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Sample records for lycopus lucidus turcz

  1. Ethanol Extract of Lycopus lucidus Elicits Positive Inotropic Effect Via Activation of Ca2+ Entry and Ca2+ Release in Beating Rabbit Atria

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hao Zhen; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2013-01-01

    Lycopus lucidus Turcz has been widely used as a traditional Oriental medicine (TOM) in Korea and China and prescribed for the enhancement of heart function. However, the precise effects have yet to be defined. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to address whether the ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz (ELT) has a positive inotropic effect. ELT-induced changes in atrial mechanical dynamics (pulse pressure, dp/dt, and stroke volume), and cAMP efflux were measured in perfused...

  2. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of polysaccharide from wild plant Lycopus lucidus Turcz.on alloxan-induced diabetic mice%野生地参多糖对四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊伟; 陈贵元; 谭德勇; 左绍远

    2011-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharides from wild plant Lycopus lucidus Turcz. On hypoglycemia and hypo-lipidemia in alloxan-induced mice was investigated. The diabetic model mice were established by intra-ab-dominal injection of alloxan. Then, the living diabetic mice were divided into six groups. Three groups were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz., respectively by ig administration, and one group given phenfomide 100 mg/ ( kg · d) by ig adminstration as the positive control ,and another group was given normal saline as the diabetic model control. The normal control group was tested on the normal mice by ig saline. After 14 days of treatment, the blood glucose and the serum lipid content of each group were detected. The results indicated that polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz. Has no hyperglycemia effect on normal mice. Compared with the diabetic model control group, 100,200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz could decrease the blood glucose in diabetic mice(P 0. 05). Polysaccharide from L. Lucidus Turcz. Had significant effects on hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action in diabetic mice induced by alloxan.%为了研究野生地参多糖对四氧嘧啶(ALX)致糖尿病小鼠血糖和血脂的影响,利用四氧嘧啶(ALX)建立糖尿病小鼠模型,分别灌胃低( 100 mg/( kg·d))、中(200 mg/( kg·d))、高(400mg/(kg·d))剂量地参多糖溶液及阳性对照药盐酸笨乙双胍,正常对照组及糖尿病模型对照组则给等体积生理盐水.结果表明:连续给药14 d后,地参多糖对正常小鼠血糖无明显影响,100、200和400 mg/(kg·d)地参多糖均能明显降低ALX所致糖尿病小鼠高血糖,与糖尿病模型对照组相比,P<0.01;同时,相同剂量的地参多糖还能极显著降低ALX致糖尿病小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C) (P <0.01).中、高剂量地参多糖使糖尿病小鼠血清高密度脂蛋白

  3. Ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus elicits positive inotropic effect via activation of Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release in beating rabbit atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao Zhen; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2013-07-01

    Lycopus lucidus Turcz has been widely used as a traditional Oriental medicine (TOM) in Korea and China and prescribed for the enhancement of heart function. However, the precise effects have yet to be defined. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to address whether the ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz (ELT) has a positive inotropic effect. ELT-induced changes in atrial mechanical dynamics (pulse pressure, dp/dt, and stroke volume), and cAMP efflux were measured in perfused beating rabbit atria. Three active components, rosmarinic acid, betulinic acid, and oleanolic acid were identified in ELT by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. ELT increased atrial dynamics in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in atrial cAMP levels and cAMP efflux. The ELT-induced positive inotropic effect was blocked by inhibition of the L-type Ca(2+) channels and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Inhibitors of β-adrenoceptors had no effect on the ELT-induced positive inotropic effect. The results suggest that ELT exerts a positive inotropic effect via activation of Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) channel and Ca(2+) release from the SR in beating rabbit atria.

  4. Effects of L. F04, the Active Fraction of Lycopus lucidus, on Erythrocytes Rheological Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong-zhi; GAO Nan-nan; LI Yong-zhi; YU Jing-guang; FAN Quan-chun; BAI Gui-e; XIN Bing-mu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of L. F04, the active fraction of Lycopus lucidus, on erythrocytesrheological property so as to investigate its mechanism in promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Method: The effects of L. F04 (used for treatment for 10 days in different dosages) on deformability, aggregation and membrane liquidity of erythrocytes (MLE) as well as whole blood apparent viscosity (ηb) were examined on the basis of rat model of blood-stasis syndrome induced by venous injection of high molecular weight dextran. Result: As compared with the normal control group, the model group's RBC deformability and MLE were lower, and the aggregation of erythrocytes and ηb were higher. Compared with the model group, both L. F04 0. 612g/kg and 0. 306g/kg showed significant effect in improving deformability and inhibiting aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) and reducing blood viscosity. The trend of improving MLE was also shown. Conclusion:L. F04 could significantly improve the abnormal rheological property of erythrocytes.

  5. Environ: E00472 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00472 Lycopus lucidus herb Licopi herba Crude drug Lycopus lucidus [TAX:516551] La...miaceae (mint family) Lycopus lucidus herb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00472 Lycopus lucidus herb ...

  6. Advance on Chemical Constituents of Lycopus%地笋属植物化学成分研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保成; 彭涛; 康文艺

    2013-01-01

    检索ScienceDirect,ACS,Wiley Online及CNKI等数据库中有关地笋属植物在化学成分的文献,对该属植物化学成分研究进行整理分析.该属植物化学成分结构类型较多,主要为挥发油、萜类、黄酮、酚酸和甾体类化合物.其中,已经分离鉴定的黄酮类化合物31个,萜类化合物20个,酚酸类化合物20个和甾体类化合物3个.通过文献总结发现,该属植物在我国资源丰富,但仅有少数植物进行了化学成分的研究报道,提示该属植物值得深入研究.%The chemical constituents of Lycopus genus were collected by retrieval database of ScienceDirect, ACS, Wiley Online and CNKI and progress of chemical constituents of Lycopus genus was summarized by literatures. The chemical types were diversity and main were volatile oils, terpenes, flavonoids, phenol acids and steroids including 31 flavonoids, 20 terpenoids, 20 phenol acids and 3 steroids isolated and identified from Lycopus. By the system summary of the chemical constituents, it can benefit for the further research and development of Lycopus.

  7. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons.

  8. Use of feces to attract insects by a Glittering-bellied Emerald, Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 (Apodiformes: Trochilidae

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    Fábio André Facco Jacomassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the occurrence of a female Glittering-bellied Emerald, Chlorostilbon lucidus, using feces to attract insects to the nesting site for predation. This is the first report of a hummingbird using feces to attract insects.

  9. Effect of electron irradiation on the gel properties of Collichthys lucidus surimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Siyao; Lv, Liangyu; Yang, Wenge; Xu, Dalun; Lou, Qiaoming; Zhang, Jinjie

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of electron irradiation on the gel properties of Collichthys lucidus surimi. The results showed that irradiation decreased the trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide content of the surimi gel. At 5 kGy, a more compact and ordered gel network structure was achieved, resulting in a higher gel strength, whiteness, and water-holding capacity than non-irradiated surimi gel. During heat-induced formation of the gel, the α-helix content decreased, whilst the β-sheet and β-turn content increased. Irradiation treatments also decreased the α-helix content and increased β-sheet content, and this transformation is beneficial for the protein denaturation and gel formation. Collectively, the results suggest that electron irradiation, at an optimal dose of 5 kGy, could be an effective method for application in the surimi manufacturing industry

  10. АНАЛИЗ КАРИОТИПА LYCOPUS EUROPAEUS L

    OpenAIRE

    КОЗАК М.Ф.; ТУРДУГУЛОВА Р.Т.

    2015-01-01

    Хромосомный набор Lycopus europaeus L. ( Lamiaceae) популяций Астраханской области характеризуется числом 2n=22, включает 4 пары (II, VI, VIII, X) субметацентриков и 7 пар (I, III-V, VII, IX, XI) метацентриков. Средняя суммарная абсолютная длина диплоидного набора хромосом составляет 39,1±1,72 мкм (C.V.= 18,2%).

  11. Molecular cloning and gene expression analysis of cystatin C-like proteins in spinyhead croaker Collichthys lucidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Zhao, M; Ma, L B

    2016-03-24

    Cystatins are natural tight-binding reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from Collichthys lucidus using the SMART technique. A complete cDNA sequence with high identity to the conserved sequence of the cystatin C gene was cloned from the library using EST analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), then subjected to further investigation. The full-length cDNA of cystatin C from C. lucidus (Clcys) was 699 bp long, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 52 bp, a 3'-UTR of 290 bp, and an open-reading frame of 357 bp. The gene encoded a polypeptide of 118 amino acids, constituting a predicted molecular weight of 12.875 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.81. The amino acid sequence of Clcys possessed typical features of type II cystatins and had the highest identity with cystatin C of Pseudosciaena crocea (89%); therefore, it clustered with the cystatin C group in the UPGMA phylogenetic tree. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription analysis revealed that the highest expression was found in the kidney, followed by the liver, heart, and testis, with the lowest expression in muscle. Interestingly, Clcys had relatively low identity with cystatin C genes from other fish and mammals, and its expression pattern did not possess features of a housekeeping gene. Based on these findings, we suspect that the classification of cystatins in fish is somewhat confusing, and the identification of more cystatin gene sequences is needed before a definite conclusion can be drawn.

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a matrix Gla protein gene in the spinyhead croaker, Collichthys lucidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Zhao, M D; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Zhao, M; Meng, Y Y; Ma, L B

    2016-11-03

    The matrix Gla (gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich) protein (MGP), a vitamin K-dependent and Gla-containing protein, is a calcification inhibitor that mainly functions in tissue calcification and mineralization. In this study, we obtained the complete cDNA sequence of MGP from the spinyhead croaker (Collichthys lucidus), which we named Cl-MGP. Cl-MGP was 923 bp long with a 384-bp open reading fragment that encoded 127 amino acids. The predicted MGP protein sequence contained a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide, suggesting that it possesses secretory characteristics. The Gla domain and the invariant unit ErraEtCedyspC, which has been identified in all known vitamin K-dependent vertebrate proteins, were highly conserved in Cl-MGP, suggesting that it uses the same mechanism to function as the known proteins. An alignment analysis revealed that Cl-MGP had the highest identity with Larimichthys crocea (93%), which had lost five amino acid residues in the C-terminal. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that Cl-MGP expression was highest in the gill, followed by the cholecyst and spleen, with almost no expression in the blood, muscle, or testes. The high Cl-MGP expression in the gill is similar to that observed in other fish species, but the relatively high expression found in the cholecyst and spleen is not seen in all species. Future studies should investigate the tissue distributions of both mRNA and proteins in different species, in order to understand the function and evolution of MGP in different species.

  13. Isolation of three dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from in vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.--the first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, A; Kisiel, W; Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A

    2015-05-01

    Three dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans: deoxyschizandrin (1), gomisin A (2) and schizandrin (3) were isolated from biomass extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. shoot-differentiating callus cultures. The mentioned lignans were not isolated earlier from in vitro cultures of this plant species. This is the first report concerning on isolation of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from in vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis.

  14. Experiment on Tissue Culture Technique of Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Weishuang; FAN Ruifeng; GUO Shicheng; CHANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to optimize the induction and differentiation medium by exploreing different tissue culture of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. In tissue culture with the root, stem segments, young leaf, cotyledonary node and axillary bud of Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk as explants, a lot of plantleles were obtained and the corresponding plant regeneration-system was established. The results showed that when use MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA +0.2 mg·L-1 NAA as callus induction medium, the cotyledonary node had the highest bourgeon rate, and its callus was better than any others; MS +2 mg·L-1 6-BA +0.4 mg·L-1NAA was the best adventitious buds induction medium, and the best adventitious buds induced condition was 3% sucrose as carbon source, illumination for 12-14 h·d-1 and pH 5.8. The best rootage medium was 1/2 MS+0.5 mg·L-1 NAA.

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

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    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  16. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  17. Extraction of pectin from Premna microphylla turcz leaves and its physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Liang, Rui-hong; Liu, Wei; Luo, Shun-jing; Liu, Cheng-mei; Wu, Shuang-shuang; Wang, Zhao-jun

    2014-02-15

    Premna microphylla turcz leaves (PMTL) have been used for preparing a "green tofu" by Chinese for a long history. Chemical composition analysis indicated alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) of PMTL contained high amount of pectin. Water, ammonium oxalate, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide were used to extract different pectic fractions sequentially. Ammonium oxalate was found to be the most effective extracting agent, reflecting on a high yield (20.61%) and a significant change of morphology of AIS. The resulted oxalate-soluble pectin (OXSP) showed high galacturonic acid content (76.15%) and average molecular weight (980.67kDa), low neutral sugar content (6.41%) and degree of methoxylation (14.90%). All of the characteristics have contributed excellent gelling and thickening properties of OXSP. These results may allow an improved use of PMTL as a resource of low-methoxyl pectin, and observation of the morphology of residues can be helpful for evaluating the efficiency of extracting agents.

  18. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Flowering Aerial Parts of Saussurea Nivea Turcz

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    Zhi Long Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time.Results:Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, alpha-pinene (6.43%, beta-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by beta-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 mug/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L.Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  19. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiroyuki Tobita; Shigeaki F Hasegawa; Kenichi Yazaki; Masabumi Komatsu; Mitsutoshi Kitao

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha−1 year−1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4% of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand.

  20. GC-MS analysis of insecticidal essential oil of flowering aerial parts of Saussurea nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Results Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, α-pinene (6.43%, β-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by β-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 μg/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L. Conclusion The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  1. THE BIOLOGY OF THE PROPAGATION OF SPECIES SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS (TURCZ. BAILL.

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    CIORCHINĂ NINA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding the possibilities for the propagation of species Schisandra chinensis (Turz. Baill, as well as its reaction in the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova. Situated in the Lianarium of the Botanical Garden (Institute AŞM since 1975, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. grows, develops and fructifies abundantly every year. It is propagated vegetatively and generatively with some difficulty. In the case of generative propagation, in order to obtain a high germination percentage, the seeds are stratified in three phases, at different temperatures and are sown in spring. Germination percentages of 80-90% were obtained. Schisandra chinensis is also propagated by greenwood cuttings, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings, by layering or by division. The best results were obtained by using semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings taken in summer, in June-July, from younger plants. The potential for in vitro propagation of this species was also tested. The explants consisting of apical meristems inoculated on MS medium + 0.5 mg/l BAP evolved the best.

  2. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Antioxidant Activities of Various Extracts from Artemisisa selengensis Turcz (LuHao

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    Yan Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the various extracts and fractions from the herbs of Artemisia selegensis Turcz (AST were investigated by in vitro and in vivo assays. FRAP, DPPH and ABTS assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions in vitro. The effect of water extract (WE in reducing oxidative stress in male mice was evaluated. Phenolic acid compounds contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. From the results of three in vitro antioxidant assays, WE was found to have the highest antioxidant activity, and among the WE subfractions, the water soluble fraction has a significant antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant assay results showed that high doses of WE significantly decrease the MDA level compared to normal diet and D-(+ galactose group (p < 0.05, and the SOD activity of mice given a high dose of WE was the highest. These in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the extracts, especially the WE from AST, have significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. In summary, we propose that AST could be potentially used as a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Effects of Salt Stress on Proline Accumulation in Relation to Osmotic Adjustment in the Seedling of Elymus Dahuricus Turcz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓菲

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of salt stress on proline accumulation in the seedling of Elymus dahuricus Turcz. from two different geographic regions in order to explicit various adaptability in response to salt stress condition. Plants were dealt with in five salt treatments (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%). Significant differences were obvious at the highest salinity treatments for almost each considered parameters. Given that proline concentration is closely related to salt tolerance, we found that G2 seemed to be more tolerant. Furthermore, the proline concentration might be exploited as a dependable measure for evaluating the effect of considering regional factors on salt tolerance.

  5. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Jo, Suzy; Ryu, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Guemsan; Ryu, Mi Heon; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kim, Hyungwoo; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit is widely used to treat skin diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of S. chinensis (MESC) on 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) in mice. The effects of MESC on ear thickness and weight, histopathological changes, immune cell filtration and cytokine production were investigated in DNFB-induced CD mice. Topical application of MESC effectively inhibited ear swelling (30 or 300 μg on the left ear, P<0.001; 30 μg on the right ear, P<0.001). MESC also inhibited hyperplasia, spongiosis (100 μg/ear, P<0.05 and 300 μg/ear, P<0.001, respectively) and immune cell infiltration (100 μg/ear, P<0.05; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001) induced by DNFB. In addition, MESC suppressed increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels (100 or 300 μg/ear, P<0.05), interferon (INF)-γ (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (300 μg/ear, P<0.05) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001). These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MESC are mediated by the reduced production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and MCP-1, and that MESC has potential use for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  6. 北五味子藤茎的生药学研究%Study on the Pharmakognosie of Caulis Schisandra Chinensis( Turcz. )baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇禧; 徐海波; 贾桂燕; 王英范; 鲍建材

    2005-01-01

    本文对木兰科植物五味子Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill干燥藤茎的外观性状、显微鉴别、薄层色谱等方面进行了生药学研究,为开发利用五味子藤茎提供了科学依据.

  7. Fertilizer amendment for improving the phytoextraction of cadmium by a hyperaccumulator Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering; Zhu, Jiangong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Zhan, Jie [Institute of Liaoning Basic Medicine, Shenyang (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Two main pathways of phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils are phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Some soil amendments can strengthen phytostabilization or phytoextraction through either reducing heavy metal bioavailability in soil or increasing the heavy metal accumulation capacity of the hyperaccumulator (enhancing heavy metal concentration or shoot biomass of the hyperaccumulator). Urea and chicken manure are often used as fertilizers. This research will explore their effects on a newly found hyperaccumulator, Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell., phytoremediating cadmium (Cd). Materials and methods: Pot culture experiment was conducted to study the accumulation characteristics of R. globosa at different Cd contamination concentrations under one fertilizer level (1 g kg{sup -1} for urea and 100 g kg{sup -1} for chicken manure), as well as the same Cd dose (20 mg kg{sup -1}) under different fertilizer doses. Cd was artificially spiked at 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg{sup -1}. Urea was amended at 0.5, 1, and 2 g kg{sup -1}, while chicken manure was supplemented at 50, 100, and 200 g kg{sup -1}. The heavy metal concentration in soil and plant samples was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. pH, N, P, K, and so on in soil samples were determined by normal method. Results and discussion: The results showed that urea application did not affect the Cd concentrations in root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, and shoot of R. globosa, but chicken manure significantly decreased (p < 0.05) them by 28.4%, 29.3%, 30.8%, 24.9%, and 28.3%, respectively, owing to decreased extractable Cd in soil. Thus, strengthening the capacity (Cd accumulation in plant shoot, micrograms per pot) of urea was higher than that of chicken manure, though both shoot biomasses increased by one to threefold. Furthermore, the addition of urea and chicken manure increased the organic material, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the microorganism count, urease, and the

  8. Genetic diversity assessed using microsatellite DNA of spiny head croaker ( Collichthys lucidus) from the Zhoushan offshore waters%舟山近海棘头梅童鱼群体遗传多样性微卫星DNA分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林能锋; 苏永全; 丁少雄; 王军

    2011-01-01

    应用6对可在棘头梅童鱼(Collichthy lucidels)中扩增的大黄鱼(Rseudosciaena Crocea)微卫星引物对浙江舟山近海的棘头梅童鱼群体进行PCR扩增,变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳分析扩增产物.6对引物在群体中共扩增出46个等位基因,平均每个位点得到5.308 0个有效等位基因.各位点的PIC值为0.4126~0.893 5(平均值0.670 8),PCIC4和PC8F5为中度多态性位点,PC4H12、PC5E11、PCIOF10及PC10G6为高度多态性位点,这些位点可以做为棘头梅童鱼群体遗传学研究的有效的分子遗传标记.6个位点的连锁分析显示,各位点间不存在明显的连锁关系.各位点在群体中的观测杂合度(Ho)为0.4545~0.9167(平均值0.6591),期望杂合度(He)为0.4680~0.9019(平均值0.6997),与其他海水鱼类比较,浙江近海的棘头梅童鱼群体遗传多样性偏低.对各位点进行Hardy-Weinberg平衡检测表明,PC4H12、PC10F10及PC10G6位点的等位基因频率偏离了平衡,综合现有的资源调查资料,遗传多样性的降低与近年来棘头梅童鱼资源的下降有关.%Spiny head croaker ( Collichthy lucidus) is a demersal and diminutive fish species, and was an abundant resource in the East China Sea until about 20 years ago. With the development of marine fisheries, much of the breeding stock of spiny head croaker and juvenile populations were overfished employing the traditional two-stick stow net method. To propose reasonable protection of the C. lucidus resource, it is important to understand the background of its population genetics. In this study, samples of spiny head croaker from Zhoushan offshore waters in Zhejiang province were collected and the genetic diversity analyzed. Six microsatellite loci developed from P.crocea were employed to assess the levels of allelic diversity and heterozygosity of the C. lucidus population. A total of 46 alleles were obtained from 24 individuals at six loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 13

  9. 五味子木脂素提取方法研究%Advances on the Extraction Technologies of Eficient Components in Schisandra Chinensis ( Turcz. ) Baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍

    2011-01-01

    五味子为我国传统的中药之一,具有较高的药用价值.此外五味子还大量应用于食品加工、化妆品、添加剂等领域.文章对近几年来五味子有效成分的提取方法做一综述,以利于进一步的研究与开发利用.%Schisandra chinensis ( Turcz. ) Baill is one of traditional Chinese medicines. It has been found to possess some beneficial Dharmacological effects. For further research and application, this paper reviewed the development of the extraction technologies of eficient components in Schisandra chinensis ( Turcz. ) Bail1.

  10. 五味子人工栽培技术%A Study on Cultivating Technique of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Bail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刚宏林; 唐先明

    2011-01-01

    通过对五味子生境的调查,对五味子种子的处理技术、种植技术、田间管理、采收等方面进行了系统的研究,为五味子的栽培与利用提出了确实可行的措施。%After investigation on the habitats of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.)Bail in the north of China, treatment of seeds, cultural methods , field management and harvest were systematically Studied. A feasible cultural technique for Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.)Bail was found out.

  11. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. and Schisandra chinensis Turcz.Compatible with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge Ganoderma lucidum and Bupleurum chinense DC on Chronic liver Injuries%五味子及其与丹参 灵芝 柴胡配伍对慢性肝损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜春; 田卫斌; 李剑锋; 刘明义

    2001-01-01

    目的 观察五味子和五味子与丹参、柴胡、灵芝配伍对慢性肝损伤的治疗作用。方法 采用四氯化碳(CCl4)和D-氨基半乳糖(D-GlaN)多次注射造成两种慢性肝损伤模型,给予同一剂量的药物,测定血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、胆碱酯酶(CHE)、肝匀浆ALT、CHE、谷胱苷肽(GSH)、丙二醛(MDA)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP),HE染色观察肝组织形态学。结果 五味子对CCl4慢性肝损伤所致的血清与匀浆ALT显著降低(P<0.01),CHE升高(P<0.01),ALP与MDA下降(P<0.01)。五味子+丹参对慢性肝损伤酶的作用与五味子相似,组织形态学结果与生化结果基本一致。五味子+柴胡与五味子+灵芝的作用弱于前者,但病理组织形态学结果不支持二者的治疗作用。对D-GlaN所致慢性肝损伤五味子能加强枯否细胞的吞噬功能,增加蛋白合成,消除MDA对细胞的损伤,改善细胞代谢。五味子+丹参的生化结果与组织形态学结果显示其治疗作用强于五味子,对纤维组织增生的抑制作用是其特点。五味子+灵芝虽有降ALT和升高CHE作用(P<0.05,P<0.01),但对匀浆CHE无效,而组织形态学显示受损的肝细胞无改善。五味子+柴胡对酶的作用较差,组织形态学显示受损的肝细胞无明显改善。结论 五味子对两种慢性肝损伤有较好的治疗作用,五味子与丹参配伍的作用强于五味子,对纤维组织增生有明显抑制作用是其特点。%Aim To investigate the effect treatment of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) and Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) compatible with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge,Ganoderma lucidum and Bupleurum chinense DC resprectively on Chronic liver injuries in mice.Methods Both chronic liver injuries models were used by injection each the tetrachloromethane(CCl4) and D-Galactosamine for more times in mice. The mice were administrated the drug in the same dosage,then the activities of alanine aminotransferase

  12. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  14. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and radical-scavenging capacity of phenols and flavonoids from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Yang, Qi; Liang, Zhenyi; Li, Donghai; Yang, Xiaobo; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was developed to extract phenolic and flavonoid antioxidants from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves. The optimal experimental parameters for antioxidant extraction from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were measured using single-factor experimentation combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays were used to quantify antioxidant compounds. Next, antioxidant radical scavenging capacity was measured using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2' -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radicals. Optimized extraction conditions for UAE from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were as follows: 60.9% ethanol, 85.4 min, and 63.3°C for maximal TPC extraction (16.8 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g DW); 67.7% ethanol, 82.9 min, and 63.0 °C for maximal TFC extraction (49.3 ± 0.4 mg RT/g DW); 48.8% ethanol, 85.1 min, and 63.9 °C for maximal DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (86.8 ± 0.2%); and 50.6% ethanol, 81.3 min, and 63.4 °C for maximal ABTS radical-scavenging capacity (92.9 ± 0.5%). Ethanol concentration was the most important factor in the extraction process. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and radical-scavenging capacity of phenols and flavonoids from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was developed to extract phenolic and flavonoid antioxidants from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves. The optimal experimental parameters for antioxidant extraction from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were measured using single-factor experimentation combined with response surface methodology (RSM. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC assays were used to quantify antioxidant compounds. Next, antioxidant radical scavenging capacity was measured using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2' -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS radicals. Optimized extraction conditions for UAE from C. cyrtophyllum leaves were as follows: 60.9% ethanol, 85.4 min, and 63.3°C for maximal TPC extraction (16.8 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g DW; 67.7% ethanol, 82.9 min, and 63.0 °C for maximal TFC extraction (49.3 ± 0.4 mg RT/g DW; 48.8% ethanol, 85.1 min, and 63.9 °C for maximal DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (86.8 ± 0.2%; and 50.6% ethanol, 81.3 min, and 63.4 °C for maximal ABTS radical-scavenging capacity (92.9 ± 0.5%. Ethanol concentration was the most important factor in the extraction process. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  16. 辽宁省五味子无公害栽培技术探讨%Discussion on Pollution-Free Planting Technology of Schisandra chinensis Turcz in Liaoning Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜乃凡

    2011-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz which belonged to Magnoliacea was deciduous plant. The cultivation and propagation techniques, field management and disease and pest control methods were summarized, in order to provide references for development and utilization of Schisandra chinensis Turcz.%五味子是木兰科落叶植物。该文总结了辽宁省五味子栽培繁殖技术、田间管理及病虫害防治方法,以期为五味子植物资源的开发利用提供参考依据。

  17. Corynoline Isolated from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effects via Modulation of Nfr2 and MAPKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corydalis bungeana Turcz. is an anti-inflammatory medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine for upper respiratory tract infections. It is demonstrated that corynoline is its active anti-inflammatory component. The nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway play important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of corynoline through modulation of Nfr2 and MAPKs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells were used to explore modulatory role of NO production and the activation of signaling proteins and transcription factors using nitrite assay, Western bloting and qPCR. Treatment with corynoline reduced production of nitric oxide (NO and the protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 Treatment also significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 at the mRNA and protein levels, which demonstrated that corynoline may protect cells from inflammation through the Nrf2/ARE pathway In addition, corynoline suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β, at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, molecular data revealed that corynoline inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated phosphorylation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and p38. Taken together, these results suggest that corynoline reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1β, by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK and p38 phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells, which is regulated by the Nrf2/ARE pathway. These findings reveal part of the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of corynoline.

  18. Corynoline Isolated from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Effects via Modulation of Nfr2 and MAPKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunjuan; Zhang, Chengyue; Wang, Zhibin; Tang, Zhenqiu; Kuang, Haixue; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2016-07-27

    Corydalis bungeana Turcz. is an anti-inflammatory medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine for upper respiratory tract infections. It is demonstrated that corynoline is its active anti-inflammatory component. The nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway play important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory mechanism of corynoline through modulation of Nfr2 and MAPKs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells were used to explore modulatory role of NO production and the activation of signaling proteins and transcription factors using nitrite assay, Western bloting and qPCR. Treatment with corynoline reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) and the protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Treatment also significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) at the mRNA and protein levels, which demonstrated that corynoline may protect cells from inflammation through the Nrf2/ARE pathway In addition, corynoline suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, molecular data revealed that corynoline inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated phosphorylation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Taken together, these results suggest that corynoline reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1β, by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) and p38 phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells, which is regulated by the Nrf2/ARE pathway. These findings reveal part of the molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of corynoline.

  19. Effects of donor plant age and explants on in vitro culture of Cedrela montana Moritz ex Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Basto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the organogenic potential of Cedrela montana Moritz ex Turcz. Explants from mature (10-20 year-old and juvenile (7-18 month-old trees were collected. The first grouping included buds, leaves, and nodes derived from juvenile basal offshoots and rejuvenated shoots from cuttings. The second, included leaves, petioles, nodes, internodes and nodes of in vitro elongated shoots. The highest organogenic potential was observed in nodes from juvenile trees: 45.8% of explants presented axillary bud elongation, while 56.2% presented rooting in a growth regulator free culture medium. Fifty-one percent of elongated shoots produced adventitious shoots with 0.5 μM NAA and 0.5 μM BA; 30% with 0.5 μM NAA and 1 μM BA; and 30% with 1 μM BA. Twenty percent presented roots with 0.5 μM NAA. Root formation was stimulated in a medium supplemented with activated charcoal (5 gL-1. The acclimatization of eighty percent of plantlets regenerated from nodes, and of 72.5% in vitro generated shoots was successful. On the contrary, mature trees material presented low organogenic response. Axillary bud elongation was recorded just in 10.7% of explants from juvenile shoots and in 6.7% of explants from rejuvenated shoots. The age of donor plant and type of explant affect the organogenic potential of C. montana. This study contributes to the understanding of this species’ response under in vitro conditions.

  20. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetics of five alkaloids in rat plasma by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after the oral administration of Corydalis bungeana Turcz extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Yu, Xueli; Wang, Zhibin; Sun, Jiahui; Pan, Rong; Yang, Chunjuan; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on rats for protopine, corynoline, 7'-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-N-[(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethyl]propenamide, acetylcorynoline, and 8-oxocorynoline, five main active components from Corydalis bungeana Turcz (C. bungeana Turcz). An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these components in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent SB-C18 column (1.8 μm, 150 × 2.1 mm) using a gradient elution program with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were detected in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. Lower limits of quantification were >0.680 ng/mL and matrix effects ranged from 91.26 to 100.38%. The mean extraction recoveries of quality control samples were less than 79.32%, and the precision and accuracy were within the acceptable limits. All analytes were proven to be stable during sample storage and analysis procedures. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of five alkaloid components after oral administration of C. bungeana Turcz extract to rats. The obtained results may be helpful to reveal the mechanism of action and to guide the clinical application of C. bungeana Turcz.

  1. Research progress on antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.%五味子抗氧化和抑菌作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 赵春苏; 马永全; 胡林子; 于新

    2011-01-01

    对五味子的抗氧化和抑菌作用进行了综述,结果表明现有的研究成果不能确定五味子抑菌成分,其抗氧化和抑菌作用机理也不明了,需要更深入的研究.同时对五味子在医药、保健品、食品等方面的应用进行了展望.%The antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. were reviewed. The results showed that antibacterial component of Schisandra chinensis ( Turcz. ) Baill. was uncertainty, and antioxidant and antimicrobial mechanism of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. were unclear at present. It was very necessary to conduct in-depth study. The prospects of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. applied in medicine, health products, food were put forward, too.

  2. Antioxidant activity of essential oil from Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) Baill.%五味子挥发油抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华; 李先宽; 宋新; 霍艳; 王冰

    2012-01-01

    To study on the antioxidant activity of essential oil getting from different parts of the Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) Baill.by different extract methods,and to explore the medicinal value of essential oil from Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) Baill..The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation and ultrasound-assisted extraction.Compared with Vc and VE,the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH with different concentration of volatile oil and the EC50 as the index,to compare the antioxidant activity of volatile oils extracted from different parts of Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) Baill and extracted by different methods.Antioxidant activity with EC50 as index,from strong to weak are:Vc(34.1140 μg/mL)〉ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile oil from Schisandra canes(0.7319 mg/mL) 〉 ultrasound-assisted extraction of essential oil from Schisandra seeds(0.9983 mg/mL)〉VE(5.2049 mg/mL)〉steam distillation of essential oil from Schisandra seeds(7.7334 mg/mL) 〉 steam distillation of essential oil from Schisandra canes(10.2814 mg/mL).The volatile oil extracted from different parts of Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) Baill.and extracted by dirrefent methods all have the antioxidant activity in some degree.%通过对不同部位和不同方法提取的五味子挥发油抗氧化性研究,进一步探索五味子挥发油的药用价值。以水蒸气蒸馏法和超声波辅助萃取法提取五味子挥发油,Vc和VE作为阳性对照品,采用DPPH法测定不同质量浓度挥发油的抗氧化性,以EC50为指标,比较不同方法和部位提取的挥发油抗氧化性。抗氧化性以EC50比较,由强到弱依次为:Vc(34.1140μg/mL)〉超声波提取五味子藤茎挥发油(0.7319mg/mL)〉超声波提取五味子种子挥发油(0.9983mg/mL)〉VE(5.2049mg/mL)〉水蒸气蒸馏法提取五味子种子挥发油(7.7334mg/mL)〉水蒸气蒸馏法提取五味子藤茎挥发油(10.2814mg/mL)。

  3. Optimization of conditions of solvent-free microwave extraction and study on antioxidant capacity of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Liu, Ting-ting

    2012-10-15

    In this article, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill was studied. A multivariate study based on central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of SFME. The optimum parameters were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 385 W and moisture content of the fruits was 68%. The extraction yield of essential oil was 11 ml/kg under the optimum conditions. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were determined, and compared with traditional antioxidants. GC-MS showed the different composition of essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation (HD), steam-distillation (SD) and SFME. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Micrographs and thermo gravimetric loss provided more evidences to prove SFME of essential oil is more completed than HD and SD.

  4. Effects of Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz.) Baill on Fecundity of Drosophila Melanogaster%北五味子对果蝇繁殖力的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军; 赵月明; 马冰瑶

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill on the fecundity of Drosophila melanogaster were studied in this paper.Different concentrations of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill(0,0.5%,0.75%,and 1%) were added into culture media of Drosophila melanogaster,and the amount of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated after eclosion process was accomplished.The results showed that the amount of Drosophila melanogaster of three Schisandra chinensis treatment were significant higher.Fecundity efficiency of 1% Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill treatment increased by 45.75% compared with the control,and the results indicated that Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill could promote fecundity of Drosophila Melanogaster significantly.The study above provided a scientific basis for efficient propagation of Drosophila melanogaster.%研究了北五味子对果蝇繁殖力的影响.在培养基中加入不同重量的北五味子干燥果肉粗粉进行果蝇培养,在一定时间内统计完成羽化的F1、F2果蝇的数量.结果表明,与对照相比,添加北五味子的3个处理F1羽化成虫数量显著增多(P〈0.05),其中,添加1%北五味子干燥果肉粗粉的处理果蝇数量较对照增加了45.75%.这表明北五味子能够显著地增强果蝇的繁殖力.本研究为果蝇的高效培养繁殖提供了科学依据.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of dictamnine, a major bioactive component from the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Sun, Jianbo; Xu, Jingyao; Yan, Qin; Gao, Enze; Qu, Wei; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2013-12-30

    Dictamnine is an herbal ingredient isolated from the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. (Rutaceae). The present study was aimed at the development of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify the concentration of dictamnine in rat plasma and tissues for the in vivo pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study. Biological samples were processed with protein precipitation. Skimmianine was chosen as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7μm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid water (75:25, v/v). The detection was accomplished by using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The MS/MS ion transitions were monitored at m/z 200.0→129.0 for dictamnine and 260.3→227.1 for IS, respectively. An excellent linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 250ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.5ng/mL for dictamnine. The developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly sensitive and selective. It was successfully applied to the in vivo pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of dictamnine in rats after oral or intravenous administration of dictamnine.

  6. 五味子油饼的化学成分研究%Studies on the Chemical Constituents from the Feed Residue of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焉石; 逄世峰; 金银萍; 王英平

    2011-01-01

    采用常规硅胶柱层析、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析等多种色谱分离手段,从五味子油饼中分离得到7个化合物,依据理化性质、光谱学分析和化学方法,确定了它们的结构分别是:五味子丙素(SchisandrinC,1)、五味子乙素(Schizandrin B,2)、五味子甲素(SchisandrinA,3)、五味子酯甲(SchisantherinA,4)、Angeloylgomisin H(5)、五味子醇乙(Schisandrol B,6)、五味子醇甲(schisandrol A,7).%The constituents of the feed residue of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.)Baill were isolated by Column chromatogra-phy on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and chemical evidence, and These compounds were identified as Schisandrin C (1), Schizandrin B (2), Schisandrin A (3), Schisantherin A (4), Angeloylgomisin H (5), chisandrol B (6), schisandrol A (7).

  7. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation of triterpenes from Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and induction apoptosis mechanism of HSC-T6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Meng, Xianjun; Zhu, Lijie; Jiao, Xinyao; Zhang, Jiachen

    2014-01-01

    Triterpenes have shown many beneficial activities in researches, but their separation and preparation usually require multiple methods. Following an initial cleaning-up step on the AB-8 macroporous resin, a preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system comprising chloroform-n-butyl alcohol-methanol-water (10:1:7:4, v/v/v/v) was used to isolate and separate triterpenes from caculis of Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz.) baill. A total of 89 mg corosolic acid with purities of 98.5% were obtained from 400 mg crude extract in one-step elution and less than 4 h, and the structure identification was performed by UV, IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The inhibition on liver fibrosis activities of the triterpenes against HSC-T6 in vitro were studied by cell culture methods. The results showed that the corosolic acid have better inhibitory effects on HSC-T6 cells with the IC50 value of 5~25 μg/mL and the study also indicated that corosolic acid might be a potential Chinese medical component to inhibit liver fibrosis.

  8. Study on Biological Characteristics and Anatomical Structure of Leaf and Stem of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz%北药白鲜生物学特征及茎叶解剖结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立凤; 纪春艳; 李然红; 于爽; 柴军红; 陈子沅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the biological characteristics and anatomical structure of leaf and stem of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. [ Method] The anatomical structure of leaf and steam of D, dasycarpus was studied by the method of paraffin sectioning. [ Result] The stem of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz consisted of epidermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. The cortex was composed by collenchyma and parenchyma tissue. The vascular cylinder was arranged as a ring, which from outside to inside were phloem and xylem. The leaf was typical bifacial leaf which consisted of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular cylinder. The epidermal cells were arranged regularly. The mesophyll consisted of palisade tissue and spongy tissue differentiation. [Conclusion] The method well studied the biological characteristics of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz and observed their anatomical structure.%[目的]研究北药白鲜的生物学特征并观察其茎叶的解剖结构.[方法]采用石蜡制片的方法研究北药白鲜的茎叶解剖结构特征.[结果]白鲜的茎由表皮、皮层和维管柱3部分组成,皮层由厚角组织和薄壁组织构成,维管束环状排列,由外到内依次是韧皮部和木质部.叶片为典型的异叶面,由表皮、叶肉及维管束构成,表皮细胞排列规则,叶肉分为栅栏组织和海绵组织,分化明显.[结论]该方法研究了北药白鲜的生物学特征,并观察其茎叶的解剖结构,效果良好.

  9. 除草剂2-甲-4-氯钠胁迫对茭白生理特性的影响%Effect of MCPA-Na Stress on Physiological Characteristics of Zizania caduciflora ( Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯丰; 房艳; 江解增

    2011-01-01

    The Changes of physiological and biochemical indexes in leaves and roots of Zizania caduciflora ( Turcz. ) Hand. -Mazz. Were studied every 5 days on single-harvested cultivar 'Jiangshujiao' and double-harvested cultivar ' Fenghongzao ' , which were treated with different concentration of MCPA-Na. The effect of MCPA-Na on physiological characteristics of Zizania caduciflora (Turcz. ) Hand. -Mazz. As discussed. The results indicated that the root activity and chlorophyll content of the 2 varieties were increased when treated with low concentration of MCPA-Na. While they were decreased when increasing the concentration of MCPA-Na. However, the membrane permeability, MDA and praline contents, POD and PPO activities oiZizania caduciflorai Turcz. )Hand. -Mazz. Were increased when increasing MCPA-Na concentration. Injury of MCPA-Na stress to the 2 Zizania caduciflora ( Turcz. ) Hand. -Mazz. Varieties were increased along with the increasing of treating times. There were differences between cultivars.%以茭白的单季茭品种蒋墅茭和双季茭品种葑红早为试材,利用不同浓度的除草剂2-甲-4-氯钠(MCPA-Na)进行处理,并测定茭白根系的活力、叶片的细胞膜透性,叶绿素、丙二醛、脯氨酸含量,过氧化物酶( POD)和多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性,以探讨2-甲-4-氯钠对茭白生理特性的影响.结果表明:低浓度的2-甲-4-氯钠处理能促进两茭白品种根系活力、叶绿素含量的增加,随2-甲-4-氯钠处理浓度的进一步增加而下降;细胞膜透性、丙二醛和脯氨酸的含量、POD和PPO的活性则随2-甲-4-氯钠处理浓度的增加而增加;两茭白品种受2-甲-4-氯钠伤害的程度随处理时间的增加而增加,品种间存在差异.

  10. 利用耳石日轮研究珠江口棘头梅童鱼的产卵期及生长%Studies on the spawning period and growth of Collichthys lucidus in estuary of Pearl River based on otolith daily annulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区又君; 廖锐; 李加儿; 勾效伟

    2012-01-01

    测记耳石生长轮纹数量,依据耳石日轮对采自珠江口的棘头梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)的日龄进行了鉴定、并据此研究了其产卵期和生长特性.棘头梅童鱼的产卵期为12月至次年的7月,主要集中在2、4、5月,产卵高峰出现在5月,占样本总数的27.27%;其次为2月,占18.18%.用直线、幂函数和指数函数关系对棘头梅童鱼的生长特性进行回归分析,体长范围为29.8 ~ 104.0 mm的棘头梅童鱼的体长与体重关系为幂函数关系,体重生长为匀速生长;体长随日龄的生长关系以幂函数模型符合程度较好,体重与日龄的生长关系则符合指数关系和幂函数关系.研究结果表明,利用耳石日龄来推算棘头梅童鱼的产卵期是可行的,并可用于研究一定体长范围内鱼的生长.%In order to understand the propagation and spawning of Collichthys lucidus in the estuary of Pearl River, from January to December 2006,43 specimens in body length of 29. 8 ~ 104. 0mm were taken in the inlet of Humen sea, Guangdong Province. Spawning period and growth characteristics of C. Lucidus was investigated with otolith age determination. Spawning period of the species occurred from December to July the next year, particularly in Februar-y,April and May,with the peak season in May(27. 27% ) and in February(18. 18% ). The growth characteristics were analyzed with linear, power and exponential correlations, respectively. In the lengths mentioned, power correlation was found between body length and body weight and the body weight was in a pattern of regular growth. Power correlation was fitted for the growth of body length against daily age, while power and exponential functions were fitted for the growth of body weight against daily age. The results showed that spawning season estimation and growth measurement of C. Lucidus were workable with otolith age determination for fish in range from 29. 8 to 104. 0 mm.

  11. Determination of Chemicals Contents in Artemisia selengensis Turcz.%蒌蒿中化学物质含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水清; 刘红英; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    [目的]测定蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis Turcz.)中化学物质含量,为其综合开发利用提供参考.[方法]用分光光度法测定了蒌蒿茎、嫩叶和老叶中可溶性糖、粗多糖、单宁及类黄酮含量.[结果]蒌蒿茎中可溶性糖、粗多糖、单宁含量最高,老叶中3种成分的含量最低,而叶中的类黄酮含量高于茎.[结论]萎蒿营养丰富,具有很好的保健、抗肿瘤及免疫调节作用和抑菌活性.%[Objective]To study the breeding process, combinations' performance and its use in production of Feng 39S.[Method]Feng 39S was a dual-purpose genie male sterile line that derived from Guangzhan 63S treated with ion beam mutation after 5 years of 7 generations of breeding and selection. Its morphological characteristics, fertility conversion rule, combinations performance and seed reproduction techniques were studied.[Result]Feng 39S shows the characteristics of low sterility-inducing temperature, desirable agronomic characters, good grain quality, wide compatibility, high out-crossing rate, strong combining ability and so on. In 2006, it was certified by Anhui Provincial Crop Va riety Appraisal Committee. It has been matching a series of high yield and high quality hybrid rice combinations, some of them had been certi fied by national or provincial standards.[Conclusion]Feng 39S is an excellent dual-purpose genie male sterile line with better group perform ance, and has great application prospects.

  12. Studies on the Morphology of Gametophytes'Development of Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz .) Baill%五味子配子体发生的形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾军; 秦红艳; 王振兴; 刘迎雪; 范书田; 杨义明; 许培磊; 赵莹

    2013-01-01

    采用石蜡切片法对五味子配子体发育研究的结果表明,五味子的雄配子体发生经历一个较长的时期,从8月中下旬初生造孢细胞产生到第2年5月下旬成熟花粉粒形成(去除休眠期180d ),约经历90d左右的时间;从小孢子母细胞产生到成熟花粉粒形成,需经历30d左右的时间。雌配子体从8月中下旬胚珠原基分化开始至翌年的5月下旬胚囊分化完成(去除休眠期180d),需90d左右的时间;从大孢子母细胞形成到胚囊分化完成需经历15d左右的时间。%The development of gametophytes of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz .) Baill were observed using paraffin section technique ,the results showed:There was a long course of male gamete generation of about 90 days(except 180 days'dormant period ) from primary sporogenous cell born in mid and late August to formation of mature pollen grain in the last -ten-day of May next year .It required about 30 days from the gen-eration of microspore mother cell to the formation of mature pollen grain .For the female gamete generation ,it was about 90 days from the differ-entiation of ovular primordiun in mid and late August to the accomplishment of embryonic sac's differentiation in late May of next year (except 180 days'dormant period ) .15 days were needed from the formation of macrospore mother cell to the accomplishment of embryonic sac's differ-entiation .

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. lignans and its formula with Rubus idaeus on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the liver protection effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SC) lignans and its combination with Rubus idaeus (RI) on chronic alcohol-induced mice. A low level of SC lignans (SL) was prepared from the clear juice of sarcocarp. Lignans were further extracted from the SC seeds and added to the SL to form high-level SC lignans (SH). Moreover, RI clear juice lyophilized powder was mixed with SL (SR), and the liver protection effects of SL, SH and SR were investigated. Male ICR mice were administered with the corresponding samples and gastrically infused with 50% alcohol (1 h later) once per day for 60 d. In the in vitro study, the characteristic lignans in the SC clear juice and the seed extract were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capability of SL, SH, and SR were determined. The results of the in vivo study showed that SC lignans exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the regulation of hepatic antioxidant status, serum transaminases levels, hyperlipidemia and hepatic fat deposition in mice. However, hepatic lesions were observed in the SH mice, which indicated a potential side effect caused by long-term consumption of SH under chronic alcohol administration. By contrast, SR exhibited a similar hepatoprotective effect as SH without any abnormality found in the histological analysis. After analysis with HPLC, Schizandrol A and Schizandrol B were identified in the SC clear juice, and two more kinds of lignans, Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B, were identified in the seed extracts. The SR sample had the highest TPC and exhibited the best antioxidant capability. In conclusion, RI strengthened the liver protection effect of SC lignans effectively and safely, which was probably achieved by enhancing the antioxidant status and the positive effect of their combination was possibly attributed to both lignans and polyphenols. This study demonstrated that the

  14. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  15. Effects of Different Altitudes on Growth and Culm-swelling of Zizania caduci-fl ora(Turcz.)Hand.-Mazz.%不同海拔高度对茭白生长及孕茭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建平; 石敏; 黄建中; 郭得平; 胡振亮

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of high altitudes (200-1 000 m) on the growth and culm-swelling of Zizania caduciflora(Turcz.)Hand. -Mazz..The results showed that the sprout-ing date,leafing and peak value of plant height increase at high altitudes were significantly delayed and lower than those grown at lower altitudes.Sprouting of Zizania caduciflora(Turcz.)Hand. -Mazz. in high altitudes requires over 5 °C effective accumulated temperature than in low altitudes. Its leafing rate, plant height increasing speed showed positive correlation with the effective accumulated temperature in various altitudes.Culm-swelling was observed to take place in the following order:410 m> 650 m> 1 008 m > 815 m.The culm-swelling stage usually occurred during the period,when the tempera-ture was suitable.Therefore,the effect of altitude on growth and culm-swelling of Zizania caduciflora (Turcz.)Hand.-Mazz. was mainly realized by temperature differences at different altitudes.Suppres-sion of growth and metabolism of Ustilago esculenta by high temperature is most likely to be the limiting factor for culm-swelling of Zizania caduciflora(Turcz.)Hand. -Mazz. during hot summer days.%  对在海拔高度200~1000 m地区栽培的单季茭的生长和孕茭特性进行研究。结果表明:高海拔地区栽培的茭白萌芽期、出叶和株高增速峰值均比低海拔处明显延迟。高海拔处茭白萌芽较低海拔处需要更多5℃以上的有效积温;各海拔处茭白出叶速率和株高增速与有效积温间呈正相关。各海拔高度孕茭先后顺序为:410 m>650 m>1008 m>815 m。各海拔处茭白的孕茭期均发生在气温适宜孕茭的时间段内。因此,海拔高度对茭白生长和孕茭的影响主要是通过不同海拔高度的温度差异来实现的,高温抑制茭白黑粉菌的正常生长及代谢可能是茭白夏季高温条件下难以孕茭的重要原因。

  16. 响应面法优化五味子中五味子醇甲超声提取%Study on the Ultrasonic Extaction Optimization of Schisandrin from Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill with Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2012-01-01

    The extraction techniques of Schisandrin from Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill was optimized by response surface methodology.Solid-liquid ratio,ethanol concentration,and extraction ultrasonic power as the response factors,extraction rate of Schisandrin as response value,and response surface analysis implemented by three factors and five levels,response surface model was established,and the optimum technological conditions were obtained.The optimum technological conditions of extracting Schisandrin from Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill by response surface methodology were that ethanol concentration was 90.06% and extraction ultrasonic power was 401.56 W and solid-liquid ratio was 1:9.99.%利用响应面分析法优化北五味子醇甲的提取工艺,以乙醇浓度、料液比及超声功率为响应因素,五味子醇甲提取率为响应值,实施3因素5水平的响应面分析,建立响应面模型,并得出最佳工艺条件。结果:利用响应面分析法获得的提取北五味子醇甲的最佳工艺条件为:功率为401.56 W时,乙醇浓度90.06%,料液比1∶9.99,提取率最高。

  17. 不同产地差不嘎蒿的质量对比研究%Study on quality contrast of Artemisia halodendron Turcz.from different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 刘辉; 辛艳; 黄胜阳; 周海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察不同产地差不嘎蒿药材的各项质量指标,为其质量标准建立及优质产地的筛选提供一定的实验依据。方法:采用 HPLC 法,流动相:乙腈-0.2%甲酸水(35∶65)流量:0.8ml /min;检测波长:288nm;柱温:30℃,测定指标性成分异樱花素、圣草酚-7-甲醚的含量;按照2010年版《中国药典》(一部)附录方法测定其醇溶性浸出物、水分、杂质、灰分含量及其酸败度,综合评定药材质量。结果:不同产地的药材之间有一定的差异,其中异樱花素、圣草酚-7-甲醚含量差异较为明显,水分随保藏年份的增加而减少,其他项的差异保持在一定范围内。结论:不同产地的差不嘎蒿药材的质量有所不同,内蒙古自治区赤峰市可作为优质种源。%Objective Study the quality indicators of Artemisia halodendron Turcz.In different areas,to provide some academic basis for quality criterion and origin select of Artemisia halodendron.Method The methods of HPLC (mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid water (35:65);The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min,the detection wavelength was 288 nm,column temperature 30℃)was used to determine the content of the signature ingredients -Isosakuranetin and Eriodictyol -7 -methyl ether.According to the 2010 pharmacopoeia appendix method for determining the ethanol - soluble,moisture,impurities,ash content and its degree of rancidity.To evaluate the quality of Artemisia halodendron in a comprehensive way.Results There are many differences between all the medicines,especially the content of Isosakuranetin and Eriodictyol -7 -methyl ether .Moisture content decreased with the increase of the preservation time,and other quality indexs remain within a certain range of differences.Conclusion The content of chemical com-positions in Artemisia halodendron from different place has a significant difference and and Artemisia halodendron in Chifeng

  18. 8Preliminary Study on Morphologies of Head Spines and Scale Circulis of Collichthys lucidus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) in China%中国海域棘头梅童鱼头棘和鳞片轮纹形态的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江艳娥; 林昭进; 邱永松; 方展强

    2012-01-01

    The exterior morphologies of 36 heads of Collichthys lucidus (Teleostei:Sciaenidae),which were collected from Shanghai and Guangzhou of China,were studied.To find out the relationship of head spines and scale circulis with other characters,seventeen morphometric measurements and eight numeric characters were analyzed by linear regression.The results showed that there was a linear relationship between head spines and other two characters,predorsal length and interorbital width.There was a linear relationship between scale circulis and other two characters,lower gill rakes and interorbital width.%对采自上海和广州的36尾棘头梅童鱼的外部形态学进行了分析,探讨了其头部头棘和鳞片鳞嵴这两个外部形态特征与该种类其他特征之间的关系.采用线形回归法分析了17个可量性状和8个可数性状.结果表明:头部头棘的特征与背鳍前长、眼间距两个特征之间存在更紧密的联系,而鳞片鳞嵴与下鳃耙数量、眼间距两个特征之间存在更紧密的联系.

  19. Study on subculture multiplication and rooting culture of wild Lonicera edulis Turcz tissue culture seedling%野生蓝靛果忍冬组培苗继代增殖和生根培养的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金英; 赵春莉; 谭莎; 段加红

    2014-01-01

    The subculture multiplication and rooting culture study was carried on wild Lonicera edulis Turcz tissue culture seedling.The result showed that the proper culture medium for subculture multiplication was MS +BA2.0 mg・ L-1 +IBA0.2 mg・ L-1 +GA30.3 mg・ L-1 .The multiplication factor was 5.5.Moreover, the proper rooting culture was 1/2MS+IBA1.0 mg・ L-1 .The rooting ratio was 100%.%以野生蓝靛果忍冬组培苗为材料进行继代增殖和生根培养研究,结果表明:继代增殖最适培养基为MS+BA2.0 mg・ L-1+IBA0.2 mg・ L-1+GA30.3 mg・ L-1,增殖系数为5.5;适宜的生根培养基为1/2MS+IBA1.0 mg・ L-1,生根率达到100%。

  20. 北五味子多糖单一组分制备与分子量测定%The Preparation of the Single Component from the Polysaccharide of Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) and Measurement of Its Molecular Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝慧慧; 陈永; 陈国华; 李桂芝; 张义军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To extract the polysaccharide of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.),to prepare the single component of the polysaccharide,and to determine the apparent molecular weight .Methods Hot water extraction was made to extract the polysaccharide of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.).Gel chromatography and ion exchange chromatography were made to purify the crude polysaccharide ,and a single component was obtained .UV spectroscopy and gel chromatography were made to determine the purity of the results of single component polysaccharide.Results 5.71g crude polysaccharide was extracted from 100g of schisandra.Three components of SCP ,SCP-Ⅰ,SCP-Ⅱand SCP-Ⅲwere separated after ion exchange chromatography .The yield rate was 17.6%,29.51% and 6.3% for each component.The single polysaccharide components SCP-Ⅰa and SCP-Ⅱa were purified by gel chromatography of SCP-Ⅰand SCP-Ⅱ.The apparent molecular weight for SCP-Ⅰa and SCP-Ⅱa was 4.05kD and 7.96kD.Conclusion The apparent molecular weights of SCP-Ⅰa and SCP-Ⅱa,the two main single component polysaccharide extracted from Fructus schisandra chinensis ,were 4.05kD and 7.96kD respectively.%  目的 提取中药北五味子中的多糖成分,制备多糖单一组分,并测定其表观分子量。方法 采用沸水浸提法提取北五味子多糖,利用DEAE-cellulose52离子交换层析,Sephacryl S-200 HR凝胶层析技术对粗多糖进行纯化,得到单一组分。对所得单一组分多糖采用紫外光谱扫描和凝胶层析法进行纯度鉴定,并采用凝胶层析法测定多糖表观分子量。结果 100g北五味子提取得到粗多糖SCP5.71g,SCP经离子交换层析进一步分离后得到3个组分SCP-Ⅰ(提取率17.60%),SCP-Ⅱ(29.51%)和SCP-Ⅲ(6.30%),对主要组分SCP-Ⅰ和SCP-Ⅱ利用凝胶层析进一步纯化得到多糖单一组分SCP-Ⅰa和SCP-Ⅱa,凝胶层析法测定表观分子量分别为4.05kD和7.96k

  1. 北五味子乙素体外抗氧化及抑菌作用的研究%Antioxidation and antimicrobial activity of the schisandrin B extraction from Schisandra chinensis( Turcz. )Baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商红军; 孟宪军; 李斌; 朱力杰; 吴倩; 李元甦; 汪艳群

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidation and antimicrobial activities of the schisandrin B extraction from Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) were studied.The results showed that schisandrin B had effective scavenging effect on the hydroxyl radical( ·OH) and the super oxideanion radical (O2-·). Scavenging effect of · OH( IC50 = 0.2mg·mL-1)was higher than that of the same concentration of Vc. Scavenging effect of O2-· (IC50 = 0.24mg·mL-1) was less than that of Vc. Schisandrin B had a certain activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Salmonella, Ecoli, Bacillus subtilis.The activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus was the strongest with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.25 mg·mL-1. There was no activity on Rhizopus,Aspergillus niger and Nanyang yeast.%对北五味子乙素进行抗氧化及体外抑菌实验。结果表明:北五味子乙素对自由基的清除效果明显,其中对·OH清除作用大于相同浓度的VC,其半数清除浓度为0.2mg·mL-1;对O2-·清除作用小于VC,其半数清除浓度为0.24mg·mL-1。北五味子乙素提取液对金黄色葡萄球菌、白色念珠菌、沙门氏菌、大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌均有一定的抑制作用,其中对白色念珠菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制作用最强,最低抑菌浓度为0.25mg·mL-1,对根霉、黑曲霉、南阳酵母无明显抑菌活性。

  2. Influence of Planting Density and Slope Positions on the Growth and Yield of the Coppice Shoot of Lespedeza bicolor Turcz%造林初植密度和坡位对胡枝子萌条生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立波; 张志环; 艾志强; 宋森; 王清君

    2013-01-01

    在郁闭度为0.2以下的疏林坡地上营造胡枝子食用菌原料林,并进行了不同初植密度和不同坡位造林试验,试验完成后,连续3a在每年的生长季末对胡枝子萌生枝条生长及产量进行了测定.结果表明:造林初植密度对胡枝子萌条生长及产量有较大影响,植苗造林时初植密度在2.8和4.0万株/hm2之间比较适宜,即在栽植带中,栽2行,株距50 ~ 70 cm,带宽50 cm,带间距50 cm,但以初植密度为4.0万株/hm2为最佳;选择不同坡位造林胡枝子单株萌条产量和单位面积萌条产量差异均不显著.%The experiments in the different planting density and different slope positions were conducted to plant edible fungus raw materials of Lespedeza bicolor Turcz in open forest sloping fields with 0. 2 of canopy density, The tender branches growth and yield of L. bicolor Turcz were measured for successive three years after forestation. The results showed that the planting density has significant influence on the tender branches growth and yield of L. bicolor Turcz. It is suitable for planting when the planting density is between 28 000 plants/hm2 and 40 000 plants/hm2. Namely, in the plant ribbon it needs to plant in two rows with the planting distance of 50-70 cm, the plant ribbon width of 50 cm and the ribbon spacing of 50 cm, and the best planting density is 40 000 plants/hm . Slope position has not significant influence on tender branches growth and yield of individual plant and unit area.

  3. Studies on the Morphology and Anatomy of Root, Stem and Rhizome of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill%五味子根、茎和地下横走茎形态解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振兴; 艾军; 王英平; 许培磊; 范书田

    2012-01-01

    The anatomical structure of root, stem and rhizome of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill were studied by using paraffin sections and transmission electron microscope, under the different development stages to analyze their developmental process to find the different microstructures of rhizome from root and stem. The results showed that: ① the development process of rhizome was similar to stem which could be divided into three stages of promeristem, primary and secondary growth. However, those two were different in ultrastructure of primary growth, tip type and secondary structure. There was a special membrane clinging on the first layer cell of stem tip, and it was much more developed than rhizome tip with completed envelope, more plastids and less vacuoles, while the rhizome tip had more vacuoles and lipid droplets. There had other differences between the two tips, the rhizome tip was bendy, the proportion of secondary growth of rhizome was less than that of stem. ② Secondary structure of root was composed of merisderm, cambium layer, secondary xylem and secondary phloem with the parenchyma cells of non-lignification during the secondary growth process. The developing patterns of primary structure of rhizome was endarch, which was different from that of root.%应用石蜡切片法和透射电镜法研究了不同发育时期的五味子根、茎和地下横走茎的解剖结构,旨在分析地下横走茎发育过程,探寻地下横走茎与根、茎在显微结构上的异同.结果显示:①五味子地上茎与地下横走茎在发育过程上有很多相似点,都有原生分生组织、初生生长和次生生长等3个阶段.但在初生生长的超微结构、茎尖形态和次生结构上也有明显差别;地上茎尖第1层细胞外有明显薄膜,核膜发育完整、质体多、液泡相对较少.地下茎茎尖相对于地上茎尖生长缓慢,液泡多,营养多以脂滴形式存在;地下茎尖呈弯钩状,次生维管组织在横切面上

  4. 大孔树脂纯化五味子总木脂素、总三萜工艺研究%Study on purification of total lignans and total triterpenes from Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz.) Baill by AB-8 macroporous resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫永俊; 汪春泉; 王琦; 赵晓宏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a technical process for the purification of total lignans,total triterpenes from Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Methods The adsorption and desorption rate of five types of macroporous resins was calculated to determine the best resin. The dynamic experiments of adsorption and desorption were carried to obtain the optimal parameters. Results The adsorption and isolation effect of AB-8 type resin was the best. The optimal conditions were that: the density of sample solution was 1.5 mg/mL,the maximum loading amount was 7 BV as well as distilled water was taken 9BV,solvent of elution was 30% of alcohol (9BV) + 80% of alcohol (10BV). The content of total lignans,total triterpenes,Schisandrin in the final production could reach 39.55%,13.96%,8.95% respectively. Conclusion The method of gradient elution is a better way to purify total lignans and triterpenes. It is possible that this method be used in the industrial production.%目的 考察大孔树脂纯化五味子总木脂素总三萜的最佳工艺.方法 比较了5种不同类型大孔树脂对五味子总木脂素、总三萜、五味子醇甲的吸附解析性能,确定适宜的树脂类型和最佳纯化工艺条件.结果 AB-8型树脂吸附解析效果最好;最佳工艺条件:上样液浓度1.5 mg/mL,最大上样量7BV,蒸馏水洗脱体积9BV,洗脱溶剂为30%乙醇(9BV)+80%乙醇(10BV);纯化后终产品中总木脂素、总三萜、五味子醇甲的质量分数分别为39.55%、13.96%、8.95%.结论 本文所报道的梯度洗脱法可显著提高终产品中总木脂素、总三萜、五味子醇甲的质量分数,验证了其工业生产的可能.

  5. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  6. Structure analysis of a bioactive heteropolysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Zhang, Min; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Zhu, Yang; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Qian; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-03-15

    Our previous study revealed that Schisandra polysaccharide (SCPP11) exerted excellent antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. In this investigation, the structure of SCPP11 was elucidated. The results indicated that SCPP11 has a backbone that is composed of 1,4-disubstituted-β-gal, 1,4-disubstituted-α-glu,1,6-disubstituted-β-man and 1,4,6-disubstituted-α-gal. The branches was composed of 1,4-disubstituted-α-glu and 1-substituted-β-glu. The Mw and (r(g)(2))(z)(1/2) of the polymer molecules in 0.1 M NaCl were 1.793 × 10(4) Da and 11 nm, respectively. The exponent of (r(g)(2))(z)(1/2) versus Mw(0.39) suggested SCPP11 adopted a globular conformation with seldom random coil. Circular dichroism analysis revealed the presence of ordered structures in SCPP11. AFM and TEM further confirmed the agglomerated morphologies of SCPP11. In addition, it inferred the agglomerated conformation, branching structure and flexibility of chain are beneficial for exerting excellent activities. This information will be helpful in the recognition of biological systems for polysaccharides and the selection of active polysaccharide.

  7. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the Total Flavonoids and Phenolic Acid of Lycopi Herba by Orthogonal Design%正交试验法筛选泽兰总黄酮及酚酸类成分的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄樱华; 黄月纯; 魏刚; 刘东辉; 陈慕媛; 陈国留

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the optimum extraction process of the total flavonoids and phenolic acid and caffeic acid from the Lycopi Herba.Methods The effect of the concentration of ethanol, extraction time duration, extraction time and alcohol amount were investigated by the orthonogal design with the content of tiliroside as the chemical reference.Results The optimum extraction condition was established as follows: with 15 times ethanol concentration 50%, extracting 2 hours for three times.Conclusion The method is simple and feasible, and is the optimum extraction process of the total flavohoids, phenolic acid and caffeic acid from Lycopus Lucidus.%目的 研究泽兰总黄酮及酚酸类成分的最佳提取工艺.方法 以总黄酮及酚酸、咖啡酸舍量为指标,采用L(3)正交试验,考察提取溶媒、提取次数、提取时间、溶媒用量因素时提取的影响,确定泽兰最佳提取工艺.结果 以15倍量的50%乙醇为溶媒,回流提取3次,每次2 h为最佳提取条件.结论 本提取工艺方法简单、合理,是泽兰黄酮及酚酸类成分的最佳提取工艺.

  8. Isolation and characterization of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruits. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria Paula; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; A Contreras, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well...

  9. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijing Yi

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea. The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4, α-farnesene synthase (AFS, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea. This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill seeds: optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y B; Wang, L H; Zhang, D Y; Zhou, L L; Guo, Y X

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a process consisting of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, silica-gel column chromatography and crystallization to optimize pilot scale recovery of schisandrin B (SAB) from Schisandra chinensis seeds. The effects of five independent variables including liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power, extraction time, and temperature on the SAB yield were evaluated with fractional factorial design (FFD). The FFD results showed that the ethanol concentration was the only significant factor for the yield of SAB. Then, with the liquid-solid ratio 5 (mL/g) and ultrasonic power 600 W, the other three parameters were further optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results revealed that the optimal conditions consisted of 95% ethanol, 60 °C and 70 min. The average experimental SAB yield under the optimum conditions was found to be 5.80 mg/g, which was consistent with the predicted value of 5.83 mg/g. Subsequently, a silica gel chromatographic process was used to prepare the SAB-enriched extract with petroleum ether/acetone (95:5, v/v) as eluents. After final crystallization, 1.46 g of SAB with the purity of 99.4% and the overall recovery of 57.1% was obtained from 400 g seeds powder. This method provides an efficient and low-cost way for SAB purification for pharmaceutical industrial applications.

  11. Developing Oral Liquid with Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill%北五味子口服液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳秋; 高晓旭; 陈建光

    2014-01-01

    北五味子[Schisandra chinensis (Turez.)Baill]口服液以北五味子为主要原料,以酸枣仁、大枣、刺五加为辅助原料,经科学配方精制而成.利用正交试验,筛选出最佳工艺及配方.结果表明,北五味子复合口服液提取时间为90 min、浸提温度90℃、料液比为1∶4(m∶V);配方原汁为20 mL、白砂糖添加量9 g、蜂蜜添加量6 g、0.20% CMC-Na、0.15%黄原胶、0.20%海藻酸钠.

  12. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  13. Accumulation of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans in agar cultures and in stationary and agitated liquid cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Bucinski, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2016-05-01

    Schisandra chinensis plant in vitro cultures were maintained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in an agar system and also in two different liquid systems: stationary and agitated. Liquid cultures were grown in batch (30 and 60 days) and fed-batch modes. In the methanolic extracts from lyophilized biomasses and in the media, quantification of fourteen dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans identified based on co-chromatography with authentic standards using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and/or liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS) methods. For comparison purposes, phytochemical analyses were performed of lignans in the leaves and fruits of the parent plant. The main lignans detected in the biomass extracts from all the tested systems were schisandrin (max. 65.62 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)), angeloyl-/tigloylgomisin Q (max. 49.73 mg/100 g DW), deoxyschisandrin (max. 43.65 mg/100 g DW), and gomisin A (max. 34.36 mg/100 g DW). The highest total amounts of lignans in the two tested stationary systems were found in extracts from the biomass harvested after 30 days of batch cultivation: 237.86 mg/100 g DW and 274.65 mg/100 g DW, respectively. In the agitated culture, the total content reached a maximum value of 244.80 mg/100 g DW after 60 days of the fed-batch mode of cultivation. The lignans were not detected in the media. This is the first report which documents the potential usefulness of S. chinensis shoot cultures cultivated in liquid systems for practical purposes.

  14. 百蕊草生物碱成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of alkaloids from Thesium chinense Turcz.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峥; 李绍顺

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究百蕊草中的生物碱成分.方法 应用多种色谱手段进行分离纯化,通过IR、MS、HR-MS、NMR、2D-NMR技术鉴定化合物结构.结果 从百蕊草总生物碱部位分离得到3个化合物,分别鉴定为N-甲基金雀花碱(1)、白金雀儿碱(2)和槐果碱(3).结论 化合物N-甲基金雀花碱、白金雀儿碱、槐果碱均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.) Baill Juice and Seeds%五味子果汁与种子抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长姣; 张守勤; 王晓英; 于徊萍

    2014-01-01

    To detect the antioxidant activity of S. chinensis juice and seed extract, and determine the main effective components in them. Scavenging DPPH free radical and reducing power method were used to determine the antioxidant activity of S. chinensis juice and seed extract. Three lignans of schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin,γ-schisandrin were detected by HPLC. The content of total phenolics was detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results showed that S. chinensis juice and seed extract had antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of seed extract was higher than juice. The total phenolic content of juice and seed extract were 0.21%and 1.74%. Deoxyschisandrin andγ-schisandrin were not deteced in S. chinensis juice. Schisandrin was deteced in S. chinensis juice with the content of 0.20%. The content of schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin andγ-schisandrin in seed extract were 2.79%, 0.45%and 3.09%. It was proved that lignans were the major antioxidant components in seed extract, phenolic compounds was the main antioxidant component of S. chinensis juice.%测定五味子浆果果汁和种子提取物的抗氧化活性,并确定其中的主要抗氧化活性成分。选择DPPH自由基清除法和还原力法测定抗氧化活性,应用高效液相色谱法测定五味子醇甲、五味子甲素和五味子乙素3种木脂素成分,应用紫外分光光度法测定总酚的含量。结果表明五味子果汁和种子提取物具有较高的抗氧化活性,果汁抗氧化活性低于种子提取物。五味子果汁和种子提取物中总酚含量分别为0.21%和1.74%,五味子果汁中未检出五味子甲素和五味子乙素,五味子醇甲含量为0.20%;种子提取物中五味子醇甲、五味子甲素和五味子乙素的含量分别为2.79%、0.45%和3.09%。证明五味子种子提取物中的主要抗氧化成分是木脂素,果汁中的主要抗氧化成分是酚类成分。

  16. Extraction and isolation of dictamnine, obacunone and fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. by supercritical fluid extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijie Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction was used to extract active compounds from the Chinese traditional medicinal D. dasycarpus under the pressure of 30 MPa and temperature of 45 ºC. Further separation and purification was established by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:1.3:0.9, volume ratio. The separation yielded a total of 47 mg of dictamnine, 24 mg of obacunone and 83 mg of fraxinellone from 1.0 g of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 99.2, 98.4 and 99.0%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by ESI-MS, IR, ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  17. Anti-diabetic Effects of Polysaccharides from Ethanol-insoluble Residue of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ting; WU Xiang-yang; MAO Guang-hua; ZHANG Min; LI Fang; ZOU Ye; ZHOU Ye; ZHENG Wei; ZHENG Da-heng; YANG Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra generated during lignans industrial production is usually treated as solid waste.However,there is active polysaccharide which could be used in it.In this work,the water-soluble polysaccharides from the ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra(ESCP) were obtained and their anti-diabetic effect was evaluated.The results indicate that ESCP could significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Moreover,the ESCP could significantly improve the lipid metabolism and increase the content of liver glycogen in ailoxan-induced diabetic mice.The results indicate that ESCP could be developed into a potential natural hypoglycemic agent.

  18. Downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by a water extract of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill fruit in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Seungheon; Park, Sang Rul; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Gi-Young

    2013-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis has a long-standing history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, an anti-tussive, and an anti-aging drug. Nevertheless, the antagonistic effects of S. chinensis against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated responses have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated whether water extract of S. chinensis fruit (WESC) has the ability to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. WESC inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Furthermore, gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α was inhibited both at mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effect. Moreover, WESC significantly suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκBα. It was found that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulates the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes to be closely regulated by NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we found that WESC retains dephosphorylation of Akt in response to LPS, and consequently suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LY294002, a specific Akt inhibitor, attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression via suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, our results indicate that WESC downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by suppressing Akt-dependent NF-κB activity.

  19. Effects of Process on Ethanol Lixiviation Rate of Schisandra Chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.%炮制对北五味子醇浸率影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英华; 朱晓慧; 吕秀阳

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of process on ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra. The feasibility of ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra was evaluated as an index appraising the Schisandra quality of process. Effects of processing time, processing temperature and processing adminiculars adding content to ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra were observed. The results showed that different processing adminiculars cause different changing trends of ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra. The ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra was increased according to the increase of adminicular content when processed by honey. However, the ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra was decreased when processed by wine, vinegar or steamed. And the change of adminicular content plays little effect to the ethanol lixiviation rate. The ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra was not significantly influenced by the change of process time and temperature. It is concluded that ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra attains maximum when process by honey for 6-8 h. The effect of processing temperature to ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra was not obvious when processed by vinegar, honey or steamed. The ethanol lixiviation rate of Schisandra attains maximum when processed by wine at 85°C. It is concluded that the lixiviation rate of ethanol was not sensitive to different process factors. Quality appraising system is not suitable to be used in the process of Schisandra.%目的:研究炮制过程对北五味子醇浸率的影响,考察醇浸率作为评价五味子炮制过程控制的辅助参考质量指标的可行性.方法:观察炮制时间、炮制温度、炮制辅料用量改变对五味子醇浸率的影响.结果:不同炮制辅料对醇浸率影响趋势不同,蜜制使五味子的醇浸率增加,且随辅料用量增加逐渐增加.酒制、醋制和蒸制使五味子的醇浸率降低,但辅料用量改变对醇浸率影响较小.炮制时间以及炮制温度的改变对五味子的醇浸率影响不大.结论:醇浸率对各炮制因素的敏感性较差,不适合引入质量评价体系作为五味子炮制程度的辅助质量控制指标.

  20. 北五味子藤茎的化学成分研究%Studies on Chemical Constituents from the Stem of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武新亮; 赵敏; 邹连春; 王亚男; 王大成; 李玉山; 邓旭明

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究北五味子藤茎的化学成分.方法 采用各种色谱技术进行分离纯化,并结合化合物的理化性质与波谱数据对化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 分离得到6个化合物,分别鉴定为去氢二异丁香酚(dehydrodiisoeugenol)(Ⅰ);Eriobofuran(Ⅱ);4,5-Dihydroxy-3-methoxybiphenyl(Ⅲ),Gomisin N(IV);(+)deoxyschizandrin(V);β-谷甾醇(β-Sitosterol)(Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅲ为首次从五味子属中分离得到.

  1. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  2. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that murta infusions have been used to treat gut/urinary infections by native Chileans for centuries, the mechanisms promoting such effects still remain unclear. As a first attempt to unravel these mechanisms, human fecal samples were incubated in a medium containing water extrac...

  3. Extraction and isolation of dictamnine, obacunone and fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. by supercritical fluid extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daijie; Lin, Yunliang; Lin, Xiaojing; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Process Control Research Center of TCM. Shandong Academy of Sciences. Shandong Analysis and Test Center (China); Zhang, Jinjie [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University (China); Qiu, Jiying [Institute of Agro-Food Science and Technology, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science, Shandong (China)

    2012-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to extract active compounds from the Chinese traditional medicinal D. dasycarpus under the pressure of 30 MPa and temperature of 45 degree C. Further separation and purification was established by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:1.3:0.9, volume ratio). The separation yielded a total of 47 mg of dictamnine, 24 mg of obacunone and 83 mg of fraxinellone from 1.0 g of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 99.2, 98.4 and 99.0%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by ESI-MS, IR, 1H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. (author)

  4. Optimization of Polysaccharide Extraction from Rumex Gmelini Turcz.Using Response Surface Methodology%响应面法分析优化毛脉酸模多糖提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉; 孙晓佳; 孙莹; 张维君; 王振月

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The experient used response surface methoddogy(RSM) to optimize the best Rumex gmelini polysaccharide extraction conditions.Methods:Box-Behnke statistical design technology was used to optimize the method of Rumex gmelini polysaccharide extraction.With the response surface optimization,the optimum conditions were:extraction time 2.9h;the grinding particle size was 120 mesh;the alcohol precipitation concentration was 70% and the decoction was carried out for three times,and its gotten rate was about 7.12%.Conclusion:By using the response surface method the parameters of optimized extraction of Rumex gmelini polysaccharide are accurate and reliable,and have a practical valoe.%目的:采用响应面法优选毛脉酸模多糖提取工艺.方法:采用Box-Behnken的中心组合实验设计原理优化毛脉酸模多糖提取方法.结果:得到最佳工艺条件是:提取时间2.9h,粉碎粒度为120目,醇沉浓度为70%,重复3次,得到多糖的得率最高为7.12%.结论:采用响应面法优化得到的提取毛脉酸模多糖参数准确可靠,具有实用价值.

  5. 植物油提取五味子木脂素工艺的研究%Study on Extraction Process of Lignanoids from Shisandra chinesis(Turcz.)Baill by Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仲航; 金向群

    2011-01-01

    通过正交试验,探讨植物油提取五味子木脂素新工艺及其工艺条件,并采用高效液相色谱技术测定提取物五味子甲素及五味子乙素含量.结果表明,影响植物油提取的主要因素是植物油用量B、提取次数C、提取时间A,其最佳提取工艺组合为A3B3C2;水提取、醇提取、超临界提取和植物油提取得到的提取物中五味子甲素及五味子乙素总量分别为3.24mg 、36.57mg、38.56mg和38.00mg,提取率分别为8.28%、93.1%、98.2%和96.8%.本研究确定了植物油提取五味子木脂素的新工艺;用新工艺提取得到的提取物中,五味子木脂素含量和提取率均较高;新工艺具有操作简便、无污染、条件温和等优点,对五味子的开发利用具有推广价值.%To investigate a new technology for extraction of lignanoids by vegetable oil, and compare it with other methods. Optimized con-diton with orthogonal design, we got the determination of schisandrin A and schisandrin B by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The main factors that influenced extraction were the amount of oil B, extracting times C, extracting time A. The best extraction process was A3B3C2. Total amount of schisandrin A and schisandrin B by the technology of water extraction, alcohol extraction, SFE-CO2 extraction and vegetable oil extraction was 3.24mg, 36.57mg, 38.56mg and 38.00mg, and extraction rate was 8.28%, 93.1%, 98.2% and 96.8% respectively. Establishtion of optimal technological process for lignanoids extraction by vegetable extraction, which provide several advantages such as simple work-up procedure, environmental friendliness and milder conditions, performs further exploitation and utilization prospect for Schisandra

  6. 北五味子不同部位3种木脂素含量的比较分析%Comparative Content Analysis of Three Lignans from Different Part of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏盼盼; 李爱民; 张正海; 苗高健

    2011-01-01

    Heat circum-fluence extractions which contains Schisandrol A, deoxyschisandrin and Schisandrin B in different part of Schisandra chinensis (roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds) were determined by HPLC, at the same time the method was investigated, in order to lay the basis for utilizing new medicine plant parts.Ligans mainly existed in seeds,comparing the contents in roots, stems, leaves and fruit, we found that the order of content on Schisandrol A was fruits>ste ms>roots>leaves; for deocyschisandrin was roots>fruits>stems>leaves; for Schisandrin B was roots>fruits>stems>leaves.%回流提取北五味子不同部位(根、茎、叶、果实、种子)的五味子醇甲、五味子甲素、五味子乙素,并利用HPLC测定这3种木脂素的含量,并进行方法学考察,为使用新的药用部位打基础.在北五味子果实中,木脂素主要存在于种子中;在根、茎、叶、果实的含量中,五味子醇甲的含量由高到低为果实>茎>根>叶;五味子甲素的含量由高到低为根>果实>茎>叶;五味子乙素的含量由高到低为根>果实>茎>叶.

  7. 北五味子藤茎化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the stem of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 孙博航; 黄健; 高慧媛; 吴立军

    2009-01-01

    目的 分离并鉴定北五味子藤茎的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱、氧化铝柱色谱和重结晶等多种分离方法,对北五味子藤茎体积分数为95%乙醇的冷浸提取物进行分离,并通过NMR等多种方法对分离得到的化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 分离得到8个化合物,分别鉴定为(-)schisandrin B(1)、五味子醇B((+)-schizandrol B,2)、五味子素 C((-)-schisandrinc,3)、五味子甲素((+)-deoxyschizandrin,4)、(+)-gomisin M1(5)、(-)-dihydroguaiaretic acid(6)、(-)-austrobailiguan 6(7)、尿嘧啶(uracil,8).结论 化合物5~8为首次从北五味子藤茎中分离得到.

  8. DNA barcodes reveal that the widespread European tortricid moth Phalonidia manniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a mixture of two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanen, Marko; Aarvik, Leif; Huemer, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    , 1845, sp. rev. Their biologies also differ, P. manniana feeding in stems of Mentha and Lycopus (Lamiaceae) and P. udana feeding in stems of Lysimachia thyrsiflora and L. vulgaris (Primulaceae). We provide re-descriptions of both taxa and DNA barcodes for North European Phalonidia and Gynnidomorpha...

  9. cDNA微阵列技术研究干旱胁迫下星星草基因的表达%Gene Expression in Puccinellia tenuiflora(Turcz.)Scribn.et Merr.under Drought Stress Using cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁也男; 王玉成; 刘桂丰; 褚延广

    2007-01-01

    运用cDNA微阵列技术研究干旱胁迫下星星草基因的表达.制备了载有660条星星草单一基因的cDNA微阵列.分别对干旱胁迫和对照星星草的mRNA进行荧光标记,并与载有星星草基因的cDNA微阵列进行杂交,通过芯片的杂交信号强度分析,共获得22个下调表达和17个上调表达的基因.BLASTX分析表明这些基因按功能可以分为脱水保护、信号转导与调控、活性氧清除、代谢、核糖体蛋白等几大类.发现了一些与干旱胁迫相关的功能未知基因和新基因.

  10. Determination of total flavonoids, eriodictyol-7-methylether and isosakuranetin in seeds of Artemisia halodendron Turcz%沙漠嘎子中总黄酮及圣草酚-7-甲醚、异樱花素的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沙沙; 史新元; 展晓日; 乔延江

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立沙漠嘎子中总黄酮及圣草酚-7-甲醚、异樱花素的含量测定方法.方法:以圣草酚-7-甲醚为指标性成分,用紫外分光光度法(UV)测定总黄酮的含量,检测波长506nm;采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),使用YMC-Pack ODS-A(5μm,4.6mm×250mm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.2%磷酸溶液(35:65)为流动相,流速1.0ml/min,检测波长288nm,以外标法计算沙漠嘎子中圣草酚-7-甲醚和异樱花素的含量.结果:总黄酮量在0.1228-0.7368mg范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9991),平均回收率(n=6)为100.5%(RSD=1.41%);圣草酚-7-甲醚、异樱花素进样浓度分别在3.016-30.16μg/ml(r=0.9999),3.304-33.04μg/ml(r=0.9999)范围内呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率(n=6)为98.9%(RSD=1.20%),96.8%(RSD=1.38%).结论:紫外分光光度法和高效液相色谱法均简便、准确、重现性好,适用于沙漠嘎子中总黄酮及圣草酚-7-甲醚、异樱花素的含量测定.

  11. Effects of surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the growth of Zizania latifolia Turcz. and the residual LAS content in soil%表面活性剂对茭白生长影响及土壤残留分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑玲; 谭芸; 闫宁; 李建波; 寿森炎

    2010-01-01

    采用土培的试验方法,研究了在不同浓度阴离子表面活性剂--直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)处理后,单季茭"美人茭"的生长、茭白叶片中叶绿素含量和抗氧化酶系统活性的变化情况,以及LAS在茭白叶片和土壤中的相对残留量.结果表明,10 mg·L-1、100 mg·L-1 LAS处理浓度对茭白的生长状态没有显著影响;1000 mg·L-1LAS处理浓度下美人茭株高和最大叶宽均分别低于对照25.5%(p<0.05)和27.0%(p<0.05),处理过程中叶绿素总含量大幅下降.10 mg·L-1、100 mg·L-1LAS处理浓度下美人茭的抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著提高,1000 mg·L-1LAS处理浓度下美人茭的过氧化物酶(POD)活性受到严重的抑制.丙二醛(MDA)含量呈先上升后下降的趋势,并随着LAS处理浓度的升高而升高.茭白叶片中LAS残留量先下降后上升,10 mg·L-1处理浓度下美人茭叶片中LAS含量低;10和100mg·L-1处理浓度下土壤中LAS含量基本在0.1~0.5 mg·L-1之间,1000 mg·L-1处理浓度下土壤中LAS含量持续上升,达到2.0~3.0mg·L-1,且LAS含量在第28d比第7d时高54.0%(p<0.05).与单纯的土壤环境相比,茭白-土壤系统能够更有效地降低土壤中LAS含量.

  12. Global revision of the dulotic ant genus Polyergus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, Formicini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, James C

    2013-01-01

    The genus Polyergus is characterized, and all valid species reinstated and re-described, and five new species described, based on morphometric, ecological, host-association, and biogeographic characteristics. Polyergus contains 14 species: 3 Palaearctic, 11 Nearctic. The rufescens group comprises western Eurasian rufescens Latreille 1804 including its former eastern subspecies tianschanicus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky 1927 new synonymy, and the following American species, informally called the breviceps complex: breviceps Emery 1893 sensu stricto, revised status, bicolor Wasmann 1901 new status, mexicanus Forel 1899 new status, topoffi new species, and vinosus new species. The lucidus group comprises longicornis M. R. Smith 1947 new status, lucidus Mayr 1870 sensu stricto, revised status, montivagus Wheeler 1915 new status, oligergus new species, ruber new species, and sanwaldi new species. The samurai group comprises two blackish forms: the western Asian P. nigerrimus Marikovsky 1963 and eastern Asian P. samurai Yano 1911. Polyergus texana Buckley 1866 is excluded from Polyergus.

  13. "Kalevipoeg" ja "Kalevala" Ungaris / Lea Kreinin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreinin, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Fehérv{u00E1ri, Gyözö. "Dalnak {250}j utat mutattam..." : a Kalevala és a Kalevipoeg összehasonlÍt̤ elemzése, magyarorsz{u00E1gi fogadtat{u00E1sa és hat{u00E1sa. S. l. : Lucidus, 2002

  14. "Kalevipoeg" ja "Kalevala" Ungaris / Lea Kreinin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreinin, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Arvustus: Fehérv{u00E1ri, Gyözö. "Dalnak {250}j utat mutattam..." : a Kalevala és a Kalevipoeg összehasonlÍt̤ elemzése, magyarorsz{u00E1gi fogadtat{u00E1sa és hat{u00E1sa. S. l. : Lucidus, 2002

  15. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  16. Otolith shape analysis for stock discrimination of two Collichthys genus croaker (Pieces: Sciaenidae,) from the northern Chinese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, Jinhu; Song, Junjie; Cao, Liang; Dou, Shuozeng

    2017-08-01

    The otolith morphology of two croaker species (Collichthys lucidus and Collichthys niveatus) from three areas (Liaodong Bay, LD; Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary, HRE; Jiaozhou Bay, JZ) along the northern Chinese coast were investigated for species identification and stock discrimination. The otolith contour shape described by elliptic Fourier coefficients (EFC) were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and stepwise canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to identify species and stocks. The two species were well differentiated, with an overall classification success rate of 97.8%. And variations in the otolith shapes were significant enough to discriminate among the three geographical samples of C. lucidus (67.7%) or C. niveatus (65.2%). Relatively high mis-assignment occurred between the geographically adjacent LD and HRE samples, which implied that individual mixing may exist between the two samples. This study yielded information complementary to that derived from genetic studies and provided information for assessing the stock structure of C. lucidus and C. niveatus in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.

  17. Bioassay of Surface Quality/Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Lycopus rubellus 0.384c2 .8462 0.0 0P 62 Mentha spicata 0.38462 3.8462 0.0 063 Phryma leftostachya 0.38462 3.8462 0.0 0CP 64 * Potamogeton diversifolius...33.2 90 P 157 Commelina communis 6.769 11.538 9.7 50 a P 158 Mentha arvensis 7.038 19.231 1.5 10 CP2 .5 Nasturtium officianale 7.077 26 .923 0.0 0 p

  18. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...

  19. Schisandra chinensis, Schisandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Schisandra (Schizandra) or magnolia vine [Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, Schisandraceae] is a vine native to northeastern Asia. The deciduous vine is often found in shad...

  20. Two new C-glucoside oxanthrones from Rumex gmelini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Yue Wang; Hai Peng Zhao; Yue Ming Zuo; Zong Quan Wang; Xian Ming Tang

    2009-01-01

    Two new C-glucoside oxanthrones, 6-methoxyl-10-hydroxyaloin A (1) and 6-methoxyl-10-hydroxyaloin B (2), were isolated from the roots of Rumex gmelini Turcz. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical means.

  1. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss. from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss., kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv. Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel Maxim.], L. tristis Bunge, Melandrium olgae Maxim., Silene melandriiformis Maxim., five varieties (Melandrium affine var. Intermedium Tolm., Silene repens var. pratensis Kom., S. repens var. alpina Kom., S. repens var. angustifolia Turcz., S. repens var. latifolia Turcz., and one form (Silene repens f. densa Kom. are lectotypified.Key words: Caryophyllaceae, Silenoideae, type specimens, typification, Komarov Botanical Institute (LE, Siberia, Far East. 

  2. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yinmao; Tang, Dongyan; Zhang, Na; Li, Yue; Zhang, Chunhong; Li, Li; Li, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have bee...

  3. 五味子与南五味子的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝波; 李蓉涛; 王亚明

    2007-01-01

    @@ 五味子为常用滋补强壮中药,始载于神农本草经,列为上品.其来源于木兰科植物五味子[Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.)Baill.]或华中五味子(Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et Wils.)的干燥成熟果实,前者习称"北五味子",后者习称"南五味子"[1].

  4. Plant macrofossils analysis from Steregoiu NW Romania: taphonomy, representation, and comparison with pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of macrofossil analysis from the Steregoiu sequence in the Gutaiului Mountains covering the last 8,000 cal BP. The studied peat deposit is characterized by abundant macrofossils. Their diversity is, however, low with most macrofossils coming from plants that grew on the mire and in the forest surrounding the basin (Carex spp., Cyperus sp., Urtica dioica, Potentilla erecta, Filipendula ulmaria, Rubus idaeus, Lycopus europaeus. The concentration of Picea abies macrofossils correlates partially well with its pollen percentages, and only when it has been present on the bog surface. The absence of macrofossils from deciduous trees, which were abundant in the surrounding vegetation according to the pollen data, suggests that these deciduous trees were not growing on the bog or around its margins. The combined macrofossil and the pollen results assists in the understanding of the differences between the local and regional flora.

  5. Composition of fish communities in an intertidal salt marsh creek in the Changjiang River estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Weimin; NI Yong; SHI Liyan; CHEN Yaqu

    2009-01-01

    Fish communities in a (third-order) intertidal creek in Dongtan marsh in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary were investigated seasonally for one year. A total of 1 996 fish specimens (10 967.8 g) comprising 26 species and 15 families were collected. Abundances of fish communities in the intertidal salt marsh creek were primarily dominated by Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (19.8%), Collichthys lucidus (18.6%), Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus (18.2%), Liza haematocheilus (17.9%), and secondarily by Mugilogobius abei (8.5%), L. carinatus (7.2%), Odontamblyopus lacepedii (4.3%), and Acanthogobius ommaturus (3.9%); another 18 species were present only occasionally. Non-MDS ordination and SIMPER analysis indicated that there were two fish communities in the intertidal salt marsh creek. In spring, the communities were dominated by B. pectinirostris, P. magnuspinnatus, C. lucidus and M. abei; in summer, autumn, and winter by L. haematocheilus, L. carinatus, A. ommaturus and O. lacepedii. Some species showed strong habitat selection; L. carinatus and P. magnuspinnatus were distributed mainly in the upper and middle creek, while B. pectinirostris, M. abei and O. lacepedii inhabited the middle and lower creek. The study indicated that the salt marshes of the Changjiang River estuary are an important nursery and feeding habitat for many fishes and should be protected.

  6. New records of Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae extend the range of the genus Lophoproctus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Short

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of the genus Lophoproctus Pocock, 1894 has greatly expanded with new records of the species Lophoproctus coecus Pocock, 1894, together with the reassignment of a number of millipedes formerly identified as Lophoproctus lucidus (Chalande, 1888. L. coecus was found to be the sole representative of the family Lophoproctidae in collections examined from Crimea and the Caucasian region. The species was also identified from Iran and Kyrgyzstan. Lophoproctus specimens collected in Italy by Verhoeff were reassigned as L. coecus with the exception of one specimen of L. jeanneli (Brölemann, 1910 from Capri. These data were combined with all available information from the literature to look at the pattern of distribution of the four species in the genus. The range of the genus Lophoproctus extends from Portugal to Central Asia. Lophoproctus coecus is widespread from Italy eastward, while the morphologically very similar species L. lucidus is confined to France and northern Africa. The two species have a narrow overlap in the Alpes Maritimes region of France. L. jeanneli has a scattered coastal distribution around the Mediterranean Sea. The troglobitic species L. pagesi (Condé, 1982 has only been recorded from a cave on Majorca, Spain.

  7. CHANGES IN TOTAL VOLATILE BASIC NITROGEN AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN TWO COMMON SPECIES OF MARINE FISH AT HIGH TEMPERATURE%两种常见海水鱼高温贮存过程中挥发性盐基氮和生物胺含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金彪; 杨筱珍; 范朋; 赵柳兰; 王春; 杨志刚; 洪宇航; 成永旭

    2012-01-01

    棘头梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)和龙头鱼(Harpodon nehereus)是我国沿海常见的两种小型海水鱼,常被作为水产动物饵料,也可被人类食用.研究检测了这两种鱼在30℃下贮存48h每隔6h的挥发性盐基氮(T-VBN)和9种生物胺(尸胺、腐胺、组胺、酪胺、5-羟色胺、亚精胺、精胺、多巴胺、章鱼胺)的含量变化,并对这两种鱼的T-VBN和生物胺含量与时间的相关性进行分析,为水产品类饵料安全投喂和人类食品安全提供基础资料.结果表明:两种鱼在相同贮存条件中T-VBN和生物胺含量均存在一定差异.T-VBN含量随着贮存时间的延长而逐渐增加,棘头梅童鱼T-VBN含量从0h的8.19 mg/100 g增加到48h的568.05 mg/100 g,龙头鱼从0h的13.16 mg/100 g增加到48h的361.34 mg/100 g,棘头梅童鱼增长值显著高于龙头鱼(P<0.05).在30℃下,棘头梅童鱼和龙头鱼的T-VBN含量分别在10h和12h达到30 mg/100 g,因此,这两种鱼分别在l0h和12h后不推荐食用.在两种鱼的生物胺检测中,含量最高的4种依次是尸胺、腐胺、酪胺和组胺,且有随贮存时间延长含量显著增高的趋势(P<0.05),并在42h内趋于稳定;但是,棘头梅童鱼中尸胺的含量显著高于龙头鱼(P<0.05);章鱼胺、5-羟色胺、亚精胺、精胺含量在两种鱼体内含量较低且均无明显变化(P>0.05);多巴胺在两种鱼体内均未检测到.这两种鱼体内T-VBN、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺含量与时间的相关性均极其显著(P<0.01).%Collichthys lucidus and Harpodon nehereus are small fishes which are common in the coastal waters of China. They are often fed to aquatic animals, and are also food for human. In this study, total volatile basic nitro-gen(T-VBN)and nine biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, serotonin, spermidine, spermine, dopamine and octopamine) of C. Lucidus and H. Nehereus storage at 30 ℃ were examined in every 6h for 48h. The correlation

  8. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the name sect.  Pelargium DC. must be replaced by sect.  Pelargonium, and Pelargonium cardiophyllum Harv. (1860 by P. setulosum Turcz. (1858; P. mossambicense Engl, is reported as a new record for the Transvaal; a new name P. ternifolium Vorster is given to  P. trifolia turn Harv., nom. illeg.; and the typification of  P. multificlum Harv.,  P. plurisectum Salter,  P. dolomiticum Knuth and  P. dasyphyllum E. Mey. ex Knuth is discussed.

  9. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the name sect.  Pelargium DC. must be replaced by sect.  Pelargonium, and Pelargonium cardiophyllum Harv. (1860 by P. setulosum Turcz. (1858; P. mossambicense Engl, is reported as a new record for the Transvaal; a new name P. ternifolium Vorster is given to  P. trifolia turn Harv., nom. illeg.; and the typification of  P. multificlum Harv.,  P. plurisectum Salter,  P. dolomiticum Knuth and  P. dasyphyllum E. Mey. ex Knuth is discussed.

  10. 防治变态反应的功能食品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    该功能食品的组成为:枸桔Poncirus trifoliata(L.)Rafin.30%-80%(质量分数,下同)、三白草Saururus chinensis(Lour.)Baill.5%-20%、五味子Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.5%-25%、车前Plantago asiatica L.提取物5%-30%。收集、清洗和干燥的上述草药,分别置于50-60倍水中,

  11. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis and their inhibitory activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Yang, Zhiyou; Yao, Xuechun; Wang, Hua; Han, Na; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Four dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, schisanchinins A-D, and 10 known compounds were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including MS, UV and IR, NMR ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC). The stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the biphenyl configuration were determined using NOESY, as well as analysis of CD spectra. In vitro activity assays showed that 11 of the 14 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in primary murine BV2 microglia cells.

  12. 五味子药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明威; 王乃平; 辛华雯; 李维亮

    2009-01-01

    @@ 记载:"五味子今有南北之分,南产者红北产者黑,入滋补药,必用北者乃良".五味子为木兰科多年生落叶木质藤本植物,收录有两种五味子药材,分别为北五味子[Schisandra chinensis(turcz.)baill.]和南五味子(又名华中五味子)(Schisandra Sphenanthera rehd.etwils.)的成熟果实.

  13. HPLC法鉴别五味子与南五味子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷文金; 蔡友良; 万民; 贺小桂

    2002-01-01

    @@五味子为木兰科植物五味子Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz)Baill.的干燥成熟果实,习称“北五味子”,具有收敛固涩、益气生津、补肾宁心的功效。南五味子为木兰科植物华东五味子Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et Wills.的干燥成熟……

  14. Efect of Fructus Schisandrae Polyglucose on Senile Model Mice%五味子多糖对衰老模型小鼠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗明三

    2002-01-01

    @@ 五味子多糖(Fructus Schisandrae Polysaccharide)系木兰科植物Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.干燥成熟果实的提取物.五味子为中医常用益气生津、补肾宁心、收敛固涩之中药,近有报道五味子粉、水提液及五味子乙素有抗氧化、抗衰老的作用[1].本文报道其多糖成分对衰老小鼠组织的影响.

  15. 南、北五味子的鉴别研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 颉维民

    2008-01-01

    @@ 五味子为木兰科植物五味子[Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.)Baill.]的干燥成熟果实,习称"北五味子",具有收敛固涩、益气生津、补肾宁心的功效.南五味子为木兰科植物华东五味子(Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd.et Wils.)的干燥成熟果实,功效与五味子相似.

  16. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo; Carmen Sílvia Zickel

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L.) Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbecki...

  17. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Maria de Fátima Figueiredo; Zickel,Carmen Sílvia

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L.) Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenb...

  18. POLLEN AND SEED SURFACE MORFOLOGY IN SOME REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS RHODODENDRON SUBSECT. RHODORASTRUM (ERICACEAE IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koksheeva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of pollen and seed morphology of three species of Rhododendron L. subsect. Rhodorastrum (Maxim. Cullen (Rh. dauricum L., Rh. mucronolatum Turcz., Rh. sichotense Pojark. is performed. Results of discriminant analysis of the total of morphometric characters of pollen and seeds have proved the distinctness of all three species from each other. Differences of polen are observed in the type of sculpture (granulate, rugulate, microrugulate and in the diameter of tetrads. The coefficient of elongation of the exotesta cells is established as a valuable morphometric character

  19. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beija-flores. A floração foi longa, com início em Janeiro, em plena estação chuvosa, e término em Julho, no início da seca. O tubo floral formado pelo hipanto é calcarado na base, onde se acumula o néctar produzido por nectário localizado na base do ovário. As flores são marcadamente protândricas, mas flores em diferentes fases podem ser encontradas nos racemos. Os dados mostraram que a espécie é autocompatível e não apomítica, mas devido à dicogamia marcada, necessita polinização ativa para formar frutos. Phaethornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura e Chlorostilbon lucidus (fêmea foram as espécies de beija-flores observadas visitando e polinizando as flores de C. melvilla. Amazilia fimbriata e C. lucidus apresentaram ocasionalmente comportamento territorial, P. pretrei apresentou forrageamento em linhas de captura, e T. furcata e E. macroura apresentaram forrageamento do tipo oportunístico, visitando as populações estudadas esporadicamente. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus e P. pretrei foram considerados os polinizadores mais importantes, dada a sua constância. As características morfológicas das flores de Cuphea melvilla relacionadas a adaptações aos beija-flores parecem ser derivadas no gênero, sendo que a polinização por beija-flores nas distintas seções indica adaptação convergente a este modo de polinização.Cuphea melvilla is a peculiar species of a mostly

  20. Integration of vegetation inventory data and ALOS image for vegetation classification in Yancheng coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunmei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Wang, Yanfei; Jin, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Systematic mapping and monitoring of wetland landscape are of fundamental importance for wetland development and management. To accurately classify wetland in Yancheng coastal wetland, ground investigation was conducted in 2006. Integrated with ground investigation, the wetland was classified into 8 categories such as Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Farm land, Phragmites Australis, Artemisia halodendron Turcz, Bare beach, Salt field, Fish & shrimp pond, and Sea water. A total of three decision trees were successfully produced. The first represented broad divisions of vegetation (in fact, at this stage, it just can be called vegetated cover like) and non-vegetation, and the second two represented more detailed vegetation classes and non-vegetation classes. To construct the decision trees, NDVI and principal component analysis were used as the evaluation factors. The thresholds were built combining with ground investigation and spectral property. Firstly, almost all kinds of vegetable were divided out of non-vegetation by NDVI. Secondly, the different species of vegetation were distinguished and some vegetated cover like was eliminated out of vegetation. Phragmites Australis belt, Artemisia halodendron Turcz belt, Spartina alterniflora Loisel belt and bare beach belt were distributed regularly from land to sea.

  1. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  2. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Laura E.; Baker, Richard G.; Thompson, Robert S.; Miller, Dane M.

    2014-01-01

    Ninety plant macrofossil taxa from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, record environmental changes at high elevation (2705 m asl) in the Rocky Mountains during the Last Interglacial Period. Present-day vegetation is aspen forest (Populus tremuloides) intermixed with species of higher (Picea, Abies) and lower (Artemisia, Quercus) elevations. Stratigraphic units 4–13 contain montane forest taxa found near the site today and several species that today generally live at lower elevations within (Abies concolor, Lycopus americanus) and outside Colorado (Najas flexilis). These data suggest near-modern climatic conditions, with slightly warmer summer and winter temperatures. This montane forest period was succeeded by a shorter treeless interval (Unit 14) representing colder and/or drier conditions. In units 15–16, conifer trees reoccur but deciduous and herb taxa are lacking, suggesting a return to warmer conditions, although cooler than during the earlier forest period. Comparison of these inferred paleoclimatic changes with the site's geochronologic framework indicates that the lower interval of sustained warmth correlates with late MIS 6–early 5b (~ 138–94 ka), the cold interval with MIS 5b (~ 94–87 ka), and the uppermost cool assemblages with MIS 5a (~ 87–77 ka).

  3. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  4. The newly recorded plants in Liaoning%辽宁的新纪录植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑梅; 李忠宇; 王萌; 李丁男; 于立敏

    2016-01-01

    根据2003年至今十几年野外调查的一手材料,报道了番杏科(Aizoaceae)、落葵科(Basellaceae)、马钱科(Loganiaceae)等14个《辽宁植物志》和《东北植物检索表》(第2版)未收录的科;阿洛葵属(Anoda Cav.)、野茼蒿属(Crassooephalum Moench.)、胶菀属(Grindelia Willdenow)等98个《辽宁植物志》和《东北植物检索表》(第2版)未收录的属;银莲花(Anemone catha yensis)、萍蓬草(Nuphar pumilum)、野皂荚(Gleditsia microphylla)等305种《辽宁植物志》未收录的野生植物;埃氏马先蒿(Pedicularis artselaeri)、姬岩垂草(Phyla canescens)、欧地笋(Lycopus europaeus)等114种《东北植物检索表》(第2版)未收录的野生植物.

  5. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  6. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  7. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have been isolated from plants of the genus Hedysarum. Various chemical constituents contribute to the antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties of these plants. Hedysarum species are used to treat infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes and may support the immune system and peripheral nervous system. In the present review, we summarize the research on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hedysarum species, which will be useful for better utilization of these important species in TCM. PMID:23866043

  8. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-09-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.

  9. Responses of the seedlings of five dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain to soil water stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Li-min; LI Qiu-rong; WANG Miao; JI Lan-zhu

    2003-01-01

    Soil water stress was studied on the potted seedlings of five dominant tree species (Pinus koraienes Sieb.et Zucc., Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim, Tilia amurensis Rupr. and Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Turcz) from the broadleaved/Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain. Leaf growth, water transpiration and photosynthesis were compared for each species under three soil moisture conditions: 85%-100% (high water, CK), 65%-85% (Medium water, MW) and 45%-65% (low water, LW) of 37.4% water-holding capacity in field. The results showed that the characteristic of typical drought-resistance of the leaves is significantly developed. The net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of Fraxinus mandshurica were higher in MW than those in CK. But for the other four species, the net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency in CK were lower than those in MW and LW. The transpiration rate responding to soil moistures varied from species to species.

  10. 五昧子药理研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏景文

    2009-01-01

    @@ 五味子是木兰科植物五味子[Schisandra chinensis (Turcz)Baill]或华中五味子(Schisandra aphenthera Rehd et Wils)的干燥成熟果实,前者习称北五味子,后者习称南五味子.五味子具有敛肺滋肾,生津敛汗,宁心安神的功效,临床用于久咳虚喘、梦遗滑精、遗尿尿频、自汗、盗汗、津伤口渴、气短脉虚、内热消渴和心悸失眠等症.

  11. Isolation and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongbo; Li, Xifeng; Du, Xue; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Weiguang; Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Jijun; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong

    2015-08-01

    Seven lignans with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton, termed schinlignans A-G, and a 6,7-seco-homolignan, schischinone, together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC experiments). The stereochemistry at the chiral centers and the biphenyl moiety, were determined using ROESY, as well as via interpretation of their ECD spectra. Schinlignan G and methylgomisin O exhibited potent anti-hepatitis B virus activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 5.13 and 5.49μgmL(-1), respectively.

  12. 南五味子伪品山葡萄的鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云珍; 肖凌; 但汉雄

    2012-01-01

    五味子味酸、甘,温,归肺、心、肾经。有收敛固涩,益气生津,补肾宁心的功能。用于久嗽虚喘,梦精滑精,遗尿尿频,久泻不止等。《中国药典》2010年版一部收载的五味子分为"五味子"及"南五味子",前者来源为木兰科植物五味子(Schisandrae Chinensis(Turcz.)Baill)的干燥成熟果实,习称"北五味子";后者来源为木兰科植物华中五味子(Schisandra Sphenantherae Rehd.et Wils)的干燥成熟果实。

  13. 北五味子中2种木脂素的NMR数据解析%An NMR Study of Two Lignans Isolated from Schisandra Chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海永; 周长新; 姚巍; 王丽薇; 窦辉; 董晓武; 赵昱

    2005-01-01

    从北五味子(Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.))的果实中分离并鉴定了3个木脂素类化合物二氢愈疮木脂素(Ⅰ),Gomisin J (Ⅱ)和Gomisin D (Ⅲ),利用高分辨NMR技术及二维谱(1H-1H COSY、HSQC、HMBC和NOESY),对Gomisin J(Ⅱ)和Gomisin D (Ⅲ)的1H和13C NMR数据进行了全归属和较详细的解析.同时,采用计算机分子模拟实验对结构较为复杂的Gomisin D的立体构型进行了研究.

  14. Floristic novelties in the Umbelliferae of Xinjiang, China%中国新疆伞形科植物区系新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three genera (Zosima Hoffm., Lithosciadium Turcz., and Lomatocarpa Pimenov) were shown for the first time for the Chinese flora on the basis of collections kept in rümqi [Institute of Biology, Pedology and Desert Investigations (XJBI), CAS]. In the same herbarium, some additional floristic novelties were found: two genera (Pleurospermum s.str. and Kadenia) and six species new for Xinjiang. A new species, Dimorphosciadium shenii Pimenov et Kljujkov has been described, being a Xinjiang endemic. Some corrections in taxonomy and nomenclature for local species of Ferula, Seseli, Aphanopleura, Aegopodium, and Sium have been proposed. In total, 126 species and 53 genera of the Umbelliferae are registered for Xinjiang.

  15. Dictamine Stimulates Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Cl- Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; YANG Hong; LIU Li-dan; WANG Su-mei; XU Li-na; YU Bo; LIN Sen; HOU Shu-guang; ZHOU Na; JIN Ling-ling

    2007-01-01

    Dictamine is a furoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Dictamus dasycarpus Turcz. In the present study, we found that dictamine is able to stimulate the chloride transport activity of wild-type and △F508 mutant CFTR. The activity is cAMP-dependent and can be completely reversed by specific CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh-172. In addition, dictamine can further increase the chloride transport activity when CFTR is maximally activated by the combination of cAMP stimulators forskolin(FSK) and IBMX, suggesting direct interaction of dictamine with CFTR. Dictamine may be useful for probing CFTR channel gating mechanisms and used as a lead compound to develop the pharmacological therapy of CFTR-related diseases such as idiopathic chronic pancreatitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca and cystic fibrosis.

  16. Ecological Wood Adaptation and Horizontal Variations of Vessel Element and Fibre Length of Calligonum mongolicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shumin; FURUKAWA Ikuo

    2006-01-01

    Wood anatomy of Calligonum mongolicum Turcz.was described from an ecological perspective.This species showed similar wood structure to that species published in the same genus.This species has distinct growth ring boundaries,ring-porosity,distinct helical thickenings,simple perforation plate,nonseptate fibre,axial parenchyma.uni-or 2-5-sedate heterogeneous rays,and alternate intervessel pitting.It was observed that there is a slightly increase of fibre length as the diameter from the pith increases.However,the vessel element length remains more or less constant from pith to bark.Furthermore,the relationships between anatomical features and adaptability to desert environments were discussed.

  17. Pollen and reproductive morphology of Rhigiophyllum and Siphocodo (Campanulaceae: two unique genera of the fynbos vegetation of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. M. Eddie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of Rhigiophyllum squarrosum Hochst., Siphocodon spartioides Turcz. and S. debilis Schltr., are flattened and triangular with pores at the angles. This morphology is radically different from known pollen of the Campanulaceae s.sfr:: the Campanulaceae are treated here as a family separate from the Lobeliaceae, Cyphiaceae, Nemacladaceae, Pentaphragmataceae and Sphenocleaceae (Lammers 1992. As traditionally conceived, the Campanulaceae is very heterogeneous and, in many classifications, these families were treated as subfamilies of a much-enlarged Campanulaceae. The consistently different floral morphology, biochemistry and pollen structure of the Lobeliaceae favours the recognition of this predominantly tropical group as a separate family.The pollen grains of these species are described in comparison with other members of the Campanulaceae. Based on surface characteristics of their pollen grains, we conclude that they represent an early offshoot o f the wahlenbergioid line­age in southern Africa. We suggest that this unique pollen may also be the result of a highly selective regime in the fynbos, associated with specialized pollinators, and base-poor soils, in addition to possible adaptations for ant dispersal and fire. Rhigiophyllum Hochst. and Siphocodon Turcz. are also unique in having free carpel-like structures within the ovary. These shrink to form seed pockets around the seeds and disperse as units when the capsule matures. Data from molecular studies support the contention that these taxa form a sister group to all other wahlenbergioids and that this should be formally recognized in a classification system. We treat Rhigiophyllum and Siphocodon within the Campanulaceae: Wahlenbergioideae, as a separate tribe, the Rhigiophylleae tribus nov., the species of which are distinguishable from other wahlenbergioids by unique angulaperturatc pollen, epipetalous stamens, free carpel-like structures and seed pockets.  

  18. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines.

  19. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbeckia foram verificadas cinco espécies: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. garandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl. e E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Para reconhecimento das espécies são apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica, comentários e nomes vulgares.This work is a survey of the species of Zanthoxylum and Esenbeckia occuring in the State of Pernambuco. It was based on morphological characters of the species obtained during field trips and of specimens from 16 Brazilian herbaria. Nine species were recorded for Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz., and Z. syncarpum Tul. Esenbeckia comprised five species: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. grandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl., and E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Identication keys, descriptions, ilustrations, geographic distribution, common names, and comments on the species are presented.

  20. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huilian [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China); Sun, Jianghao [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); McCoy, Joe-Ann [The North Carolina Arboretum Germplasm Repository, UNC Affiliate Campus, Asheville, NC (United States); Zhong, Haiyan [College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Fletcher, Edward J. [Strategic Sourcing, Inc., Banner Elk, NC 28604 (United States); Harnly, James, E-mail: harnly.james@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Chen, Pei, E-mail: pei.chen@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC–MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica. - Highlights: • Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. • FIMS can discriminate between A. dahurica, A. podocarpa, and A. racemosa. • FIMS is a valuable screening tool for authentication of botanicals.

  1. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities

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    Bachir Iffis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species (Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera, and Lycopus europaeus growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate

  2. Petroleum Contamination and Plant Identity Influence Soil and Root Microbial Communities While AMF Spores Retrieved from the Same Plants Possess Markedly Different Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffis, Bachir; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising in situ green technology based on the use of plants to cleanup soils from organic and inorganic pollutants. Microbes, particularly bacteria and fungi, that closely interact with plant roots play key roles in phytoremediation processes. In polluted soils, the root-associated microbes contribute to alleviation of plant stress, improve nutrient uptake and may either degrade or sequester a large range of soil pollutants. Therefore, improving the efficiency of phytoremediation requires a thorough knowledge of the microbial diversity living in the rhizosphere and in close association with plant roots in both the surface and the endosphere. This study aims to assess fungal ITS and bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity using high-throughput sequencing in rhizospheric soils and roots of three plant species (Solidago canadensis, Populus balsamifera, and Lycopus europaeus) growing spontaneously in three petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sedimentation basins. Microbial community structures of rhizospheric soils and roots were compared with those of microbes associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spores to determine the links between the root and rhizosphere communities and those associated with AMF. Our results showed a difference in OTU richness and community structure composition between soils and roots for both bacteria and fungi. We found that petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant (PHP) concentrations have a significant effect on fungal and bacterial community structures in both soils and roots, whereas plant species identity showed a significant effect only on the roots for bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the community composition of bacteria and fungi in soil and roots varied from those associated with AMF spores harvested from the same plants. This let us to speculate that in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils, AMF may release chemical compounds by which they recruit beneficial microbes to tolerate or degrade the

  3. [Niche and interspecific association of nekton in the south coastal waters of Cangnan, Zhe-jiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng-ye; Shui, Yu-yue; Du, Xiao; Shui, Bo-nian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the interaction between the species Population were analyzed based on the data of major nekton species in the south coastal waters of Cangnan in spring and autumn 2014. A series of methods including niche breadth, niche overlap, χ2 - test and association coefficient (AC) based on a 2x2 contingency table were used. The results showed that the major nekton species in the south coastal waters of Cangnan were classified into three groups, i.e. wide niche breadth species, moderate niche breadth species and narrow niche breadth species based on the niche breadth values. The wide niche breadth species of nekton were Harpodon nehereus, Portunus trituberculatus, mantis shrimp and other 2 species. The moderate niche breadth species of nekton were Collichthys lucidus, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, Parapenaeopsis tenella and other 5 species. While the species with narrow niche breadths were Charybdis japonica, Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Palaemon gravieri and other 7 species. There were great differences in the niche overlap values among the major nekton populations, with the maximum value of 0.93 and the minimum of 0, which indicated that resource utilization competition in some nekton might exist. The results of variance ratio analysis for major nekton in the south coastal waters of Cangnan showed that they were significantly positively correlated. χ2 - test results showed that there were significantly interspecific association for 78 species pairs (χ2≥3.841), among which more association coefficients (AC) of species pairs are positive.

  4. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-11-18

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus.

  5. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil

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    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  6. Host response to cuckoo song is predicted by the future risk of brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane; Robertson, Jeremy; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert

    2013-05-22

    Risk assessment occurs over different temporal and spatial scales and is selected for when individuals show an adaptive response to a threat. Here, we test if birds respond to the threat of brood parasitism using the acoustical cues of brood parasites in the absence of visual stimuli. We broadcast the playback of song of three brood parasites (Chalcites cuckoo species) and a sympatric non-parasite (striated thornbill, Acanthiza lineata) in the territories of superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) during the peak breeding period and opportunistic breeding period. The three cuckoo species differ in brood parasite prevalence and the probability of detection by the host, which we used to rank the risk of parasitism (high risk, moderate risk, low risk). Host birds showed the strongest response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism in accordance with the risk of parasitism. Resident wrens had many alarm calls and close and rapid approach to the playback speaker that was broadcasting song of the high risk brood parasite (Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo, C. basalis) across the year (peak and opportunistic breeding period), some response to the moderate risk brood parasite (shining bronze-cuckoo, C. lucidus) during the peak breeding period, and the weakest response to the low risk brood parasite (little bronze-cuckoo, C. minutillus). Playback of the familiar control stimulus in wren territories evoked the least response. Host response to the threat of cuckoo parasitism was assessed using vocal cues of the cuckoo and was predicted by the risk of future parasitism.

  7. Nestling polymorphism in a cuckoo-host system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nozomu J; Tanaka, Keita D; Okahisa, Yuji; Yamamichi, Masato; Kuehn, Ralph; Gula, Roman; Ueda, Keisuke; Theuerkauf, Jörn

    2015-12-21

    Virulence of avian brood parasites can trigger a coevolutionary arms race, which favours rejection of parasitic eggs or chicks by host parents, and in turn leads to mimicry in parasite eggs or chicks [1-7]. The appearance of host offspring is critical to enable host parents to detect parasites. Thus, increasing accuracy of parasites' mimicry can favour a newly emerged host morph to escape parasites' mimicry. If parasites catch up with the hosts with a newly acquired mimetic morph, host polymorphism should be maintained through apostatic (negative frequency-dependent) selection, which favours hosts rarer morphs [1-3,7]. Among population-wide polymorphism, uniformity of respective host morphs in single host nests stochastically prevents parasites from targeting any specific morph of hosts and thus helps parents detect parasitism. Polymorphism in such a state is well-known in egg appearances of hosts of brood parasitic birds [2,3,7], which might also occur in chick appearances when arms races escalate. Here, we present evidence of polymorphism in chick skin coloration in a cuckoo-host system: the fan-tailed gerygone Gerygone flavolateralis and its specialist brood parasite, the shining bronze-cuckoo Chalcites lucidus in New Caledonia (Figure 1A-C). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Naomi E; Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2003-03-13

    Cuckoo nestlings that evict all other young from the nest soon after hatching impose a high reproductive cost on their hosts. In defence, hosts have coevolved strategies to prevent brood parasitism. Puzzlingly, they do not extend beyond the egg stage. Thus, hosts adept at recognizing foreign eggs remain vulnerable to exploitation by cuckoo nestlings. Here we show that the breach of host egg defences by cuckoos creates a new stage in the coevolutionary cycle. We found that defences used during the egg-laying period by host superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) are easily evaded by the Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis), a specialist fairy-wren brood parasite. However, although hosts never deserted their own broods, they later abandoned 40% of nests containing a lone Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo nestling, and 100% of nests with a lone shining bronze-cuckoo nestling (Chrysococcyx lucidus), an occasional fairy-wren brood parasite. Our experiments demonstrate that host discrimination against evictor-cuckoo nestlings is possible, and suggest that it has selected for the evolution of nestling mimicry in bronze-cuckoos.

  9. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Spring and Summer Fish Community Structure in Northern Hangzhou Bay%春季和夏季杭州湾北部海域鱼类种群结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 洪波; 张玉平; 孙振中

    2016-01-01

    Hangzhou Bay,located in northern Zhejiang Province,is a typical subtropical estuary,supporting the breeding and growth of many fish,shrimp and crab species because of rich food resources.However,coastal indus-trial pollution and overfishing in recent years has seriously damaged the marine environment and fishery resources in the Hangzhou.The fishery resource is tending toward smaller and younger fish and some economic fish are declining or have disappeared,perhaps leading to collapse of the marine ecosystem.Therefore,information on current fish stocks and the condition of the marine environment in Hangzhou Bay is important for ecological remediation efforts. The fish community structure in northern Hangzhou Bay was characterized,based on a field investigation of fish re-sources in August of 2012 and May of 2013.The investigation focused on species composition and seasonal variation of the fish community structure in spring and summer.Study methods included the index of relative importance, cluster analysis,and multivariate statistics and the relationship between the fish community and environmental fac-tors was analyzed.Fish were collected at 12 sampling stations by trawling with a 25 m net with an opening of 10m and net mesh of 20 mm.The trawling was carried out at a speed of 2.5 knots for 15 -30 min at each station and water temperature,salinity and depth were recorded.A total of 22 fish species were collected during spring and summer sampling,including 19 genera,12 families and 8 orders.Perciformes dominated,accounting for 50% of the total fish species,followed by Pleuronectiformes and Clupeiformes,both accounting for 13.6%.The ecological groups included marine,estuarine and anadromous fish,with absolute dominance by marine fish (13 species).Six dominant species were identified:in the spring,Collichthys lucidus,Miichthys miiuy,Coilia mystus;in summer,Col-lichthys lucidus,Pennahia argentata,Harpodon nehereus,Miichthys miiuy and Cynoglossus joyneri

  11. 30味中药提取物与环丙沙星联用对猪源链球菌体外抑菌作用研究%Cooperative Effect of Thirty Chinese Herbs Extract in Combination with Ciprofloxacin against on Streptococcus suis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓言; 赵晴; 田立杰; 刘树明; 马红霞

    2014-01-01

    To screen synergistic inhibitory effect of active ingredients from Chinese herbs combined with ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus suis in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) of water exact and alcohol extract from thirty Chinese herbs against streptococcus suis in vitro were determined by two-double dilution method. Fractional inhibitory concentrations ( FIC ) of water exact and alcohol exact from thirty Chinese herbs combined with antibiotics against Streptococcus suis were determined by constant checkerboard dilution method. To track inhibitory effect from Chinese herds with synergistic inhibitory effect combine with ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus suis in vitro by organic extraction method. The results showed that water extract and alcohol extract from thirty medicine herbs have antibactierial effect against streptococcus suis in certain extent. It is showen that some extracts such as alcohol extract , water extract of Eupatorium fortunei Turcz, Coptidis Rhizoma, Aurantii Fructus, Curcumae Radix have stronger antibactierial activity against on Streptococcus suis in vitro. And the antibactierial activity of some extracts such as water extract of Atractylodis Rhizoma have weaker inhibitory effect on streptococcus suis in vitro. Inhibitory bacterium additive effect was existed in the alcohol extract of Eupatorium fortunei Turcz combine with ciprofloxaxin. Inhibitory bacterium additive effect, synergistic inhibitory effect was existed in some extracts such as chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract of alcohol extract from Eupatorium fortune Turcz combined with ciprofloxacin on streptococcus suis in vitro.%为筛选与环丙沙星联用对猪源链球菌具有协同抑菌作用的中药提取物,采用试管二倍稀释法测定30味中药醇提物、水提物的最低抑菌浓度( MIC ),采用棋盘稀释法测定30味中药醇提物、水提物与环丙沙星联用对猪源链球菌的部分抑菌浓度( FIC ),采用有机溶

  12. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de duas espécies de Rutaceae do Nordeste Brasileiro Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of two Rutaceae species from the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara V. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos disponíveis, tornou-se imprescindível a busca por novos fármacos ou protótipos. Os metabólitos secundários produzidos por alguns vegetais como cumarinas, alcaloides e terpenoides podem apresentar várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas, atividade antibiótiotica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco, das diferentes partes de duas espécies pertencentes à família Rutaceae coletadas na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., bem como do alcaloide diidroqueleritrina, isolado do extrato metanólico de Z. stelligerum frente a cepas padrão de microrganismos e isolados clínicos. Os resultados apresentados indicam que o extrato da raiz da espécie Z. stelligerum e o alcaloide extraído desta apresentaram propriedades antimicrobianas contra as cepas Gram positivas e leveduras. A E. coli foi a única cepa Gram negativa que se mostrou sensível ao extrato e ao alcaloide.With the increase in bacterial resistance to available antibiotics, it became imperative to search for new drugs or prototypes. The secondary metabolites produced by some plants as coumarins, alkaloids and terpenoids have several biological activities, among them, antibiotic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity in vitro by the disk diffusion method, from different parts of two species belonging to the family Rutaceae, collected in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St Hil. and Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., and the alkaloid dihydrochelerythrine, isolated from the methanolic extract of Z. stelligerum front of standard strains of microorganisms and clinical isolates. The results indicate that the extract from the roots of Z. stelligerum and the alkaloid had antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and

  13. Study on the Chemical constituents of a Traditional Mogolian Medicine HERBA CLEMATIS%蒙药材细叶铁线莲化学成分研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包保全; 乌雅罕; 陈建平; 布仁; 包娜; 张屏

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to isolate and characterize of chemical constituents in a traditional Mongolian medicine HERBA CLEMATIS. Normal and reverse phase coloumn chromatography, gel filtration chromatography sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC were used for isolation and purification compounds from the water extraction of the arial part ofC. aethusaefoliaTurcz. The planar structures and spatial configurations of isolated compounds were identified by high resolution MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and other spectrographic methods. The chemical research on the Mongolian medicine results 6 compounds, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (1), syringaresinol (2), pinoresinol (3), epi-pinoresinol (4), lirioresinol B dimethyl ether (5) and loliolide (6). All the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究蒙药材细叶铁线莲(HERBA CLEMATIS)中主要化学成分。方法:利用正、反相柱色谱,凝胶色谱LH20和制备型HPLC等方法,对芹叶铁线莲(Clematis aethusaefoliaTurcz.)干燥地上部分的水提取物进行分离纯化;得到的单体化合物经过高分辨质谱(HRMS)、核磁共振(1D、2D-NMR)等光谱方法,鉴定其平面结构和立体构型。结果:从细叶铁线莲水提取物中分离得到6个化合物,分别鉴定为二氢去氢二聚松柏醇(1),丁香脂素(2),松脂素(3),表松脂素(4),里立脂素B二甲醚(5)和黑麦草内酯(6)。结论:所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。

  14. La familia Conidae en el mar peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe y proporciona información sobre las especies del género Conus (Neogastropoda: Conidae mantenidas en el Laboratorio de Biología y Sistemática de Invertebrados Marinos de la Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas (LaBSIM y en el Departamento de Malacología y Carcinología del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (MUSM. Se estudió material colectado en 9 localidades del Departamento de Tumbes, y 16 del Departamento de Piura. La colecta intensiva se llevó a cabo en abril del año 2007 y fue esporádica en los años posteriores. De las 16 especies reportas para Perú hasta antes de este estudio, se cuenta con material correspondiente a 11 de ellas: Conus (Conus gladiator Broderip, 1833; Conus (Asprella arcuatus Broderip & Sowerby, 1829; Conus (Cylinder lucidus Wood, 1828; Conus (Leptoconus poormani Berry, 1968; Conus (L. recurvus Broderip, 1833; Conus (Pyruconus fergusoni Sowerby, 1873; Conus (P. patricius Hinds, 1843; Conus (Ximeniconus mahogani Reeve, 1843; Conus (X. perplexus Sowerby, 1857; Conus (X. tornatus Sowerby II, 1833; y Conus (X. ximenes Gray, 1839. No se tiene material de Conus (C. princeps Linnaeus, 1758; Conus (C. tiaratus Sowerby, 1833; Conus (Chelyconus purpurascens Sowerby, 1833; Conus (Leptoconus regularis Sowerby, 1833; y Conus (L. virgatus Reeve, 1849. Conus kohni MacLean & Nybakken, 1979 y Conus xanthicus Dall, 1910 son reportadas por primera vez, con lo cual aumenta a 18 el número de especies registradas para el mar tropical del Perú.

  15. Malagasy Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea and the secret of scutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mikó

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858 occurring in Madagascar, based on data from more specimens than were examined for the latest world revision of the genus. Our results yield new information about intraspecific variability and the nature of the atypical latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG observed in Ceraphronoidea. We also investigate cellular processes that underlie body size polyphenism, by utilizing the correspondence between epidermal cells and scutes, polygonal units of leather-like microsculpture. Our results reveal that body size polyphenism in Megaspilidae is most likely related to cell number and not cell size variation, and that cell size differs between epithelial fields of the head and that of the mesosoma. Three species, Conostigmus ballescoracas Dessart, 1997, C. babaiax Dessart, 1996 and C. longulus Dessart, 1997, are redescribed. Females of C. longulus are described for the first time, as are nine new species: C. bucephalus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. clavatus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. fianarantsoaensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. lucidus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. macrocupula, Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. madagascariensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. missyhazenae Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. pseudobabaiax Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., and C. toliaraensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov. A fully illustrated identification key for Malagasy Conostigmus species and a Web Ontology Language (OWL representation of the taxonomic treatment, including specimen data, nomenclature, and phenotype descriptions, in both natural and formal languages, are provided.

  16. Malagasy Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) and the secret of scutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, István; Trietsch, Carolyn; Sandall, Emily L; Yoder, Matthew Jon; Hines, Heather; Deans, Andrew Robert

    2016-01-01

    We revise the genus Conostigmus Dahlbom 1858 occurring in Madagascar, based on data from more specimens than were examined for the latest world revision of the genus. Our results yield new information about intraspecific variability and the nature of the atypical latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) observed in Ceraphronoidea. We also investigate cellular processes that underlie body size polyphenism, by utilizing the correspondence between epidermal cells and scutes, polygonal units of leather-like microsculpture. Our results reveal that body size polyphenism in Megaspilidae is most likely related to cell number and not cell size variation, and that cell size differs between epithelial fields of the head and that of the mesosoma. Three species, Conostigmus ballescoracas Dessart, 1997, C. babaiax Dessart, 1996 and C. longulus Dessart, 1997, are redescribed. Females of C. longulus are described for the first time, as are nine new species: C. bucephalus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. clavatus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. fianarantsoaensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. lucidus Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. macrocupula, Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. madagascariensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. missyhazenae Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., C. pseudobabaiax Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov., and C. toliaraensis Mikó and Trietsch sp. nov. A fully illustrated identification key for Malagasy Conostigmus species and a Web Ontology Language (OWL) representation of the taxonomic treatment, including specimen data, nomenclature, and phenotype descriptions, in both natural and formal languages, are provided.

  17. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  18. The Purification and Rejuvenation and Breeding Technology of Rice Variety Yunjing 29 with Fragrant and Soft Rice%香软米水稻品种云粳29号的提纯复壮与繁育技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华; 袁平荣; 赵国珍; 苏振喜; 邹茜; 寇姝燕; 刘慰华; 陈于敏

    2016-01-01

    云粳29号是云南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所选育的常规粳稻香软米新品种,2011年3月通过云南省农作物品种审定委员会审定。该品种早熟、米质优、产量高、抗倒伏、抗稻瘟病和白叶枯病,其米饭香浓,柔软可口、外观油润光泽、冷不回生、商品性好。为进一步促进该品种推广应用,保持其优质、高产特性,防止混杂、退化,经过不断探索和研究,提出了优质种子提纯复壮与繁育技术。%Yunjing 29 bred by Institute of Food Crops of Yunnan Academy of Agri-cultural Sciences is a new conventional japonica rice variety with fragrant and soft rice, it was examined and approved by Yunnan Provincial Variety Examination and Approval Committee in March of 2011. The variety is early-maturing, high-yield and good-quality, and has resistances to lodging, blast and bacterial leaf blight, its rice is sweet soft, goluptious and lucidus as wel as not coarse when it is cold, so it is a good commodity. To further promote the popularization and cultivation of the va-riety, maintain its characteristics of high quality and high yield, and prevent commin-gling and degeneration, the purification and rejuvenation as wel as breeding tech-nology of high-quality seeds were proposed after continuous exploration and study.

  19. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Selected Cotoneaster Medik. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kicel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O2•− and H2O2 scavenging assays. The samples exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays with activity parameters of EC50 = 18.5–34.5 µg/mL for DPPH; 0.9–3.8 mmol Fe2+/g for FRAP; SC50 = 27.7–74.8 µg/mL for O2•−; and SC50 = 29.0–91.3 µg/mL for H2O2. Significant linear correlations (|r| = 0.76–0.97, p < 0.01 between activity parameters and total contents of phenolics (5.2%–15.4% GAE and proanthocyanidins (2.1%–15.0% CYE, with weak or no effects for chlorogenic acid isomers (0.69%–2.93% and total flavonoids (0.28%–1.40% suggested that among the listed polyphenols, proanthocyanidins are the most important determinants of the tested activity. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses led to detection of 34 polyphenols, of which 10 B-type procyanidins, 5 caffeoylquinic acids and 14 flavonoids were identified. After cluster analysis of the data matrix, the leaves of Cotoneaster zabelii, C. splendens, C. bullatus, C. divaricatus, C. hjelmqvistii and C. lucidus were selected as the most promising sources of natural antioxidants, exhibiting the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities, and therefore the greatest potential for pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Birds as potential pollinators of the Spathodea nilotica (Bignoniaceae in the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM. Previatto

    Full Text Available Birds play crucial role on the pollination of many plants. However, little is known about the interactions between nectarivorous neotropical birds and exotic Angiosperms. S. nilotica is an exotic African plant widely used in Brazilian urban landscaping. However, it has been poorly studied in relation to its interactions with Neotropical birds. In this way, we studied the feeding nectar strategies and the interspecific antagonistic behaviours among nectarivorous Neotropical birds to verify the bird contributions to the S. nilotica pollination. The study was conducted from May 2008 to April 2011, but only in months of S. nilotica flowering (April to May. From 148 hours of sampling we identified 16 species feeding nectar on S. nilotica: 13 hummingbirds (Trochilidae, Aratinga aurea (Psittacidae, Tangara palmarum (Thraupidae and Coereba flaveola (Coerebidae. Eupetomena macroura was the most frequent (96.88%, followed by Chlorostilbon lucidus (78.13% and Coereba flaveola (59.38%. Most birds obtained nectar by punching at the base of the corolla, except for A. aurea that obtained the nectar by the upper opening of the petals in 100% of its visits, Heliomaster furcifer (95.65%, F. fusca (95% and A. nigricollis (70.27%. Despite E. macroura also obtains nectar only by punching at the base of the corolla, it showed the highest level of legitimate visits. Antagonistic events were more frequent in E. macroura (58.65%, Florisuga fusca (11.04% and Amazilia fimbriata (10.87%, being E. macroura dominant in all events. These results showed E. macroura plays an important role on this plant being the most important bird as a potential pollinator. Moreover, other birds contribute partially to the S. nilotica pollination. Most probably it is a result of recent Neotropical bird interactions with this African plant.

  1. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  2. The variability of phenol compounds based on karyological studies of taxa of the genus Vaccinium L., subgenus Oxycoccus (Hill A. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Gugnacka-Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 52 population samples from Poland and several European countries were subjected to karyological and chemotaxonomic studies. Two diploid species (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. and V. microcarpum (Turcz, ex Rupr. Schmalh. with chromosome number 2n = 24 were found, differing essentially in the chemical composition of their phenol fractions. Besides diploid species, a tetraploid V. oxycoccos L., with the chromosome number 2n = 48 was distinguished. It is, characterized by a high chemical variability. Its chromatograms show spots of compounds characteristic of both subspecies distinguished. No hexaploid V. hagerupii (Löve et Löve Rothm. with chromosome number 2n = 72 was in the karyologically studied material. Chemical studies of a herbarium sample do not confirm the distinctness of this taxon in relation to V. oxycoccos. The karyological studies, which, however, need replication, have also revealed the presence of a presumed hybrid, V. pseudonanum Keller, with chromosome number 2n = 36. The chromatogram of that taxon is very similar to that of V. oxycoccos L. subsp. microphyllus (Lange Löve et Löve.

  3. Two new species of Asteraceae from Northern and Western Cape, South Africa and a new synonym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We recognize two new species of Asteraceae from the winter rainfall belt of South Africa and reduce a third to synonomy.  Senecio speciosissimus sp. nov. has been confused with  S. coleophyllus Turcz. in the past but is distinguished by its taller stature, larger and more finely serrated leaves, and congested synflorescences containing (6-l 5-40 flowerheads. The two species are also geographically separated:  S. speciosissimus occurs in the Hottentots Holland and Franschhoek Mountains of the southwestern Cape, whereas S.  coleophyllus is endemic to the Riviersonderend Mountains.  Chrysocoma hantamensis sp. nov. is a distinctive new species endemic to the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Plateaus. It is distinguished by its resprouting habit. 3-5-fid leaves and large capitula, 12-15 mm in diameter, with lanceolate. 3-veined involucral bracts, the largest 9 - 1 0 x 2 mm. Investigation of the variation in leaf morphology of the two radiate species of Oncosiphon, O. africanum (PJ.Bergius Kallersjo and  O. glabratum (Thunb. Kallersjo. reveals that only one species can be maintained, and O. glabratum is accordingly reduced to synonomy in O. africanum.

  4. Genetic differentiation and karyotype variation in Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum, an endemic species of Tuva Republic, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagina, Natalia S; Dorogina, Olga V; Krasnikov, Alexander A

    2016-05-01

    Overgrazing and mining affect vegetation, particularly in mountains. At times, it goes to such an extent that the plant species become vulnerable and slowly extinct from its habitat. Such endemic species need to be protected. One such endemic species Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum Kurbatsky, a vulnerable steppe vegetation of Tuva Republic, Russia was evaluated for its genetic diversity and taxonomic definition using molecular technique and chromosome number adjustment. The genetic differentiation among H. chaiyrakanicum, H. setigerum Turcz. and H. gmelinii Ledeb. genotypes was determined using five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and then examined with Nei's genetic distance coefficient (D) and Shannon's information index (H). A total of 134 reproducible bands were detected with polymorphism percentage of 98%. The genetic diversity of H. chaiyrakanicum was found to be 0.343 while the Shannon index H(sp) was determined as 8 06. The chromosome number 2n = 16 is newly observed within the H. chaiyrakanicum. The genetic relationship based on ISSR data supported the taxonomic distinction of H. chaiyrakanicum from H. setigerum and H. gmelinii. We recommend both in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, specially germplasm sampling, to save this endemic species.

  5. 19味中药对淋球菌流行株的敏感性研究%Susceptible Study of Nineteen Chinese Traditional Medicines on Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Epidemic Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛丽; 高农; 张晓非

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨19味中药对淋球菌的抑制作用.方法:采用琼脂稀释法测定19味中药对淋球菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).结果:19味中药中,对淋球菌作用最强的是黄连(Coptis chinensis Franch);其次为黄柏(Phellodendron chinense Schneid)、黄芩(Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi)、大黄(Rhenm palmatuml L.)、丁香(Engenia caryophyllata Thund)、地榆(Sanguisorba 0fficinalis L.)、半枝莲(Scutellaria barbata D. Don);而夏枯草(Prunella vulgaris L.)、蛇床子(Cnidium monnieri(L.)cuss)、紫花地丁(Viola yedoensis)、蚤休(Paris polyphylla Smith)、白鲜皮(Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz)仅有轻微的抗淋球菌作用.白花蛇舌草(Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd) Roxb)、花椒(Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim)、苦参(Sophora flavescens Ait)、挂金灯(Physalis alkekengi L.Var. francheeii (Mast.) Mak.)、萆薢(Dioscorea hypoglauca palib)、车前子(Semen plantaginis)则无抑菌作用.结论:黄连对淋球菌的抑制作用最强.

  6. Metabolism of dictamnine in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Zhao, Yunli; Zhu, Yingdong; Sun, Jianbo; Yerke, Aaron; Sang, Shengmin; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-02-05

    Dictamnine, a furoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. (Rutaceae), is reported to have a wide range of pharmacological activities. In this study, the in vitro metabolic profiles of dictamnine in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes were investigated and compared. Dictamnine was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of an NADPH-regenerating system, resulting in the formation of eight metabolites (M1-M8). M1 is an O-desmethyl metabolite. M5 and M6 are formed by a mono-hydroxylation of the benzene ring of dictamnine. M8 was tentatively identified as an N-oxide metabolite. The predominant metabolic pathway of dictamnine occurs through the epoxidation of the 2,3-olefinic to yield a 2,3-epoxide metabolite (M7), followed by the ring of the epoxide opening to give M4. Likewise, cleavage of the furan ring forms M2 and M3. Slight differences were observed in the in vitro metabolic profiles of dictamnine among the five species tested. A chemical inhibition study with a broad and five specific CYP450 inhibitors revealed that most of the dictamnine metabolites in liver microsomes are mediated by CYP450, with CYP3A4 as the predominant enzyme involved in the formation of M7, the major metabolite. These findings provide vital information to better understand the metabolic processes of dictamnine among various species.

  7. Identification and differentiation of major components in three different “Sheng-ma” crude drug species by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifugae Rhizoma (Sheng ma is a Ranunculaceae herb belonging to a composite family and well known in China. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The Pharmacopoeia of the People׳s Republic of China contains three varieties (Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz., Cimicifuga foetida L. and Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. which have been used clinically as “Sheng-ma”. However, the chemical constituents of three components of “Sheng-ma” have never been documented. In this study, a rapid method for the analysis of the main components of “Sheng-ma” was developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The present study reveals the major common and distinct chemical constituents of C. dahurica, C. foetida and C. heracleifolia and also reports principal component and statistical analyses of these results. The components were identified by comparing the retention time, accurate mass, mass spectrometric fragmentation characteristic ions and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. A total of 32 common components and 8 markers for different “Sheng-ma” components were identified. These findings provide an important basis for the further study and clinical utilities of the three “Sheng-ma” varieties.

  8. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Schisandra chinensis Leaves and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material, followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material. Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material, but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX, inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  9. Protective effect of Schizandrin B against damage of UVB irradiated skin cells depend on inhibition of inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenguang; Chen, Hong; Niu, Cong; Hu, Jie; Cao, Bo

    2017-01-02

    Schizandrin B is extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. This study evaluated the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B on oxidative stress injury of the skin caused by UVB-irradiation and the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B, and we firstly found that Schizandrin B could block Cox-2, IL-6 and IL-18 signal pathway to protect damage of skin cells given by UVB-irradiation. In the research, we found that Schizandrin B can attenuate the UVB-induced toxicity on keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in human body, and can outstandingly eliminated intracellular ROS produced by UVB-irradiation. These results demonstrate that Schizandrin B can regulate the function of decreasing intracellular SOD's activity and increasing the expression level of MDA in HaCaT cells result from the guidance of UVB, and it markedly reduced the production of inflammatory factors such as Cox-2, IL-6 or IL-18, decreased the expression level of MMP-1, and interdicted degradation process of collagens in UVB-radiated cells. Therefore, skin keratinocytes can be effectively protected from UVB-radiated damage by Schizandrin B, and UVB-irradiation caused inflammatory responses can be inhibited by attenuating process of ROS generating.

  10. Effects of Fraxinellone on the Midgut Enzyme Activities of the 5th Instar Larvae of Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lv

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated from Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., fraxinellone exhibited multiple bioactivities against insects. In the present paper, the changes of digestive enzymes and detoxification enzymes of Mythimna separata Walker (5th instar larvae, treated with fraxinellone, were investigated. Compared with those of the control, the α-amylase activity of the fraxinellone-treated 5th instar larvae was inhibited, whereas the level of their protease activity was increased. Based upon further studies on the specific proteases, the levels of the active alkaline trypsin-like enzyme (BApNA as the substrate and the chymotrypsin-like enzyme (BTEE as the substrate activities of the treated larvae were declined; however, the level of activity of the weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme (TAME as the substrate of the treated ones was increased. Meanwhile, the activities of two detoxification enzymes, such as carboxylesterase (CarE and glutathione S-transferase (GST, of the treated larvae were increased to some extent, but the activities of NADPH-P450 reductase and O-demethylase of the treated ones declined. Therefore, protease (especially the weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme, CarE and GST played important roles in the metabolism of fraxinellone in the midgut of Mythimna separata (M. separata.

  11. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  12. 基因测序技术在中药质量研究中的应用(Ⅱ)——山药基原的DNA测序鉴别%Application of gene technology in quality control of Chinese materia medica Ⅱ.Identification of Chinese Rhizoma Dioscoreae by DNA sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉萍; 何报作; 曹晖

    2001-01-01

    目的分析正品山药Dioscorea polystachya Turcz.与地方习用品广山药D.persimilis Prain et Burkill、土山药D.japaonica Thunb.和方山药D.alata L.的核基因组18S rRNA基因序列,为山药基原鉴别及品质评价提供分子依据.方法采用PCR直接测序技术测定山药及其地方习用品的18S rRNA基因核苷酸序列并作序列同源性分析.结果山药、广山药和土山药的18S rRNA序列长度均为1 810 bp,而方山药为1 807 bp.根据排序比较,广山药与正品山药的18S rRNA序列完全相同,而与土山药和方山药的序列同源性分别为99.89%和97.51%.结论 DNA测序技术可成为山药基原鉴定准确而有效的分子方法.

  13. Therapeutic effects of Thesium chinensis on adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats%百蕊草对阿霉素肾病大鼠治疗作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣伟东; 唐大海; 卞俊; 胡水根; 胡建峰; 范正平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of Thesium chinensis Turcz on Adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats. Methods 40 SD rats were divided into 4 groups averagely: normal control group, model control group, low-dosage group (1.0 g/( kg · d) and high-dosage group(5. 0 g/( kg · d). Nephritic syndrome models were established in 30 rats by intravenous injection of Adriamycin (6.0 mg/kg ). The rats of low-dosage group and high-dosage group were intragastric administrated decoction of Thesium chinensis Turcz daily, the model control group rats were given running water(2 ml). During 5 weeks treatment process, the 24 hour u-rine volume, 24 hour urine protein concentration of rats were observed. The level of total serum protein(TP) , serum albumin( ALP) , total cholesterol( TCH) , triglyoerides( TG) and UREA were determined, and the pathological changes of kidney tissue were assayed after the therapy process. Results The symptoms of nephritic syndromes, such as edema, tail-rot disease, were relieved by Thesium chinensis Turcz. After 2 weeks therapy, the 24 hour urine volume of low-dosage group and high-dosage group were significantly higher than model control, and the 24 hour urine protein concentration were significantly lower than model control after 3 weeks. The level of TP and ALP of low-dosage group were significantly higher than model control, as well as the level of TCH and TG were significantly lower after 5 weeks. Conclusion Thesium chinensis Turcz could eliminate tissue edema and decrease the urine protein concentration by diuretic action and improves renal pathology to protect the kidney from damage by reducing the serum cholesterol level, decreased blood lipid content, and increased the plasma protein level.%目的 观察百蕊草对大鼠肾病综合征的治疗作用.方法 SD大鼠40只,10只为空白对照组,余下分为模型组,低剂量组(1.0 g/(kg·d)),高剂量组(5.0 g/(kg·d)),每组10只,尾静脉注射阿霉素6.0 mg/kg建立

  14. Derivatives of schisandrin with increased inhibitory potential on prostaglandin E(2) and leukotriene B(4) formation in vitro.

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    Blunder, Martina; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva M; Fabian, Walter M F; Hüfner, Antje; Kunert, Olaf; Saf, Robert; Schühly, Wolfgang; Bauer, Rudolf

    2010-04-01

    Four derivatives of schisandrin, a major dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignan of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon were synthesized and structurally characterized by means of NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, axial chirality of the biphenyl system was determined by comparison of calculated with measured circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Three of the obtained derivatives showed a ring contraction during chemical modification. While the original lignans were inactive on the performed bioassays, the compounds which showed the cycloheptadiene skeleton revealed remarkable activities. For the inhibition of LTB(4) production the IC(50) values of aR-6,7-dihydro-6-(1'-hydroxyethyl)-3,9-dimethoxy-6-methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,c]cycloheptene-1,2,10,11-tetraol (6) and aR-6-(1'-iodoethyl)-1,2,3,9,10,11-hexamethoxy-6-methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,c]cycloheptene (8) were 4.2+/-0.3microM and 4.5+/-0.2microM, respectively. aR-6,7-Dihydro-6-(1'-hydroxyethyl)-6-methyl-5H-dibenzo[a,c]cycloheptene-1,2,3,9,10,11-hexaol (5) revealed dual inhibition on COX-2 (IC(50) 32.1+/-2.5microM) and on LTB(4) production (37.3+/-5.5% inhibition at 50microM).

  15. Heat shock proteins 27 and 70 contribute to the protection of Schisandrin B against d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiying; Zhang, Jishun; Li, Libo; Shen, Longqing; Li, Qingyi; Zou, Yu; Du, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhibo

    2016-04-01

    Schisandrin B is a hepatoprotective component isolated from a traditional Chinese herb, Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. This study determined the effect of Schisandrin B on d-galactosamine -induced liver injury and the role of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 against liver injury in mice. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine to mice, and Schisandrin B was given orally. The protein and gene expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 were detected by western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Liver tissues were subjected to histological evaluation, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum were measured. Pretreatment of Schisandrin B significantly attenuated d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. This result was evidenced by improved alteration of histopathological hepatic necrosis and reduced alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum. The hepatoprotective effect was accompanied with overexpression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 both at the protein and mRNA levels. However, the aforementioned actions of Schisandrin B were all markedly suppressed by the heat shock protein inhibitor quercetin. Heat shock proteins 27 and 70 were involved in the protective effect of Schisandrin B against d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.

  16. Effects of H2O2, paraquat, and ethephon on herbal drug quality of Schiandra chinensis based on reactive oxygen species system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiang-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, more and more herbal drugs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM rely on cultivation rather than natural resources because of overexploitation, and the study on quality of cultivated herbal medicines has become a hotspot in the research field of ecology of TCM resources. Though some of molecular biology techniques could improve the contents of secondary metabolites, those chemical compositions may differ from what we require from natural products, resulting in different treatment efficacy. Objective: To explore ways and means of improving TCM quality by means of regulating secondary metabolism from the perspective of natural physiological ecology. Materials and Methods: H 2 O 2 and paraquat as carriers of ROS, propyl gallate as a ROS scavenger, and ethephon as a ROS inductive agent were sprayed on Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. Results: The hypo-concentration ROS could enhance the activities of POD, PPO, as well as CAT, and propyl gallate acted on the opposite side, but they all failed to break the homeostasis between ROS and oxidase activity and to exert any effect on the contents of the schisandrin, deoxyschizandrin, and schisandrin B. The hypso-concentration ROS could break the homeostasis, reduce the activities of POD, PPO, as well as CAT, and improve the quality of S. chinensis fruit. The ethephon could effectively improve the quality of S. chinensis without the limitation of metabolic regulation. Conclusion: The conclusions accord with the hypothesis that ROS regulates secondary metabolism.

  17. Suppression of MAPK and NF-κ B pathways by schisandrin B contributes to attenuation of DSS-induced mice model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weidong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Zhi; Yu, Ting; Lu, Qin; Chen, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B), the most abundant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, possesses various biological activities, such as hepatic protection, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardiovascular properties. However, the effect of Sch B on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Sch B has protective effect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in a mouse model. The acute mouse model of IBD was induced by drinking 2.5% DSS water for 5 days. Sch B was administered orally in doses of 10, 40, and 100 mg/kg respectively. It significantly reduced concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ and IL-6 in colon tissue as well as the mRNA expression levels. In addition, we demonstrated that Sch B blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal regulated kinase in DSS-induced acute colitis. In conclusion, these results indicated that Sch B could exert beneficial effects on experimental IBD induced by DSS and may represent a novel treatment strategy for IBD.

  18. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  19. 10种湿地水生经济植物综合评价%Comprehensive Evaluation on Ten Kinds of Aquatic Economic Plants in Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊汉锋; 彭有轩; 孙海元; 史玉虎; 吴翠

    2009-01-01

    选取了6个评价因子,采用实地调查分析和层次分析方法对长江流域的10种湿地水生经济植物进行了经济功能和生态功能的综合评价.结果表明:综合效益最好的是莲藕,其次为茭白、藜蒿、水芹、芡实、荸荠、菱角、芦苇、水稻,综合效益最差的是芋头;实际测定值与单因子权重排序一致.%Six evaluation factors were chosen. The economic and ecological functions of ten aquatic economic plants in wetlands of Yangtze River Basin were evaluated comprehensively by adopting the methods of field survey and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The results showed that Nelumbo nucifeya Gaertn had the best comprehensive benefit, followed by Zizania latifolia, Artemisia selengensis Turcz, Oenanthe javanica, Euryale ferox Salisb, Eleocharis dulcis, Trapa bicornis, Phragmites australis, Oryza sativa and Colocasia esculenta . The rank of actual measured value was in accordance with weight of single factor.

  20. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

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    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  1. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  2. From the traditional Chinese medicine plant Schisandra chinensis new scaffolds effective on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistant to non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijia; Grandi, Nicole; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Mandas, Daniela; Corona, Angela; Piano, Dario; Esposito, Francesca; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is still an extremely attractive pharmaceutical target for the identification of new inhibitors possibly active on drug resistant strains. Medicinal plants are a rich source of chemical diversity and can be used to identify novel scaffolds to be further developed by chemical modifications. We investigated the ability of the main lignans from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. fruits, commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, to affect HIV-1 RT functions. We purified 6 lignans from Schisandra chinensis fruits and assayed their effects on HIV-1 RT and viral replication. Among the S. chinensis fruit lignans, Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin selectively inhibited the HIV-1 RT-associated DNA polymerase activity. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of cyclooctadiene ring substituents for efficacy. In addition, Schisandrin B was also able to impair HIV-1 RT drug resistant mutants and the early phases of viral replication. We identified Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin as new scaffold for the further development of novel HIV-1 RT inhibitors.

  3. Simultaneous determination of eleven characteristic lignans in Schisandra chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography

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    Junyang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schisandra chinensis, one of the well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicines, is derived from the dry ripe fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. according to the 9th China Pharmacopeia. Lignans are the main components isolated from extracts of S. chinensis and their content varies depending on where S. chinensis was collected. We have established a qualitative and quantitative method based on the bioactive lignans for control of the quality of S. chinensis from different sources. Materials and Methods: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatography method, an Elite ODS C18 column (250 mm Χ 4.6 mm, 5μm at a column temperature of 30°C and flow rate of 1.0ml/min using acetonitrile (A and water (B as the mobile phase with a linear gradient and the peaks were monitored at 217 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.9995 within test ranges. This method showed good repeatability for the quantification of these eleven components in S. chinensis with intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 0.43% and 1.21%, respectively. In the recovery test, results of accuracy ranged from 99.51% to 101.31% with RSD values less than 2.68%, Conclusion: The validated method can be successfully applied to quantify the eleven investigated components in 22 samples of S. chinensis from different sources.

  4. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  5. Schisandra polysaccharide evokes immunomodulatory activity through TLR 4-mediated activation of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Li, Jing; Mao, Riwen; Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Zheng, Daheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yao; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-04-01

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Previous studies have shown that Schisandra polysaccharide (SCPP11) has robust antitumor activity in vivo. In this study, the immunomodulatory activity and mechanisms of action of SCPP11 were investigated further to reveal its mechanism of action against tumors. Results showed that SCPP11 increased the thymus and spleen indices, pinocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages, and hemolysin formation in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice. Moreover, SCPP11 significantly increased immunoglobulin levels, cytokines levels in vivo and induced RAW264.7 cells to secrete cytokines in vitro. RAW264.7 cells pretreated with SCPP11 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG-2 cells. In addition, SCPP11 promoted both the expression of iNOS protein and of iNOS and TNF-α mRNA. TLR-4 is a possible receptor for SCPP11-mediated macrophage activation. Therefore, the data suggest that SCPP11 exerted its antitumor activity by improving immune system functions through TLR-4-mediated up-regulation of NO and TNF-α.

  6. Hollow fiber cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography for screening bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xue; Li, Lihua; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong

    2013-03-08

    A novel hollow fiber cell fishing method with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed and used to screen, isolate, and analyze bioactive compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). The active compounds that interact with the living cells acceptor inside the hollow fiber lumen were screened and isolated from the TCM extracts in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Subsequently, the active compounds bound to the cells were desorbed with methanol, and were analyzed using HPLC. HFCF with HPLC was introduced for the screening and analysis of lignans in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill and coumarins in Fructus Cnidii and Fructus Psoraleae. The surface properties of the hollow fibers filled with living cells were characterized. The nonspecific binding between the active centers of the hollow fibers and the bioactive compounds were investigated. The cell survival rates were determined before and after the screening. The repeatability of the method was tested. Some structures of the lignans and coumarins screened from TCMs were identified by the comparison to the retention times of the reference substances. HFCF-HPLC is a simple, fast, effective, and reliable method for the screening and analysis of bioactive compounds, and it can be extended to screen other bioactive compounds from TCMs.

  7. Variation in volatile leaf oils of eleven eucalyptus species harvested from korbous arboreta (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaissi, Ameur; Medini, Hanène; Larbi Khouja, Mohamed; Simmonds, Monique; Lynene, Fréderic; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2010-07-01

    Hydrodistillation of the dried leaves of eleven species of the genus Eucalyptus L'Hér., i.e., E. astringens Maiden, E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. diversifolia Bonpl., E. falcata Turcz., E. ficifolia F. Muell., E. gomphocephala DC., E. lehmannii (Schauer) Benth., E. maculata Hook., E. platypus Hook., E. polyanthemos Schauer, and E. rudis Endl., harvested from Korbous arboreta (region of Nabeul, northeast of Tunisia) in April 2006, afforded essential oils in yields varying from 0.1+/-0.1 to 3.8+/-0.1%, dependent on the species. E. astringens and E. ficifolia showed the highest and the lowest mean percentage of essential oil amongst all the species examined, respectively. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 138 components, representing 74.0 to 99.1% of the total oil. The contents of the different samples varied according to the species. The main components were 1,8-cineole, followed by trans-pinocarveol (1), spathulenol (2), alpha-pinene, p-cymene, (E,E)-farnesol, cryptone, globulol (3), beta-phellandrene, alpha-terpineol, viridiflorol, and alpha-eudesmol. The principal-component and the hierarchical-cluster analyses separated the eleven Eucalyptus leaf essential oils into seven groups, each constituting a chemotype.

  8. Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianren; SUN Yankun; LI Dawei

    2010-01-01

    Researches on models of remediation quickly in soda meadow alkaline soil, and dynamic variation of water-salt in saline soil of Zhaozhou County were studied systematically from 2001 to 2006. Realize the vegetation cover of those years through the artificial planting, mixed seeding lymc grass (Elymus dahuricus Turcz) and melilot in the mode of rotary tillage and deep loosening in lower and medium saline soils. The results showed that there was remarkable relationship between net evaporation (difference of precipitation and evaporation) and total salt content in the soil. The net evaporation could be used as a new method to forecast the dynamics variation of salt to ensure the pasture optimum sowing time. Realize the autumnal vegetation cover of those years through direct planting on the bourgeon layer of soda meadow alkaline soil, on the other hand, the covered pasture made the function of restraining salt and alkaline content to realize the biology reverse succession quickly. Forage seeds were seeded directly on the seeding bed of soda alkaline meadow at the end of July. In fall of the same year, a certain amount of biomass was obtained. The model, which has remarkable economical efficiency and use widely, represented the innovative model for the fast vegetation restoration on the soda alkaline meadow soil.

  9. Identification of Daqingye and Banlangen including crude drugs and decoction dregs from three plant species by normal light and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojing, Wan; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Li, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Daqingye and Banlangen are commonly used Chinese medicinal materials derived from the leaves and roots of Isatis indigotica Fort., respectively, which clinical effects have been confirmed by many studies in recent years. However, many problems have arisen concerning the quality and identity of materials sold in the market under these two names. Thus, the identification of Daqingye and Banlangen has drawn public attention. In this work, transverse sections of Daqingye and Banlangen from I. indigotica Fort. and two easily confused species, namely Baphicacanthus cusia (Nees) Bremek. and Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz., were investigated with normal light and fluorescence microscopy. The distinguishing features were 7-9 vascular bundles, cystoliths and nonglandular hairs in the leaves of I. indigotica, B. cusia, and C. cyrtophyllum, respectively. The Banlangen could be distinguished according to the characteristics of parenchymous cells, cystoliths, and stone cells. Moreover, the fluorescence features of Daqingye and Banlangen investigated in this study can provide direct points for differentiating those samples. Importantly, whether the crude drugs were decocted could be easily identified by their different fluorescence features, which can ensure their quality in clinical application. This is the first report to distinguish the three species that are commonly found in the market sold as Daqingye and Banlangen by normal light and fluorescence microscopy. This work indicates that the combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy could be powerful, convenient, and economical for authenticating Daqingye and Banlangen from the three species, including crude drugs and decoction dregs.

  10. Study on the characteristics of α-glucosidase inhibitor from Schizandra Chinensis%五味子中提取α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐林峰; 沈忠明; 殷建伟

    2001-01-01

    目的从中药五味子中提取分离α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂。方法利用浸提、超滤、柱层析、醋酸铅沉淀等方法进行纯化。结果初步分离得到α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂。结论该抑制剂成分为大分子糖苷类物质,相对分子量在5万以上,抑制类型为非竞争性抑制。%Purpose The aim is to study α-glucosidase inhibitor from Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.Methods The inhibitor was purified by soaking,ultrafiltration,ion-exchange chromatography and Lead Acetate deposition.Results A α-glucosidase inhibitor was obtained.Conclusion The inhibitor was a kind of non-competition inhibitor with large molecular weight of over 5×105D.

  11. Ex Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of 'Dispelling-Wind' Chinese Medicine Herb-Drugs on Intestinal Absorption of Chlorogenic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lixiang; Shi, Jun; Xu, Weitong; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Jianying; Deng, Wenji

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the additive or synergistic effects and mechanism of intestinal absorption of extracts from two commonly used 'dispelling-wind' TCM botanical drugs [roots of Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Franch. & Sav. (RAD) and Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk. (RSD)] using chlorogenic acid as a marker substance. Ex vivo everted intestinal sac and in situ single pass perfusion methods using rats were employed to investigate the effects of two TCM botanical drugs extracts on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. Both the extracts of RAD and RSD showed synergistic properties on the intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. The verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) and intestinal dysbacteriosis model induced by norfloxacin increased the P(app) and K(a) of intestinal absorption of chlorogenic acid. These synergistic effects on intestinal absorption in a rat model can be correlated with the inhibition of P-gp and regulation of gut microbiota. This experimental approach has helped to better understand changes in the absorption of chlorogenic acid under different conditions.

  12. Anatomical variations in wood among four native species of Leguminosae grown in arid areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shu-min; Jiang Ze-hui; Ren Hai-qing; Ikuo Furukawa

    2007-01-01

    Morphological features and anatomical variations are described and illustrated in detail for four native species of Leguminosae grown in arid sandy regions in China, which are Hedysarum scoparium Fisch.et Mey., Caragana korshiskii Kom., Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. and Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. ex Kom.) Cheng f. All species showed similar morphological features:distinct growth ring boundaries, ring to semi-ring-porosity, simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pitting, nonseptate fibers,paratracheal confluent axial parenchyma, helical thickenings and heterocellular rays. However, the vessel arrangement and their quantitative features were different. A. mongolicus had smaller vessel diameters and larger vessel frequency, while the values in the other three species were similar, but bigger than those in A. mongolicus. The variation of vessel lengths and fiber lengths along a horizontal direction showed an irregular tendency. There were significant differences in both fiber lengths and vessel element lengths among trees and within trees, except for A. mongolicus. The relationships between anatomical features of secondary xylem and the adaptability of these species to desert environments are also discussed.

  13. Некоторые чертыструктурно-функциональной адаптации видов рода Rhododendron L. к факторам среды

    OpenAIRE

    ВРИЩ Д.Л.

    2015-01-01

    Рассматриваются особенности структурно-функциональной адаптации растений рода рододендрон - Rhododendron L. на примере видов: Шлиппенбаха - Rh. schlippenbachii Maxim., остроконечного - Rh. mucronula- tum Turcz., сихотинского - Rh. sichotense Pojark., Боброва - Rh. bobrovii Vrisch, тернейского - Rh. ternicum Vrisch, золотистого - Rh. aureum Georgi и подъельникового - Rh. hipopitys Pojark. на российском Дальнем Востоке....

  14. Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Induction Contributes to Antioxidant Capacity of a Schisandrae Fructus Ethanol Extract in C2C12 Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sook Kang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to confirm the protective effect of Schisandrae Fructus, which are the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill, against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in C2C12 myoblasts. Preincubating C2C12 cells with a Schisandrae Fructus ethanol extract (SFEE significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced inhibition of growth and induced scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by H2O2. SFEE also inhibited comet tail formation and phospho-histone γH2A.X expression, suggesting that it prevents H2O2-induced cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, treating C2C12 cells with SFEE significantly induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a potent inhibitor of HO-1 activity, significantly reversed the protective effects of SFEE against H2O2-induced growth inhibition and ROS generation in C2C12 cells. Additional experiments revealed that the potential of the SFEE to induce HO-1 expression and protect against H2O2-mediated cellular damage was abrogated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA, suggesting that the SFEE protected C2C12 cells against oxidative stress-induced injury through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  15. Evaluation of antidesmone alkaloid as a photosynthesis inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Olívia Moreira; Lima, Murilo Marinho de Castro; Veiga, Thiago André Moura; King-Díaz, Beatriz; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2016-11-01

    Antidesmone, isolated from Waltheria brachypetala Turcz., owns special structural features as two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups and a side alkyl chain that can compete with the quinones involved in the pool of plastoquinones at photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we showed that the alkaloid is an inhibitor of Hill reaction and its target was located at the acceptor side of PSII. Studies of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence showed a J-band that indicates direct action of antidesmone in accumulation of QA(-) (reduced plastoquinone A) due to the electron transport blocked at the QB (plastoquinone B) level similar to DCMU. In vivo assays indicated that antidesmone is a selective post-emergent herbicide probe at 300μM by reducing the biomass production of Physalis ixacarpa plants. Furthermore, antidesmone also behaves as pre-emergent herbicide due to inhibit Physalis ixacarpa plant growth about 60%. Antidesmone, a natural product containing a 4(1H)-pyridones scaffold, will serve as a valuable tool in further development of a new class of herbicides.

  16. 东苕溪中下游内河航运对鱼类群落的影响%Effect of Inland Navigation on Fish Community in the Middle-lower Reaches of East Tiaoxi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亮亮; 李建华; 鹿野雄一; 佐藤辰郎; 吴志强

    2013-01-01

    通过野外现场调查,研究东苕溪中下游内河航运对鱼类多样性的影响.逐步回归分析结果显示,水体的浊度与船舶航运频率呈显著正相关;浊度与8种小型鱼类-彩鱊(Acheilognathus imberbis)、越南鱊(Acheilognathus tonkinensis)、方氏鳑皱(Rhodeus fangi)、中华鳑皱(Rhodeus sinensis)、高体鳑皱(Rhodeus ocellatus)、(督)(Hemiculter leucisculus)、食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)、子陵吻虾虎鱼(Rhinogobius giurinus)个体数呈显著负相关性(P<0.05);浊度与6种个体略大的鱼类-翘嘴鲌(Cuher alburnus)、红鳍鲌(Chanodichthys erythropterus)、油(蟹)(Hemiculter lucidus)、鲫(Carassius auratus)、麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)和间下鱵(Hyporhamphus intermedius)个体数负相关,但无显著性差异(P>0,05).广义线性模型显示,物种丰度和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数与水体浊度及人工护岸呈显著负相关;物种个体数与水体浊度、人工护岸结构及水深呈显著负相关(P<0.05).浊度与鱼类体重关系的回归模型显示,浊度与平均体重和最小体重呈显著正相关(P<0.05),而浊度与最大体重无显著相关性(P>0.05).研究表明,东苕溪中下游的内河航运可导致水体浊度增大,进而危害鱼类,其中对小型鱼类或幼鱼的危害更大.

  17. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula

  18. 长白山地区5种可利用饲草营养成分及单宁含量动态分析%The dynamic analysis of nutrient and tannin content of five kinds of available forage in Changbai Mountain region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏; 赵微; 李成云

    2015-01-01

    文章研究了长白山地区山野豌豆(Viciaamoena Fisch)、胡枝子(Lespedeza bicolor Turcz)、紫穗槐(Amorpha fruticosa L.)、榛子叶(Corylaceae leaf)和柞树叶(Xylosma racemosum leaf)叶片中水分、粗蛋白(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)和粗灰分(Ash)等常规营养成分以及总酚、简单酚、单宁和缩合单宁的含量随生育期推移的变化动态,借此来评价这5种植物的饲用价值.结果表明:随着生育期的推移,5种植物叶片中CP和水分含量呈下降趋势,而NDF、ADF及Ash表现为上升的趋势;样品中总酚、简单酚、单宁、缩合单宁含量随生育期的推移表现不规则波浪型变化,总体呈现下降趋势,且在不同种类植物之间差异明显,说明植物种类是影响植物酚类含量的主要因素.通过营养成分以及相对饲用价值(RFV)的测定发现5种植物都具有可观的饲用价值,而且通过试验对其单宁含量动态的分析,为这5种饲草的合理利用提供数据支持,充分发挥植物单宁保护过瘤胃蛋白及防止膨胀病等功能,深度挖掘长白山地区这5种常见饲草的应用潜能.%The experiment took the leaves of viciaamoena fisch, lespedeza bicolor turcz, amorpha fruti-cosa L., corylaceae, and xylosma racemosum, which were collected in Changbai Mountain area, as the objects to study the dynamic changes in the process of growth by analyzing the content of moisture, CP, NDF, ADF, crude ash and some other common nutrition component, as well as total polyphenols, sim-ple polyphenols, tannins and condensed tannins in these samples. Then using the above researches eval-uates the feeding value of the five kinds of plants. The results showed as followed: In the process of grows, the contents of CP and moisture showed a downward trend, while the contents of NDF, ADF and Ash showed an upward trend. In the process of grows, there were significantly different among the five different kinds of plants in terms

  19. 前胡族花粉外壁超微结构及其系统学意义%Ultrastructure of Pollen Exine in Peucedaneae Drude with Reference to Its Systematic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒璞; 佘孟兰

    2004-01-01

    18种植物的花粉外壁表面和内部的超微结构.根据花粉外壁超微结构资料,论述了18种及其所在属的系统位置.对现时尚存疑的问题,诸如当归亚族中的山芹属(Ostericum Hoffm.)等7属(种),经分析认为统归于当归属(Angelica L.)不恰当;阿魏亚族中的球根阿魏(Schumannia turcomanica Kuntze)、伊犁芹(Talassiatransiliensis(Herd.)Korov.)、胀果芹(Phlojodicarpus villosus(Turcz.ex Fisch.et Mey.)Turcz.ex Ledeb.)等属的代表种显示其外壁演化程度相差甚大,应以与阿魏属(Ferula L.)分别独立为宜;环翅芹亚族(Tordyliinae Drude)中大瓣芹属(Semenovia Regel et Herd.)与独活属(Heracleum L.)的代表种其外壁演化程度相距甚远,也以分立为宜.

  20. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  1. Plant Flavonoid Content Modified by Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Seguel, Ivette; Urzúa, Alejandro; Quiroz, Andrés

    2017-07-21

    Plant domestication can modify and weaken defensive chemical traits, reducing chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against pests. We characterized and quantified the major defensive flavonols and isoflavonoids present in both wild and cultivated murtilla plants (Ugni molinae Turcz), established in a common garden. We examined their effects on the larvae of Chilesia rudis (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Insect community and diversity indices were also evaluated. We hypothesized that domestication reduces flavonoid contents and modifies C. rudis preference, the insect community, and diversity. Methanolic extracts were obtained from leaves of U. molinae plants and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed higher insect numbers (86.48%) and damage index (1.72 ± 0.16) in cultivated plants. Four new first records of insects were found associated with U. molinae. Diversity indices, such as Simpson, Shannon, and Margalef, were higher in cultivated plants than in wild plants. Furthermore, eight isoflavonoids were identified in U. molinae leaves for the first time. The five flavonols showed higher concentrations in wild U. molinae leaves (89.8 µg/g) than in cultivated plants (75.2 µg/g); however, no differences were found in isoflavonoids between wild and cultivated plants. The larvae of C. rudis consumed more leaf material of cultivated plants than wild plants in choice (3.8 vs. 0.8 mm2) and no-choice (7.5 vs. 3.0 mm2) assays. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduces the amount of flavonoids in leaves, increasing the preference of C. rudis and the insect community. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Isolation and purification of lignans from Schisandra chinensis by combination of silica gel column and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel column combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography separation was successfully applied to the separation of schizandrin (I, angeloylgomisin H (II, gomisin A (III, schisantherin C (IV, deoxyschizandrin (V, γ-schisandrin (VI and schisandrin C (VII from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baillon. The petroleum ether extracts of the fruits of S. chinensis were pre-separated first on a silica gel column and divided into two fractions as sample 1 and sample 2. 260 mg of sample 1 was separated by HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:8:10:8, v/v as the two-phase solvent system and 18.2 mg of schizandrin, 15.7 mg of angeloylgomisin H, 16.5 mg of gomisin A and 16.7 mg of schisantherin C were obtained. 230 mg of sample 2 was separated using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:0.5:10:1, v/v as the two-phase solvent system and 19.7 mg of deoxyschizandrin, 23.4 mg of γ-schisandrin and 18.2 mg of schisandrin C were obtained. The purities of the separated compounds were all over 94% as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by ESI-MS and 1H NMR. [Acknowledgments. Natural Science Foundation of China (20872083, scientific and technological major special project (2010ZX09401-302-5-12 and the Key Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province (BS2009SW047

  4. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients and Vegetation Properties in Semi-Arid Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fu-Sheng; ZENG De-Hui; HE Xing-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Kezuohouqi County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, which was located on the southeastern edge of the Horqin Sandy Land, to study the spatial variability of soil nutrients for a smallscale, nutrient-poor, sandy site in a semi-arid region of northern China; to investigate whether or not there were "islands of fertility" at the experimental site; and to determine the key nutrient elements that sustained ecosystem stability. Results obtained from geostatistical analysis indicated that the spatial distribution pattern of soil total nitrogen (STN) was far different from those of soil organic matter (SOM), total phosphorus (STP), and total potassium (STK). Compared to SOM, STP, and STK, STN had a lower structural heterogeneity ratio and a longer range, while other elements were all similar. In addition, STN had an isotropic spatial structure, whereas the others had an anisotropic spatial structure.The spatial structure patterns of herbage species, cover, and height also differed, indicating that spatial variability was subjected to different ecological factors. Differences in the spatial variability patterns among soil nutrients and vegetation properties showed that soil nutrients for a small-scale were not the primary limiting factors that influenced herbage spatial distribution patterns. Incorporating spatial distribution patterns of tree species, namely, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. and shrub Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. in a research plot and using fractal dimension, SOM, STP, and STK were shown to contribute to the "islands of fertility" phenomenon, however STN was not, possibly meaning that nitrogen was a key limiting element. Therefore, during restoration of similar ecosystems more attention should be given to soil nitrogen.

  5. 升麻解毒药对在方剂中的作用%Formula effect of drug combinations paired by herbs Cimicifuga as antidote

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张均克

    2011-01-01

    文章就升麻的解毒功效及其药对组合在方剂配伍中的作用,结合本草文献、实验研究和临床经验进行了论述.总结出升麻的解毒作用主要有解时疫疠毒、解疮疡斑疹肿毒、解虫毒和解药毒4个方面.并分别阐述了升麻配玄参、配生地黄、配大青、配黄连、配石膏、配虎杖、配鳖甲、配金银花和连翘、配甘草、配牛蒡子、配马蔺子、配射干、配牛蒡子和桔梗、配葛根、配黄芩、配黄柏、配芍药的意义.%This paper discussed the detoxification efficacy of Cimicifuga and its drug combinations in the prescription compatibility by herbal literature research, experimental research and clinical experience and other methods.Summarized that detoxification efficacy of Cimicifuga including four aspects: detoxication of the epidemic pestilence, the sore rash swollen poison, the insect poison and the antidote to poison. Expounded that formula effect of Paired Herbs or drug combinations paired by Cimicifuga as antidote respectively with Scrophularia , with Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.)Libosch, with Cleredendrum cwtophyllum Turcz, with Coptidis Chinensis, with Gypsum Fibrosum, with Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb.Et Zucc, with Carapax Trionycis, with Lonicerae and Forsythiae, with Glycyrrhiza, with Arctium, with Semen Iridis(Seed of Chinese Small Iris), with Rhizoma Belamcandae, with Arctium and Radix Platycodonis , with Pueraria lobata(Willd.)Ohwi, with Radix Scutellariae, with Phellodendron Chinense Schnei, with Paeonia lactiflora Pall, with peony,etc.

  6. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Liu, Chunmei; Xu, Mengjie; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS) on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg) to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM) could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway). Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1), crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  7. Species Selection of Hedgerow in Sloping Cultivated Lands in Guizhou Plateau%黔中高原坡耕地植物篱物种选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田潇; 周运超; 蔡先立; 马礼平; 刘晓芸

    2016-01-01

    通过在红枫湖上游坡耕地设置30个植物篱径流小区,探讨了9种植物篱的水土保持效应和养分拦截效应.结果表明,灰毛豆[Tephrosia purpurea (L.)Pers.]植物篱的保水效应最好,相对径流拦截率为91.75%;紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)植物篱的保土效应最好,相对泥沙拦截率为69.25%.灰毛豆植物篱对坡耕地氮、磷的拦截效应最为明显,其中氮相对拦截量为283.03 g/hm2,相对拦截率为70.08%;磷相对拦截量为185.92 g/hm2,相对拦截率为80.21%.胡枝子(Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.)植物篱对坡耕地钾的拦截效应最为明显,钾相对拦截量为135.11 g/hm2,相对拦截率为86.08%;灰毛豆次之,钾相对拦截量为125.13 g/hm2,相对拦截率为79.72%.9种植物篱均具有较好的水土保持功能和养分拦截作用,可作为黔中高原坡耕地植物篱物种应用.

  8. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems.

  9. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    Full Text Available Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1, crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP, and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  10. Revisão das espécies de Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Revision of the species of Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Benfatti Gonzalez Peronti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo são revisadas. São estudadas 36 espécies de Ceroplastinae, das quais 9 são sinonimizadas, 8 espécies novas são descritas e 19 são redescritas. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 e C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866, mencionadas para o Estado de São Paulo, não foram examinadas, devido a não localização do material tipo ou de outros exemplares. Nossos estudos indicaram que C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 e C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 foram erroneamente citadas por Hempel, 1900 para o estado de São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, atualmente Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871, é transferida para gênero Ceroplastes como Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871 n. comb. C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 é registrada pela primeira vez para o país e C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848, C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 e C. quadratus Green, 1935 são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo. Ceroplastinae é agora representada por 31 espécies no Estado de São Paulo, todas incluídas no gênero Ceroplastes. Ilustrações e uma chave para espécies são incluídas. Novos sinônimos: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848 n. sin. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. sin e C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. sin. Novas espécies descritas: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Esp

  11. Effects of the thermal discharge from Qinshan Nuclear Plant on the distribution pattern of fish%秦山核电温排水对鱼类分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋朝鹏; 徐兆礼; 陈佳杰; 孙鲁峰; 阙江龙

    2016-01-01

    Based on the data taken from fishery resource surveying of the sea areas around Qinshan Nuclear Plant dur-ing spring (2010-05), summer (2010-09) and winter (2009-12) and the mathematical simulation results of thermal dis-charge diffusion in Qinshan Nuclear Plant, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution pattern of fish assemblies, the dominant species, and the contributions of dominant species to fish quantities in the water of Qinshan Nuclear Plant. The results showed that the density of fish in terms of individuals was highest in summer (22.10×103ind/km2), interme-diate in winter (10.52×103ind/km2) and lowest in spring (5.55×103ind/km2). However, the seasonal variation in fish quantities in terms of weight was different from other waters. The fish density in terms of weight was highest in winter (66.46 kg/km2), intermediate in summer (59.06 kg/km2), and lowest in spring (33.80 kg/km2).The seasonal variation in fish resource quantities was different to other seas; the densities in terms of weight were higher in winter than those in spring and summer. This was probably related to thermal discharge from the plant making the proximal sea regions warmer than the surrounding sea waters, which could benefit the fish assemblies in winter because of a warm pool ef-fect. Thus, fish assemblies aggregated in the thermal plume of the plant to overwinter. Horizontal distribution of ther-mal discharge has an important effect on fish distribution patterns. The fish density in the thermal discharge seas in summer was generally lower than other seas and was the opposite in winter: fish may have been stranded in the hot thermal discharge plume areas, thus showing a higher fish density. Thermal discharge has different effects on fishes with different adaptabilities to temperature; the warm temperature species that are adapted to relatively low temperature, such asCoilia ectenes, can overwinter in the thermal discharge seas, whileCollichthys lucidus, which has high thermal

  12. 苜蓿混合凋萎青贮技术对青贮品质的影响%Effects of Mixed Wilting Silage Technology on Alfalfa Silage Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾纳提; 刘梦; 李莉; 董志国; 麦丽亚·伊尔斯比克

    2012-01-01

    对苜蓿+无芒雀麦+披碱草和苜蓿+无芒雀麦+冰草的混播草地牧草采用凋萎青贮技术进行混合青贮,以单独凋萎青贮新疆大叶苜蓿设为对照,分析各处理青贮材料的pH值、CP、NDF、ADF、乙酸、乳酸、丙酸和氨态氮的变化,比较其混合青贮技术对青贮品质的影响。试验结果表明,苜蓿混合凋萎青贮无论从青贮感官指标,还是从青贮料的营养成分及有机酸含量,其表现比单独凋萎青贮效果好。在混合凋萎青贮处理的两个组合中,苜蓿+无芒雀麦+冰草混合青贮效果最理想。%The mixed wilting silage technology was used on Xinjiang big leaf alfalfa-Medicago sativa L. + Bromus inermis Leyss + Agropyron cristatum and Xinjiang big leaf alfalfa-Medicago sativa L. + Bromus inermis Leyss + Elymus dahuricus Turcz, and set single- wilting silage as control. PH value,CP, NDF, ADF, Butyric acid, Acetic acid, Propionic acid and NH3-N content in each treatment changes were analysed to compare the effects of mixed wilting silage technology on alfalfa silage quality .The results showed that alfalfa mixed wilting silage ,whether from the sensory index of silage, or from the nutrients and organic acid contents of silage to consider ,the effect was better than single-wilting silage. In the two combinations of mixed wilting silage treatment, the treatment Xinjiang big leaf alfalfa- Medicago sativa L. + Bromus inermis Leyss + Agropyron cristatum silage effect was better..

  13. Study on Lignans From Leaves of Schisandra chinensis%北五味子叶片木脂素类成分含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗高健; 张正海; 李爱民; 魏盼盼

    2011-01-01

    To study the diurnal changes (Schisandrol A, deoxyschisandrin and Schisandrin B ) in leaves of Schisandra chi-nensis (Turcz.)Baill. To offer a theory of synthetic wood for the next level of component and type in high quality research. Ultrasonic extraction was used to extract effective ingredients from the leaves of Schisandra chinensis, and the extracts were determined Schisandrol A, deoxyschisandrin and Schisandrin B by HPLC. The ligans in leaves tended to rise from 6:00 to 9:00 (the content of deoxyschisandrin and Schisandrin reach the highest at 9:00 in the day), decrease from 9:00 to 15:00, and rise from 15:00 to 18:00 (content of Schisandrol A reach the highest at 18:00 in the day). The order of level on ligans at the same location is Schisandrin B> deoxyschisandrin> Schisandrol A.%研究北五味子叶片中五味子醇甲、五味子甲素、五味子乙素含量的日变化,为今后人工合成木脂素类成分和开展优质高效栽培技术研究提供理论依据.超声提取五味子叶片的木质素类成分,并利用HPLC对五味子醇甲、五味子甲素、五味子乙素进行含量测定.3种木脂素类成分在叶片中的含量从6:00时至9:00时呈上升趋势(五味子醇甲和五味子乙素在9:00时达到1d中的最大值);9:00时至15:00时呈递减趋势;15:00时至18:00时又呈上升趋势(五味子甲素在18:00时达到1d中的最大值).同一节位叶片中木脂素类成分含量的高低顺序为五味子乙素>五味子醇甲>五味子甲素.

  14. 八宝惊风散质量标准研究%Study on quality standard of Babao Jingfeng powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆颖; 栗建明; 孙丽丽; 王洪皓; 乔莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:完善八宝惊风散的质量标准。方法采用显微鉴别对钩藤、防风、栀子进行定性鉴别,采用薄层色谱法对黄芩、冰片、人工牛黄、栀子进行定性鉴别,采用高效液相色谱法对八宝惊风散中的天麻素进行含量测定。结果显微特征专属性强,薄层色谱斑点显色清晰,阴性无干扰,专属性强。天麻素在0.0252~5.0400μg检测范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.9996,平均回收率为97.4%,RSD为0.5%(n=6)。结论建立的分析方法简便可行,专属性强,可用于八宝惊风散的质量控制。%Objective To perfect the quality standard of Babao Jingfeng powder. Methods The microscopic characteris-tics of Uncaria tomentosa,Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.)Schischk.,Gardenia jasminoides Elliss were developed by mi-croscope.Scutellaria balcalensis,Borneolum Syntheticum,Bovis Calculus Artifactus,Gardenia jasminoides Elliss were iden-tified by TLC.The content of gastrodin in Babao Jingfeng powder was determined by HPLC. Results The microscopic characteristics were exclusive.TLC spots were clear and well-separated without interference from negative sample.The linear range of gastrodin was 0.0252-5.0400 μg (r=0.9996)and the average recovery rate was 97.4%,RSD=0.5%(n=6). Conclusion The method is simple and highly accurate.It can be used for the quality control of Babao Jingfeng powder.

  15. In vitro Screening and Evaluation of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicines for Their Potential to Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Zhang, Yonglan; Yang, Fengqing; Lin, Yexin; Zhang, Qihui; Xia, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ is widely used as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones, the agonists of PPARγ, has been popularly utilized as insulin sensitizers in the therapy of type 2 diabetes whereas numerous severe side-effects may also occur concomitantly. Objective: The PPARγ activation activity of different polar extracts, including petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, residual of ethanol, the precipitate part of water and the supernatant of water extracts, from 37 traditional Chinese medicines were systematically evaluated. Materials and Methods: HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with the re-constructed plasmids of GAL4-PPARγ-ligand binding domain and pGL4.35. The activation of PPARγ by different polarity extracts were evaluated based on the PPARγ transactivation assay and rosiglitazone was used as positive control. Results: Seven medicines (root bark of Lycium barbarum, Anoectochilus sroxburghii, the rhizome of Phragmites australis, Pterocephalus hookeri, Polygonatum sibiricum, fruit of Gleditsia sinensis, and Epimedium brevicornu) were able to significantly activate PPARγ. Conclusion: As seven medicines were able to activate PPARγ, the anti-diabetic activity of them is likely to be mediated by this nuclear receptor. SUMMARY Lots of the tested medicinal products had activation effects on activating PPARγEthyl acetate extracts of root bark of L.barbarum, rhizome of P.saustralis and fruit of G.siasinensis showed good PPARγ activation effect similar or higher than that of positive control, 0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazonePetroleum ether extracts of A.roxburghii, P. hookeri, P. sibiricum, E.brevicornu also can significantly activate PPARγ, the effects of them were higher than t0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazoneSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., the fruit Cornus officinalis Siebold and Zucc., Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and the root of Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maxim

  16. Ecophysiological Evidence for the Competition Strategy of Two Psammophytes Artemisia halodendron and A. frigida in Horqin Sandy Land, Nei Mongol

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    ZHOUHai-Yan; LISheng-Gong; LIXin-Rong; ZHAOAi-Fen; ZHAOHa-Lin; FANHeng-Wen; WANGGang

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, water relations and leaf chemical characteristics were examined of twodominant psammophytes: Artemisia frigida Willd and A halodendron Turcz. ex Bess in Horqin sandy land, NeiMongol, China under different water regimes. The measurements were conducted by submitting the plantsto five different irrigation levels. A. fTigida was characterized by lower photosynthetic rate (Pn), lowertranspiration rate ( TR and lower shoot water potential (ψuw) relative to A. halodendron. Foliage of A frigdahad higher values of relative water deficit (RWD), bound water content (BWC), ratio of bound water contentto free water content (BWC/FWC) and integrated drought-resistant index (DI than that of A. halodendron.Water relations differed significantly between two species in response to soil water availability. ψw, BWCand BWC/FWC ratio of A halodendron exhibited large variation with gradual decrease of soil moisture.However, in terms of these parameters, A. fRIGIDA was characterized by higher capacity of water holding anddrought tolerance relative to A halodendron. Proline and total soluble sugar contents of A frigida and Ahalodendron tended to increase with decrease of soil moisture and the former had a larger increaseamplitude than the latter. This shows that A frigida has a higher osmotic regulation ability than A halodendron.Under the extreme drought conditions, ψw, RWD, BWC and BWC/FWC of two species were approximate,but soluble proteins degraded largely. A large amount of accumulation of organic matter, proline and totalsoluble sugars were observed in both A halodendron and A frigida. The increase in proline and total solublesugar contents and soluble protein degradation of A frigida far exceeded those of A. halodendron. Webelieve that the accumulated materials at this moment are mostly of nutrient substances available for therecovery of plants after the drought. This is one of the reasons why A halodendron plants died while Afrigida plants survived under extremely

  17. SPECIES COMPOSITION AND QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN THE HANGZHOU BAY DURING SPRING AND AUTUMN%杭州湾海域春、秋季鱼类种类组成和数量分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢旭; 俞存根; 周青松; 李德伟; 叶深; 郑基; 余求妹

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data of demersal fishes that collected by bottom trawl in the Hangzhou Bay,east China in May and October 2012,we used the catch rates as the index of fish resource and spatial distribution,and analyzed fish species composition,fauna characters,and quantitative distribution in the survey area.The results show:(1) 31 fish species were found and identified in spring and autumn,which belonged to 9 orders and 15 families.More species belonged to Sciaenidae and Gobiidae,and each has 5 species,accounting for 16.7%; followed by Engraulidae,who had 4 species,taking 13.3% of all the species.The dominant species in the bay were Lophiohobius ocellicauda,Harpodon nehereus,Coilia ectenes,and Collichthys lucidus.(2) In thermal adaptation,fishes in this area could be divided into three types,including warm-water species,warm-temperate,and cold-temperate species.The fishes were caught mainly belonged to warmtemperate species,followed by warm-water species,and only one species belonged to cold-temperate species.(3) In ecology habits,the fish species could be separated into three types,estuary species,coastal species,and offshore species.(4) Distribution of the catch rates showed that more fishes were caught at the top of the bay,i.e.mid-west of the survey sea area in spring,and fewer fishes were caught at the mouth of the bay.The opposite was happened in autumn.%采用底层拖网法,用渔获率作为鱼类资源数量分布的指标,进行了杭州湾调查海域2012年5月(春季)、10月(秋季)2个季节的鱼类种类组成、区系特点、数量分布等研究.结果表明:(1)杭州湾海域春、秋两季共获得并鉴定出的鱼类有31种,隶属于9目15科,其中以石首鱼科和(鰕)虎鱼科的种类为最多,各有5种,分别占总种数的16.7%;鳀科鱼类次之,有4种,占总种数的13.3%,优势种有睛尾蝌蚪(鰕)虎鱼、龙头鱼、刀鲚、棘头梅童鱼;(2)根据鱼类适温性可将该海域的鱼类分为暖

  18. 夏、秋季长江口鱼类群落结构%Fish community structure of the Yangtze River Estuary in summer and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新强; 史赟荣; 晁敏; 黄厚见; 唐峰华

    2011-01-01

    For studying the fish community characteristics influenced by the habitat variation in Yangtze River Estuary, which could be used to determine how to manage its fish resources usefully, fishes from Yangtze River Estuary were collected during summer( the second half month of May to August 2010 )and autumn( September 2010 )every week (every half a month in the first half of August). During the study periods,39 species belonging to 6 fish ecological guilds and 20 families, 12 orders were identified, most of them were marine migrant fishes( 17 species )and estuarine resident species (14 species), and Engraulidae had the highest numbers of fishes (6 species ), then followed by Gobiidae and Sciaenidae (4 species ).Cochran and Friedman test was used to indicate that species composition or numbers of each guild in each month between May and September had no significant difference, respectively. Marine migrant taxa were both the most important guild of abundance or catch in each month, and average abundance or catch per net showed no statistical variations between May and August, but it was higher in September than that from May to August( except average abundance in July). Significant difference occurred in abundance or catch rank in each guild. Percentages of juveniles of 6 importantly commercial species (Big head croaker Collichthys lucidus, Japanese grenadier anchovy Coilia nasus, Osbeck' s grenadier anchovy Coilia mystus, silver pomfret Pampus argenteus,dark pomfret Pampus cinereus,and Bombay duck Harpodon nehereus) were examined to exhibit the variability in rank-distributions, C. lucidus and C. nasus declined, by contrast, C. rnystus increased,P. argenteus occured from May to August, while P. cinereus was observed during August to September. C. nasus spawn in fresh water, but C. rnystus breed in the Estuary, which would reflect the temporal or spatial segregation of species of fishes belonging the same genus and were considered the ecological lysimilar, impling that

  19. Comparative study on micro-morphological characteristics of seed coat of fourteen species in Chenopodiaceae from China%国产藜科14种植物种皮微形态特征比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明忠; 孙坤; 张明理; 庞海龙; 李金霞

    2011-01-01

    应用扫描电子显微镜和光学显微镜观察了中国产藜科(Chenopodiaceae)5族10属14种植物的种子形态和种皮微形态结构.观察结果表明:供试的14种藜科植物的种子多为卵形和圆形,少数为双凸镜形;种皮表面都具有网状纹饰,包括浅网纹、负网纹和穴状网纹.种皮可分为膜质和壳质2类,其中,膜质型种皮表面不光滑,除网状纹饰外,还有瘤状或褶皱状等纹饰,网眼无规则,纹饰排列无序,猪毛菜族(Salsoleae C.A.Mey.)的松叶猪毛菜(Salsola laricifolia Turcz.ex Litv.)及樟味藜族(Camphorosmeae Moq.)的地肤[Kochia scoparia(L.)Schrad.]、全翅地肤(K.krylovii Litv.)、黑翅地肤(K.melanoptera Bunge)、雾冰藜[Bassia dasyphylla(Fisch.et Mey.)O.Kuntze]、钩刺雾冰藜[B.hyssopifolia(Pall.)O.Kuntze]、樟味藜(Camphorosma monspeliaca L.)、兜藜(Panderia turkestanica Iljin.)和棉藜(Kirilowia eriantha Bunge)均属此类;壳质型种皮表面近光滑,网眼规则,排列整齐有序,少数为不规则浅穴,网脊平而不明显或凹陷,滨藜族(Atripliceae C.A.Mey.)的滨藜[Atriplex patens(Litv.)Iljin.]、碱蓬族(Suaedeae Reich.)的角果碱蓬[Suaeda corniculata(C.A.Mey.)Bunge]、纵翅碱蓬[S.pterantha(Kar.et Kir.)Bunge]和异子蓬(Borszczowia aralocaspica Bunge)以及藜族(Chenopodieae C.A.Mey.)的刺藜(Chenopodium aristatum L.)均属此类.各族之间种皮微形态结构也有一定的区别.根据种皮微形态,地肤属(Kochia Roth)与雾冰藜属(Bassia All.)的关系较近,属的界限和部分种类的亲缘关系需要进一步界定.藜科植物种皮表面大部分凹凸不平,这种结构可能与荒漠干旱生境下吸收和保留水分有关.%Seed shape and micro-morphological structure of seed coat of fourteen species belonging to ten genera and five tribes in Chenopodiaceae from China were observed by SEM and LM. Observation results show that most seeds of fourteen species are ovate and circular, and a few seeds are biconvex. There

  20. Development and Age Structure of Ramets of Kalimeris integrifolia Populations in the Songnen Plains, Northeast China%松嫩平原全叶马兰种群无性系分株的建成及其年龄结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨允菲; 王升忠; 李建东

    2003-01-01

    全叶马兰(Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz.)为根蘖型多年生草本菊科植物.在生长季后期,新生肉质细根向地表生长形成根蘖芽.根蘖芽成株后形成主根.经过对大量样本观察,创建了按形态特征对根蘖型草本植物种群无性系分株和芽的年龄划分方法,以及对主根生活年限的估计方法.分株年龄是按主根芽再生的次数划分,新根蘖芽成株为1 a,1 a分株死亡后从主根再萌生的分株为2 a,2 a分株死亡后从主根再萌生的分株为3 a.新根蘖芽为0 a芽,其它龄级与分株的龄级相一致,即1 a分株主根芽为1 a芽,2 a分株主根芽为2 a芽.在松嫩平原割草草场,全叶马兰种群由3个龄级无性系分株组成,呈稳定型年龄结构.分株主根的生活年限最多为4年.分株的生产力种群水平以2 a最高,个体水平则以1 a最低,并随着龄级的增加呈增长趋势.其中,在生长季初期以3 a分株的生产力最高,进入中期以后则1 a分株的相对生长速率最大.用秋末新生根蘖数量和现时种群数量可以较准确预报翌年种群数量和年龄结构.芽库中潜在种群数量是现时种群数量的2倍以上,但不意味着种群将发生疯长,而是为替补所做的充分准备.%Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. is a root sucker form perennial herb of Compositae. In the late period of growing season, fresh fleshy radicels grow up above the soil surface to develop root-borne buds, which in turn grow into ramets and taproot. On the basis of observation on numerous samples, methods to classify the age of ramets and buds for the root sucker herbaceous plant population and to estimate the ages of taproots were established according to their morphology. The age of ramets was classified based on the regeneration times of taproot buds. Ramets developed from new root sucker buds were classified as 1 a. After 1 a ramets died, the ramets reproduced from the taproots were 2 a, and so on. New buds from a root sucker

  1. 五味子红色素在发酵食品加工中的稳定性%Stability of Red Pigment from Schisandra chinensi in the Processing of Fermented Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乜玉双; 孙广仁; 蒋莉莉; 高晓旭; 陈建光

    2014-01-01

    The red pigments from Schisandra chinensis( Turcz. ) Baill were used in processing of fermented food by lactic-acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, acetic-acid fermentation and wine fermentation to test the pigment stability. The results show that the decomposition rates of the red pigments from S. chinensis in the lactic-acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation and acetic-acid fermentation are 78. 36%, 41. 10% and 18. 74%respectively and these decomposition rates have positive correlation with lactic concentration, alcohol volume fraction and acetic acid concentration, R2 as 0. 94,0. 96 and 0. 89. The decomposition rate of red pigments in wine fermentation of Schisandra juice with different acidity is only 11 . 05% significantly lower than alcoholic fermentation and the decomposition rate was negatively correlated with the acidity (R2=0. 97),it is confirmed that an appropriate increase in the acidity will increase the stability of red pigment. The research on the stability of the red pigment in the processing of fermented food has instructive significance to further optimize the technology of fermented food from S. chinensis.%以五味子红色素为研究对象,分别采用乳酸发酵、酒精发酵、醋酸发酵和果酒酿造工艺进行五味子红色素分解试验,探讨五味子红色素在发酵食品加工中的稳定性.结果表明:五味子红色素在乳酸发酵、酒精发酵、醋酸发酵过程中,红色素的分解率分别为78.36%,41.10%,18.74%,其分解率与发酵产生的乳酸质量浓度、酒精体积分数、醋酸质量浓度正相关,相关系数R2分别为0.94,0.96,0.89,而在不同酸度的五味子果酒酿造过程中,其红色素的分解率为11.05%,明显低于红色素的酒精发酵过程,其分解率与酸度负相关(R2=0.97),因此证实适当提高酸度会增加五味子红色素的稳定性.五味子红色素在发酵食品加工中的稳定性研究对进一步优化五味子发酵食品工艺具有指导意义.

  2. 25种植物提取物杀灭鱼类指环虫活性研究%Study on the activity 25 natural plant extracts killing the Dactylogyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 赵云奎; 申烨华; 郑伟; 袁明; 陈俏

    2011-01-01

    目的 筛选出对指环虫具有杀灭活性的植物.方法 将感染有指环虫的金鱼投放在加有一定浓度植物提取物的水体中,控制一定的水体条件,显微镜下定期观察鱼鳃上的指环虫数量,最后统计杀虫率.结果 黄花烟草、牵牛子对中型指环虫最高杀灭率均为90%,其次是茶粕和贯众,分别为70%和55%.苦楝、80%印楝、10%雷公藤、雷丸、使君子、鹤虱、白鲜皮、山豆根、半夏、川鸟、千金子、木鳖子、阿魏、补骨脂、巴豆、天南星、大戟、仙鹤草的最高杀虫率48 h内均在10%~50%.黄花烟草的最佳有效浓度是80.0 mg/L;茶粕最低用量为6.5 mg/L,但对鱼不安全,在9.5 mg/L时鱼死亡率达60%以上;在药物浓度100~1000 mg/L范围内,柴胡、白头翁、姜黄提取物没有明显杀虫活性.结论 黄花烟草、牵牛子具有较好的杀虫活性,可以作为进一步研究的材料.%Aim To screen out plants active in killing the Dactylogyrus.Methods Put goldfish infectedby the Dactylogyrus in water which has been added plant extracts of a certain concentration, controling essential water condition, observe Dactylogyrus'number of fish gills under the microscope regularly, finally count the rate of pesticide.Results Both the extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and Pharbitis nil Choisy had the highest killing rate of 90%, followed by Tea seed flakes and Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakal, 70% and 55% respectively.The highest rate of pesticide.was 10% ~50% in 48 hours for such plant extracts as Melia azedarach L., 80% Azadriachta indica, 10% Tripterygium wilfordil, Polyporus mylittae, Qusqualis indica L., Carpesium abrotanoides L., Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz, Bupleurum chinense, Pulsatilla chinensis Regel, Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep, Penellia ternate Breit., Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., Euphorba lathyris L., Momordica cochinchinensis, Ferula sinkiangensis, Psoralea corylifolia, Croton tiglium, Arisaema erubescens, Euphoria

  3. Study on protective enzyme activity and drought resistance of 8 introduced American forage species%8种美国引进禾本科牧草保护酶活性与抗旱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺强; 任广鑫; 杨改河; 冯永忠

    2009-01-01

    -caulum > Elymus dahuricus Turcz. ex Griseb. > Bromus Inermis Leyss.

  4. HPLC法测定不同产地醋五味子中6种木脂素类成分的含量%HPLC Simultaneous Determination of Six Lignans in Schisandra vinegar Products from Different Habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄致君; 陈衡霞; 陆兔林; 毛春芹; 胡俊扬

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the quality of Schisandra vinegar products from different habitats by determining the contents of Schisandrin, Schisandrol B, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C. METHODS Elite ODS-Cu column (250 mmX4.6 mm, 5 ftm)was used. Acctonitrilc(A)-water(B) was used as gradient mobile phase (0~ 17min,50% A;17~25min,50% A→55% A;25~30min,55% A→75% A;30~35min,75% A;35~40min,75% A→65% A; 40~45min,65% A→50K A). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was 30 ℃ and the detection wavelength was 217 nm. RESULTS Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved for six studied lignans with good linearity (r >0.999 5) over the studied concentration ranges. The average extraction recoveries(RSD) (n = 9) were for Schisandrin, for Schisandrol B, for Schisantherrin A, for Deoxyschisandrin, for Schisandrin B and for Schisandrin C. CONCLUSION The HPLC method developed for simultaneous determination of six lignans is simple and valid. It provides the science basis for quality evaluation of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. and its processing products.%目的 测定不同产地醋五味子中五味子醇甲、五味子醇乙、五味子酯甲、五味子甲素、五味子乙素和五味子丙素6种木脂素的含量.方法 色谱柱为依利特ODS-C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相为乙腈(A)—水(B),梯度洗脱(0~17 min,A为50%;17~25 min,A为50%~55% ;25~30 min,A为55%~75%;30~35 min,A为75%;35~40min,A为75%~65% ;40~45 min,A为65%~50%).结果 6种被测木脂素成分分离度良好;各成分质量浓度与峰面积在测定范围内均呈良好的线性关系(r>0.999 5);重现性良好;准确度(RSD)分别为101.8%(1.5%)、99.5%(1.2%)、103.26% (2.1%)、99.8%(1.0%)、100.0%(1.9%)和101.3%(1.9%).结论 HPLC法同时检测五味子6种木脂素成分,所建立方法稳定、可行.

  5. LC-MS法快速测定大鼠血浆五味子乙素及其药代动力学分析%Rapid determination of Schisandrin B by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and analysis of plasma pharmaeokinetics in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮莹; 李慧; 罗文鸿; 蔡绍先; 温博贵

    2007-01-01

    目的 建立LC-MS联用测定血浆五味子乙素的方法,观察五味子乙素在Wistar大鼠体内的药代动力学作用.方法 提取五味子果实中的有效成分,给予大鼠一次性灌胃,其后在不同时间收集大鼠血液样品,通过LC-MS方法测定大鼠血浆中五味子乙素的浓度,分析大鼠血浆中五味子乙素的浓度-时间数据,应用3p97药代动力学分析软件计算大鼠体内五味子乙素的药代动力学参数.结果 本法简单快速,可应用于不同样品中五味子乙素含量的测定.五味子乙素的保留时间为2.96 min,血浆平均最大浓度为1.01 μg/mL,灌胃后达峰时间为5.65 hr,浓度时间曲线下的平均面积为15.98 mg/h·L,平均清除率为0.94 μg/h.结论 本方法可应用于不同样本中五味子乙素的检测和实验动物体内五味子乙素的药代动力学分析.%[Objective] To develop a method for determination of Schisandrin B by LC-MS and to observe the pharmacological action of Schisandrin B in Wistar rat. [Methods] The efficacious components was extracted from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. The extract was orally administrated to Wistar rat. Blood samples were obtained at different time points after the extract was administrated. The plasma concentration of Schisandrin B was analyzed by LC-MS, and the plasma concentration-time data of Schisandrin B was also analyzed. The parameters of pharmacokinetics of Schisandrin B in the rats were calculated with 3p97 pharmacokinetics program. [Results] The method was simple and rapid for determination of Schisandrin B in different samples. The retention time of the Schisandrin B was 2.96 min. The maximum mean plasma level of Schisandrin B was 1.01 μg/mL which was reached at 5.65 hr after the oral administration. The mean value of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) was be successfully applied to analysis of Schisandrin B in different samples and to investigating the pharmacokinetics action of

  6. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris

  7. On species composition and diversity of macrobenthos in Sandu Bay%三都澳大型底栖动物种类组成特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进; 纪炜炜

    2011-01-01

    共出现大型底栖动物119种,其中多毛类动物种类数量优势明显,达65种,占总种类数54.62%;甲壳动物和软体动物也是此水域常见类群,种类数分别为21种(占17.65%)和16种(占13.45%),其它类群种类数量较少.季节变化呈现出春冬两季种类数量多于夏秋两季的特点.空间分布具有湾口区种类数量较多,且年内波动较小特点.不同航次样品中大型底栖动物优势种类分别为太平洋稚齿虫(Prionospio pacifica)、棘刺锚参(Protankyra bidentata)、蛇杂毛虫(Poecilochaetus serpens)、细丝鳃虫(Cirratulus filiformis)、不倒翁虫(Sternaspis scutata)、异足索沙蚕(Lumbrineris heteropoda)、寡鳃齿吻沙蚕(Nephtys oligobranchia)、太平洋单蛰虫(Lysilla pacifica)、梳鳃虫(Terebellide stroemii)、扁蛰虫(Lomia medusa)、光亮倍棘蛇尾(Amphioplus lucidus)、角蛤(Angulus lanceolatus)、双鳃内卷齿蚕(Aglaophamus dibranchis、纽虫(Numetinea sp.)、后稚虫(Laonice cirrata),其中以角蛤和细丝鳃虫优势度最为明显,最大值分别为0.113(2009年8月航次)和0.066(2010年2月航次);不倒翁虫是最为常见优势种,在5个航次样品中均占优势.其它不同季节优势种差异明显.春冬季优势种类较多,而夏秋季优势种类则较少.研究结果显示,三都澳养殖活动对大型底栖动物群落已产生明显影响.

  8. Spatial variation in fish community of Yangtze River estuary in spring%2010年春季长江口鱼类群落空间分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史赟荣; 晁敏; 全为民; 唐峰华; 沈新强; 袁骐; 黄厚见

    2011-01-01

    For studing the effect and mechanism of variability of habitat factors on important biological resources in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE), we evaluated the relationship between fish community structure and envi- . Ronmental factors in the YRE. We collected fish by bottom trawling and obtained environmental data from 30 stations in the YRE in May and June 2010. In addition, we used historical data to analyze the effect of large hydraulic projects on fish community dynamics in the YRE. We collected a total of 40 fish species belonging to 23 families and 12 formers. The Engraulidae and Gobiidae families were the most abundant (5 species each), followed by Sciaenidae (4 species), and Cynoglossidae (3 species). The trawl catches were dominated by young-of- year juveniles. The most abundant species (94.11% of the total catch) by life history type were Chaeturichthys stigmatias (resident), Collichthys lucidus (marine migrant), Collia mystus (semi-anadromous), and Collia nasus (anadro-mous). Cluster and non-metric multidimension scaling analysis revealed significant spatial variation in the fish community. Of the nine environmental variables we measured, water depth, bottom salinity, and surface salinity were the most significant factors influencing fish species richness and density in the inner zone. Conversely, the fish community in the outer zone was primarily influenced by the bottom pH, surface salinity, and bottom temperature. The number of fish species declined compared to historical catches in May (69 species, 1.72× 104 ind/km2)and June (62 species, 2.29×104 ind/km2) in 1985, though fish density (5.2×104 ind/km2) increased. Our results indicate the YRE has still been the spawming and nursery ground for commercial species, but fish community structure has varied.%为探索长江河口生境条件改变对重要生物的影响状况,揭示生境条件对生物资源影响的机理,根据2010年5-6月在长江口进行的渔业资源与生态环境调查数据

  9. 坡耕地不同物种植物篱对面源污染物的拦截效率及影响因素%Effects of Different Plant Species Hedgerows on Interception of Non- point Source Pollutants in Sloping Cultivated Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田潇; 周运超; 蔡先立; 马礼平; 刘晓芸

    2015-01-01

    Hedgerows play important roles in control over the spread of pollutants in the environment. To investigate the effect of plant species of hedgerows on the intercepting efficiency of non-point source pollutants, a field experiment was conducted in a sloping cultivated land in the upstream of Hongfeng Lake, Guizhou. Thirty runoff plots(20 m long × 5 m width)with three banded hedgerows at equal distance were established in 15 degree sloping cultivated land. The hedgerows was planted in a criss-crossed double rows with 5 m length and 0.15 m width. Quantity of surface runoff, silt and nutrient was monitored in each runoff plot under natural raining in 2010. Results showed that there were only five surface runoffs observed after rainfall in 2010, of which two were stronger while three weaker but lasted for longer time. The greatest runoff interception was observed in the plot with Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. hedgerows, with relative surface runoff intercep-tion rate of 91.75%, and the greatest silt interception was found in the plot of Medicago sativa L. hedgerows, with relative interception rate of 69.25%. Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. could effectively reduce N and P loss, with interception rate about 70.08% for N(283.03 g·hm-2) and 80.21%for P(185.92 g·hm-2). However, the greatest K interception was measured in the plot with Lespedeza bicolor Turcz and fol-lowed by Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. Their relative interception rates were 86.08%(135.11 g·hm-2)and 79.72%(125.13 g·hm-2), re-spectively. The present results show that hedgerows would be of great significance in controlling non-point source pollution in sloping farm-ing area.%在红枫湖上游15°的坡耕地上设置30个植物篱径流小区,小区水平投影面积100 m2,顺坡长20 m,横坡宽5 m。在小区内横坡等距种植三带植物篱,植物篱带呈双行“品”字型种植模式,带长5 m,带宽0.15 m。通过监测该年度天然降雨下每个径流小区产生的地表径流、

  10. 太子河北支河岸带植物群落特征及其物种多样性研究%Study on Plant Community Characteristics and Species Diversity of Riparian Zone along North Branch of Taizi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 马溪平; 李法云; 侯伟; 杨春璐; 程志辉

    2011-01-01

    The species diversity is an important trait of plant ecological adaptive strategy. The plant community of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River plays an important role in stabilizing plant composite. How-ever, the species diversity of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River is poorly known. Our objectives are to investigate the species diversity of the understory of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River to provide theory of ecological restoration and technical basis. The diversity of plant species in 18 plots in this ar-ea was investigated by calculating the indices of species diversity, richness, evenness and dominance from im-portant values. The results indicated that: There are 91 species of plants belonging to 18 families and 60 gene-ra in the 18 plots of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River. The main families are dominant in the Compositae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Rosaceae, Polygonaceae; the compositions of the community are con-centrated ,and Zoysia sinica Hance、Sorbaria ( Ser. ) A. Br. 、Artemisia selengensis Turcz. Ex Bess. , Bidens biternata ( Lour. ) Merr et Scheff, Artemisia dracunculus L. , Setaria viridis ( L. ) Beauv. , Carex humida Y. L. Chang et Y. L. Yang, Polygonum hydropiper L. et al. The community structure of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River is simple in studied area. The ecosystem is deteriorating, with richness indexes change between 4. 00 ~ 17. 00 , Pielou indexes change between 0. 66 ~ 0. 86 ,Simpson indexes change between 0.61 -0.85, Shannon-wiener indexes change between 1. 12 ~2.24, Simpson dominance indexes change be-tween 0. 15 ~0. 39. The riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River are disturbance by human activities, such as agricultural production, dredging and other human activities on reducing the level of community diver-sity.%以野外样方调查数据为基础,详细调查了太子河北支河岸带植物群落的组成,种类和外貌,应用重要值计算了太子

  11. Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M. Z.

    2012-04-01

    distribute with cover about 1% of the entire study area. Prior to revegetation, straw-checkerboards approximately 1×1 m2 in area were constructed using wheat or rice straw to stabilize the dune surface and allow time for the planted xerophytic shrubs to adapt to the new environment. In 1956, the following 2-year-old xerophytic shrub seedlings were planted within the checkerboard at a density of 16 individuals per 100 m2 and grown without irrigation: Artemisia ordosica Krasch, H. scoparium Fisch, Calligonum mongolicum Turc'z, Caragana microphylla Lam., Caragana korshinskii Kom, Salix gordejevii and Atraphaxis bracteata A.Los. The stabilized area was then expanded to parallel areas in 1964 and 1982 using the same method and species. As a result, the initial stages of change that have occurred at these sites were similar. After more than fifties years succession, the predominant plants are semi-shrubs, shrubs, forbs, and grasses at present and BSCs formed. The common BSCs in the region may be dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, or any combination of these organisms. Cyanobacteria species include Microcolous vaginatus Gom., Hydrocoleus violacens Gom., Lyngbya crytoraginatus Schk., Phormidium amblgum Gom., P. autumnale (Ag.) Gom., P. foveolarum (Mont.) Gom. and Phormidium luridum (Kutz) Gom. etc; algal species mainly include Anabaena azotica Ley, Euglena sp., Hantzschia amphioxys var capitata Grum, Oscillatoria obscura Gom., O. pseudogeminate G. Schm. And Scytonema javanicum (Kutz) Bornet Flash etc; lichen species include Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach., Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.; and moss species are dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw., Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito., Tortula bidentata Bai Xue Liang and T. desertorum Broth.. Experimental Design and Rs measurements On October 2010, We selected the moss-dominated BSCs at four revegetation sites and natural vegetation sites, in which 3 replicated plots were selected randomly. In each plot, olyvinyl chloride (PVC