1890 are transferred to Corinnidae, Phrurolithinae and Montebello Hogg, 1914 to Gnaphosidae. Itatsina Kishida, 1930 is synonymised with Prochora Simon, 1886.

  2. A new species of Berinda (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from the eastern Aegean Islands, Greece

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    Lissner, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new ground spider, Berinda idae Lissner spec. nov. is described from material collected in Kalymnos and Nisyros of the Dodecanese Islands, as well as Santorini and Christiani of the Thira island complex, Cyclades, Greece. The affinity of this species to ist congeners is briefly discussed.

  3. Modeling distribution of Phoneutria bahiensis (Araneae: Ctenidae: an endemic and threatened spider from Brazil

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    Marcelo A Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.

  4. The genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Cuba and Hispaniola, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2013-10-30

    The three known species of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe from Cuba and Hispaniola are revised and two new species, Loxosceles maisi sp. nov. and Loxosceles mogote sp. nov., are described from the eastern region of Cuba. These new species are included in the reclusa group, and are considered close to Loxosceles taino Gertsch & Ennik as they have a greatly thickened male palpal tibia, a projecting cymbium, and large receptacles in the female genitalia. The distribution ranges of the known Cuban and Hispaniolan species are extended.

  5. Compositional changes in spider (Araneae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient near a Danish town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváth, R.; Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L

    2014-01-01

    species, with money spiders (Linyphiidae) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) being most numerous. One species, Ero aphana, was new to the Danish fauna. In 2004, 45-47 species were captured in the habitats in various stages of urbanisation, while in 2005 (with a smaller collection effort), 28 (urban) - 37 (rural...

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Diego D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a cDNA library. Results All ESTs were clustered into 1,357 clusters, of which 16.4% of the total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, being the Sphingomyelinases D the most abundant transcript; 14.5% include "possible toxins", whose transcripts correspond to metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, hyaluronidases, lipases, C-lectins, cystein peptidases and inhibitors. Thirty three percent of the ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts, being the major part represented by molecules involved in gene and protein expression, reflecting the specialization of this tissue for protein synthesis. In addition, a considerable number of sequences, 25%, has no significant similarity to any known sequence. Conclusion This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition.

  7. Five new species of Phintella Strand, 1906 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Wuling Mountains, China

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    Yi Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Phintella are described from the Wuling Mountains, China: Phintella arcuata sp. n. (male and female, Phintella levii sp. n. (female, Phintella panda sp. n. (female, Phintella pulcherrima sp. n. (male and female, and Phintella wulingensis sp. n. (female. Distribution data, detailed morphological characteristics, and illustrations of body and genital organs are presented.

  8. A SURVEY OF THE HOLARCTIC LINYPHIIDAE (ARANEAE), A REVIEW OF THE ERIGONINE GENUS ZORNELLA JACKSON, 1932

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri M.Marusik; Donald J.Buckle; Seppo Koponen

    2007-01-01

    The Holarctic erigonid genus Zornella has been surveyed. Four species are recognized in this genus, two Palaearctic: Z.cultrigera (L. Koch, 11879) & Z. orientalis sp. nov., and two Nearctic: Z. armata (Banks, 1906) & Z. cryptodon Chamberlin,1920. It is demonstrated that neither nearctic species is conspecific with Z. cultrigera as was thought by Holm and other authors. Z.orientalis sp. nov. is described from northeastern Siberia. All of the species are illustrated and their distributions mapped.

  9. Linyphiidae (Araneae) from Ivory coast, with the description of three new genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jocqué, R.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen species of Linyphiidae were collected in Ivory Coast. Of the Erigoninae, three genera with four species are described as new, viz., Pachydelphus banco n. gen. n. sp. (♂ ♀), Pachydelphus tonqui n. sp. ( 9 ), Deelemania manensis n. gen. n. sp. (♂ ♀), and Eburnella avocalis n. gen. n. sp. (♂

  10. Resolving the phylogeny of a speciose spider group, the family Linyphiidae (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Ballesteros, Jesus A; Hormiga, Gustavo; Chesters, Douglas; Zhan, Yongjia; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Chaodong; Chen, Wei; Tu, Lihong

    2015-10-01

    For high-level molecular phylogenies, a comprehensive sampling design is a key factor for not only improving inferential accuracy, but also for maximizing the explanatory power of the resulting phylogeny. Two standing problems in molecular phylogenies are the unstable placements of some deep and long branches, and the phylogenetic relationships shown by robust supported clades conflict with recognized knowledge. Empirical and theoretical studies suggest that increasing taxon sampling is expected to ameliorate, if not resolve, both problems; however, sometimes neither the current taxonomic system nor the established phylogeny can provide sufficient information to guide additional sampling design. We examined the phylogeny of the spider family Linyphiidae, and selected ingroup species based on epigynal morphology, which can be reconstructed in a phylogenetic context. Our analyses resulted in seven robustly supported clades within linyphiids. The placements of four deep and long branches are sensitive to variations in both outgroup and ingroup sampling, suggesting the possibility of long branch attraction artifacts. Results of ancestral state reconstruction indicate that successive state transformations of the epigynal plate are associated with early cladogenetic events in linyphiid diversification. Representatives of different subfamilies were mixed together within well supported clades and examination revealed that their defining characters, as per traditional taxonomy, are homoplastic. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that increasing taxon sampling produced a more informative framework, which in turn helps to study character evolution and interpret the relationships among linyphiid lineages. Additional defining characters are needed to revise the linyphiid taxonomic system based on our phylogenetic hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryptic female exaggeration: the asymmetric female internal genitalia of Kaliana yuruani (Araneae: Pholcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2006-06-01

    Males of the Venezuelan pholcid spider Kaliana yuruani have unique genitalia, with the procursi about six times as long as usual in the family. The present article describes the previously unknown female, searching for a morphological correlate in the female genitalia to the male's exaggeration. Reconstruction of histological serial sections reveals an internal female complexity that is unequalled in pholcid spiders. An intricate system of ducts and folds is arranged in an asymmetric way, making this the third known case of genital asymmetry in spiders. The term "cryptic female exaggeration" is used in analogy to cryptic female choice, pointing to the fact that from the outside, the female genitalia do not appear unusual. I propose that cryptic female exaggeration may be relatively common in copulatory structures if male exaggerations need to be evaluated according to the female choice by mechanical fit model. Finally, the evolution of genital asymmetry in spiders is contrasted with that in insects.

  12. Female genital morphology and mating behavior of Orchestina (Arachnida: Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.

  13. Complex genital structures indicate cryptic female choice in a haplogyne spider (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae, Gamasomorphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kropf, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Female genital structures with their allied muscles of the haplogyne spider Opopaea fosuma are described. A functional explanation of this system is given, which indicates that cryptic female choice may occur in these spiders: the anterior wall of their spermatheca is strongly sclerotized and possesses a cone-shaped hole in its upper part. A transverse sclerite that serves as muscle attachment bears a nail-like structure and lies in a chitinized area of the anterior wall of the uterus externus. Muscle contraction presses this nail into the hole of the spermatheca. In this way, the uterus externus gets both locked and fixed. Furthermore, as this occurs the copulatory orifice is enlarged and the resulting suction probably leads to previously deposited sperm being drawn from the spermatheca and dumped. This is a common mechanism used by females to influence a male's chances of fathering their offspring in a process known as cryptic female choice.

  14. Complex female genitalia indicate sperm dumping in armored goblin spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In promiscuous females, sperm ejection from the sperm storage site can be a strong mechanism to influence sperm priority patterns. Sperm dumping is reported from different animals including birds, insects, and humans. In spiders, it has been documented for four species including the oonopid Silhouettella loricatula. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising many species with peculiar female genitalia. Especially in species where studies of mating behavior are difficult, morphological investigations of the genitalia help to understand their function and evolution. In the present study, the genitalia of the oonopids Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. are investigated by means of histological serial sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are compared with previous findings on S. loricatula. In Myrmopopaea sp. and Grymeus sp., the same morphological components are present that are involved in sperm dumping in S. loricatula. Inside the receptaculum, sperm are enclosed in a secretory sac which can be moved to the genital opening and dumped during copulation by muscle contractions. The female genitalia of Lionneta sp. are asymmetric. They show the same characteristics as S. loricatula but all the investigated females were unmated. The results strongly suggest that sperm dumping occurs in Myrmopopaea sp., Grymeus sp., and Lionneta sp. and happens by the same mechanism as in S. loricatula. Sperm dumping might even be common within a clade of oonopids. As in S. loricatula, the sperm transfer forms in the investigated species consist of several spermatozoa. Papillae with unknown function occur on the receptacula of all females.

  15. A new species of Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 (Araneae, Agelenidae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahşen Kaya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 is described, based on newly collected specimens from Turkey. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnosis and figures of the copulatory organs of both sexes are presented. Finally, a checklist and distribution maps for Turkish Tegenaria species are provided.

  16. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus (Araneae: Eresidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Cariani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stegodyphus lineatus spiders live in groups consisting of closely related individuals. There appears to be no discrimination against related individuals as mates but females mate multiply, despite the fact that matings are shown to carry a cost. We have developed eight polymorphic dinucleotide...

  17. Four new species of the subfamily Psilodercinae (Araneae: Ochyroceratidae) from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxia; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of the family Ochyroceratidae are described from Southwest China: Althepus christae sp. nov., Lecler- cera undulatus sp. nov., Psiloderces incomptus sp. nov. from Yunnan; and P. exilis sp. nov. from Guangxi. The four spe- cies belong to the subfamily Psilodercinae.

  18. The first lowland species of the Holarctic alpine ground spider genus Parasyrisca (Araneae, Gnaphosidae from Hungary

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    Csaba Szinetár

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The first lowland species of the alpine genus Parasyrisca, Parasyrisca arrabonica Szinetár & Eichardt, sp. n., is described from the sandy grasslands of Hungary. The genus was hitherto known only from Western Europe (Pyrenees and Western Alps and Eastern Europe (Crimea, and although records from Slovenia and Romania were known, these are listed in check-lists in both cases as doubtful since no voucher specimens are available. Thus this species is not only the first representative of Parasyrisca in the Hungarian fauna and in the Pannonian region, but is the first verified record of the genus in Central Europe too. Parasyrisca arrabonica seems to belong to the speciose potanini group (of which this is the first European record and the westernmost occurrence to date, and is especially similar to P. turkenica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Marusik, 1995 and P. songi Marusik & Fritzén, 2009. Detailed descriptions of the species’ ecological characteristics (habitat, co-occurring species are provided, as its habitat preference is unusual and unique within the genus. This species is quite rare: only eight specimens have been found among 20700 captured spiders. Adult specimens have been collected exclusively in late autumn and early spring (so practically outside the major collecting period, which might explain why this species was not discovered earlier.

  19. Distribution of the brown recluse spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Illinois and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kenneth L; Vetter, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    The medical importance of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik, is well known, but there is a need for more accurate information about the distribution of the spider in North America. We gathered information via an Internet offer to identify spiders in Illinois and Iowa that were thought to be brown recluses. We also mined brown recluse locality information from other agencies that kept such records. In Iowa, the brown recluse is unknown from its northern counties and rare in southern counties. In Illinois, brown recluse spiders are common in the southern portion of the state and dwindle to almost nonexistence in a transition to the northern counties. Although there were a few finds in the Chicago, IL area and its suburbs, these are surmised to be human-transported specimens and not part of naturally occurring populations. Considering the great human population density and paucity of brown recluses in the Chicago area, medical personnel therein should obtain patient geographic information and be conservative when diagnosing loxoscelism in comparison with southern Illinois, where the spiders are plentiful and bites are more likely.

  20. The Holarctic Hacklemesh Spider Genus Callobius (Araneae: Amaurobiidae): Morphology, Systematics, and Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Stephen Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the California Floristic Province as a study region for scientists interested in biodiversity, evolution, systematics, and phylogeography has been increasing over the last several years. The amaurobiid spider genus Callobius (Chamberlin) occurs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but is particularly common in western North America and particularly diverse in the California Floristic Province. An understanding of the evolutionary history of Callobius would contribute a great deal...

  1. Redescription of the orb-weaving spider Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Jobi, Malamel J; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-02-02

    The orb-weaving spider genus Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833 (Araneidae) is notable for its pronounced sexual size dimorphism. Gasteracantha females are characterized by having a highly sclerotized "spiny" abdomen varying in relative size and number of spines, as well as abdomen dorsally and ventrally provided with varying numbers of sigillae (Cambridge 1879). The genus currently includes 70 described species and 31 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2014). The Oriental species Gasteracantha geminata (Fabricius, 1798) was originally described from Ramnad (now known as Ramanathapuram) in Tamilnadu State of Southern India based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s). The female of this species has been described and illustrated several times by various authors. Its male is only known from the description of Simon (1895). Simon's original description of the male of G. geminata was supported by two simple but beautiful and informative illustrations: a retrolateral view of the cephalothorax and a dorsal view of the abdomen (Simon 1895, figs. 886, 887). However we lack a clear and detailed description of the male genitalia. The present paper provides detailed redescription of G. geminata and illustrations of the male pedipalp. 

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of orb-weaving spider Araneus ventricosus (Araneae: Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of an orb-weaving spider Araneus ventricosus was determined. It is a circular molecule of 14,617 bp in length and contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of majority strand (J-strand) is 73.4% (T: 38.5%; C: 10.1%; A: 34.9%; G: 16.5%). Among protein-coding genes, one gene (COI) begins with TTA, two (ATP6 and ND4) start with ATA, three (COII, COIII and ND6) begin with ATT and other seven genes use ATT as initiation codon. COIII and ND3 end with an incomplete stop codon (T), and ND1, ND2 and Cytb are terminated with TAG, while all other genes end with TAA as stop codon. Two regions including tandem repeats were found in the control region (D-loop): a 106 bp sequence tandemly repeated twice and a 195 bp sequence tandemly repeated twice with a partial third (120 bp).

  3. Revision of the orb-weaving spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, Arno A; Kesster, Cynara C; Da Silva, Estevam L Cruz

    2015-02-25

    The araneid spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 is revised. Five of the seven previously known species, V. arenata (Walckenaer, 1841), V. lampra Soares & Camargo, 1948, V. meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892), V. undecimvariolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) and V. zebra (Keyserling, 1892), are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, 37 new species of Verrucosa from the Neotropical region are described and illustrated: V. cachimbo n. sp., V. tarapoa n. sp., V. scapofracta n. sp., V. carara n. sp., V. latigastra n. sp., V. guatopo n. sp., V. cuyuni n. sp., V. benavidesae n. sp., V. rancho n. sp., V. excavata n. sp., V. meta n. sp., V. levii n. sp., V. chanchamayo n. sp., V. manauara n. sp., V. brachiscapa n. sp., V. macarena n. sp., V. pedrera n. sp., V. lata n. sp., V. galianoae n. sp., V. suaita n. sp., V. coroico n. sp., V. florezi n. sp., V. hoferi n. sp., V. caninde n. sp., V. opon n. sp., V. silvae n. sp., V. avilesae n. sp., V. tuberculata n. sp., V. alvarengai n. sp., V. apuela n. sp., V. bartica n. sp., V. cajamarca n. sp., V. canje n. sp., V. cuyabenoensis n. sp., V. sergipana n. sp., V. simla n. sp. and V. rhea n. sp. Mahadiva reticulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 is removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841) and is recognized as a valid species, Verrucosa reticulata. Araneus cylicophorus Badcock, 1932 is transferred to Verrucosa by Mello-Leitão (1946) removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) and recognized as a valid species. The male of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) is described for the first time. Distributional maps are provided for all species.

  4. Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Mariajosé; Andía, Juan Manuel

    2014-07-02

    Two new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described and illustrated; Alpaida losamigos n. sp. based on females from Madre de Dios, and Alpaida penca n. sp. based on females and males from Cajamarca.

  5. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-García, Jimmy; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2016-01-27

    A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant, 1945 and Glenognatha maelfaiti Baert, 1987 with Glenognatha argyrostilba (Pickard-Cambridge, 1876) and Glenognatha centralis Chamberlin, 1925 with Glenognatha minuta Banks, 1898.

  6. The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae: new data from field observations and ultrastructure

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group is revised and re-delimited, based mainly on field observations (life color pattern, web design, position of egg-sac when carried by female, microhabitat and ultrastructure (silk spigots, modifications of male cheliceral apophyses. The core group includes six leafdwelling species that have distinctive color patterns in life specimens (black and white or yellowish abdominal marks, dark pattern on posterior half of carapace and build round to oval silk platforms on the undersides of leaves. Seven further species are tentatively assigned to the group pending further study. Several species originally assigned to the Pholcus halabala group are transferred to three newly proposed species groups, the Ph. krabi, Ph. buatong, and Ph. andulau groups. Nine species are newly described, four in the Ph. halabala group (Ph. khaolek Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. kuhapimuk Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. lintang Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. ubin Huber, sp. nov.; three in the Ph. krabi group (Ph. kipungit Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. krabi Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. narathiwat Huber, sp. nov.; one in the Ph. buatong group (Ph. buatong Huber, sp. nov.; and one in the Ph. andulau group (Ph. lambir Huber, sp. nov.. The females of Ph. satun Huber, 2011 and Ph. schwendingeri Huber, 2011 (both members of the buatong group are newly described.

  7. Vitalius nondescriptus comb. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae: an example of theraphosid taxonomic chaos

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    Rogério Bertani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The male holotype of Hapalopus nondescriptus Mello-Leitão, 1926 is redescribed, illustrated and compared with freshly collected specimens from the type locality. The only difference noted among the holotype and the new material concerns the development of the subapical keel. Its taxonomic position is reinterpreted and discussed, resulting in its transfer to the genus Vitalius Lucas, Silva Junior & Bertani, 1993, and thus making the new combination Vitalius nondescriptus (Mello-Leitão, 1926 comb. nov. The female is described for the first time and the morphological variations in two males, born from the female used in the description, is presented and illustrated. The male differs from those of other Vitalius species by the palpal bulb with short apical keel and bifid tibial spur with narrow prolateral branch and almost straight retrolateral branch. The female differs from those of other Vitalius species by urticating hair of 'type I' having the region 'a' shorter than region 'b'. Hapalopus nondescriptus has a confusing taxonomic history, since the holotype specimen was also used to describe another theraphosid species (Cyclosternum melloleitaoi Bücherl, Thimoteo & Lucas, 1971 which was, consequently, considered its objective synonym. Thus, we consider it a clear example of theraphosid taxonomical chaos.

  8. Erste Nachweise sowie Kenntnisse zur Biologie von Cyclosa oculata (Araneae: Araneidae in der Schweiz

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    Zschokke, Samuel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The orb-web spider Cyclosa oculata (Walckenaer, 1802 was found at eleven localities in north-western Switzerland. All records were from wildflower strips ("Buntbrachen" with a relatively high proportion of dried vegetation from the previous year, a relatively low vegetation height and a low proportion of grasses in the vegetation. C. oculata built its vertical orb-web near the ground, deep in the vegetation. Among ecribellate orb-web spiders in Central Europe, C. oculata is unique because it sometimes builds rudimentary webs on which it stays, because it builds its cocoons into the web, and because its stabilimentum is long-lasting and consists largely of debris. Based on our observations, we deduce that the stabilimentum of C. oculata serves as camouflage.

  9. Erstnachweise von Paratrachelas maculatus in Österreich und Deutschland (Araneae, Corinnidae

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    Bauer, Tobias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three adult females of Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875 were found inside a house in the south of Vienna, in a cellar in Cologne and in a house in Rüsselsheim. Additional notes on diet in captivity are presented.

  10. Erstnachweise von Paratrachelas maculatus in Österreich und Deutschland (Araneae, Corinnidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Tobias; Grabolle, Arno

    2012-01-01

    Three adult females of Paratrachelas maculatus (Thorell, 1875) were found inside a house in the south of Vienna, in a cellar in Cologne and in a house in Rüsselsheim. Additional notes on diet in captivity are presented.

  11. A check list of the spiders of the Kruger National Park, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

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    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA, projects are underway to determine the biodiversity of arachnids present in protected areas in South Africa. Spiders have been collected over a period of 16 years from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A check list is provided consisting of 152 species, 116 genera and 40 families. This represents about 7.6 % of the total known South African spider fauna. Of the 152 species, 103 are new records for the park. The ground dwelling spiders comprise 58 species from 25 families. Of these, 21 % are web dwellers and 62 % free living, while 17 % live in burrows. From the plant layer, 94 species have been collected of which 53 % were web builders and 47 % free living wandering spiders.

  12. New records of 43 spider species from the Mountain Zebra National Park, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

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    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA, initiated in 1997 with the main aim to create an inventory of the arachnid fauna of South Africa (Dippenaar-Schoeman & Craemer 2000. One of the objectives of SANSA is to assess the number of arachnid species presently protected in conserved areas in the country. Check lists of spiders are now available for three national parks, three nature reserves and a conservancy. These areas include: Mountain Zebra National Park (Dippenaar-Schoeman 1988; Karoo National Park (Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 1999; Kruger National Park (Dippenaar- Schoeman & Leroy 2002; Roodeplaatdam Nature Reserve (Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 1989; Makelali Nature Reserve (Whitmore et al. 2001, 2002; Swartberg Nature Reserve (Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. 2005; and the Soutpansberg Conservancy (Foord et al. 2002.

  13. Annotated Check List of the Spiders (Araneae of the Mountain Zebra National Park

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    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary check list of the spider fauna of the Mountain Zebra National Park is given. Sixteen families, comprising 29 genera and 32 species, are recorded. Observations on the distribution, diagnostic morphology and behaviour of 15 species are given.

  14. Annotated Check List of the Spiders (Araneae) of the Mountain Zebra National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary check list of the spider fauna of the Mountain Zebra National Park is given. Sixteen families, comprising 29 genera and 32 species, are recorded. Observations on the distribution, diagnostic morphology and behaviour of 15 species are given.

  15. On the taxonomy of Trechaleidae (Araneae: Lycosoidea from Colombia and Peru

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    Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Enna O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897 from Cusco, Peru and two new species of Caricelea SILVA & LISE, 2007 based in males collected in Cusco, Peru are described. Enna echarate sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species by the two lateral excavations on the epigynal middle field. Caricelea apurimac sp. nov. an be distinguished from the other members of the genus, by the larger lamellar projection (LP on the median apophysis that covers most of the guide. Caricelea camisea sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the genus, by the smaller lamellar projection and the smaller and acute ental division of the retrolateral apophysis. The males of Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 are described and illustrated for the first time. Trechalea numida Mello-Leitão, 1943 and Trechalea limai Mello-Leitão, 1941 are transferred to Thaumasia Perty, 1833 (Pisauridae and Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 (Trechaleidae as species inquirenda and nomen dubium, respectively. New records of Hesydrus aurantius (Mello-Leitão, 1942, Hesydrus caripito Carico, 2005, Enna maya Silva, Lise & Carico, 2008 and Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947 from Colombia and Peru are presented.

  16. A new species of the spider genus Taranucnus from Ukraine (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnelitsa, Valery A

    2016-04-11

    Currently the linyphiid genus Taranucnus includes four species: T. setosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863), the type species with Palearctic distribution, T. bihari Fage, 1931 (Eastern Europe), T. nishikii Yaginuma, 1972 (Japan) and T. ornithes (Barrows, 1940)(USA). In Ukraine Taranucnus is represented by two species, T. setosus and T. bihari. A detailed study of the male mentioned earlier as Taranucnus sp. (Chumak, Prokopenko & Tymochko 2007; Prokopenko, Chumak 2007), and several females close to T. bihari Fage, 1931 revealed a new species of this genus. Since it is hard to clarify the position of some of these females we report them below as T. cf. bihari.

  17. Characterization of the venom from the Brazilian Brown Spider Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, F G; de Castro, C S; de Moura, J F; Giusta, M S; De Maria, M; Alvares, E S S; Lobato, F C F; Assis, R A; Gonçalves, L A; Gubert, I C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Kalapothakis, E

    2005-12-15

    Accidents caused by brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) are frequent in Brazil and are associated with dermonecrotic lesions and, eventually, systemic reactions that may be lethal. The major species implicated with human envenoming have been: L. intermedia, L. gaucho and L. laeta. In this study we characterized the venom from Loxosceles similis, a species of spider normally found inside caves. L. similis venom was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and enzymatic activity (dermonecrosis and haemolysis). The lethal dose to mice and the capacity of commercial anti-serum to neutralize this venom were also analysed. The cross-reactivity with anti-venoms against L. intermedia, L. laeta and L. gaucho were studied. Our results showed that this venom was able to induce severe dermonecrotic lesions and showed the presence of the bacteria Clostridium septicum in association with the fangs. In addition, we have cloned the DNA coding for a dermonecrotic protein (LsD1), using the genomic DNA of L. similis. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a toxin of approximately 31.2 kDa with an estimated pI of 7.37 and sequence similar to LiD1, a protein from the dermonecrotic family of Loxosceles intermedia spider venom, a synanthropic species of medical importance.

  18. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael

    2011-07-01

    In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

  19. INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN THE GROUND SPIDER, Pardosa sumatrana (THORELL, 1890; ARANEAE: LYCOSIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad; Khizar, Farva; Naseem, Sajida; Yaqoob, Rabia; Samiullah, Khizar

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of insecticides detoxifying enzymes, such as esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, act in the resistance mechanisms in insects. In the present study, levels of these enzymes in the insecticide-resistant ground spider Pardosa sumatrana (Thorell, 1890) were compared with a susceptible population (control) of the same species. Standard protocols were used for biochemical estimation of enzymes. The results showed significantly higher levels of nonspecific esterases and monooxygenases in resistant spiders compared to controls. The activity of GSTs was lower in the resistant spiders. Elevated levels of nonspecific esterases and monooxygenases suggest their role in metabolic resistance in P. sumatrana. The reduced levels of total protein contents revealed its possible consumption to meet energy demands.

  20. Intraspecific non-sexual interactions of Grammostola schulzei (Araneae: Theraphosidae under laboratory conditions

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    Nelson E Ferretti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.

  1. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae) in Central Texas Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Joel; Paquin, Pierre; Cokendolpher, James; Campbell, Josh; Griswold, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011) and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM) and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s) in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: Tayshaneta archambaulti sp. n., Tayshaneta emeraldae sp. n., Tayshaneta fawcetti sp. n., Tayshaneta grubbsi sp. n., Tayshaneta madla sp. n., Tayshaneta oconnorae sp. n., Tayshaneta sandersi sp. n., Tayshaneta sprousei sp. n., Tayshaneta vidrio sp. n. and Tayshaneta whitei sp. n. The males for three species, Tayshaneta anopica (Gertsch, 1974), Tayshaneta devia (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta microps (Gertsch, 1974) are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974) and Tayshaneta uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974) are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling. PMID:22363201

  2. Bistriopelma, a new genus with two new species from Peru (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae

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    Radan Kaderka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bistriopelma gen. nov. from the Andean region in Peru is here described, diagnosed and illustrated, together with two new species Bistriopelma lamasi sp. nov. as a type species and Bistriopelma matuskai sp. nov. This new genus differs from all other theraphosid genera, except the genus Phrixotrichus Simon 1889 (sensu Perafán & Pérez-Miles 2014 and the troglobite species Tmesiphantes hypogeus Bertani, Bichuette & Pedroso 2013, in the presence of two abdominal dorsolateral patches of the type III urticating setae. Bistriopelma gen nov. can be distiguished from Phrixotrichus by the different shape of spermathecae in females, consisting of two separate subparallel seminal receptacles in Bistriopelma gen. nov. but strongly divergent in Phrixotrichus and by the different morphology of male palpal bulb (embolus projecting retrolaterally from tegulum in Bistriopelma gen. nov. against posteriorly in Phrixotrichus; furthermore by the presence of basal spine on prolateral tibial apophysis, the absence of the type IV urticating setae and paired tarsal claws denticulate. Bistriopelma gen. nov. is separated from Tmesiphantes hypogeus by the position of the urticating seta patches (middle of abdomen in Bistriopelma gen. nov. and posterior half in Tmesiphantes hypogeus, the different shape of spermathecae (long separate seminal receptacles with subapical constriction in Bistriopelma gen. nov. and short, subtriangular and widely separated in Tmesiphantes hypogeus and also in the extension of metatarsal scopulae. Additional comments and a distribution map of all species of this genus are provided.

  3. Descriptions of twelve new species of ochyroceratids (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2015-05-12

    Twelve new species in three different genera from the spider family Ochyroceratidae are described from mainland Ecuador: Speocera bioforestae sp. n., Speocera violacea sp. n., Speocera musgo sp. n., Ochyrocera rinocerotos sp. n., Ochyrocera callaina sp. n., Ochyrocera italoi sp. n., Ochyrocera minotaure sp. n., Ochyrocera losrios sp. n., Ochyrocera zabaleta sp. n., Ochyrocera otonga sp. n., Ochyrocera cashcatotoras sp. n. and Psiloochyrocera tortilis sp. n. Speocera machadoi Gertsch 1977 is transferred to Ochyrocera.

  4. Phylogeny of pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae): combined analysis using morphology and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruvo-Madarić, Branka; Huber, Bernhard A; Steinacher, Arno; Pass, Günther

    2005-12-01

    The spider family Pholcidae comprises a large number of mainly tropical, web-weaving spiders, and is among the most diverse and dominant spider groups in the world. The phylogeny of this family has so far been investigated exclusively using morphological data. Here, we present the first molecular data for the family analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Four different gene regions (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 28S rRNA) and 45 morphological characters were scored for 31 pholcid and three outgroup taxa. The data were analyzed both for individual genes, combined molecular data, and molecular plus morphological data, using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. Some of the phylogenetic hypotheses obtained previously using morphology alone were also supported by our results, like the monophyly of pholcines and of the New World clade. On the other hand, some of the previous hypotheses could be discarded with some confidence (monophyly of holocnemines, the position of Priscula), and still others need further investigation (the position of holocnemines, ninetines, and Metagonia). The data obtained provide an excellent basis for future investigations of phylogenetic patterns both within the family and among spider families.

  5. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    and Micronetini), and Erigoninae, and a representative of the family Pimoidae, the sister-group to Linyphiidae. No fewer than 147 of the morphological characters used in this study are new and defined for this study, and come mainly from male and female genitalia. Parsimony analysis with equal weights resulted......This is the first genus-level phylogeny of the subfamily Mynogleninae. It is based on 190 morphological characters scored for 44 taxa: 37 mynoglenine taxa (ingroup) representing 15 of the 17 known genera and seven outgroup taxa representing the subfamilies Stemonyphantinae, Linyphiinae (Linyphiini...... in three most parsimonious trees of length 871. The monophyly of the subfamily Mynogleninae and the genera Novafroneta, Parafroneta, Laminafroneta, Afroneta, Promynoglenes, Metamynoglenes, and Haplinis are supported, whereas Pseudafroneta is paraphyletic. The remaining seven mynoglenine genera are either...

  6. New record of nuptial gift observed in Trechalea amazonica (Araneae, Lycosoidea, Trechaleidae

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    Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The first record of a nuptial gift in Trechalea amazonica F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1903, is herein presented. The observations were made in the Oriximiná, Pará, northern Brazil. Two males were found on tree trunks near the water, each holding in the chelicerae a small prey wrapped in silk. This is the second confirmed observa- tion of the nuptial gift behavior in the family Trechaleidae, first in the genus Trechalea Thorell, 1869, and later in Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 from southern Brazil. This new observation could be used in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies for this poorly studied spider family.

  7. Ground-living spiders (Araneae at polluted sites in the Subarctic

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    Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders were studied around the Pechenganikel smelter combine, Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. The average spider density was 6-fold greater and the density of Linyphiidae specimens 11.5-fold higher at slightly polluted sites, compared with heavily polluted sites. Altogether, 18 species from 10 families were found at heavily polluted sites, the theridiid Robertus scoticus clearly dominating (23.3 % of identifiable specimens, also Neon reticulatus (9.6 %, Thanatus formicinus (9.6 % and Xysticus audax (8.2 % were abundant. The most numerous among 58 species found at slightly polluted sites were Tapinocyba pallens (18.5 %, Robertus scoticus (13.7 %, Maso sundevalli (9.5 % and Alopecosa aculeata (8.2 %. The family Linyphiidae dominated at slightly polluted sites, 64 % of species and 60 % of individuals; compared with heavily polluted sites, 23 % and 38 % respectively.

  8. On the new monotypic wolf spider genus Ovia gen. nov. (Araneae: Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2017-01-17

    A new monotypic wolf spider genus, Ovia gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate a misplaced species: Pardosa procurva Yu & Song, 1988. Ovia procurva comb. nov. is redescribed, illustrated and designated as the type species for the genus. The subfamily placement of the new genus is discussed and it is considered as a member of Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 and possibly closely related to Alopecosa Simon, 1885. The presence of an apical process (spur) on the median apophysis is proposed as the putative synapomorphy of Ovia gen. nov. The possible sister-taxon relationship of Ovia gen. nov. with Alopecosa is discussed and evidence on the occurrence of sexual dimorphism and mating plug within the genus are presented. Ovia gen. nov. is assumed to be of Holarctic origin, from which it has migrated to the Indomalayan region. Additionally, a current distribution map for the genus is provided.

  9. Two new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from India (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Dhruv A; Murthappa, Prashanthakumara S; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2016-09-28

    Stenaelurillus digitus sp. nov. and Stenaelurillus gabrieli sp. nov. are described from India. New distributional records for Stenaelurillus albus Sebastian et al., 2015 and Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and maps for these species are given.

  10. [Venom of Latrodectus mactans from Chile (Araneae, Theridiidae): effect on smooth muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando; Altieri, Elena; Urrutia, Mauricio; Jara, Jorge

    2003-06-01

    The venoms of Latrodectus sp. have been reported to induce contraction probably mediated by adrenergic and cholinergic transmitters. We have demonstrated that the venom of Chilean Latrodectus mactans contains neurotoxins that induce a contraction partially independent of transmitters release. Transmembrane mobility of Na+ and Ca2+ ions and more specifically, the increase of cytoplasmic calcium concentration are responsible for tonic contraction in smooth muscle. Calcium may enter the cell by several ways, such as the voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. This study aimed to examine the participation of this exchanger in the tonic contraction of smooth muscle in vas deferent of rat induced by the venom of the Chilean spider L. mactans. Blockers of Na+ channels (amiloride) and Ca2+ L-type channels (nifedipine), and a stimulator of the exchanger (modified Tyrode, Na+ 80 mM) were used. Simultaneously, variations of the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ were registered by microfluorimetry (Fura-2 indicator) in the presence of nifedipine. In presence of amiloride, dose-dependent inhibition of venom-induced contraction was observed, suggesting the participation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ L-type channels. The contraction was only partially inhibited by nifedipine and the Ca2+ cytoplasmic concentration increased, as assessed by the microfluorimetric registration. Finally, the venom-induced contraction increased in the presence of modified Tyrode, probably due to the action of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Taken together, our results support the idea that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is active and may be, at least in part, responsible for the contraction induced by the venom of Chilean L. mactans.

  11. The black widow spider genus Latrodectus (Araneae: Theridiidae): phylogeny, biogeography, and invasion history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Jessica E; González, Alda; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2004-06-01

    The spider genus Latrodectus includes the widely known black widows, notorious because of the extreme potency of their neurotoxic venom. The genus has a worldwide distribution and comprises 30 currently recognized species, the phylogenetic relationships of which were previously unknown. Several members of the genus are synanthropic, and are increasingly being detected in new localities, an occurrence attributed to human mediated movement. In particular, the nearly cosmopolitan range of the brown widow, Latrodectus geometricus, is a suspected consequence of human transport. Although the taxonomy of the genus has been examined repeatedly, the recognition of taxa within Latrodectus has long been considered problematic due to the difficulty associated with identifying morphological features exhibiting discrete geographic boundaries. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Latrodectus genus and is generated from DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. We recover two well-supported reciprocally monophyletic clades within the genus: (1) the geometricus clade, consisting of Latrodectus rhodesiensis from Africa, and its is sister species, the cosmopolitan L. geometricus, and (2) the mactans clade containing all other Latrodectus species sampled, including taxa occurring in Africa, the Middle East, Iberian Peninsula, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Recovery of the geometricus and mactans clades is consistent with previous designations of species groups within the genus based on female genitalic morphology. All L. geometricus sampled, consisting of specimens from Africa, Argentina, North America, and Hawaii, were recovered as a strongly supported monophyletic group with minimal amounts of genetic divergence, corroborating the hypothesis that human transport has recently expanded the range of this species.

  12. Veneno de Latrodectus mactans de Chile (Araneae, Theridiidae): su efecto sobre músculo liso

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    Romero M, Fernando; Altieri M, Elena; Urrutia A., Mauricio; Jara H, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    El veneno de arañas del género Latrodectus induce contracción de músculo liso de mamíferos, postulándose como posible mecanismo la liberación de mediadores adrenérgicos y colinérgicos. El veneno de Latrodectus mactans de Chile contiene neurotoxinas que inducen actividad contráctil en músculo liso en forma parcialmente independiente de actividades adrenérgicas y colinérgicas, lo que deja abiertas interrogantes sobre el mecanismo de acción del veneno. La respuesta tónica en músculo liso depende...

  13. Chemical signals might mediate interactions between females and juveniles of Latrodectus geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ingrid de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Lima, Sandro Marcio; Andrade, Luis Humberto da Cunha; Antonialli Junior, William Fernnando

    2016-05-01

    Studies related to communication on spiders show that, as in other invertebrates, the interactions between conspecifics are also made through chemical signals. Therefore, in order to assess whether the composition of cuticular compounds might be involved in interactions that occur during the days after the emergence of juveniles in Latrodectus geometricus, we conducted behavioral and cuticular chemical profiles analysis of females and juveniles of different ages. The results show that females, regardless of their reproductive state, tolerate juveniles of other females with up to 40 days post-emergence and attack juveniles of 80 days post-emergence. Cuticlar chemical analysis shows that while the profile of juveniles is similar to adult's profile, they can remain in the web without being confused with threat or prey. Also, cuticular chemical profiles vary between different populations probably due to genetic and environmental differences or similarities between them. Finally, females in incubation period are able to detect the presence of eggs within any egg sac, but cannot distinguish egg sacs produced by conspecifics from the ones they had produced.

  14. Intersexual trophic niche partitioning in an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae.

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    Stano Pekár

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes ("intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis", or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output ("sexual selection hypothesis". The latter may lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae and body size of males, females and juveniles demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size, and larger than ants captured by juveniles and males. Female fecundity was highly positively correlated with female body mass, which reflects foraging success during the adult stage. Females in laboratory experiments preferred the large ant sub-castes and displayed higher capture efficiency. In contrast, males occupied a different trophic niche and showed reduced foraging effort and reduced prey capture and feeding efficiency compared with females and juveniles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that female-biased dimorphism in trophic morphology and body size correlate with sex-specific reproductive strategies. We propose that intersexual trophic niche partitioning is shaped primarily by fecundity selection in females, and results from sex-differences in the route to successful reproduction where females are selected to maximize energy intake and fecundity, while males switch from foraging to invest in mating effort.

  15. Two new synanthropic species of Anyphaena Sundevall (Araneae: Anyphaenidae) associated to houses in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Barrón, César G; Pérez, Tila M; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2016-04-12

    The family Anyphaenidae is composed by 56 genera and 542 species worldwide (World Spider Catalog 2015). These spiders, known as "ghost spiders", are wandering hunters living in a variety of environments, from forests to deserts, and can be quite abundant in different crops such as cotton, sorghum and rice (Brescovit 1996; Young & Edwards 1990; Taylor & Pfannenstiel 2008). They typically live on vegetation, among dead leaves or under loose bark and rocks (Richman & Ubick 2005) but synanthropic associations have been reported for a few species (Jiménez 1998; Guarisco 1999; Durán-Barrón et al. 2009). The genus Anyphaena has 81 species widely distributed in Asia, Central Europe, North America and Mexico (Brescovit 1996; Richman & Ubick 2005; World Spider Catalog 2015). The species from Noth America and Mexico were revised by Platnick (1974) who recognized four species groups (accentuata, celer, pectorosa and pacifica). Platnick (1977), Platnick & Lau (1975) and Brescovit & Lise (1989) complemented the revision of the genus in Central America. Presently, there are 27 species of Anyphaena recorded in Mexico (World Spider Catalog 2015), 24 of them from the celer group. Here, two new species of Anyphaena are described based in material collected during an inventory of spiders associated to houses in Mexico City, carried out by Durán-Barrón et al. (2009). Both species have the diagnostic characters of the members of the pacifica group as defined by Platnick (1974), such as the lack of leg coxal spurs and the presence of a lightly sclerotized atrium in the female epigynum. These species represent the first record of the pacifica group in Mexico. The occurrence of Anyphaenidae associated to houses was reported in Mexico by Durán-Barrón et al. (2009), who recorded Anyphaena obregon Platnick & Lau, 1975 and Hibana futilis (Banks, 1898) as frequent inhabitants inside houses. The species herein described are reported solely from urban areas and can be also characterized as frequent in these anthropic environments.

  16. Masteria manauara sp. nov., the first masteriine species from Brazil (Araneae: Dipluridae: Masteriinae

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    Rogério Bertani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from Manaus, Brazil, Masteria manauara sp. nov., is herein described. The specimens were collected by hand or using litter bags in the leaf litter around Attalea attaleoides (Barb. Rodr. palm trees. The new species resembles Masteria colombiensis Raven, 1981 by lacking paraembolic apophysis on male copulatory organs and having spiniform apophysis on the ventral metatarsus I. It differs in the tibial spur, made of two subdistal, spiniform and converging spurs. Females are unique in having two spermathecae with slender helicoidal stalks. Males and females have only six eyes, and are tiny, even when compared with other Masteria species.

  17. Coelotes terrestris (Wider, 1839 (Araneae : Agelenidae new species for the iberian fauna

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    DE CASTRO, A., FERRANDEZ, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Observando los datos obtenidos y revisando las citas del género Coelotes en la Península Ibérica y Pirineos, se llega a la conclusión de que existe un importante desconocimiento de su distribución peninsular y pirenaica. Se señala la necesidad de explorar los sistemas montañosos del norte peninsular para completar el conocimiento de los Coelotes Ibéricos.

  18. Taxonomic notes on the crab spider genus Tobias Simon, 1895 (Araneae, Thomisidae, Stephanopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Miguel; Teixeira, Renato Augusto; Lise, Arno Antonio

    2015-10-30

    The males of Tobias caudatus Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias pustulosus Simon, 1929 are described for the first time, females are redescribed and both sexes are illustrated. New distribution records are presented for both species. Tobias monstruosus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior synonym of T. pustulosus. The types of Tobias albovittatus Caporiacco, 1954, and Tobias gradiens Mello-Leitão, 1929 are lost, and Tobias albicans Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias corticatus Mello-Leitão, 1917 are known only from poorly preserved specimens, thus they all are considered nomina dubia.

  19. A revision of the Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon (Araneae: Philodromidae

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    A. Van den Berg

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.

  20. Trapdoor spiders of the genus Cyclocosmia Ausserer, 1871 from China and Vietnam (Araneae, Ctenizidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Xu, Chen; Li, Fan; Pham, Dinh Sac; Li, Daiqin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A species of the genus Cyclocosmia Ausserer, 1871 collected from Guizhou Province, China is diagnosed and described as new to science: Cyclocosmia liui Xu, Xu & Li, sp. n. (♀). New records of Cyclocosmia latusicosta Zhu, Zhang & Zhang, 2006 (♀) from China (Yunnan Province) and Vietnam (Vinh Phuc Province, Ninh Binh Province), and Cyclocosmia ricketti (Pocock, 1901) collected from Jiangxi Province, China are also reported in this study. PMID:28144177

  1. Curicaberis, a new genus of Sparassidae from North and Central America (Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparassinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Cristina A

    2015-09-04

    The genus Curicaberis gen. nov. is described to include the type species, Curicaberis ferrugineus (C.L. Koch, 1836) comb. nov., and eight other species transferred from Olios Walckenaer, 1837: C. abnormis (Keyserling, 1884) comb. nov., C. annulatus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) comb. nov., C. bibranchiatus (Fox, 1937) comb. nov., C. ensiger (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) comb. nov., C. ferrugineus (C.L. Koch, 1836) comb. nov., C. luctuosus (Banks, 1898) comb. nov., C. minax (O. Pickard-Cambridge,1896) comb. nov., C. manifestus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1890) comb. nov., and C. peninsulanus (Banks, 1898) comb. nov.. All species are redescribed and illustrated. The males of C. ferrugineus comb. nov. and C. luctuosus comb. nov., and the female of C. annulatus comb. nov. are described and illustrated for the first time. Twenty-three new species are described: C. azul sp. nov. (♂) from Veracruz, C. catarinas sp. nov. (♀) from Chihuahua, C. chamela sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. eberhardi sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. jalisco sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), and C. urquizai sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Jalisco, C. culiacan sp. nov. (♂) from Sinaloa, C. cuyutlan sp. nov. (♂) from Colima, C. durango sp. nov. (♂) from Durango, C. elpunto sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. sanpedrito sp. nov. (♂ and ♀), C. tortugero sp. nov. (♀), C. yerba sp. nov. (♀) and C. zapotec sp. nov. (♂) from Oaxaca, C. huitiupan sp. nov. (♂), from Chiapas, C. pedregal sp. nov. (♂) from Distrito Federal, C. potosi sp. nov. (♀) from San Luis Potosí, C. puebla sp. nov. (♀) from Puebla, C. tepic sp. nov. (♀) from Nayarit, and C. mitla sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Veracruz and Oaxaca, C. chiapas sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Chiapas and Tabasco, all in Mexico, C. granada sp. nov. (♂ and ♀) from Granada and Manágua in Nicaragua and Guanacaste in Costa Rica, and C. bagaces sp. nov. (♀), from Guanacaste, Costa Rica. An identification key and distribution maps are provided for all known species.

  2. Catálogo de las arañas (Araneae de la Comunidad de Madrid

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    Ferrández, M. A.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this catalogue we seek to compile information about spiders in Comunidad de Madrid in order to evaluate the level of our knowledge in the context of the Iberian fauna as well as to promote studies leading to their conservation. For this catalogue we have compiled information coming from both published and unpublished mentions from university thesis, classified specimens from the collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales and the results of a specific sampling carried out by M. A. Ferrández and H. Fernández de Céspedes in the San Agustín de Guadalix area. The nomenclature is based on Platnick’s world catalogue (2005 as well as on Morano’s work on the ibero-balearic fauna (2005 both available on the net. For each species we include: locality of record, UTM coordinates, original publication name and bibliographical references or museum where the material is kept. Madrid’s fauna of spiders has 261 species at present, belonging to 133 genera from 36 different families, 52% of which are cited from first time (marked with *. The general conclusion is that there is very little data about most species, those that do exist are often outdated and they lack relevant information about biological cycles, ecology, etc. There are still great many species to be recorded in the fauna of Madrid and estimates range between 350 and 400 species in total. It must be pointed that 24 out of 261 total species are endemic species from the Iberian Peninsula, some only collected very recently: Ozyptila umbraculorum (2002, Clubiona aducta, Parachtes teruelis (2005 and Amphiledorus balnearicus (in this paper.

    Con la confección del presente catálogo se pretende recopilar la información faunística disponible sobre las arañas de la Comunidad de Madrid, valorar el grado de conocimiento en el contexto de la fauna ibérica, así como impulsar los estudios encaminados a su conservación. Para su elaboración se han recopilado las citas publicadas, las citas inéditas de diferentes Tesis Doctorales y de licenciatura, el material identificado que se conserva en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales y los resultados de un muestreo puntual realizado por dos de los autores (M.A. Ferrández y H. Fernández de Céspedes en las proximidades de San Agustín de Guadalix. La nomenclatura está basada tanto en el catálogo mundial de Platnick (2005 como en el realizado para la fauna ibero-balear por uno de los autores, Morano (2005, disponible actualmente en internet. Para cada especie se incluyen las localidades de captura, su coordenada UTM, el nombre con el que fue publicada la cita y la referencia bibliográfica o el museo donde esta depositado el material. También se añade un apartado de distribución donde se proporciona la distribución mundial y la ibérica. La fauna de arañas de Madrid cuenta en el momento actual con un total de 261 especies repartidas en 132 géneros de 36 familias distintas, de las cuales un total de 52 se publican por primera vez (las señaladas mediante un *. La conclusión general es que se poseen pocos datos de la mayoría de las especies, los datos que hay son en muchos casos antiguos y no aportan información relevante sobre los ciclos biológicos, ecología, etc. Sin duda quedan muchas especies por encontrar en la fauna madrileña y no es descabellado estimar entre 350 y 400 las especies totales de dicha fauna. También es de destacar la presencia de 24 endemismos ibéricos, algunos de ellos recolectados en fecha reciente, como Ozyptila umbraculorum (2002, Clubiona aducta, Parachtes teruelis, o Amphiledorus balnearicus (2005, esta última capturada en los muestreos de San Agustín de Guadalix.

  3. Regional variations in agrobiont composition and agrobiont life history of spiders (Araneae within Hungary

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    Samu, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobiont spider species are well adapted to arable systems, which have fairly uniform vegetation structure and pest assemblages over continent-wide areas. We wanted to study, whether agrobiont spider subassemblages and the life history of the most prominent agrobiont, Pardosa agrestis, show any regional variation within Hungary, where only modest climatic differences exist between the NW and SE parts of the country. We studied agrobiont species of spider assemblages in 27 alfalfa and 21 cereal fields with suction sampling and pitfalls. The similarity structure of these agrobiont sub-assemblages (Sørensen distance measure was congruent with the geographic distance matrices (Eucledian distance, as tested by Mantel tests. However, if we considered sub-assemblages consisting of the non-agrobiont species, this congruency was always higher. Thus, agrobionts responded only moderately to geographical variation if we compare them to non-agrobiont species. We studied the generation numbers and the occurrence of the first adult individuals in P. agrestis; the most common agrobiont spider in Hungary. This comparison involved comparing fields along a NW – SE gradient during 6 sampling years in pairwise comparisons, where in each year a northern and a southern population was compared with a minimum distance of 126 km in between. In generation numbers there was no difference; we found two generations across Hungary. In contrast, the first occurrence of adult individuals was on average 15 days earlier in both generations in the more southern populations. Thus, it can be concluded that agrobionts show a fairly stable and relatively low magnitude response over country-sized geographical ranges.

  4. The spiders of the Swartberg Nature Reserve in South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

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    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Swartberg Nature Reserve is situated in the Large Swartberg mountain range, in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape Province. Spiders were collected from the reserve over a 10-year period. This is one of the inventory projects of the South African National Survey (SANSA for spiders of the Succulent Karoo Biome. A total of 45 families comprising 136 genera and 186 species were collected, all which are new records for the area. This represents about 9.4 of the total known South African spider fauna. Of the spiders collected 142 species (76.5 were wanderers and 44 (23.5 web dwellers. The plant dwellers comprised 43.3 of the total number of species and the ground dwellers 56.7 . The Gnaphosidae was the most diverse family represented by 33 species, followed by the Salticidae with 23 and Thomisidae with 15. Ten species are possibly new to science and the Filistatidae is a first record for South Africa. An annotated checklist with information on the guilds, habitat preference and web types are provided.

  5. Revision, phylogeny, and microhabitat shifts in the Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously poorly known Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana Huber, 2005 is revised. Fifteen species are newly described, and the first SEM data and a first phylogenetic analysis of the genus are presented. Four species groups are well supported, one restricted to Borneo, two restricted to the Philippines, and one ranging from the Philippines to Fiji. The cladistic analysis and field observations suggest that the ancestor of Aetana built its web close to the ground, in confined spaces among and under rocks and logs. In at least two cases, evolutionary shifts of microhabitat resulted in species being adapted to life in higher forest strata, with correlated morphological and behavioral changes (lighter coloration; longer abdomen; additional sheet in web or more strongly domed web. The following species are newly described: A. abadae Huber, sp. nov., A. baganihan Huber, sp. nov., A. banahaw Huber, sp. nov., A. kiukoki Huber, sp. nov., A. libjo Huber, sp. nov., A. loboc Huber, sp. nov., A. lozadae Huber, sp. nov., A. manansalai Huber, sp. nov., A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov., A. paragua Huber, sp. nov. and A. pasambai Huber, sp. nov. from the Philippines; A. gaya Huber, sp. nov., A. indah Huber, sp. nov., A. lambir Huber, sp. nov. and A. poring Huber, sp. nov. from northern Borneo. The female of A. kinabalu Huber, 2005 is newly described. A potential case of female genital dimorphism is documented in A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov.

  6. Bats in cobwebs of the giant-spider Nephilingis cruentata (Fabricius, 1775 (Araneae: Nephilidae in Brazil

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    Fábio André Facco Jacomassa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats throughout the world are preyed upon primarily by vertebrates, but some are also attacked by invertebrates. We report two cases of bats entangled in webs of the giant-spider Nephilingis cruentata in southeastern Brazil. The first incidence occurred in December 2012, on which a female Eptesicus diminutus was found dead. The second occurred in March 2013, in which a male Tadarida brasiliensis was removed from the web alive, and later released. The animals showed no predation marks on the body, and both events were recorded after heavy rains. We suspect that the bats may have become entangled in the webs while seeking shelter from rain, or while foraging for insects. Even though the bats were not preyed upon, this spider cannot be ruled out as an opportunistic predator of small bats, as has been observed outside of Brazil.

  7. Revision of the enigmatic Southeast Asian spider genus Savarna (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Savarna Huber, 2005 was previously one of the most poorly known Pholcinae genera. Less than 20 specimens (representing four nominal species were available worldwide; nothing was known about ultrastructure, natural history, or relationships. We present the first SEM data, supporting the position of the genus in Pholcinae outside the Pholcus group of genera and weakly suggesting a closer relationship with the genera Khorata Huber, 2005, Spermophorides Wunderlich, 1992, and two undescribed species of unknown affinity from Borneo. We provide the first data about microhabitat, web structure, and reaction to disturbance. We clarify the type locality of Savarna tessellata (Simon, 1901 (“Jalor, Biserat” and describe topotypical material. We describe the previously unknown male of Spermophora miser Bristowe, 1952 and transfer the species (that was previously considered incertae sedis to Savarna as Savarna miser (Bristowe, 1952 comb. nov. Savarna baso (Roewer, 1963 is newly synonymized with S. miser. We newly describe the most northern species in the genus, Savarna kaeo sp. nov., and provide amendments to the descriptions of all previously described species.

  8. Observations on web-invasion by the jumping spider Thyene imperialis in Israel (Araneae: Salticidae

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    Jäger, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations on Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846 in Israel, Negev desert, invading a web of Cyclosa deserticola Levy, 1998 are reported. The female leapt into the orb-web to catch Cyclosa spiders. Photographs are provided, and a link to additional film material is given.

  9. Die Gemeine Baldachinspinne, Linyphia triangularis (Araneae: Linyphiidae, Europäische Spinne des Jahres 2014

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    Hörweg, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European spider of the year 2014, Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757, is presented. For the first time it is a linyphiid spider, a hammock-weaver. Its characteristics (e.g., ecology, habitat, web, phenology are briefly described. The modality of the voting is given as well as numerous links to the supporting societies and to distribution maps.

  10. Web-sharing Sociality and Cooperative Prey Capture in a Malagasy Spitting Spider (Araneae: Scytodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Web-sharing sociality and cooperative prey capture are reported for Scytodes socialis, sp. nov., a spitting spider discovered in a dry deciduous forest in Eastern Madagascar. Transect-based sampling was used to investigate colony demographics, estimate web volume and stratigraphic position, and asse

  11. Bourgeois behavior and freeloading in the colonial orb web spider Parawixia bistriata (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Bacon, Jonathan P; Alves, Denise A; Couvillon, Margaret J; Kärcher, Martin; Nascimento, Fabio S; Nogueira-Neto, Paulo; Ribeiro, Marcia; Robinson, Elva J H; Tofilski, Adam; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-07-01

    Spiders of the tropical American colonial orb weaver Parawixia bistriata form a communal bivouac in daytime. At sunset, they leave the bivouac and construct individual, defended webs within a large, communally built scaffolding of permanent, thick silk lines between trees and bushes. Once spiders started building a web, they repelled other spiders walking on nearby scaffolding with a "bounce" behavior. In nearly all cases (93%), this resulted in the intruder leaving without a fight, akin to the "bourgeois strategy," in which residents win and intruders retreat without escalated contests. However, a few spiders (6.5%) did not build a web due to lack of available space. Webless spiders were less likely to leave when bounced (only 42% left) and instead attempted to "freeload," awaiting the capture of prey items in nearby webs. Our simple model shows that webless spiders should change their strategy from bourgeois to freeloading satellite as potential web sites become increasingly occupied.

  12. On Pardosa schenkeli (Araneae, Lycosidae and its presence in Germany and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The wolf spider Pardosa schenkeli Lessert, 1904 was since long regarded as occurring in Germany and Poland but is excluded from the recent checklist of spiders found in these countries. Re-examination of material collected in Germany and Poland, respectively, verifies its presence in both countries. Characters for distinguishing P. schenkeli and its ally P. bifasciata (C.L. Koch, 1834 are given and illustrated.

  13. The first account of a bite by the New Zealand native spider Trite planiceps (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Sirvid, Phil J; Rademaker, Marius

    2010-05-14

    New Zealand has very few arthropods that pose a threat to human health. While most New Zealand spiders are considered harmless, the bite effects of most species are unknown. Here, we describe a case of a bite by a native spider, in which a young man was bitten after rolling over in his bed. The spider was collected and identified as Trite planiceps (Salticidae, black headed jumping spider), a native species commonly encountered around homes. The initial reaction was a relatively painful, sting-like, sensation, followed by the appearance of two red puncture marks and an urticarial wheal. Symptoms eventually disappeared after 72 hours, and he has had no further dermatological problems. Trite planiceps is considered to be a rather docile spider with regard to humans, but even a docile species may still bite defensively as a last resort. Notes on this species and on treatment of spider bites are provided.

  14. A Taxonomic Revision of the Orb Weaver Genus Acacesia (Araneae: Araneidae)

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    There are five species of Acacesia which range collectively from southern North America to Argentina. Two are previously known members of the genus. A. cornigera Petrunkevitch and A. hamata (Hentz). Three of these are new species: A. villalobosi and A. yacuiensis, fom southern Brazil, and A. benigna from Bolivia and Peru.

  15. A new genus of huntsman spiders (Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparianthinae) from the Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Cristina A

    2013-11-06

    Uaiuara gen. nov. is described to include Sparianthis amazonica Simon from Brazil, Sparianthis barroana Chamberlin from Panama, and five new species, namely: Uaiuara quyguaba sp. nov. from the states of Amazonas, Pará and Amapá; Uaiuara ope sp. nov. from Acre and Uaiuara jirau sp. nov. from Rondônia, all in northern Brazil, Uaiuara palenque sp. nov. from Ecuador and Uaiuara dianae sp. nov. from Peru. The genus is easily distinguished from the remaining Neotropical Sparianthinae by the very recurved anterior eye row, the large number of ventral spines on tibiae of legs I-II, the retrolateral grove on the male palpal cymbium and the convoluted duct system of the female vulva. In addition, the female of S. barroana and the male of S. amazonica are described for the first time. The latter species is newly recorded from Colombia, Suriname, Ecuador and Bolivia.

  16. Ninetis russellsmithi n. sp., an unusual new pholcid spider species from Malawi (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species Ninetis russellsmithi n. sp. is described from Malawi. It lacks the most prominent autapomorphy of pholcid spiders, the retrolateral projection of the cymbium (procursus. Biogeographically this species marks the first record for the genus in a 3000 km gap between its African congeners in Namibia and Tanzania.

  17. Multiple bradykinin-related peptides from the capture web of the spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Tetragnatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volsi, Evelyn C F R; Mendes, Maria Anita; Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Santos, Keity Souza; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Babieri, Eduardo Feltran; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Three bradykinin-related peptides (nephilakinins-I to -III) and bradykinin itself were isolated from the aqueous washing extract of the capture web of the spider Nephila clavipes by gel permeation chromatography on a Sephacryl S-100 column, followed by chromatography in a Hi-Trap Sephadex-G25 Superfine column. The novel peptides occurred in low concentrations and were sequenced through ESI-MS/MS analysis: nephilakinin-I (G-P-N-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2), nephilakinin-II (E-A-P-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2) and nephilakinin-III (P-S-P-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2). Synthetic peptides replicated the novel bradykinin-related peptides, which were submitted to biological characterizations. Nephilakinins were shown to cause constriction on isolated rat ileum preparations and relaxation on rat duodenum muscle preparations at amounts higher than bradykinin; apparently these peptides constitute B2-type agonists of ileal and duodenal smooth muscles. All peptides including the bradykinin were moderately lethal to honeybees. These bradykinin peptides may be related to the predation of insects by the webs of N. clavipes.

  18. A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A Selden; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strat...

  19. Previous experience and site tenacity in the orb spider Nephila (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, F; Houston, A

    1986-09-01

    The tenacity of the orb spider Nephila clavipes to a web site was studied in the laboratory. No differences were found between the giving-up-times and the site tenacity of spiders reared in the laboratory or those caught in the field, nor between spiders raised under a poor or a richt diet. The animals left sites at random and seemed to ignore experiences gained at previous sites.

  20. The mechanical properties of the non-sticky spiral in Nephila orb webs (Araneae, Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselberg, Thomas; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-10-01

    Detailed information on web geometry and the material properties of the various silks used enables the function of the web's different structures to be elucidated. In this study we investigated the non-sticky spiral in Nephila edulis webs, which in this species is not removed during web building. This permanent non-sticky spiral shows several modifications compared with others, e.g. temporary non-sticky spirals - it is zigzag shaped and wrapped around the radial thread at the elongated junctions. The material properties of the silk used in the non-sticky spiral and other scaffolding structures (i.e. radii, frame and anchor threads) were comparable. However, the fibre diameters differed, with the non-sticky spiral threads being significantly smaller. We used the measured data in a finite element (FE) model of the non-sticky spiral in a segment of the web. The FE analysis suggested that the observed zigzag index resulted from the application of very high pre-stresses to the outer turns of the non-sticky spiral. However, final pre-stress levels in the non-sticky spiral after reorganisation were down to 300 MPa or 1.5-2 times the stress in the radii, which is probably closer to the stress applied by the spider during web building.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nephila clavata (Araneae: Nephilidae) Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Fang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Nephila clavata is a circular molecule of 14,433 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 76.1% (T: 40.0%; C: 9.2%; A: 36.1%; G: 14.7%). COI gene begins with TTA as start codon, COII gene begins with TTT as start codon, COIII gene begins with TTG as start codon, ND3, ND4L, ND6 and ATP8 genes begin with ATT as start codon, while other six protein-coding genes start with ATA as initiation codon. ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, COI, COII, ATP6 and ATP8 genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ND1, ND2, ND6 and Cyt b end with TAG, and COIII ends with TGA.

  2. Biogeography and speciation patterns of the golden orb spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Nephilidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yong-Chao; Chang, Yung-Hau; Smith, Deborah; Zhu, Ming-Sheng; Kuntner, Matjaž; Tso, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of the globally distributed golden orb spider genus Nephila (Nephilidae) was reconstructed to infer its speciation history, with a focus on SE Asian/W Pacific species. Five Asian, two Australian, four African, and one American species were included in the phylogenetic analyses. Other species in Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae were included to assess their relationships with the genus Nephila, and one species from Uloboridae was used as the outgroup. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from one nuclear (18S) and two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) markers. Our molecular phylogeny shows that the widely distributed Asian/Australian species, N. pilipes, and an African species, N. constricta, form a clade that is sister to all other Nephila species. Nested in this Nephila clade are one clade with tropical and subtropical/temperate Asian/Australian species, and the other containing African and American species. The estimated divergence times suggest that diversification events within Nephila occurred during mid-Miocene to Pliocene (16 Mya-2 Mya), and these time periods were characterized by cyclic global warming/cooling events. According to Dispersal and Vicariance Analysis (DIVA), the ancestral range of the Asian/Australian clade was tropical Asia, and the ancestral range of the genus Nephila was either tropical Asia or Africa. We conclude that the speciation of the Asian/Australian Nephila species was driven by Neogene global cyclic climate changes. However, further population level studies comparing diversification patterns of sister species are needed to determine the mode of speciation of these species.

  3. A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2011-10-23

    Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species extends the fossil record of the family by approximately 35 Ma and of the genus Nephila by approximately 130 Ma, making it the longest ranging spider genus known. Nephilidae originated somewhere on Pangaea, possibly the North China block, followed by dispersal almost worldwide before the break-up of the supercontinent later in the Mesozoic. The find suggests that the palaeoclimate was warm and humid at this time. This giant fossil orb-weaver provides evidence of predation on medium to large insects, well known from the Daohugou beds, and would have played an important role in the evolution of these insects.

  4. Holocnemus pluchei (Araneae, Pholcidae in Getränke- und Baumärkten in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiser, Nils

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some colonies of spiders belonging to the Mediterranean cellar spider Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763, were found in both beverage and do-it-yourself stores in Germany. Among these are the first records of H. pluchei in Berlin, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the Trapdoor spider genus Eucteniza Ausserer (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Godwin, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The mygalomorph spider genus Eucteniza Ausserer, 1875 comprises 15 nominal species known only from the southwestern United States (Texas) and Mexico (Northern, Central, and the Baja Peninsula). Eucteniza atoyacensis Bond & Opell, 2002 is considered a nomen dubium; E. rex (Chamberlin, 1940) and E. stolida (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940) are both considered junior synonyms of E. relata (O.P.-Cambridge, 1895). Twelve new species are described: E. caprica, E. coylei, E. diablo, E. cabowabo, E. huasteca, E. zapatista, E. chichimeca, E. ronnewtoni, E. hidalgo, E. golondrina, E. panchovillai and E. rosalia.

  6. Taxonomic revision of the Trapdoor spider genus Eucteniza Ausserer (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bond

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mygalomorph spider genus Eucteniza Ausserer, 1875 comprises 15 nominal species known only from the southwestern United States (Texas and Mexico (Northern, Central, and the Baja Peninsula. Eucteniza atoyacensis Bond & Opell, 2002 is considered a nomen dubium; E. rex (Chamberlin, 1940 and E. stolida (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940 are both considered junior synonyms of E. relata (O.P.-Cambridge, 1895. Twelve new species are described: E. caprica, E. coylei, E. diablo, E. cabowabo, E. huasteca, E. zapatista, E. chichimeca, E. ronnewtoni, E. hidalgo, E. golondrina, E. panchovillai and E. rosalia.

  7. Some faunistical remarks on spiders of the genus Haplodrassus (Araneae: Gnaphosidae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyar O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic features of Haplodrassus mediterraneus Levy, 2004 and Haplodrassus silvestris (Blackwall, 1833, which are recorded for the first time in Turkey, are presented in this paper. Digital and SEM photographs of genitalia of the new recorded species are presented together with their zoogeographical distributions.

  8. Genera of euophryine jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), with a combined molecular-morphological phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Maddison, Wayne P

    2015-03-27

    Morphological traits of euophryine jumping spiders were studied to clarify generic limits in the Euophryinae and to permit phylogenetic classification of genera lacking molecular data. One hundred and eight genera are recognized within the subfamily. Euophryine generic groups and the delimitation of some genera are reviewed in detail. In order to explore the effect of adding formal morphological data to previous molecular phylogenetic studies, and to find morphological synapomorphies, eighty-two morphological characters were scored for 203 euophryine species and seven outgroup species. The morphological dataset does not perform as well as the molecular dataset (genes 28S, Actin 5C; 16S-ND1, COI) in resolving the phylogeny of Euophryinae, probably because of frequent convergence and reversal. The formal morphological data were mapped on the phylogeny in order to seek synapomorphies, in hopes of extending the phylogeny to include taxa for which molecular data are not available. Because of homoplasy, few globally-applicable morphological synapomorphies for euophryine clades were found. However, synapomorphies that are unique locally in subclades still help to delimit euophryine generic groups and genera. The following synonyms of euophryine genera are proposed: Maeotella with Anasaitis; Dinattus with Corythalia; Paradecta with Compsodecta; Cobanus, Chloridusa and Wallaba with Sidusa; Tariona with Mopiopia; Nebridia with Amphidraus; Asaphobelis and Siloca with Coryphasia; Ocnotelus with Semnolius; Palpelius with Pristobaeus; Junxattus with Laufeia; Donoessus with Colyttus; Nicylla, Pselcis and Thianitara with Thiania. The new genus Saphrys is erected for misplaced species from southern South America.

  9. A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae in the Tirana district, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.

  10. The Amazonian Goblin Spiders of the New Genus Gradunguloonops (Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismado, Cristian J; Izquierdo, Matías A; González Márquez, María E; Ramírez, Martín J

    2015-03-29

    A new genus of soft-bodied oonopids, Gradunguloonops, is established for a group of goblin spiders found in the Amazonian rainforests of northern South America. Members of this genus differ from other oonopids in that the proclaw of tarsi I and II is notably larger than the corresponding retroclaw, a putative synapomorphy of the group. Gradunguloonops comprises twelve species, all new and described in this contribution: G. mutum (type species) from Brazil and Peru, G. bonaldoi, G. amazonicus, G. urucu, G. pacanari, G. juruti from Brazil, G. erwini from Peru, G. orellana and G. nadineae from Ecuador, G. benavidesae and G. florezi from Colombia, and G. raptor from Venezuela. Two preliminary intrageneric groups are proposed on the basis of their female genital morphology: the bonaldoi group, to which are assigned the species with the anterior section comprising only a single anterior sclerite, and the mutum group, with a more complex, tripartite anterior section.

  11. Palpimanid spiders from Guyana: new species of the genera Fernandezina and Otiothops (Araneae, Palpimanidae, Otiothopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grismado Cristian J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the spider family Palpimanidae from Guyana are described: Fernandezina takutu, the first species of this genus known from this country andOtiothops giralunas, that seems to be the sister species of O. goloboffi Grismado, 1996 from northwestern Argentina.

  12. Tisaniba, a new genus of marpissoid jumping spiders from Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Xia; Maddison, Wayne P

    2014-08-14

    Six new species of marpissoid jumping spiders from Sarawak, Borneo, are described in the new genus Tisaniba Zhang & Maddison. They are the type species, T. mulu Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., as well as the species T. bijibijan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. dik Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. kubah Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., T. selan Zhang & Maddison sp. nov., and T. selasi Zhang & Maddison sp. nov. The spiders are small and brown to black, living in leaf litter in the tropical forest. Phylogenetic analyses based on 28s and 16sND1 genes indicate that they are a distinctive group within the marpissoids. Diagnostic illustrations and photographs of living spiders are provided for all species.

  13. Spiders (Araneae) of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Washington County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes my identifications of spiders for graduate student Matthew Vander Haegen, College of Forest Resources, Department of Wildlife, University of...

  14. Intraspecific non-sexual interactions of Grammostola schulzei (Araneae: Theraphosidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson E Ferretti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.Hay pocos estudios detallados sobre las interacciones intraespecíficas de arañas migalomorfas. Por lo tanto, se describe el comportamiento de individuos conspecíficos de Grammostola schulzei durante interacciones nosexuales en condiciones de laboratorio. Se confrontaron y observaron pares de individuos involucrando machos adultos, hembras adultas y juveniles en condiciones de locatarios y visitantes, totalizando 115 encuentros. Cuando dos hembras adultas se enfrentaron, retrocedieron o lucharon adoptando elevaciones anteriores e intentos de mordeduras que usualmente resultaron en arañas visitantes heridas. Cuando se enfrentaron hembras con juveniles, frecuentemente se observó canibalismo sobre los juveniles. Los juveniles expuestos a otros juveniles o hembras retrocedieron o realizaron golpes con patas delanteras y tamborileos de palpos, los cuales constituyen unidades de comportamiento comunes durante el cortejo de los machos. Los machos adultos cortejaron y trabaron a algunos juveniles, mientras que los juveniles los evitaron o rechazaron el enganche. Los comportamientos observados durante las interacciones intraespecíficas podrían jugar un papel importante en la distribución espacial y podrían generar adaptaciones al territorialismo.

  15. Phenotypic integration in a series of trophic traits: tracing the evolution of myrmecophagy in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Michalko, Radek; Korenko, Stanislav; Sedo, Ondřej; Líznarová, Eva; Sentenská, Lenka; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2013-02-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of prey specificity (stenophagy). Yet little light has so far been shed on the process of evolution of stenophagy in carnivorous predators. We performed a detailed analysis of a variety of trophic adaptations in one species. Our aim was to determine whether a specific form of stenophagy, myrmecophagy, has evolved from euryphagy via parallel changes in several traits from pre-existing characters. For that purpose, we studied the trophic niche and morphological, behavioural, venomic and physiological adaptations in a euryphagous spider, Selamia reticulata. It is a species that is branching off earlier in phylogeny than stenophagous ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion (both Zodariidae). The natural diet was wide and included ants. Laboratory feeding trials revealed versatile prey capture strategies that are effective on ants and other prey types. The performance of spiders on two different diets - ants only and mixed insects - failed to reveal differences in most fitness components (survival and developmental rate). However, the weight increase was significantly higher in spiders on the mixed diet. As a result, females on a mixed diet had higher fecundity and oviposited earlier. No differences were found in incubation period, hatching success or spiderling size. S. reticulata possesses a more diverse venom composition than Zodarion. Its venom is more effective for the immobilisation of beetle larvae than of ants. Comparative analysis of morphological traits related to myrmecophagy in the family Zodariidae revealed that their apomorphic states appeared gradually along the phylogeny to derived prey-specialised genera. Our results suggest that myrmecophagy has evolved gradually from the ancestral euryphagous strategy by integrating a series of trophic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative transcriptomics of Entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae), with emphasis on molecular evolution of orphan genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, David E; Hedin, Marshal

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology is rapidly transforming the landscape of evolutionary biology, and has become a cost-effective and efficient means of collecting exome information for non-model organisms. Due to their taxonomic diversity, production of interesting venom and silk proteins, and the relative scarcity of existing genomic resources, spiders in particular are excellent targets for next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods. In this study, the transcriptomes of six entelegyne spider species from three genera (Cicurina travisae, C. vibora, Habronattus signatus, H. ustulatus, Nesticus bishopi, and N. cooperi) were sequenced and de novo assembled. Each assembly was assessed for quality and completeness and functionally annotated using gene ontology information. Approximately 100 transcripts with evidence of homology to venom proteins were discovered. After identifying more than 3,000 putatively orthologous genes across all six taxa, we used comparative analyses to identify 24 instances of positively selected genes. In addition, between ~ 550 and 1,100 unique orphan genes were found in each genus. These unique, uncharacterized genes exhibited elevated rates of amino acid substitution, potentially consistent with lineage-specific adaptive evolution. The data generated for this study represent a valuable resource for future phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary research, and our results provide new insight into the forces driving genome evolution in taxa that span the root of entelegyne spider phylogeny.

  17. A check list of the spider fauna of the Western Soutpansberg, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Foord

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of its geological history and geographical location the Soutpansberg constitutes a refuge for a high diversity of organisms. The Western Soutpansberg forms part of the Savanna Biome and is presently the area with the highest concentration of Natural Heritage Sites in South Africa. A unique private initiative is under way to improve its national and international conservation status in a bid to conserve the mountain. A checklist of the spider species of the Western Soutpansberg collected over a five-year period is presented. Forty-six families, represented by 109 genera and 127 species have been collected. Of the species collected, 81 (64 % were wandering spiders and 46 (36 % web builders. The Thomisidae have the highest number of species (15 followed by the Araneidae and the Salticidae with 10 species each. Ninety-six genera are represented by a single species. Ninety six percent of the species collected are new records for the area. This survey is the first for the area and forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.

  18. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Papuaneon, a new genus of jumping spiders from Papua New Guinea (Araneae: Salticidae: Neonini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Wayne P

    2016-11-29

    The genus Neon Simon stands alone as a phylogenetically isolated astioid jumping spider, the only member of the Neonini. The new genus Papuaneon is established for the jumping spider Papuaneon tualapa sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea. Resembling a large, hirsute Neon, it is here shown to be the sister group to Neon, based on data from the nuclear 28S and Actin 5C, and the mitochondrial 16SND1 region. Photographs of living specimens are provided.

  20. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  1. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

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    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  2. Aspekte der Vertikalverteilung von Spinnen (Araneae an Kiefernstämmen

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    Braun, Daniel

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available From May to October 1991, spiders on pine trunks in a moorish pine forest in the Federsee nature reserve in Upper Swabia were caught with arboreal photoeblectors. To register vertical differences of intensity of activity, the eclectors were attached at different heights above the ground, one eclector on each trunk. Abiotic parameters (temperature, evaporation, the structure of the bark and its epiphytes were recorded. 108 species from 19 families were found. Most frequent were the families Linyphiidae, Theriidae and Anyphaenidae. The most abundant species was Entelecara penicillata. Intensity of activity, ecotype, dominance structure, dominance identity, diversity and eveness were used as parameters to investigate vertical changes in fauna structure. The investigations showed that the lowest trunk-region is frequently used by spiders normally living the field layer or the litter. These species, however, hardly ever climb up to higher regions. On the other hand, the eclector faunas of the middle and especially of the highest parts of the trunks near the canopies are heavily influenced by the canopy fauna. Several epitruncal species also show preferences for these different trunk-regions. Ecological and abiotic parameters show that the upper trunk-region is a much more extreme habitat than the lower one and the fauna structures are in accordance with this.

  3. Evolution of genital asymmetry, exaggerated eye stalks, and extreme palpal elongation in Panjange spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae

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    Bernhard Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe several new species of the previously monotypic Panjange lanthana species group from the Philippines and document their extraordinary morphology. Some species show strong male genital asymmetry, a phenomenon that seems to be exceedingly rare in spiders. Males of most species have eye stalks, and in two species these eye stalks are among the longest ever recorded in spiders. Some species show a tendency for male genital (pedipalp elongation, and one species has the longest and thinnest palps ever recorded in Pholcidae. A cladistic analysis is performed including all described and several undescribed species of Panjange (except for one “problem species”, supporting the lanthana group and its close relationship with members of the possibly paraphyletic cavicola group. The following eight new species are described: Panjange malagos Huber sp. nov.; Pa. casaroro Huber sp. nov.; Pa. camiguin Huber sp. nov.; Pa. hamiguitan Huber sp. nov.; Pa. isarog Huber sp. nov.; Pa. dinagat Huber sp. nov.; Pa. marilog Huber sp. nov.; Pa. bukidnon Huber sp. nov.

  4. New leaf- and litter-dwelling species of the genus Pholcus from Southeast Asia (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe eight new species of the genus Pholcus, and document their microhabitats. Four species are assigned to the previously described Pholcus ethagala group: P. tanahrata Huber sp. nov., P. uludong Huber sp. nov., and P. bukittimah Huber sp. nov. from the Malay Peninsula, and P. barisan Huber sp. nov. from Sumatra. These species are all litter-dwellers that build domed sheet webs on the undersides of large dead leaves on the ground. The other four species are assigned to newly created species groups: the P. tambunan group with two species from northern Borneo: P. tambunan Huber sp. nov. and P. bario Huber sp. nov.; and the P. domingo group with two species from the Philippines, Mindanao: P. domingo Huber sp. nov. and P. matutum Huber sp. nov. These latter four species are leaf-dwellers that build barely visible silk platforms tightly attached to the undersides of live leaves. The main rationale for this paper is to provide part of the taxonomic and natural history background for upcoming phylogenetic and evolutionary (microhabitat shifts analyses.

  5. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio

    2015-11-23

    Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 is characterized and redescribed, including 49 species occurring from the United States to Argentina. Thirty seven previously known species are redescribed: Elaver achuca (Roddy, 1966) revalidated, E. balboae (Chickering, 1937), E. barroana (Chickering, 1937), E. calcarata (Kraus, 1955), E. carlota (Bryant, 1940), E. chisosa (Roddy, 1966), E. crinophora (Franganillo, 1934), E. crocota (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. albicans (Franganillo, 1930) name restored, E. depuncta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. elaver (Bryant, 1940), E. excepta (L. Koch, 1866), E. grandivulva (Mello-Leitão, 1930), E. hortoni (Chickering, 1937), E. implicata (Gertsch, 1941), E. juana (Bryant, 1940), E. kohlsi (Gertsch & Jellison, 1939), E. linguata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. madera (Roddy, 1966), E. mirabilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) new. comb., E. mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935), E. multinotata (Chickering, 1937), E. orvillei (Chickering, 1937), E. placida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. portoricensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930), E. quadrata (Kraus, 1955), E. richardi (Gertsch, 1941), E. sericea O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. sigillata (Petrunkevitch, 1925), E. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. texana (Gertsch, 1933), E. tigrina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 name restored, E. tricuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. tristani (Banks, 1909), E. tumivulva (Banks, 1909), E. valvula (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) and E. wheeleri (Roewer, 1933). Ten new species are described: E. candelaria n. sp. and E. helenae n. sp. from Mexico; E. arawakan n. sp. from Haiti; E. lizae n. sp. from Costa Rica; E. darwichi n. sp. from Ecuador; E. juruti n. sp., E. tourinhoae n. sp. and E. vieirae n. sp. from Brazil; E. shinguito n. sp. from Peru and E. beni n. sp. from Bolivia. The female of E. hortoni is described for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for E. sigillata and its actual female is described for the first time. Four new synonyms are proposed: E. languida (Gertsch, 1941) is synonimized with E. multinotata; E. dorothea (Gertsch, 1935) with E. wheeleri; E. exempta (Gertsch & Davis, 1940) with E. placida and E. vulnerata (Kraus, 1955) with E. calcarata. The drawings in the original descriptions of E. kawitpaaia (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995) and E. turongdaliriana (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995) are sufficiently informative to exclude these species from Elaver but not to accurately establish its generic affiliation. Thus, until the types become available for examination, these species must remain as Clubionidae incertae sedis. Heterochemmis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) is synonymized with Elaver and Heterochemmis mutatus Gertsch & Davis,1940 is recognized as a junior synonym of Elaver mirabilis n. comb., the type species of Heterochemmis. New records are presented for E. valvula, E. balboae, E. brevipes (Keyserling, 1891), E. grandivulva and E. lutescens (Schmidt, 1971). Two species described by Franganillo, E. tenera (Franganillo, 1935) and E. tenuis (Franganillo, 1935), are considered species inquirendae.

  6. The Thomisidae and Philodromidae (Araneae of the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador

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    Leon Baert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Thomisidae are described (Mecaphesa reddelli sp. nov. and Tmarus galapagosensis sp. nov.. Of a third species, Mecaphesa inclusa (Banks, 1902, three colour variations are described. Tmarus specimens previously listed from the islands have always erroneously been called T. stolzmanni Keyserling, 1880. The Philodromidae are mentioned for the first time for the archipelago and are represented by two new species: Apollophanes fitzroyi sp. nov. and Apollophanes (? lonesome-georgei sp. nov. 

  7. Description of three new troglobiontic species of Cybaeodes (Araneae, Liocranidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Carles; De Mas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Three new troglobiontic species of the spider genus Cybaeodes Simon endemic to caves in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated: Cybaeodes indalo sp. n. from Almería, C. dosaguas sp. n. from València and C. magnus sp. n. from Alacant. The new species confirm the presence of Cybaeodes on the Iberian Peninsula and its wide distribution throughout the Western Mediterranean including Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, France, Spain and the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Mallorca. A record of C. liocraninus (Simon), from an Iberian cave was probably based on misidentified specimens of C. magnus sp. n. C. liocraninus is known only from Algeria and should be removed from lists of the Iberian fauna. In addition, the three new species are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  8. The first species of the genus Caponina from Brazilian Amazonia (Araneae: Caponiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caponina Simon, 1891 comprises eleven species of medium-sized, soil-dwelling caponiids. Most members of Caponina have six eyes, but some have five, four, three or two eyes (Brignoli 1977, Platnick 1994). The genus is widespread in South and Central America (Platnick 2012). To date, only three species have been recorded from Brazil: Caponina alegre Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, C. notabilis (Mello-Leitão, 1939) from the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and C. tijuca Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Platnick 1994). In this paper we describe a new species from the state of Pará, in Brazilian Amazonia. Caponina papamanga new species was collected during the "Butantan na Amazonia" project, founded by the Instituto Butantan. The phylogenetic relationships of C. papamanga could not be studied, but the greatly elongated embolus, the dorsal tubercle on the palpal femur (Figs. 7, 9) and the massive epigynal sclerotizations (Fig. 10) suggest that this species belongs to the monophyletic Andean group proposed by Platnick (1994: 7). All morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. The epigynum was dissected and immersed in clove oil for visualization of internal structures following Levi (1965). Descriptions and measurements follow Platnick (1994). Measurements are given in millimeters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken using a Jeol-JSM-5200 with attached SLR digital camera. The material examined was deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, Sgo Paulo (IBSP, curator: D.M. Barros Battesti) and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, curator: A.B. Bonaldo).

  9. Two new species of the spider genus Alpaida (Araneae: Araneidae from restinga areas in Brazil

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    Gracielle F. Braga-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Alpaida O.P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described based on male and female specimens from seven restinga areas from northeastern to southern Brazil. Alpaida teresinha sp. nov., from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, differs from other species of the genus in the wider lobe of the conductor, the concave median apophysis and with the posterior lobe ventrally positioned, and the wrinkled distal projection of the terminal apophysis in males. Females can be recognized by having widely spaced epigynal lips and by the narrow epigynal notch in ventral view. Alpaida toninho sp. nov., from Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, can be distinguished by the round lobes of the terminal apophysis, and by the median apophysis with a distal lobe and a projection in males, and by the epigynum elliptical, with a short scape in females.

  10. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena from Western Australia

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    Laura Miglio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n. (from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon, Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology.

  11. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  12. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae

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    Laura Montes de Oca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, C. costai, via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.

  13. Three spider species of the genus Mimetus Hentz, 1832 (Araneae, Mimetidae from China

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    Chen Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with three species of the genus Mimetus from China, including M. echinatus Wang, 1990, M. lamelliformis sp. n. (male, and M. wangi sp. n. (female and male. M. lamelliformis differs from the related species M. echinatus Wang, 1990 by: cymbial tip with several slender long macrosetae; cymbium boat-shaped, length/width ratio about 3/1 in retrolateral view; vexillum about 1/2 length of cymbium in retrolateral view. M. wangi sp. n. differs from the related species M. sinicus Song & Zhu, 1993 by: the opisthosoma with a pair of distinct outgrowths in the dorsum; sperm duct nearly horizontal; spermathecae kidney shaped and contiguous. Photos of body and copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the locality map are provided.

  14. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae in Central Texas Caves

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    Joel Ledford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.

  15. Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae with notes on habits and conservation status

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    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877 are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.

  16. Maro lehtineni (Araneae: Linyphiidae – a spider species new to the fauna of Poland

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    Wiśniewski, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rare linyphiid spider species Maro lehtineni Saaristo, 1971 was recorded in the Polish part of the Sudetes, in the Giant Mountains (in Polish Karkonosze. Five males were found on one of the sloping transition mires in the spring and early summer of 2011 and 2012. We provide new figures for identification of this species, and summarize and discuss data on its distribution, characteristic habitats and phenology.

  17. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 2. The P. grossa- to P. deaurata-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this Part, 37 species of the genus, belonging to eight species-groups, are described and figured, and their phylogenetics and biogeography are discussed. Seven of the species are described as new: P. ecuadorae, friburgensis, marthae, onorei, pulawskii, riopretensis, yucatani. One species-name, P.

  18. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 3. The P. inclyta- to P. auriguttata-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this part the remaining 78 species of the genus Pepsis, belonging to ten species-groups, are described and figured, and their phylogenetics and biogeography are discussed. 14 of the species are described as new: P. achterbergi spec. nov., P. adonta spec. nov., P. boharti spec. nov., P. caliente s

  19. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 1. Introduction and the P. rubra species-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The genus Pepsis is diagnosed and described, and its taxonomic and natural history reviewed. The following are newly synonymized under this genus: the genera Abripepsis Banks, 1946 and Brethesia Schrottky, 1909; and all the existing subgenera of Pepsis, viz. Chrysopepsis Haupt, 1952; Cirripepsis Ban

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: The fastest rotating O-type star and shortest period LMC pulsar - remnants of a supernova disrupted binary?

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Fraser, M; Hénault-Brunet, V; Howarth, I D; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Markova, N; Sana, H; Taylor, W D

    2011-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of an extremely rapidly rotating late O-type star, VFTS102, observed during a spectroscopic survey of 30 Doradus. VFTS102 has a projected rotational velocity larger than 500\\kms\\ and probably as large as 600\\kms; as such it would appear to be the most rapidly rotating massive star currently identified. Its radial velocity differs by 40\\kms\\ from the mean for 30 Doradus, suggesting that it is a runaway. VFTS102 lies 12 pcs from the X-ray pulsar PSR J0537-6910 in the tail of its X-ray diffuse emission. We suggest that these objects originated from a binary system with the rotational and radial velocities of VFTS102 resulting from mass transfer from the progenitor of PSR J0537-691 and the supernova explosion respectively.

  1. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 3. The P. inclyta- to P. auriguttata-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this part the remaining 78 species of the genus Pepsis, belonging to ten species-groups, are described and figured, and their phylogenetics and biogeography are discussed. 14 of the species are described as new: P. achterbergi spec. nov., P. adonta spec. nov., P. boharti spec. nov., P. caliente s

  2. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring. II. First SB2 orbital and spectroscopic analysis for the Wolf-Rayet binary R145

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenar, T.; Richardson, N. D.; Sablowski, D. P.; Hainich, R.; Sana, H.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Todt, H.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Sander, A.; Tramper, F.; Langer, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.; de Mink, S. E.; Gräfener, G.; Crowther, P. A.; Vink, J. S.; Almeida, L. A.; de Koter, A.; Barbá, R.; Herrero, A.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first SB2 orbital solution and disentanglement of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary R145 (P = 159 d) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary was claimed to have a stellar mass greater than 300 M⊙, making it a candidate for being the most massive star known to date. While the primary is a known late-type, H-rich Wolf-Rayet star (WN6h), the secondary has so far not been unambiguously detected. Using moderate-resolution spectra, we are able to derive accurate radial velocities for both components. By performing simultaneous orbital and polarimetric analyses, we derive the complete set of orbital parameters, including the inclination. The spectra are disentangled and spectroscopically analyzed, and an analysis of the wind-wind collision zone is conducted. The disentangled spectra and our models are consistent with a WN6h type for the primary and suggest that the secondary is an O3.5 If*/WN7 type star. We derive a high eccentricity of e = 0.78 and minimum masses of M1sin3i ≈ M2sin3i = 13 ± 2 M⊙, with q = M2/M1 = 1.01 ± 0.07. An analysis of emission excess stemming from a wind-wind collision yields an inclination similar to that obtained from polarimetry (i = 39 ± 6°). Our analysis thus implies and , excluding M1 > 300 M⊙. A detailed comparison with evolution tracks calculated for single and binary stars together with the high eccentricity suggests that the components of the system underwent quasi-homogeneous evolution and avoided mass-transfer. This scenario would suggest current masses of ≈ 80 M⊙ and initial masses of Mi,1 ≈ 105 and Mi,2 ≈ 90 M⊙, consistent with the upper limits of our derived orbital masses, and would imply an age of ≈ 2.2 Myr. A copy of the disentangled spectra, as either FITS files or tables are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A85

  3. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 2. The P. grossa- to P. deaurata-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this Part, 37 species of the genus, belonging to eight species-groups, are described and figured, and their phylogenetics and biogeography are discussed. Seven of the species are described as new: P. ecuadorae, friburgensis, marthae, onorei, pulawskii, riopretensis, yucatani. One species-name, P.

  4. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 1. Introduction and the P. rubra species-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The genus Pepsis is diagnosed and described, and its taxonomic and natural history reviewed. The following are newly synonymized under this genus: the genera Abripepsis Banks, 1946 and Brethesia Schrottky, 1909; and all the existing subgenera of Pepsis, viz. Chrysopepsis Haupt, 1952; Cirripepsis

  5. Broad Balmer Wings in BA Hyper/Supergiants Distorted by Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Five Examples in the 30 Doradus Region from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, Nolan R; Evans, Christopher J; Taylor, William D; Sabbi, Elena; Barbá, Rodolfo H; Morrell, Nidia I; Apellániz, Jesús Maíz; Sota, Alfredo; Dufton, Philip L; McEvoy, Catherine M; Clark, J Simon; Markova, Nevena; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Extremely broad emission wings at H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ have been found in VFTS data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of H$\\beta$ and the shortward wing of H$\\alpha$. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables. No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminou...

  6. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project: II. A first SB2 orbital and spectroscopic analysis for the Wolf-Rayet binary R145

    CERN Document Server

    Shenar, T; Sablowski, D P; Hainich, R; Sana, H; Moffat, A F J; Todt, H; Hamann, W -R; Oskinova, L M; Sander, A; Tramper, F; Langer, N; Bonanos, A Z; de Mink, S E; Graefener, G; Crowther, P A; Vink, J S; Almeida, L A; de Koter, A; Barba, R; Herrero, A; Ulaczyk, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the first SB2 orbital solution and disentanglement of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary R145 (P = 159d) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary was claimed to have a stellar mass greater than 300Msun, making it a candidate for the most massive star known. While the primary is a known late type, H-rich Wolf-Rayet star (WN6h), the secondary could not be so far unambiguously detected. Using moderate resolution spectra, we are able to derive accurate radial velocities for both components. By performing simultaneous orbital and polarimetric analyses, we derive the complete set of orbital parameters, including the inclination. The spectra are disentangled and spectroscopically analyzed, and an analysis of the wind-wind collision zone is conducted. The disentangled spectra and our models are consistent with a WN6h type for the primary, and suggest that the secondary is an O3.5 If*/WN7 type star. We derive a high eccentricity of e = 0.78 and minimum masses of M1 sin^3 i ~ M2 sin^3 i ~ 13 +- 2 Msun, ...

  7. Description of a new species of the spider genus Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae from Colombia Descrição de uma nova espécie de Syntrechalea (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae da Colômbia

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    Estevam L. C. da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Syntrechalea F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 is described and illustrated based on material collected in Loreto Mocagua, Colombia. Representatives of this spider genus exhibit an arboreal foraging behavior and are distinguished from the other genera of Trechaleidae by the flattened carapace, long legs and flexible metatarsi and tarsi. New records on the distribution of Syntrechalea tenuis F.O.P.Cambridge, 1902 in Colombia are presented.Uma espécie nova do gênero Syntrechalea F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 é descrita e ilustrada, a partir de material coletado em Loreto Mocagua, Colômbia. Os representantes deste gênero apresentam o hábito arbóreo de forragear e são distinguidos dos demais gêneros de Trechaleidae pela carapaça achatada,pernas longas e metatarsos e tarsos flexíveis. Novos registros de distribuição de Syntrechalea tenuis F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1902 na Colômbia são apresentados.

  8. Presença de Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae na Serra da Bodoquena, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Presence of Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae in Bodoquena Range, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Rute Maria Gonçalves de Andrade

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O veneno das aranhas do gênero Loxosceles causa lesão dermonecrótica e induz hemólise intravascular dependente de complemento, configurando um quadro clínico de intensa gravidade. No Brasil, as espécies L. gaucho L. intermedia e L. laeta, presentes no ambiente antrópico, têm sido apontadas como principais agentes do loxoscelismo. Além destas, existem outras espécies, que por predominarem no ambiente natural, não têm sido avaliadas quanto ao risco à saúde do homem, como é o caso de Loxosceles similis. O desenvolvimento de projeto de pesquisa, na Serra da Bodoquena, para observações ecológicas e identificação de insetos de interesse médico, possibilitou a captura de espécimens de Loxosceles similis na Serra da Bodoquena, Município de Bonito, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, nas grutas Pitangueiras e do Lago Azul. Os parâmetros para identificação, características ambientais do habitat da espécie, bem como atualização de sua distribuição geográfica são objetos deste trabalho.The venom of Loxosceles spiders causes dermonecrotic lesion and induces complement-dependent intravascular haemolysis that characterizes a severe systemic effect. In Brazil, L. gaucho, L. intermedia and L. laeta, present in the anthropic environment, have been pointed out as the most important agents of the loxoscelism. Besides these species there are others that, by predominating in the natural environment, have not been evaluated regarding human health risk, as in the case of Loxosceles similis. The development of a research project in Bodoquena Range, for ecological observation and identification of insects of medical interest, enabled the capture of Loxosceles similis specimens in the "Pitangueiras" cave and "Lago Azul" cave, in Bodoquena Range, municipality of Bonito, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to define the parameters for identification, environmental features of the habitat of this species, as well as an update of its geographical distribution.

  9. Descrição de uma espécie nova de Hentziectypus e da fêmea de H. rafaeli (Araneae, Theridiidae Description of a new species of Hentziectypus and the female of H. rafaeli (Araneae, Theridiidae

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    Erica Helena Buckup

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hentziectypus tayrona sp. nov. é descrita com base em um macho de Santa Marta, Colômbia. A fêmea de H. rafaeli Buckup & Marques, 1991, é descrita pela primeira vez e a distribuição é estendida a Bolívia e ao sul do Brasil.Hentziectypus tayrona sp. nov. is described based on a male from Santa Marta, Colombia. The female of H. rafaeli Buckup & Marques, 1991, is described for the first time and the distribution range is extended to Bolivia and South of Brazil.

  10. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Gephyroctenus (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae Revisão do gênero de aranhas neotropicais Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Ctenidae: Calocteninae

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    Daniele Polotow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (type species G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936 is revised. Three species formerly described in this genus are synonymized with species from other genera: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, with Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, with Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, and G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, with Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Eight new species are described: G. portovelho sp. nov., from the States of Rondônia and Amazonas, Brazil; G. divisor sp. nov. and G. acre sp. nov., from the State of Acre, Brazil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. and G. mapia sp. nov., from the State of Amazonas, Brazil; G. juruti sp. nov., from the Department of Loreto, Peru and the State of Pará, Brazil; G. panguana sp. nov., from the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The genus can be distinguished by the presence of a cymbial retrolateral groove, retrolateral origin of embolus, embolus long and thin, median apophysis with a subdistal hook, and hyaline projection close to the embolus base in the male palp and by the fused median and lateral fields in a single epigynal plate, copulatory opening located dorsally in an atrium, and elongated copulatory ducts surrounding the spermathecae in the female epigynum. Field observations on the hunting behavior on ants in trumpet trees (Cecropia are provided for two species, G. philodromoides and G. mapia sp. nov.Gephyroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1936 (espécie-tipo G. philodromoides Mello-Leitão, 1936, é revisado. Três espécies descritas neste gênero são sinonimizadas com espécies de outros gêneros: G. kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947, com Acanthoctenus spinipes Keyserling, 1877, G. parvus Caporiacco, 1947, com Phymatoctenus comosus Simon, 1897, e G. vachoni Caporiacco, 1955, com Caloctenus gracilitarsis Simon, 1897. Oito novas espécies são descritas: G. portovelho sp. nov., dos Estados de Rondônia e Amazonas, Brasil; G. divisor sp. nov. e G. acre sp. nov., do Estado do Acre, Brasil; G. atininga sp. nov., G. esteio sp. nov. e G. mapia sp. nov., do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil; G. juruti sp. nov., do Department de Loreto, Peru e Estado do Pará, Brazil; e G. panguana sp. nov., do Department de Huanuco, Peru. Os machos do gênero podem ser distinguidos pela presença de uma fenda retrolateral no címbio, origem retrolateral do êmbolo, êmbolo longo e fino, apófise média com um gancho subdistal e projeção hialina na base do êmbolo no palpo, e as fêmeas podem ser distinguidas pelos campo mediano e campos laterais fundidos em uma única placa, aberturas copulatórias localizadas em um átrio e dutos copulatórios alongados no epígino. Observações de campo sobre o comportamento de caça de formigas em embaúbas (Cecropia são fornecidas para duas espécies deste gênero, G. philodromoides e G. mapia sp. nov.

  11. Description and ecological notes on Isoctenus malabaris sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae from southern Brazil Descrição e notas ecológicas de Isoctenus malabaris sp. nov. (Araneae, Ctenidae, do Sul do Brasil

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    Daniele Polotow

    Full Text Available A new species, Isoctenus malabaris, is described from southern Brazil. This spider was abundantly collected with pitfall traps at Araucaria Forests (Mixed Ombrophilous Forest domain. The activity of this species was studied in three distinct habitats (primary and secondary forests and silvicultures during 20 months. A bimodal seasonal activity pattern, of males, was observed. Abundance differences of this species between habitats were not significant.Uma nova espécie, Isoctenus malabaris, é descrita para sul do Brasil. Espécimes desta aranha foram abundantemente coletados com armadilhas de queda em área de domínio da Floresta com Araucária (Floresta Ombrófila Mista. A atividade da espécie foi estudada em três hábitats distintos (florestas primárias e secundárias e silviculturas ao longo 20 meses. Foi observado um padrão bimodal de atividades ao longo do ano, para espécimes machos. A diferença na abundância desta espécie entre os hábitats não foi significativa.

  12. On the taxonomy of some neotropical species of jumping spiders described by Caporiacco (Araneae, Salticidae Sobre a taxonomia de algumas espécies neotropicais de aranhas papa-moscas descritas por Caporiacco (Araneae, Salticidae

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    Gustavo R.S. Ruiz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudattulus incertus Caporiacco, 1955 is synonymized with P. kratochvili Caporiacco, 1947 and the male of this species is redescribed. The genus Uspachus Galiano, 1995 is synonymized with Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 and the male of its type species, R. nigra Caporiacco, 1947, is redescribed. The following new combinations are established for the species formerly included in Uspachus: Romitia albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia andina (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia bahiensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia colombiana (Galiano, 1995, Romitia juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846, Romitia misionensis (Galiano, 1995 and Romitia patellaris (Galiano, 1995. The genus Pseudamphidraus Caporiacco, 1947 is synonymized with Noegus Simon, 1900 by transfer of its type species, Noegus niger (Caporiacco, 1947 comb. nov., whose male is herein redescribed. The species Pseudamphidraus variegatus Caporiacco, 1947 and Marma trifidocarinata Caporiacco, 1947 are synonymized with Marma nigritarsis (Simon, 1900.Pseudattulus incertus Caporiacco, 1955 é sinonimizada com P. kratochvili Caporiacco, 1947 e o macho desta espécie é redescrito. O gênero Uspachus Galiano, 1995 é sinonimizado com Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 e o macho de sua espécie-tipo, R. nigra Caporiacco, 1947, é redescrito.As seguintes combinações novas são estabelecidas para as espécies até o momento incluídas em Uspachus: Romitia albipalpis (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia andina (Taczanowski, 1878, Romitia bahiensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia colombiana (Galiano, 1995, Romitia juquiaensis (Galiano, 1995, Romitia ministerialis (C.L. Koch, 1846, Romitia misionensis (Galiano, 1995 e Romitia patellaris (Galiano, 1995. O gênero Pseudamphidraus Caporiacco, 1947 é sinonimizado com Noegus Simon, 1900 pela transferência de sua espécie-tipo, Noegus niger (Caporiacco, 1947 comb. nov., cujo macho é redescrito. As espécies Pseudamphidraus variegatus Caporiacco, 1947 e Marma trifidocarinata Caporiacco, 1947 são sinonimizadas com Marma nigritarsis (Simon, 1900.

  13. Descrição do comportamento agonístico de Loxosceles laeta, L. hirsuta e L. intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae Description of the agonistic behaviors of Loxosceles laeta, L. hirsuta, and L. intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae

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    Marta L. Fischer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os grupos de radiação evolutiva de Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1835 além de compartilharem caracteres morfológicos aparentemente também apresentam comportamentos semelhantes. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento agonístico dos machos das espécies do grupo spadicea - Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934 e Loxosceles hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1931 - e laeta -Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet 1849 - ocorrentes no estado do Paraná. Para tal, os machos foram pareados, sendo o invasor colocado nas teias do residente, descritos e quantificados os padrões motores exibidos. O comportamento agonístico de machos de L. laeta, L. intermedia e L. hirsuta foi caracterizado pelo afrontamento, defesa e combate, sendo apenas o último ritualizado e relacionado com peculiaridades de cada espécie, tendo em comum a sinalização de tamanho e força. Além dos padrões motores exibidos durante o comportamento agonístico serem semelhantes com aqueles utilizados no comportamento sexual, os padrões motores de L. intermedia e L. hirsuta foram mais semelhantes entre si e diferentes de L. laeta, sugerindo relação com o grupo de radiação evolutiva.The evolutionary groups of species of Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1835, besides having morphological characters in common, may also show similar behaviors. The present study describes the agonistic behavior of males of members of the spadicea group - Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão, 1934 and L hirsuta Mello-Leitão, 1931 - and the laeta-group - L. laeta (Nicolet, 1849 - that occur in the state of Paraná. In experiments with paired males, an intruder male was placed in the web of a resident male web, and the motor patterns displayed were described and quantified. Males of all three species showed confrontation, defense and combat behaviors. The combat was ritualized and related to peculiarities of each species, while sharing the signaling of strength and size. The motor patterns shown during agonistic behavior were similar to those used in sexual behavior. The motor patterns of L. intermedia and L. hirsuta were more similar to each other and different from L. laeta, suggesting a relationship to the evolutionary group radiation.

  14. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Itatiaya Mello-Leitão (Araneae, Ctenidae with considerations on biogeographic distribution of species Revisão das aranhas neotropicais do gênero Itatiaya Mello-Leitão (Araneae, Ctenidae

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    Daniele Polotow

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Itatiaya Mello-Leitão, 1915, is revised and the type-species I. modesta Mello-Leitão, 1915, is redescribed and considered a senior synonym of Centroctenus sai Brescovit, 1996. Seven species are newly described: Itatiaya tacamby sp. nov. and I. ywyty sp. nov. from Rio de Janeiro; I. pucupucu sp. nov., I. pykyyra sp. nov. and I. tubixaba sp. nov., from Minas Gerais; I. iuba sp. nov. from São Paulo; I. apipema sp. nov. from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Notes on their distribution from Brazilian Atlantic Forest are presented.O gênero Itatiaya Mello-Leitão, 1915, é revisado e sua espécie-tipo, I. modesta Mello-Leião, 1915, é redescrita e considerada um sinônimo senior de Centroctenus sai Brescovit, 1996. Sete espécies são descritas: Itatiaya tacamby sp. nov. e I. ywyty sp. nov. do Rio de Janeiro; I. pucupucu sp. nov., I. pykyyra sp. nov. e I. tubixaba sp. nov., de Minas Gerais; I. iuba sp. nov. de São Paulo; I. apipema sp. nov. de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro. Notas sobre sua distribuição na Floresta Atlântica brasileira são apresentadas.

  15. Comunidades de aranhas (Araneae em cultivos de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. no Estado de São Paulo Spider communities (Araneae on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plantations in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Isabela Maria Piovesan Rinaldi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna composition of three rubber tree commercial plantations in the Northwest part of São Paulo State, Brazil, was characterized for both canopy and litter strata. On seven occasions from April 2000 to October 2001, samples were taken by beating sheet and hand capture, resulting in a total of 946 individuals, belonging to 24 families and 119 species. The most common species were Italaman santamaria Brescovit, 1997 and Teudis sp. (Anyphaenidae, Castianeira sp. and Falconina aff. gracilis (Corinnidae, Paracleocnemis sp. (Philodromidae, Ibotyporanga naideae Mello-Leitão, 1944 (Pholcidae, Chira spinipes (Taczanowiski, 1871 and Rudra sp. (Salticidae, Achaearanea hirta (Taczanowiski, 1873 and Coleosoma floridanum (Banks, 1900 (Theridiidae and Goeldia sp. (Titanoecidae. Anyphaenidae, Theridiidae and Salticidae were the most abundant families in the canopy, while Pholcidae and Corinnidae in the litter. Spider abundance was found to be, in general, positively correlated to the litter volume and density of branches in the trees. The use of acaricides and insecticides for one plantation resulted in a decrease in spider abundance for both strata. Abundance values among the samples suggest that the canopy spider abundance decreases with the loss of leaves in the dry season. Simultaneously, litter spider abundance increased in this season, because of the increase in litter volume. The most active canopy spiders, like runners and stalkers, should be investigated for their potential as pest control agents.

  16. Ocorrência de Cupiennius Simon na América do Sul e redescricão de Cupiennius celerrimus Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae Ocurrence of Cupiennius Simon in South America and redescription of Cupiennius celerrimus Simon (Araneae, Ctenidae

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    Antônio D. Brescovit

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The ocurrence of Cupiennius Simon. 1891 restricted to Central America, Colombia, Jamaica, Haiti and Cuba, is now confirmed to South America and the geographical distribution of C. celerrimus is extended to Venezuela and north and northeaster regions of Brazil. A redescription of C. celerrimus is given based on specimens from the type locality and adjacent localities.

  17. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro áreas: floresta nativa com predominância de araucária (NF; reflorestamento de araucária (R; reflorestamento de araucária submetido a incêndio acidental (RF; e pastagem natural com araucárias nativas e ocorrência de incêndio acidental (NPF. Considerando os dois métodos de amostragem (Monólito e armadilhas de solo, foram identificadas 20 famílias de aranhas associadas às áreas. O método das armadilhas de solo foi mais eficiente, capturando 19 das 20 famílias registradas, enquanto o do Monólito extraiu apenas dez destas famílias de aranhas. A abundância de famílias de aranhas e o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H foram afetados pelo método de coleta utilizado, sendo os valores destes atributos sempre superiores na NF e inferiores na NPF. A análise de correspondência (AC demonstrou que existe separação espacial entre as áreas estudadas. Sugere-se que as modificações na abundância de famílias de aranhas de solo sejam provocadas principalmente pelas intervenções antrópicas que as florestas de araucária vêm sofrendo nos últimos anos.

  18. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

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    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Corinninae is characterized and diagnosed. Two synapomorphies are hypothesized for the subfamily, both regarding the male palpal reservoir, which is primarily coiled and presents a sclerotized distal sector. Seventeen genera are recognized, six of which are new: Abapeba (type species Corinna lacertosa Simon, Erendira (type species Corinna pallidoguttata Simon, Septentrinna (type species Corinna bicalcarata Simon, Simonestus (type species Diestus validus Simon, Tapixaua (type species T. callida sp. nov. and Tupirinna (type species T. rosae sp. nov.. The genera Creugas Thorell, Falconina Brignoli and Paradiestus Mello-Leitão are revalidated. Diestus Simon and Lausus Simon are newly synonymized with Corinna C. L. Koch. Chemmis Simon is included in the synonymy of Megalostrata Karsch. Hypsinotus L. Koch is removed from the synonymy of Corinna and included in the synonymy of Creugas. Thirteen new species are described: Septentrinna yucatan and S. potosi from Mexico; Tupirinna rosae from Venezuela and Brazil; Tapixaua callida from Brazil and Peru; Abapeba hoeferi, A. rioclaro, A. taruma, Corinna ducke, C. colombo, C. mourai, C. recurva and Parachemmis manauara from Brazil; Creugas lisei from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Twenty seven species are redescribed. Fifty eight new combinations are presented: from Chemmis, Septentrinna steckleri (Gertsch; from Corinna, Abapeba abalosi (Mello-Leitão, A. cleonei (Petrunkevitch, A. echinus (Simon, A. grassima (Chickering, A. guanicae (Petrunkevitch, A. lacertosa (Simon, A. luctuosa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. lugubris (Schenkel, A. pennata (Caporiacco, A. kochi (Petrunkevitch, A. saga (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. wheeleri (Petrunkevitch, Creugas annamae (Gertsch & Davis, C. apophysarius (Caporiacco, C. bajulus (Gertsch, C. bellator (L. Koch, C. bicuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. epicureanus (Chamberlin, C. falculus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. mucronatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. navus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. nigricans (C. L. Koch, C. plumatus (L. Koch, C. praeceps (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. silvaticus (Chickering, C. uncatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Erendira luteomaculatta (Petrunkevitch, E. pallidoguttata (Simon, E. subsignata (Simon, Falconina albomaculosa (Schmidt, F. crassipalpis (Chickering, F. gracilis (Keyserling, Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch, Paradiestus egregius (Simon, P. giganteus (Karsch, P. penicillatus (Mello-Leitão, P. vitiosus (Keyserling, Septentrinna bicalcarata (Simon, S. paradoxa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, S. retusa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, Simonestus pseudobulbolus (Caporiacco, S. robustus (Chickering, S. semiluna (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, Stethorrhagus maculatus (L. Koch and Xeropigo smedigari (Caporiacco; from Diestus, Corinna alticeps (Keyserling, C. kochi (Simon, Simonestus occidentalis (Schenkel, S. separatus (Schmidt and S. validus (Simon; from Lausus, Corinna grandis (Simon and Abapeba sicarioides (Mello-Leitão; from Medmassa, Corinna andina (Simon and C. venezuelica (Caporiacco; from Megalostrata, Erendira atrox (Caporiacco and Erendira pictitorax (Caporiacco; from Parachemmis, Tupirinna trilineata (Chickering. Five combinations are restaured: Corinna aenea Simon, Creugas cinnamius Simon, Creugas gulosus Thorell, Falconina melloi (Schenkel, Paradiestus aurantiacus Mello-Leitão. Twenty five new synonymies are proposed: Diestus altifrons Mello-Leitão with Corinna nitens (Keyserling; Corinna tomentosa Simon, C. tridentina Mello-Leitão, Hypsinotus flavipes Keyserling, H. humilis Keyserling and Xeropigo scutulatus Simon with Xeropigo tridentiger (O. Pickard-Cambridge; Corinna cribosa Mello-Leitão and C. stigmatica Simon with Falconina gracilis (Keyserling; Corinna casueta Chickering with SIMONestus separatus (Schmidt; Corinna abnormis Petrunkevitch, C. antillana BRYANT, C. consobrina Simon, C. inornata Kraus, C. nervosa F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. wolleboeki Banks, Creugas cetratus Simon, C. senegalensis Simon and Hypsinotus gracilipes Keyserling with Creugas gulosus Thorell; Chemmis frederici Simon, Delozeugma formidabile O. Pickard-Cambridge, D. mordicans O. Pickard-Cambridge, Megalostrata sperata Kraus and M. venifica KARSCH with Megalostrata raptrix (L. Koch; Megalostrata lohmanderi Caporiacco with Erendira atrox (Caporiacco; Corinna tenubra Chickering with Parachemmis fuscus Chickering. One new name, Creugas berlandi, is erected for Corinna bellatrix Schmidt. Males of Creugas cinnamius, Corinna kochi, Methesis semirufa Simon, Paradiestus aurantiacus, Septentrinna steckleri and Xeropigo smedigari, the females of Paradiestus giganteus, Septentrinna bicalcarata and the adult female of S. steckleri are described for the first time.

  19. Comportamento e dieta alimentar de uma espécie de Latrodectus do grupo Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) em cativeiro Behavior and diet supply of Latrodectus group Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) in captivity

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    Maria de Fátima da Rocha Dias; Tania Kobler Brazil

    1999-01-01

    Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990), which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil); they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster) with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kind...

  20. Fauna de aranhas (Arachnida, Araneae em diferentes estágios do cultivo do arroz irrigado em Cachoeirinha, RS, Brasil Spider fauna (Arachnida, Araneae in differents stages of the irrigated rice culture in Cachoeirinha, RS, Brazil

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    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Com a intenção de conhecer a diversidade da araneofauna relacionada à cultura do arroz, foi realizado um inventário deste agroecossistema ainda pouco estudado em sua biodiversidade. Foram realizadas 17 amostragens na Estação Experimental do Arroz (EEA, do Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz (IRGA, Cachoeirinha, RS (50º58'21"W; 29º55'30"S entre outubro de 2004 e junho de 2005, em três períodos: antes do arroz ser semeado, durante o desenvolvimento do arroz e após a colheita. As coletas foram efetuadas no período matinal utilizando rede-de-varredura (35 cm de diâmetro, 50 golpes em cada um dos quatro transectos por amostragem. Coletou-se um total de 918 aranhas distribuídas em 14 famílias, com predomínio de Araneidae, Anyphaenidae, Oxyopidae e Tetragnathidae. Entre os indivíduos adultos, foram determinadas 38 morfoespécies, as mais abundantes Alpaida veniliae (Keyserling, 1865, Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826, Ashtabula sp.1 e Tetragnatha aff. jaculator, as quatro juntas com mais de 45% dos espécimes adultos coletados. Dos estimadores de riqueza de espécies utilizados, o que mais se aproximou da riqueza observada foi Chao 1; segundo este, 87,4% das espécies potencialmente presentes foram amostradas. Os resultados demonstraram que tanto abundância como riqueza tiveram a tendência ao crescimento, acompanhando o desenvolvimento da lavoura de arroz. Uma constante colonização no hábitat foi constatada dado o alto número de aranhas jovens encontradas em todos os períodos. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas para a correlação entre dados abióticos (temperatura e pluviosidade com a abundância e a riqueza, exceto pluviosidade vs. riqueza. Entre os grupos funcionais, houve o predomínio das caçadoras emboscadoras, seguido das construtoras de teias orbiculares. A análise de similaridade (ANOSIM encontrou diferenças significativas entre a fauna dos três períodos avaliados. Assim, a perturbação na forma como o arroz é semeado e colhido altera a estrutura ambiental brutalmente, conduzindo a uma mudança na diversidade de aranhas em termos de riqueza e composição de espécies. Os resultados sugerem a importância de estudos da biodiversidade nos agroecossistemas.The spider diversity associated to a rice field was surveyed along different stages of the culture. The studied area belongs to the Estação Experimental do Arroz (EEA, Instituto Rio Grandense do Arroz (IRGA, Cachoeirinha, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (50º58'21"W; 29º55'30"S. Between October 2004 and June 2005, 17 samples were taken, distributed in three periods: before seeding, during the development of the rice plants and after the harvest. Samples were done in the morning using sweeping nets (35 cm diameter, 50 sweeps in each of four randomly chosen transects. A total of 918 spiders were sampled, distributed in 14 families, mostly Araneidae, Anyphaenidae, Oxyopidae and Tetragnathidae. Among the adults, 38 morphospecies were found, the most abundant were Alpaida veniliae (Keyserling, 1865, Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826, Ashtabula sp.1 and Tetragnatha aff. jaculator, the four together comprising more than 45% of the adult specimens. Of the species richness estimators used, Chao 1 was closer to the observed richness; 87,4% of the potentially present species were effectively sampled. Both abundance and species richness showed an increasing trend, accompanying rice development (and thus increasing habitat complexity, with a stern decrease after harvesting. A constant colonization of the habitat is thus postulated, also given the high number of young spiders found at all times. There were no significant correlations between climatic factors (temperature and rainfall and neither abundance nor species richness, except a positive one between rainfall and richness. Among the functional groups, ambushing hunters dominated, followed by orb-web builders. An analysis of similarity (ANOSIM found significant differences among the fauna of the three evaluated periods. Thus, system disturbance, in the form of rice sowing and harvesting, brutally altering environmental structure, leads to strong spider diversity changes both in terms of species richness and species composition. The results suggest biodiversity studies in agroecosystems can help us understand not only applied but also basic problems.

  1. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas con viviendas de la ciudad de México (Zona Metropolitana Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae associated with houses in México city (Metropolitan area

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    César Gabriel Durán-Barrón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La ecología urbana es un área de investigación relativamente reciente. Los ecosistemas urbanos son aquellos definidos como ambientes dominados por el hombre. Con el proceso de urbanización, insectos y arácnidos silvestres aprovechan los nuevos microhábitats que las viviendas humanas ofrecen. Se revisaron arañas recolectadas dentro de 109 viviendas durante los años de 1985 a 1986, 1996 a 2001 y 2002 a 2003. Se cuantificaron 1 196 organismos , los cuales se determinaron hasta especie. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 familias, 52 géneros y 63 especies de arañas sinantrópicas. Se utilizaron 3 índices (ocupación, densidad y estacionalidad y un análisis de intervalos para sustentar la siguiente clasificación: accidentales (índice de densidad de 0-0.9, ocasionales (1-2.9, frecuentes (3.0-9.9 y comunes (10 en adelante. Se comparan las faunas de arañas sinantrópicas de 5 países del Nuevo Mundo.Urban ecology is a relatively new area of research, with urban ecosystems being defined as environments dominated by humans. Insects and arachnids are 2 groups that successfully exploit the habitats offered by human habitations. We analyzed the occurrence and densities of spiders found in houses in México City. We used material collected between 1985 and 2003. We recorded 1 196 spiders from 109 houses. The list includes 25 families, 52 genera and 63 species of synanthropic spiders. Indices of ocupation, density and seasonality, as well as rank analyses were used to make the following classification of synanthropism: accidental (density index 0-0.9, occasional (1-2.9, frequent (3.0-9.9 and common (10 or more. The synanthropic spider faunas of 5 New World countries are compared.

  2. Comportamento e dieta alimentar de uma espécie de Latrodectus do grupo Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae em cativeiro Behavior and diet supply of Latrodectus group Mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae in captivity

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    Maria de Fátima da Rocha Dias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Latrodectus gr. mactans is responsible for 28% of ali accidents provoked by spiders in state of Bahia, Brazil (1980-1990, which makes necessary the study of its manejament. The spiders were captured in Ondina, Salvador, and in Baxio, Esplanada (Bahia, Brazil; they were mantained in captivity, with food supply weekly (Atta sp., larva of Tenebrio sp. and Drosophila melanogaster with three hours/ offers observation time, during march/95 to april/96. In captivity, the spiders accepted two kinds of food: Atta sp., which seems to be the major item of its diet in natural conditions, and larva of Tenebrio sp., which is not available in natural conditions. Drosophila melanogaster was systematically rejected. The feeding behavior iscomposed by four distinct steps: (1 imrnobilization, (2 inoculation, (3 second immobilization and (4 ingestion. Two kinds of social alimentary behavior are descri-bed. The results indicated that larvae of Tenebrio sp. can be an alternative supply for successfull maintenance of this specie in captivity.

  3. Description of the male of Mangora brokopondo (Araneae, Araneidae, with notes on Mangora species from Brazilian Oriental Amazon

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    Regiane Saturnino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male of Mangora brokopondo Levi, 2007 is described and illustrated for the first time. Variation in the color pattern of the females is documented. Mangora woytkowskii Levi, 2007 is considered a junior synonym of M. hirtipes (Taczanowski, 1878. New records of M. alinahui Levi, 2007 and M. pia Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 are presented.

  4. Três espécies novas de Cryptachaea e notas taxonômicas em Theridiidae (Araneae

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    Erica Helena Buckup

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de Cryptachaea Archer, 1946 são descritas e ilustradas, com base em ambos os sexos: Cryptachaea brescoviti sp. nov. de Beni, Bolívia e Bahia e Espírito Santo, Brasil; C. bonaldoi sp. nov. de Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná e C. lisei sp. nov. de São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Sinonímias novas são propostas: Chrysso ribeirao Levi, 1962 e C. caraca Levi, 1962 com Chrysso arops Levi, 1962; Cryptachaea diamantina (Levi, 1963 com C. hirta (Taczanowski, 1873 e Cryptachaea maxima (Keyserling, 1884 com C. altiventer (Keyserling, 1884. Theridion altum Levi, 1963 é sinônimo júnior de Theridion soaresi Levi, 1963. Theridion melanosternum Mello-Leitão, 1947 é sinonimizada com Oedothorax bisignatus Mello-Leitão, 1944 e esta última espécie é removida da sinonímia de Theridion calcynatum Holmberg, 1876 e transferida para Theridion Walckenaer, 1805. Theridion tungurahua Levi, 1963 é a fêmea de Theridion fungosum Keyserling, 1884 e a espécie é transferida para Exalbidion Wunderlich, 1995. Theridion antron Levi, 1963 é a fêmea de Theridion filum Levi, 1963. Theridion nesticum Levi, 1963 é sinonimizada com Theridion teresae Levi, 1963. Theridion olaup Levi, 1963 é transferida para Kockiura Archer, 1950 e a fêmea é descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. Novas combinações são estabelecidas: Cryptachaea dalana (Buckup & Marques, 1991, C. triguttata (Keyserling, 1891, C. dea (Buckup & Marques, 2006, C. digitus (Buckup & Marques, 2006, C. taim (Buckup & Marques, 2006 e Parasteatoda nigrovittata (Keyserling, 1884, todas são transferidas de Achaearanea Strand, 1929. Cryptachaea rafaeli (Buckup & Marques, 1991 é transferida para Henziectypus Archer, 1946.

  5. INVENTÁRIO DE ARANEOFAUNA (ARACHNIDA, ARANEAE COLETADAS EM PASTAGENS NO MUNICÍPIO DE URUARÁ, PARÁ, BRASIL

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da diversidade biológica da araneofauna da região amazônica é ainda incipiente, sendo necessário ampliar as pesquisas com esses animais. As aranhas são excelentes objetos de estudo para a avaliação da organização das comunidades animais e da influência do hábitat sobre estas comunidades. O objetivo do presente estudo foi inventariar a comunidade de aranhas em uma pastagem de criação bovina no município de Uruará, Pará. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no mês de junho de 2014 através de armadilhas pitfall e coletas manuais. Como resultado, foram coletados 99 espécimes distribuídas em seis famílias e 19 morfoespécies. A família com maior abundância foi Araneidae com 63 espécimes, seguida por Anapidae e Anyphaenidae com dez espécimes cada. Através do teste do Qui-quadrado não verificamos diferença significativa entre as metodologias de coletas (p > 0,05, entretanto, as metodologias se complementaram, sendo que os espécimes Araneidae sp7, Theridiidae sp1 e Theridiidae sp3 foram coletados através das armadilhas pitfall, enquanto Araneidae sp5 e Ctenidae sp2 foram amostradas apenas em coletas manuais. O índice de diversidade Shannon mostrou que mesmo o ambiente bastante antroponizado, apresenta uma diversidade relativamente alta quando comparado com outras regiões mais preservadas, entretanto, a curva de rarefação de espécies não se estabilizou, mostrando que deverá ser aplicado um maior esforço amostral em coletas futuras. Palavras-chave: Amazônia, biodiversidade, aranhas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p98-101

  6. Lista das espécies de aranhas (Arachnida, Araneae) do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Helena Buckup; Marques,Maria Aparecida L.; Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues; Ricardo Ott

    2010-01-01

    É apresentada uma lista de 808 espécies de aranhas, incluídas em 51 famílias ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. São indicados localidade-tipo, municípios de ocorrência e a bibliografia taxonômica de cada espécie.

  7. Espécies novas de Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae, descrições complementares e nota taxonômica

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    Erica Helena Buckup

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Alpaida arvoredo sp. nov. é descrita com base em machos e fêmeas da Ilha do Arvoredo, litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O macho foi descrito associado à Alpaida hoffmanni Levi, 1988. O macho correto de A. hoffmanni é descrito pela primeira vez. Alpaida caramba sp. nov., com base em ambos os sexos, é descrita do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os machos de Alpaida kochalkai Levi, 1988 e A. lomba Levi, 1988, são descritos pela primeira vez.

  8. Around the World in Eight Million Years: Historical Biogeography and Evolution of the Spray Zone Spider Amaurobioides (Araneae: Anyphaenidae)

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    Opell, Brent D.; Haddad, Charles R.; Raven, Robert J.; Soto, Eduardo M.; Ramírez, Martín J.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related organisms with transoceanic distributions have long been the focus of historical biogeography, prompting the question of whether long-distance dispersal, or tectonic-driven vicariance shaped their current distribution. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere continents, this question deals with the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass, which has also affected global wind and oceanic current patterns since the Miocene. With the advent of phylogenetic node age estimation and parametric bioinformatic advances, researchers have been able to disentangle historical evolutionary processes of taxa with greater accuracy. In this study, we used the coastal spider genus Amaurobioides to investigate the historical biogeographical and evolutionary processes that shaped the modern-day distribution of species of this exceptional genus of spiders. As the only genus of the subfamily Amaurobioidinae found on three Southern Hemisphere continents, its distribution is well-suited to study in the context of Gondwanic vicariance versus long-distance, transoceanic dispersal. Ancestral species of the genus Amaurobioides appear to have undergone several long-distance dispersal events followed by successful establishments and speciation, starting from the mid-Miocene through to the Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of all present-day Amaurobioides species is estimated to have originated in Africa after arriving from South America during the Miocene. From Africa the subsequent dispersals are likely to have taken place predominantly in an eastward direction. The long-distance dispersal events by Amaurobioides mostly involved transoceanic crossings, which we propose occurred by rafting, aided by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the West Wind Drift. PMID:27732621

  9. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia

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    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, ‘pelican-like’ cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: Austrarchaea alani sp. n., Austrarchaea aleenae sp. n., Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n., Austrarchaea christopheri sp. n., Austrarchaea clyneae sp. n., Austrarchaea cunninghami sp. n., Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n., Austrarchaea harmsi sp. n., Austrarchaea helenae sp. n., Austrarchaea judyae sp. n., Austrarchaea mascordi sp. n., Austrarchaea mcguiganae sp. n., Austrarchaea milledgei sp. n., Austrarchaea monteithi sp. n., Austrarchaea platnickorum sp. n., Austrarchaea raveni sp. n. and Austrarchaea smithae sp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:21998529

  11. Australian Assassins, Part II: A review of the new assassin spider genus Zephyrarchaea (Araneae, Archaeidae) from southern Australia

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    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae from southern Australia are revised, with a new genus (Zephyrarchaea gen. n.) and nine new species described from temperate, mesic habitats in southern Victoria, South Australia and south-western Western Australia: Zephyrarchaea austini sp. n., Zephyrarchaea barrettae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea grayi sp. n., Zephyrarchaea janineae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea marae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea marki sp. n., Zephyrarchaea melindae sp. n., Zephyrarchaea porchi sp. n. and Zephyrarchaea vichickmani sp. n. Specimens of the type species, Zephyrarchaea mainae (Platnick, 1991), comb. n., are redescribed from the Albany region of Western Australia, along with the holotype female of Zephyrarchaea robinsi (Harvey, 2002) comb. n. from the Stirling Range National Park. The previously described species Archaea hickmani Butler, 1929 from Victoria is here recognised as a nomen dubium. A key to species and multi-locus molecular phylogeny complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22639534

  12. On the Afrotropical genus Holmelgonia (Araneae, Linyphiidae, with the description of three new species from the Albertine Rift

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    Benoît Nzigidahera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Holmelgonia were found in the mountain forest of Kibira National Park in Burundi: H. afromontana sp. nov. (♂♀, H. bosnasutus sp. nov. (♂♀ and H. disconveniens sp. nov. (♂. A key to the males in the genus, now containing 17 species, is provided.

  13. Fourteen new generic and ten new specific synonymies in Pholcidae (Araneae), and transfer of Mystes Bristowe to Filistatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A; Colmenares, Pío A; Ramirez, Martin J

    2014-08-08

    Between 1998 and 2011, the Venezuelan arachnologist Manuel Ángel González-Sponga (GS) published a series of taxonomic papers devoted to the Pholcidae of Venezuela. Of his 22 new genera, 20 were monotypic when described, suggesting a high percentage of synonyms. We studied his descriptions and as far as accessible his type specimens and propose the following new generic synonymies: Autana GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Ayomania GS, 2005 and Venezuela Koçak & Kemal, 2008 (new replacement names for Falconia GS, 2003) = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Carbonaria GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Caruaya GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Coroia GS, 2005 = Artema Walckenaer, 1837; Maimire GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Moraia GS, 2011 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Nasuta GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Portena GS, 2011 = Metagonia Simon, 1893; Rioparaguanus GS, 2005 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Tonoro GS, 2009 = Litoporus Simon, 1893; Sanluisi GS, 2003 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893. Three of the type species are also specific synonyms: Autana autanensis GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar aurantiacus (Mello-Leitão, 1930); Coroia magna GS, 2005 = Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837; Tonoro multispinae GS, 2009 = Litoporus uncatus (Simon, 1893). Six species that González-Sponga described under Blechroscelis (a genus previously synonymized with Priscula Simon, 1893) are all synonyms of Mesabolivar eberhardi Huber, 2000 (B. acuoso GS, 2011; B. araguanus GS, 2011; B. blechroscelis GS, 2011; B. copeyensis GS, 2011; B. cordillerano GS, 2011; B. andinensis GS, 2011). In addition, and unrelated to González-Sponga's work, we synonymize the Central Asian monotypic genus Ceratopholcus Spassky, 1934 with Crossopriza Simon, 1893; we synonymize the Chinese species Pholcus acerosus Peng & Zhang, 2011 with Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907 and remove the Malaysian monotypic genus Mystes Bristowe, 1938, previously thought to be the only East Asian representative of the subfamily Ninetinae, to the family Filistatidae. 

  14. A new species of Scytodes from Algeria (Araneae: Scytodidae), with a review of the species from the Maghreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keer, Johan Van; Bosmans, Robert

    2014-12-11

    Four spitting spider species in the genus Scytodes are recorded from the Maghreb: Scytodes annulipes Simon, 1907, stat. n. (elevated to species rank), S. major Simon, 1885, S. velutina Heineken & Lowe, 1832 and Scytodes seppoi Bosmans & Van Keer, sp. n. The male and female of the latter are described and illustrated. No recent records of the commonly cited S. thoracica (Latreille, 1804) can be provided, so earlier citations are considered to be erroneous. Images, illustrations and new distribution data of the other three known species in the Maghreb are given.

  15. Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed. PMID:27551189

  16. A revision of the purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 (Araneae, Atypidae in the Afrotropical Region

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    Rene Fourie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 is revised in the Afrotropical Region. Following examination of the female type material, C. transvaalica Hewitt, 1916 is removed from synonymy with C. simoni Pocock, 1903 and revalidated. The females of both species are redescribed and their males described for the first time. While C. simoni is very widespread across tropical Africa, C. transvaalica is endemic to northern South Africa. Four new species are described, all known only from males: C. megae sp. n. (Zimbabwe, C. meridionalis sp. n. (South Africa, C. namibica sp. n. (Namibia and C. tibialis sp. n. (Ivory Coast and Togo. Notes are presented on the biology of each species.

  17. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine) and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovblyuk, Mykola M; Kastrygina, Zoya A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: Haplodrassus bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866); Haplodrassus isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; Haplodrassus minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879); Haplodrassus kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; Haplodrassus pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839) and Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866). The occurrence of Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861) in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species Haplodrassus dalmatensis and Haplodrassus isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes). These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of Haplodrassus dalmatensis isin May-July, and that of Haplodrassus isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for Haplodrassus deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and Haplodrassus pugnans (Simon, 1880).

  18. A review of the spider genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in Crimea (Ukraine and adjacent areas (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

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    Mykola Kovblyuk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Haplodrassus are recorded from Crimea: H. bohemicus Miller & Buchar, 1977; H. dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866; H. isaevi Ponomarev & Tsvetkov, 2006; H. minor (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879; H. kulczynskii Lohmander, 1942; H. pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996; H. signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839 and H. umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866. The occurrence of H. cognatus (Westring, 1861 in Crimea has not been confirmed. Haplodrassus bohemicus is a new species record for the Crimean fauna. Haplodrassus pseudosignifer is a new species record for Crimea and Ukraine as a whole, with Crimea as the westernmost point of its distribution range. Haplodrassus invalidus is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Azerbaijan, Caucasus and the former Soviet Union. Azerbaijan is the easternmost point of its known distribution range. All Crimean Haplodrassus species have only one peak of activity of adult specimens during the year. In Crimea we found syntopically two closely related species H. dalmatensis and H. isaevi in two localities (Sudak Distr., 10 km W Sudak, Mezhdurechie Vill., steppe; and Feodosiya Distr., Karadag Nature Reserve, steppes. These species differ in their phenology. The reproductive period of H. dalmatensis is in May-July, and that of H. isaevi occurs is in October-December. These phenological differences probably represent an additional mechanism of reproductive isolation between the two species. Diagnostic drawings are provided for all mentioned species as well as for H. deserticola Schmidt & Krause, 1996 and H. pugnans (Simon, 1880.

  19. Spinning gland transcriptomics from two main clades of spiders (order: Araneae--insights on their molecular, anatomical and behavioral evolution.

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    Francisco Prosdocimi

    Full Text Available Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade. Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution.

  20. Spinnen-Neunachweise für Deutschland aus den Bayerischen Alpen (Araneae: Linyphiidae, Hahniidae, Gnaphosidae, Salticidae

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    Muster, Christoph

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofaunistic exploration of the German Alps is still in process. Recent investigations in supalpine and alpine habitats of Bavaria yielded 13 species new to Germany. For 5 taxa the collecting sites are reported, together with comments on general distribution and ecology. Cryphoeca lichenum nigerrima is a locally-endemic relict, which probably has survived glaciation on the nunatak system. Its distribution area is restricted to few mountain-ranges in the Northern Calcareous Alps, comprisin less than 2500 qkm. Two species, Erigone cristatopalpus und Talavera monticola, are endemic to the Alps and adjoining mountains. Micaria aenea shows a boeromontane disjunction. Heliophanus lineiventris is widely distributed in the southern Palearctic.

  1. Notes on the Neotropical and Mexican Species of Tetragnatha (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) with Descriptions of Three New Species

    OpenAIRE

    OKUMA, Chiyoko

    1992-01-01

    Twenty species of the genus Tetragnatha are recognized to occur in the Neotropical and Mexican Regions. Three new species, T. eberhurdi, T. Levii and T. paradoxa, are described. Seventeen species, T. boydi, T, caudata, T. cognata, T. confratemza, T. elongata, T. ethodon, T. gertschi, T. guatemalensis, T. jaculator, T. laboriosa, T. mabelae, T. mexicana, T. nitens, T. pallescens, T. pallida, T. sinuosa and T. tenuissima are redescribed and illustrated. T. jaculator is recorded from the Neotrop...

  2. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Orsolobidae (Haplogynae, Araneae) with implications on the evolution of sperm transfer forms in Dysderoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Elisabeth; Ramírez, Martín J; Michalik, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Haplogynae are highly diverse with respect to the primary male genital system and sperm characteristics. Additionally, all sperm transfer forms (STF) known for spiders are present. Besides individually transferred sperm (cleistospermia), sperm are transferred as conjugates, both primary (synspermia) and secondary sperm conjugates (coenospermia, rouleaux) occur. Nevertheless, the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and STF are described for few Haplogynae and often only one representative species was studied, resulting in a superficial insight in the evolution of these traits. To elucidate the evolution of STF within Haplogynae we investigated representatives of four genera of the dysderoid family Orsolobidae. Our data show the presence of synspermia (Orsolobus, Osornolobus, Hickmanolobus, and Tasmanoonops) and also cleistospermia (Osornolobus). The occurrence of different STF within one family or even genus has not been described for any other spider taxon so far. Moreover, the synspermia of species of Tasmanoonops and Hickmanolobus were not covered by a secretion sheath suggesting a previously unknown strategy of transferring sperm that is possibly related to sperm residency time or female triggered processes after copulation. Based on serial ultrathin sectioning and subsequent 3D-reconstruction, we obtained detailed measurements revealing remarkable size differences of STF. To evaluate the previously suggested correlation with the most distal region of the spermophor inside the embolus (intromittent part of the copulatory organ) we measured the diameter of the spermophor using micro-computed X-ray tomography data to obtain corresponding morphometric parameters. Based on these data only two species show similarity in STF and spermophor diameter.

  3. Variation in the Stabilimenta of Cyclosa fililineata Hingston, 1932, and Cyclosa morretes Levi, 1999 (Araneae: Araneidae, in Southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo O. Gonzaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the characteristics of the stabilimenta constructed by two species of Cyclosa, describing the variations within and among five populations. Both species constructed stabilimenta composed entirely of silk (linear and spiral types or of silk and debris (linear, detritus clusters and complex types. The vertical linear detritus type was the most frequent structure for adult females of both species, whereas stabilimenta consisting of detritus clusters were more frequent for juveniles of C. morretes. The latter structures appeared to be an intermediate state towards the linear continuous type usually found in adults. The other types were rarely found, and silk stabilimenta were to be constructed only when detritus was not available. The substitution of silk by detritus indicated that both materials function as camouflage in C. morretes and C. fililineata webs. The positions occupied by the spiders within the detritus column (and in some cases the orientation of the stabilimenta varied markedly within populations, and the unpredictability of their location could be important in reducing the risks of predation. The hypothesis that stabilimenta constitute defensive devices was indirectly corroborated by the observation that spider’s body width and length were, respectively, strongly correlated with the width and length of the stabilimenta.

  4. Combining morphology, DNA sequences, and morphometrics: revising closely related species in the orb-weaving spider genus Araniella (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Tamara; Kropf, Christian; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lasut, Liana

    2016-05-17

    The integration of independent data sets could solve problems in both traditional and DNA-based taxonomy. The aim of this study is to investigate the power of CO1 sequences and of morphometrics to distinguish closely related species in the spider genus Araniella. We put special emphasis on the species pair A. cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757) and A. opisthographa (Kulczyński, 1905) since the females are morphologically difficult to distinguish and often misidentified. A total of 216 sequences of eight Araniella species from seven European countries, North America and Asia were included in the molecular analysis. The results from both maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference indicate successful separation of six out of eight Araniella species, including A. cucurbitina and A. opisthographa. For the same six species, we detect no overlap of intra- and interspecific genetic divergence, leading to successful species identification with a threshold approach. In addition, morphometric analysis of the epigyna of A. cucurbitina and A. opisthographa supports species separation by two best explanatory ratios: receptaculum length and distance between receptaculum and copulatory duct. Although a small overlap in the ratios exists, the species identification rate increases when combining morphometric and molecular data, which demonstrates the efficiency of integrative approaches for distinguishing closely related species. However, none of the molecular approaches was able to separate closely related A. alpica (L. Koch, 1869) and A. inconspicua (Simon, 1874) due to shared CO1 haplotypes. Considering the clear morphological separation of the males and different habitat preferences, incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization could have led to identical CO1 sequences. Therefore, DNA-barcoding must be thoroughly tested even within small homogenous genera of spiders.

  5. The orb-weaving spider genus Eustala Simon, 1895 (Araneae, Araneidae): eight new species, redescriptions, and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Maria Rita Muniz

    2014-10-13

    Eight new species of Eustala Simon, 1895 are described from southern Brazil. Eustala guarani n. sp., from Paraná and E. catarina n. sp., from Santa Catarina, are based on males and females. Six species are described from Rio Grande do Sul: E. ericae n. sp., E. cidae n. sp., E. lisei n. sp., E. cuia n. sp., E. farroupilha n. sp., based on males and females, and E. eldorado n. sp., based only on males. Eustala mourei Mello-Leitão, 1947, from Paraná and E. ulecebrosa (Keyserling, 1892), described from Rio Grande do Sul are redescribed and illustrated. New records are given for Eustala albiventer (Keyserling, 1884), E. taquara (Keyserling, 1892), E. minuscula (Keyserling, 1892), E. itapocuensis Strand, 1916, E. photographica Mello-Leitão, 1944, E. levii Poeta, Marques & Buckup, 2010, and E. palmares, Poeta, Marques & Buckup, 2010. Eustala perfida Mello-Leitão, 1947, described from Paraná, and E. belissima Poeta, Marques & Buckup, 2010, from Rio Grande do Sul, are newly recorded from Uruguay. Distribution maps are provided. 

  6. A new orb-weaving spider from the Argentinean flooding pampas grasses: Aculepeira morenoae new species (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gonzalo D; Izquierdo, Matías A; Piacentini, Luis N

    2013-02-14

    A new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Aculepeira Chamberling & Ivie 1942, A. morenoae new species, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens from the Argentinean natural flooding pampas grasses.

  7. The orb-weaving spider genus Chrysometa in Uruguay: distribution and description of a new species (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Miguel; Álvarez, Luis; Laborda, Álvaro

    2016-01-26

    The spider genus Chrysometa Simon, 1895 comprises 138 species of small (3-5 mm) Neotropical orb-weavers spiders (Nogueira et al. 2011; World Spider Catalogue 2015) mainly associated with arboreal vegetation from intermediate to low altitude forests (Levi 1986). Males of Chrysometa differ from other tetragnathids by having the palpal tibial length approximately as long as its widest point; paracymbium articulated and with several apophyses located at both ends; male cephalic region narrower than in the female and having cymbial ectobasal and ectomedian processes. Females are diagnosed by having femora without trichobothria; abdomen covered with silver guanine patches; a flat epigynum and also by their fertilization ducts originating anteriorly and crossing over the spermathecae (Levi 1986; Alvarez-Padilla & Hormiga 2011).

  8. A Check-List of the Spiders (Araneae) of the Bolshekhekhtsyrski Nature Reserve, Khabarovsk Province, the Russian Far East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri M. Marusik; Andrei V. Tanasevitch; Dmitri K. Kurenshchikov; Dmitri V. Logunov

    2007-01-01

    326 species of spiders belonging to 26 families are recorded from the Bolshekhekhtsyrski State Nature Reserve, of them 70 are new records for the reserve and six are new to the fauna of Russia: Asperthorox boreolis Ono et Saito, 2001; Cyclosa kumadai Tanikawa, 1992; Cyclosa okumae Tanikawa, 1992(earlier it was identified as C. argenteoalba Bbsenberg et Strand, 1906); Haplodrassus taepaikensis Paik, 1992; Hypselistes fossilobus Fei et Zhu, 1993; and Pachygnatha gaoi Zhu et al., 2003. The name Pronous minutus (S. Saito, 1939) is synonymized with Pronoides brunneus Schenkel, 1936. The male of H. taepaikensis is illustrated for the first time. Composition of the fauna is briefly discussed; 41% of the recorded species have their ranges confined to the SE Palaearctics. By its species diversity, the reserve' s fauna is the second largest local fauna eastward of the Urals. An expected spider diversity of this reserve is likely to be over 400 species.

  9. Phylogeography of a good Caribbean disperser: Argiope argentata (Araneae, Araneidae and a new ‘cryptic’ species from Cuba

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    Ingi Agnarsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean islands harbor rich biodiversity with high levels of single island endemism. Stretches of ocean between islands represent significant barriers to gene-flow. Yet some native species are widespread, indicating dispersal across oceans, even in wingless organisms like spiders. Argiope argentata (Fabricius, 1775 is a large, charismatic, and widespread species of orb-weaving spider ranging from the United States to Argentina and is well known to balloon. Here we explore the phylogeography of A. argentata in the Caribbean as a part of the multi-lineage CarBio project, through mtDNA haplotype and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses. The history of the Argiope argentata lineage in the Caribbean goes back 3-5 million years and is characterized by multiple dispersal events and isolation-by-distance. We find a highly genetically distinct lineage on Cuba which we describe as Argiope butchko sp. n. While the argentata lineage seems to readily balloon shorter distances, stretches of ocean still act as filters for among-island gene-flow as evidenced by distinct haplotypes on the more isolated islands, high FST values, and strong correlation between intraspecific (but not interspecific genetic and geographic distances. The new species described here is clearly genetically diagnosable, but morphologically cryptic, at least with reference to the genitalia that typically diagnose spider species. Our results are consistent with the intermediate dispersal model suggesting that good dispersers, such as our study species, limit the effect of oceanic barriers and thus diversification and endemism.

  10. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  11. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae: Araneoidea: Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

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    Jeremy Miller

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all newly described here. In the Theridiosomatidae: Epeirotypus dalong n. sp., Ogulnius barbandrewsi n. sp., Baalzebub nemesis n. sp., Theridiosoma diwang n. sp., Theridiosoma shuangbi n. sp., Zoma dibaiyin n. sp., Wendilgarda muji n. sp., Coddingtonia euryopoides n. gen., n. sp.; in the Mysmenidae: Mysmena changouzi n. sp., Mysmena jinlong n. sp., Mysmena bizi n. sp., Mysmena goudao n. sp., Mysmena haban n. sp., Mysmena shibali n. sp., Simaoa yaojia n. gen., n. sp., Simaoa kavanaugh n. sp., Simaoa maku n. sp., Simaoa bianjing n. sp., Gaoligonga changya n. gen., n. sp., Gaoligonga zhusun n. sp., Mosu nujiang n. gen., n. sp., Mosu huogou n. sp., Chanea suukyii n. gen., n. sp., Maymena paquini n. sp., Maymena kehen n. sp.; in the Anapidae: Gaiziapis zhizhuba n. gen., n. sp.; in the Symphytognathidae: Patu jidanweishi n. sp., Patu qiqi n. sp., Patu xiaoxiao n. sp., Crassignatha pianma n. sp., Crassignatha yinzhi n. sp., Crassignatha quanqu n. sp., Crassignatha yamu n. sp., Crassignatha ertou n. sp., Crassignatha gudu n. sp., Crassignatha longtou n. sp. The first species of Zoma Saaristo, 1996 (previously monotypic, known from the Seychelles and Maymena Gertsch, 1960 (previously known from the Americas are reported from China. The genus Crassignatha Wunderlich, 1995 (previously known from a single male from Malaysia is represented by seven new Chinese species and is transferred to Symphytognathidae. The first Epeirotypus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 species from beyond the Neotropics is described, although the presence of the genus in Asia was previously noted. Notes on morphological characters exhibited by this fauna and implications for the limits and diagnosis of some symphytognathoid families are given. Dichotomous keys to species are provided. Quantitative biodiversity analysis suggests a high degree of endemism for symphytognathoids in the Gaoligongshan.

  12. David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šedo, Onřej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.

  13. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hess Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of human keratinocyte cell viability; the female Sicarius ornatus venom was more efficient than male. CONCLUSION: We show here, for the first time, that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D. These results may suggest that envenomation by this Sicarius spider has the potential to cause similar pathological events as that caused by Loxosceles envenomation. Our results also suggest that, in addition to the interspecific differences, intraspecific variations in the venoms composition may play a role in the toxic potential of the New World Sicarius venoms species.

  14. Report of Platythomisus octomaculatus (C. L. Koch, 1845) and Platythomisus sudeepi Biswas, 1977 from India (Araneae, Thomisidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vinayak; Ismavel, Vijay Anand

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Platythomisus Doleschall, 1859 presently comprises 13 valid species, nine known from Africa and four from Asia. All Platythomisus species are known from females only, except P. jucundus Thorell, 1894 and P. sudeepi Biswas, 1977 from both sexes and P. quadrimaculatus from juvenile. Only, P. sudeepi was reported from India. New information Platythomisus octomaculatus (C. L. Koch, 1845) is recorded after 120 years of its last report; newly recorded from Assam, India which extends its distribution from the previously known localities, Java and Sumatra. Platythomisus sudeepi is newly recorded from the Maharashtra State. The variation in the number of abdominal spots on juvenile, sub-adult and adult of P. octomaculatus observed during rearing is reported. Although, the species name 'octomaculatus' suggests eight spots, we observed that the anterior pair of abdominal spots is fused in adults.

  15. Ecological preference of the diving bell spider Argyroneta aquatica in a resurgence of the Po plain (Northern Italy (Araneae: Cybaeidae

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    Stefano Mammola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving bell spider Argyroneta aquatica is the only known spider to conduct a wholly aquatic life. For this reason, it has been the object of an array of studies concerning different aspects of its peculiar biology such as reproductive behavior and sexual dimorphism, physiology, genetic and silk. On the other hand, besides some empirical observations, the autoecology of this spider is widely understudied. We conducted an ecological study in a resurgence located in the Po Plain (Northern Italy, Province of Vercelli hosting a relatively rich population of Argyroneta aquatica, aiming at identifying the ecological factors driving its presence at the micro-habitat level. By means of a specific sampling methodology, we acquired distributional data of the spiders in the study area and monitored physical-chemical and habitat structure parameters at each plot. We analyzed the data through Bernoulli Generalized Linear Models (GLM. Results pointed out a significant positive effect of the presence of aquatic vegetation in the plot. In addition, the presence of A. aquatica was significantly associated with areas of the resurgence characterized at the same time by high prey availability and low density of predators. Considering the ecological importance and rarity of this species, we update and revise the data on the distribution of A. aquatica in Italy.

  16. Optimal foraging or predator avoidance: why does the Amazon spider Hingstepeira folisecens (Araneae: Araneidae adopt alternative foraging behaviors?

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    Kátia F. Rito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Strategies that increase foraging efficiency may also increase predation risk. We investigated how individuals of Hingstepeira folisecens Hingston, 1932, which build shelters at the orb hub, modulate their foraging behaviors in response to the trade-off between capturing prey and becoming exposed by leaving their shelters. We evaluated whether the position of the prey on the web alters the frequency at which spiders leave their shelters. Hingstepeira folisecens spiders were more likely to capture prey positioned below than above the entrance of the shelter. Moreover, when the prey was near the entrance of the shelter, the spider pulled the threads with the entangled prey without leaving the shelter. Conversely, when the prey was distant from the entrance of the shelter, an "attack" behavior (leaving the shelter was favored. We argue that the "pulling behavior" may be an adaptation to reduce exposure to predators.

  17. How did the spider cross the river? Behavioral adaptations for river-bridging webs in Caerostris darwini (Araneae: Araneidae.

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    Matjaž Gregorič

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interspecific coevolution is well described, but we know significantly less about how multiple traits coevolve within a species, particularly between behavioral traits and biomechanical properties of animals' "extended phenotypes". In orb weaving spiders, coevolution of spider behavior with ecological and physical traits of their webs is expected. Darwin's bark spider (Caerostris darwini bridges large water bodies, building the largest known orb webs utilizing the toughest known silk. Here, we examine C. darwini web building behaviors to establish how bridge lines are formed over water. We also test the prediction that this spider's unique web ecology and architecture coevolved with new web building behaviors. METHODOLOGY: We observed C. darwini in its natural habitat and filmed web building. We observed 90 web building events, and compared web building behaviors to other species of orb web spiders. CONCLUSIONS: Caerostris darwini uses a unique set of behaviors, some unknown in other spiders, to construct its enormous webs. First, the spiders release unusually large amounts of bridging silk into the air, which is then carried downwind, across the water body, establishing bridge lines. Second, the spiders perform almost no web site exploration. Third, they construct the orb capture area below the initial bridge line. In contrast to all known orb-weavers, the web hub is therefore not part of the initial bridge line but is instead built de novo. Fourth, the orb contains two types of radial threads, with those in the upper half of the web doubled. These unique behaviors result in a giant, yet rather simplified web. Our results continue to build evidence for the coevolution of behavioral (web building, ecological (web microhabitat and biomaterial (silk biomechanics traits that combined allow C. darwini to occupy a unique niche among spiders.

  18. Intraspecific variation in the thermal biology of Rabidosa rabida (Araneae: Lycosidae) (Walckenaer) from the mountains of Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Temperature affects all levels of biological organization and multiple aspects of ecological performance and fitness. Descriptions of thermal biology are, therefore, essential pieces of information for studying ecology in varying thermal environments. This paper describes the thermal biology of the spider Rabidosa rabida by using three common descriptive measures. Spiders were collected from two populations on mountains in Arkansas that share similar climate and vegetation. Maximum sprint speed across temperature was used to calculate an estimate of thermal sensitivity of locomotor ability. Spiders were placed in a thermal gradient to determine thermal preference. Spiders' body temperatures were increased or decreased until the ability to move was lost. Results were compared between the populations to describe intraspecific variation. Maximum sprint speed increased across temperatures showing moderate sensitivity (Q(10 all spiders) = between 1.74 and 2) except at the highest temperatures in males, and the lowest temperatures in both sexes. Maximum sprint speeds differed between populations (P thermal maximum was shown to be 42.9°C ± 0.70. The critical thermal minimum was estimated at 0°C. Thermal preference of R. rabida was determined to be 31.9°C ± 0.44 showing no significant variation between populations. This study provides a first description of thermal biology in an ecologically important spider, and shows evidence of variation between thermal biology measures between populations with similar climate but no gene flow. Having adapted to various and changing conditions in the past, this spider and others like it can provide many ecologically and evolutionarily interesting lines of inquiry.

  19. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-01-01

    The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of human keratinocyte cell viability; the female Sicarius ornatus venom was more efficient than male. We show here, for the first time, that the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider contains active Sphingomyelinase D and is able to cause haemolysis and keratinocyte cell death similar to the South American Loxosceles species, harmful effects that are associated with the presence of active SMases D. These results may suggest that envenomation by this Sicarius spider has the potential to cause similar pathological events as that caused by Loxosceles envenomation. Our results also suggest that, in addition to the interspecific differences, intraspecific variations in the venoms composition may play a role in the toxic potential of the New World Sicarius venoms species.

  20. The male of the orb-weaving spider Plebs mitratus (Simon, 1895) and a redescription of the female (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jimmy; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2016-10-28

    The orb-weaving spider genus Plebs Joseph & Framenau, 2012 currently has only two representatives in India: Plebs himalayaensis (Tikader, 1975) from the Himalayas and Plebs mitratus (Simon, 1895) from the Nilgiris and Anamudi Shola National Park (World Spider Catalog 2016), both are found in high altitude mountainous habitats (Joseph & Framenau 2012). Both species were known only from females (World Spider Catalog 2016), although Sherriffs (1918, 1919) provided a description of an immature male of P. mitratus. In the present paper, we provide the first description of the adult male of P. mitratus, together with the detailed redescription of its female demonstrating considerable intraspecific variation.

  1. Toxicity of the venom of Latrodectus (Araneae: Theridiidae) spiders from different regions of Argentina and neutralization by therapeutic antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael; Lanari, Laura Cecilia; Laskowicz, Rodrigo Daniel; Costa de Oliveira, Vanessa; Irazu, Lucia Elvira; González, Alda; Giambelluca, Luis; Nicolai, Néstor; Barragán, Javier Hugo; Ramallo, Leticia; López, Raúl Alfredo; Lopardo, Jorge; Jensen, Oscar; Larrieu, Edmundo; Calabró, Arnoldo; Vurcharchuc, Miriam Guadalupe; Lago, Néstor Rubén; García, Susana Isabel; de Titto, Ernesto Horacio; Damín, Carlos Fabián

    2017-05-01

    "Black widow" spiders belong to the genus Latrodectus and are one of the few spiders in the world whose bite can cause severe envenomation in humans and domestic animals. In Argentina, these spiders are distributed throughout the country and are responsible for the highest number of bites by spiders of toxicological sanitary interest. Here, we studied the toxicity and some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of eighteen venom samples from Latrodectus spiders from eight different provinces of Argentina, and the neutralization of some of these samples by two therapeutic antivenoms used in the country for the treatment of envenomation and by a anti-Latrodectus antivenom prepared against the venom of Latrodectus mactans from Mexico. We observed important toxicity in all the samples studied and a variation in the toxicity of samples, even in those from the same region and province and even in the same Latrodectus species from the same region. The therapeutic antivenoms efficiently neutralized all the venoms studied.

  2. A new species of jumping spider Neonella Gertsch, with notes on the genus and male identification key (Araneae, Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gonzalo D; Argañaraz, Carina I; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2015-01-01

    The American genus Neonella Gertsch, 1936 consists of very small jumping spiders whose biology is not well known. The genus currently includes eleven valid species, of which eight are known from both sexes and two are only known from one sex. This paper describes and illustrates a new species Neonella acostae sp. n., demonstrates male palpal variation in Neonella montana Galiano, 1988, and provides some information on the ecology of three sympatric species. New records of Neonella montana and Neonella minuta Galiano, 1965 are reported. Because the previously described species of Neonella were well illustrated and diagnosed, a dichotomous key to males is given along with genital illustrations of both sexes for all known species.

  3. Three new species of the genus Trachelas (Araneae: Trachelidae) from an oak forest inside the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Quiroz, F Andrés; Alvarez-Padilla, Fernando

    2015-08-07

    Three new species of the spider genus Trachelas L. Koch, 1872 are described and included in the speciosus group based on the following features: embolus as a separate sclerite from the tegulum with no basal coils, legs with a conspicuous fringe of long trichobothria and narrow copulatory ducts coiled irregularly. The new species described are: T. crassus sp. n., T. ductonuda sp. n. and T. odoreus sp. n. A total of 46 specimens were collected in an oak forest near Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico. Most individuals were collected on low vegetation using beating trays and direct collecting at night. Additional images are available at www.unamfcaracnolab.com.

  4. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Yin, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    A ten-year inventory of the Gaoligongshan in western Yunnan Province, China, yielded more than 1000 adult spider specimens belonging to the symphytognathoid families Theridiosomatidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, and Symphytognathidae. These specimens belong to 36 species, all herein described as new. In

  5. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae: ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Vöcking

    Full Text Available Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a proteinaceous sheath. These inactive and encapsulated sperm are transferred to the female spermathecae where they are stored for later fertilization. We analyzed the ultrastructural changes of sperm cells during residency time in the female genital system of the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi. We found three clearly distinguishable sperm conditions: encapsulated sperm (secretion sheath present, decapsulated (secretion sheath absent and uncoiled sperm (cell components uncoiled, presumably activated. After insemination, sperm remain in the encapsulated condition for several days and become decapsulated after variable periods of time. A variable portion of the decapsulated sperm transforms rapidly to the uncoiled condition resulting in a simultaneous occurrence of decapsulated and uncoiled sperm. After oviposition, only decapsulated and uncoiled sperm are left in the spermathecae, strongly suggesting that the activation process is not reversible. Furthermore, we found four different types of secretion in the spermathecae which might play a role in the decapsulation and activation process.

  6. A new species of jumping spider Neonella Gertsch, with notes on the genus and male identification key (Araneae, Salticidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gonzalo D.; Argañaraz, Carina I.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American genus Neonella Gertsch, 1936 consists of very small jumping spiders whose biology is not well known. The genus currently includes eleven valid species, of which eight are known from both sexes and two are only known from one sex. This paper describes and illustrates a new species Neonella acostae sp. n., demonstrates male palpal variation in Neonella montana Galiano, 1988, and provides some information on the ecology of three sympatric species. New records of Neonella montana and Neonella minuta Galiano, 1965 are reported. Because the previously described species of Neonella were well illustrated and diagnosed, a dichotomous key to males is given along with genital illustrations of both sexes for all known species. PMID:26692804

  7. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae

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    E. Richard Hoebeke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes in North America.

  8. A new species of Phrixotrichus (Araneae, Theraphosidae from southwestern Argentina and new distributional data for P. vulpinus

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    Nelson Ferretti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Phrixotrichus Simon, 1889, P. pucara sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a male from Pucará river, Neuquén province, Argentina. Male can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a long strong spine on inner face of prolateral branch of tibial apophysis; also, it differs from P. scrofa (Molina, 1788 and P. vulpinus (Karsch, 1880 by a serrated prolateral keel of the male palpal bulb. Male resembles P. jara Perafán & Pérez-Miles, 2014 but can be distinguished by the uniform color on dorsal cephalothorax and by the palpal organ morphology being wider on the bulb base and embolus shorter and thicker, with the tip of embolus not so directed retrolaterally and prolateral keel bearing a serrated edge with three teeth. Additionally, P. vulpinus is reported for the first time for Argentina along with new distributional data.

  9. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of Gujarat University Campus, Ahmedabad, India with additional description of Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976

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    Dhruv A. Prajapati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a checklist of spiders based on a survey made from August 2013 to July 2014 in Gujarat University Campus, an urban area located in the middle of Ahmadabad City, Gujarat State. A total of 77 species of spiders belonging to 53 genera and 20 families of spiders were recorded from the study area represented by 31.74% of the total 63 families reported from India. Salticidae was found to be the most dominant family with 18 species from 14 genera. Guild structure analysis revealed six feeding guilds, namely stalkers, orb-web builders, space-web builders, ambushers, foliage hunters and ground runners. Stalkers and orb-web builders were the most dominant feeding guilds representing 28.58% and 20.78% respectively among all studied guilds. Species Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976 is reported for the first time from Gujarat with additional description and detailed genitalic illustrations.

  10. Bites by Australian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), including funnel-web spiders (Atracinae) and mouse spiders (Actinopodidae: Missulena spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Gray, Mike R

    2004-02-01

    A number of mygalomorph spiders cause bites in Australia, including the funnel-web spiders (Hexathelidae, Atracinae: Hadronyche and Atrax) and mouse spiders (Actinopodidae: Missulena). There is ongoing debate about the significance of bites by mouse spiders and the frequency of severe envenoming by funnel-web spiders. We conducted a prospective cohort study of definite spider bites with expert spider identification and include the analysis of mygalomorph spiders here. Subjects were recruited prospectively from February 1999 to April 2003 from patients presenting to participating hospitals or contacting a state poison information centre. Forty-nine cases of bites by mygalomorph spiders were included: 16 were by funnel-web spiders, 13 by mouse spiders and 20 by other trapdoor spiders (Families Idiopidae and Nemesiidae). Of the 49 bites, 45 (92%) occurred on distal limbs (hands and feet). Local effects included severe pain (53%), puncture marks (61%) and bleeding (27%), local redness (33%). Itchiness did not occur. The following were highly statistically associated with mygalomorph spider bites compared to all other spiders (pweb spider bites, there were 10 cases with minor local effects, four with moderate envenoming (non-specific systemic or local neurotoxicity) and two with severe envenoming requiring antivenom. In addition to local effects, mouse spider bites caused local paraesthesia in three cases, local diaphoresis in one case and non-specific systemic effects in five cases, but not severe envenoming. True trapdoor spider bites caused only minor effects. The data from a mixed species sample of funnel-web spiders confirms previous observations suggesting that only a small proportion of funnel-web bites cause severe effects. Mouse spider bites are unlikely to cause major envenoming but the clinical effects are consistent with neurotoxic venom and are more severe than the trapdoor spiders.

  11. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae: transfer of two species from Pardosa and description of three new species from Africa

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    Torbjörn Kronestedt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pardosa benadira Caporiacco, 1940 is redescribed, including the hitherto unknown female. The species is here transferred to the genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985. Previously known only from its type locality in Somalia, additional localities for P. benadira in Somalia and Kenya are given. Male and female W. cognata sp. nov. (Kenya: Lake Magadi, male and female W. jocquei sp. nov. (Comoros Islands, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mauritius and female W. russellsmithi sp. nov. (Mauritius are described. Pardosa oncka Lawrence, 1927, widely distributed in Africa and redescribed by Kronestedt in 1987, is formally transferred to the genus Wadicosa and new records given.

  12. A new genus of Theraphosid spider from Mexico, with a particular palpal bulb structure (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae

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    Jorge I. Mendoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnacarina gen. nov. from Mexico is described. Hapalopus aldanus West, 2000 from Nayarit, is transferred to the new genus with an emended diagnosis creating the new combination Magnacarina aldana comb. nov. Three new species are described: Magnacarina moderata Locht, Mendoza & Medina sp. nov. from Nayarit and Sinaloa; Magnacarina primaverensis Mendoza & Locht sp. nov. and Magnacarina cancer Mendoza & Locht sp. nov., both from Jalisco. Magnacarina gen. nov. is characterized by an unusual bifid palpal bulb, and has a primary projection located in the central area of the palpal bulb and directed retrolaterally; this projection possesses the prolateral superior and retrolateral keels. Next to the primary projection is a secondary projection, which may be short or long, ending in the prolateral inferior and apical keel surrounding the sperm pore. This secondary projection may have prolateral accessory keels and is diagnosed by possessing a nodule of inwardly curled megaspines, located in the basal ventro-retrolateral region of metatarsi I in adult males. Additionally, male tibiae I possess three apophyses. Females of Magnacarina gen. nov. have a single reduced and strongly sclerotized spermatheca, with an apical lobe projecting ventrally, and with a uterus externus that is longer and wider than the spermatheca.

  13. Die epigäische Spinnenfauna (Arachnida, Araneae in Sandrasen, Borstgrasrasen und Ruderalfluren im Naturschutzgebiet „Alter Flugplatz Karlsruhe“

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    Hemm, Verena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigeic spiders were sampled using pitfall traps during one year in an anthropogenic open site within the city of Karlsruhe (Alter Flugplatz Karlsruhe. The area, historically used as a military parade ground and airport, is protected as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC within the Natura 2000 network of the EU and since 2010 as a German nature reserve. We were interested in the diversity, assemblage structure and distribution of spider species within the area and investigated three different plant formations: sparse grass-dominated vegetation with frequent open sand patches (sandy turf, closed grassland dominated by the mat-grass (Nardus stricta and ruderal vegetation with blackberry bushes. 123 species were identified from these captures, including many specialists of xerothermic habitats and rare and endangered species like Alopecosa striatipes, Agroeca lusatica, Haplodrassus dalmatensis, Styloctetor romanus, Typhochrestus simoni and Xysticus striatipes as well as extremely rare species of unclassified red list status like Mysmenella jobi, Theonoe minutissima and Zora parallela. The three investigated habitat types were quite similar concerning α-diversity, while measures of β-diversity indicated a strong species turnover. By performing an ecological habitat analysis (using autecological data on spiders essential differences between the three habitat types could not be discovered, especially not between mat-grass and sandy turf. However, analysing the guild structures showed that different ways of using habitat resources dominated in the different habitat types. For Nardus-grassland several species could be identified as indicator species. While many xero- and photophiles live in the open grassland, the stenotopic psammophiles of inland dunes in the region were not found. The ruderal area houses a mix of grassland- and forest species.

  14. Sperm Dynamics in Spiders (Araneae): Ultrastructural Analysis of the Sperm Activation Process in the Garden Spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Vöcking; Gabriele Uhl; Peter Michalik

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that...

  15. Influence of Crop Management and Environmental Factors on Wolf Spider Assemblages (Araneae: Lycosidae) in an Australian Cotton Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Dalila; Whitehouse, Mary E A; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-02-01

    Wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are the most abundant ground-hunting spiders in the Australian cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) agroecosystems. These spiders have potential in controlling pest bollworms, Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in minimum-tilled fields. A study was carried out during a wet growing season (2011-2012) in Narrabri, New South Wales, Australia, to determine how different crop rotations and tillage affect wolf spider assemblages in cotton fields. Spider abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between simple plots (no winter crop) and complex plots (cotton-wheat Triticum aestivum L.-vetch Vicia benghalensis L. rotation). However, the wolf spider biodiversity, as expressed by the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson's indices, was significantly higher in complex plots. Higher biodiversity reflected a more even distribution of the most dominant species (Venatrix konei Berland, Hogna crispipes Koch, and Tasmanicosa leuckartii Thorell) and the presence of more rare species in complex plots. T. leuckartii was more abundant in complex plots and appears to be sensitive to farming disturbances, whereas V. konei and H. crispipes were similarly abundant in the two plot types, suggesting higher resilience or recolonizing abilities. The demographic structure of these three species varied through the season, but not between plot types. Environmental variables had a significant effect on spider assemblage, but effects of environment and plot treatment were overshadowed by the seasonal progression of cotton stages. Maintaining a high density and even distribution of wolf spiders that prey on Helicoverpa spp. should be considered as a conservation biological control element when implementing agronomic and pest management strategies.

  16. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, E Richard; Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America.

  17. Influence of long-period pesticide force on genetic polymorphism of wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Lycosidae: Araneae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wolf spiders are predators in large quantities in the fields. How wolf spiders keep their dominant species status under long-period pesticide force? To answer this question, eight geographical populations of Pardosa pseudoannulata were used as materials to test the influence of geographical habitats on their genomic DNA polymorphism. The RAPD pattern showed polymorphic variations among and within different populations. Total 84 bands amplified by 10 random primers, of which 62 (73.81% ) are polymorphic, were generated from 55 individuals of eight geographical populations. Meanwhile, Shannon's index (Ho = 0.5177) showed a rich genetic diversity of P. pseudoannulata, and most of the genetic variation (64.24%) was found within populations. Multiple regression analysis suggested that it is the climatic variation (such as annual average temperature etc. ) that results in adaptive eco-geographic differentiation, and it is the long-period pesticide force that speeds up the genetic differentiation of P. pseudoannulata which changed the genetic diversity of the population.

  18. The Occurrence of Red-Back Spider Latrodectus Hasselti (Araneae: Theridiidae in Bandar Abbas, Southern Port of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to importance and fatal affect of Red-back spiders, Latrodectus hasselti, a faunistic survey for presence of this spider in Bandar Abbas has been conducted. This animal is considerably the most medically importance spiders all over the world.Methods: Live adult spider specimens were collected from Bandar Abbas town using hand catch conventional method and transferred to the laboratory throughout the summer of 2008. They were identified based on mor­phological characteristics and taxonomic keys and confirmed by some external experts.Results: Results showed the occurrence of the red-back spider, L. hasselti from Bandar Abbas, southern port of Iran. Two female specimens were found. The spider had specific morphological characters including black color with an obvious orange to red longitudinal strip on its upper parts of abdomen. Conclusion: Although the specimens were collected from south of the country, however since the region is an important harbor and port and goods come form different parts of world we assume the possibility of arrival from its origin and native breeding sites of the world. Therefore further investigation is needed to clarify the presence of this species in different parts of Iran.

  19. The male genital system of the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin, 1775 (Pholcidae, Araneae: development of spermatozoa and seminal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhl Gabriele

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most arthropods pass through several molting stages (instars before reaching sexual maturity. In spiders, very little is known about the male genital system, its development and seminal secretions. For example, it is unknown whether spermatozoa exist prior to-, or only after the final molt. Likewise, it is unclear whether sperm are produced throughout male adulthood or only once in a lifetime, as is whether seminal secretions contain factors capable of manipulating female behavior. In order to shed light on these aspects of the reproductive biology of spiders, we investigated the male genital system of the common cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides, with special emphasis on its development and seminal secretions. Results Testes already display all stages of spermatogenesis in subadult males (about four weeks before the final molt. Their vasa deferentia possess proximally a very voluminous lumen containing dense seminal fluid and few spermatozoa, whereas the distal part is seemingly devoid of contents. Spermatoza of P. phalangioides are typical cleistospermia with individual secretion sheaths. In male stages approximately two weeks prior to the final molt, the lumina of the testes are wider and filled with a dense secretion. The wide, proximal portion of the vasa deferentia is filled with secretion and a large number of spermatozoa, and the narrow distal part also contains secretion. In adult males, the wide lumina of the testes are packed with spermatozoa and secretions. The latter are produced by the somatic cells that bear microvilli and contain many vesicles. The lumina of the vasa deferentia are narrow and filled with spermatozoa and secretions. We could identify a dense matrix of secretion consisting of mucosubstances and at least three types of secretion droplets, likely consisting of proteinaceous substances. Conclusion This study reveals that spermatogenesis begins weeks before maturity and takes place continuously in the long-lived males of P. phalangioides. Possible functions of the various types of secretion in the seminal fluid and previously investigated female secretions are discussed in the light of sexual selection.

  20. Behavioural analysis of web building anomalies in the orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata (Araneae, Araneidae

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    Toscani, Camille

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Among animal constructions, spider’s orb webs represent regular geometrical architecture models. Their construction is the result of successive, simple and reproducible behavioural patterns, often considered as stereotyped. It has recently been shown that spider’s building behaviours vary, which can alter web regularity. The final capture spiral results from the laying of successive threads between two radii, here termed ‘spiral units’. We defined a theoretical normal web, as a web in which each turn of the final spiral should be parallel to the preceding one. Weaving of the spiral units sometimes leads to anomalies in the orb web. Anomalies were identified and analysed in the orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757. From video recordings of web construction, we noted the displacements of the legs and of the abdomen of the spider. We compared the frequency of displacements, and their duration, between the construction of spiral units that produce a normal turn and ones that produce an anomalous turn. The position of the legs on the web’s threads was also analysed. Results showed that anomalies were not the consequences of a modification in activity but more likely the result of the position on the radii of the fourth leg. These results suggest that spiders use local information to build the final capture spiral.

  1. Notes on the Neotropical and Mexican Species of Tetragnatha (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) with Descriptions of Three New Species

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Chiyoko

    1992-01-01

    Twenty species of the genus Tetragnatha are recognized to occur in the Neotropical and Mexican Regions. Three new species, T. eberhurdi, T. Levii and T. paradoxa, are described. Seventeen species, T. boydi, T, caudata, T. cognata, T. confratemza, T. elongata, T. ethodon, T. gertschi, T. guatemalensis, T. jaculator, T. laboriosa, T. mabelae, T. mexicana, T. nitens, T. pallescens, T. pallida, T. sinuosa and T. tenuissima are redescribed and illustrated. T. jaculator is recorded from the Neotrop...

  2. Phänologie und Lebenszyklus von Wolfspinnen (Araneae, Lycosidae auf Wirtschaftswiesen des Altmühltales/Bayern

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    Cordes, Detlev

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A faunistic study was carried out for two years in the valley of the river Altmühl in 1986 and 1987. With the help of 57 BARBER-traps in meadow habitats near Weissenburg-Gunzenhausen more than 14500 adult and 7700 young wolf spiders were caught. 13 species were found in total: Alopecosa pulverulenta (CLERCK, Arctosa leopardus (SUNDEVALL, Aulonia albimana (WALCKENAER, Pardosa agrestis (WESTRING, Pardosa amentata (CLERCK, Pardosa palustris (LINNE, Pardosa palluta (CLERCK, Pirata hygrophilus THORELL, Pirata latitans (BLACKWALL, Pirata piraticus (CLERCK, Pirata piscatorius (CLERCK, Trochosa ruricola (DE GEER and Trochosa spinipalpis (F.P.-CAMBRIDGE. The pit-fall traps were installed throughout the year and were controlled every two weeks. The resulting data allow a detailed description of the life cycle of seven species: Alopecosa pulverulenta, Pardosa amentata, Pardosa palustris, Pardosa pullata, Pirata latitans, Pirata piraticus and Trochosa spinipalpis. The life cycle of Alopecosa, Pardosa and Pirata species was found last year. Trochosa species need almost two years to reach maturity.

  3. DIVERSIDAD Y RIQUEZA DE ESPECIES DE LA FAMILIA ARANEIDAE (ARACHNIDA, ARANEAE) EN CICRA (MADRE DE DIOS – PERÚ)

    OpenAIRE

    Deza, Mariajosé; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Andía, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue registrar la riqueza y diversidad de la familia Araneidae en CICRA. Se realizaron colectas cuantitativas en dos épocas marcadas: seca (ES: agosto – setiembre, 2005) y lluviosa (ELL: febrero – marzo, 2006), eligiendo aleatoriamente 6 parcelas de 01 ha cada una, siendo las mismas en ambas temporadas. Se empleó la captura directa mediante colecta manual, utilizando los métodos Ground Hand Collecting (colecta hasta el nivel de la  rodilla) y Aerial Hand Collec...

  4. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Dean H; Starrett, James; Westphal, Michael F; Hedin, Marshal

    2015-10-01

    We use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to infer both species boundaries and species relationships within California nemesiid spiders. Higher-level phylogenetic data show that the California radiation is monophyletic and distantly related to European members of the genus Brachythele. As such, we consider all California nemesiid taxa to belong to the genus Calisoga Chamberlin, 1937. Rather than find support for one or two taxa as previously hypothesized, genetic data reveal Calisoga to be a species-rich radiation of spiders, including perhaps dozens of species. This conclusion is supported by multiple mitochondrial barcoding analyses, and also independent analyses of nuclear data that reveal general genealogical congruence. We discovered three instances of sympatry, and genetic data indicate reproductive isolation when in sympatry. An examination of female reproductive morphology does not reveal species-specific characters, and observed male morphological differences for a subset of putative species are subtle. Our coalescent species tree analysis of putative species lays the groundwork for future research on the taxonomy and biogeographic history of this remarkable endemic radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Erstnachweis von Evarcha michailovi in Deutschland (Araneae: Salticidae sowie weitere für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern neue Spinnenarten

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    Martin, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The jumping spider Evarcha michailovi Logunov 1992 was recorded as new to Germany from a nature reserve in the south of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in a dry heathland habitat. Furthermore, the first records of the jumping spiders Evarcha laetabunda (C. L. Koch, 1846, Philaeus chrysops (Poda, 1761 and Sitticus inexpectus Logunov & Kronestedt, 1997, the comb-footed spider Crustulina sticta (O. P.-Cambridge, 1861 and the crab spider Heriaeus graminicola (Doleschall, 1852 in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania are reported.

  6. Do really all wolf spiders carry spiderlings on their opisthosomas? The case of Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Araneae: Lycosidae

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    Dolejš, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wolf spider females are characterised by carrying cocoons attached to their spinnerets. Emerged spiderlings are carried on the females’ opisthosomas, with the exception of three Japanese lycosid species who carry spiderlings on empty cocoons. Here, the same behaviour is recorded in a European spider: the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. Spiderlings of this species do not try to climb on the female’s opisthosoma, even when they are adopted by a female of a species with a normal pulli-carrying behaviour. This behaviour occurs in Trechaleidae and four unrelated species of Lycosidae inhabiting wet habitats and is therefore regarded as an adaptation to the unsuitable environment.

  7. Can ant-eating Zodarion spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae) develop on a diet optimal for euryphagous arthropod predators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekar, Stano; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    . Such adaptations may then entail trade-offs in handling and utilization of alternative prey. To investigate behavioural as well as nutritional adaptations and the occurrence of the corresponding trade-offs in two ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion [Zodarion atlanticum Pekár & Cardoso and Zodarion germanicum...... (C. L. Koch)], spiders are reared on two diets: ants (i.e. their preferred prey) and fruit flies (i.e. an alternative prey that is nutritionally optimal for euryphagous spiders). Food consumption is observed and several fitness-related life-history parameters are measured. Although spiders readily...... accept ants, more than one-third of 35 spiders refuse to consume fruit flies and starve. Furthermore, severe hunger does not induce these individuals to accept fruit flies. Starving spiders die before moulting to the second stadium. Spiders that eat fruit flies increase only little and slowly in weight...

  8. Voracious male spiders that kill adult females of their own species (genera Walckenaeria, Diplostyla, Neriene, Meta, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the popular belief that adult female spiders often kill and eat their adult male partners in the context of copulation, we present a few instances of adult male spiders killing and eating adult females of their own species in the laboratory. However, in line with the popular belief,

  9. Exposure of Brown Recluse and Brown Widow Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae, Theridiidae) to a Commercial Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Hoddle, Mark S; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Thoms, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control. We demonstrated that a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with an accumulated dosage of 162 oz-h per 1,000 ft(3) at 21°C over 25 h (≈1.7 × the drywood termite dosage) directed at termites was sufficient to kill adult brown recluse and brown widow spiders. The effectiveness of commercial fumigation practices to control spiders, and particularly their egg sacs, warrants further study. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  10. Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Gergin A; Nikolova, Nadya I; Sobel, Crystal N; Hebert, Paul D N; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2013-11-26

    Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 10-20 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding reliably identifies spiders in the Churchill fauna. The capacity of DNA barcoding to enable the identification of otherwise taxonomically ambiguous specimens (juveniles, females) also represents a major advance for future monitoring efforts on this group.

  11. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinning Gland Transcriptomics from Two Main Clades of Spiders (Order: Araneae) - Insights on Their Molecular, Anatomical and Behavioral Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Bittencourt, Daniela; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Kirst, Matias; Motta, Paulo C.; Rech, Elibio L.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium) to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae) and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade). Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily) were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i) anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii) behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution. PMID:21738742

  13. The biodiversity and species composition of the spider community of Marion Island, a recent survey (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Khoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Marion Island, the larger of the Prince Edward Islands, lies in the sub-Antarctic biogeographic region in the southern Indian Ocean. From previous surveys, four spider species are known from Marion. The last survey was undertaken in 1968. During this study a survey was undertaken over a period of four weeks on the island to determine the present spider diversity and to record information about the habitat preferences and general behaviour of the species present. Three collection methods (active search, Tullgren funnels and pitfall traps were used, and spiders were sampled from six habitat sites. A total of 430 spiders represented by four families were collected, Myro kerguelenesis crozetensis Enderlein, 1909 and M. paucispinosus Berland, 1947 (Desidae, Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826 (Linyphiidae, Cheiracanthium furculatum Karsch, 1879 (Miturgidae and an immature Salticidae. The miturgid and salticid are first records. Neomaso antarticus (Hickman, 1939 (Linyphiidae was absent from samples, confirming that the species might have been an erroneous record.

  14. Activities against hemostatic proteins and adrenal gland ultrastructural changes caused by the brown widow spider Latrodectus geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Belsy; Finol, Hector J; Reyes-Lugo, Matias; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Estrella, Amalid; Roschman-González, Antonio; Ibarra, Carlos; Salvi, Ivan; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Brown widow spider (BrWS) (Latrodectus geometricus) venom produces intense systemic reactions such as cramps, harsh muscle nociceptive, nauseas, vomiting and hypertension. The proposed pathogenic mechanisms resulting in these accidents have principally been damages occurring at the nervous system. However, it is suspected that there is also damage of the adrenal glands, as a result of the experimental animal's clinical manifestations, which developed symptoms compatible with acute adrenal insufficiency. We have currently found that the adrenal gland is damaged by this venom gland homogenates (VGH) producing severe alterations on cortex cells resulting in death by acute adrenal insufficiency. In general, the ultrastructural study on the glands of mice under transmission electronic microscopy observations showed alterations in the majority of the intracellular membranes within 3 to 24h. BrWSVGH also showed specific actions on extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, laminin and fibrinogen. In addition, zymogram experiments using gelatin as substrates detected gelatinolytic activity. The molecular exclusion fractionation of crude BrWSVGH resulted in 15 fractions, of which F1 and F2 presented alpha/beta-fibrinogenase and fibronectinolytic activities. Fractions F6, F14 and F15 showed only alpha-fibrinogenase activity; in contrast, the gelatinolytic action was only observed in fraction F11. Only metalloproteinase inhibitors abolished all these proteolytic activities. Our results suggest that adrenal cortex lesions may be relevant in the etiopathogenesis of severe brown widow spider envenoming. To our knowledge, this is the first report on adrenal gland damages, fibrinogenolytic activity and interrelations with cell-matrix adhesion proteins caused by L.geometricus VGH. The venom of this spider could be inducing hemostatic system damages on envenomed patients.

  15. A checklist of spiders from Sovenga Hill, an inselberg in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo Province, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Modiba

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA was initiated to make an inventory of the arachnid fauna of South Africa. Various projects are underway to prepare inventories of the spider fauna of the different floral biomes and provinces of South Africa. During April and May 2004 five different collecting methods were sed to sample spiders from four slopes on Sovenga Hill, an inselberg situated in the Savanna Biome, near Polokwane, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A total of 793 specimens represented by 29 families, 62 genera and 76 species were recorded over the twomonth period. The Thomisidae was the most abundant (n = 167 representing 21.1 % of all spiders sampled, followed by the Gnaphosidae (n = 101 with 12.7 % and the Lycosidae (n = 77 with 9.7 %. The most abundant species was a thomisid Tmarus comellini Garcia-Neto (n = 82, representing 10.3 % of the total, followed by a clubionid Clubiona godfreyi Lessert (n = 66 with 8.3 %. The Thomisidae was the most species-rich family with 12 species, followed by the Gnaphosidae with 11 species and the Araneidae with 10 species. Of the species collected 83.9 % were wandering spiders and 16.1 % web builders. This is the first quantitative survey of the Savanna Biome in the Polokwane area.

  16. A survey of East Palaearctic-Lycosidae (Araneae). 10. Three new Pardosa species from the mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusik, Yuri M; Nadolny, Anton A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Pardosa, P. svatoni sp. n. (dy, SE Kazakhstan), P. fengisp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) and P lii sp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) are described and illustrated. The two former species cannot be placed in any species group. Pardosa lii sp. n. belongs to the P. wagleri species group. It is compared with P. italica Tongiorgi, 1966, whose embolic division has not previously been illustrated.

  17. Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 is a junior synonym of Anepsion maritatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877) (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamel, Jobi J; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-11-05

    The Indo-pacific araneid genus Anepsion, with A. rhomboides (L. Koch, 1867) as the type species, was erected by Strand in 1929. He proposed the name Anepsion as a replacement name for Anepsia L. Koch, 1871, preoccupied by Anepsia Gistl, 1848, a dipteran genus (OBIS Australia, 2015). The genus was revised by Chrysanthus (1961, 1969) and currently has 16 described species and 1 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2015). In the present paper, we are reporting the genus from India for the first time and synonymising Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 with Anepsion maritatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877. A redescription and illustrations of both male and female of A. maritatum are provided.

  18. Comparative analysis of tissue-specific transcriptomes in the funnel-web spider Macrothele calpeiana (Araneae, Hexathelidae

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    Cristina Frías-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The funnel-web spider Macrothele calpeiana is a charismatic Mygalomorph with a great interest in basic, applied and translational research. Nevertheless, current scarcity of genomic and transcriptomic data of this species clearly limits the research in this non-model organism. To overcome this limitation, we launched the first tissue-specific enriched RNA-seq analysis in this species using a subtractive hybridization approach, with two main objectives, to characterize the specific transcriptome of the putative chemosensory appendages (palps and first pair of legs, and to provide a new set of DNA markers for further phylogenetic studies. We have characterized the set of transcripts specifically expressed in putative chemosensory tissues of this species, much of them showing features shared by chemosensory system genes. Among specific candidates, we have identified some members of the iGluR and NPC2 families. Moreover, we have demonstrated the utility of these newly generated data as molecular markers by inferring the phylogenetic position M. calpeina in the phylogenetic tree of Mygalomorphs. Our results provide novel resources for researchers interested in spider molecular biology and systematics, which can help to expand our knowledge on the evolutionary processes underlying fundamental biological questions, as species invasion or biodiversity origin and maintenance.

  19. Diversity, composition and phenology of araneid orb-weavers (Araneae, Araneidae associated with riparian forests in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Araneidae is a speciose family including web-spinning spiders that are very abundant in various terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies demonstrate that changes in vegetation surrounding rivers, streams and brooks affect the associated araneofauna. The aim of this research was to compare differences found in diversity (abundance and richness, composition and phenology of Araneidae spiders sampled in different habitats in four riparian forest catchments in southern Brazil. Samples were taken from riparian forests in four rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State: Piratini, Camaquã, Sinos and Maquiné rivers, each in a different hydrographic basin. Samples were taken twice seasonally on each basin during two years, sampling the araneofauna of the tree-shrub strata with beating tray. Six transects were employed on each basin, two per habitat: edge with grassland, forest interior and river edge. Araneids totalled 20 genera and 65 species. Comparing riparian forests significant differences are found. Spider abundance differed among riparian forests as well as species richness. Overall, Piratini river riparian forest had the higher abundance and richness for Araneidae; the lower values were in Sinos river forest. The stronger degradation and fragmentation of the riparian forests of Sinos river probably influenced the results, with human disturbance gradients associated negatively to web building. We present data on the diversity of these spiders, which were very abundant in the riparian forest interior and very rich in species in the grassland/riparian forest edge. Species composition also differs among the studied habitats (the above plus river/riparian forest edge. For the most abundant species the phenological pattern across the seasons was also analysed.

  20. On the genus Pachygnatha (Araneae, Tetragnathidae in the Albertine Rift of Burundi, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Nzigidahera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Pachygnatha, P. bispiralis sp. nov., P. intermedia sp. nov. and P. ventricosa sp. nov., are described from forest areas in western Burundi. The presence of P. procincta Bosmans & Bosselaers, 1994 in Burundi confirms its very wide distribution spanning most of Africa. Pachygnatha appears to be an important element of the afromontane spider fauna.