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Sample records for lycopersicum cv moneymaker

  1. Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706 chromosome 6: distribution and abundance of genes and retrotransposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sander A; Datema, Erwin; Szinay, Dóra; van Staveren, Marjo J; Schijlen, Elio G W M; van Haarst, Jan C; Hesselink, Thamara; Abma-Henkens, Marleen H C; Bai, Yuling; de Jong, Hans; Stiekema, Willem J; Klein Lankhorst, René M; van Ham, Roeland C H J

    2009-06-01

    We studied the physical and genetic organization of chromosome 6 of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Heinz 1706 by combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequence analysis, high-information-content fingerprinting, genetic analysis, and BAC-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping data. The chromosome positions of 81 anchored seed and extension BACs corresponded in most cases with the linear marker order on the high-density EXPEN 2000 linkage map. We assembled 25 BAC contigs and eight singleton BACs spanning 2.0 Mb of the short-arm euchromatin, 1.8 Mb of the pericentromeric heterochromatin and 6.9 Mb of the long-arm euchromatin. Sequence data were combined with their corresponding genetic and pachytene chromosome positions into an integrated map that covers approximately a third of the chromosome 6 euchromatin and a small part of the pericentromeric heterochromatin. We then compared physical length (Mb), genetic (cM) and chromosome distances (microm) for determining gap sizes between contigs, revealing relative hot and cold spots of recombination. Through sequence annotation we identified several clusters of functionally related genes and an uneven distribution of both gene and repeat sequences between heterochromatin and euchromatin domains. Although a greater number of the non-transposon genes were located in the euchromatin, the highly repetitive (22.4%) pericentromeric heterochromatin displayed an unexpectedly high gene content of one gene per 36.7 kb. Surprisingly, the short-arm euchromatin was relatively rich in repeats as well, with a repeat content of 13.4%, yet the ratio of Ty3/Gypsy and Ty1/Copia retrotransposable elements across the chromosome clearly distinguished euchromatin (2:3) from heterochromatin (3:2).

  2. Herbicide treatments alter carotenoid profiles for 14C tracer production from tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum cv. VFNT cherry) cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Nancy J; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2009-06-10

    Progress in learning about underlying carotenoid bioactivity mechanisms has been limited because of the lack of commercially available radiolabeled lycopene (LYC), phytoene (PE), and phytofluene (PF). Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum cv. VFNT cherry) cell cultures have been treated to produce [(14)C]-PE and PF but with relatively low yields. To increase carotenoid production, two bleaching herbicides were administered during the culture incubation, 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)triethylamine and norflurazon, separately or in combination to produce varying ratios of PE, PF, and LYC. Treatment with both herbicides resulted in optimal production of all three carotenoids. Subsequently, cultures were incubated in [(14)C]-sucrose-containing media to produce labeled LYC, PE, and PF. Adding [(14)C]-sucrose on day 1 of the 14 day culture incubation cycle to norflurazon-treated cultures led to a small increase in labeling efficiency compared to adding it on day 7. Improved culture conditions efficiently provided sufficient (14)C-carotenoids for future cell culture and animal metabolic tracking studies.

  3. Tandem Duplication Events in the Expansion of the Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family in Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsticevic, Flavia J.; Arce, Débora P.; Ezpeleta, Joaquín; Tapia, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In plants, fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce small heat shock protein (sHSP) synthesis to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although the tomato reference genome was published in 2012, the actual number and functionality of sHSP genes remain unknown. Using a transcriptomic (RNA-seq) and evolutionary genomic approach, putative sHSP genes in the Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706) genome were investigated. A sHSP gene family of 33 members was established. Remarkably, roughly half of the members of this family can be explained by nine independent tandem duplication events that determined, evolutionarily, their functional fates. Within a mitochondrial class subfamily, only one duplicated member, Solyc08g078700, retained its ancestral chaperone function, while the others, Solyc08g078710 and Solyc08g078720, likely degenerated under neutrality and lack ancestral chaperone function. Functional conservation occurred within a cytosolic class I subfamily, whose four members, Solyc06g076570, Solyc06g076560, Solyc06g076540, and Solyc06g076520, support ∼57% of the total sHSP RNAm in the red ripe fruit. Subfunctionalization occurred within a new subfamily, whose two members, Solyc04g082720 and Solyc04g082740, show heterogeneous differential expression profiles during fruit ripening. These findings, involving the birth/death of some genes or the preferential/plastic expression of some others during fruit ripening, highlight the importance of tandem duplication events in the expansion of the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome. Despite its evolutionary diversity, the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome seems to be endowed with a core set of four homeostasis genes: Solyc05g014280, Solyc03g082420, Solyc11g020330, and Solyc06g076560, which appear to provide a baseline protection during both fruit ripening and heat shock stress in different tomato tissues. PMID:27565886

  4. Tandem Duplication Events in the Expansion of the Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family in Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia J. Krsticevic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In plants, fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce small heat shock protein (sHSP synthesis to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although the tomato reference genome was published in 2012, the actual number and functionality of sHSP genes remain unknown. Using a transcriptomic (RNA-seq and evolutionary genomic approach, putative sHSP genes in the Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Heinz 1706 genome were investigated. A sHSP gene family of 33 members was established. Remarkably, roughly half of the members of this family can be explained by nine independent tandem duplication events that determined, evolutionarily, their functional fates. Within a mitochondrial class subfamily, only one duplicated member, Solyc08g078700, retained its ancestral chaperone function, while the others, Solyc08g078710 and Solyc08g078720, likely degenerated under neutrality and lack ancestral chaperone function. Functional conservation occurred within a cytosolic class I subfamily, whose four members, Solyc06g076570, Solyc06g076560, Solyc06g076540, and Solyc06g076520, support ∼57% of the total sHSP RNAm in the red ripe fruit. Subfunctionalization occurred within a new subfamily, whose two members, Solyc04g082720 and Solyc04g082740, show heterogeneous differential expression profiles during fruit ripening. These findings, involving the birth/death of some genes or the preferential/plastic expression of some others during fruit ripening, highlight the importance of tandem duplication events in the expansion of the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome. Despite its evolutionary diversity, the sHSP gene family in the tomato genome seems to be endowed with a core set of four homeostasis genes: Solyc05g014280, Solyc03g082420, Solyc11g020330, and Solyc06g076560, which appear to provide a baseline protection during both fruit ripening and heat shock stress in different tomato tissues.

  5. Inoculación de rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. afrodita en invernadero

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    Bernardo Espinosa Palomeque

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La producción de los cultivos agrícolas, entre otros factores, es impactada por el clima, el suelo, el agua y los microorganismos rizosféricos. De estos últimos, las rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (RPCV, desempeñan funciones importantes para las plantas como es la producción de reguladores del crecimiento vegetal y disminuir o prevenir los efectos de microorganismos f itopatógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inoculación de tres RPCV: Bacillus spp., Aeromonas spp., y Pseudomonas lini Delorme, utilizando dos sustratos: 1 compost+arena de río+perlita; y 2 arena de río; y como testigos ambos sustratos sin RPCV (lo que dio un total de 8 tratamientos, sobre el rendimiento y calidad de frutos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Afrodita desarrollado bajo condiciones de invernadero. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones, con arreglo factorial 2 × 4, los factores fueron: A sustratos y B RPCV. Las variables evaluadas en fruto fueron: diámetro polar y ecuatorial, espesor de pericarpio, contenido de sólidos solubles, firmeza, fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, así como rendimiento total. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente por análisis de varianza y las comparaciones de medias mediante la prueba de DMS 0.05%. Los frutos del tratamiento T1 (50 compost + 40 arena de río + 10 perlita + Bacillus spp. presentaron los mayores diámetros polar y ecuatorial, contenido de sólidos solubles, firmeza, contenido de fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, 6.54 cm, 5.50 cm, 5.94 ºBrix, 12.54 N, 51.70 mg de AG 100 g‑1 FF y 66.68 µM Trolox g‑1 FF, respectivamente; en comparación con el resto de los tratamientos. La aplicación de RPCV y la utilización de sustratos a base de compost podrían ser una alternativa de manejo en la producción de tomate en invernadero para incrementar el rendimiento y la calidad nutracéutica de los

  6. Enhancement of phytosterols, taraxasterol and induction of extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins in cell cultures of Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate.

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    Briceño, Zuleika; Almagro, Lorena; Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Calderón, Antonio A; Pedreño, María Angeles; Ferrer, María Angeles

    2012-07-15

    Suspension-cultured cells of Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, separately or in combination, on the induction of defense responses. An extracellular accumulation of two sterols (isofucosterol and β-sitosterol) and taraxasterol, a common tomato fruit cuticular triterpene, were observed. Their levels were higher in Micro-Tom tomato suspension cultured cells elicited with cyclodextrins than in control and methyl jasmonate-treated cells. Also, their accumulation profiles during the cell growth phase were markedly different. The most striking feature in response to cyclodextrin treatments was the observed enhancement of taraxasterol accumulation. Likewise, the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins induced the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. Analysis of the extracellular proteome showed the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to pathogenesis-related 1 and 5 proteins, a cationic peroxidase and a biotic cell death-associated protein, which suggests that methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in S. lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequence-based SSR marker development and their application in defining the Introgressions of LA0716 (Solanum pennellii in the background of cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum.

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    Wenbo Long

    Full Text Available The introgression lines (ILs from cv. M82 (Solanum lycopersicum × LA0716 (S. pennellii have been proven to be exceptionally useful for genetic analysis and gene cloning. The introgressions were originally defined by RFLP markers at their development. The objectives of this study are to develop polymorphic SSR markers, and to re-define the DNA introgression from LA0716 in the ILs. Tomato sequence data was scanned by software to generate SSR markers. In total, 829 SSRs, which could be robustly amplified by PCR, were developed. Among them, 658 SSRs were dinucleotide repeats, 162 were trinucleotide repeats, and nine were tetranucleotide repeats. The 829 SSRs together with 96 published RFLPs were integrated into the physical linkage map of S. lycopersicum. Introgressions of DNA fragments from LA0716 were re-defined among the 75 ILs using the newly developed SSRs. A specific introgression of DNA fragment from LA0716 was identified in 72 ILs as described previously by RFLP, whereas the specific DNA introgression described previously were not detected in the ILs LA4035, LA4059 and LA4091. The physical location of each investigated DNA introgression was finely determined by SSR mapping. Among the 72 ILs, eight ILs showed a shorter and three ILs (IL3-2, IL12-3 and IL12-3-1 revealed a longer DNA introgression than that framed by RFLPs. Furthermore, 54 previously undefined segments were found in 21 ILs, ranging from 1 to 11 DNA introgressions per IL. Generally, the newly developed SSRs provide additional markers for genetic studies of tomatoes, and the fine definition of DNA introgressions from LA0716 would facilitate the use of the ILs for genetic analysis and gene cloning.

  8. EFECTO DEL PREACONDICIONAMIENTO A LA SALINIDAD EN LAS RELACIONES HÍDRICAS, EL INTERCAMBIO GASEOSO Y LA CONDUCTIVIDAD HIDRÁULICA DE LAS RAÍCES EN PLANTAS DE TOMATE (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. CV. AMALIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldo Morales Guevara; Pedro Rodríguez Hernández; José M. Dell'Amico Rodríguez; María de J. Sánchez-Blanco; Arturo Torrecillas Melendreras

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento del crecimiento, la tasa fotosintética neta, la conductancia estomática, la conductividad hidráulica de las raíces y los potenciales hídrico foliar, osmótico y de turgencia en plántulas de tomate sometidas a incrementos progresivos de NaCl en el medio, para ello, plántulas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. Cv. Amalia) se sometieron a siete tratamientos salinos diferentes: control (C) en el que se mantuvieron en solu...

  9. Constitutive expression of CaXTH3, a hot pepper xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses without phenotypic defects in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2011-05-01

    The hot pepper xyloglucan endo-trans-gluco-sylase/hydrolase (CaXTH3) gene that was inducible by a broad spectrum of abiotic stresses in hot pepper has been reported to enhance tolerance to drought and high salinity in transgenic Arabidopsis. To assess whether CaXTH3 is a practically useful target gene for improving the stress tolerance of crop plants, we ectopically over-expressed the full-length CaXTH3 cDNA in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Dotaerang) and found that the 35S:CaXTH3 transgenic tomato plants exhibited a markedly increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Transgenic tomato plants exposed to a salt stress of 100 mM NaCl retained the chlorophyll in their leaves and showed normal root elongation. They also remained green and unwithered following exposure to 2 weeks of dehydration. A high proportion of stomatal closures in 35S:CaXTH3 was likely to be conferred by increased cell-wall remodeling activity of CaXTH3 in guard cell, which may reduce transpirational water loss in response to dehydration stress. Despite this increased stress tolerance, the transgenic tomato plants showed no detectable phenotype defects, such as abnormal morphology and growth retardation, under normal growth conditions. These results raise the possibility that CaXTH3 gene is appropriate for application in genetic engineering strategies aimed at improving abiotic stress tolerance in agriculturally and economically valuable crop plants.

  10. The effects of the combination of salinity and excess boron on the water relations of tolerant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Poncho Negro, in relation to aquaporin functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, C.; Montoya, A.; Pacheco, P.; Martinez-Ballesta, M. C.; Carvajal, M.; Bastias, E.

    2011-07-01

    As elevated levels of boron (B) are accompanied by conditions of excessive salinity with drastic consequences for crops, it is crucial to find a crop that is tolerant to these conditions. In this work, the interaction between salinity and excess B with respect to aquaporin-mediated changes by blockade of mercury and water relations were studied as well as the osmotic adjustment of the plants. The treatments, for tomato Poncho Negro cultivated hydroponically in a controlled environment chamber, were control (75 and 150 mM) NaCl and/or 5 mg L{sup -}1 or 20 mg L{sup -}1 B. Hydraulic conductance (L0) of detached exuding root systems exhibits large variations in response to abiotic stimuli. No additive (synergic) effects of B and salinity were observed. Under salinity, the plants increased their turgor, compensating for the decrease in the leaf water potential through the reduction in the leaf osmotic potential by the accumulation of soluble sugars and proline. The involvement of Hg{sup 2}+-insensitive aquaporins or the osmotic gradient as the main force for water flow through the apoplastic pathway must be contemplated. Finally, all the data reveal the tomato cv. Poncho Negro to be a germplasm of agronomic interest and a good alternative for cultivation areas with high content of salts and the excess B of the soil and irrigation water. (Author) 67 refs.

  11. Effect Of Physical And Chemical Mutagens On Morphological Behavior Of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum CV. “Rio Grande” Under Heat Stress Conditions.

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    Akhtar Naheed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance to tomato production under heat stress conditions in hot climates of Pakistan, the objective of this research work was to study the influence of temperature and application of physical and chemical mutagens on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., CV. “Rio grande” Seeds were treated with chemical mutagen (Ethyl Methane Sulphonate and physical mutagen (Gamma radiation. Plants were grown in open field conditions under day/night temperatures regimes at the experimental area of Department of Horticulture, faculty of crop and food sciences, PMAS-AAUR. The experiment was set twenty treatments and four replications in Complete Randomize Block Design. It is observed that by increasing dose of mutagens shows lethal effect and morphological parameters reduced significantly. But lower doses of EMS and Gamma radiation improve thermotolerance capacity significantly. Plants were investigated for different morphological parameters i.e Plant height, no. of leaves, leaf area, relative water contents of leaves, chlorophyll contents, cell viability (TCC Assay and pollen germination. Among gamma rays 5Kr were the only dose which survived and bear fruits. Among EMS 4mM, 8 mM, 16mM performed better under heat stress conditions than other treatments.

  12. Hormonal changes during salinity-induced leaf senescence in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Romero-Aranda, Remedios; Dodd, Ian C.; Lutts, Stanley; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Leaf senescence is one of the most limiting factors to plant productivity under salinity. Both the accumulation of specific toxic ions (e.g. Na+) and changes in leaf hormone relations are involved in the regulation of this process. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated for 3 weeks under high salinity (100 mM NaCl) and leaf senescence-related parameters were studied during leaf development in relation to Na+ and K+ contents and changes in abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Na+ accumulated to a similar extent in both leaves 4 and 5 (numbering from the base of the plant) and more quickly during the third week, while concurrently K+ contents sharply decreased. However, photosystem II efficiency, measured as the Fv/Fm ratio, decreased from the second week of salinization in leaf 4 but only at the end of the third week in the younger leaf 5. In the prematurely senescent leaf 4, ABA content increased linearly while IAA strongly decreased with salinization time. Although zeatin (Z) levels were scarcely affected by salinity, zeatin-riboside (ZR) and the total cytokinin content (Z+ZR) progressively decreased by 50% from the imposition of the stress. ACC was the only hormonal compound that increased in leaf tissue coincident with the onset of oxidative damage and the decline in chlorophyll fluorescence, and prior to massive Na+ accumulation. Indeed, (Z+ZR) and ACC contents and their ratio (Z+ZR/ACC) were the hormonal parameters best correlated with the onset and progression of leaf senescence. The influence of different hormonal changes on salt-induced leaf senescence is discussed. PMID:18573798

  13. Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Bai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    After its introduction in Europe the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has gone a long way. Dedicated breeding has resulted in numerous cultivars grown all over the world, differing in all kind of aspects such as yield, shape, resistance, taste and quality. Modern cultivars are sold as hybrids with a

  14. Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Bai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    After its introduction in Europe the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has gone a long way. Dedicated breeding has resulted in numerous cultivars grown all over the world, differing in all kind of aspects such as yield, shape, resistance, taste and quality. Modern cultivars are sold as hybrids with a ve

  15. A single amino acid substitution in movement protein of tomato torrado virus influences ToTV infectivity in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-02-02

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), which is a tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus, induces severe systemic necrosis in Solanum lycopersicum cv. Beta Lux as well as leaf malformation and chlorosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. To date, neither the tomato gene conferring resistance to the pathogen nor the ToTV-encoded necrosis determinant have been characterized. We herein revealed that the phenylalanine 210 residue in the movement protein domain encoded by ToTV RNA2 is a necrosis-inducing pathogenicity determinant during tomato infection. Using a ToTV infectious RNA2 clone, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of the phenylalanine 210 residue, confirming its importance during ToTV infection and symptom manifestation in S. lycopersicum cv. Beta Lux, but not in N. benthamiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF SEAWEED EXTRACT OF SARGASSUM VULGARE ON GERMINATION BEHAVIOR OF TWO TOMATOES CULTIVARS (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L UNDER SALT STRESS

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    Elouaer Mohamed Aymen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a major adverse factor that can lower seed germination and seedlings growth, leading to reduced plant growth and ultimately lower crop productivity in arid and semi arid regions of the world. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important crop occupying a large area in both Morocco and Tunisia, where salt stress is the most limiting factor. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of seaweed liquid extract (SWE from Sargassum vulgare at different concentrations on seed germination and seedling growth of two tomatoes cultivars: cv Agatha and cv Nemadore under salt stress.

  17. Role of nano-SiO2 in germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum seeds Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzer H. Siddiqui; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is very familiar with the properties of nanomaterial and their potential uses. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to test the beneficial effects of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2: size- 12 nm) on the seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv Super Strain B). Application of nSiO2 significantly enhanced the characteristics of seed germination. Among the treatments, 8 g L−1 of nSiO2 improved percent seed germination, mean germination time, s...

  18. Emgu CV essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Shin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to Emgu CV libraries, with sample code and examples used throughout to explain the concepts clearly. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the Computer Vision field and the implementation of that topic in Emgu CV.If you are a C# programmer working on computer vision projects, this book is for you. You should have prior experience with C#.

  19. Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Víquez Zamora, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits Ana Marcela Víquez Zamora Tomatoes are consumed worldwide and became a model for crop plant research. A part of the research aims at expanding genetic diversity in tomato; this can be done by incorporating

  20. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  1. QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, R; Smulders, M J M; van der Linden, C G; Vosman, B; Stam, P; Voorrips, R E

    2007-02-01

    Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that has hampered effective breeding. In order to identify and estimate the effect of genes conditioning resistance to EB, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study was performed in F2 and F3 populations derived from the cross between the susceptible Solanum lycopersicum (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) cv. 'Solentos' and the resistant Solanum arcanum (syn. Lycopersicon peruvianum) LA2157 and genotyped with AFLP, microsatellite and SNP markers. Two evaluation criteria of resistance were used: measurements of EB lesion growth on the F2 plants in glasshouse tests and visual ratings of EB severity on foliage of the F3 lines in a field test. A total of six QTL regions were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 5-7, and 9 with LOD scores ranging from 3.4 to 17.5. Three EB QTL also confer resistance to stem lesions in the field, which has not been reported before. All QTL displayed significant additive gene action; in some cases a dominance effect was found. Additive x additive epistatic interactions were detected between one pair of QTL. For two QTL, the susceptible parent contributed resistance alleles to both EB and stem lesion resistance. Three of the QTL showed an effect in all tests despite methodological and environmental differences.

  2. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Pande, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the de...

  3. Instant OpenCV starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dalal, Jayneil

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.A practical, quick, and hands-on guide for Python developers and hobbyists who want to get started with computer vision with OpenCV.This book is great for developers, hobbyists, and students new to computer vision who are looking to get a good grounding in how to use the OpenCV library. It's assumed that you will have some basic experience in C/C++ programming.

  4. Processamento mínimo de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) :

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Mônica de Caldas

    1999-01-01

    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. O perfil atual de consumidores tem impulsionado o incremento de vegetais minimamente processados, considerados produtos de conveniência, prontos para consumo, que mantém as características próximas ao do similar in natura. Com os objetivos de minimizar os custos de produção e manter a qualidade destes produtos, foi realizado um estudo de processamento mínimo de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum Mil...

  5. Influence of postharvest ultrasounds treatments on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Zinac) quality and microbial load during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Gonçalves, Elsa M; Silva, Cristina L M

    2015-11-01

    Whole tomato fruits were treated at ultrasonic power levels from 10% to 100%, and at a constant frequency of 45 kHz, for different times (1-19 min). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to optimise ultrasonic treatments for tomato quality (colour, texture and total phenolic content (TPC)) maintenance. According to response surface analysis, the optimal treatment parameters were 55%_10 min, 80%_15 min and 100%_19 min. At these conditions, and especially at higher power levels, a maximum retention of colour and texture, as well as an increase of TPC and microbial reduction were obtained in comparison with untreated fruits during 15 storage days at 10°C. The ultrasounds treatment was found to be effective in delaying colour development and texture losses, preserving sensorial quality of whole tomato, with increase of TPC and microbial load reduction. Moreover, this postharvest treatment can be used as an alternative for extending fresh fruits shelf-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves from continuous light induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad Sabibul; Heinsvig Kjaer, Katrine; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-08-01

    Continuous light (CL) causes leaf injuries in tomato plants, but very little has been done to study the nature of recovery from these leaf injuries. To facilitate this, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. 'Aromata') were first exposed to CL for 11 days in order to study the development of the leaf injuries. Afterwards, the plants were exposed to a photoperiodic treatment with a dark period of eight hours to study the nature of recovery of the leaves. Plants were grown in two photoperiodic treatments in climate chambers; a control treatment with a 16/8h light/dark and a CL treatment with 24h light. The two treatments had different light intensities to maintain a similar daily light integral (15 mol m(-2)d(-1)). The temperature and humidity were adjusted to maintain a similar vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 1kPa in the two treatments. After 11 days of CL, 12% of the total leaflet area appeared light green in spots on the leaf surface aligned with lower total leaf chlorophyll content. The light green spots partially reversed while the leaf chlorophyll content increased to similar levels as seen in control leaves after 11 days of recovery. The CL significantly reduced the stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (PN) and altered the carbohydrate content in the leaves. These negative effects of CL were also rapidly restored to the control levels when the plants were returned to the 16h photoperiodic conditions. The results demonstrate that, though leaf discoloration is only partially recovered, tomato plants can be grown for 11 days in CL conditions with the development of chlorotic discoloration of the leaves covering 12% of the leaf surface and rapidly recover physiological processes affected by CL by shortening the photoperiod to 16h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Salt-stress induced physiological and proteomic changes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaa, Arafet; Ahmed, Hela Ben; Smiti, Samira; Faurobert, Mireille

    2011-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress limiting crop productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the salinity stress responses at physiological and molecular level in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. cv. Supermarmande), we carried out a comparative physiological and proteomic analysis. The tomato seedlings were cultivated using a hydroponic system in the controlled environment growth chamber. The salt stress (NaCl) was applied (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and maintained for 14 days. Salt treatment induced a plant growth reduction estimated as fresh-dry weight. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) content of NaCl-treated tomato plants was significantly decreased as the salinity level increased. Proline accumulation levels in leaf and root tissues increased significantly with increasing NaCl concentration. Relative electrolyte leakage known as an indicator of membrane damage caused by salt stress was increased proportionally according to the NaCl concentrations. Roots of control and salt-stressed plants were also sampled for phenol protein extraction. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE). Several proteins showed up- and downregulation during salt stress. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and database searching of some of the identified proteins indicated that the proteins are known to be in a wide range of physiological processes, that is, energy metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging and detoxification, protein translation, processing and degradation, signal transduction, hormone and amino acid metabolism, and cell wall modifications. All proteins might work cooperatively to reestablish cellular homeostasis under salt stress, water deficiency, and ionic toxicity.

  8. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense.

  9. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D; Kamal, Mohammad A; Pande, M K

    2015-11-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size.

  10. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress.

  11. Characterization of a novel methionine sulfoxide reductase A from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ), and its protecting role in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Changbo; Singh, Naresh Kumar; Park, Myungho

    2011-12-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) is a ubiquitous enzyme that has been demonstrated to reduce the S enantiomer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) to methionine (Met) and can protect cells against oxidative damage. In this study, we isolated a novel MSRA (SlMSRA2) from Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom) and characterized it by subcloning the coding sequence into a pET expression system. Purified recombinant protein was assayed by HPLC after expression and refolding. This analysis revealed the absolute specificity for methionine-S-sulfoxide and the enzyme was able to convert both free and protein-bound MetSO to Met in the presence of DTT. In addition, the optimal pH, appropriate temperature, and Km and Kcat values for MSRA2 were observed as 8.5, 25oC, 352 ± 25 μM, and 0.066 ± 0.009 S(-1), respectively. Disk inhibition and growth rate assays indicated that SlMSRA2 may play an essential function in protecting E. coli against oxidative damage.

  12. Genome-wide association mapping in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is possible using genome admixture of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stephane; Xu, Jiaxin; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bounon, Rémi; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association mapping is an efficient way to identify quantitative trait loci controlling the variation of phenotypes, but the approach suffers severe limitations when one is studying inbred crops like cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Such crops exhibit low rates of molecular polymorphism and high linkage disequilibrium, which reduces mapping resolution. The cherry type tomato (S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) genome has been described as an admixture between the cultivated tomato and its wild ancestor, S. pimpinellifolium. We have thus taken advantage of the properties of this admixture to improve the resolution of association mapping in tomato. As a proof of concept, we sequenced 81 DNA fragments distributed on chromosome 2 at different distances in a core collection of 90 tomato accessions, including mostly cherry type tomato accessions. The 81 Sequence Tag Sites revealed 352 SNPs and indels. Molecular diversity was greatest for S. pimpinellifolium accessions, intermediate for S. l. cerasiforme accessions, and lowest for the cultivated group. We assessed the structure of molecular polymorphism and the extent of linkage disequilibrium over genetic and physical distances. Linkage disequilibrium decreased under r(2) = 0.3 within 1 cM, and minimal estimated value (r(2) = 0.13) was reached within 20 kb over the physical regions studied. Associations between polymorphisms and fruit weight, locule number, and soluble solid content were detected. Several candidate genes and quantitative trait loci previously identified were validated and new associations detected. This study shows the advantages of using a collection of S. l. cerasiforme accessions to overcome the low resolution of association mapping in tomato.

  13. Endogenous pararetroviral sequences in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staginnus, Christina; Gregor, Wolfgang; Mette, M Florian; Teo, Chee How; Borroto-Fernández, Eduviges Glenda; Machado, Margit Laimer da Câmara; Matzke, Marjori; Schwarzacher, Trude

    2007-01-01

    Background Endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRVs) are a recently discovered class of repetitive sequences that is broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. The potential contribution of EPRVs to plant pathogenicity or, conversely, to virus resistance is just beginning to be explored. Some members of the family Solanaceae are particularly rich in EPRVs. In previous work, EPRVs have been characterized molecularly in various species of Nicotiana including N.tabacum (tobacco) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). Here we describe a family of EPRVs in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and a wild relative (S.habrochaites). Results Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that tomato EPRVs (named LycEPRVs) are most closely related to those in tobacco. The sequence similarity of LycEPRVs in S.lycopersicum and S.habrochaites indicates they are potentially derived from the same pararetrovirus. DNA blot analysis revealed a similar genomic organization in the two species, but also some independent excision or insertion events after species separation, or flanking sequence divergence. LycEPRVs share with the tobacco elements a disrupted genomic structure and frequent association with retrotransposons. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that copies of LycEPRV are dispersed on all chromosomes in predominantly heterochromatic regions. Methylation of LycEPRVs was detected in CHG and asymmetric CHH nucleotide groups. Although normally quiescent EPRVs can be reactivated and produce symptoms of infection in some Nicotiana interspecific hybrids, a similar pathogenicity of LycEPRVs could not be demonstrated in Solanum L. section Lycopersicon [Mill.] hybrids. Even in healthy plants, however, transcripts derived from multiple LycEPRV loci and short RNAs complementary to LycEPRVs were detected and were elevated upon infection with heterologous viruses encoding suppressors of PTGS. Conclusion The analysis of LycEPRVs provides further evidence for the extensive

  14. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (etomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help

  15. Soil compost amendment enhances tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Alfani, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important crops in the world and represents a key crop in southern Italy. With the aim to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of tomato fruits in relation to NPK and compost fertilisation, the concentrations of the main nutrients, toxic elements, primary metabolites and total phenols were determined in two varieties (Lido and San Marzano). Each variety was cultivated in a different experimental field, subjected to different agronomic techniques. Concentrations of toxic elements (Cd and Pb) were below the limits indicated by the EU Regulation (2011) in all the fruits analysed. Moreover, fruits obtained from San Marzano plants grown on organic amended soils showed a better overall quality than those obtained on mineral fertilised soil, being characterised by lower N (attributed to lower nitrate and nitrite concentrations), lower Cd, and higher soluble sugar concentrations. Higher concentrations of soluble sugars in fruits from organic amended soils were also observed in the Lido variety. The agricultural use of quality compost represents an effective strategy to obtain high quality products in an economically and environmentally sustainable way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. An extensive proteome map of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxin; Pascual, Laura; Aurand, Rémy; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2013-10-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model species for studying fleshy fruit development. An extensive proteome map of the fruit pericarp is described in light of the high-quality genome sequence. The proteomes of fruit pericarp from 12 tomato genotypes at two developmental stages (cell expansion and orange-red) were analyzed. The 2DE reference map included 506 spots identified by nano-LC/MS and the International Tomato Annotation Group Database searching. A total of 425 spots corresponded to unique proteins. Thirty-four spots resulted from the transcription of genes belonging to multigene families involving two to six genes. A total of 47 spots corresponded to a mixture of different proteins. The whole protein set was classified according to Gene Ontology annotation. The quantitative protein variation was analyzed in relation to genotype and developmental stage. This tomato fruit proteome dataset is currently the largest available and constitutes a valuable tool for comparative genetic studies of tomato genome expression at the protein level. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000105. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Natural variation in folate levels among tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Pallawi; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Tamboli, Vajir; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-02-15

    Folate content was estimated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions using microbiological assay (MA) and by LC-MS. The MA revealed that in red-ripe fruits folate levels ranged from 4 to 60μg/100g fresh weight. The LC-MS estimation of red-ripe fruits detected three folate forms, 5-CH3-THF, 5-CHO-THF, 5,10-CH(+)THF and folate levels ranged from 14 to 46μg/100g fresh weight. In mature green and red ripe fruit, 5-CH3-THF was the most abundant folate form. Comparison of LC-MS with MA revealed that MA inaccurately estimates folate levels. The accumulation of folate forms and their distribution varied among accessions. The single nucleotide polymorphism was examined in the key genes of the folate pathway to understand its linkage with folate levels. Despite the significant variation in folate levels among tomato accessions, little polymorphism was found in folate biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that variation in folate level is governed by a more complex regulation at cellular homeostasis level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Response to nitrate/ammonium nutrition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants overexpressing a prokaryotic NH4(+)-dependent asparagine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen availability is an important limiting factor for plant growth. Although NH4(+) assimilation is energetically more favorable than NO3(-), it is usually toxic for plants. In order to study if an improved ammonium assimilatory metabolism could increase the plant tolerance to ammonium nutrition, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv P-73) plants were transformed with an NH4(+)-dependent asparagine synthetase (AS-A) gene from Escherichia coli (asnA) under the control of a PCpea promoter (pea isolated constitutive promotor). Homozygous (Hom), azygous (Az) asnA and wild type (WT) plants were grown hydroponically for 6 weeks with normal Hoagland nutrition (NO3(-)/NH4(+)=6/0.5) and high ammonium nutrition (NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3). Under Hoagland's conditions, Hom plants produced 40-50% less biomass than WT and Az plants. However, under NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3 the biomass of Hom was not affected while it was reduced by 40-70% in WT and Az plants compared to Hoagland, respectively. The Hom plants accumulated 1.5-4 times more asparagine, glycine, serine and soluble proteins and registered higher glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities in the light-adapted leaves than the other genotypes, but had similar NH4(+) and NO3(-) levels in all conditions. In the dark-adapted leaves, a protein catabolism occurred in the Hom plants with a concomitant 25-40% increase in organic acid concentration, while asparagine accumulation registered the highest values. The aforementioned processes might be responsible for a positive energetic balance as regards the futile cycle of the transgenic protein synthesis and catabolism. This explains growth penalty under standard nutrition and growth stability under NO3(-)/NH4(+)=3.5/3, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of four Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for the genetic transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, V J; Ceballos, N; Garcia, D; Narváez-Vásquez, J; Lopez, W; Orozco-Cárdenas, M L

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains differ not only in their ability to transform tomato Micro-Tom, but also in the number of transgene copies that the strains integrate in the genome. The transformation efficiency of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Micro-Tom with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1, EHA105, GV3101, and MP90, harboring the plasmid pBI121 was compared. The presence of the nptII and/or uidA transgenes in regenerated T(0) plants was determined by PCR, Southern blotting, and/or GUS histochemical analyses. In addition, a rapid and reliable duplex, qPCR TaqMan assay was standardized to estimate transgene copy number. The highest transformation rate (65 %) was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain GV3101, followed by EHA105 (40 %), AGL1 (35 %), and MP90 (15 %). The mortality rate of cotyledons due to Agrobacterium overgrowth was the lowest with the strain GV3101. The Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more efficient than GV3101 in the transfer of single T-DNA insertions of nptII and uidA transgenes into the tomato genome. Even though Agrobacterium strain MP90 had the lowest transformation rate of 15 %, the qPCR analysis showed that the strain MP90 was the most efficient in the transfer of single transgene insertions, and none of the transgenic plants produced with this strain had more than two insertion events in their genome. The combination of higher transformation efficiency and fewer transgene insertions in plants transformed using EHA105 makes this Agrobacterium strain optimal for functional genomics and biotechnological applications in tomato.

  20. Toxicity of canavanine in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots is due to alterations in RNS, ROS and auxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Andrzejczak, Olga; Staszek, Paweł; Borucki, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Canavanine (CAN) is non-proteinogenic aminoacid and a structural analog of arginine (Arg). Naturally, CAN occurs in legumes e.g. jack bean and is considered as a strong allelochemical. As a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase in mammalians, it could act as a modifier of nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plants. Modifications in the content of endogenous reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence root structure and architecture, being also under hormonal control. The aim of the work was to investigate regulation of root growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Malinowy Ożarowski) seedling by application of CAN at concentration (10 and 50 μM) leading to 50% or 100% restriction of root elongation. CAN at higher concentration led to slight DNA fragmentation, increased total RNA and protein level. Decline in total respiration rate after CAN supplementation was not associated with enhanced membrane permeability. Malformations in root morphology (shorter and thicker roots, limited number of lateral roots) were accompanied by modification in NO and ONOO(-) localization; determined mainly in peridermal cells and some border cells. Although, CAN resulted in low RNS production, addition of exogenous NO by usage of NO donors did not reverse its negative effect, nor recovery effect was detected after roots imbibition in Arg. To build up a comprehensive view on mode of action of CAN as root growth inhibitor, it was shown an elevated level of auxin. To summarize, we demonstrated several secondary mode of action of CAN, indicating its toxicity in plants linked to restriction in RNS formation accompanied by simultaneous overaccumulation of ROS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. 番茄果实成熟衰老相关蛋白酶鉴定%Identification of senescence related protease in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 沈瑾; 程勤阳; 姜微波; 刘清

    2012-01-01

    为进一步研究蛋白酶与成熟衰老的关系,试验以‘918’番茄(Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.cv.918)果实为材料,采用改进的含明胶的十二烷基硫酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳方法对番茄果实中的蛋白酶进行检测,结果发现番茄果实中有3个蛋白酶,命名为SP-1、SP-2和SP-3,其活性伴随着果实后熟衰老发生变化.乙烯处理可提高番茄果实蛋白酶SP-2的活性,使SP-1和SP-3活性被提前检出,而1-甲基环丙烯处理对蛋白酶起相反作用.番茄果实蛋白酶受果实后熟衰老和乙烯的双重调控,是衰老相关蛋白酶.该文为进一步研究蛋白酶与果蔬衰老的关系提供参考.%In order to find out the relationship between proteases and senescence, modified sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was exploited to analyze proteases activities of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Cv. 918) fruit. Three proteases, named as SP-1, SP-2 and SP-3, respectively, were detected in red-ripe tomato fruit. All activities of these three proteases were changed during ripening and senescence. Followed by ethylene treatment, the activity of SP-2 was enhanced and the activities of SP-1 and SP-3 were showed up earlier. The opposite effects were observed by 1-methylcycloprop treatment. These results suggested that all SP-1, SP-2 and SP-3, regulated either by nature ripening or ethylene treatment, were senescence related proteases. The study provides reference for the relationship between proteases and senescence.

  2. Timelapse scanning reveals spatial variation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root elongation rates during partial waterlogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; McKenzie, Blair M.;

    2013-01-01

    by increasing elongation rates. Methods Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in peat in root chambers (300 × 215 × 6 mm) with a transparent front. Root chambers were maintained in flatbed scanners tilted at 30° to vertical and scanned every 3 h before, during and after waterlogging the lower layer...

  3. Timelapse scanning reveals spatial variation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root elongation rates during partial waterlogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Mckenzie, Blair M.

    2013-01-01

    by increasing elongation rates. Methods Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in peat in root chambers (300×215× 6 mm) with a transparent front. Root chambers were maintained in flatbed scanners tilted at 30° to vertical and scanned every 3 h before, during and after waterlogging the lower layer...

  4. The development of FISH tools for genetic, phylogenetic and breeding studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis various fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies are described to support genome projects, plant breeding and phylogenetic analysis on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, 2n=24). Its genome is 980 Mb and only 30 % are single copy sequences, which are mostly found in the euchro

  5. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Robl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  6. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; M.R. Beux; Dalzoto,P.R.; Pinheiro, R L; PIMENTEL, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  7. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, D; Thimoteo, S S; de Souza, G C C F; Beux, M R; Dalzoto, P R; Pinheiro, R L; Pimentel, I C

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  8. The development of FISH tools for genetic, phylogenetic and breeding studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis various fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies are described to support genome projects, plant breeding and phylogenetic analysis on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, 2n=24). Its genome is 980 Mb and only 30 % are single copy sequences, which are mostly found in the

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a central role in the response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to short and long-term drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Simone; Nurcato, Roberta; De Lillo, Alessia; Lentini, Marco; Grillo, Stefania; Esposito, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression, occurrence and activity of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH - EC 1.1.1.49), the key-enzyme of the Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway (OPPP), in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Red Setter) exposed to short- and long-term drought stress. For the first time, drought effects have been evaluated in plants under different growth conditions: in hydroponic laboratory system, and in greenhouse pots under controlled conditions; and in open field, in order to evaluate drought response in a representative agricultural environment. Interestingly, changes observed appear strictly associated to the induction of well known stress response mechanisms, such as the increase of proline synthesis, accumulation of chaperone Hsp70, and ascorbate peroxidase. Results show significant increase in total activity of G6PDH, and specifically in expression and occurrence of cytosolic isoform (cy-G6PDH) in plants grown in any cultivation system upon drought. Intriguingly, the results clearly suggest that abscissic acid (ABA) pathway and signaling cascade (protein phosphatase 2C PP2C) could be strictly related to increased G6PDH expression, occurrence and activities. We hypothesized for G6PDH a specific role as one of the main reductants' suppliers to counteract the effects of drought stress, in the light of converging evidences given by young and adult tomato plants under stress of different duration and intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A clarified position for solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme in the evolutionary history of tomatoes (solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Causse Mathilde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme. We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and

  11. OpenCV for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Howse, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers who want to expand their skills by building fun, smart, and useful systems with OpenCV. The projects are ideal in helping you to think creatively about the uses of computer vision, natural user interfaces, and ubiquitous computers (in your home, car, and hand).

  12. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves......, the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...... of individual plants was monitored until grain production. It was found that the sodium cyanide concentrations in the feed solutions affected plant stature, with the plants becoming progressively dwarfed with increasing dosage. Anomalies in the morphological and anatomical structure of the plant were also noted...

  13. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zhongwan (CV12 were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation.

  14. Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles to enhance S. lycopersicum (tomato) plant growth and their biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankramma, K.; Yallappa, S.; Shivanna, M. B.; Manjanna, J.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate magnetic iron (III) oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) uptake by the Solanum lycopersicum ( S. lycopersicum) plant. The S. lycopersicum seeds were coated with Fe2O3 NPs and allowed to germinate in moistened sand bed. The seedlings are observed for 20 days, and then, it was post-treated using different amounts of Fe2O3 NPs in hydroponic solution for 10 days. The plant was allowed to grow in green house for 3 months, and uptake of NPs through roots and translocation into different parts was studied. For this, we have segmented the plants and incubated with 10 % NaOH solution. It is found that the NPs are deposited preferentially in root hairs, root tips followed by nodal and middle zone of plant. The iron present in the whole plant was quantitatively estimated by treating dry biomass of the plant in acid. The Fe2+/Fetotal increased with increasing concentration of NPs and >45 % ferrous iron suggests the biomineralization of NPs due to rich phytochemicals in plants. We believe that the present study is useful to build a base line data for novel applications in agri-nanotechnology.

  15. Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles to enhance S. lycopersicum (tomato plant growth and their biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shankramma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we demonstrate magnetic iron (III oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs uptake by the Solanum lycopersicum (S. lycopersicum plant. The S. lycopersicum seeds were coated with Fe2O3 NPs and allowed to germinate in moistened sand bed. The seedlings are observed for 20 days, and then, it was post-treated using different amounts of Fe2O3 NPs in hydroponic solution for 10 days. The plant was allowed to grow in green house for 3 months, and uptake of NPs through roots and translocation into different parts was studied. For this, we have segmented the plants and incubated with 10 % NaOH solution. It is found that the NPs are deposited preferentially in root hairs, root tips followed by nodal and middle zone of plant. The iron present in the whole plant was quantitatively estimated by treating dry biomass of the plant in acid. The Fe2+/Fetotal increased with increasing concentration of NPs and >45 % ferrous iron suggests the biomineralization of NPs due to rich phytochemicals in plants. We believe that the present study is useful to build a base line data for novel applications in agri-nanotechnology.

  16. CV controls from design to operation

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, D

    2002-01-01

    The cooling and Ventilation (CV) group has emphasised the need to redefine its organisational structure at the end of 98. The main objective of this operation was to ensure the CV group to be more competitive and efficient through the growing tasks of the LHC projects. The main evolution given to this reorganisation is that the new structure is more project oriented and then operates on three distinct axes: Design, Work and Operation. Process control project management requires a complete and early interaction and participation of all the actors involved. This procedure to be efficient and constructive must be considered and performed not only during the design stage but along the project planning phases and must go beyond the completion work including the process control operation activity. The paper explains the present project management for process control. It describes the present constraints and gives suggestions to a different approach to these projects to improve performances and efficiency of a contr...

  17. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  18. Chemical C-V Measurements on ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, Sarah Jane; Farlow, Gary

    2008-10-01

    When metal/semiconductor schotky barriers are not practical, an electrolyte/semiconductor interface can be used to make capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The physics of such electrochemical C-V measurements will be described. Electrical properties of ZnO were measured by electrochemical C-V techniques and photovoltage spectroscopy using an Accent 4400 Electrochemical CV system. Specifically, the electrical behavior of a 0.1 M ZnCl2 electrolyte-ZnO interface has been investigated with attention to the electrolyte-ZnO interface's C-V dependence on carrier frequency.

  19. Learning openCV computer vision with the openCV library

    CERN Document Server

    Bradski, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Learning OpenCV puts you right in the middle of the rapidly expanding field of computer vision. Written by the creators of OpenCV, the widely used free open-source library, this book introduces you to computer vision and demonstrates how you can quickly build applications that enable computers to see" and make decisions based on the data. With this book, any developer or hobbyist can get up and running with the framework quickly, whether it's to build simple or sophisticated vision applications

  20. Survey of Genes Involved in Biosynthesis, Transport, and Signaling of Phytohormones with Focus on Solanum lycopersicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Stefan; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Jegadeesan, Sridharan; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Firon, Nurit; Schleiff, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones control the development and growth of plants, as well as their response to biotic and abiotic stress. The seven most well-studied phytohormone classes defined today are as follows: auxins, ethylene, cytokinin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids. The basic principle of hormone regulation is conserved in all plants, but recent results suggest adaptations of synthesis, transport, or signaling pathways to the architecture and growth environment of different plant species. Thus, we aimed to define the extent to which information from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is transferable to other plants such as Solanum lycopersicum. We extracted the co-orthologues of genes coding for major pathway enzymes in A. thaliana from the translated genomes of 12 species from the clade Viridiplantae. Based on predicted domain architecture and localization of the identified proteins from all 13 species, we inspected the conservation of phytohormone pathways. The comparison was complemented by expression analysis of (co-) orthologous genes in S. lycopersicum. Altogether, this information allowed the assignment of putative functional equivalents between A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum but also pointed to some variations between the pathways in eudicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. These results provide first insights into the conservation of the various phytohormone pathways between the model system A. thaliana and crop plants such as tomato. We conclude that orthologue prediction in combination with analysis of functional domain architecture and intracellular localization and expression studies are sufficient tools to transfer information from model plants to other plant species. Our results support the notion that hormone synthesis, transport, and response for most part of the pathways are conserved, and species-specific variations can be found. PMID:27695302

  1. Retendering of ST-CV maintenance contract

    CERN Document Server

    Battistin, M

    2003-01-01

    During the next three years, the ST/CV group will be deeply involved in the installation works for the LHC project. During this period the need for maintenance activity will decrease. The minimum level will be reached during the “long shutdown” of the PS and SPS machines in 2005. The budget for the maintenance will decrease accordingly, thus the CV group had to review its maintenance strategy. The new contract, which started on January 1st 2003, has been defined to cope with these workload variations during the next years and to guarantee the minimum maintenance activity on the existing equipment. A lump-sum contract based on a win-win strategy has been discarded. The contractor no longer has to guarantee the performance of the CERN cooling and ventilation systems. A new price list strategy based on performance indicators and penalties has been chosen. The contractor now has to guarantee the performance of every maintenance operation demanded by CERN. This modification obliged the Operation section of the...

  2. Bureau d'études CV

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, C

    2005-01-01

    Le bureau d’études CV, au même titre que les autres bureaux d’études du CERN, est étroitement lié au déroulement du projet LHC. Dans ce contexte, l’adaptation devient une dimension essentielle pour assurer des prestations organisées et efficaces. En effet, la rentabilité, l’optimisation des ressources, la stratégie de sous-traitance, les contraintes imposées par la coordination générale LHC et la charge de travail diminuant vers la fin du projet, sont autant que facteurs qui influencent son organisation. L’analyse des expériences multiples et l’évaluation du risque organisationnel permettent de repositionner méthodiquement la structure face au changement, notamment pour l’horizon 2007. Le bureau d’études CV converge déjà vers une distribution « bimodale » : tandis que les tâches proches de la coordination restent confiées à un bureau interne réduit au strict minimum, une part grandissante des tâches est sous-traitée à des mandataires extérieurs.

  3. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MANCHA SOLAR EN FRUTOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum) COSECHADOS EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara Plana Ramos; Marta Álvarez Gil; Francisco Dueñas Hurtado; Regla M. Lara; Carlos Moya López; Marilyn Florido Bacallao; Idioleidys Alvarez Bello; Ofelia Sam Morejón; Rodríguez, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo fue el de estudiar lasafectaciones producidas por la mancha solar en frutos de tomate(Solanum lycopersicum) en nuestras condiciones de trabajo.Para ello, se empleó una escala e índice que nos permitiódescribir la severidad e intensidad del daño. Además, se llevóa cabo un estudio histológico, de calidad y nutricional confrutos sanos y afectados. El 80 % de los frutos evaluados estabaafectado por mancha solar, con una intensidad baja (36,5), perode severidad máxima ...

  4. Producción de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) bajo condiciones protegidas e hidroponia en Tabasco.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron tres experimentos; dos fueron conducidos de noviembre de 2008 a abril de 2009 y uno más de agosto de 2009 a febrero de 2010 con la finalidad de generar información en el manejo del cultivo de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.), bajo condiciones protegidas e hidroponía para el estado de Tabasco. Se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: 1) Conocer la respuesta a densidades de población en plantas conducidas con diferentes números de tallos, 2) Establecer la mejor dosis de aplicació...

  5. Silicon enhances water stress tolerance by improving root hydraulic conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu eShi; Yi eZhang; Weihua eHan; Ru eFeng; Yanhong eHu; Jia eGuo; Haijun eGong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si’s role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Zhongza No.9...

  6. Silicon Enhances Water Stress Tolerance by Improving Root Hydraulic Conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, YU; Zhang, Yi; Han, Weihua; Feng, Ru; Hu, Yanhong; Guo, Jia; Gong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si’s role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Zhongza No.9...

  7. Effects of tomato juices (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) consumption on plasma lycopene levels of male light smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Gunawan; Sri S. Sudardjat; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2004-01-01

    The study was an experimental study with pre- and post-test design, to evaluate the effects of tomato juices (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) consumption on plasma lycopene level. Blood sample of 27 subjects with average age of 34.70 ± 5.74 years old, moderate education level (85.2%), experienced direct contact with working environmental pollutant (40.74%) and smoked kretek cigarettes (77.78%) were given treatment with 350 gram/day of tomato juices (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) which had been ...

  8. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Pereira-Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL, a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread.

  9. Dichotic listening CV lateralization and developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Sánchez, E

    1999-08-01

    The present study was carried out on a sample of 125 right-handed boys who are described as follows: 50 boys with dyslexia, 50 controls of a similar age, and 25 controls according to reading level. Using an objective procedure based on regression, we selected three subgroups from among the poor readers: children with difficulties in the lexical pathway (surface dyslexics), children with difficulties in the sublexical pathway (phonological dyslexics), and children with problems in both pathways (mixed dyslexics). When the performances of these children on a dichotic listening task with CV syllables as stimuli were compared, it was found that although the children with dyslexia obtained lower lateralization indices than did the controls, the differences were only clearly significant when the most severe cases of phonological dyslexia were selected.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of γ-ferric oxide nanoparticles and their effect on Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, Tambur; Rao, K Venkateswara; Chakra, Ch Shilpa; Prabhu, Y T

    2016-05-01

    γ-Ferric oxide nanoparticles are synthesized through modern and facile ayurvedic route followed by normal and special purification steps, which are both cost-effective and eco-friendly. These synthesized γ-ferric oxide nanoparticles were applied on Solanum lycopersicum to search the effect on chlorophyll content. This process involves multiple filtration and calcination steps. The synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and particle size analysis (PSA) to identify the purification step's influence on the structural, optical, morphological, magnetic, and particle size properties of ferric oxide nanoparticles (γ-phase). X-ray diffraction has revealed that ferric oxide nanoparticles have rhombohedral structure of α-phase (hematite) in initial purification process later transformed into cubic structure γ-phase (maghemite). UV-vis spectroscopy analysis has clearly shown that by repetitive purification steps, λmax has increased from 230 to 340 nm. TEM result has an intercorrelation with XRD results. γ-Ferric oxide nanoparticles were tested on Solanum lycopersicum (tomato seeds). The changes in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total carotene were studied using spectral measurements at two different dosages-0.5 and 2 M. As a result, at 0.5-M concentration, magnetic nanoparticles exhibit fruitful results by increasing the crop yield and being more resistant to chlorosis.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Gene Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Lopez-Valverde, Francisco J; Robles-Bolivar, Paula; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Gachomo, Emma W; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling.

  12. Dissecting the mechanism of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum chilense flower colour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M; Qu, H; Gao, L; Chen, L; Sebastian, R S J; Zhao, L

    2015-01-01

    Flowers are the defining feature of angiosperms, and function as indispensable organs for sexual reproduction. Flower colour typically plays an important role in attracting pollinators, and can show considerable variation, even between closely related species. For example, domesticated tomato (S. lycopersicum) has orange/yellow flowers, while the wild relative S. chilense (accession LA2405) has bright yellow flowers. In this study, the mechanism of flower colour formation in these two species was compared by evaluating the accumulation of carotenoids, assessing the expression genes related to carotenoid biosynthetic pathways and observing chromoplast ultrastructure. In S. chilense petals, genes associated with the lutein branch of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, phytoene desaturase (PDS), ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LCY-B), β-ring hydroxylase (CRTR-B) and ε-ring hydroxylase (CRTR-E), were highly expressed, and this was correlated with high levels of lutein accumulation. In contrast, PDS, ZDS and CYC-B from the neoxanthin biosynthetic branch were highly expressed in S. lycopersicum anthers, leading to increased β-carotene accumulation and hence an orange/yellow colour. Changes in the size, amount and electron density of plastoglobules in chromoplasts provided further evidence of carotenoid accumulation and flower colour formation. Taken together, these results reveal the biochemical basis of differences in carotenoid pigment accumulation and colour between petals and anthers in tomato. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Multilocus sequence data reveal extensive departures from equilibrium in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, J A; Robertson, L D; Baldo, A M

    2009-09-01

    Limited genetic variation has been observed within tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), although no studies have extensively surveyed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity among tomato landraces. We estimated intraspecific DNA sequence variation by analyzing 50 gene fragments (23.2 kb) per plant in a 31 plant diversity panel. The majority of loci (80%) were polymorphic with the minor allele at a frequency of 10% or less for most (141 of 155) SNPs. Mean diversity as estimated by theta and pi was approximately 1.5 SNPs per kb. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between 19% of locus pairs, and within-locus population recombination estimates were negligible. We also sequenced 43 gene fragments from wild tomato Solanum arcanum Peralta as an outgroup. Various statistical tests rejected a neutral equilibrium model of molecular evolution at 10 of 50 loci. Rare, highly diverged alleles were observed, involving at least seven tomato lines and five loci. Some of these may represent introgressions that originated both from natural hybridization with Solanum pimpinellifolium L. and from crosses with S. pimpinellifolium and additional wild relatives for crop improvement. The former was reported from classical field studies carried out by CM Rick; the latter has been extensively documented in the crop, particularly for transfer of disease resistance alleles. Extensive introgression and frequent bottlenecks within S. lycopersicum will pose a challenge to reconstructing the genetic bases of domestication and selection using methods that rely on patterns of molecular polymorphism.

  14. Chilling and heating may regulate C6 volatile aroma production by different mechanisms in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexanal, Z-3-hexenal, E-2-hexenal, hexanol, and Z-3-hexenol are major tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) volatile aromas derived from oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Chilling and heating may suppress production of these C6 volatiles. The objective of this research was to determine the response...

  15. RNA-seq discovery, functional characterization, and comparison of sesquiterpene synthases from Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Spyropoulou, E.A.; Diergaarde, P.J.; Volpin, P.; de Both, M.T.J.; Zerbe, P.; Bohlmann, J.; Falara, V.; Matsuba, Y.; Pichersky, E.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites (f. typicum) accession PI127826 emit a variety of sesquiterpenes. To identify terpene synthases involved in the production of these volatile sesquiterpenes, we used massive parallel pyrosequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain the transcriptome of the stem

  16. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G.; den Os, Desiree; Monshausen, Gabriele B.; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Bednarova, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and auxi

  17. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G.; den Os, Desiree; Monshausen, Gabriele B.; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Bednarova, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-01-01

    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and

  18. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Aplicação de coberturas proteicas e fenólicas em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a utilização de películas, à base de compostos proteicos e fenólicos provenientes de farelo de arroz fermentado, em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram realizados testes com: glicerol 3% (v/v; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico do farelo de arroz (5%; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico da biomassa gerada em 96 hours (5%, e um controle (sem a película. Os tomates revestidos foram mantidos à temperatura ambiente durante 28 dias, sendo determinados, a cada 96 horas, os seguintes aspectos: a perda de massa, o pH e a acidez, os sólidos solúveis totais e os carotenoides. A película elaborada com os extratos da biomassa reduziu os níveis de carotenoides e acidez dos frutos estudados em 17 e 21,1%, respectivamente, em relação ao controle. A película também foi eficiente como barreira ao vapor de água; assim, com perda de massa 57% inferior à do controle, sugere-se que esta poderá ser utilizada como alternativa para conservação desse tecido vegetal.

  19. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect.

  20. [Electroacupuncture at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongwan (CV 12) modulates functional connectivity of the brain network in healthy volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ji-liang; Hong, Yang; Wang, Xiao-ling; Liu, He-sheng; Wang, Yin; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Zhou, Ke-hua; Song, Ming; Liu, Bao-yan; Zhu, Bing

    2011-10-01

    To observe the specific brain effects of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Guanyuan (CV 4) and Zhongwan (CV 12). Twenty-one healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study. Two silver filiform needles were separately inserted into Guanyuan (OV 4) or Zhongwan (CV 12), and manipulated with uniform reducing-reinforcing method to induce "Deqi". fMRI scan was performed before needling, during needle retention, EA stimulation, and post-EA. Data of fMRI was analyzed by using software SPM 2. The volunteer subjective needling sensations were recorded. The activation, deactivation, short-distance and long-distance functional connectivity maps of different cerebral regions were analyzed by using whole brain correlation analysis. Comparison between the two acupoints showed that fullness feeling was stronger in CV 4 than in CV 12. EA at CV 4 and CV 12 induced a similar stronger and prevalent deactivation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulated cortex (ACO). The deactivation of the ACC was stronger in the CV 4 group than in the CV 12 group. The default BOLD mode of the brain at rest was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The short-distance functional connection brain network was significantly changed after EA. Interestingly, the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and anteroinferior portion of the anterior cingulate cortex in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) were involved in the instant post-effects of EA. Relatively smaller differences in the brain functional activity and short-distance functional connectivity were found between these two acupoints. EA of CV 4 and CV 12 can modulate short-distance functional connectivity of the LPNN, and have fewer differences in inducing needling sensation and deactivation of ACC, etc.

  1. Facial Recognition using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Petrut Suciu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The growing interest in computer vision of the past decade. Fueled by the steady doubling rate of computing power every 13 months, face detection and recognition has transcended from an esoteric to a popular area of research in computer vision and one of the better and successful applications of image analysis and algorithm based understanding. Because of the intrinsic nature of the problem, computer vision is not only a computer science area of research, but also the object of neuro-scientific and psychological studies, mainly because of the general opinion that advances in computer image processing and understanding research will provide insights into how our brain work and vice versa.

    Because of general curiosity and interest in the matter, the author has proposed to create an application that would allow user access to a particular machine based on an in-depth analysis of a person’s facial features. This application will be developed using Intel’s open source computer vision project, OpenCV and Microsoft’s .NET framework.

  2. Facial Recognition using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Emami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in computer vision of the past decade. Fueled by the steady doubling rate of computing power every 13 months, face detection and recognition has transcended from an esoteric to a popular area of research in computer vision and one of the better and successful applications of image analysis and algorithm based understanding. Because of the intrinsic nature of the problem, computer vision is not only a computer science area of research, but also the object of neuro-scientific and psychological studies, mainly because of the general opinion that advances in computer image processing and understanding research will provide insights into how our brain work and vice versa. Because of general curiosity and interest in the matter, the author has proposed to create an application that would allow user access to a particular machine based on an in-depth analysis of a person’s facial features. This application will be developed using Intel’s open source computer vision project, OpenCV and Microsoft’s .NET framework.

  3. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-04

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy.

  4. Solanum lycopersicum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huseyin BASIM

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... reactions against strains of P. syringae pv. tomato carrying the avrpto1 gene. Six of these seven .... resistance against the disease (Martin et al., 1993a; Riley and Martin ... PTO is a gene that encodes a serine threonine protein kinase, which ..... In: Smith IM, Dunez J, Philips DH, Lelliot RA, Archer SA. (eds).

  5. SolDB: A Database of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Tariq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SolDB is the Database of Solanaceae Family. It is an interactive, free online specialized database for Solanaceae family. Currently, it spans complete nucleotide sequences of expressed genes of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum along with their annotation. We have designed PCR oligonucleotide primer sequences for each gene, with their features and conditions given. This feature alone greatly facilitates researchers in PCR amplification of genes sequences, especially in cloning experiments. We also provided chloroplast genome section which gives access to fully sequenced plastid genomes and their annotations. Flexible database design, easy expandability, and easy retrieval of information are the main features of SolDB. The Database is publicly available at www.soldb.pakbiz.org.

  6. Metabolic differences in ripening of Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig' and three monogenic mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Baxter, Charles; Portwood, David; Ament, Zsuzsanna; Kende, Aniko; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham; Smith, Rebecca; Fraser, Paul; Seymour, Mark; Salek, Reza M; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Application of mass spectrometry enables the detection of metabolic differences between groups of related organisms. Differences in the metabolic fingerprints of wild-type Solanum lycopersicum and three monogenic mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor) and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr), of tomato are captured with regard to ripening behaviour. A high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry system coupled to liquid chromatography produced a time series of the ripening behaviour at discrete intervals with a focus on changes post-anthesis. Internal standards and quality controls were used to ensure system stability. The raw data of the samples and reference compounds including study protocols have been deposited in the open metabolomics database MetaboLights via the metadata annotation tool Isatab to enable efficient re-use of the datasets, such as in metabolomics cross-study comparisons or data fusion exercises.

  7. Morpho-histological analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. plants after treatment with juglone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Milewska-Hendel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Juglone is a substance that limits plant growth and has a toxic effect on plant development. In this study, we analyzed the influence of juglone at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M, which were applied to different parts of Solanum lycopersicum L. plants (root system, stem after decapitation, and surface of a younger leaf or after autografting for a short period of time (7 days, on the morphology and histology of stems. At a lower concentration, juglone had positive effects on plant growth, which resulted in an increase in interfascicular cambial cell divisions, faster development of a continuous cambium layer along the stem circumference, and development of fibers. Additionally, under the influence of juglone, the number of developing leaves increased and adventitious roots developed. The results are discussed based on the current literature concerning the reaction of plants to juglone and to stress conditions.

  8. Physiological effects of ozone exposure on De Colgar and Rechaiga II tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamar, Benchohra; Maatoug, Mohamed; Iriti, Marcello; Dellal, Abdelkader; Ait hammou, Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars, Rechaiga II and De Colgar, to 50, 80, and 100 ppb ozone (O3) exposures was assessed in fumigation chamber, during 4 h per day over a period of 7 days. The Rechaiga II variety was shown to be sensitive to the dose of 50 ppb, showing chlorotic spots on the adaxial leaf surface and alterations of some physiological parameters. During 1-week fumigation, ozone caused a decrease in stomatal conductance, chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophylls, and carotenoids, although soluble sugars and membrane integrity were significantly increased in fumigated plants compared to controls. This trend was similar for the three pollutant doses used in fumigation. The De Colgar tomato remained asymptomatic.

  9. Single- versus Multiple-Pest Infestation Affects Differently the Biochemistry of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Drungowski, Mario; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2015-11-25

    Tomato is susceptible to pest infestations by both spider mites and aphids. The effects of each individual pest on plants are known, whereas multiple-pest infestations have received little interest. We studied the effects of single- versus multiple-pest infestation by Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae on tomato biochemistry (Solanum lycopersicum) by combining a metabolomic approach and analyses of carotenoids using UHPLC-ToF-MS and volatiles using GC-MS. Plants responded differently to aphids and mites after 3 weeks of infestation, and a multiple infestation induced a specific metabolite composition in plants. In addition, we showed that volatiles emissions differed between the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermes and identified compounds emitted particularly in response to a multiple infestation (cyclohexadecane, dodecane, aromadendrene, and β-elemene). Finally, the carotenoid concentrations in leaves and stems were more affected by multiple than single infestations. Our study highlights and discusses the interplay of biotic stressors within the terpenoid metabolism.

  10. Carotenoids in fresh and processed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits protect cells from oxidative stress injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Rita; Petruk, Ganna; Raiola, Assunta; Barone, Amalia; Monti, Daria Maria; Rigano, Maria Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Lipophilic antioxidants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits exert important functions in reducing the risk of human diseases. Here the effect of thermal processing on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic extracts from the commercial tomato hybrid 'Zebrino' was analysed. Carotenoid content and lipophilic antioxidant activity were determined and the ability of tomato extracts in rescuing cells from oxidative stress was assessed. Lipophilic antioxidant activity was completely retained after heat treatment and extracts were able to mitigate the detrimental effect induced by oxidative stress on different cell lines. Lycopene alone was able to rescue cells from oxidative stress, even if to a lower extent compared with tomato extracts. These results were probably due to the synergistic effect of tomato compounds in protecting cells from oxidative stress injury. The current study provides valuable insights into the health effect of the dietary carotenoids present in fresh and processed tomato fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding can improve the nutritional potential of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Maria Manuela; Raiola, Assunta; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Monti, Daria Maria; Del Giudice, Rita; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2014-11-26

    Solanum lycopersicum represents an important source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds. Previously two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL 7-3 and IL 12-4) were identified as carrying quantitative trait loci (QTL) increasing fruit ascorbic acid and phenolics content. Novel tomato lines were obtained by pyramiding these selected QTLs in the genetic background of the cultivated line M82. Pyramided lines revealed significant increases of total phenolics, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant activity compared to parental lines IL 7-3 and IL 12-4 and the cultivated line M82. In addition, tomato extracts obtained from the pyramided lines had no cytotoxic effect on normal human cells while exhibiting a selective cytotoxic effect on aggressive cancer cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to incorporate favorable wild-species QTLs in the cultivated genetic background to obtain genotypes with higher nutritional value.

  12. Profiling of melatonin in the model tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Micro-Tom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Masateru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin exists in a considerable variety of plant species. However, the physiological roles of melatonin in plants are not well understood. In this study, the distribution and accumulation of melatonin during leaf and fruit development were analyzed in Micro-Tom, a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Melatonin was extracted using an acetone-methanol method and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Melatonin was detected in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seedlings and seeds in the range of 1.5-66.6 ng/g fresh weight, with seeds containing the highest concentration of melatonin. In fruits and leaves, melatonin concentrations varied depending on the developmental stage, suggesting that melatonin controls some of the processes involved in plant maturation.

  13. Isolation and characterization of thioredoxin and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Changbo; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the pathways of oxidoreductases in plants, 2 key components in thioredox systems i.e. thioredoxin h (Trx h) and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) genes were first isolated from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Subsequently, the coding sequences of Trx h and NTR were inserted into pET expression vectors, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In the UV-Visible spectra of the purified proteins, tomato Trx h was shown to have a characteristic 'shoulder' at -290 nm, while the NTR protein had the 3 typical peaks unique to flavoenzymes. The activities of both proteins were demonstrated by following insulin reduction, as well as DTNB reduction. Moreover, both NADPH and NADH could serve as substrates in the NTR reduction system, but the catalytic efficiency of NTR with NADPH was 2500-fold higher than with NADH. Additionally, our results reveal that the tomato Trx system might be involved in oxidative stress, but not in cold damage.

  14. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.

  15. Growth and Photosynthetic Pigment Accumulation in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. in Response to Light and Nutrient Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the responses of some of the growth parameters of Lycopersicum esculentum to light and nutrient stress. The focus is equally orientated in determining the effect of light and nutrient stress on the photosynthetic pigment accumulation in plants. Tomato seeds were grown in pretreated sand and were watered with distilled water until the experimental culture was fully established. After this, the plants were transplanted into 60 plastic pots, with holes bored at the bottom to allow proper drainage of the excess water during the course of the experiment. The plants were divided into four groups of fifteen pots each. A group of plants was submitted to stress of nutrient lack by only administering 100 ml of complete nutrient solution, once every four days. The nutrient solution if applied daily was considered to be adequate for the plants. Another group of plants was lightly stressed, by placing them under shade, while adequate light was gotten in direct sunlight. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals, starting from the seventh day after the first treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the four treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results showed that there was a reduction in photosynthetic pigment accumulation in the plants when both light and nutrient were limited. The data obtained from the study were first tested between normality and assumption of constant variance. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out considering both factors (light and nutrient as source's of variation to investigate the effects of full light and full nutrient (FLFN , full light and partial nutrient (FLPN, partial light and full nutrient (PLFN and partial light and partial nutrient (PLPN the parameters studied in Lycopersicum esculentum.

  16. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN NUTRIENT ON THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS ACCUMULATION AND YIELD OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated photosynthetic pigment accumulation and yield of Solanum lycopersicum so as to ascertain the maximum concentration of nitrogen needed for optimum production. Seeds of S. lycopersicum tagged with VG-TH-017 were firstly raised in nursery bed. At the end of 28th day after sowing, the seedlings with uniform height were transplanted into experimental pots with 4 seedlings per pot under greenhouse. All the experimental pots were 40 in total, 4 levels of nitrogen (KNO3 and NH4NO3 treatment (n, N, 5N, 10N with 10 replicates. All the plants in the four treatments received 200ml of distilled water at 6a.m. in the morning every day. At 6p.m. in the evening, 100 ml of the differential treatments were applied. The photosynthetic pigments were determined spectrophotometrically. The number of flowers and fruits per plant per pot were counted and recorded. The fruit lengths and fruit diameters in each treatment were determined with the use of a Vernier Caliper. The fruits biomass were also determined. The 10N-plants and 5N-plants had leaves with deep-green colouration indicating an increase in chlorophyll content as well as an increase in the photosynthetic capacity. The highest number of flowers and early flowering discovered in 10N-plants and 5N-plants. The best yield was obtained in the treatments for the 5N-plants in which the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient solution had been increased to a factor of 5. It is therefore suggested that when the seeds of tomato plants VG-TH-017 are to be grown, the 5N treatment is the most suitable level of application.

  17. A practical introduction to computer vision with OpenCV

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson-Howe, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Explains the theory behind basic computer vision and provides a bridge from the theory to practical implementation using the industry standard OpenCV libraries Computer Vision is a rapidly expanding area and it is becoming progressively easier for developers to make use of this field due to the ready availability of high quality libraries (such as OpenCV 2).  This text is intended to facilitate the practical use of computer vision with the goal being to bridge the gap between the theory and the practical implementation of computer vision. The book will explain how to use the relevant OpenCV

  18. Reduced and unstratified crust in CV chondrite parent body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganino, Clément; Libourel, Guy

    2017-08-15

    Early Solar System planetesimal thermal models predict the heating of the chondritic protolith and the preservation of a chondritic crust on differentiated parent bodies. Petrological and geochemical analyses of chondrites have suggested that secondary alteration phases formed at low temperatures (hydrothermal fluid. Putative 'onion shell' structures are not anymore a requirement for the CV parent body crust.Meteorites may unlock the history of the early solar system. Here, the authors find, through Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases, that the distinction between reduced and oxidized CV chondrites is invalid; therefore, CV3 chondrites are asteroid fragments that percolated heterogeneously via porous flow of hydrothermal fluid.

  19. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  20. Micropropagação de abacaxizeiro cv. Emepa 1 Micropropagation of pineapple, cv. Emepa 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton M. de Moraes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação para o abacaxizeiro cv. Emepa 1, contemplando as fases de estabelecimento de explantes (EE, multiplicação (UM e enraizamento (EN. Como explantes se utilizaram gemas axilares, desinfestadas e inoculadas em meio MS sólido, contendo diferentes concentrações e combinações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA. Todas as culturas foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com temperatura de 25 ± 5 °C e fotoperíodo de 16 h luz, a uma intensidade luminosa de 30 µmol m-2 s-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos na fase EE, oito na fase MU e quatro na fase EN, dez repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída de um frasco contendo um broto. Concluiu-se que o estabelecimento de gemas axilares desta variedade de abacaxizeiro, pode ser realizado em meio de cultivo MS sem a adição de reguladores de crescimento; a multiplicação, em meio de cultura MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP + 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA, enquanto a adição do ANA promove o enraizamento dos brotos.This work aimed to develop a micropropagation protocol of pineapple cv. Emepa 1. The cv. Emepa 1 axillary gems used were disinfested and inoculated in half MS solid with 5.8 pH. There was incubation in a growth room with temperature of 25 ± 5 °C and photoperiod of 16 h light at a luminous intensity of 30 mmol m-2 s-1. The cv. Emepa 1 micropropagation protocol was developed according to the existing literature, comprising the following phases: establishing of explants (EE; multiplication (MU; extent rooting (EN. A completely randomized design (CRD was used in all the phases as follows: EE - DIC with 6 treatments comprised of 10 repetitions containing 1 explants per bottle; MU - CRD with 8 treatments, comprised of 10 repetitions containing 1 explants per bottle. It was concluded that the concentration of 2% of

  1. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  2. Maturity and ripening-stage specific modulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alka; Gupta, Aditya K; Datsenka, Tatsiana; Mattoo, Autar K; Handa, Avtar K

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a model to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit development and ripening. We profiled gene expression during fruit development (immature green and mature green fruit) and ripening (breaker stage onwards) program to obtain a global perspective of genes whose expression is modulated at each stage of fruit development and ripening. A custom made cDNA macroarray containing cDNAs representing various metabolic pathways, defense, signaling, transcription, transport, cell structure and cell wall related functions was developed and used to quantify changes in the abundance of different transcripts. About 34 % of 1066 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) printed on the macroarray were differentially expressed during tomato fruit ripening. Out of these, 25 % genes classify under metabolism and protein biosynthesis/degradation related processes, while a significant proportion represented stress-responsive genes and about 44 % represented genes with unknown functions. RNA gel blot analysis validated changes in a few representative genes. Although the mature green fruit was found transcriptionally quiescent, the K-means cluster analysis highlighted coordinated up or down regulation of genes during progressive ripening; emphasizing that ripening is a transcriptionally active process. Many stress-related genes were found up-regulated, suggesting their role in the fruit ripening program.

  3. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action.

  4. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and nutrition status of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Rasool; Ziveh, Parviz Sharifi; Satari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.

  5. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Stultiens, Catharina L. M.; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Powers, Stephen J.; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnoud G.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. PMID:25883382

  6. Osmotic Effect of Conditioning on Seeds of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Santa Clara Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Liliana Moreno Medina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world, taking into account its nutritional potential and high economic value. In this crop the quality of seed depends on various factors, one of which is its physiology, which is determined by a germination and viability test. Osmotic seed conditioning is reported to be a technique for improving the physiological quality through the uniformity of the germination percentage. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the osmotic conditioning on tomato seeds of the Santa Clara variety. Using treatments of four doses of potassium nitrate (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 , the seeds were imbibitioned for 24 hours in solution and then washed with distilled water. They were placed in petri dishes in random order with three replications for a total of 12 experimental units, consisting of 35 seeds. The method seeks to hydrate the seeds with a solution of given concentration and for a period of time, in order to activate the seed metabolism. The best result was obtained with the treatment of 200 mg L-1 of potassium nitrate, followed by 400 mg L-1 , represented by a lower TMG , lower and higher PG VMG.

  7. Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 regulates cell division activity during early tomato fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Stultiens, Catharina L M; de Groot, Peter F M; Powers, Stephen J; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnoud G; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H; Rieu, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    The transformation of the ovary into a fruit after successful completion of pollination and fertilization has been associated with many changes at transcriptomic level. These changes are part of a dynamic and complex regulatory network that is controlled by phytohormones, with a major role for auxin. One of the auxin-related genes differentially expressed upon fruit set and early fruit development in tomato is Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 9 (SlARF9). Here, the functional analysis of this ARF is described. SlARF9 expression was found to be auxin-responsive and SlARF9 mRNA levels were high in the ovules, placenta, and pericarp of pollinated ovaries, but also in other plant tissues with high cell division activity, such as the axillary meristems and root meristems. Transgenic plants with increased SlARF9 mRNA levels formed fruits that were smaller than wild-type fruits because of reduced cell division activity, whereas transgenic lines in which SlARF9 mRNA levels were reduced showed the opposite phenotype. The expression analysis, together with the phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, ARF9 negatively controls cell division during early fruit development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Gene expression analysis of metallothionein and mineral elements uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısa, Dursun; Öztürk, Lokman; Tekin, Şaban

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals such as Cd are considered to be the most important pollutants in soil contamination. Cd is a non-essential element adversely affecting plant growth and development, and it has caused some physiological and molecular changes. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, and metal binding proteins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MT gene expression levels and minerals uptake in the tissues of Solanum lycopersicum exposed to Cd. The transcriptional expression of the MT genes was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The MT genes were regulated by the Cd and the mineral elements uptake changed tissue type and applied doses. The MT1 and MT2 transcript levels increased in the roots, the leaves and the fruits of the tomato. The MT3 and MT4 transcript pattern changed according to the tissue types. The Cd treatment on the growth medium increased the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and fruits of the tomato. However, the Cd affected the mineral levels in the roots depending on the mineral types and doses. Also, the Cd content increased in the roots, the leaves, and the fruits of the tomato, respectively. The results presented in this study show that Cd has synergistic and/or antagonistic effects on minerals depending on the tissue types. These results indicate that the MT1 and MT2 expression pattern increased together with the Mg, Ca, and Fe content in both the leaves and the fruits of the tomato.

  9. MANIFESTATIONS OF BIOLOGICALLY CULTIVATED TOMATOES (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE BIOFERTILISER SEASOL

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    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (solanum lycopersicum l. is an important and popular vegetable grown worldwide. Biofertilisers import nutritional substances in plants and has a direct role in the supply with macro- and micro elements, which take part in the biological processes and have a very important role in the improvement of soil fertility. The experiment aims at studying the influence of the biofertiliser Seasol on the vegetative manifestations and the economic productivity of tomatoes of the variety of Trapezitsa. The study took place in 2013 and 2014 at the Agroecological Centre at Agricultural University - Plovdiv. It was established that the standard yield of tomatoes was the highest for the variant characterized with the application of the biofertiliser Seasol (triple- 2683 kg/da (2013 and 2591 kg/da (2014. The reported results showed the stimulating effect of the vegetation soil feeding with the biofertiliser Seasol, regardless of the number of uses (double and triple, as compared to the results of the unfertilised control.

  10. Plant degreening: evolution and expression of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) dephytylation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Bruno Silvestre; de Setta, Nathalia; Rosado, Daniele; Almeida, Juliana; Freschi, Luciano; Rossi, Magdalena

    2014-08-10

    Chlorophyll is the most abundant pigment on earth and even though it is known that its high photo-excitability necessitates a tight regulation of its degradation pathway, to date there are still several steps in chlorophyll breakdown that remain obscure. In order to better understand the 'degreening' processes that accompany leaf senescence and fruit ripening, we characterized the enzyme-encoding genes involved in dephytylation from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). A single pheophytinase (PPH) gene and four chlorophyllase (CLH) genes were identified in the tomato genome. A phenetic analysis revealed two groups of CLHs in eudicot species and further evolutionary analysis indicated that these enzymes are under diverse selection pressures. A comprehensive expression profile analysis also suggested functional specificity for these dephytylating enzymes. The integrated analysis allows us to propose three general roles for chlorophyll dephytylation: i) PPH, which is under high selective constraint, is responsible for chlorophyll degradation during developmentally programed physiological processes; ii) Group I CLHs, which are under relaxed selection constraint, respond to environmental and hormonal stimuli and play a role in plant adaptation plasticity; and iii) Group II CLHs, which are also under high selective constraint, are mostly involved in chlorophyll recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Itishree; Mukherjee, Arup K.; Acharya, Priyambada

    2013-01-01

    We investigated on important parameters of induced resistance in hydroponic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Ralstonia solanacearum using the elicitors chitosan (CHT), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). The increase in total phenolic content of roots by the elicitors was significantly higher than control. Most pronounced increase in lignin synthesis was triggered by SA followed by CHT. At 24 h post-elicitation (hpe), the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was 4.5 times higher than control elicited by CHT. The peroxidase activity was about 86 nkat/mg protein at 24 hpe in case of SA and 78 nkat/mg protein in case of CHT. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased several folds by the elicitors. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity increased to the maximum at 48 hpe under the influence of CHT. The results indicate that the elicitors SA and CHT induced effective defense responses in tomato plants against R. solanacearum. This was evident from reduced vascular browning and wilting symptoms of tomato plants treated with SA and CHT and challenged subsequently with R. solanacearum. This reduced disease incidence in tomato by SA and CHT may be a result of cell wall strengthening through deposition of lignin and the coincident induction of defense enzymes. PMID:24187521

  12. Mobilization of storage materials during light-induced germination of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika; Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Appenroth, Klaus-J; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of storage materials in germinating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds and to determine whether it is regulated by light via phytochromes. Wild type, single and multiple phytochrome A, B1 and B2 mutants were investigated. Imbibed seeds were briefly irradiated with far-red or far-red followed by red light, and germinated in darkness. Triacylglycerols and starch were quantified using biochemical assays in germinating seeds and seedlings during the first 5 days of growth. To investigate the process of fat-carbohydrate transformation, the activity of the glyoxylate cycle was assessed. Our results confirm the role of phytochrome in the control of tomato seed germination. Phytochromes A and B2 were shown to play specific roles, acting antagonistically in far-red light. While the breakdown of triacylglycerols proceeded independently of light, phytochrome control was visible in the next stages of the lipid-carbohydrate transformation. The key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were regulated by phytochrome(s). This was reflected in a greater increase of starch content during seedling growth in response to additional red light treatment. This study is the first attempt to build a comprehensive image of storage material metabolism regulation by light in germinating dicotyledonous seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) candidate pathogen recognition genes reveals important Solanum R locus dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfo, G; Sanseverino, W; Rombauts, S; Van de Peer, Y; Bradeen, J M; Carputo, D; Frusciante, L; Ercolano, M R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genome-wide spatial arrangement of R loci, a complete catalogue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) nucleotide-binding site (NBS) NBS, receptor-like protein (RLP) and receptor-like kinase (RLK) gene repertories was generated. Candidate pathogen recognition genes were characterized with respect to structural diversity, phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal distribution. NBS genes frequently occur in clusters of related gene copies that also include RLP or RLK genes. This scenario is compatible with the existence of selective pressures optimizing coordinated transcription. A number of duplication events associated with lineage-specific evolution were discovered. These findings suggest that different evolutionary mechanisms shaped pathogen recognition gene cluster architecture to expand and to modulate the defence repertoire. Analysis of pathogen recognition gene clusters associated with documented resistance function allowed the identification of adaptive divergence events and the reconstruction of the evolution history of these loci. Differences in candidate pathogen recognition gene number and organization were found between tomato and potato. Most candidate pathogen recognition gene orthologues were distributed at less than perfectly matching positions, suggesting an ongoing lineage-specific rearrangement. Indeed, a local expansion of Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) (TNL) genes in the potato genome was evident. Taken together, these findings have implications for improved understanding of the mechanisms of molecular adaptive selection at Solanum R loci. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Changes in volatiles and glycosides during fruit maturation of two contrasted tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtić, Simona; Ginies, Christian; Causse, Mathilde; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2009-01-28

    The relationship between fruit maturation and volatile contents was investigated in two contrasted Cervil (CER) and Levovil (LEV) tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) lines. As fruits ripened, their volatile contents mainly increased. Although some compounds displayed contrasting patterns, overall, volatiles were clearly more abundant and conferred stronger aromas to CER than to LEV fruits. This intervarietal difference in volatile contents yielding much lower volatile contents in LEV was further investigated to determine whether it is due to a higher capacity of volatile glycosylation within LEV as compared to CER. Again, glycosides mainly increased during fruit maturation and were more abundant within CER than within LEV. Overall glycoside findings were indicative of a superior capacity to biosynthesize rather than an inferior capacity to glycosylate volatiles of CER. Eugenol and 2-methoxyphenol volatiles were exceptional compounds as they remained at higher levels in maturing LEV than in CER. 2-Methylthioacetaldehyde was for the first time identified as putatively related to differences of aroma between lines, as it was abundant in Cervil but absent in Levovil. Considering the described odor value of these three products, they should contribute differently to the particular olfactive features of LEV and CER fruits.

  15. Gold Nanomaterial Uptake from Soil Is Not Increased by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato

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    Jonathan D. Judy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs by plants has been demonstrated in numerous studies over the past 5–10 years. However, the overwhelming majority of these studies were conducted using hydroponic systems and the degree to which the addition of the biological and chemical components present in the soil might fundamentally alter the potential of plant bioaccumulation of ENMs is unclear. Here, we used two genotypes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato, reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc, a mutant which does not allow arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization, and its progenitor, 76R, to examine how colonization by AMF alters trends of gold ENM bioaccumulation from a natural soil. Gold was taken up and bioaccumulated by plants of both genotypes. Gold concentrations were significantly higher in the rmc treatment although this was likely attributable to the large differences in biomass between the 76R and rmc plants. Regardless, there was little evidence that AMF played a significant role in trafficking Au ENMs into the plants. Furthermore, despite very low NH4NO3 extractable Au concentrations, Au accumulated at the root-soil interface. Although this observation would seem to suggest that ENMs may have potential to influence this particularly biologically active and important soil compartment, we observed no evidence of this here, as the 76R plants developed a robust AMF symbiosis despite accumulation of Au ENMs at the rhizoplane.

  16. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRESENCIA DE MANCHA SOLAR EN FRUTOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum

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    Dagmara Plana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra la evaluación de la presencia de mancha solar en frutos de tomate durante dos años de cultivo. Se estudiaron cuatro variedades de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum cultivadas en época óptima de siembra. Los resultados demuestran la incidencia de mancha solar en los frutos de las variedades evaluadas: síntomas de hombro amarillo (YS, desorden del hombro amarillo por debajo de la piel roja del fruto amarillo (YSD y tejido interno blanco (IWT. Solo una variedad presentó alta intensidad y severidad de YS, Severino Corbarese con 80,8 %. YSD fue el síntoma más frecuenteen los dos años estudiados, seguido de IWT. El único factor climático que difirió en los dos años fue la radiación global y las precipitaciones. La incidencia y severidad de este desorden fue genotipo dependiente, pero la interacción con estos factores ambientales pudiera ser el detonante de su aparición. Estos resultados recomiendan la necesidad de realizar estudios genéticos más detallados en el germoplasma caracterizado como susceptible o tolerante, de manera que permitan encontrar una explicación clara de sus causas y desarrollo.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MANCHA SOLAR EN FRUTOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum COSECHADOS EN CUBA

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    Dagmara Plana Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue el de estudiar lasafectaciones producidas por la mancha solar en frutos de tomate(Solanum lycopersicum en nuestras condiciones de trabajo.Para ello, se empleó una escala e índice que nos permitiódescribir la severidad e intensidad del daño. Además, se llevóa cabo un estudio histológico, de calidad y nutricional confrutos sanos y afectados. El 80 % de los frutos evaluados estabaafectado por mancha solar, con una intensidad baja (36,5, perode severidad máxima en la escala. El estudio histológico reveló diferencias en cuanto al tamaño celular y morfología delpericarpio entre frutos sanos y con mancha solar. Los valoresde los análisis de calidad no revelaron afectaciones debidas a la presencia de mancha, pero la estimación de la concentraciónde licopeno en frutos con mancha disminuyó de 92 ¿g/g enfrutos sanos a 74 ¿g/g en frutos dañados. Estos resultados permitieron corroborar que estamos en presencia del desordenllamado mancha solar, que se caracteriza por un desarrollo anormalde la maduración y bajos valores de licopeno en los fruto safectados. Estas observaciones proveen las bases paracomparar la mancha solar en tomates con otros desórdenes dela maduración.

  18. Colonization of roots of cultivated Solanum lycopersicum by dark septate and other ascomycetous endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Franken, Philipp; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard; Restrepo, Silvia; de Garcia, Maria Caridad Cepero; Maximova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots from four different crop sites in Colombia were surface sterilized and 51 fungal isolates were obtained and conserved for further analysis. Based on microscopical observations and growth characteristics, 20 fungal isolates corresponded to genus Fusarium, six presented asexual conidia different from Fusarium, eight were sterile mycelia, seven of which had dark septate hyphae and 17 did not continue to grow on plates after being recovered from conservation. Growth on different media, detailed morphological characterization and ITS region sequencing of the six sporulating and eight sterile isolates revealed that they belonged to different orders of Ascomycota and that the sterile dark septate endophytes did not correspond to the well known Phialocephala group. Interactions of nine isolates with tomato plantlets were assessed in vitro. No effect on shoot development was revealed, but three isolates caused brown spots in roots. Colonization patterns as analyzed by confocal microscopy differed among the isolates and ranged from epidermal to cortical penetration. Altogether 11 new isolates from root endophytic fungi were obtained, seven of which showed features of dark septate endophytes. Four known morphotypes were represented by five isolates, while six isolates belonged to five morphotypes of putative new unknown species.

  19. Diversity, distribution and dynamics of full-length Copia and Gypsy LTR retroelements in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Kozaczek, Melisa Eliana; Rosli, Hernán Guillermo; Andino, Natalia Pilar; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Virginia

    2017-08-03

    Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements. The dispersion level across the 12 chromosomes, the diversity and tissue-specific expression of those elements were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis based on the retrotranscriptase region revealed the presence of 12 major lineages of LTR retroelements in the tomato genome. We identified 97 families, of which 77 and 20 belong to the superfamilies Copia and Gypsy, respectively. Each retroelement family was characterized according to their element size, relative frequencies and insertion time. These analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in tomato.

  20. Pengaruhh konsentrasi larutan gula terhadap karakteristik manisan kering tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum

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    WAWAN BUNTARAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 20011. Pengaruh konsentrasi larutan gula terhadap karakteristik manisan kering tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum. Bioteknologi 8: 1-9. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mempelajari pengaruh perendaman dalam larutan gula terhadap karakteristik manisan tomat kering dan untuk menetapkan konsentrasi larutan gula yang tepat sehingga dihasilkan manisan tomat kering dengan karakteristik yang baik. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK yang terdiri dari empat perlakuan dengan enam kali ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi larutan gula dimana untuk kelompok A (40%, B (50%, C (60% dan D (70%, selama 18 jam. Variabel yang diamati adalah kandungan air, abu, vitamin C dan uji organoleptik meliputi rasa, warna, aroma serta uji tekstur. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anova (Analisis of Variance dilanjutkan dengan uji DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. Hasil penelitiaan menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan gula berpengaruh terhadap kandungan air, kandungan abu, kandungan vitamin C, tekstur serta warna,rasa dan aroma manisan. Manisan tomat kering kelompok A (40% relatif lebih baik dengan kandungan air 24,20%%, kandungan abu 0,62% dan vitamin C 31,15 mg/100 g. Syarat mutu kandungan manisan kering buah-buahan maximal 25% (SII No.0718¬2003, kandunggan abu bahan makanan maximal 1,0% (SII 0272.90 dan dan kandungan vitamin C tidak banyak berkurang dimana pada tomat adalah 30-40 mg/100 g. Hasil uji organoleptik menunjukkan bahwa kelompok A (40% mendapat nilai tertinggi terhadap rasa (3,98, aroma (3,89 dan warna (3,98.

  1. EFECTO DE EXTRACTOS ACUOSOS DE Helianthus annuus Lin. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE Solanum lycopersicum Lin.

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    Yaniuska González Perigó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de extractos acuosos de Helianthus annuus Lin. sobre el crecimiento de Solanum lycopersicum Lin, se tomaron muestras de raíz y hojas de plantas recolectadas de un sistema de policultivo ubicado en un agroecosistema montañoso. Los extractos acuosos de girasol se obtuvieron a partir de raíz y hojas de plantas recolectadas durante dos años. Se evaluaron los efectos de estos extractos sobre la germinación, longitud de la radícula y del hipocótilo de semillas de tomate certificadas, para ello se ejecutaron nueve tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones dispuestos en placas Petri. Los extractos de raíz de girasol a los 15, 30 y 45 días y de hojas a los 75 y 90 días de desarrollo inhibieron la germinación de las semillas de tomate y el crecimiento de la radícula y el hipocótilo. Los extractos de raíz de girasol con 75 y 90 días, estimularon el crecimiento de la radícula y del hipocótilo del tomate. Estos resultados demuestran que el girasol produce sustancias químicas que inhiben el crecimiento del tomate y no se recomienda asociar estos dos cultivos de forma simultánea.

  2. Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Sudhamoy Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated on important parameters of induced resistance in hydroponic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum using the elicitors chitosan (CHT, salicylic acid (SA, and jasmonic acid (JA. The increase in total phenolic content of roots by the elicitors was significantly higher than control. Most pronounced increase in lignin synthesis was triggered by SA followed by CHT. At 24 h post-elicitation (hpe, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was 4.5 times higher than control elicited by CHT. The peroxidase activity was about 86 nkat/mg protein at 24 hpe in case of SA and 78 nkat/mg protein in case of CHT. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased several folds by the elicitors. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity increased to the maximum at 48 hpe under the influence of CHT. The results indicate that the elicitors SA and CHT induced effective defense responses in tomato plants against R. solanacearum. This was evident from reduced vascular browning and wilting symptoms of tomato plants treated with SA and CHT and challenged subsequently with R. solanacearum. This reduced disease incidence in tomato by SA and CHT may be a result of cell wall strengthening through deposition of lignin and the coincident induction of defense enzymes.

  3. Growth Inhibition Occurs Independently of Cell Mortality in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Exposed to High Cadmium Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Delpérée; Stanley Lutts

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the adaptation potential of tomato shoots to a sudden increase in Cd concentration, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Ailsa Craig) were exposed under controlled environmental conditions to a high dose of this heavy metal (250 μM CdCl2>) in nutrient solution for 7 and 14 d. Both root and shoot growth was completely inhibited but all plants remained alive until the end of the treatment. Cell viability remained unaffected but the activity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway was stimulated by Cd stress at the expense of the cytochrome pathway. Cadmium concentration was higher in roots than in shoots and a decrease In the rate of net Cd translocation was noticed during the second week of stress. Cadmium decreased both leaf conductance (g1>) and chlorophyll concentration. However, the effect on net CO2 assimilation remained limited and soluble sugars accumulated in leaves. Photochemical efficiency of PSll (FvlFm) was not affected despite a decrease in the number of reaction centers and an inhibition of electron transfer to acceptors of PSII. It is concluded that tomato shoot may sustain short term exposure to high doses of cadmium despite growth inhibition. This property implies several physiological strategies linked to both avoidance and tolerance mechanisms.

  4. The Control of Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shirdel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape would have irreversible effects on tomatoes in all growth stages and the damage would be unrecoverable. In order to chemically control Orobanche spp with consumption of bio-fertilizer in tomato cultivation, an experiment as factorial based on complete randomized blocks design in three replications and 12 plots was carried out at a farm which is located in Mahabad city (Iran. In this experiment, the experimental factors were including: A- sulfosulfuron 35 g/ha in three levels (application, at 40 days after transplanting of seedlings, application at 60 days and after sample transplanting without any chemical spraying, B and C: bio- fertilizers, Barvar -2 and Nitrajin in two levels (application and non-application of bio-fertilizer, were taken place. The results showed that Sulfosulfuron treatment at the rate of 35 gr/ha, with- twice application of 40 and 60 days after transplanting of seedlings decreased the biomass of Orobanche aegyptiaca in surface level and also it was possible to decrease the biomass per tomato bush and Orobanche aegyptiaca biomass to amount of 75%, 57% and 60% respectively compare to the main treatment without applying any kind of spray application. The applied bio-fertilizer-2 decreased the amount of fruit and economical function of tomato. The applying phosphate biofertilizer-2 resulted in a decrease in economical function of Lycopersicum esculentum and number of ripen fruits. However none of the applied treatment was influential on diameter and weight of ripen fruits.

  5. Instant OpenCV for iOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kornyakov, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This book uses a very practical approach, with each recipe and their associated sample projects or examples focusing on a particular aspect of the technology.This book is intended for OpenCV developers who are interested in porting their applications to the iOS platform. Basic experience with OpenCV, computer vision, Objective C, and other iOS tools is encouraged.

  6. Structural investigations and morphology of tomato fruit starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengwilai, Kietsuda; Beckles, Diane M

    2009-01-14

    The physicochemical properties of starch from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) pericarp and columella of cv. Moneymaker fruit at 28 days post anthesis (DPA) were investigated, providing the first description of the composition and structure of tomato fruit starch. Starch granules from pericarp were mainly polygonal, 13.5-14.3 microm, and increased in size through development, being largest in ripening fruit. Amylopectin content was 81-83% and was of molecular weight 1.01 x 10(8) g/mol; the phosphorus content was 139 ppm, and starch showed a C-type pattern with crystallinity of 30%. Starch characteristics were similar in columella except granule size (16.8-17.8 microm) and crystallinity (40%), although 6-fold more starch accumulated in the pericarp. Solara, a high-sugar tomato cultivar, was also studied to determine if this affects starch granule architecture. There were few differences from Moneymaker, except that Solara columella starch crystallinity was lower (26%), and more starch granule-intrinsic proteins could be extracted by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  7. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 2009. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 55-61. The aims of the research were to study the effects of sugar syrup concentration on dried candy tomato characteristics and to determine the proper sugar solution concentration that gives the best characteristics of dry candy tomatoes. The research used Randomized Block Design Method with four treatments and six times repetitions. The treatment that be used was immersing the tomato in sugar solution, with concentration of A (40%, B (50%, C (60%, and D (70% group in 18 hours. The variables measured were water content, ash, vitamin C and organoleptic tests include flavor, color, flavor and texture test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that sugar solution concentration had different effect on water content, ash content, vitamin C content, texture, and organoleptic test for colour, taste, and flavor of the dry candy tomato. The best characteristics of dry tomato candy was obtained on A (40% group, with water content of 24.20%, ash content of 0.62%, and vitamin C content of 31.15 mg/100 g. Standar quality of water content for dry fruit candy was maximal 25% (SII No.0718-2003 and maximal allowed ash content for food materials was 1.0% (SII 0272.90. Vitamin C content was not much decreased compared with ripe tomato i.e. 30-40 mg/100. Organoleptic tets result indicated that A (40% group get the highest score, i.e. 3,98 for taste, 3,89 for flavor, and 3,98 for colour.

  8. Effectiveness of Neutral Electrolyzed Water on Incidence of Fungal Rot on Tomato Fruits ( Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-López, Alfonso; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the effect of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) on the incidence of rot on tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum , Galactomyces geotrichum , and Alternaria sp. at sites with lesions. The inoculated fruits were treated with NEW at 10, 30, and 60 mg liter(-1) active chlorine, with copper oxychloride fungicide, and with sterile distilled water (control) for 3, 5, and 10 min. In the experiment with F. oxysporum , 50 to 80% of the control fruits and 50 to 60% of the fruits treated with the fungicide exhibited symptoms of rot at the inoculated sites. The lowest incidence recorded was 30% for fruits treated with NEW at 60 mg liter(-1) active chlorine with an immersion time of 5 min. In the experiment with G. geotrichum , incidence of rot on control fruits was 70 to 90%, and for treatment with fungicide rot incidence was 50 to 90%. NEW at 60 mg liter(-1) active chlorine significantly reduced incidence of symptomatic fruit: only 30% of the inoculated fruits washed for 5 min had damage from rot. In the experiment with Alternaria sp., 60 to 90% of the fruits in the control group and 60 to 70% of the fruits in the fungicide group were symptomatic. The lowest incidence was recorded for the treatment in which the fruits were submerged in NEW with 60 mg liter(-1) active chlorine for 3 min. In this group, 40 to 50% of the fruits exhibited symptoms of rot. These results were obtained 8 days after inoculation. NEW, with 60 mg liter(-1) active chlorine, significantly reduced incidence of rot symptoms on fruits inoculated with one of the experimental fungi relative to the control (P ≤ 0.05). NEW at 60 mg liter(-1) is effective in the control of fungal rot in tomatoes.

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in response to exogenous abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tao, Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Liang; Sun, Jiao-Long; Yan, Xue-Feng; Li, Dan; Deng, Hong-Yuan; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2013-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) can regulate the expressions of many stress-responsive genes in plants. However, in defense responses to pathogens, mounting evidence suggests that ABA plays variable roles. Little information exists about genome-wide gene expression in ABA responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a model fruit crop plant. Global transcriptome profiles of tomato leaf responses to exogenous ABA were generated using Illumina RNA-sequencing. More than 173 million base pair reads were mapped onto the tomato reference genome and the expression pattern differences between treated and control leaves were assessed. In total, 50,616 transcripts were generated. Among them, 42,583 were functionally annotated in the NCBI non-redundant database and 47,877 in the tomato genome reference. Additionally, 31,107 transcripts were categorized into 57 functional groups based on Gene Ontology terms, and 14,371 were assigned to 310 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. In both the ABA treatment and control samples, 39,671 transcripts were available to analyze their expressions, of which 21,712 (54.73%) responded to exogenous ABA. Of these transcripts, 2,787 were significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs). Many known and novel ABA-induced and -repressed genes were found. Exogenous ABA can influence the ABA signaling pathway with PYR/PYL/RCARs-PP2Cs-SnRK2s as the center. Eighteen PYL genes were detected. A large number of genes related to various transcription factors, heat shock proteins, pathogen resistance, and the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways were up-regulated by exogenous ABA. The results indicated that ABA has the potential to improve pathogen-resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in tomato. This study presents the global expression analysis of ABA-regulated transcripts in tomato and provides a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by ABA.

  10. Ethylene suppresses tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit set through modification of gibberellin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Hao, Shuhei; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ozeki-Iida, Yuko; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Zhong, Silin; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Heta, Yumi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Ariizumi, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    Fruit set in angiosperms marks the transition from flowering to fruit production and a commitment to seed dispersal. Studies with Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit have shown that pollination and subsequent fertilization induce the biosynthesis of several hormones, including auxin and gibberellins (GAs), which stimulate fruit set. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the gaseous hormone ethylene may also influence fruit set, but this has yet to be substantiated with molecular or mechanistic data. Here, we examined fruit set at the biochemical and genetic levels, using hormone and inhibitor treatments, and mutants that affect auxin or ethylene signaling. The expression of system-1 ethylene biosynthetic genes and the production of ethylene decreased during pollination-dependent fruit set in wild-type tomato and during pollination-independent fruit set in the auxin hypersensitive mutant iaa9-3. Blocking ethylene perception in emasculated flowers, using either the ethylene-insensitive Sletr1-1 mutation or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), resulted in elongated parthenocarpic fruit and increased cell expansion, whereas simultaneous treatment with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) inhibited parthenocarpy. Additionally, the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to pollinated ovaries reduced fruit set. Furthermore, Sletr1-1 parthenocarpic fruits did not exhibit increased auxin accumulation, but rather had elevated levels of bioactive GAs, most likely reflecting an increase in transcripts encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme SlGA20ox3, as well as a reduction in the levels of transcripts encoding the GA-inactivating enzymes SlGA2ox4 and SlGA2ox5. Taken together, our results suggest that ethylene plays a role in tomato fruit set by suppressing GA metabolism. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dactylosporangium solaniradicis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a root of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianlong; Liu, Chongxi; Ma, Zhaoxu; Zhou, Shuyu; Li, Wenchao; Li, Jiansong; Chu, Liyang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-07-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-FJL2(T), was isolated from a tomato root (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and characterised using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-FJL2(T) are consistent with the description of the genus Dactylosporangium. Finger-shaped sporangia were observed to form on short sporangiophores branching from the substrate hyphae. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso- and 3-hydroxy-diaminopimelic acids; arabinose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose were found as whole-cell sugars. The phospholipid profile was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, C16:1 ω7c and iso-C15:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain NEAU-FJL2(T) belongs to the genus Dactylosporangium, with Dactylosporangium sucinum JCM 19831(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Dactylosporangium darangshiense JCM 17441(T) (99.2 %), Dactylosporangium fulvum JCM 5631(T) (98.9 %) and Dactylosporangium roseum JCM 3364(T) (98.8 %) as the nearest phylogenetic relatives. However, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-FJL2(T) can be distinguished from them. Consequently, it is proposed that strain NEAU-FJL2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Dactylosporangium, for which the name Dactylosporangium solaniradicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-FJL2(T) (=CGMCC 4.7302(T) = DSM 100814(T)).

  12. Molecular characterization of fruit-specific class III peroxidase genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chii-Jeng; Chan, Yuan-Li; Shien, Chin Hui; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, expression of four peroxidase genes, LePrx09, LePrx17, LePrx35 and LePrxA, was identified in immature tomato fruits, and the function in the regulation of fruit growth was characterized. Analysis of amino acid sequences revealed that these genes code for class III peroxidases, containing B, D and F conserved domains, which bind heme groups, and a buried salt bridge motif. LePrx35 and LePrxA were identified as novel peroxidase genes in Solanum lycopersicum (L.). The temporal expression patterns at various fruit growth stages revealed that LePrx35 and LePrxA were expressed only in immature green (IMG) fruits, whereas LePrx17 and LePrx09 were expressed in both immature and mature green fruits. Tissue-specific expression profiles indicated that only LePrx09 was expressed in the mesocarp but not the inner tissue of immature fruits. The effects of hormone treatments and stresses on the four genes were examined; only the expression levels of LePrx17 and LePrx09 were altered. Transcription of LePrx17 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and pathogen infection and expression of LePrx09 was induced by ethephon, salicylic acid (SA) and JA, in particular, as well as wounding, pathogen infection and H2O2 stress. Tomato plants over-expressing LePrx09 displayed enhanced resistance to H2O2 stress, suggesting that LePrx09 may participate in the H2O2 signaling pathway to regulate fruit growth and disease resistance in tomato fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Profiling microRNAs and their targets in an important fleshy fruit: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Muhammad; Barozai, Muhammad Younas Khan

    2014-02-10

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important and the most useful plant based diet. It is widely used for its antioxidant property. Presently, only two digits, tomato microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported in miRBase: a miRNA database. This study is aimed to profile and characterize more miRNAs and their targets in tomato. A comprehensive comparative genomic approach is applied and a total of 109 new miRNAs belonging to 106 families are identified and characterized from the tomato expressed sequence tags (ESTs). All these potential miRNAs are profiled for the first time in tomato. The profiled miRNAs are also observed with stable stem-loop structures (Precursor-miRNAs), whose length ranges from 45 to 329 nucleotides (nt) with an average of 125 nt. The mature miRNAs are found in the stem of pre-miRNAs and their length ranges from 19 to 24 nt with an average of 21 nt. Furthermore, twelve miRNAs are randomly selected and experimentally validated through RT-PCR. A total of 406 putative targets are also predicted for the newly 109 tomato miRNAs. These targets are involved in structural protein, metabolism, transcription factor, growth & development, stress related, signaling pathways, storage proteins and other vital processes. Some important proteins like; 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), transcription factor MYB, ATP-binding cassette transporters, terpen synthase, 14-3-3 and TIR-NBS proteins are also predicted as putative targets for tomato miRNAs. These findings improve a baseline data of miRNAs and their targets in tomato. This baseline data can be utilized to fine tune this important fleshy fruit for nutritional & antioxidant properties and also under biotic & abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of thymosin alpha1 concatemer in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhui; Wang, Aoxue; Zhao, Lingxia; Shen, Guoan; Cui, Lijie; Tang, Kexuan

    2009-04-01

    Talpha1 (thymosin alpha1), an immune booster, plays an important role in the maturation, differentiation and function of T-cells. It can also activate the production of cytokines in dendritic cells. Talpha1 is one of two thymosin proteins that have potential future clinical applications. In order to express Talpha1 protein in plants, we designed and synthesized the Talpha1 gene according to the plant codon usage bias and created a novel 4 x Talpha1 concatemer (four copies of the Talpha1 gene arranged end-to-end in tandem, designated 4 x Talpha1). Subsequently, a plant binary expression vector, PG-pRD12-4 x Talpha1, was constructed and introduced into tomato via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Through selection, 54 regenerated tomato plants resistant to kanamycin were obtained, and four transgenic tomato plants were further confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis showed that the 4 x Talpha1 gene was transcribed specifically in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum)] fruits. ELISA analysis showed that the content of the 4 x Talpha1 protein reached a maximum of 6.098 microg/g fresh weight in mature tomato fruit. Western-blot analysis further confirmed the expression of 4xTalpha1 protein in transgenic tomato fruits. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay showed the 4 x Talpha1 protein derived from transgenic tomatoes exhibited bioactivity that can stimulate the proliferation of mice splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the specific activity of Talpha1 protein from the artificial system was higher than that from the synthetic Escherichia coli system. This study is the first to report successful expression of bioactive Talpha1 in plants, and also it will provide the basis for further development of the plant system to produce Talpha1.

  15. Silicon Enhances Water Stress Tolerance by Improving Root Hydraulic Conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Han, Weihua; Feng, Ru; Hu, Yanhong; Guo, Jia; Gong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si's role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Zhongza No.9') under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance.

  16. Genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of LIM family genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Khadiza; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kim, Chang Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Bae; Lee, Do-Jin; Nou, Ill Sup; Chung, Mi-Young

    2016-11-01

    LIM domain proteins, some of which have been shown to be actin binding proteins, are involved in various developmental activities and cellular processes in plants. To date, the molecular defense-related functions of LIM family genes have not been investigated in any solanaceous vegetable crop species. In this study, we identified 15 LIM family genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) through genome-wide analysis and performed expression profiling in different organs of tomato, including fruits at six different developmental stages. We also performed expression profiling of selected tomato LIM genes in plants under ABA, drought, cold, NaCl and heat stress treatment. The encoded proteins of the 15 tomato LIM genes were classified into two main groups, i.e., proteins similar to cysteine-rich proteins and plant-specific DAR proteins, based on differences in functional domains and variability in their C-terminal regions. The DAR proteins contain a so far poorly characterized zinc-finger-like motif that we propose to call DAR-ZF. Six of the 15 LIM genes were expressed only in flowers, indicating that they play flower-specific roles in plants. The other nine genes were expressed in all organs and at various stages of fruit development. SlβLIM1b was expressed relatively highly at the later stage of fruit development, but three other genes, SlWLIM2a, SlDAR2 and SlDAR4, were expressed at the early stage of fruit development. Seven genes were induced by ABA, five by cold, seven by drought, eight by NaCl and seven by heat treatment respectively, indicating their possible roles in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results will be useful for functional analysis of LIM genes during fruit development in tomato plants under different abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Physiological and Proteomic Analysis in Chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under Silicon Efficiency and Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L. were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs such as photosystems I (PSI and II (PSII to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome

  18. Physiological and proteomic analysis in chloroplasts of Solanum lycopersicum L. under silicon efficiency and salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2014-11-26

    Tomato plants often grow in saline environments in Mediterranean countries where salt accumulation in the soil is a major abiotic stress that limits its productivity. However, silicon (Si) supplementation has been reported to improve tolerance against several forms of abiotic stress. The primary aim of our study was to investigate, using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches, salinity stress in chloroplasts of tomato under silicon supplementation. Tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in nutrient media in the presence or absence of NaCl and supplemented with silicon for 5 days. Salinity stress caused oxidative damage, followed by a decrease in silicon concentrations in the leaves of the tomato plants. However, supplementation with silicon had an overall protective effect against this stress. The major physiological parameters measured in our studies including total chlorophyll and carotenoid content were largely decreased under salinity stress, but were recovered in the presence of silicon. Insufficient levels of net-photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were also largely improved by silicon supplementation. Proteomics analysis of chloroplasts analyzed by 2D-BN-PAGE (second-dimensional blue native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis) revealed a high sensitivity of multiprotein complex proteins (MCPs) such as photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII) to the presence of saline. A significant reduction in cytochrome b6/f and the ATP-synthase complex was also alleviated by silicon during salinity stress, while the complex forms of light harvesting complex trimers and monomers (LHCs) were rapidly up-regulated. Our results suggest that silicon plays an important role in moderating damage to chloroplasts and their metabolism in saline environments. We therefore hypothesize that tomato plants have a greater capacity for tolerating saline stress through the improvement of photosynthetic metabolism and chloroplast proteome expression

  19. Silicon enhances water stress tolerance by improving root hydraulic conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eShi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si’s role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Zhongza No.9’ under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance.

  20. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  1. COMPETENCIA POR INTERFERENCIA DE Helianthus annuus L., ASOCIADO A Solanum lycopersicum L. BAJO CONDICIONES DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniuska González Perigó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó con el objetivo de determinar posibles competencias por interferencia de Helianthus annuus L. (girasol sobre Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomate en un sistema policultural en el período comprendido entre los meses de septiembre a diciembre durante dos años, en un agroecosistema montañoso de la provincia de Guantánamo, Cuba. Se estudiaron cuatro tratamientos: tomate monocultivo; girasol monocultivo; tomate asociado al girasol de forma simultánea y tomate 10 días antes, asociado al girasol. Los cultivos fueron establecidos en franjas de 150 m2. El tratamiento más eficiente (tomate 10 días antes, asociado al girasol fue repetido en el segundo año, manteniéndose además, los monocultivos de tomate y girasol. Se determinó el índice equivalente del uso de la tierra (IET, en base a los rendimientos, considerando además, el tiempo total de duración del sistema policultural (ATER. La mayor producción de tomate asociado al girasol se produjo cuando fue establecido 10 días antes. Como el valor de IET fue >1, puede atribuírsele beneficios económicos respecto al monocultivo, pero ATER alcanzó el valor 1,0, indicador de neutralidad. Sin embargo, desde el punto de vista ecológico este resultado constituye una opción aceptada dentro de la diversidad funcional, porque la asociación mejora el equilibrio del agroecosistema al aportar dos cultivos alimenticios simultáneos, lo que favorece el uso eficiente de los recursos del suelo y probable mejora en la composición de la entomofauna benéfica.

  2. Bacillus EFFECT ON THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS (Solanum lycopersicum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa CABRA CENDALE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos y producir compuestos indólicos del tipo Ácido Indol Acético, se evaluó en 15 cepas aisladas de residuos lignocelulósicos de higuerilla ( Ricinus communis. Para determinar la actividad solubilizadora de fosfatos se realizó una prueba cualitativa utilizando medio de cultivo Pikovskaya y para evaluar la producción de compuestos indólicos (AIA se empleó la técnica colorimétrica de Salkowsky. Entre los microorganismos evaluados, Bacillus pumilus GIBI 206 mostró tener la capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos y Bacillus subtilis GIBI 200 evidenció capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos y producir Ácido Indolacético (AIA. Para determinar el efecto de la cepa Bacillus subtilis sobre la germinación y promoción de crecimiento, se inoculó en semillas de tomate ( Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Santa Clara; la inoculación de las semillas con el microorganismo no mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el tiempo de germinación en comparación con el tratamiento control, sin embargo mostró influir positivamente en el desarrollo de las plantas de tomate generando un aumento significativo sobre la masa y longitud del tallo y de la raíz. Los resultados de esta investigación ofrecen la posibilidad de utilizar a Bacillus subtilis como promotora de crecimiento en plántulas de tomate y en la formulación de bioinsumos.

  3. The early-type close binary CV Velorum revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakut, K.; Aerts, C.; Morel, T.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.Our goal was to improve the fundamental parameters of the massive close double-lined eclipsing B2.5V+B2.5V binary CV Velorum. Methods: We gathered new high-resolution échelle spectroscopy on 13 almost consecutive nights covering two orbits. We computed a simultaneous solution to all the availab

  4. Anthelmintic Activity of Musa paradisiaca (L. cv. Puttabale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh, V. Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale (AB group is an indigenous banana cultivar commonly cultivated in the Malnad region of Karnataka, India. Helminthes infections are acute and chronic illness in human beings and cattle. About 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Traditionally, the plant M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale was used to expel parasitic worms. In order to justify the ethanomedicinal claim with scientific report, sincere attempts have been made to investigate the Anthelmintic activity from corm ethanol extracts of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental model. Three concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of corm ethanol extract were used to study their effect in time of paralysis and death of worm. The results suggest that the ethanol extract at the concentration of 100 mg/ml showed significant effect in time of paralysis at 42.33±1.45 min and death time was 54.00±0.58 min than control group in time of paralysis (142.67±1.45 min and death (168.00±1.53 min. Standard drug piperazine citrate showed paralysis on 39.67±0.88 min and death at 59.00±0.58 min. The corm ethanol extract confirmed antihelmintic activity in dose depend manure and efficient, than standard drug piperazine citrate. This investigation revealed that the antihelmintic property of ethanol extracts of Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale against Pheretima posthuma to support its medicinal claims.

  5. Crecimiento, desarrollo, extracción nutrimental, rendimiento y calidad del jitomate de costilla (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.).

    OpenAIRE

    Urrieta Velázquez, José Alberto

    2011-01-01

    El enfoque tradicional de la producción de jitomate (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) fue el incremento del rendimiento a través del control de las condiciones ambientales y manejo agronómico, siendo el peso individual de los frutos y aspectos externos de los mismos los principales parámetros de calidad. En la actualidad, además de aspectos externos, los consumidores eligen los jitomates por su sabor, propiedades nutracéuticas e incluso por el manejo durante su crecimiento. Esto ha cambiado el rum...

  6. Aplicação de coberturas proteicas e fenólicas em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti; Larine Kupski; Meritaine da Rocha; Melissa dos Santos Oliveira; Jaqueline Garda Buffon; Eliana Badiale Furlong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum). Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v), glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%), glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%), and a control (without coating). The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carote...

  7. Salicylic acid improves acclimation to salt stress by stimulating abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity and abscisic acid accumulation, and increases Na+ content in leaves without toxicity symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepesi, Agnes; Csiszár, Jolán; Gémes, Katalin; Horváth, Edit; Horváth, Ferenc; Simon, Mária L; Tari, Irma

    2009-06-01

    Pre-treatment with 10(-4)M salicylic acid (SA) in hydroponic culture medium provided protection against salinity stress in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Fuego). The effect of 10(-7) or 10(-4)M SA on the water status of plants was examined in relation to the biosynthesis and accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in order to reveal the role of SA in the subsequent response to salt stress. Both pre-treatments inhibited the K+(86Rb+) uptake of plants, reduced the K+ content of leaves, and caused a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(w)). Due to the changes in the cellular water status, SA triggered the accumulation of ABA. Since the decrease in psi(w) proved to be transient, the effect of SA on ABA synthesis may also develop via other mechanisms. In spite of osmotic adaptation, the application of 10(-4)M, but not 10(-7)M SA, led to prolonged ABA accumulation and to enhanced activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO1, EC.1.2.3.1.), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, both in root and leaf tissues. AO2-AO4 isoforms from the root extracts also exhibited increased activities. The fact that the activities of AO are significantly enhanced both in the leaves and roots of plants exposed to 10(-4)M SA, may indicate a positive feedback regulation of ABA synthesis by ABA in this system. Moreover, during a 100mM NaCl treatment, higher levels of free putrescine or spermine were found in these leaves or roots, respectively, than in the salt-stressed controls, suggesting that polyamines may be implicated in the protection response of the cells. As a result, Na+ could be transported to the leaf mesophyll cells without known symptoms of salt toxicity.

  8. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Scaramussa Deprá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  10. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  11. Tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus, a new bipartite begomovirus infecting Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum chinense in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Karla; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Chirinos, Doris; Romay, Gustavo; Marys, Edgloris

    2011-12-01

    Virus isolate T217L was obtained from a diseased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plant showing leaf deformation and chlorotic mottle symptoms near Maracaibo in the state of Zulia, Venezuela. Full-length DNA-A and DNA-B molecules of T217L were cloned and sequenced. The genome organization of T217L was identical to the bipartite genomes of other begomoviruses described from the Americas. Characteristic disease symptoms were reproduced in S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annum plants inoculated using the cloned viral DNA-A and DNA-B components, confirming disease aetiology. A sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that the T217L isolate has the highest sequence identity (84%) with sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus (SiYMYuV), sida golden mosaic Honduras virus (SiGMHV) and bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) isolates. This is less than the 89% identity in the DNA-A component that has been defined as the threshold value for the demarcation of species in the genus Begomovirus. The molecular data show that isolate T217L belongs to a novel tentative begomovirus species, for which the name tomato chlorotic leaf distortion virus is proposed. TCLDV was also detected in symptomatic C. chinense plants growing near the T217L-infected plant.

  12. Genomic profiling of exogenous abscisic acid-responsive microRNAs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Wang, Yan; Tao, Xiang; Fan, Yan-Fen; Dai, Ya; Yang, Hong; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2016-06-03

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various biological pathways and stress responses as negative regulators at the posttranscriptional level. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule that mediates plant stress response by activating many stress-related genes. Although some miRNAs in plants are previously identified to respond to ABA, a comprehensive profile of ABA-responsive miRNAs has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identified miRNAs responding to exogenous application of ABA, and their predicted target genes in the model plant organism tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Deep sequencing of small RNAs from ABA-treated and untreated tomatoes revealed that miRNAs can be up- or down-regulated upon treatment with ABA. A total of 1067 miRNAs were detected (including 365 known and 702 candidate novel miRNAs), of those, 416 miRNAs which had an abundance over two TPM (transcripts per million) were selected for differential expression analysis. We identified 269 (180 known and 89 novel) miRNAs that respond to exogenous ABA treatment with a change in expression level of |log2FC|≥0.25. 136 of these miRNAs (90 known and 46 novel) were expressed at significantly different levels |log2FC|≥1 between treatments. Furthermore, stem-loop RT-PCR was applied to validate the RNA-seq data. Target prediction and analysis of the corresponding ABA-responsive transcriptome data uncovered that differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in condition stress and pathogen resistance, growth and development. Among them, approximately 90 miRNAs were predicted to target transcription factors and pathogen resistance genes. Some miRNAs had functional overlap in biotic and abiotic stress. Most of these miRNAs were down-regulated following exposure to exogenous ABA, while their related target genes were inversely up-regulated, which is consistent with their negative regulatory role in gene expression. Exogenous ABA application influences the composition and expression level of tomato mi

  13. Biosynthesis of the diterpenoid lycosantalonol via nerylneryl diphosphate in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Yuki; Zi, Jiachen; Jones, A Daniel; Peters, Reuben J; Pichersky, Eran

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that three genes involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in trichomes, a cis-prenyltransferase named neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1) and two terpene synthases (TPS19 and TPS20), are present in close proximity to each other at the tip of chromosome 8 in the genome of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). This terpene gene "cluster" also contains a second cis-prenyltransferase gene (CPT2), three other TPS genes, including TPS21, and the cytochrome P450-oxidoreductase gene CYP71BN1. CPT2 encodes a neryneryl diphosphate synthase. Co-expression in E. coli of CPT2 and TPS21 led to the formation of the diterpene lycosantalene, and co-expression in E. coli of CPT2, TPS21 and CYP71BN1 led to the formation of lycosantalonol, an oxidation product of lycosantalene. Here we show that maximal expression of all three genes occurs in the petiolule part of the leaf, but little expression of these genes occurs in the trichomes present on the petiolules. While lycosantalene or lycosantalonol cannot be detected in the petiolules of wild-type plants (or anywhere else in the plant), lycosantalene and lycosantalonol are detected in petiolules of transgenic tomato plants expressing CPT2 under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter. These results suggest that lycosantalene and lycosantalonol are produced in the petiolules and perhaps in other tissues of wild-type plants, but that low rate of synthesis, controlled by the rate-limiting enzyme CPT2, results in product levels that are too low for detection under our current methodology. It is also possible that these compounds are further modified in the plant. The involvement of CPT2, TPS21 and CYP71BN1 in a diterpenoid biosynthetic pathway outside the trichomes, together with the involvement of other genes in the cluster in the synthesis of monoterpenes in trichomes, indicates that this cluster is further evolving into "sub-clusters" with unique biochemical, and likely physiological, roles.

  14. Potential risk levels of invasive Neoleucinodes elegantalis (small tomato borer) in areas optimal for open-field Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) cultivation in the present and under predicted climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-03-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is one of the major insect pests of Solanum lycopersicum. Currently, N. elegantalis is present only in America and the Caribbean, and is a threat in the world's largest S. lycopersicum-producing countries. In terms of potential impact on agriculture, the impact of climate change on insect invasions must be a concern. At present, no research exists regarding the effects of climatic change on the risk level of N. elegantalis. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for S. lycopersicum and N. elegantalis, utilizing CLIMEX to determine risk levels of N. elegantalis in open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation in the present and under projected climate change, using the global climate model CSIRO-Mk3.0. Large areas are projected to be suitable for N. elegantalis and optimal for open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation at the present time. However, in the future these areas will become unsuitable for both species. Conversely, other regions in the future may become optimal for open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation, with a varying risk level for N. elegantalis. The risk level results presented here provide a useful tool to design strategies to prevent the introduction and establishment of N. elegantalis in open-field S. lycopersicum cultivation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Performance Report and Improvements in CV Machine Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Monsted, A

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cooling and ventilation (CV) equipment is defined as its availability to the PS, SPS and LEP accelerators. Three teams for the accelerators plus a Utilities team, which receives performance information from the physics and technical control room, carry out the operation of this equipment. Collected performance statistics as well as data from the Computer Aided Maintenance Management system (CAMM) and supervision system provide information on the exact state of the CV equipment. This is used to more effectively schedule preventive maintenance which, by reducing system failures, results in improved equipment performance. This paper will present performance data and discuss the prospects for improving it through the use of an updated version of CAMM and a new supervision system.

  16. Optimization of productivity and quality of irrigated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley area of Oromia, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemechis, Ambecha O.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a vegetable crop with high potential to contribute to poverty reduction via increased income and food security. It is widely grown by smallholders, has high productivity and its demand is increasing. Ethiopia produced about 30,700 Mg of tomatoes on 5,027 ha

  17. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem...

  18. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  19. The draft genome of Corchorus olitorius cv. JRO-524 (Navin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the draft genome (377.3 Mbp of Corchorus olitorious cv. JRO-524 (Navin, which is a leading dark jute variety developed from a cross between African (cv. Sudan Green and indigenous (cv. JRO-632 types. We predicted from the draft genome a total of 57,087 protein-coding genes with annotated functions. We identified a large number of 1765 disease resistance-like and defense response genes in the jute genome. The annotated genes showed the highest sequence similarities with that of Theobroma cacao followed by Gossypium raimondii. Seven chromosome-scale genetically anchored pseudomolecules were constructed with a total size of 8.53 Mbp and used for synteny analyses with the cocoa and cotton genomes. Like other plant species, gypsy and copia retrotransposons were the most abundant classes of repeat elements in jute. The raw data of our study are available in SRA database of NCBI with accession number SRX1506532. The genome sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession LLWS00000000, and the version described in this paper will be the first version (LLWS01000000.

  20. Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36-42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing.

  1. The Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor SlARF2 participates in regulating lateral root formation and flower organ senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenxin; Liu, Ruiyuan; Gu, Wenting; Dong, Xicun

    2017-03-01

    ARF2 as apleiotropic developmental regulator has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The present study showed SlARF2 transcripts in all tomato plant tissues but with higher accumulation in flowers. During bud-anthesis stages, SlARF2 transcripts showed a dynamic expression pattern in sepal, stamen, ovary and petal. Hormone treatment analysis suggested that SlARF2 transcript accumulation was positively regulated by auxin and gibberellic acid, and negatively regulated by ethylene in tomato seedlings. Phenotypes and molecular analyses of SlARF2-upregulated transgenic tomato indicated that SlARF2 regulated tomato lateral root formation and flower organ senescence may be partially mediated by regulating the gene expression of auxin and ethylene response factors. The data enlarges the functional characterization of SlARF2 in tomato, and broadens our understanding of auxin signaling in regulating plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Auxin increases the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) root tips while inhibiting root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Maria G; den Os, Désirée; Monshausen, Gabriele B; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Bednárová, Andrea; Krishnan, Natraj

    2013-10-01

    The hormone auxin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate root elongation, but the interactions between the two pathways are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how auxin interacts with ROS in regulating root elongation in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Wild-type and auxin-resistant mutant, diageotropica (dgt), of tomato (S. lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig') were characterized in terms of root apical meristem and elongation zone histology, expression of the cell-cycle marker gene Sl-CycB1;1, accumulation of ROS, response to auxin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and expression of ROS-related mRNAs. The dgt mutant exhibited histological defects in the root apical meristem and elongation zone and displayed a constitutively increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root tip, part of which was detected in the apoplast. Treatments of wild-type with auxin increased the H2O2 concentration in the root tip in a dose-dependent manner. Auxin and H2O2 elicited similar inhibition of cell elongation while bringing forth differential responses in terms of meristem length and number of cells in the elongation zone. Auxin treatments affected the expression of mRNAs of ROS-scavenging enzymes and less significantly mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The dgt mutation resulted in resistance to both auxin and H2O2 and affected profoundly the expression of mRNAs related to antioxidant level. The results indicate that auxin regulates the level of H2O2 in the root tip, so increasing the auxin level triggers accumulation of H2O2 leading to inhibition of root cell elongation and root growth. The dgt mutation affects this pathway by reducing the auxin responsiveness of tissues and by disrupting the H2O2 homeostasis in the root tip.

  3. Growth and Photosynthetic Pigment Accumulation in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. in Response to Light and Nutrient Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Olarewaju OKUNLOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the responses of some of the growth parameters of Lycopersicum esculentum to light and nutrient stress. The focus is equally orientated in determining the effect of light and nutrient stress on the photosynthetic pigment accumulation in plants. Tomato seeds were grown in pretreated sand and were watered with distilled water until the experimental culture was fully established. After this, the plants were transplanted into 60 plastic pots, with holes bored at the bottom to allow proper drainage of the excess water during the course of the experiment. The plants were divided into four groups of fifteen pots each. A group of plants was submitted to stress of nutrient lack by only administering 100 ml of complete nutrient solution, once every four days. The nutrient solution if applied daily was considered to be adequate for the plants. Another group of plants was lightly stressed, by placing them under shade, while adequate light was gotten in direct sunlight. Sampling was carried out at weekly intervals, starting from the seventh day after the first treatment. Plants were randomly picked from each of the four treatments. Three replicates were used for each parameter. The results showed that there was a reduction in photosynthetic pigment accumulation in the plants when both light and nutrient were limited. The data obtained from the study were first tested between normality and assumption of constant variance. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was carried out considering both factors (light and nutrient as source's of variation to investigate the effects of full light and full nutrient (FLFN , full light and partial nutrient (FLPN, partial light and full nutrient (PLFN and partial light and partial nutrient (PLPN the parameters studied in Lycopersicum esculentum.

  4. Efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration of Solanum lycopersicum and assessment genetic uniformity using flow cytometry and SPAR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A. Alatar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we develop an efficient and reproducible in vitro regeneration system for two cultivars viz., Jamila and Tomaland of Solanum lycopersicum L., an economically important vegetable crop throughout the world. Sterilization of seeds with 2.5% (v/v NaOCl was found to be most effective, about 97% of seeds germinated on cotton in magenta box moistened with sterile half strength (½Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. Regeneration efficiency of cotyledonary leaf (CL and cotyledonary node (CN explants derived from 08 days old aseptic seedling were assessed on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of auxins and cytokinin. CL explants were found more responsive in comparison to CN in both the cultivars. Types of basal media were also assessed and found to have a significant effect on shoot regeneration. Highest regeneration frequency and maximum number of shoots were standardized from CL explants on MS medium supplied with 6-benzyl adenine (BA; 5.0 µM, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA; 2.5 µM and Kinetin (Kin; 10.0 µM. In vitro regenerated microshoots were rooted on ½MS medium containing 0.5 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. Regenerated plantlets with well-developed roots and shoot system were successfully acclimated to ex vitro condition. Genetic uniformity of tissue culture raised plantlets was first time evaluated using flow cytometry and single primer amplification reaction (SPAR methods viz., DAMD and ISSR. No significant changes in ploidy level and nuclear DNA content profile were observed between in vitro propagated plants and normal plants of both the cultivars. Similarly, the SPAR analysis also revealed monomorphic banding patterns in regenerated plantlets of S. lycopersicum verifying their genetic uniformity and clonal fidelity. This efficient regeneration system can be used as a fast and reproducible method for genetic transformation of this important vegetable crop.

  5. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...

  6. Comparison of tracking algorithms implemented in OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janku Peter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision is very progressive and modern part of computer science. From scientific point of view, theoretical aspects of computer vision algorithms prevail in many papers and publications. The underlying theory is really important, but on the other hand, the final implementation of an algorithm significantly affects its performance and robustness. For this reason, this paper tries to compare real implementation of tracking algorithms (one part of computer vision problem, which can be found in the very popular library OpenCV. Moreover, the possibilities of optimizations are discussed.

  7. OpenCV 3.0 computer vision with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, Daniel Lélis

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer, student, researcher, or hobbyist wanting to create computer vision applications in Java then this book is for you. If you are an experienced C/C++ developer who is used to working with OpenCV, you will also find this book very useful for migrating your applications to Java. All you need is basic knowledge of Java, with no prior understanding of computer vision required, as this book will give you clear explanations and examples of the basics.

  8. Evaluation of the transfer and the accumulation of microcystins in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar MicroTom) tissues using a cyanobacterial extract containing microcystins and the radiolabeled microcystin-LR ({sup 14}C-MC-LR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbel, Sylvain [INRA, UMR1402 ECOSYS, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1402 ECOSYS, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Laboratoire Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, UMR8079, Univ. Paris-Sud/CNRS/AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Mougin, Christian; Nélieu, Sylvie; Delarue, Ghislaine [INRA, UMR1402 ECOSYS, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1402 ECOSYS, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Bouaïcha, Noureddine, E-mail: noureddine.bouaicha@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, UMR8079, Univ. Paris-Sud/CNRS/AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-01-15

    factors in organs of the tomato Solanum lycopersicum cv. MicroTom, maintained 48 h in hydroponic growing system with {sup 14}C-MC-LR at 23 mg L{sup −} {sup 1}. - Highlights: • Transfer of MCs from soil to tomato tissues is observed • MCs are present in all tissues of the tomato except in the fruit • The bioconcentration factor of the MC-LR is much more important in the tomato roots • Bound fraction of MC-LR was higher than that of free fraction in roots and leaves.

  9. Phytohormone profiling in relation to osmotic adjustment in NaCl-treated plants of the halophyte tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense comparatively to the cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Hichri, Imène; Dobrev, Petre I; Motyka, Václav; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley

    2017-05-01

    A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125mM NaCl for 7days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Ions K(+) and Na(+) were the major contributors of osmotic adjustment in S. chilense, accounting respectively for 47 and 60% of osmotic potential. In contrast the contributions of proline and soluble sugars remained marginal for the two species although salt-induced accumulation of proline was higher in S. lycopersicum than in S. chilense. Both species also differed for their hormonal status under salinity and concentrations of most hormonal compounds were higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum. Interestingly, salicylic acid, ethylene and cytokinins were positively correlated with osmotic potential in S. chilense under salinity while these hormones were negatively correlated with osmotic adjustment in S. lycopersicum. Our results suggested that the capacity to use inorganic ions as osmotica may improve salt resistance in S.chilense and that phytohormones could be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Perancangan Kemasan Transportasi Buah Jambu Air (Syzygium aqueum cv Camplong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswahyudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jamboo cv Camplong was an exotic fruit from Sampang Indonesia which had high economic values. The quality of fresh Jamboo was greatly influenced by the types of packaging and ways of its transportation that affected its shelf life. The purpose of this research were designing a primary packaging and analyzing the quality of Jamboo cv Camplong after short transportation (from Sampang to Surabaya. Farmers used conventional packaging with capacity of 8.4 kg/box (dimension 478 mm x 146 mm x 354 mm. Based on theoretical packaging design showed that the flute BC cardboard (capacity 4.5 kg/box, dimension 357 mm x 217 mm x 216 mm with partition flute A cardboard. In fact, there was needed modification of the dimension (342 mm x 210 mm x 200 mm because of the fruits diameter (60-65 mm. This result did not change the efficiency usage of transportation space (91-95% and compression strength of box can support (7 boxes/ stack. The result showed that the mechanical damage after transportation were 20.87% for conventional packaging (as control and 7.70% for modification packaging design (packaging with partition.

  11. Production Management in SME's Industry: Case Study of CV Wiracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Kurnia Suci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Production Management is the act of designing, operating, and improving the productive systems – a system for getting the work done. Along the process, the synergy in between machineries, facilities and people could empower the sustainable of the production. In fact, for some cases, the implementation of unique system is needed for the production process. The example for this transformation production management is in the case of CV Wiracana, a handmade manufacturing company for folding hand fans from Bali. CV Wiracana's products are very unique, combined from mass production for the speed and an art for the custom made product. At one side, the market forces them to speed up the production and for this purpose, they must set up the new system on their production line. On the other side, the masterpiece also needs to be produced without jeopardizing mass production line schedule. The transformation production system needs to be done no later than 2015 as the urgency to fulfill the customer demand, business growth, compete in the industry and sustainability. The changes are expected to improve the production at least about 20% or doubled from the current production.

  12. Development of High Efficient Regeneration System for Tomato(Solarium lycopersicum L.CV Zhongshu No.4)%中蔬四号番茄高效再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高南; 吴香玉; 施卫明

    2008-01-01

    本试验建立了中蔬四号番茄的再生频率高、所需时间短、试管苗状态好的高效再生体系.具体培养流程如下:以下胚轴为外植体,在Mursshige和Skoog(MS)+1.0mg/L玉米素(ZT)+0.1 mg/L3-吲哚乙酸(IAA)或Ms+2.0mg/L6-苄基腺嘌呤(BA)+0.2 mg/L IAA上进行不定芽诱导培养21天后,继代一次,转接到MS+0.1 mg/L IAA中进行生根;炼苗2~3天,转裁至蛭石中,最后移栽到菜园土中培养.

  13. EFECTO DEL PREACONDICIONAMIENTO A LA SALINIDAD EN LAS RELACIONES HÍDRICAS, EL INTERCAMBIO GASEOSO Y LA CONDUCTIVIDAD HIDRÁULICA DE LAS RAÍCES EN PLANTAS DE TOMATE (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. CV. AMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldo Morales Guevara

    2012-01-01

    conductividad hidráulica de las raíces en las plántulas no preacondicionadas, mientras que las plantas PC mostraron un buen ajuste osmótico que les permitió mantener la turgencia de la hoja disminuyendo el potencial hídrico foliar y el osmótico a plena turgencia mientras mantuvo una adecuada actividad biológica.

  14. GpuCV : a GPU-accelerated framework for image processing and computer vision

    OpenAIRE

    ALLUSSE, Yannick; Horain, Patrick; Agarwal, Ankit; Saipriyadarshan, Cindula

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents briefly describes the state of the art of accelerating image processing with graphics hardware (GPU) and discusses some of its caveats. Then it describes GpuCV, an open source multi-platform library for GPU-accelerated image processing and Computer Vision operators and applications. It is meant for computer vision scientist not familiar with GPU technologies. GpuCV is designed to be compatible with the popular OpenCV library by offering GPU-accelera...

  15. Exploring the natural variation for seedling traits and their link with seed dimensions in tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorullah Khan

    Full Text Available The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi, Kepemimpinan, dan Motivasi Kerja terhadap Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan CV Surya Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Sito Dwi Irvianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted on CV Surya Raya which is engaged in car shipping. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of organization culture, leadership, and working motivation partially to employees’ satisfaction in CV Surya Raya. The data was collected by conducting interviews with the company and distributing questionnaires to 67 employees as respondents and then analyzed using linear regression analysis method. From the research results, leadership variable does not have a significant impact on employees' job satisfaction in CV Surya Raya. Whereas, the motivation variable has greater influence on job satisfaction of CV Surya Raya employees compared to the organization's culture.

  17. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel...

  18. Herbs Recognition Based on Android using OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Agus Suryawibawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs are used in traditional medicine. There are so many herbs are spread across the world, it is difficult to memorize it all. This paper describes an android application to recognize herbs by their leaf characteristics (shape, veins, and keypoints. Shape and veins of leaves are recognized by Invariant Moment Method as the feature extraction. City Block Distance used to calculate the distance between the features. Whereas for detection and keypoints extraction using Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF on OpenCV library. This keypoints distance calculation using Brute-Force Hamming. Matching is done by calculating the shortest distance between test image and reference image. If the result is less than or equal to threshold then image is match. Experiment result show this application can achieve 79% of success rate by using keypoints. This result is influenced by glossy leaf surface, so there is many reflected light that become noise.

  19. OpenCV Based Disease Identification of Mango Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Sethupathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims in classifying and identifying the diseases of mango leaves for Indian agriculture. K-means algorithm is chosen for the disease segmentation, and the disease classification and identification is carried out using the SVM classifier. Disease identification based on analysis of patches or discoloring of leaf will hold good for some of the plant diseases, but some other diseases which will deform the leaf shape cannot be identified based on the same method. In this case leaf shape based disease identification has to be performed. Based on this analysis two topics are addressed in this research paper. (1 Disease identification using the OpenCV libraries (2 Leaf shape based disease identification.

  20. Propolis extract in postharvest conservation Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Passos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of papaya (Carica papaya L. reduces its lifespan as well as limits marketing. Coating the fruits is an alternative to aid food preservation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of coating propolis extract on the physicochemical characteristics of papaya stored at room temperature. Solo papayas cv. 'Golden' were randomly divided into five postharvest treatment groups, three forms of dip-coating (70% alcohol, hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 2.5%, and hydroalcoholic extract of propolis to 5% and two controls (one uncoated and one with refrigerated uncoated fruits. The weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA, and hydrogen potential (pH were evaluated at the intervals of 4 days every 12th storage day. Sensory analysis was performed on the 4th day of storage of papayas and evaluated by untrained through the acceptance testing. Treatments “refrigerated”, “propolis 2.5%”, and “5% propolis” presented with the lowest weight loss. The firmness level for treatment propolis 5% was superior to that of control, alcohol, and 2.5% propolis treatments. The SS was greater for propolis 5% treatment, which only differed from the alcohol treatment. The TA and SS/TA did not vary with the treatments, but with the storage time. The pH of refrigerated papaya showed significant differences in relation to other treatments. The fruits subjected to refrigerated treatment presented with chilling injury. Papayas coated with propolis extract showed sensory acceptability similar to that in other treatments on the 4th day of storage. The coating of propolis extract is a promising alternative for the control of weight loss and for the maintenance of firmness in Solo papaya cv. 'Golden'.

  1. Year-to-year Variations in Antioxidant Components of High-Lycopene Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Breeding Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Ilahy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A two-year field study (2013−2014 was performed to evaluate phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of two high-lycopene tomato breeding lines (HLT-F71 and HLT-F72 grown under open field conditions as compared to the traditional cultivar (cv Rio Grande. Two open-field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014. Three tomato cvs were used: two high-lycopene tomato advanced breeding lines (HLT-F71 and ‘HLT-F72’ (F7 generation, and the open-pollinated cv Rio Grande commonly grown in Tunisia. Regardless the growing years and cvs, lycopene content ranged from 98.8 to 280.0 mg/kg fw, total phenolics from 176.1 to 831.8 mg GAE/kg fw flavonoids from 169.7 to 552.1 mg RE/kg fw and total vitamin C from 183.4 to 370.0 mg/kg fw. Significant year-to-year variability was only detected in total phenolics and flavonoid content. No significant year-to-year variability in antioxidant activity was detected in high-lycopene lines. Disregarding the cv, tomato berries harvested on July 2014 had 143% - 224% higher total phenolics and 8% to 47% higher flavonoid contents compared to tomato berries harvested on July 2013. However, disregarding the cv, tomato berries harvested on July 2013 had 6% -17% higher lycopene and 8% -21% higher LAA compared to berries harvested on 2014. During the second growing year, the higher temperature, particularly prior to harvest, determined a decrease in lycopene content and a significant increase in total phenolics regardless the cv. Although the huge variability in total phenolics and the decrease in lycopene content during the second harvest, the antioxidant activity was not affected by year-to-year variability. This reveals consistent functional quality of these cvs and minimal genotype*environmental conditions interaction.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11931-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 25119 ) Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706, chromosome 5... 56 0.004 1 ( AC22504...1 ) Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706, chromosome 5... 56 0.004 1 ( AC131169 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH2

  3. In vitro organogenesis of zucchini squash cv. Caserta Organogênese in vitro de abobrinha-de-moita cv. Caserta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cristina L Stipp

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for the in vitro culture of Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta was studied, using a cotyledon segment with an attached hypocotyl fragment as an explant. First, to determine the optimal seedling age, explants were collected from 4 to 6-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings and cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP, 4.5 µM, under a 16-h photoperiod at 27ºC. Based on the results obtained, the explants collected from the 4-day-old seedlings were then cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.5, or 5.5 µM and incubated under a 16-h photoperiod at 27ºC. In vitro organogenesis was most efficient with explants collected from 4-day-old seedlings cultured in medium supplemented with 4.5 µM of BAP. After 4 weeks of incubation the development of adventitious buds at the cotyledon/hypocotyl junction could be observed. These buds were transferred to elongation and rooting medium and the developed plants were acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. The morphogenic process was characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy analyses to confirm the organogenesis. The results showed that this alternate explant is efficient for in vitro culture of zucchini squash cv. Caserta. The protocol will be further examined for future use in genetic transformation experiments in this species.O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar um protocolo para o cultivo in vitro de Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta utilizando como explante um segmento de cotilédone associado a um fragmento do hipocótilo. Explantes foram coletados de plântulas germinadas in vitro com 4 a 6 dias de idade, cultivados em meio de cultura basal MS suplementado com benzilaminopurina (BAP, 4,5 µM, e incubados sob fotoperíodo de 16 h, a 27ºC. Com base nos resultados obtidos, explantes coletados de plântulas germinadas in vitro com 4 dias de idade foram cultivados em meio de cultura MS, suplementados com

  4. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ribeiro-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS. Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in

  5. Architecture, algorithm and application of OpenCV VS%OpenCV VS架构、算法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华; 李兴福

    2012-01-01

    Intel OpenCV VS (video surveillance) is an efficient and universal open source platform for video object detection, tracking and trajectory analysis. However research and application are rare due to lack of material about it. The architecture and algorithm of VS platform are dissected based on analysis of OpenCV VS source code. The algorithm description and corresponding interface are presented. A high-efficiency pedestrian statistics system based on OpenCV VS architecture is provided in this paper.%Intel OpenCV VS是OpenCV内嵌的一个高效、通用的视频目标检测、跟踪和轨迹分析的开源平台,但由于没有相关资料而缺少研究和应用.在深入挖掘OpenCV VS源码的基础上,剖析了该平台的整体架构和算法体系,给出了算法描述和相应接口.在此基础上,开发了一个基于OpenCV VS架构的稳定、高效的行人统计系统.

  6. USE OF ZEIN AND ETHYLCELLULOSE AS BIODEGRADABLE FILM ON EVALUATION OF POST-HARVEST CHANGES IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Chávez-Murillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide pollution index registered in the last decades has conducted to develop methods for biodegradation and reutilization of contaminant materials. From here rises the necessity to elaborate biodegradable packaging materials. In this study, a biodegradable zein and ethylcellulose based film was developed and used as a covering material to evaluate its effect on the enzymatic activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase, texture, respiration rate and weight loss of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Biodegradable film decreased the weight loss rate and softening of the fruits. However, enzymatic activity and respiration rate were not affected by the film application. The results showed that the changes in tomato are due to physical effects of water loss more than a metabolic change. By using this material, it was possible to lower tomato’s respiration rate in comparison with controls causing a lesser loss of weight. Biodegradable film delayed change in color as well as texture compared with controls. There was a significant difference in pectin methyl esterase activity in the covered tomato, but there was no difference in polygalacturonase activity.

  7. Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L

    2012-10-11

    Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development.

  8. Protective Mechanisms of Guanosine from Solanum lycopersicum on Agonist-Induced Platelet Activation: Role of sCD40L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, only three natural products have been sources of new drugs with antiplatelet activity. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that guanosine from Solanum lycopersicum possesses antiplatelet (secretion, spreading, adhesion and aggregation activity in vitro and inhibition of platelet inflammatory mediator of atherosclerosis (sCD40L. According to ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibiting, the total extract residue was fractionated by liquid chromatography/phase separation, affording an aqueous fraction. This fraction was subjected to repeated permeation over Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative TLC. The isolated compound finally obtained was identified as guanosine on the basis of its UV-spectra, HPLC and 1H-NMR data. Guanosine concentration dose-dependently (1 to 4 mmol/L inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP and collagen. Spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of guanosine was fully inhibited. After incubation of whole blood with guanosine, the platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow conditions was inhibited concentration dependently (0.2 to 2 mmol/L. At the same concentrations that guanosine inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L were significantly decreased. Guanosine is thus likely to exert significant protective effects in thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation.

  9. HEALTH RISK OF AGROCHEMICALS USAGE IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum PRODUCTION IN THE OFFINSO-NORTH DISTRICT OF GHANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Mensah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum is prominent among vegetables produced in Ghana. About ninety percent (90% of the population of the study area are engaged primarily in tomato production. Due to theproblem posed by pests and diseases and the vulnerability of vegetables to most of these pests and diseases, a variety of pesticides including organophosphates, Organochlorines, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids are used extensively to deal with this persistent problem. The study was conducted to assess the current patterns and practices of pesticides use by farmers in three communities in the study area to investigate the level of farmers’exposure to agrochemicals. Pesticide residue analysis on selected sampled tomatoes from the study area was carried out to determine whether they were within the FAO/WHO set Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs. Field data collected indicated that almost all (99% of the farmers do not practice any form of safety precautions in the handling of agrochemicals on and off the farm. Laboratory analysis of tomato fruits revealed eleven (11 organophosphates and fourteen (14 organochlorines and synthetic pyrethroid residues in the samples from the three study communities. The residues detected included DDT and its derivative DDD. However, levels of most of the detected residues in the tomato samples were below the Maximum Residue Level (MRL of FAO/WHO except banned Heptachlor. All residues posed no health risks to consumers except Heptachlor, Chlorfenvinphos and Dieldrin which had estimated health indices of 5.92, 1.48 and 3.7 respectively.

  10. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits.

  11. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

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    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-nott test p 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts signicantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  12. Transcriptome analysis reveals regulatory networks underlying differential susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in response to nitrogen availability in Solanum lycopersicum.

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    Andrea eVega

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the main limiting nutrients for plant growth and crop yield. It is well documented that changes in nitrate availability, the main N source found in agricultural soils, influences a myriad of developmental programs and processes including the plant defense response. Indeed, many agronomical reports indicate that the plant N nutritional status influences their ability to respond effectively when challenged by different pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in N-modulation of plant susceptibility to pathogens are poorly characterized. In this work, we show that Solanum lycopersicum defense response to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is affected by plant N availability, with higher susceptibility in nitrate-limiting conditions. Global gene expression responses of tomato against B. cinerea under contrasting nitrate conditions reveals that plant primary metabolism is affected by the fungal infection regardless of N regimes. This result suggests that differential susceptibility to pathogen attack under contrasting N conditions is not only explained by a metabolic alteration. We used a systems biology approach to identify the transcriptional regulatory network implicated in plant response to the fungus infection under contrasting nitrate conditions. Interestingly, hub genes in this network are known key transcription factors involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. This result positions these hormones as key integrators of nitrate and defense against B. cinerea in tomato plants. Our results provide insights into potential crosstalk mechanisms between necrotrophic defense response and N status in plants.

  13. Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene affects photosynthesis and chlorophyll content in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

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    Bettini, Priscilla P; Marvasi, Massimiliano; Fani, Fabiola; Lazzara, Luigi; Cosi, Elena; Melani, Lorenzo; Mauro, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolB gene into plant genome affects plant development, hormone balance and defence. However, beside the current research, the overall transcriptional response and gene expression of rolB as a modulator in plant is unknown. Transformed rolB tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Tondino has been used to investigate the differential expression profile. Tomato is a well-known model organism both at the genetic and molecular level, and one of the most important commercial food crops in the world. Through the construction and characterization of a cDNA subtracted library, we have investigated the differential gene expression between transgenic clones of rolB and control tomato and have evaluated genes specifically transcribed in transgenic rolB plants. Among the selected genes, five genes encoding for chlorophyll a/b binding protein, carbonic anhydrase, cytochrome b6/f complex Fe-S subunit, potassium efflux antiporter 3, and chloroplast small heat-shock protein, all involved in chloroplast function, were identified. Measurement of photosynthesis efficiency by the level of three different photosynthetic parameters (Fv/Fm, rETR, NPQ) showed rolB significant increase in non-photochemical quenching and a, b chlorophyll content. Our results point to highlight the role of rolB on plant fitness by improving photosynthesis.

  14. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

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    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p23 This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted significant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted significant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts significantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  15. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and expression analysis of the LRR-RLK gene family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Heinz 1706.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhirong; Wang, Jiehua; Yang, Shaohui; Song, Yingjin

    2015-04-01

    As the largest subfamily of receptor-like kinases (RLKs), leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) regulate the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Through a reiterative process of sequence analysis and re-annotation, 234 LRR-RLK genes were identified in the genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 'Heinz 1706', which were further grouped into 10 major groups based on their sequence similarity. In comparison to the significant role of tandem duplication in the expansion process of this gene family in other species, only approximately 12% (29 out of 234) of SlLRR-RLK genes arose from tandem duplication. Using the multiple expectation maximization for motif elicitation (MEME) method, the motif composition and arrangement were found to be variably conserved within each SlLRR-RLK group, indicating their different extent of functional divergence. Expression profiling analyses by qRT-PCR data revealed that SlLRR-RLK genes were differentially expressed in various tomato organs and tissues, and some SlLRR-RLK genes exhibited preferential expression in fruits at distinct developmental stages, suggesting that SlLRR-RLK may take important roles in fruit development and ripening process. The results of this study provide an overview of the LRR-RLK gene family in tomato Heinz 1706, one important species of Solanaceae, and will be helpful for future functional analysis of this important protein family in fleshy fruit-bearing species.

  17. Endogenous abscisic acid promotes hypocotyl growth and affects endoreduplication during dark-induced growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplík, Jan F; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jandová, Michaela; Šimura, Jan; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tomanec, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dark-induced growth (skotomorphogenesis) is primarily characterized by rapid elongation of the hypocotyl. We have studied the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during the development of young tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that ABA deficiency caused a reduction in hypocotyl growth at the level of cell elongation and that the growth in ABA-deficient plants could be improved by treatment with exogenous ABA, through which the plants show a concentration dependent response. In addition, ABA accumulated in dark-grown tomato seedlings that grew rapidly, whereas seedlings grown under blue light exhibited low growth rates and accumulated less ABA. We demonstrated that ABA promotes DNA endoreduplication by enhancing the expression of the genes encoding inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases SlKRP1 and SlKRP3 and by reducing cytokinin levels. These data were supported by the expression analysis of the genes which encode enzymes involved in ABA and CK metabolism. Our results show that ABA is essential for the process of hypocotyl elongation and that appropriate control of the endogenous level of ABA is required in order to drive the growth of etiolated seedlings.

  18. Assessment of Salinity Effect on Germination, Growth and Yield of Solanum lycopersicum (L.

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    Joshua D. BUAH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at unraveling the morphological effect of salinity on germination, growth and yield of S. lycopersicum, through inducement of salinity (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g NaCl. All the parameters considered: germination percentage, leaves number, stem girth, plant height and fruit quality, were significantly affected by NaCl treatments (salinity compared with the control (no salinity. 100% germination was recorded only in control and 4 g NaCl concentration, though the percentage of germination was faster in control than within the 4 g NaCl. ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ plants’ growth till maturity, shed leaves, chlorosis and leaf burns around edges occurred due to osmotic imbalance and water deficit caused by salinity, which invariably had effect on leaf area, although the reduction in leaf area varied among tested NaCl concentrations. Fruits yield and quality of ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ treated with NaCl was poor and relative to the degree of saline inducements, with 10 g NaCl treatment producing the least fruits. Chlorophyll contents were also significantly reduced by increasing saline concentrations. Ca and K were the predominant elements found in the digested fruit samples observed under Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS at different NaCl concentrations, while Mg, Na and P were significantly less. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that hampered the overall performance of tomato crop in salient ways and must therefore be curbed in order to meet its increasing global demand.

  19. Characterization of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (SlPAL5) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2009-07-01

    Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequence of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (SlPAL5) cDNA from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) revealed high sequence similarity to PAL genes in Nicotiana tabacum (92%), Ipomoea nil (87%), Manihot esculenta (84%), and Catharanthus roseus (84%). The SlPAL5 gene exists as multiple copies in the tomato plant, and its transcription was strongly expressed in old leaves and flowers. From 5 days post-anthesis to the onset of ripening, SlPAL5 expression decreased gradually but was maintained at a comparatively high level; SlPAL5 transcript expression was very low at the mature-green stage. SlPAL5 expression was significantly induced in response to NaCl, mannitol, and cold treatment; SlPAL5 expression decreased gradually after treatment with abscisic acid and H(2)O(2); SlPAL5 transcript decreased after exposure to methyl viologen for 3 h and increased after 6 h and maintained a stable expression level until 24 h, suggesting that the SlPAL5 gene may function in the response to abiotic stress.

  20. Stage-specific regulation of Solanum lycopersicum leaf maturation by class 1 KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Eilon; Burko, Yogev; Ben-Yaakov, Lilach; Berger, Yael; Amsellem, Ziva; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Sharon, Eran; Ori, Naomi

    2009-10-01

    Class 1 KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOXI) genes encode transcription factors that are expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and are essential for SAM maintenance. In some species with compound leaves, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), KNOXI genes are also expressed during leaf development and affect leaf morphology. To dissect the role of KNOXI proteins in leaf patterning, we expressed in tomato leaves a fusion of the tomato KNOXI gene Tkn2 with a sequence encoding a repressor domain, expected to repress common targets of tomato KNOXI proteins. This resulted in the formation of small, narrow, and simple leaves due to accelerated differentiation. Overexpression of the wild-type form of Tkn1 or Tkn2 in young leaves also resulted in narrow and simple leaves, but in this case, leaf development was blocked at the initiation stage. Expression of Tkn1 or Tkn2 during a series of spatial and temporal windows in leaf development identified leaf initiation and primary morphogenesis as specific developmental contexts at which the tomato leaf is responsive to KNOXI activity. Arabidopsis thaliana leaves responded to overexpression of Arabidopsis or tomato KNOXI genes during the morphogenetic stage but were largely insensitive to their overexpression during leaf initiation. These results imply that KNOXI proteins act at specific stages within the compound-leaf development program to delay maturation and enable leaflet formation, rather than set the compound leaf route.

  1. The Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor 7 (SlARF7) regulates auxin signaling during tomato fruit set and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Feron, Richard; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are encoded by a gene family of transcription factors that specifically control auxin-dependent developmental processes. A tomato ARF gene, homologous to Arabidopsis NPH4/ARF7 and therefore designated as Solanum lycopersicum ARF7 (SlARF7), was found to be expressed at a high level in unpollinated mature ovaries. More detailed analysis of tomato ovaries showed that the level of SlARF7 transcript increases during flower development, remains at a constant high level in mature flowers, and is down-regulated within 48 h after pollination. Transgenic plants with decreased SlARF7 mRNA levels formed seedless (parthenocarpic) fruits. These fruits were heart-shaped and had a rather thick pericarp due to increased cell expansion, compared with the pericarp of wild-type fruits. The expression analysis, together with the parthenocarpic fruit phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, SlARF7 acts as a negative regulator of fruit set until pollination and fertilization have taken place, and moderates the auxin response during fruit growth.

  2. EST, COSII, and arbitrary gene markers give similar estimates of nucleotide diversity in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D; Wu, Feinan; Tanksley, Steven D; Baldo, Angela M

    2009-03-01

    Because cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is low in genetic diversity, public, verified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within the species are in demand. To promote marker development we resequenced approximately 23 kb in a diverse set of 31 tomato lines including TA496. Three classes of markers were sampled: (1) 26 expressed-sequence tag (EST), all of which were predicted to be polymorphic based on TA496, (2) 14 conserved ortholog set II (COSII) or unigene, and (3) ten published sequences, composed of nine fruit quality genes and one anonymous RFLP marker. The latter two types contained mostly noncoding DNA. In total, 154 SNPs and 34 indels were observed. The distributions of nucleotide diversity estimates among marker types were not significantly different from each other. Ascertainment bias of SNPs was evaluated for the EST markers. Despite the fact that the EST markers were developed using SNP prediction within a sample consisting of only one TA496 allele and one additional allele, the majority of polymorphisms in the 26 EST markers were represented among the other 30 tomato lines. Fifteen EST markers with published SNPs were more closely examined for bias. Mean SNP diversity observations were not significantly different between the original discovery sample of two lines (53 SNPs) and the 31 line diversity panel (56 SNPs). Furthermore, TA496 shared its haplotype with at least one other line at 11 of the 15 markers. These data demonstrate that public EST databases and noncoding regions are a valuable source of unbiased SNP markers in tomato.

  3. Proteomic analysis of salt-stressed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings: effect of genotype and exogenous application of glycinebetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songbi; Gollop, Natan; Heuer, Bruria

    2009-01-01

    An investigation aimed at a better understanding of the molecular adaptation mechanisms of salt stress was carried out in 7-d-old tomato Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Mill cultivars Patio and 'F144', using a proteomic approach. Total proteins were extracted from radicles and hypocotyls collected from both non-saline control and salt-stressed seedlings, and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Liqud chromatography-electron spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) identified 23 salt stress response proteins, classified into six functional categories. The effect of exogenously applied glycinebetaine (GB) on the salt stress-induced inhibition of growth in tomato seedlings of cultivars Patio and 'F144' and on the protein profile was investigated. It was found that GB could alleviate the inhibition of tomato growth induced by salt stress through changing the expression abundance of six proteins in Patio and two proteins in 'F144' more than twice compared with salt-stressed seedlings. Furthermore, the interaction analysis based on computational bioinformatics reveals major regulating networks: photosystem II (PSII), Rubisco, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggest that it is likely that improvement of salt tolerance in tomato might be achieved through the application of exogenous compatible solutes, such as GB. Moreover, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the differentially expressed proteins of tomato under salt stress is an important step towards further elucidation of mechanisms of salt stress resistance.

  4. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) variety discrimination and hybridization analysis based on the 5S rRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Kang, Ho-Min; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Jun-Pill; Zheng, Shi-Lin; Xiang, Jin-Jun; Hong, Soon-Kwan

    2014-05-04

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a major vegetable crop worldwide. To satisfy popular demand, more than 500 tomato varieties have been bred. However, a clear variety identification has not been found. Thorough understanding of the phylogenetic relationship and hybridization information of tomato varieties is very important for further variety breeding. Thus, in this study, we collected 26 tomato varieties and attempted to distinguish them based on the 5S rRNA region, which is widely used in the determination of phylogenetic relations. Sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA region suggested that a large number of nucleotide variations exist among tomato varieties. These variable nucleotide sites were also informative regarding hybridization. Chromas sequencing of Yellow Mountain View and Seuwiteuking varieties indicated three and one variable nucleotide sites in the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rRNA region showing hybridization, respectively. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the 5S rRNA sequences, we observed that 16 tomato varieties were divided into three groups at 95% similarity. Rubiking and Sseommeoking, Lang Selection Procedure and Seuwiteuking, and Acorn Gold and Yellow Mountain View exhibited very high identity with their partners. This work will aid variety authentication and provides a basis for further tomato variety breeding.

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF COMPOUNDS OF PEPTIDE NATURE CONTAINED IN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BRASSICA NAPUS SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM AND TETRAGONIA TETRAGONIOIDES LEAVES

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    Tereza Neubauerová

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of infections caused by pathogenic bacteria is still harder. Due to increasing number of microbial species resistant against so far invented antibiotics. This presents great problem for public health. One of the potential solutions seems to be antimicrobial peptides. Those peptides are synthetized in all organisms as a part of innate immunity with rapid mode of antimicrobial action. Lot of them have been isolated from bacteria, plants, insects and mammals as well. Our project was aimed on finding such peptides in plant extracts, respectively in leaves of Brassica napus (canola, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach. We used several separation techniques to obtain fractions containing compounds of peptide nature with hydrophobic character. Antimicrobial activity of these fractions was tested against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial active fractions proved presence of low molecular peptides with molecular masses 1.9 - 4.9 kDa and a partial amino acid sequence in hydrophobic part of Tetragonia extract. In hydrophilic fraction of the Solanum extract with proved antibacterial activity two patogenesis-related proteins with antifungal activity NP24 and TPM-1 were detected.

  6. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims--A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Rashida; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most essential herbaceous plants that have been probed against various life sight related disorders owing to array of phytochemicals. It is important source of vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, and carotenoids, such as lycopene. Carotenoids are the pigments synthesized during fruit ripening and responsible for the final red color of the tomato. Consumption of tomato and tomato-based products contribute to the absorption of carotenoids and lycopenes in human serum. Lycopene is chemically acyclic carotene with 11 conjugated double bonds, normally in transconfiguration while isomerization occur in blood plasma for its better absorption. It has ability for adenosine deaminase inhibition that plays important role in the regression of tumor. Tomato also contain other active compounds, namely, neoxanthin, lutein, α-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, cyclolycopene, and β-carotene 5, 6-epoxide. These components provide synergistic effect against various threats but still need further attention of the researchers. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the potential of tomato against variety of metabolic syndromes. Latest research highlights the relationship between consuming tomato and its products with reduced risk of various maladies like obesity, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic attributes, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgences. Moreover, tomato and its bioactive components hold potential to become effective modules in diet-based regimens; however, integrated research and meta-analysis are still required to enhance meticulousness.

  7. Characterization of a methionine sulfoxide reductase B from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and its protecting role in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Changbo; Liu, Likun; Wang, Myeong Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we isolated a methionine sulfoxide reductase B gene, termed SlMSRB1, from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). In the organ-specific analysis, high expression levels of SlMSRB1 were detected in red mature fruits, leaves and flowers while low transcriptional levels of SlMSRB1 mRNA were observed in stems and roots. In the green fluorescence analysis of SlMSRB1- overexpressed Arabidopsis, signal corresponding to SlMSRB1 was merely detected in chloroplast, suggesting that tomato MSRB1 is a chloroplastial localization protein. Substrate specificity analysis of recombinant SlMSRB1 showed that the enzyme was only targeted to the R epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and was able to convert both free and protein-bound MetSO back to methionine in the presence of dithithreitol (DTT). In addition, SlMSRB1 exhibited no activity in thioredoxin dependent system or the substitution of cysteine at position 181 in the DTT-dependent reduction system. Finally, overexpression of SlMSRB1 in yeast revealed that the SlMSRB1 gene might play a critical role in protecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae against oxidative stress.

  8. The Effects of Zinc Application on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum under Salinity stress

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    M. Askary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of salinity and Zinc sulphate application on growth parameters, nutrient uptake and antioxidant enzyme activity of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum in a factorial experiment in completely randomized design with three replications were evaluated. Factors consisted of four salinity levels (0, 45, 90 and 120 mM NaCl and three Zinc sulphate levels (0, 5, and 10 μM. Results showed that salinity decreased fresh and dry weight of plants, Zn and K contents whereas increased the Na content and antioxidant activity by increasing NaCl level. Also, results showed that ZnSO4 had positive effect on growth parameters, Zn and K concentration and antioxidant activity but reduced Na and P concentration. Zinc treatment especially at 10 μM concentration in tomato under salt conditions increased growth indexes, potassium concentration, percent of Inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased sodium and phosphorus concentrations. The highest fresh and dry weight of plants and potassium uptake were measured in plants without salt stress with application of 10 μM ZnSO4 and the lowest on these indicator in plants under 120 mM NaCl without ZnSO4 application. Thus, it was concluded that Zinc could be improve performance and yield in tomato plants under salt stress conditions.

  9. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

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    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  10. Overexpression of osmotin gene confers tolerance to salt and drought stresses in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, D; Singh, A K; Yadav, V; Babbar, S B; Bansal, K C

    2010-09-01

    Abiotic stresses, especially salinity and drought, are major limiting factors for plant growth and crop productivity. In an attempt to develop salt and drought tolerant tomato, a DNA cassette containing tobacco osmotin gene driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was transferred to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Putative T0 transgenic plants were screened by PCR analysis. The selected transformants were evaluated for salt and drought stress tolerance by physiological analysis at T1 and T2 generations. Integration of the osmotin gene in transgenic T1 plants was verified by Southern blot hybridization. Transgenic expression of the osmotin gene was verified by RT-PCR and northern blotting in T1 plants. T1 progenies from both transformed and untransformed plants were tested for salt and drought tolerance by subjecting them to different levels of NaCl stress and by withholding water supply, respectively. Results from different physiological tests demonstrated enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses in transgenic plants harboring the osmotin gene as compared to the wild-type plants. The transgenic lines showed significantly higher relative water content, chlorophyll content, proline content, and leaf expansion than the wild-type plants under stress conditions. The present investigation clearly shows that overexpression of osmotin gene enhances salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants.

  11. Headspace-solid phase microextraction approach for dimethylsulphoniopropionate quantification in Solanum lycopersicum plants subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Catola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP and dimethyl sulphide (DMS are compounds found mainly in marine phytoplankton and in some halophytic plants. DMS is a globally important biogenic volatile in regulating of global sulphur cycle and planetary albedo, whereas DMSP is involved in the maintenance of plant-environment homeostasis. Plants emit minute amounts of DMS compared to marine phytoplankton and there is a need for hypersensitive analytic techniques to enable its quantification in plants. Solid Phase Micro Extraction from Head Space (HS-SPME is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and cost-effective extraction mode, which can be easily hyphenated with GC-MS for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants subjected to water stress as a model system, we standardized a sensitive and accurate protocol for detecting and quantifying DMSP pool sizes, and potential DMS emissions, in cryoextracted leaves. The method relies on the determination of DMS free and from DMSP pools before and after the alkaline hydrolysis via HS-SPME-GC-MS. We found a significant (2.5 time increase of DMSP content in water-stressed leaves reflecting clear stress to the photosynthetic apparatus. We hypothesize that increased DMSP, and in turn DMS, in water-stressed leaves are produced by carbon sources other than direct photosynthesis, and function to protect plants either osmotically or as antioxidants. Finally, our results suggest that SPME is a powerful and suitable technique for the detection and quantification of biogenic gases in trace amounts.

  12. Sub-high Temperature and High Light Intensity Induced Irreversible Inhibition on Photosynthesis System of Tomato Plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Meng, Zhaojuan; Zhang, Guoxian; Qi, Mingfang; Sun, Zhouping; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Tianlai

    2017-01-01

    High temperature and high light intensity is a common environment posing a great risk to organisms. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of sub-high temperature and high light intensity stress (HH, 35°C, 1000 μmol⋅m-2⋅s-1) and recovery on the photosynthetic mechanism, photoinhibiton of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), and reactive oxygen (ROS) metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco activity, maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm), efficient quantum yield and electron transport of PSII [Y(II) and ETR(II)] and PSI [Y(I) and ETR(I)] decreased significantly whereas yield of non-regulated and regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO) and Y(NPQ)] increased sharply. The donor side limitation of PSI [Y(ND)] increased but the acceptor side limitation of PSI [Y(NA)] decreased. Content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased while activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were significantly inhibited compared with control. HH exposure affected photosynthetic carbon assimilation, multiple sites in PSII and PSI, ROS accumulation and elimination of Solanum lycopersicum L.

  13. Enhancing Brassinosteroid Signaling via Overexpression of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum SlBRI1 Improves Major Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses through the receptor, Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1, which perceives BRs and initiates BR signaling. There is considerable potential agricultural value in regulating BR signaling in crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum BRI1 gene, SlBRI1, on major agronomic traits, such as seed germination, vegetative growth, fruit ethylene production, carotenoid accumulation, yield, and quality attributes. SlBRI1 overexpression enhanced the endogenous BR signaling intensity thereby increasing the seed germination rate, lateral root number, hypocotyl length, CO2 assimilation, plant height, and flower size. The transgenic plants also showed an increase in fruit yield and fruit number per plant, although the mean weight of individual fruit was reduced, compared with wild type. SlBRI1 overexpression also promoted fruit ripening and ethylene production, and caused an increase in levels of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and soluble sugars during fruit ripening. An increased BR signaling intensity mediated by SlBRI1 overexpression was therefore positively correlated with carotenoid accumulation and fruit nutritional quality. Our results indicate that enhancing BR signaling by overexpression of SlBRI1 in tomato has the potential to improve multiple major agronomic traits.

  14. Identiifcation of microRNAs in two species of tomato,Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites, by deep sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shan-shan; LI Qian-nan; GUO Guang-jun; GAO Jian-chang; WANG Xiao-xuan; GUO Yan-mei; John C Snyder; DU Yong-chen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21 nucleotide (nt), endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression in plants. Increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in species-speciifc development in plants. However, the detailed miRNA proifle divergence has not been performed among tomato species. In this study, the smal RNA (sRNA) proifles of Solanum lycopersicumcultivar 9706 andSolanum habrochaites species PI 134417 were obtained by deep sequencing. Sixty-three known miRNA families were identiifed from these two species, of which 39 were common. Further miRNA proifle comparison showed that 24 known non-conserved miRNA families were species-speciifc between these two tomato species. In addition, six conserved miRNA families displayed an apparent divergent expression pattern between the two tomato species. Our results suggested that species-speciifc, non-conserved miRNAs and divergent expression of conserved miRNAs might contribute to developmental changes and phenotypic variation between the two tomato species. Twenty new miRNAs were also identiifed inS. lycopersicum. This research signiifcantly increases the number of known miRNA families in tomato and provides the ifrst set of smal RNAs inS. habrochaites. It also suggests that miRNAs have an important role in species-speciifc plant developmental regulation.

  15. A mutation that eliminates bundle sheath extensions reduces leaf hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance and assimilation rates in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsögön, Agustin; Negrini, Ana Clarissa Alves; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-01-01

    Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure whose distribution differs among species and ecosystems. The genetic control of BSE development is unknown, so BSE physiological function has not yet been studied through mutant analysis. We screened a population of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants in the genetic background of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) model Micro-Tom and found a mutant lacking BSEs. The leaf phenotype of the mutant strongly resembled the tomato mutant obscuravenosa (obv). We confirmed that obv lacks BSEs and that it is not allelic to our induced mutant, which we named obv-2. Leaves lacking BSEs had lower leaf hydraulic conductance and operated with lower stomatal conductance and correspondingly lower assimilation rates than wild-type leaves. This lower level of function occurred despite similarities in vein density, midvein vessel diameter and number, stomatal density, and leaf area between wild-type and mutant leaves, the implication being that the lack of BSEs hindered water dispersal within mutant leaves. Our results comparing near-isogenic lines within a single species confirm the hypothesised role of BSEs in leaf hydraulic function. They further pave the way for a genetic model-based analysis of a common leaf structure with deep ecological consequences.

  16. "You Say Tomato, I Say Solanum Lycopersicum Containing Beta-ionone and Phenylacetaldehyde": an Analysis of Connecticut's GMO Labeling Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziato, Travis

    2014-01-01

    "You Say Tomato, I Say Solanum Lycopersicum Containing Beta-ionone and Phenylacetaldehyde" discusses the importance of requiring labels on products that contain genetically modified organisms, focusing on Connecticut's GMO Labeling statutes, as it is they are the first of their kind in the nation. The article will compare Connecticut's law to the legislation found in Australia, highlighting the positive aspects of Connecticut's bill and identifying its key weaknesses, namely the "trigger clause" found in the statute. Part I will provide an overview of Genetic Modification and provide a brief history of Biotechnology. It will also provide a brief overview of the federal regulatory framework in biotechnology, as well as evaluate the United States Food and Drug Association's role of regulating genetic modification. Part I will conclude by discussing how the American public has shown that labeling GMOs is important, and something that should occur. Part II of this article will explore Connecticut's recent legislation requiring labels on products that contain GMOs. Part III will explore Australia's legislation requiring labels on products containing GMOs, comparing Australia's law to Connecticut's legislation.

  17. CV-Online tahab Londoni börsile / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Personaliotsinguga tegelev firma tahab tulevikus minna Londoni ja OMXi börsile. Diagramm: CV-Online Group loodab tänavu esmakordselt positiivse kulumieelse ärikasumi. Vt. samas: Üks CV-Online'i aktsionäridest on ka Google'i aktsionär; Väsinud ootamast esimest IPOt

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CV2A-2PSEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CV2A-2PSEA 1CV2 2PSE A A ---------GA----KPFGEKKFIEIKGRRMAYIDEGTG...MPI-EWADFPEQDRDLFQAFRSQAGEELVLQDNVFVEQVLPGLILRPLSEAEMAAYREPFLAAGEARRPTLSWPRQIPIAGT-PADVVAIARDYAGWLSESP-IPKLF...tryChain> 2PSE A 2PSEA VAL CA 326 2PSE A 2PSEA...> 2PSE A 2PSEA

  19. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI BERSAING JAHE INSTAN PRODUK CV. INTRAFOOD SURAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN PERCEPTUAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Harisudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi bersaing jahe instan produk CV. Intrafood dan strategi bersaing yang dapat direkomendasikan untuk meraih keberasilannya. Metode dasar yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif. Penentuan lokasi penelitian ditentukan dengan metode purposive, yaitu CV. Intrafood Surakarta. Jenis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis Perceptual Mapping. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh informasi bahwa jahe instan produk CV Intrafood berada pada peringkat ke-2 dari produk empat jahe instan yang diperbandingkan. Atribut yang dapat dijadikan kekuatan utama dalam meningkatkan pemasaran jahe instan produk CV. Intrafood adalah manfaat produk. Sisi yang paling lemah adalah atribut desain kemasan dan kinerja produk dalam kemasan. Abstract This study aims to determine the competitive position of the product instant ginger CV. Intrafood and competitive strategy can be recommended to achieve success. The basic method used is descriptive analysis. Determining the location of the study are determined by purposive method, namely CV. Intrafood Surakarta. Data used in this study is primary data and secondary data. Method analyzed using Perceptual Mapping. From the results of the study concluded that instant ginger of CV Intrafood product ranks second of four instant ginger products are compared. Attributes that can be used as a major force in improving product marketing instant ginger CV. Intrafood is the benefits of the product. The weakest side is the packaging design and performance attributes of the product in the packaging.

  20. CV-Online tahab Londoni börsile / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Personaliotsinguga tegelev firma tahab tulevikus minna Londoni ja OMXi börsile. Diagramm: CV-Online Group loodab tänavu esmakordselt positiivse kulumieelse ärikasumi. Vt. samas: Üks CV-Online'i aktsionäridest on ka Google'i aktsionär; Väsinud ootamast esimest IPOt

  1. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 μg/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity.

  2. Fast RF-CV characterization through High-Speed 1-port S-Parameter measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Rodolf W.; Steeneken, Peter G.; Tiggelman, Mark P.J.; Stulemeijer, Jiri; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast radio frequency–capacitancevoltage (RF-CV) method to measure the CV relation of an electronic device. The approach is more accurate, much faster, and more cost effective compared to the existing off-the-shelf solutions. Capacitances are determined using a single-frequency 1-port S-

  3. Colleges Leery of Cuts in Moneymaking Sports, Surveys Find; NCAA Council Eyes Few Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    A survey shows that officials at universities with big-time sports programs intend to reduce their spending on athletics, but are reluctant to make cuts in football and basketball. The National Collegiate Athletic Association is proposing only a few rule changes for their special convention in June. (MLW)

  4. CV characteristics of polycrystalline sige films with low GE concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Cotrin [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (FEEC) and Center for Semiconductor Components(CCS), State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Rua Pandia Calogeras, 90, Caixa Postal 6061, CEP: 13083-870, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Doi, Ioshiaki [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (FEEC) and Center for Semiconductor Components(CCS), State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Rua Pandia Calogeras, 90, Caixa Postal 6061, CEP: 13083-870, Campinas-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: doi@led.unicamp.br; Diniz, Jose Alexandre [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (FEEC) and Center for Semiconductor Components(CCS), State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Rua Pandia Calogeras, 90, Caixa Postal 6061, CEP: 13083-870, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Swart, Jacobus Willibrordus [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (FEEC) and Center for Semiconductor Components(CCS), State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Rua Pandia Calogeras, 90, Caixa Postal 6061, CEP: 13083-870, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Pinto Zakia, Maria Beny [Center for Semiconductor Components (CCS), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Rua Pandia Calogeras, 90, Caixa Postal 6061, CEP: 13083-870, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2006-12-15

    SiGe alloys are currently used for HBT and MOS as epitaxial layers for base or strained channel, respectively. In the poly phase, SiGe has been studied as a replacement for poly-Si in MOS gates due to its lower thermal budget and gate depletion and also due to the Workfunction Engineering for V {sub t} adjustments. However, for application to CMOS technology as poly-SiGe gates, others constrains emerge such as quality of the oxide interface and etch chemistry. For both applications, the Ge fraction normally lies between 20% and 40%. In this study, authors use a low Ge contents (1%) poly-SiGe thin films aiming for MOS gate electrode. The Ge fraction was determined by RBS analysis. 230 nm thick samples were deposited onto 10 nm thermally oxidized <1 0 0>, p-type Si substrates using silane and germane. Films were deposited in the temperature of 500 deg. C and total pressure of 667 Pa (5 Torr) by vertical LPCVD. The samples were doped using {sup 31}P{sup +} ion implantation from 5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} up to 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and annealed by RTP (40 s) from 500 deg. C up to 900 deg. C. R {sub s} values were obtained by 4-point probe technique and CV curves were extracted from nMOS capacitors with 200 {mu}m diameter. The same processing steps were used to fabricate similar poly-Si samples and capacitors for comparison. The poly-SiGe samples presented R {sub s} values one order of magnitude lower than poly-Si and CV analysis of nMOS capacitors showed very good characteristics. The 1% Ge in the alloy ensures a low thermal budget for the overall process. Although a relatively high annealing temperature (800 deg. C) must be used to reduce oxide charge and interface traps, the temperature is well below the necessary for poly-Si processing and can allow formation of the shallow junctions needed for next technological nodes.

  5. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  6. MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DO KIWI CV. HAYWARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIZE FÁBIO EDUARDO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo para a obtenção de mudas de kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch, cv. Hayward, por meio do cultivo in vitro de cotilédones. Utilizou-se o meio de MURASHIGE & SKOOG (1962 -- MS, suplementado com dois tipos de auxina (AIA e AIB e uma citocinina (BAP. Foram verificados os efeitos de três doses de auxinas (0,125; 0,250 e 0,375 mg.L-1, combinadas com três doses de citocinina (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 mg.L-1 na capacidade morfogênica dos explantes. Procedeu-se o estudo histológico dos órgãos das plântulas obtidas in vitro, e verificou-se, também, a capacidade de aclimatação das mudas ex vitro. A menor dose de AIB (0,125 mg.L-1, independentemente das doses de BAP, foi a mais eficaz na morfogênese dos explantes. Não foram verificadas alterações histológicas e anatômicas das plântulas obtidas in vitro. Aos três meses após o cultivo ex vitro dos explantes, verificou-se a sobrevivência de 88% das plantas transplantadas em condições de campo.

  7. Ultrastructure and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, I; Costa, I; Oliveira, M; Cunha, M; de Castro, R

    2006-08-01

    The cultivar Loureiro of Vitis vinifera is one of the most economically important, recommended in almost the totality of the Região Demarcada dos Vinhos Verdes. In vineyards, the grape productivity of this cultivar is normal while in others it is extremely low. The aim of this work was to study the morphology and germination of Vitis vinifera cv. Loureiro pollen with high and low productivity. The pollen grain was examined under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Typically V. vinifera pollen present three furrows but in the cultivar Loureiro we found tricolporated and acolporated (without furrows or pores) pollen grains. Both pollen types present generative and vegetative cells with the usual aspect and a dense cytoplasm rich in organelles. In the acolporated pollen a continuous exine layer and an irregular intine layer were observed. Differences were found in the starch accumulation, since only in tricolporated pollen abundant plastids filled with numerous starch granules were observed. To determine the causes of the low productivity of this cultivar we tested pollen viability by the fluorochromatic reaction and pollen germinability by in vitro assays. We observed that the acolporated pollen grain is viable, but no germination was recorded.

  8. EVALUASI SISTEM INFORMASI PERSEDIAAN PADA CV. SARANA TELEMAXINDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Nelly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation objectives of inventory information systems at CV. Facilities Telemaxindo was to evaluate the weaknesses of the implementation of internal control, as well as estimating and assessing possible risks that might arise. The research method used is literature study of reference books in the library, and field study consisted of observation, interviews with relevant parties, creating check lists, check the inventory information systems documentation, and testing of inventory application systems. The results are findings of control weaknesses in the implementation of security management, operational management control, boundary control, input control, and output control on the present inventory information system. These weaknesses could pose a risk and if not dealt soon it could hurt the company. The resulting conclusion of the security management control, boundary control, control input, and output control is not running well so that it needs to be improved in accordance with the recommendations, while operational management control has been running fairly well.Keywords: evaluation, information system, inventory

  9. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  10. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  11. Absolute properties of the spotted eclipsing binary star CV Bootis

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg

    2008-01-01

    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84-day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system CV Boo. These data along with other observations from the literature are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M(A) = 1.032 +/- 0.013 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.262 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the hotter, larger, and more massive primary (star A), and M(B) = 0.968 +/- 0.012 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.173 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 +/- 150 K and 5670 +/- 150 K. The intrinsic variability with a period about 1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulatio...

  12. Future Objectives of Maintenance Management in the CV Group

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    1999-01-01

    The ST/CV group has an extensive maintenance contract with a multinational consortium (Gematec-F/I/DE). Annually, the contract costs the group about 6 MCHF. Today the technical monitoring of the performance within the contract has become too irregular and different people's roles have not been sufficiently well defined. It has therefore been decided that all the technical, financial and performance-indicating data should be centrally co-ordinated within the group. The objective is to enable an efficient follow-up of the contract with a view to optimization. Another objective is to migrate to the new, more proficient version of the Computer Aided Maintenance Management (CAMM) software and learn to use it to its full potential. This means using its statistics and analysis features in addition to controlling the maintenance activities, spare-parts store, costs, etc. A further aim is to develop standards for the maintenance and the CAMM. This paper will discuss these objectives and the schedule for their implemen...

  13. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  14. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  15. A virtual computing infrastructure for TS-CV SCADA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    2008-01-01

    In modern data centres, it is an emerging trend to operate and manage computers as software components or logical resources and not as physical machines. This technique is known as â€ワvirtualisation” and the new computers are referred to as â€ワvirtual machines” (VMs). Multiple VMs can be consolidated on a single hardware platform and managed in ways that are not possible with physical machines. However, this is not yet widely practiced for control system deployment. In TS-CV, a collection of VMs or a â€ワvirtual infrastructure” is installed since 2005 for SCADA systems, PLC program development, and alarm transmission. This makes it possible to consolidate distributed, heterogeneous operating systems and applications on a limited number of standardised high-performance servers in the Central Control Room (CCR). More generally, virtualisation assists in offering continuous computing services for controls and maintaining performance and assuring quality. Implementing our systems in a vi...

  16. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  17. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  18. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC 50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  19. The early-type close binary CV Velorum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Yakut, K; Morel, T; Morel, Th.

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to improve the fundamental parameters of the massive close double-lined eclipsing B2.5V+B2.5V binary CV Velorum.We gathered new high-resolution echelle spectroscopy on 13 almost consecutive nights covering essentially two orbits. We computed a simultaneous solution to all the available high-quality radial-velocity and light data with the latest version of the Wilson-Deviney code. We obtained the following values for the physical parameters: $M_1 = 6.066(74) M_\\odot$, $M_2 = 5.972(70) M_\\odot$, $R_1 = 4.126(24) R_\\odot$, $R_2 = 3.908(27) R_\\odot$, $\\log L_1 = 3.20(5) L_\\odot$, and $\\log L_2 = 3.14(5) L_\\odot$. The quoted errors contain a realistic estimate of systematic uncertainties mainly stemming from the effective temperature estimation. We derived abundances for both components and found them to be compatible with those of B stars in the solar neighbourhood. We discovered low-amplitude periodic line-profile variations with the orbital frequency for both components. Their interpretation requir...

  20. Intensity of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae attacks on Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Leaves Intensidade de ataque de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae em folhas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2004-02-01

    potássio foliar, das densidades de tricomas e dos idioblastos cristalíferos foliares na intensidade de ataque de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae em três cultivos de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara em condições de campo. O desenho experimental foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições, sendo cada um dos cultivos de tomate. Foram realizados análise de variância e teste de média de Tukey (5% de significância para testar o efeito de dossel nas densidades de tricomas e de idioblastos cristalíferos, no número de minas de T. absoluta e de Liriomyza spp. e o número de ovos de T. absoluta. Foi usada correlação de Pearson (5% de significância para avaliar as relações entre compostos orgânicos foliares, concentrações de N e de K foliares, densidade de tricomas e de idioblastos cristalíferos e o número de minas de T. absoluta e de Liriomyza spp. e o número de ovos de T. absoluta. O maior ataque desses insetos ocorreu no estágio final da cultura. Maior número de minas de Liriomyza spp. foi observado nas folhas basais (1,50, se comparando com as apicais (0,02, sendo o contrário observado para o número de ovos de T. absoluta (0,13 e 0,57, respectivamente. Minas de T. absoluta/folha concentraram-se mais nos terços medio (10,23 e apical (8,63 do que no basal (4,93. Não foi detectada influência das densidades de tricomas e de idioblastos cristalíferos foliares nas populações de T. absoluta e de Liriomyza ssp. Possivelmente, os terpenos afetaram a oviposição de T. absoluta, enquanto o potássio foliar afetou o ataque de Liriomyza spp.

  1. EVALUATING THE FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHERRY TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE CEREZA Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

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    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The greatest genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in terms of fruit quality characteristics such as flavor, aroma, color, and lycopene and b-carotene contents is found in wild species. This study evaluated the agronomic characteristics and fruit quality of 30 cherry tomato introductions of the germplasm bank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira in trials conducted at the Montelindo experimental farm of the Universidad de Caldas (1010 m above sea level, average temperature 22.8 °C, average annual rainfall 2200 mm, 76% relative humidity. A 5 x 6 rectangular lattice experimental design was used with 30 treatments (introductions and a commercial control (Sweet Million, 4 replicates/treatment, and 5 plants/replicate as experimental unit. The descriptors used were those suggested by the former International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, now Bioversity International. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's means test using the SAS program. In addition, principal component and cluster dendrogram analyses using the SAS Princom and Cluster procedure (SAS Institute, Cary, NC were performed. Six principal components accounted for 80.39% of the morphological variability of the introductions evaluated. The most promising materials in terms of average fruit weight, yield per plant and per hectare, and soluble solids, vitamin C and lycopene contents were IAC1624, IAC391, IAC3652, LA2131, IAC424, IAC1621, IAC426, LA1480 and IAC1688. The broad phenotypic variability observed in the evaluated introductions favors the potential selection and breeding of tomato for traits associated with fruit production and quality.Resumen. La mayor diversidad genética del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en términos de características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno se encuentra en especies silvestres. Este estudio evaluó las características agronómicas y

  2. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN USAHA SAPI POTONG (STUDI KASUS CV MITRA TANI FARM

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    Shally Alpriany Aisyah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were to 1 analyze the internal and external environmental conditions of CV Mitra Tani Farm, 2 identify and define strategies that affect the cattle breeding business development at CV Mitra Tani Farm, and 3 set the strategic priorities in the development of cattle breeding business in CV Mitra Tani Farm. Analysis strategies model (David, 2009 used were the analysis of the internal and external environment, strategy formulation and strategic priorities. At the stage of strategy formulation, SWOT 4 Quadrants were used. The results showed that the difference between the weighted scores of opportunities and threats as well as strengths and weaknesses is located in first quadrant of the SWOT 4 quadrant matrix. The first quadrant (growth quadrant has eight strategies, but only three can be applied appropriately. The results of the value of interest using quantitative strategic planning matrix strategy used is the market expansion strategy, then the strategy of product development, and concentric diversification strategy. Therefore, in carrying out market expansion strategy, CV Mitra Tani Farm needs to do breakthrough campaign. In product development strategy, preferably CV Mitra Tani Farm makes processed beef products which are unique and still rare in the market today.Keywords: strategy, business beef cattle, CV Mitra Tani Farm, SWOT 4K, QSPMABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini yaitu 1 menganalisis kondisi lingkungan internal dan eksternal CV Mitra Tani Farm, 2 mengidentifikasi dan menetapkan strategi yang memengaruhi dalam pengembangan bisnis sapi potong di CV Mitra Tani Farm, dan 3 menetapkan prioritas strategi dalam pengembangan usaha peternakan sapi potong di CV Mitra Tani Farm. Model analisis strategi (David, 2009 yang digunakan yaitu analisis lingkungan internal dan eksternal, perumusan strategi dan prioritas strategi. Pada tahap perumusan strategi digunakan SWOT 4 Kuadran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa selisih

  3. High Frequency Plant Regeneration of Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan

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    R. Shashi Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High frequency plant regeneration protocol has been standardized from banana cultivar Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan, an endemic cultivar of Malnad region of Karnataka. The fruits are used as glomerular protective to solve kidney problems. To minimize the microbial contamination and to promote healthy growth, explants were treated with 70 % absolute alcohol for 6 min, 0.1 % Mercuric chloride for 10 min and 0.2 % for 10 min, 1 % Sodium hypochlorite for 15 min, 0.1 % Cefotaxime for 5 min and 0.05 % Gentamicin for 5 min. The high frequency shoot initiation (93.33 % was recorded at 5 mg/l BAP. The synergetic effect of BAP (4 to 6 mg/l, TDZ (0.1 to 1.2 mg/l and coconut water (0.1 to 0.9 ml/l induced multiple shoot buds and it was optimized at the concentration of 5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.5 ml/l coconut water with 15.90 ± 1.66 frequency of shoots per propagule. Supplementation of 1.0 mg/l IBA induced 5.33 ± 1.21 numbers of roots with a mean root length of 7.50 ± 1.87 roots. The 99% of plantlets with distinct roots and shoots were successfully acclimatized in the green house and transferred to the field to evaluate the agro-morphological variations. The weight of the bunch (kg, number of hands in a bunch, number of fingers in a hand, length of the finger (cm, girth of the finger (cm and girth of the pseudostem (cm exhibited by in vitro plants were higher than the in vivo plants.

  4. Copper-induced oxidative damage, antioxidant response and genotoxicity in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, Özlem Darcansoy; Körpe, Didem Aksoy; Yurtcu, Erkan; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Haberal, Mehmet

    2011-09-01

    Adequate copper (Cu(2+)) concentrations are required for plants; however, at higher concentrations it can also cause multiple toxic effects. In the present study, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels as well as ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1/11/1/11) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) activities were determined in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L. seedlings after 7-day exposure to copper sulfate. In addition, DNA damage in these two crops was assessed by measuring micronucleus (MN) frequency and tail moments (TM) as determined by Comet assay. Inhibitory copper concentrations (EC(50): 30 and 5.5 ppm for L. esculentum and C. sativus, respectively) were determined according to dose-dependent root inhibition curves, and EC(50) and 2×EC(50) were applied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) levels significantly increased in all groups studied. CAT activity increased in treatment groups of C. sativus. APX activity increased in L. esculentum seedlings due to 2×EC(50) treatment. Reductions in mitotic indices (MI) represented Cu(2+)dependent root growth inhibition in all treatment groups studied. According to TMs and MN frequencies, copper exposure induced significant DNA damage (p sativus roots. In conclusion, Cu(2+)induced oxidative damage, elevations in H(2)O(2) levels and alterations in APX and CAT activities, as well as significant DNA damage in nuclei of both study groups. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative and comprehensive study demonstrating the effects of copper on two different plant species at relevant cytotoxic concentrations at both biochemical and genotoxicity levels with multiple end points.

  5. Green synthesis of nano zinc oxide and evaluation of its impact on germination and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajey; Singh, N B; Hussain, Imtiyaz; Singh, Himani; Yadav, Vijaya; Singh, S C

    2016-09-10

    In the present study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were rapidly synthesized at room temperature by treating zinc acetate dihydrate with the flower extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive). The formation of ZnO NPs was primarily confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectrum in the range of 250-700nm. XRD analysis and DLS particle size analyzer revealed the size of ZnO NPs. The FTIR spectrum revealed the presence of phytochemicals in the flower extract mediated ZnO NPs. Moreover, the morphology of the ZnO NPs was determined using SEM. Seeds of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) were separately treated with different concentrations of synthesized ZnO NPs and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) salt suspensions (common zinc supplement). The effect of these treatments on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents as well as on the activities of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme were studied. Leaves of plants treated with 6.1mM concentration of ZnO NPs recorded maximum reflectance while it was minimum in plants treated with 1.2mM concentration of NPs. The effect of synthesized ZnO NPs on seedling vigor, pigment, protein and sugar content was found affirmative at lower concentrations contrary to control and ZnSO4 salt. The inhibitory effect at higher concentration of NPs indicated importance in the precise application of NPs, in Zn deficient system, where plant response varies with concentration. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on Elaeagnus angustifolia mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs and their effects on germination and physiological activity of tomato.

  6. Interactions between 2-Cys peroxiredoxins and ascorbate in autophagosome formation during the heat stress response in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Yin, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-Quan; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2016-03-01

    2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-CPs) function in the removal of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides but their precise roles in the induction of autophagy have not been characterized. Here we show that heat stress, which is known to induce oxidative stress, leads to the simultaneous accumulation of transcripts encoding 2-CPs and autophagy proteins, as well as autophagosomes, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of the tomato peroxiredoxin genes 2-CP1, 2-CP2, and 2-CP1/2 resulted in an increased sensitivity of tomato plants to heat stress. Silencing 2-CP2 or 2-CP1/2 increased the levels of transcripts associated with ascorbate biosynthesis but had no effect on the glutathione pool in the absence of stress. However, the heat-induced accumulation of transcripts associated with the water-water cycle was compromised by the loss of 2-CP1/2 functions. The transcript levels of autophagy-related genes ATG5 and ATG7 were higher in plants with impaired 2-CP1/2 functions, and the formation of autophagosomes increased, together with an accumulation of oxidized and insoluble proteins. Silencing of ATG5 or ATG7 increased the levels of 2-CP transcripts and protein but decreased heat stress tolerance. These results demonstrate that 2-CPs fulfil a pivotal role in heat stress tolerance in tomato, via interactions with ascorbate-dependent pathways and autophagy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. A genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and its application to photorespiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huili; Cheung, C Y Maurice; Poolman, Mark G; Hilbers, Peter A J; van Riel, Natal A W

    2016-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has been studied extensively due to its high economic value in the market, and high content in health-promoting antioxidant compounds. Tomato is also considered as an excellent model organism for studying the development and metabolism of fleshy fruits. However, the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomatoes can be affected by drought stress, a common abiotic stress for tomato. To investigate the potential metabolic response of tomato plants to drought, we reconstructed iHY3410, a genome-scale metabolic model of tomato leaf, and used this metabolic network to simulate tomato leaf metabolism. The resulting model includes 3410 genes and 2143 biochemical and transport reactions distributed across five intracellular organelles including cytosol, plastid, mitochondrion, peroxisome and vacuole. The model successfully described the known metabolic behaviour of tomato leaf under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions. The in silico investigation of the metabolic characteristics for photorespiration and other relevant metabolic processes under drought stress suggested that: (i) the flux distributions through the mevalonate (MVA) pathway under drought were distinct from that under normal conditions; and (ii) the changes in fluxes through core metabolic pathways with varying flux ratio of RubisCO carboxylase to oxygenase may contribute to the adaptive stress response of plants. In addition, we improved on previous studies of reaction essentiality analysis for leaf metabolism by including potential alternative routes for compensating reaction knockouts. Altogether, the genome-scale model provides a sound framework for investigating tomato metabolism and gives valuable insights into the functional consequences of abiotic stresses. © 2015 The Authors.The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Diel changes in nitrogen and carbon resource status and use for growth in young plants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Adamowicz, Stéphane; Pagès, Loïc

    2009-05-01

    Modellers often define growth as the development of plant structures from endogenous resources, thus making a distinction between structural (W(S)) and total (W) dry biomass, the latter being the sum of W(S) and the weight of storage compounds. In this study, short-term C and N reserves were characterized experimentally (forms, organ distribution, time changes) in relation to light and nutrition signals, and organ structural growth in response to reserve levels was evaluated. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) were grown hydroponically in a growth room with a 12-h photoperiod and an adequate supply of NO(3)(-) (3 mol m(-3)). Three experiments were carried out 18 d after sowing: [NO(3)(-)] was either maintained at 3 mol m(-3), changed to 0.02 mol m(-3) or to 0 mol m(-3). Plants were sampled periodically throughout the light/dark cycles over 24-48 h. Organ W(S) was calculated from W together with the amount of different compounds that act as C and N resources, i.e. non-structural carbohydrates and carboxylates, nitrate and free amino acids. With adequate nutrition, carbohydrates accumulated in leaves during light periods, when photosynthesis exceeded growth needs, but decreased at night when these sugars are the main source of C for growth. At the end of the night, carbohydrates were still high enough to fuel full-rate growth, as W(S) increased at a near constant rate throughout the light/dark cycle. When nitrate levels were restricted, C reserves increased, but [NO(3)(-)] decreased progressively in stems, which contain most of the plant N reserves, and rapidly in leaves and roots. This resulted in a rapid restriction of structural growth. Periodic darkness did not restrict growth because sufficient carbohydrate reserves accumulated during the light period. Structural growth, however, was very responsive to NO(3)(-) nutrition, because N reserves were mostly located in stems, which have limited nitrate reduction capacity.

  9. Oligonucleotide array discovery of polymorphisms in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) reveals patterns of SNP variation associated with breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Chur; Robbins, Matthew D; Chilcott, Charles; Zhu, Tong; Francis, David M

    2009-10-09

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has narrow genetic diversity that makes it difficult to identify polymorphisms between elite germplasm. We explored array-based single feature polymorphism (SFP) discovery as a high-throughput approach for marker development in cultivated tomato. Three varieties, FL7600 (fresh-market), OH9242 (processing), and PI114490 (cherry) were used as a source of genomic DNA for hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. Identification of SFPs was based on outlier detection using regression analysis of normalized hybridization data within a probe set for each gene. A subset of 189 putative SFPs was sequenced for validation. The rate of validation depended on the desired level of significance (alpha) used to define the confidence interval (CI), and ranged from 76% for polymorphisms identified at alpha or= 2 SNPs per locus. We used a subset of validated SNPs for genetic diversity analysis of 92 tomato varieties and accessions. Pairwise estimation of theta (Fst) suggested significant differentiation between collections of fresh-market, processing, vintage, Latin American (landrace), and S. pimpinellifolium accessions. The fresh-market and processing groups displayed high genetic diversity relative to vintage and landrace groups. Furthermore, the patterns of SNP variation indicated that domestication and early breeding practices have led to progressive genetic bottlenecks while modern breeding practices have reintroduced genetic variation into the crop from wild species. Finally, we examined the ratio of non-synonymous (Ka) to synonymous substitutions (Ks) for 20 loci with multiple SNPs (>or= 4 per locus). Six of 20 loci showed ratios of Ka/Ks >or= 0.9. Array-based SFP discovery was an efficient method to identify a large number of molecular markers for genetics and breeding in elite tomato germplasm. Patterns of sequence variation across five major tomato groups provided insight into to the effect of human selection on genetic variation.

  10. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  11. Identification and characterisation of CYP75A31, a new flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, isolated from Solanum lycopersicum

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    Bourgaud Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the regulation of the flavonoid pathway is important for maximising the nutritional value of crop plants and possibly enhancing their resistance towards pathogens. The flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H enzyme functions at an important branch point between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis, as is evident from studies in petunia (Petunia hybrida, and potato (Solanum tuberosum. The present work involves the identification and characterisation of a F3'5'H gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, and the examination of its putative role in flavonoid metabolism. Results The cloned and sequenced tomato F3'5'H gene was named CYP75A31. The gene was inserted into the pYeDP60 expression vector and the corresponding protein produced in yeast for functional characterisation. Several putative substrates for F3'5'H were tested in vitro using enzyme assays on microsome preparations. The results showed that two hydroxylation steps occurred. Expression of the CYP75A31 gene was also tested in vivo, in various parts of the vegetative tomato plant, along with other key genes of the flavonoid pathway using real-time PCR. A clear response to nitrogen depletion was shown for CYP75A31 and all other genes tested. The content of rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside was found to increase as a response to nitrogen depletion in most parts of the plant, however the growth conditions used in this study did not lead to accumulation of anthocyanins. Conclusions CYP75A31 (NCBI accession number GQ904194, encodes a flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, which accepts flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols as substrates. The expression of the CYP75A31 gene was found to increase in response to nitrogen deprivation, in accordance with other genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, as expected for a gene involved in flavonoid metabolism.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of intraspecific DNA polymorphism in 'Micro-Tom', a model cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Nagasaki, Hideki; Garcia, Virginie; Just, Daniel; Bres, Cécile; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Brunel, Dominique; Suda, Kunihiro; Minakuchi, Yohei; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoshima, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaori; Rothan, Christophe; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Yano, Kentaro; Aoki, Koh

    2014-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. The genome sequencing of the tomato cultivar 'Heinz 1706' was recently completed. To accelerate the progress of tomato genomics studies, systematic bioresources, such as mutagenized lines and full-length cDNA libraries, have been established for the cultivar 'Micro-Tom'. However, these resources cannot be utilized to their full potential without the completion of the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom'. We undertook the genome sequencing of 'Micro-Tom' and here report the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (indels) between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Heinz 1706'. The analysis demonstrated the presence of 1.23 million SNPs and 0.19 million indels between the two cultivars. The density of SNPs and indels was high in chromosomes 2, 5 and 11, but was low in chromosomes 6, 8 and 10. Three known mutations of 'Micro-Tom' were localized on chromosomal regions where the density of SNPs and indels was low, which was consistent with the fact that these mutations were relatively new and introgressed into 'Micro-Tom' during the breeding of this cultivar. We also report SNP analysis for two 'Micro-Tom' varieties that have been maintained independently in Japan and France, both of which have served as standard lines for 'Micro-Tom' mutant collections. Approximately 28,000 SNPs were identified between these two 'Micro-Tom' lines. These results provide high-resolution DNA polymorphic information on 'Micro-Tom' and represent a valuable contribution to the 'Micro-Tom'-based genomics resources.

  13. Physiological response of tomato seeds solanum lycopersicum l var unapal–maravilla and pepper seed capsicum annuum l var unapal–serrano to criopreservation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Mauricio; Cardozo Conde, Carlos Iván; Sánchez Orozco, Manuel Salvador

    2011-01-01

    En el laboratorio de Fisiología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y en los tanques para la crioconservación del Instituto Humboldt del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), ubicados en el municipio de Palmira, en diseños completamente al azar en arreglos factoriales con cuatro repeticiones para la prueba de germinación y dos para la prueba de emergencia, se evaluaron los efectos en la calidad fisiológica de las semillas de tomate Solanum lycopersicum L. var Unapal–Maravill...

  14. Mejoramiento genético en solanum lycopersicum para la resistencia al pasador del fruto Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rosero, Mardelix

    2010-01-01

    El pasador del fruto N. elegantalis, es la principal plaga en el cultivo del tomate en Colombia. Actualmente no existen variedades comerciales de tomate con resistencia al pasador. El presente trabajo es una etapa más en el proceso de obtención de genotipos de tomate S. lycopersicum con resistencia genética a N. elegantalis y con excelente producción y calidad de fruto. Como fuente de resistencia al pasador (padre donante de polen ♂) se usaron las introducciones PI 134417, PI 134418 y PI 1264...

  15. CONTENIDO DE POLIFENOLES EN Solanum lycopersicum L. BAJO LA ACCIÓN DE UN CAMPO MAGNÉTICO ESTÁTICO

    OpenAIRE

    Albys E. Ferrer Dubois; Yilan Fung Boix; Liliana M. Gómez Luna; Ann Cuypers

    2016-01-01

    Los polifenoles contribuyen a las propiedades antioxidantes de S. lycopersicum L. (tomate); planta en la cual se han evidenciado los efectos positivos de los campos magnéticos (CM) en la germinación y la productividad. De manera que fue necesario estudiar el contenido de polifenoles en frutos de tomate provenientes de plantas irrigadas con agua tratada con campo magnético estático (CME) a 150 mT. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, donde las plantas control se irriga...

  16. PRODUCCIÓN TRADICIONAL Y DIVERSIDAD DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) NATIVO: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN TEHUANTEPEC-JUCHITÁN, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Ríos-Osorio; José L. Chávez-Servia; Carrillo-Rodríguez, José C.

    2014-01-01

    Para los agricultores de escasos recursos económicos, las va - riedades autóctonas adaptadas a micro-nichos particulares son el principal recurso disponible para mantener la produc - ción y asegurar el sustento familiar. Este trabajo describe el sistema de producción tradicional y la comercialización en el mercado local del tomate ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) nati - vo en la región de Tehuantepec-Juchitán, Oaxaca, México. Se realizaron entrevistas a 45 productores de siete comunidades indígenas...

  17. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-Jyh Lin; Mei-Hsuan Wu; Yi-Hsuan Ma; Li-Yu Chung; Chung-Yi Chen; Chuan-Min Yen

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemeri...

  18. Multiple formation mechanisms of ferrous olivine in CV carbonaceous chondrites during fluid-assisted metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev,Michail I.; Bland, Phil A.

    2004-01-01

    The CV carbonaceous chondrites experienced alteration that resulted in formation of secondary ferrous olivine (Fa40-100), salite-hedenbergite pyroxenes (Fs10-50Wo45-50), wollastonite, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, phyllosilicates, magnetite, Fe,Ni-sulfides and Ni-rich metal in their Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine ag-gregates, chondrules, and matrices. It has previously been suggested that fibrous ferrous olivine in dark inclusions in CV chondrites formed by dehydration of phyllosil...

  19. Plug-in de procesado visual (OpenCV) en OpenDomo OS

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Castro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en el diseño y desarrollo de un plug-in que permita usar el sistema de procesado de imagen OpenCV desde el sistema operativo OpenDomo OS. Aquest projecte consisteix en el disseny i desenvolupament d'un plug-in que permeti utilitzar el sistema de processament d'imatge OpenCV des del sistema operatiu OpenDomo OS. Master thesis for the Free Software program.

  20. Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV. The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of emulsion fuel with and without FWM-CV cells was conducted using ultrasound to overcome the problems of large size microalgae colonies and to form homogenized emulsions. The emulsified water fuels, prepared using ultrasound, were found to be stable and the size of FWM-CV colonies were effectively reduced to pass through the engine nozzle safely. Engine tests at 3670 rpm were conducted using three fuels: cottonseed biodiesel CS-B100, emulsified cottonseed biodiesel water fuel, water and emulsifier (CS-E20 and emulsified water containing FWM-CV cells CS-ME20. The results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC was increased by about 41% when the engine was fueled with emulsified water fuels compared to CS-B100. The engine power, exhaust gas temperature, NOx and CO2 were significantly lower than that produced by CS-B100. The CS-ME20 produced higher power than CS-E20 due to the heating value improvement as a result of adding FWM-CV cells to the fuel.

  1. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (...

  2. Chamobtusin A, a novel skeleton diterpenoid alkaloid from Chamaecyparis obtusa cv. tetragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lu, Yang; Chang, Ying; Jia, Rui-Rui

    2007-10-25

    The novel diterpenoid alkaloid chamobtusin A (1) was isolated from the branches and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa cv. tetragon. Its structure and relative stereochemistry were mainly determined by MS, 2D NMR, and X-ray methods. The methanol extracts, total alkaloids of C. obtusa cv. tetragon, and chamobtusin A were tested for their cytotoxicities against A549 and K562 human tumor cell lines.

  3. Working with OpenCV and Intel Image Proccessing Libraries. Proccessing image data tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Lizán, Francisco José; Llorens Largo, Faraón; Pujol López, Mar; Rizo Aldeguer, Ramón; Villagrá Arnedo, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    We will provide an overview of Intel OpenCV and Image Processing Libraries. We present an application of real-time gesture recognition using the libraries (segmenting a foreground object, creating Motion History Image (MHI), updating the intensity gradients, and recovering directional motion information). Some times most companies spent a lot of time and money implementing those well-known techniques. OpenCV and IPL implement a huge amount of standard and advanced image processing techniqu...

  4. Modeling the Galactic CV Distribution for the ChaMPlane Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rogel, A B; Lugger, P M

    2007-01-01

    For purposes of designing targeted cataclysmic variable (CV) detection surveys and interpreting results of other projects with many CV detections such as the ChaMPlane Survey, we have created a model of the CV distribution in the Galaxy. It is modeled as a warped, flared exponential disk with a gaussian vertical distribution. Extinction is based on a detailed Galactic dust and gas model. A luminosity function for CVs is also incorporated, based on a smoothed version of published data. We calculate predicted field detection rates as a function of the limiting magnitude expected for the detecting system (i.e. WIYN/Hydra or NOAO 4m/Mosaic). Monte-Carlo techniques are used to assess statistical fluctuations in these rates. We have created maps of the expected CV distribution for the full non-bulge Galactic plane (20CV surveys. Assuming a CV distribution with a scale height of 160 pc, the ChaMPlane observational result of 5 CVs in 13 northern...

  5. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  6. Detection of biosynthetic gene and phytohormone production by endophytic actinobacteria associated with Solanum lycopersicum and their plant-growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Chandra, Preeti; Zothanpuia; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, fifteen endophytic actinobacterial isolates recovered from Solanum lycopersicum were studied for their antagonistic potential and plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits. Among them, eight isolates showed significant antagonistic and PGP traits, identified by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Isolate number DBT204, identified as Streptomyces sp., showed multiple PGP traits tested in planta and improved a range of growth parameters in seedlings of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (S. lycopersicum L.). Further, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) were successively amplified from five strains. Six antibiotics (trimethoprim, fluconazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, rifampicin and streptomycin) and two phytohormones [indole acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KI)] were detected and quantified in Streptomyces sp. strain DBT204 using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The study indicates the potential of these PGP strains for production of phytohormones and shows the presence of biosynthetic genes responsible for production of secondary metabolites. It is the first report showing production of phytohormones (IAA and KI) by endophytic actinobacteria having PGP and biosynthetic potential. We propose Streptomyces sp. strain DBT204 for inoculums production and development of biofertilizers for enhancing growth of chili and tomato seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide systematic characterization of the bZIP transcriptional factor family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dayong; Fu, Fuyou; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-10-12

    Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family represent exclusively in eukaryotes and have been shown to regulate diverse biological processes in plant growth and development as well as in abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, little is known about the bZIP family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The SlbZIP genes were identified using local BLAST and hidden Markov model profile searches. The phylogenetic trees, conserved motifs and gene structures were generated by MEGA6.06, MEME tool and gene Structure Display Server, respectively. The syntenic block diagrams were generated by the Circos software. The transcriptional gene expression profiles were obtained using Genevestigator tool and quantitative RT-PCR. In the present study, we carried out a genome-wide identification and systematic analyses of 69 SlbZIP genes that distributes unevenly on the tomato chromosomes. This family can be divided into 9 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship among the SlbZIP proteins. Six kinds of intron patterns (a-f) within the basic and hinge regions are defined. The additional conserved motifs and their presence of the group specificity were also identified. Further, we predicted the DNA-binding patterns and the dimerization property on the basis of the characteristic features in the basic and hinge regions and the leucine zipper, respectively, which supports our classification greatly and helps to classify 24 distinct subfamilies. Within the SlbZIP family, a total of 40 SlbZIP genes are located in the segmental duplicate regions in the tomato genome, suggesting that the segment chromosomal duplications contribute greatly to the expansion of the tomato SlbZIP family. Expression profiling analyses of 59 SlbZIP genes using quantitative RT-PCR and publicly available microarray data indicate that the tomato SlbZIP genes have distinct and diverse expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages and many of the tomato bZIP genes

  8. Oligonucleotide array discovery of polymorphisms in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. reveals patterns of SNP variation associated with breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Tong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. has narrow genetic diversity that makes it difficult to identify polymorphisms between elite germplasm. We explored array-based single feature polymorphism (SFP discovery as a high-throughput approach for marker development in cultivated tomato. Results Three varieties, FL7600 (fresh-market, OH9242 (processing, and PI114490 (cherry were used as a source of genomic DNA for hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. Identification of SFPs was based on outlier detection using regression analysis of normalized hybridization data within a probe set for each gene. A subset of 189 putative SFPs was sequenced for validation. The rate of validation depended on the desired level of significance (α used to define the confidence interval (CI, and ranged from 76% for polymorphisms identified at α ≤ 10-6 to 60% for those identified at α ≤ 10-2. Validation percentage reached a plateau between α ≤ 10-4 and α ≤ 10-7, but failure to identify known SFPs (Type II error increased dramatically at α ≤ 10-6. Trough sequence validation, we identified 279 SNPs and 27 InDels in 111 loci. Sixty loci contained ≥ 2 SNPs per locus. We used a subset of validated SNPs for genetic diversity analysis of 92 tomato varieties and accessions. Pairwise estimation of θ (Fst suggested significant differentiation between collections of fresh-market, processing, vintage, Latin American (landrace, and S. pimpinellifolium accessions. The fresh-market and processing groups displayed high genetic diversity relative to vintage and landrace groups. Furthermore, the patterns of SNP variation indicated that domestication and early breeding practices have led to progressive genetic bottlenecks while modern breeding practices have reintroduced genetic variation into the crop from wild species. Finally, we examined the ratio of non-synonymous (Ka to synonymous substitutions (Ks for 20 loci with multiple SNPs (≥ 4 per

  9. Produtividade e valor nutritivo da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu em um sistema silvipastoril Productivity and nutritional value of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in a silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Sousa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em sistema silvipastoril (Ssp localizado no bioma de Cerrado, no município de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, no ano agrícola de 2004-2005. Avaliou-se a influência do Ssp composto pela arbórea bolsa-de-pastor (Zeyheria tuberculosa sobre os parâmetros produção, atributos morfogênicos, composição bromatológica e valor nutritivo da gramínea Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, e os efeitos sobre as condições microclimáticas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco blocos (épocas de corte, dois tratamentos (T1 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu sombreada com a Z. tuberculosa e T2 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu, a pleno sol e três repetições (parcelas. O sombreamento proporcionado pela Z. tuberculosa, apesar de reduzir a produção de matéria seca (MS da gramínea, favoreceu o aumento do teor de proteina bruta (PB e não alterou a produção de PB/ha e nem afetou a concentração de FDN. Os teores de FDA foram mais altos que os encontrados a pleno sol, o que provavelmente resultou em menor degradabilidade in vitro da MS e da matéria orgânica, não alterando a degradabilidade efetiva.The experiment was carried out in a Silvopastoral system (Sps located in Brazilian Savannah, Lagoa Santa county, Minas Gerais State, during the agricultural year of 2004-2005. It was studied the influence of Sps formed by "Bolsa de Pastor" (Zeyheria tuberculosa on the production, morphogenic attributes, bromatological composition and nutritional value of the graminaceous Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu as well as on the microclimatic aspects. The Sps was established in 1982, in a red-yellow latossol by the natural regeneration process. The experiment was based on a randomized block design, with 5 blocks (cutting times, 2 treatments (T1 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu shaded by Z. tuberculosa and T2 - B. brizantha cv. Marandu at open sky and three repetitions (plots. Although the DM production of the graminaceous in the Sps

  10. FORMULASI STRATEGI PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DOMBA CV MITRA TANI FARM, CIAMPEA, BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Sholehana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research was conducted to formulate to increase the sheep production at CV Mitra Tani Farm (CV MT Farm, Ciampea, Bogor. The research was conducted using descriptive analysis by analyzing the problem experienced by CV. MitraTani Farm. Primary data and secondary data were gathered at this research. The research was also conducted using several analytical methods such as value chain mapping, internal factor evaluation (IFE and external factor evaluation (EFE matrix, SWOT and quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM. Based on the value chain analysis, the current production of sheep at CV MT farm is highly depending on the supply from its partners and internal farmers. According to the IFE and EFE results, the differences of each weighted values were respectively 2,120 and 0,686 so the position of the company in the SWOT matrix was situated at Quadrant I. Therefore the company needs to use a growth strategy. The QSPM sequenced the strategy priority as follow (1 increasing the number of lambs, (2 developing the management, (3 strengthening the capital and ownership, (4 improving the quality through technology. The result of the gross profit margin calculation, if the sheep‘s selling is increased up to 1000 sheep per month then the possible annual profit that can be earned by CV MT farm is 40,34% of the total production.Keywords: MT Farm, sheep production, strategies, SWOT, QSPM, gross profit marginABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk memformulasikan strategi peningkatan produksi domba di CV Mitra Tani Farm (CV MT Farm, Ciampea, Bogor. Pendekatan penelitian yang diterapkan adalah analisis deskriptif yang dilakukan dengan mempelajari permasalahan dari objek yang diteliti. Data yang dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer dan data sekunder. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan alat analisis berupa pemetaan rantai nilai,  matriks IFE (Internal Factor Evaluation dan EFE (External Factor Evaluation, SWOT, dan QSPM (Quantitative

  11. 53Mn-53Cr chronology of Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Doyle, Patricia M.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2017-03-01

    High precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4) in the reduced CV3 chondrites Vigarano and Efremovka yield well resolved 53Cr excesses that correlate with 55Mn/52Cr, demonstrating in situ decay of the extinct short-lived radionuclide 53Mn. To ensure proper correction for relative sensitivities between 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, we synthesized kirschsteinite doped with Mn and Cr to measure the relative sensitivity factor. The inferred initial ratio (53Mn/55Mn)0 in chondritic kirschsteinite is (3.71 ± 0.50) × 10-6. When anchored to 53Mn-53Cr relative and U-corrected 207Pb-206Pb absolute ages of the D'Orbigny angrite, this ratio corresponds to kirschsteinite formation 3.2-0.7+08 Ma after CV Ca-, Al-rich inclusions. The kirschsteinite data are consistent within error with the data for aqueously-formed fayalite from the Asuka 881317 CV3 chondrite as reported by Doyle et al. (2015), supporting the idea that Ca-Fe silicates in CV3 chondrites are cogenetic with fayalite (and magnetite) and formed during metasomatic alteration on the CV3 parent body. Concentrically-zoned crystals of kirschsteinite and hedenbergite indicate that they initially formed as near end-member compositions that became more Mg-rich with time, possibly as a result of an increase in temperature.

  12. Enraizamento in vitro de pereira (Pyrus communis L. cv. Carrick In vitro rooting of pear tree (Pyrus communis L. cv. Carrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cristiano Erig

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e do carvão ativado no enraizamento in vitro de pereira (Pyrus comunis L. cv. Carrick. Para tanto, microestacas de pereira com aproximadamente 0,8 a 1cm de comprimento foram utilizadas como explantes. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentração de ANA no meio de cultura (0; 3,2 e 6,4mM e de duas concentração de carvão ativado (0 e 1%. A partir dos resultados obtidos no experimento, conclui-se que o ANA nas concentrações de 3,2 e 6,4mM e na ausência de carvão ativado no meio de cultura, possibilitou um melhor enraizamento de pereira cv. Carrick.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and activated charcoal on the in vitro rooting of the pear tree (Pyrus communis L. cv. Carrick. Therefore pear tree microshoots with approximately 0.8 to 1cm of length were used as explant. The treatments were constituted of three concentration of NAA in the culture medium (0; 3.2 and 6.4mM and two concentration of activated charcoal (0 and 1%. NAA in the concentration of 3.2 and 6.4mM and in the absence of activated charcoal in the culture medium, showed better rooting rate to pear tree cv. Carrick.

  13. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Partially Defoliated Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) / Fluorescencia de la Clorofila en Plantas de Uva (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) Defoliadas Parcialmente

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto; Casierra Posada Fánor

    2013-01-01

    The chlorophyll content and fluorescence weredetermined in five-year-old grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv.Chardonnay) that were subjected to early partial defoliation,in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. The experimental design wascompletely randomized, consisting of two treatments (50%defoliation and control), each with four replications of 35 plants. Every two weeks, one of every two recently-emerged leaves was removed from the non-control plants. The determination of total chlorophyll content wa...

  14. Light equation in eclipsing binary CV Boo: third body candidate in elliptical orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomazov, A I; Satovskii, B L; Krushevska, V N; Kuznyetsova, Yu G; Ehgamberdiev, Sh A; Karimov, R G; Khalikova, A V; Ibrahimov, M A; Irsmambetova, T R; Tutukov, A V

    2016-01-01

    A short period eclipsing binary star CV Boo is tested for the possible existence of additional bodies in the system with a help of the light equation method. We use data on the moments of minima from the literature as well as from our observations during 2014 May--July. A variation of the CV Boo's orbital period is found with a period of $\\approx 75$ d. This variation can be explained by the influence of a third star with a mass of $\\approx 0.4M_{\\odot}$ in an eccentric orbit with $e\\approx 0.9$. A possibility that the orbital period changes on long time scales is discussed. The suggested tertiary companion is near the chaotic zone around the central binary, so CV Boo represents an interesting example to test its dynamical evolution. A list of 14 minima moments of the binary obtained from our observations is presented.

  15. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Changes in vitamin D(3) and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels-Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200 ng vitamin D(3)/g dry weight and 31 ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)/g dry weight, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3) in both free (32 ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17 ng/g dry weight).

  16. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division.

  17. Characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein phosphatases type 2A catalytic subunits and their involvement in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    País, Silvia Marina; González, Marina Alejandra; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation plays critical roles in stress responses in plants. This report presents a comparative characterization of the serine/threonine PP2A catalytic subunit family in Solanum tuberosum (potato) and S. lycopersicum (tomato), two important food crops of the Solanaceae family, based on the sequence analysis and expression profiles in response to environmental stress. Sequence homology analysis revealed six isoforms in potato and five in tomato clustered into two subfamilies (I and II). The data presented in this work show that the expression of different PP2Ac genes is regulated in response to environmental stresses in potato and tomato plants and suggest that, in general, mainly members of the subfamily I are involved in stress responses in both species. However, the differences found in the expression profiles between potato and tomato suggest divergent roles of PP2A in the plant defense mechanisms against stress in these closely related species.

  18. Biochar addition to an arsenic contaminated soil increases arsenic concentrations in the pore water but reduces uptake to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Marmiroli, Marta; Pagano, Luca; Pigoni, Veronica; Fellet, Guido; Fresno, Teresa; Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in soil, soil pore water and plant tissues were evaluated in a pot experiment following the transplantation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plantlets to a heavily As contaminated mine soil (~6000 mg kg(-1) pseudo-total As) receiving an orchard prune residue biochar amendment, with and without NPK fertiliser. An in-vitro test was also performed to establish if tomato seeds were able to germinate in various proportions of biochar added to nutrient solution (MS). Biochar significantly increased arsenic concentrations in pore water (500 μg L(-1)-2000 μg L(-1)) whilst root and shoot concentrations were significantly reduced compared to the control without biochar. Fruit As concentrations were very low (soil, but uptake to plant was reduced, and toxicity-transfer risk was negligible. Therefore leaching rather than food chain transfer appears the most probable immediate consequence of biochar addition to As contaminated soils.

  19. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  20. Auditory preattentive processing of Thai vowel change perception in consonant-vowel (CV syllables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP responses to infrequently presented spoken deviant syllables /pi/ among repetitive standard /pc/ syllables were recorded in Thai subjects who ignored these stimuli while reading books of their choices. The vowel across-category changes elicited a change-specific mismatch negativity response (MMN. The across-category change perception of vowels in consonant-vowel (CV syllables was also assessed using low- resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA. The LORETA-MMN generator appeared in the left auditory cortex, emphasizing the role of the left hemisphere in speech processing already at a preattentive processing level also in CV-syllables.

  1. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics.

  2. Python y OpenCV aplicados a un caso de estudio real

    OpenAIRE

    García del Arco, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en el uso del lenguaje Python y la librería OpenCV de visión por computador para el seguimiento de crustáceos marinos en condiciones experimentales y determinar su comportamiento en un entorno social. Aquest treball es centra en l'ús del llenguatge Python i la llibreria OpenCV de visió per computador per al seguiment de crustacis marins en condicions experimentals i determinar el seu comportament en un entorn social.

  3. A sister of PIN1 gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defines leaf and flower organ initiation patterns by maintaining epidermal auxin flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ciera C; Koenig, Daniel; Chitwood, Daniel H; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-11-01

    The spatiotemporal localization of the plant hormone auxin acts as a positional cue during early leaf and flower organogenesis. One of the main contributors to auxin localization is the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1). Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that PIN1 genes are split into two sister clades; PIN1 and the relatively uncharacterized Sister-Of-PIN1 (SoPIN1). In this paper we identify entire-2 as a loss-of-function SlSoPIN1a (Solyc10g078370) mutant in Solanum lycopersicum. The entire-2 plants are unable to specify proper leaf initiation leading to a frequent switch from the wild type spiral phyllotactic pattern to distichous and decussate patterns. Leaves in entire-2 are large and less complex and the leaflets display spatial deformities in lamina expansion, vascular development, and margin specification. During sympodial growth in entire-2 the specification of organ position and identity is greatly affected resulting in variable branching patterns on the main sympodial and inflorescence axes. To understand how SlSoPIN1a functions in establishing proper auxin maxima we used the auxin signaling reporter DR5: Venus to visualize differences in auxin localization between entire-2 and wild type. DR5: Venus visualization shows a widening of auxin localization which spreads to subepidermal tissue layers during early leaf and flower organogenesis, showing that SoPIN1 functions to focus auxin signaling to the epidermal layer. The striking spatial deformities observed in entire-2 help provide a mechanistic framework for explaining the function of the SoPIN1 clade in S.lycopersicum. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CONTENIDO DE POLIFENOLES EN Solanum lycopersicum L. BAJO LA ACCIÓN DE UN CAMPO MAGNÉTICO ESTÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albys E. Ferrer Dubois

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles contribuyen a las propiedades antioxidantes de S. lycopersicum L. (tomate; planta en la cual se han evidenciado los efectos positivos de los campos magnéticos (CM en la germinación y la productividad. De manera que fue necesario estudiar el contenido de polifenoles en frutos de tomate provenientes de plantas irrigadas con agua tratada con campo magnético estático (CME a 150 mT. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, donde las plantas control se irrigaron con agua normal y las plantas del segundo tratamiento se irrigaron con CME a 150 mT. A partir de los frutos maduros se prepararon extractos acuosos, etanólicos y con mezcla Folch (cloroformo:metanol, 2:1. Se cuantificaron los polifenoles totales por el método de Folin- Ciocalteu y se identificaron con la Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución (HPLC siglas en Inglés. Se realizó un ANOVA de Clasificación Simple y la Comparación de Múltiples Rangos con Diferencia Mínima Significativa. Los extractos acuosos presentaron un mayor contenido de polifenoles con relación a los etanólicos y a los elaborados con la mezcla Folch, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Todos los extractos procedentes de los frutos que recibieron el riego con agua tratada con CME mostraron una mayor cantidad de polifenoles. En los extractos acuosos elaborados a partir de frutos irrigados con CME, el contenido de polifenoles fue 1,25 veces mayor con relación a los extractos acuosos del tratamiento control. Se identificaron los polifenoles rutina, quercetina y ácido gálico, de los cuales se ha reportado su contribución significativa en la capacidad antioxidante de S. lycopersicum L.

  5. Fungi colonizing the soil and roots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plants treated with biological control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants, cv. Rumba Ożarowska, grown in the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury, were protected in the form of alternate spraying (twice and watering (twice with 5% aqueous extracts of the following plant species: Aloe vulgaris Lam., Achillea millefolium L., Mentha piperita L., Polygonum aviculare L., Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L. and Urtica dioica L. Plants not treated with the extracts served as control. After fruit harvest, samples of roots and soil were collected. The roots were disinfected and next placed on PDA medium. Soil-colonizing fungi were cultured on Martin medium. Fungi were identified microscopically after incubation. Pathogenic fungal species, Colletotrichum coccodes, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum and F. poae, accounted for over 60% of all isolates obtained from the roots of tomato plants. The soil fungal community was dominated by yeast-like fungi (75.4%, whereas pathogenic fungi were present in low numbers. The applied 5% aqueous plant extracts effectively reduced the abundance of fungi, including pathogenic species, colonizing tomato plants and soil. The extract from P. aviculare showed the highest efficacy, while the extract from J. regia was least effective. Fungi showing antagonistic activity against pathogens (Paecilomyces roseum and species of the genus Trichoderma were isolated in greatest abundance from the soil and the roots of tomato plants treated with A. millefolium, M. piperita and U. dioica extracts.

  6. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  7. Effect of LEDs on flower bud induction in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Zembla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, M.; Ieperen, van W.; Heuvelink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of LEDs was studied to induce flower under artificial long days (LD) in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Zembla plants, using light emitting diodes (LED) @ PAR m-2 s-1 80% Red / 20% Blue maintained @ 100 µ mol m- 2 s- 1 using royal blue light @ 455 nm and red light @ 640 nm wavelengths and

  8. Endogenous auxin regulates the sensitivity of Dendrobium (cv. Miss Teen) flower pedicel abscission to ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rungruchkanont, K.; Ketsa, S.; Chatchawankanphanich, O.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium flower buds and flowers have an abscission zone at the base of the pedicel (flower stalk). Ethylene treatment of cv. Miss Teen inflorescences induced high rates of abscission in flower buds but did not affect abscission once the flowers had opened. It is not known if auxin is a regulator

  9. Study of Catalytic Reaction at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces by a CV-XAFS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Shogo; Matsumura, Daiju; Asazawa, Koichiro; Kishi, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A method combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) with x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, viz. CV-XAFS, has been developed to enable in situ real-time investigation of atomic and electronic structures related to electrochemical reactions. We use this method to study the reaction of a Pt/C cathode catalyst in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline electrolyte, using x-ray energies near the Pt LIII edge for XAFS measurements. It was found that the current induced by the ORR was first observed at approximately 0.08 V versus Hg/HgO, although the Pt valence, which is reflected in the oxidation states, remained almost unchanged. The electronic structure of the catalytic surface in the ORR was observed to be different in the negative and positive scan directions of CV measurements. Hydrogen adsorption is also discussed on the basis of the observation of this spectral change. We have demonstrated that CV-XAFS provides dynamical structural and electronic information related to electrochemical reactions and can be used for in situ real-time measurements of a catalyst.

  10. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): The GAMA Galaxy Group Catalogue (G3Cv1)

    CERN Document Server

    Robotham, A S G; Driver, S P; Baldry, I K; Bamford, S P; Hopkins, A M; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Merson, A; Peacock, J A; Brough, S; Cameron, E; Conselice, C J; Croom, S M; Frenk, C S; Gunawardhana, M; Hill, D T; Jones, D H; Kelvin, L S; Kuijken, K; Nichol, R C; Parkinson, H R; Pimbblet, K A; Phillipps, S; Popescu, C C; Prescott, M; Sharp, R G; Sutherland, W J; Taylor, E N; Thomas, D; Tuffs, R J; van Kampen, E; Wijesinghe, D

    2011-01-01

    Using the complete GAMA-I survey covering ~142 sq. deg. to r=19.4, of which ~47 sq. deg. is to r=19.8, we create the GAMA-I galaxy group catalogue (G3Cv1), generated using a friends-of-friends (FoF) based grouping algorithm. Our algorithm has been tested extensively on one family of mock GAMA lightcones, constructed from Lambda-CDM N-body simulations populated with semi-analytic galaxies. Recovered group properties are robust to the effects of interlopers and are median unbiased in the most important respects. G3Cv1 contains 14,388 galaxy groups (with multiplicity >= 2$), including 44,186 galaxies out of a possible 110,192 galaxies, implying ~40% of all galaxies are assigned to a group. The similarities of the mock group catalogues and G3Cv1 are multiple: global characteristics are in general well recovered. However, we do find a noticeable deficit in the number of high multiplicity groups in GAMA compared to the mocks. Additionally, despite exceptionally good local spatial completeness, G3Cv1 contains signif...

  11. Endogenous auxin regulates the sensitivity of Dendrobium (cv. Miss Teen) flower pedicel abscission to ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rungruchkanont, K.; Ketsa, S.; Chatchawankanphanich, O.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium flower buds and flowers have an abscission zone at the base of the pedicel (flower stalk). Ethylene treatment of cv. Miss Teen inflorescences induced high rates of abscission in flower buds but did not affect abscission once the flowers had opened. It is not known if auxin is a regulator

  12. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  13. Cherry Picking Robot Vision Recognition System Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through OpenCV function, the cherry in a natural environment image after image preprocessing, color recognition, threshold segmentation, morphological filtering, edge detection, circle Hough transform, you can draw the cherry’s center and circular contour, to carry out the purpose of the machine picking. The system is simple and effective.

  14. An evaluation of Panicum maximum cv. Gatton: 2. The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional value of Panicum maximum cv. .... Table 2 Mean (± s.d.) chemical composition of oesophageal samples .... solubility, energy content of the diet and level of intake (Van Soest, 1982), ...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  16. STRATEGI SEGMENTASI PASAR TERHADAP VOLUME PENJUALAN BUSANA MUSLIM PADA CV RABBANI ASYSA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    KARASE, HASNAWATI

    2014-01-01

    2014 Hasnawati Karase Haris Maupa Mukhtar Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis strategi segmentasi pasar terhadap volume penjualan busana muslim pada CV Rabbani Asysa Makassar. Data penelitian ini diperoleh dari kuesioner (primer) mengenai segmentasi pasar Rabbani Makassar dengan mengambil sampel sebanyak 75 responden. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa variabel strategi segmentasi pasar yang terdiri dari segmentasi geografis, segmentasi demografis, segm...

  17. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management.

  18. STRATEGI SEGMENTASI PASAR TERHADAP VOLUME PENJUALAN BUSANA MUSLIM PADA CV RABBANI ASYSA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    KARASE, HASNAWATI

    2014-01-01

    2014 Hasnawati Karase Haris Maupa Mukhtar Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis strategi segmentasi pasar terhadap volume penjualan busana muslim pada CV Rabbani Asysa Makassar. Data penelitian ini diperoleh dari kuesioner (primer) mengenai segmentasi pasar Rabbani Makassar dengan mengambil sampel sebanyak 75 responden. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa variabel strategi segmentasi pasar yang terdiri dari segmentasi geografis, segmentasi demografis, segm...

  19. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  1. Isolation and characterization of CvIV4: a pain inducing α-scorpion toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee H Rowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among scorpion species, the Buthidae produce the most deadly and painful venoms. However, little is known regarding the venom components that cause pain and their mechanism of action. Using a paw-licking assay (Mus musculus, this study compared the pain-inducing capabilities of venoms from two species of New World scorpion (Centruroides vittatus, C. exilicauda belonging to the neurotoxin-producing family Buthidae with one species of non-neurotoxin producing scorpion (Vaejovis spinigerus in the family Vaejovidae. A pain-inducing α-toxin (CvIV4 was isolated from the venom of C. vittatus and tested on five Na(+ channel isoforms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C. vittatus and C. exilicauda venoms produced significantly more paw licking in Mus than V. spinigerus venom. CvIV4 produced paw licking in Mus equivalent to the effects of whole venom. CvIV4 slowed the fast inactivation of Na(v1.7, a Na(+ channel expressed in peripheral pain-pathway neurons (nociceptors, but did not affect the Na(v1.8-based sodium currents of these neurons. CvIV4 also slowed the fast inactivation of Na(v1.2, Na(v1.3 and Na(v1.4. The effects of CvIV4 are similar to Old World α-toxins that target Na(v1.7 (AahII, BmK MI, LqhIII, OD1, however the primary structure of CvIV4 is not similar to these toxins. Mutant Na(v1.7 channels (D1586A and E1589Q, DIV S3-S4 linker reduced but did not abolish the effects of CvIV4. CONCLUSIONS: This study: 1 agrees with anecdotal evidence suggesting that buthid venom is significantly more painful than non-neurotoxic venom; 2 demonstrates that New World buthids inflict painful stings via toxins that modulate Na(+ channels expressed in nociceptors; 3 reveals that Old and New World buthids employ similar mechanisms to produce pain. Old and New World α-toxins that target Na(v1.7 have diverged in sequence, but the activity of these toxins is similar. Pain-inducing toxins may have evolved in a common ancestor. Alternatively, these toxins may be the

  2. ANALISIS KEBUTUHAN TENAGA KERJA RESERVASI TERHADAP PERENCANAAN PENGEMBANGAN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA PADA CV. CAN TOUR & TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Christina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment remains the fundamental probel faced by many countries including Indonesia. One of the efforts the Government of Indonesia in extending employment opportunities is to develop the tourism sector. Bali is one of the potential tourist destinastions and it needs to be marketed. Cooperation between the Travel Bureau with the provider of the accommodation or hotel is one of the ways the potential market and the most instrumental in the development of the company, namely human resources required or called by labor. CV. CAN Tour and Travel is one of the tourist industry in Bali trip with a number of guest handling that quite a lot. This research aims to know the availability of labor needs resevartion in order CV. CAN Tour and Travel development and also to find out how the workforce qualification is required. Determination technique using the key informant that was labor reservation CV. CAN Tour and Travel, while the base of the informant was CV. CAN Tour and Travel Manager. Data analysis technique used is the analysis of workload and workforce needs analysis. The research results obtained indicate that shortage of time working as many as 210 minutes. So the manpower needed by CV. CAN Tour and Travel is two people with the fact that there is only 1 nowaday. It can be seen from the burden of the work done in a day’s work and the workforce absences. So labor needs on the Reservation Department is supposed to be 3 people, with 2 staff 1 reservations and ticketing staff. It was necessary increase manpower in the Labour Departmen’s Reservation in the reservation and also training to develop the ability to work.

  3. Beryllium-Boron Systematics of Refractory Inclusions in CR2 and CV3 Chondrites: Evidence for 10Be Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.

    2016-08-01

    Be-B systematics of Allende (CV3), Axtell (CV3), and NWA 5028 (CR2) CAIs suggests that 10Be was distributed heterogeneously in the early solar system which implies that 10Be was produced in the solar nebula by irradiation of nebular gas or dust.

  4. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza S. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment. Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b* were determined. The visual quality of the inflorescences and fresh weight decreased with time in all treatments. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed on the inflorescences stored at 12 °C for six and eight days. Bract color was not affected by temperature, storage time or the senescence process. The results indicate that a temperature of 12 °C is not recommended for a storage time longer than four days, whereas 19 °C can be used for a storage time of up to eight days for cut inflorescences of H. bihai cv. Lobster Claw.A conservação pós-colheita de flores de corte de Heliconia é fator relevante para o sucesso da comercialização, principalmente para a exportação. Neste estudo, o período máximo de armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw, foi avaliado em duas diferentes temperaturas (12 e 19 °C e comparado com as condições de laboratório (25 °C, tratamento controle. As variáveis avaliadas foram: qualidade visual, massa de matéria fresca e a coloração das inflorescências (L*, a* e b*. A qualidade visual das inflorescências e a massa de matéria fresca de todos os tratamentos reduziram ao longo do tempo. Sintomas de injúria por frio foram observados nas inflorescências armazenadas a 12 °C, durante seis e oito dias. A coloração das brácteas não foi afetada pela temperatura, período de armazenamento nem pelo processo de senescência. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura de 12 °C não é recomendada para armazenar hastes florais de

  5. Comportamento agronômico inicial da cv. Chimarrita enxertada em cinco porta-enxertos de pessegueiro Agronomical behavior of cv. Chimarrita on five rootstocks of peach trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir da Silva Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a resposta agronômica da cv. Chimarrita enxertada em cinco porta-enxertos, nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de Pelotas-RS, no período de 2003 a 2005. Durante o período de execução do experimento, foram avaliados o diâmetro do tronco do porta-enxerto e da cultivar-copa, comprimento médio dos ramos principais, volume de copa, massa fresca e massa seca do material vegetal retirado nas podas verde e de inverno, índice de intensidade de poda, massa média dos frutos, produção por planta, eficiência produtiva, produção por hectare, sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza da polpa, diâmetro e coloração dos frutos. O porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' induziu o maior crescimento vegetativo na cv. Chimarrita durante os três anos de avaliação, seguido do porta-enxerto 'Okinawa'. Este, por sua vez, induziu o maior rendimento produtivo (1,65 t ha-1. A cv. Capdeboscq proporcionou a obtenção de frutos com maior massa. Os porta-enxertos 'GF 305' e 'Aldrighi' induziram menor desenvolvimento vegetativo e a mais baixa produtividade (0,52 t.ha-1 .The objective for this study was to evaluate the agronomical behavior of cv. Chimarrita on five rootstocks of peach trees in Pelotas- RS from 2003 to 2005. The variables evaluated were: trunk diameters of the rootstock and of the scion; length of the annual terminal growth; volume of the canopy; fresh and dry weight of the material taken by the summer and winter pruning; pruning intensity index; fruit weight; fruit production per tree; production efficiency; productivity per hectare; total soluble solids; pulp firmness; and fruit diameter and color. It was observed that the trees from: rootstock 'Capdeboscq' promoted higher vegetative growth and larger fruits, followed by the ones from the rootstock 'Okinawa' which promoted the highest yield (1, 65 t.ha-1; the rootstock 'GF 305' and 'Aldrighi' had the lowest vegetative development and yield (0, 52 t.ha-1.

  6. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  7. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  8. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  9. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in triticale cv. Clercal mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were aimed to determine the inoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was done by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (134 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule (120. Average mixture green mass yields were ranging from 20.9 t ha-1 (control up to 30.1 t ha-1 (inoculation + nitrogen top-dressing. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3.71 t ha-1 (control up to 5.36 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Pea crude protein yields in 2001 were ranging from 500 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing up to 642 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for triticale, those values were from 322 kg ha-1 (control up to 498 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total mixture crude proteins yields were from 845 kg ha-1 (control up to 998 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing.

  10. Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L. and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.

  11. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 基于 OpenCV 的双目摄像机标定技术研究%Binocular Camera Calibration Technique Based on OpenCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长元; 邢世蒙

    2014-01-01

    摄像机标定技术作为双目立体视觉领域的一个基础性研究课题,具有很大的理论研究价值和实际应用价值。论文围绕双目立体视觉中的双目摄像机标定技术,分析基于OpenCV的双目摄像机标定的方法。基于OpenCV的双目摄像机标定比传统的定标技术更为灵活,并且具有不错的定标精度。%As a foundational research in the field of binocular stereo vision ,camera calibration technique has great theo‐retical value and practical value .This paper focuses on the binocular stereo vision camera calibration technique to analyze the binocular camera calibration method based on OpenCV .OpenCV camera calibration based on binocular is more flexible than traditional scaling techniques ,and has a good calibration accuracy .

  13. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  14. Avaliação da Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu em sistemas silvipastoris Evaluation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu in silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS da Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu colhida em dois sistemas silvipastoris compostos pelas arbóreas, ipê felpudo (Zeyheria tuberculosa e aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, localizados no bioma Cerrado, município de Lagoa Santa, MG. O período de coleta da forragem foi de dezembro de 2004 a abril de 2005. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, segundo esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas os tratamentos e as sub-parcelas os tempos de degradação. O sombreamento com as arbóreas não influenciou a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca da forrageira.In situ degradability of dry matter of Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu harvested in two silvopastoral systems was evaluated. One system was composed by Zeyheria tuberculosa tree and the other by Myracrodruon urundeuva, both located at Brazilian Savannah, Lagoa Santa, MG. A completely ramdomized block experimental design in a splitplot arrangement was used. The treatments were allocated in the plots and the times in the splitplot. No effect of shade was observed for in situ dry matter degradability.

  15. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  16. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars.

  17. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  18. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  19. Moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8) Improves Effect of Acupuncture for Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-xia

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Methods: A total of 60 IBS-D patients were randomly allocated into a treatment group and a control group, 30 in each group. Patients in the treatment group were treated with acupuncture combined with ginger and salt-partitioned moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8), whereas patients in the control group only received acupuncture treatment. Six days made up a course of treatment, and the clinical effects were statistically analyzed after 4 courses. Results: The overall response rate in the treatment group was 96.7%, versus 76.7% in the control group, showing a statistical significance (P Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with ginger and salt-partitioned moxibustion on Shenque (CV 8) can obtain better effect for ISB-D than acupuncture alone.

  20. Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT Analysis of CV Rejeki Mapan Lestari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Sriwidadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats faced by CV Rejek Mapan Lestari, and to establish the appropriate strategies that should be applied to the company to evolve the company business. The research was conducted with a descriptive method, the researcher gathered the data with two medium, questionnaire and interview followed by the extraction method using various way such as IFE Matrix, EFE Matrix, SWOT/TOWS, IE Matrix, and QSPM Matrix which result in various alternative strategies that could be the viable option for the company. It can be concluded that CV Rejeki Mapan Lestari is highly advised in using a product development strategy by extending product variant and adding product that meet the markets need, for instance plastic flake.

  1. A REAL-TIME C-V CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR WEB-MINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haiying; Zhuang Zhenquan; Li Bin; Wan Ke

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, a real-time C-V (Characteristic-Vector) clustering algorithm is put forth to treat with vast action data which are dynamically collected from web site. The algorithm cites the concept of C-V to denote characteristic, synchronously it adopts two-value [0,1]input and self-definition vigilance parameter to design clustering-architecture. Vector Degree of Matching (VDM) plays a key role in the clustering algorithm, which determines the magnitude of typical characteristic. Making use of stability analysis, the classifications are confirmed to have reliably hierarchical structure when vigilance parameter shifts from 0.1 to 0.99. This non-linear relation between vigilance parameter and classification upper limit helps mining out representative classifications from net-users according to the actual web resource, then administering system can map them to web resource space to implement the intelligent configuration effectually and rapidly.

  2. Vigor tests to evaluate the physiological quality of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira dos Anjos Sena

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The vigor tests are intended to monitor the quality of seeds as it allows reliably distinguish lots of low and high vigor, providing additional information to the germination test. So in this study the objective was to identify the most efficient vigor tests on stratification of lots of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo'. The experiment was conducted at Laboratory of Seed Analysis at the Center of agricultural Science of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, using samples from 20 seed lots in a completely randomized design. For characterization of the lots it was evaluated water content, germination and vigor (cold test, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, seedling emergence in field and germination at low temperatures. The accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and field emergence of seedlings tests are the most efficient for classification of lots of corn seeds cv. 'Sertanejo' in levels of vigor, been the seeds of lot 1 the most vigorous.

  3. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  4. Diagnosis of Elevator Faults with LS-SVM Based on Optimization by K-CV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several common elevator malfunctions were diagnosed with a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM. After acquiring vibration signals of various elevator functions, their energy characteristics and time domain indicators were extracted by theoretically analyzing the optimal wavelet packet, in order to construct a feature vector of malfunctions for identifying causes of the malfunctions as input of LS-SVM. Meanwhile, parameters about LS-SVM were optimized by K-fold cross validation (K-CV. After diagnosing deviated elevator guide rail, deviated shape of guide shoe, abnormal running of tractor, erroneous rope groove of traction sheave, deviated guide wheel, and tension of wire rope, the results suggested that the LS-SVM based on K-CV optimization was one of effective methods for diagnosing elevator malfunctions.

  5. Comparison of direct mercury analyzer and FIA-CV-AAS in determination of methylmercury in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Nakatsubo, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been determined in fish reference materials by direct mercury analyzer (DMA 80) and FIA-CV-AAS. In order to evaluate accuracy, certified reference materials (Fish protein, NRCC - Dorm 4 and fish material, Ipen - Dourada 1) were analyzed after extraction and separation of mercury species. Good agreement of the results have been obtained (relative error of the determination between the methods varied from 1.5% to 39%). The repeatability of the results varied from 4% to 26%.

  6. 最权威的声音 Holden Monaro CV8-Z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓非

    2006-01-01

    让法拉利、保时捷、兰博基尼这些家伙都见鬼去吧,在澳大利亚,只有一款跑车可以大声说话,那就是霍顿Monaro。而作为最后一代的Monaro, Monaro CV8-Z依然在澳洲跑车界具有最权威的声音。

  7. Mechanisms of HIV-1 subtype C resistance to GRFT, CV-N and SVN

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alexandre, Kabamba B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Virology November 2013/ Vol. 446(1-2), 66-76 Mechanisms ofHIV-1subtypeCresistancetoGRFT,CV-NandSVN Kabamba B.Alexandre a,b, PennyL.Moore a,b, MolatiNonyane a, ElinS.Gray a, Nthabeleng Ranchobe a, EreckChakauya c, JamesB.McMahon d, BarryR.O’Keefe d...

  8. Composition of pectic polysaccharides in a Portuguese apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe is a typical Portuguese apple cultivar classified as Protected Designation and Origin (PDO). It is a traditional product produced under strict conditions and labelled with a specific law protected designation. This cultivar presents quite good sweetness and flavor. The monosaccharide composition of the pectic polysaccharides from this traditional apple is herein reported for the first time. Based on the molar ratios obtained from the sugar compositio...

  9. Frobenius type and CV-structures for Donaldson-Thomas theory and a convergence property

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We rephrase some well-known results in Donaldson-Thomas theory in terms of (formal families of) Frobenius type and CV-structures on a vector bundle in the sense of Hertling. We study these structures in an abstract setting, and prove a convergence result which is relevant to the case of triangulated categories. An application to physical field theory is also briefly discussed.

  10. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Pengaruh Pengawasan Dan Evaluasi Terhadap Efisiensi Kerja Karyawan Pada CV. Aulia Karya Utama Sibolga

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, Aulia

    2012-01-01

    Aim to undertake this work is to investigate and analyze the influence of supervision and evaluation of employee work efficiency CV. Aulia Karya Utama Sibolga. Supervision is a process of monitoring employee activity, keeping the organization in order to keep walking towards the achievement of targets, and make corrections if necessary for the implementation of tasks in accordance with the original plan.Evaluation is the process of assessment, both assessments are neutral, negative, or positi...

  12. Real-time detecting and tracking ball with OpenCV and Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecki, Tomasz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a way to detect and track ball with using the OpenCV and Kinect. Object and people recognition, tracking are more and more popular topics nowadays. Described solution makes it possible to detect ball based on the range, which is set by the user and capture information about ball position in three dimensions. It can be store in the computer and use for example to display trajectory of the ball.

  13. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  14. Callus formation from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Malus Xdomestica Borkh. cv. Greensleeves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, S; Power, J B

    1988-05-01

    Large yields (1.85 × 10(7)/g.f.wt.) of viable protoplasts were obtained from leaves of axenic shoot cultures of Malus Xdomestica Borkh. cv. 'Greensleeves'. Protoplasts cultured in liquid or agarose semi-solidified KM8P medium underwent cell wall regeneration and colony formation.Protoplast-derived cell colonies developed to callus on semi-solid KM8 medium. This is the first report of callus formation from mesophyll protoplasts of apple.

  15. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  16. Analisis Pengaruh Kemampuan, Usaha dan Dukungan Perusahaan terhadap Kinerja Karyawan pada CV Sandang Gloria Konveksindo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Logahan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clothing Konveksindo CV Gloria is a trading company engaged in the sale of products and clothing items. Therefore, the performance of employees is very important in achieving that goal. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of ability, effort, and support the company towards the employee's performance CV Gloria Konveksindo Clothing. The method of analysis used in this study is descriptive, Pearson Regression, and Multiple Regression. Data obtained from the appraisal of employee performance by filling in the questionnaire that has been provided by using a Likert scale that is useful to know the degree of disagreement and agreement existing employees to the question on the questionnaire. The results achieved in this study were the ability of employees to work have an influence for 28.8% of employee performance, employee efforts in working to have the effect of 50.6% on employee performance, corporate support for work processes have the effect of 47.7% the performance of employees, while the ability of employees, employee efforts, and support the company has influence for 66.3% of the employee's performance CV Gloria Konveksindo Clothing. With this capability expected of employees, employee efforts, and support the company serve as the main factor to improve employee performance.

  17. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  18. AT3 (Acyltransferase Gene Isolated From Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habibi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is widely used and cultivated by Indonesian people. There are three species of chili pepper, i.e.: Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum frutescens L., and Capsicum violaceum HBK. Capsicum frutescens L. has a higher economic value due to its pungency and carotenoid content. C. frutescens has several cultivars, one of those is Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau. This cultivar is resistant against pest and disease and has very high pungency. This special character of chili pepper is born by its secondary metabolic, Capsaicin. Moreover, capsaicin also serves as defense mechanism, antiarthritis, analgesic, and anticancer. This study aimed to isolate Acyltransferase (AT3 gene which encoding Capsaicin Synthase (CS enzyme. AT3 gene was isolated through PCR using forward primer 5’-ATG GCT TTT GCA TTA CCA TCA-3’ and reverse primer 5’-CCT TCA CAA TTA TTC GCC CA-3’. Data were analyzed using DNA Baser, BLAST, and ClustalX. This study has successfully isolated 404 bp fragments of AT3 gene. This fragments located at 1918-1434 bp referred to AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Shuanla. Isolation of upstream and downstream fragments of AT3 gene from Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra Hijau is undergoing.

  19. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  20. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  1. Physicochemical Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sour Cherry cv. Marasca During Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pedisić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry cv. Marasca is Dalmatian cultivar from XVI century. Cultivation is limited on the north and central part of Dalmatia and on the part of the islands, where it achieves the best quality of fruit, high content of dry matter and sugar respectively, agreeable aroma and intense color. Sour cherry cv. Marasca is source of biologically active ingredients, organic and inorganic compounds, dietary fibers, aromatic compounds and high content of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins and hormone melatonin. Many epidemiological studies showed that phenolic compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and they have beneficial effect on human health. Marasca is rich with mentioned compounds. Physicochemical composition (total and soluble dry matter, pH value, total acidity during ripening of cv. Marasca ecotype Recta (Cerasus marasca recta grown in Zadar and Split area were determined. Total and soluble dry matter increased and pH value and total acidity showed little change during ripening. The content of phenolic compounds increased during ripening as well as content of anthocyanins, while antioxidant activity decreased with ripening. That indicates there was no correlation between antioxidant activity and content of total phenolic compounds.

  2. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; García-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets.

  3. Programación de Aplicaciones OpenCV sobre Sistemas Heterogéneos SoC-FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis Cases, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    OpenCV es una biblioteca de primitivas de procesado de imagen que permite crear algoritmos de Visión por Computador de última generación. OpenCV fue desarrollado originalmente por Intel en 1999 para mostrar la capacidad de procesamiento de los micros de Intel, por lo que la mayoría de la biblioteca está optimizada para correr en estos micros, incluyendo las extensiones MMX y SSE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenCV. Actualmente es ampliamente utilizada tanto por la comunidad científica como p...

  4. Aminoethoxivinilglicina no controle do amadurecimento de frutos de caqui cv. Fuyu Aminoethoxyvinylglycine in the ripening control of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fuentes Fagundes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG, aplicado na pós-colheita, no amadurecimento de frutos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, armazenados à temperatura de 0 ± 2 ºC. Os frutos foram imersos durante dois minutos em solução de AVG, na concentração de 0; 415; 830 e 1.200 g ha-1 e dissolvidos em água destilada e adição de espalhante adesivo (óleo vegetal a 0,02% (v/v, secos à temperatura ambiente no barracão e armazenados em câmara fria a 0 ± 2 ºC e 95±2 % UR, e avaliados aos 32 e 52 dias com relação à firmeza, sólidos solúveis, pH da polpa, acidez titulável e injúria por frio. O AVG mostrou-se promissor no uso pós-colheita em caqui, onde os frutos tratados conservaram índices de firmeza linear em função da dose e teores de AT, SS e pH aceitáveis para o 'Fuyu'. Porém os frutos apresentaram translucidez, característica de injúria por frio, indicando a necessidade de novos estudos para se compreender a fisiologia pós-colheita deste fruto.An experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of the application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in post harvest application in persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu stored at a temperature of 0 ± 2ºC. The fruits were immersed for two minutes into an AVG solution at a concentration of 0; 415; 830; 1200 g ha-1 and dissolved in distillated water. Then it was added adhesive spreader (vegetable oil 0.02% (v/v, dried at room temperature and stored at 0 ± 2 ºC and 95±2 % humidity. The treatments were evaluated on the 32nd and 52nd days to check the firmness, soluble solids, pH of the pulp, tritable acidity and chilling injury. The AVG may be promising in post harvest use with persimmon fruits, where treated fruits preserved linear levels of firmness in function of the doses and TA, SS and pH levels are acceptable for cv. Fuyu. However, fruits showed translucency, which are characteristics of chilling injury, indicating that new studies are

  5. A transcriptomics-based kinetic model for ethylene biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit: development, validation and exploration of novel regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-05-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is involved in many physiological processes including climacteric fruit ripening, in which it is a key determinant of fruit quality. A detailed model that describes ethylene biochemistry dynamics is missing. Often, kinetic modeling is used to describe metabolic networks or signaling cascades, mostly ignoring the link with transcriptomic data. We have constructed an elegant kinetic model that describes the transfer of genetic information into abundance and metabolic activity of proteins for the entire ethylene biosynthesis pathway during fruit development and ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Our model was calibrated against a vast amount of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic data and showed good descriptive qualities. Subsequently it was validated successfully against several ripening mutants previously described in the literature. The model was used as a predictive tool to evaluate novel and existing hypotheses regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. This bottom-up kinetic network model was used to indicate that a side-branch of the ethylene pathway, the formation of the dead-end product 1-(malonylamino)-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC), might have a strong effect on eventual ethylene production. Furthermore, our in silico analyses indicated potential (post-) translational regulation of the ethylene-forming enzyme ACC oxidase.

  6. Use of portable devices and confocal Raman spectrometers at different wavelength to obtain the spectral information of the main organic components in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebolazabala, Josu; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit samples, in two ripening stages, ripe (red) and unripe (green), collected from a cultivar in the North of Spain (Barrika, Basque Country), were analyzed directly, without any sample pretreatment, with two different Raman instruments (portable spectrometer coupled to a micro-videocamera and a confocal Raman microscope), using two different laser excitation wavelengths (514 and 785 nm, only for the confocal microscope). The combined use of these laser excitation wavelengths allows obtaining, in a short period of time, the maximum spectral information about the main organic compounds present in this fruit. The major identified components of unripe tomatoes were cutin and cuticular waxes. On the other hand, the main components on ripe tomatoes were carotenes, polyphenoles and polysaccharides. Among the carotenes, it was possible to distinguish the presence of lycopene from β-carotene with the help of both excitation wavelengths, but specially using the 514 nm one, which revealed specific overtones and combination tones of this type of carotene.

  7. Biomechanical properties of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticle during development are modulated by changes in the relative amounts of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Segado, Patricia; Benítez, José J; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-05-01

    In this study, growth-dependent changes in the mechanical properties of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cuticle during fruit development were investigated in two cultivars with different patterns of cuticle growth and accumulation. The mechanical properties were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of isolated cuticles. Changes in the functional groups of the cuticle chemical components were analysed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). The early stages of fruit growth are characterized by an elastic cuticle, and viscoelastic behaviour only appeared at the beginning of cell enlargement. Changes in the cutin:polysaccharide ratio during development affected the strength required to achieve viscoelastic deformation. The increase in stiffness and decrease in extensibility during ripening, related to flavonoid accumulation, were accompanied by an increase in cutin depolymerization as a result of a reduction in the overall number of ester bonds. Quantitative changes in cuticle components influence the elastic/viscoelastic behaviour of the cuticle. The cutin:polysaccharide ratio modulates the stress required to permanently deform the cuticle and allow cell enlargement. Flavonoids stiffen the elastic phase and reduce permanent viscoelastic deformation. Ripening is accompanied by a chemical cleavage of cutin ester bonds. An infrared (IR) band related to phenolic accumulation can be used to monitor changes in the cutin esterification index.

  8. The Solanum lycopersicum AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (SlARF7) mediates cross-talk between auxin and gibberellin signalling during tomato fruit set and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; García-Martínez, José L.; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with reduced mRNA levels of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (SlARF7) form parthenocarpic fruits with morphological characteristics that seem to be the result of both increased auxin and gibberellin (GA) responses during fruit growth. This paper presents a more detailed analysis of these transgenic lines. Gene expression analysis of auxin-responsive genes show that SlARF7 may regulate only part of the auxin signalling pathway involved in tomato fruit set and development. Also, part of the GA signalling pathway was affected by the reduced levels of SlARF7 mRNA, as morphological and molecular analyses display similarities between GA-induced fruits and fruits formed by the RNAi SlARF7 lines. Nevertheless, the levels of GAs were strongly reduced compared with that in seeded fruits. These findings indicate that SlARF7 acts as a modifier of both auxin and gibberellin responses during tomato fruit set and development. PMID:20937732

  9. High-Temperature-Induced Defects in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Anther and Pollen Development Are Associated with Reduced Expression of B-Class Floral Patterning Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lieke; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; de Groot, Peter F. M.; Jansma, Stuart Y.; Mariani, Celestina; Park, Sunghun

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is a critical process in the life-cycle of plants and very sensitive to environmental perturbations. To better understand the effect of high temperature on plant reproduction, we cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in continuous mild heat. Under this condition we observed a simultaneous reduction in pollen viability and appearance of anthers with pistil-like structures, while in a more thermotolerant genotype, both traits were improved. Ectopic expression of two pistil-specific genes, TRANSMITTING TISSUE SPECIFIC and TOMATO AGAMOUS LIKE11, in the anthers confirmed that the anthers had gained partial pistil identity. Concomitantly, expression of the B-class genes TOMATO APETALA3, TOMATO MADS BOX GENE6 (TM6) and LePISTILLATA was reduced in anthers under continuous mild heat. Plants in which TM6 was partially silenced reacted hypersensitively to temperature elevation with regard to the frequency of pistilloid anthers, pollen viability and pollen quantity. Taken together, these results suggest that high-temperature-induced down-regulation of tomato B-class genes contributes to anther deformations and reduced male fertility. Improving our understanding of how temperature perturbs the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen development will be important in the view of maintaining agricultural output under current climate changes. PMID:27936079

  10. Eco-Friendly Nets and Floating Row Covers Reduce Pest Infestation and Improve Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Yields for Smallholder Farmers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha O. Gogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important vegetable for supplying vitamins, minerals and fiber in human diets worldwide. Successful open field production of tomato in the tropics is limited by insect pests among other constraints. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Teaching Field, Egerton University, Kenya with the objective of evaluating the effects of agricultural nets (agronets herein called eco-friendly nets (EFNs and floating row covers (FRCs on pest population and yield of tomatoes. A randomized complete block design with five replications was used. Tomato plants were protected with either fine mesh EFN (0.4-mm pore diameter, large mesh EFN (0.9-mm pore diameter or FRC. The EFN and FRC were maintained permanently closed or opened thrice a week from 9 am to 3 pm. Two control treatments were used: open unsprayed (untreated control or open and sprayed with alpha-cypermethrin based insecticide (treated control. The use of EFN and FRC helped to manage pests with the lowest pest population obtained under FRC maintained permanently covered and the highest population recorded in the untreated control. Covering tomato plants with EFN or FRC also resulted in more marketable fruit and lower yield losses compared with the unprotected systems. The EFN and FRC offer great potential as part of integrated systems for pest management and yield improvement in tomato production in regions with a tropical climate.

  11. The influence of non-living mulch, mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rainfed fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fontanelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is often a major limitation for vegetable crops, since compared to arable crops fewer herbicides are available and the crops are more sensitive to weeds. Field experiments were carried out in the province of Pisa (Central Italy to determine the effect of two different mulches (black biodegradable plastic film and wheat straw and mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rain-fed fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Rolling harrow, flaming machine and precision hoe for weed control, which were either built, enhanced or modified by the University of Pisa were used separately (mechanical-thermal strategy or in combination with a straw mulch (mechanical-thermal-straw strategy. These two innovative strategies were compared with the traditional farming system, which uses a biodegradable plastic mulch film. The strategies were compared in terms of machine performance, weed density, total labour requirement, weed dry biomass, and crop fresh yield at harvest. The total operative time for weed control was on average ~25 h ha-1 for the two systems, which included mulching, and over 30 h ha-1 for the mechanical-thermal strategy. The three strategies controlled weeds effectively, with only 30 g m-2 in each treatment. Tomato yield, however, was 35% higher for strategies that included mulching (both biodegradable film and straw.

  12. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  13. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements.

  14. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I.; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  15. A Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium Linkage Map of Tomato Displaying Genomic Locations of R-Genes, RGAs, and Candidate Resistance/Defense-Response ESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Zhang, Liping; Niño-Liu, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Foolad, Majid R.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an accession (LA2093) within the tomato wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium with many desirable characteristics, including biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and good fruit quality. To utilize the full genetic potential of LA2093 in tomato breeding, we have developed a linkage map based on an F2 population of a cross between LA2093 and a tomato breeding line, using 115 RFLP, 94 EST, and 41 RGA markers. The map spanned 1002.4 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 4.0 cM. The length of the map and linear order of the markers were in good agreement with the published maps of tomato. The ESTs were chosen based on their sequence similarities with known resistance or defense-response genes, signal-transduction factors, transcriptional regulators, and genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. Locations of several ESTs and RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato resistance genes and quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), suggesting that candidate-gene approach may be effective in identifying and mapping new R genes. This map will be useful for marker-assisted exploitation of desirable traits in LA2093 and other S. pimpinellifolium accessions, and possibly for utilization of genetic variation within S. lycopersicum. PMID:19223983

  16. High-Temperature-Induced Defects in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Anther and Pollen Development Are Associated with Reduced Expression of B-Class Floral Patterning Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Florian; Xu, Jiemeng; Kristensen, Lieke; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; de Groot, Peter F M; Jansma, Stuart Y; Mariani, Celestina; Park, Sunghun; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is a critical process in the life-cycle of plants and very sensitive to environmental perturbations. To better understand the effect of high temperature on plant reproduction, we cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in continuous mild heat. Under this condition we observed a simultaneous reduction in pollen viability and appearance of anthers with pistil-like structures, while in a more thermotolerant genotype, both traits were improved. Ectopic expression of two pistil-specific genes, TRANSMITTING TISSUE SPECIFIC and TOMATO AGAMOUS LIKE11, in the anthers confirmed that the anthers had gained partial pistil identity. Concomitantly, expression of the B-class genes TOMATO APETALA3, TOMATO MADS BOX GENE6 (TM6) and LePISTILLATA was reduced in anthers under continuous mild heat. Plants in which TM6 was partially silenced reacted hypersensitively to temperature elevation with regard to the frequency of pistilloid anthers, pollen viability and pollen quantity. Taken together, these results suggest that high-temperature-induced down-regulation of tomato B-class genes contributes to anther deformations and reduced male fertility. Improving our understanding of how temperature perturbs the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen development will be important in the view of maintaining agricultural output under current climate changes.

  17. Multi-environment QTL mapping reveals genetic architecture of fruit cracking in a tomato RIL Solanum lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Carmen; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; López-Casado, Gloria; Angosto, Trinidad; Cuartero, Jesús; Lozano, Rafael; Capel, Juan

    2017-01-01

    QTL and codominant genetic markers for fruit cracking have been identified in a tomato genetic map derived from a RIL population, providing molecular tools for marker-assisted breeding of this trait. In tomato, as well as in other fleshy fruits, one of the main disorders that widely limit quality and production is fruit cracking or splitting of the epidermis that is observed on the fruit skin and flesh at any stage of fruit growth and maturation. To elucidate the genetic basis of fruit cracking, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the wild-relative species S. pimpinellifolium. The RIL population was evaluated for fruit cracking during three consecutive growing seasons. Construction of a high-density linkage map based on codominant markers, covering more than 1000 cM of the whole genome, led to the identification of both main and epistatic QTL controlling fruit cracking on the basis of a single-environment as well as multiple-environment analysis. This information will enhance molecular breeding for novel cracking resistant varieties and simultaneously assist the identification of genes underlying these QTL, helping to reveal the genetic basis of fruit cracking in tomato.

  18. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  19. The 7B-1 mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) confers a blue light-specific lower sensitivity to coronatine, a toxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Véronique; Hlavácková, Vladimíra; Plotzová, Renáta; Novák, Ondrej; Fellner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The spontaneous mutant 7B-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum=Lycopersicon esculentum) is a photoperiod-dependent male-sterile mutant previously reported as resistant to various abiotic stresses specifically under blue light. Since this finding improved the potential of 7B-1's use in breeding programmes, its susceptibility to stress induced by coronatine (COR), the phytotoxine produced by several Pseudomonas syringae strains, was assessed in this study. The 7B-1 mutant was found to be less sensitive than the corresponding wild type (WT) to COR treatment in a blue light-dependent manner. Treatment of WT and 7B-1 plants with COR induced a strong accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA) in hypocotyls. Interestingly, accumulation of ABA and SA in the 7B-1 mutant was distinctly greater than in WT, especially in blue light. Based on the cross-talk between SA- and JA-signalling pathways, expression analysis of NPR1 and COI1 genes, respectively involved in these pathways, was investigated in COR-stressed plants. The blue light-specific lower sensitivity of 7B-1 plants to COR was found to be associated with blue light-specific overexpression of the NPR1 gene. These data suggest that the SA-dependent NPR1-dependent pathway could be involved in the lower sensitivity of the 7B-1 mutant to COR. The role of anthocyanins and ABA accumulation during the response to COR is also discussed in the present study.

  20. Expression profiling of a novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, LeCPK2, from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under heat and pathogen-related hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Jun; Su, Huo-Sheng; Li, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2009-11-01

    A full-length cDNA LeCPK2 (GenBank GQ205414) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was cloned by in silico cloning using NtCPK5 (AY971376) as a virtual probe. The deduced amino acid sequence of LeCPK2 contained the kinase, autoinhibitory, and calmodulin-like domains typical of CDPKs. Expression profiling indicated that LeCPK2 expressed predominantly in flowers and responded divergently to heat and cold stress, in which obvious mRNA accumulation was detected at 4 h under 42 degrees C stress, but no change in LeCPK2 mRNA levels was observed in 6 h at 4 degrees C. Mechanical wounding and phytohormones including ethylene, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid were also observed to arouse the expression of LeCPK2 in a similar pattern. mRNA accumulation was enhanced at 30 min and reached a maximum at 3 h, followed by a decrease to the normal level. All the results suggest that LeCPK2 is a novel versatile isoform of tomato CDPKs.

  1. Differential gene expression in whitefly Bemisia tabaci-infested tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants at progressing developmental stages of the insect's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Hernández, María Gloria; Valenzuela-Soto, José Humberto; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2009-09-01

    A suppression-subtractive-hybridization (SSH) strategy was used to identify genes whose expression was modified in response to virus-free whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Bt, biotype A) infestation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Thus, forward and reverse SSH gene libraries were generated at four points in the whitefly's life cycle, namely at (1) 2 days (adult feeding and oviposition: phase I); (2) 7 days (mobile crawler stage: phase II); (3) 12 days (second to third instar nymphal transition: phase III) and (4) 18 days (fourth instar nymphal stage: phase IV). The 169 genes with altered expression (up and downregulated) that were identified in the eight generated SSH libraries, together with 75 additional genes that were selected on the basis of their involvement in resistance responses against phytofagous insects and pathogens, were printed on a Nexterion(®) Slide MPX 16 to monitor their pattern of expression at the above phases. The results indicated that Bt infestation in tomato led to distinctive phase-specific expression/repression patterns of several genes associated predominantly with photosynthesis, senescence, secondary metabolism and (a)biotic stress. Most of the gene expression modifications were detected in phase III, coinciding with intense larval feeding, whereas fewer changes were detected in phases I and IV. These results complement previously reported gene expression profiles in Bt-infested tomato and Arabidopisis, and support and expand the opinion that Bt infestation leads to the downregulation of specific defense responses in addition to those controlled by jasmonic acid. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2009.

  2. Identification of the carotenoid modifying gene PALE YELLOW PETAL 1 as an essential factor in xanthophyll esterification and yellow flower pigmentation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariizumi, Tohru; Kishimoto, Sanae; Kakami, Ryo; Maoka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yuko; Shirasawa, Kenta; Bernillon, Stephane; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Moing, Annick; Asamizu, Erika; Rothan, Christophe; Ohmiya, Akemi; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Xanthophylls, the pigments responsible for yellow to red coloration, are naturally occurring carotenoid compounds in many colored tissues of plants. These pigments are esterified within the chromoplast; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying their accumulation in flower organs. In this study, we characterized two allelic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants, pale yellow petal (pyp) 1-1 and pyp1-2, that have reduced yellow color intensity in the petals and anthers due to loss-of-function mutations. Carotenoid analyses showed that the yellow flower organs of wild-type tomato contained high levels of xanthophylls that largely consisted of neoxanthin and violaxanthin esterified with myristic and/or palmitic acids. Functional disruption of PYP1 resulted in loss of xanthophyll esters, which was associated with a reduction in the total carotenoid content and disruption of normal chromoplast development. These findings suggest that xanthophyll esterification promotes the sequestration of carotenoids in the chromoplast and that accumulation of these esters is important for normal chromoplast development. Next-generation sequencing coupled with map-based positional cloning identified the mutant alleles responsible for the pyp1 phenotype. PYP1 most likely encodes a carotenoid modifying protein that plays a vital role in the production of xanthophyll esters in tomato anthers and petals. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the production of xanthophyll esters in higher plants, thereby shedding light on a longstanding mystery.

  3. Protective Mechanisms of S. lycopersicum Aqueous Fraction (Nucleosides and Flavonoids on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms of antiplatelet action of bioactive principle from S. lycopersicum. Aqueous fraction had a high content of nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, and adenosine 5′-monophosphate by HPLC analysis. Also aqueous fraction presented flavonoids content. Aqueous fraction inhibited platelet activation by 15 ± 6% (P<0.05. Fully spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of aqueous fraction was inhibited from 15 ± 1 to 9 ± 1 μm2 (P<0.001. After incubation of whole blood with aqueous fraction, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 55 ± 12% (P<0.001. Platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by the aqueous fraction. At the same concentrations that aqueous fraction inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L significantly decreased and the intraplatelet cAMP levels increased. In addition, SQ22536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, attenuated the effect of aqueous fraction toward ADP-induced platelet aggregation and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Platelet aggregation ex vivo (human study and thrombosis formation in vivo (murine model were inhibited by aqueous fraction. Finally, aqueous fraction may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities (nucleosides and flavonoids to processed foods.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of lycopene extract from Lycopersicum esculentum (Tomato) and its evaluation as a chemopreventive agent against experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi; Bansal, Mohinder Pal; Koul, Ashwani

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the lycopene extract (LycT) prepared from tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) and then to evaluate its chemopreventive efficacy in N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA)-induced experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in female Balb/c mice. The extraction of lycopene was carried out using hexane/acetone/ethanol as an extracting medium and then characterized by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Chemopreventive efficacy of characterized LycT in vivo was evaluated in terms of hepatic tumour incidence, multiplicity, burden, hepatosomatic index and animal survival rate. Results indicated that average lycopene content of the tomato was 11.6-14 mg/kg tomato weight. Spectroscopic data confirmed the structural characteristics of lycopene in the extract. In the animal study, reduction in tumour incidence (42.05%), tumour burden (1.39) and tumour multiplicity (3.42) was observed upon LycT pretreatment to NDEA-treated animals. Histopathological analysis unravelled that the increased survival rate in LycT + NDEA-treated animals was due to the delay in the formation of aggressive tumour nodules. These observations indicate that lycopene seems to be an able candidate for chemoprevention in hepatocarcinogenesis resulting from NDEA insults.

  5. One-Pot Fabrication and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Solanum lycopersicum: An Eco-Friendly and Potent Control Tool against Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The espousal of nanotechnology is a current come-up of the present revolution. As we know that the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest on rose plant in Kashmir Valley, India, it exhibits a worldwide distribution. In the present study, we have synthesized biologically silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs from Solanum lycopersicum and characterized them by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, and X-RD analysis. The experiment was performed by leaf dip method. Insecticidal solutions of different Ag NPs concentrations, namely, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm, were tested on M. rosae. For assessment purposes, leaves were treated with distilled water (used as control. Aphid mortality data revealed that the Ag NPs were effective at 500 ppm concentration. As the concentration and day’s treatment increased, the aphid mortality rate also increased. There were statistically significant differences in M. rosae mortality between concentrations by LSD at 5%. In wrapping up, the use of Ag NPs in pest control processes will be the most novel eco-friendly approach in the Kashmir Valley, India, in future.

  6. A GC-ECD method for estimation of free and bound amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid, and acetyl salicylic acid from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Hari Charan; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Singh, Ghanendra

    2011-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with electron capture detection method for estimation of selected metabolites--amino acids (free and bound), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), salicylic acid (SA), and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) from tomato--is reported. The method is based on nitrophenylation of the metabolites by 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene under aqueous alkaline conditions to form dinitophenyl derivatives. The derivatives were stable under the operating conditions of GC. Analysis of bound amino acids comprised perchloric acid precipitation of protein, alkylation (carboxymethylation) with iodoacetic acid, vapor-phase hydrolysis, and derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in that order. The metabolites were resolved in 35 min, using a temperature-programmed run. The method is rapid, sensitive, and precise. It easily measured the typical amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, leucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) used for identification and quantification of a protein, resolved amino acids of the same mass (leucine and isoleucine), satisfactorily measured sulfur amino acid (methionine, cystine, and cysteine), and quantified GABA, SA, and ASA, as well. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, and precision. It has been applied and recommended for estimation of 25 metabolites from Solanum lycopersicum (L.).

  7. Uji Efektivitas Antihiperglikemia Kombinasi Jus Pare (Momordica charantia L dan Jus Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L pada Tikus Wistar Jantan dengan Metode Toleransi Glukosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes melitus (DM is a metabolic disorder condition characterized by hyperglycemia. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L are plant that have actvity antihiperglicemic actvity that contain triterpenoid, flavonoid, alkaloid, and saponin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination antihiperglicemic bitter melon juice and tomato juice on male Wistar rats that was induced sucrose. Animals were divided into 6 groups. Blood glucose levels was measured at 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th minutes with enzymatic method using a glucometer. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney with a 95% confidence level. The research showed a blood glucose level of negative group differ significantly from the other group (P>0.05 and did not differ significantly with group 6 (P>0.05. Group 5 (bitter melon juice 17.4 g/KgBW and tomato juice 16.8 g/KgBW has a significant difference (P<0.05 with other groups and more effectively lowering blood glucose levels from minute 90th to minute 120th. Group 5 has the lowering effect of blood glucose levels than single juice.

  8. Iron deprivation results in a rapid but not sustained increase of the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and sulfate uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolacci, Anna Rita; Celletti, Silvia; Catarcione, Giulio; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Astolfi, Stefania; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the relationship between sulfur and iron in both Strategy I and Strategy II plants, has proven that low sulfur availability often limits plant capability to cope with iron shortage. Here it was investigated whether the adaptation to iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants was associated with an increased root sulfate uptake and translocation capacity, and modified dynamics of total sulfur and thiols accumulation between roots and shoots. Most of the tomato sulfate transporter genes belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 4 were significantly upregulated in iron-deficient roots, as it commonly occurs under S-deficient conditions. The upregulation of the two high affinity sulfate transporter genes, SlST1.1 and SlST1.2, by iron deprivation clearly suggests an increased root capability to take up sulfate. Furthermore, the upregulation of the two low affinity sulfate transporter genes SlST2.1 and SlST4.1 in iron-deficient roots, accompanied by a substantial accumulation of total sulfur and thiols in shoots of iron-starved plants, likely supports an increased root-to-shoot translocation of sulfate. Results suggest that tomato plants exposed to iron-deficiency are able to change sulfur metabolic balance mimicking sulfur starvation responses to meet the increased demand for methionine and its derivatives, allowing them to cope with this stress.

  9. Iron deprivation results in a rapid but not sustained increase of the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and sulfate uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Rita Paolacci; Silvia Celletti; Giulio Catarcione; Malcolm J. Hawkesford; Stefania Astolfi; Mario Ciaffi

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the relationship between sulfur and iron in both Strategy I and Strategy II plants, has proven that low sulfur availability often limits plant capability to cope with iron shortage. Here it was investigated whether the adaptation to iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants was associated with an increased root sulfate uptake and translocation capacity, and modified dynamics of total sulfur and thiols accumulation between roots and shoots. Most of the tomato sulfate transporter genes belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 4 were significantly upregulated in iron-deficient roots, as it commonly occurs under S-deficient conditions. The upregulation of the two high affinity sulfate transporter genes, SlST1.1 and SlST1.2, by iron deprivation clearly suggests an increased root capability to take up sulfate. Furthermore, the upregulation of the two low affinity sulfate transporter genes SlST2.1 and SlST4.1 in iron-deficient roots, accompanied by a substantial accumulation of total sulfur and thiols in shoots of iron-starved plants, likely supports an increased root-to-shoot translocation of sulfate. Results suggest that tomato plants exposed to iron-deficiency are able to change sulfur metabolic balance mimicking sulfur starvation responses to meet the increased demand for methionine and its derivatives, al owing them to cope with this stress.

  10. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions.

  11. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 cysteine-2/histidine-2 repressor-like transcription factor regulates development and tolerance to salinity in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižkova, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-04-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed.

  12. Plant regulators for rooting of hardwood cuttings of blackberry plants cv. Xavante/ Reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas da amoreira-preta cv. Xavante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the use of plant regulators for rooting of hardwood cuttings of blackberry cv. Xavante, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. In the first one the concentrations of indolil butyric acid varied in 0, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 mg L-1. And in the second one, the plant regulator that was used was paclobutrazol at the concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. For each experiment the base of the cuttings were dipped in the solutions for ten seconds. After that, the cuttings were planted in rigid plastic vases with sand and kept under intermittent misty system. The following variables were evaluated, 71 days after planting: percentage of rooted cuttings, percentage of callus presence, average length of roots, number of roots, fresh weight of roots, percentage of sprouting. The treatment of hardwood cuttings with 2000 mg L-1 IBA had the greatest percentage of rooting (60%. Nevertheless, the treatment with 1000 mg L-1 IBA attained already high rooting percentage (56%, with 96% of sprouted cuttings and 17.6 roots per cutting. Cuttings treated with PBZ presented greater callus presence but they did not root, thus it is not possible to recommend this product for rooting of blackberry plants cv. Xavante among the tested concentrations.Com o objetivo de avaliar o emprego de reguladores vegetais no enraizamento de estacas lenhosas da amora-preta cv. Xavante dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação. No primeiro, empregou-se o ácido indol butírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 mg L-1. No segundo, o regulador utilizado foi o paclobutrazol (PBZ nas concentrações de 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 mg L-1. Em ambos os experimentos as estacas ficaram imersas por 10 segundos nas respectivas soluções. Posteriormente foram plantados em vasos de plástico rígido contendo areia, sendo mantidas em casade- vegetação sob nebulização intermitente. Após 71 dias do plantio

  13. Estabilidade de compostos bioativos em polpa congelada de amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus cv. Tupy Stability of bioactive compounds in frozen pulp of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Carolina Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus (Rosaceae, popularly known as Blackberry, is a highly nutritious fruit, rich in bioactive compounds. Their stability during processing has been the focus of several studies. This work describes the evaluation of the stability of the main phytochemicals of pulp from blackberry cv. Tupy, stored under different temperature conditions for six months. The storage at -10 °C was not sufficient to cause significant changes in total phenolics content, anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity during two months of storage. Likewise, at -18 °C, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity were kept for four months, but total anthocyanins and β-carotene content were kept for two and six months of storage, respectively.

  14. Image Process Technology for Weeding Robots Based on OpenCV%基于 OpenCV 的除草机器人图像处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立强; 蔡晓华; 吴泽全

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve real-time processing of video images of weeding robot , based on Intel's open source vision library OpenCV technology , this paper puts forward a weeding robot video image processing method , and give the overall program .Using this scheme design weeding robot real-time video image processing system , and in the soil bin testing lab for verification .The test results show that the system can complete the high-speed processing of video images and the po-sitioning of crop plants , All these work provide a solid foundation for the realization of weeding robot end actuator precise motion control .%为实现除草机器人视频图像实时处理,基于Intel 开源视觉库OpenCV 技术,提出了一种除草机器人视频图像处理方法,并给出了整体方案。利用该方案设计除草机器人视频图像实时处理系统,并在土槽实验室进行试验验证。试验结果表明,该系统能够完成视频图像高速处理与作物植株定位,从而为实现除草机器人末端执行机构精确运动控制打下了坚实基础。

  15. Effect of Needling at CV-12 (Zhongwan on Blood Glucose Levels in Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriloy Mohanty

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that although 20 minutes of needling at CV-12 without stimulation produced a mild reduction in RBG levels in healthy volunteers, it did not produce a statistically significant result.

  16. Thermal performance of a top heat mode closed-loop oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (THMCLOHP/CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a top heat mode closed-looped oscillating heat pipe with check valves (THMCLOHP/CV). Ethanol is used as a working fluid with filling ratios of 30, 50, and 80% of the total volume of the tube. The THMCLOHP/CV is made of a copper tube with an inside diameter of 2.03 mm. The angle of inclination is 90° from the horizontal axis with 40 turns, two check valves, and an evaporator length of 50, 100, and 150 mm. The operating temperatures are 44 and 55°C. It is found that the thermal resistance decreases significantly as the working temperature is increased. Thus, the evaporator length affects the thermal resistance of the THMCLOHP/CV. The presence of the THMCLOHP/CV is clearly demonstrated to contribute to thermal performance improvement.

  17. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  18. Application of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-Chinese Version (GAI-CV) to older people in Beijing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yue; Xin, Tao; Wang, Dahua; Tang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) was developed to assess anxiety in older adults. The objectives of this work were as follows: (a) to analyze the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the GAI (GAI-CV), and (b) to explore the extent of anxiety and related factors in the elderly Chinese residents of Beijing. Participants in this study included 1,047 people (59.4% female) more than 60 years old who were living in the community. They were randomly selected from 15 communities in Beijing. Basic information was collected. Anxiety was measured using the GAI-CV, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The GAI-CV exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and demonstrated good concurrent validity against the SAS (r = 0.52, p = 0.018) and the BAI (r = 0.560, p = 0.000). Item response theory (IRT) analyses showed that the items of the GAI-CV exhibited high difficulty (0.97-2) and discrimination parameters (1.91-5.33). The items exhibited information parameters greater than 1.25 with the exceptions of items 2, 12, and 18. The GAI-CV scores were significantly associated with gender, age, and chronic disease. However, no significant differences due to marriage or education were found. The GAI is a new scale that was specifically designed to measure anxiety in older people. The results of this study suggest that the GAI-CV had good psychometric properties, but some items need to be modified. IRT analyses indicated that the GAI-CV provided good measures of anxiety across the moderately high to very high levels. The GAI-CV may be a useful instrument for further research studies aimed at analyzing high-level anxiety among older adults in China.

  19. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  20. Wilting and biological additive effect on in situ degradability and chemical composition of Arachis pintoi cv Belomonte silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Possenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of wilting and biological additive amendment on chemical composition, fermentation and ruminal degradability of Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte silage. The following treatments were analysed: T1- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte fresh forage; T2 - Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte fresh forage plus bacterial additive added to the forage prior to the ensilage; T3- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte wilted by the sun for 4 hours; T4- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte wilted by the sun plus bacterial additive. The degradability assay was carried out using three rumen-fistuled steers. The biological additive did not affect the chemical composition of silages, in situ degradability of nutrients DM, NDF and CP and of silage fermentation. However, the wilting treatments of the silages increased DM, CP, hemicelulose and decreased N-NH3 concentration, pH value, degradability of soluble fraction “a” from DM NDF and CP. The analysed characteristics suggest that Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte could satisfactorily preserve the forage quality if wilted by the sun during 4 hours, after harvested.

  1. PENERAPAN STANDAR AKUNTANSI KEUANGAN ENTITAS TANPA AKUNTABILITAS PUBLIK (SAK ETAP (Studi Kasus Pada CV. Citra Pandion Bernas di Kabupaten Solok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floren Violetfin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research background overshadowed by presentation of CV Citra Pandion Bernas financial statement. Which is not required by ZAK of ETAP consist of balance, balance report, statement of changes in ekuitas, cash flow statement, and note of financial statement. While presented by financial statement is CV Citra Pandion Bernas only consisting of, profit report, capital statement and balance. Result of research indicate that CV.CITRA Pandion Bernas have applied its financial statement pursuant to ZAK of ETAP but not yet fully, still many element which not yet according to ZAK of ETAP, that is earnings which do not be dissociated pursuant to between operating income and earnings outside effort which is obtained. All purchasing of supply grouped in burden account at balance report, ought to supply when only which have used taken as burden that is equal to 70% from supply value. natural constraint by CV.CITRA Pandion Bernas in applying CV.CITRA Pandion Bernas among others, existence of mistake of conducted by calculation is CV.CITRA Pandion Bernas. There no division of clear duty between area because owner at the same time become organizer of[is effort. Owner also have other effort to be developed so that do not too focus at one area of is effort. Lack of human resource owning ability in compiling financial statement because do not in supporting with background education of accountancy.

  2. Describing Assay Precision-Reciprocal of Variance Is Correct, Not CV Percent: Its Use Should Significantly Improve Laboratory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, Roger W; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Fu, Xiaowei; Neely, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Describing assay error as percent coefficient of variation (CV%) fails as measurements approach zero. Results are censored if below some arbitrarily chosen lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). CV% gives incorrect weighting to data obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring, with incorrect parameter values in the resulting pharmacokinetic models, and incorrect dosage regimens for patient care. CV% was compared with the reciprocal of the variance (1/var) of each assay measurement. This method has not been considered by the laboratory community. A simple description of assay standard deviation (SD) as a polynomial function of the assay measurement over its working range was developed, the reciprocal of the assay variance determined, and its results compared with CV%. CV% does not provide correct weighting of measured serum concentrations as required for optimal therapeutic drug monitoring. It does not permit optimally individualized models of the behavior of a drug in a patient, resulting in incorrect dosage regimens. The assay error polynomial described here, using 1/var, provides correct weighting of such data, all the way down to and including zero. There is no need to censor low results, and no need to set any arbitrary LLOQ. Reciprocal of variance is the correct measure of assay precision and should replace CV%. The information is easily stored as an assay error polynomial. The laboratory can serve the medical community better. There is no longer any need for LLOQ, a significant improvement. Regulatory agencies should implement this more informed policy.

  3. IMPLEMENTASI SIX SIGMA UNTUK PENINGKATAN KUALITAS SANDAL DI CV. SANCU CREATIVE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Koeswara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma adalah metodologi yang terstruktur untuk memperbaiki proses yang difokuskan pada usaha mengurangi variasi pada proses sekaligus mengurangi defect pada produk dengan menggunakan pendekatan statistik dan Problem solving tools secara intensif. Tujuan dari metode Six Sigma ini adalah untuk mendapatkan zero defect dengan menjalankan 5 tahapan yaitu : Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve ,dan Control (DMAIC. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan metode Six Sigma di Cv. Sancu Creative Indonesia yang merupakan badan usaha yang memproduksi sandal karakter. Masalah yang terjadi adalah adanya defect sol sandal mudah mengelupas yang berakibat pada kualitas sandal dan salah satu penghambat visi dan misi perusahaan. Penelitian ini dibagi dalam 5 tahap. Tahap pertama adalah Define, yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi masalah yang terjadi yang berasal dari kebutuhan konsumen berdasarkan data DCA dan OQC defect di CV. SANCU. Tahap kedua adalah Measure yaitu mengukur kondisi level performance proses saat ini (Z-Level. Pada tahap ini dilakukan validasi sistem pengukuran  dengan  menghitung  Dpo,Dpmo,Yield  dan  Sigma  level.  Tahap  ketiga  adalah Analyze yaitu menentukan faktor-faktor penyebab terjadinya sol sandal mengelupas dan sekaligus menentukan vital faktor. Hasil dari pengujian menunjukkan bahwa vital faktor adalah waktu penempelan.Tahap keempat adalah improvement yaitu melakukan perbaikan dengan memberikan timer diarea lokasi penempelan. Control yaitu kegiatan melakukan pemantauan dari hasil perbaikan yang telah di implementasikan Kondisi   setelah   perbaikan   menghasilkan   perubahan   yang   signifikan   terhadap kapabilitas performance pada sandal, yaitu perubahan nilai sigma level setelah perbaikan 4.74s dari yang sebelum perbaikan adalah 4.26 s. Dari nilai tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode waktu penempelan dan kontrol pada performance sandal Cv. Sancu sudah membaik.

  4. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Qian [Hebei Geological Laboratory, Baoding 071000, China and Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yang, Ying [Hebei University Affiliated Hospital, Baoding 071002 (China); Xie, Hongzhi, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang [Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking 100005 (China); Gu, Lixu, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn [Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  5. Transformation of indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. RD6 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Kosittrakul

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High percentage of callus induction at 97% was obtained when seeds of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. RD6 were cultured on modified N6 medium supplemented with 3% (w/v sucrose, 22.5 μM 2,4-D and 0.8% agar under light condition. The suitable regeneration medium was N6 medium supplemented with 3% (w/v sucrose, 2.5 μM IAA, 18 μM BA and 0.8% agar. A test had been performed to determine the effect of antibiotics on the regeneration of rice cv. RD6. It was found that kanamycin concentration up to 150 mg l-1 and hygromycin concentration at 10 mg l-1 were effective for selection of transformants. Cefotaxime and carbenicillin concentration up to 250 mg l-1 had the highest phytotoxicity to plant regeneration. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocols for rice cv. RD6 were performed using A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, which harbored the plasmid pBI121 containing genes for β- glucuronidase (GUS and kanamycin resistance (nptII, and strain EHA105, which harbored plasmid pCAMBIA1301 containing genes for β-glucuronidase (GUS and hygromycin resistance (hptII. GUS activities were found in rice calli after co-cultivation. A number of morphologically normal fertile transgenic rice plants were obtained. Stable integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis of transgenic plants in T0 and T1 generation. Mendelian segregation was observed in T1 progeny.

  6. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. ‘Liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘Rugosa’ Cultivated in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aliberti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus medica cv. ‘liscia’ and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. ‘liscia’, accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’, accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. ‘liscia’ (79.1% and C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ (80.2%. In both oils, limonene (67.2%–62.8% and camphene (8.5%–10.9% are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313, Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384, Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071, and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579. Low concentrations of C. medica cv. ‘rugosa’ EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384 and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1 was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  7. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, and Central Nervous System Activities of the Essential Oils of Citrus medica L. cv. 'Liscia' and C. medica cv. 'Rugosa' Cultivated in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, Luigi; Caputo, Lucia; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Nazzaro, Filomena; Souza, Lucéia Fátima

    2016-09-18

    Citrus medica cv. 'liscia' and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' are two taxa of citron, belonging to the biodiversity of South Italy, in particular of Amalfi Coast, in the Campania region. The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from fruit peels of both C. medica cultivars was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In all, 100 compounds were identified, 82 for C. medica cv. 'liscia', accounting for 91.4% of the total oil, and 88 for C. medica cv. 'rugosa', accounting for 92.0% of the total oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents in both oils of C. medica cv. 'liscia' (79.1%) and C. medica cv. 'rugosa' (80.2%). In both oils, limonene (67.2%-62.8%) and camphene (8.5%-10.9%) are the main constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the EOs was assayed against some bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus (DSM 4313), Bacillus cereus (DSM 4384), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 25693), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 50071), and Escherichia coli (DSM 8579). Low concentrations of C. medica cv. 'rugosa' EO showed an inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and higher concentrations inhibited more B. cereus (4384) and E. coli than S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the EO was evaluated against SH-SY5Y cell line. The influence of the EO on the expression of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) was also studied. The antimicrobial activity registered confirm their traditional uses as food preserving agents and led us to hypothesize the possible use of these oils as antimicrobials. The alterations in ADCY1 expression suggested a role for limonene in effects on the central nervous system.

  8. Proliferation Potential of 18-Month-Old Callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,A.E.; Kadir, M.A.; Aziz, M A; S. Kadzimin

    2006-01-01

    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-n...

  9. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  10. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  11. TREATMENT OF 80 CASES OF INFANTILE DIARRHEA WITH ABDOMINAL ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION ON SHENQUE (CV 8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shang-xi; CHEN Pu-qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Infantile diarrhea is the common and frequently-occurred disease in the pediatric department, fallen into the cate gory of "Xiaoer Xiexie" (infantile diarrhea) in Chinese medicine, which is commonly caused by the invasion of exogenous pathogenic factors, improper diet, the yang deficiency of the spleen and kidney and the weakness of the spleen and stomach. Eighty cases of infantile diarrhea had been treated with the abdominal acupuncture and moxibustion on Shenque (神阙CV 8) and the satisfactory results had been achieved. The report is as follows.

  12. RECOGNITION DESIGN OF LICENSE PLATE AND CAR TYPE USING TESSERACT OCR AND EmguCV

    OpenAIRE

    Antonius Herusutopo; Rizky Zuhrudin; Willy Wijaya; Yuka Musiko

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the research is to design and implement software that can recognize license plates and car types from images. The method used for the research is soft computing using library of EmguCV. There are four phases in creating the software, i.e., input image process, pre-processing, training processing and recognition. Firstly, user enters the car image. Then, the program reads and does pre-processing the image from bitmap form into vector. The next process is training process, which is ...

  13. Stability of lycopene in cv. Saladette tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) stored under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Galicia; R. Verde; E. Ponce; R.O. González; C. Saucedo; Guerrero, I

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of lycopene in cv. Saladette tomato subjected to blanching (thermal treatment), to extract the carotenoid and to evaluate the stability of the pigment in solutions added with and without antioxidants, in conditions of darkness at 4, 20 and 60 °C, and in fluorescent light at 20 °C during 30 days. The concentration of lycopene in non blanched tomatoes was 79.20 ug/g, while in blanched tomatoes it was 75.25 ug/g, none presenting an...

  14. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  15. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    OpenAIRE

    Seri Nurmala; Hartiwi Hartiwi

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  16. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekas

    OpenAIRE

    Seri Nurmala; Hartiwi Prabowo

    2015-01-01

    CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%5%). Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions, this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to iden...

  17. Generalized Integral Representations for Functions with Values in C(V3,3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus G(U)RLEBECK; Zhongxiang ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    By using the solution to the Helmholtz equation △u- λu = 0 (λ≥ 0),the explicit forms of the so-called kernel functions and the higher order kernel functions are given. Then by the generalized Stokes formula, the integral representation formulas related with the Helmholtz operator for functions with values in C(V3,3) are obtained. As application of the integral representations, the maximum modulus theorem for function u which satisfies Hu = 0 is given.

  18. Enraizamento e aclimatização de plantas micropropagadas de amoreira-preta cv. Brazos Rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated plants of blackberry cv. Brazos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Smanhotto Schuchovski Augusto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou as fases finais do processo de micropropagação, incluindo o enraizamento e a posterior aclimatização da amoreira-preta cv. Brazos. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Micropropagação de Plantas da UFPR, Curitiba-PR, no período de março de 2000 a julho de 2001. No enraizamento in vitro com ou sem imersão em AIB, obteve-se mais de 95% de enraizamento nos dois tratamentos. No experimento de enraizamento ex vitro, com microestacas provenientes da multiplicação com diferentes citocininas, as taxas de enraizamento e sobrevivência foram de 100%. Na fase final, testou-se a influência da sacarose do meio de cultura de enraizamento in vitro na posterior aclimatização. Em todos os tratamentos, houve 100% de sobrevivência. Conclui-se que pode ser realizado um eficiente enraizamento in vitro sem AIB e sem a adição de sacarose ao meio de cultura, com posterior aclimatização em túnel plástico ou, ainda, realizar o enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente.The present work studied the final stages of blackberry cv. Brazos micropropagation, including rooting and acclimatization. The experiments were carried out in the Plant Micropropagation Laboratory at UFPR, Curitiba-PR, during March 2000 until July 2001. In the in vitro rooting with or without immersion in IBA, the percentage of rooting was higher than 95% in both treatments. In the experiment of ex vitro rooting, with micro-shoots proceeding from the multiplication with different cytokinins, the rooting and survival rates were of 100%. In the final stage it was tested the influence of sucrose of the in vitro rooting media on the acclimatization. All the treatments showed 100% of survival. It can be concluded that an efficient in vitro rooting can be realized without both IBA and sucrose in the culture media with acclimatization under plastic tunnel or ex vitro rooting and acclimatization

  19. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization analysis provides new insights into the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) response to the plant probiotic microorganism Trichoderma longibrachiatum MK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Monica; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Proietti, Silvia; Bertini, Laura; Lorito, Matteo; Ruocco, Michelina; Caruso, Carla; Chiusano, Maria L; Tucci, Marina

    2016-01-15

    Trichoderma species include widespread rhizosphere-colonising fungi that may establish an opportunistic interaction with the plant, resulting in growth promotion and/or increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. For this reason, Trichoderma-based formulations are largely used in agriculture to improve yield while reducing the application of agro-chemicals. By using the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization method, we identified molecular mechanisms activated during the in vitro interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and the selected strain MK1 of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, and which may participate in the stimulation of plant growth and systemic resistance. Screening and sequence analysis of the subtractive library resulted in forty unique transcripts. Their annotation in functional categories revealed enrichment in cell defence/stress and primary metabolism categories, while secondary metabolism and transport were less represented. Increased transcription of genes involved in defence, cell wall reinforcement and signalling of reactive oxygen species suggests that improved plant pathogen resistance induced by T. longibrachiatum MK1 in tomato may occur through stimulation of the above mechanisms. The array of activated defence-related genes indicates that different signalling pathways, beside the jasmonate/ethylene-dependent one, collaborate to fine-tune the plant response. Our results also suggest that the growth stimulation effect of MK1 on tomato may involve a set of genes controlling protein synthesis and turnover as well as energy metabolism and photosynthesis. Transcriptional profiling of several defence-related genes at different time points of the tomato-Trichoderma interaction, and after subsequent inoculation with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea, provided novel information on genes that may specifically modulate the tomato response to T. longibrachiatum, B. cinerea or both.

  20. Semi-determinate growth habit adjusts the vegetative-to-reproductive balance and increases productivity and water-use efficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Mateus Henrique; Zsögön, Agustin; de Sá, Ariadne Felicio Lopo; Ribeiro, Rafael V; Peres, Lázaro E P

    2015-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) shows three growth habits: determinate, indeterminate and semi-determinate. These are controlled mainly by allelic variation in the self-pruning (SP) gene family, which also includes the "florigen" gene single flower TRUSS (SFT). Determinate cultivars have synchronized flower and fruit production, which allows mechanical harvesting in the tomato processing industry, whereas indeterminate ones have more vegetative growth with continuous flower and fruit formation, being thus preferred for fresh market tomato production. The semi-determinate growth habit is poorly understood, although there are indications that it combines advantages of determinate and indeterminate growth. Here, we used near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) with different growth habit to characterize semi-determinate growth and to determine its impact on developmental and productivity traits. We show that semi-determinate genotypes are equivalent to determinate ones with extended vegetative growth, which in turn impacts shoot height, number of leaves and either stem diameter or internode length. Semi-determinate plants also tend to increase the highly relevant agronomic parameter Brix × ripe yield (BRY). Water-use efficiency (WUE), evaluated either directly as dry mass produced per amount of water transpired or indirectly through C isotope discrimination, was higher in semi-determinate genotypes. We also provide evidence that the increases in BRY in semi-determinate genotypes are a consequence of an improved balance between vegetative and reproductive growth, a mechanism analogous to the conversion of the overly vegetative tall cereal varieties into well-balanced semi-dwarf ones used in the Green Revolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A subtracted cDNA library identifies genes up-regulated during PHOT1-mediated early step of de-etiolation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hloušková, Petra; Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2016-04-18

    De-etiolation is the switch from skoto- to photomorphogenesis, enabling the heterotrophic etiolated seedling to develop into an autotrophic plant. Upon exposure to blue light (BL), reduction of hypocotyl growth rate occurs in two phases: a rapid inhibition mediated by phototropin 1 (PHOT1) within the first 30-40 min of illumination, followed by the cryptochrome 1 (CRY1)-controlled establishment of the steady-state growth rate. Although some information is available for CRY1-mediated de-etiolation, less attention has been given to the PHOT1 phase of de-etiolation. We generated a subtracted cDNA library using the suppression subtractive hybridization method to investigate the molecular mechanisms of BL-induced de-etiolation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), an economically important crop. We focused our interest on the first 30 min following the exposure to BL when PHOT1 is required to induce the process. Our library generated 152 expressed sequence tags that were found to be rapidly accumulated upon exposure to BL and consequently potentially regulated by PHOT1. Annotation revealed that biological functions such as modification of chromatin structure, cell wall modification, and transcription/translation comprise an important part of events contributing to the establishment of photomorphogenesis in young tomato seedlings. Our conclusions based on bioinformatics data were supported by qRT-PCR analyses the specific investigation of V-H(+)-ATPase during de-etiolation in tomato. Our study provides the first report dealing with understanding the PHOT1-mediated phase of de-etiolation. Using subtractive cDNA library, we were able to identify important regulatory mechanisms. The profound induction of transcription/translation, as well as modification of chromatin structure, is relevant in regard to the fact that the entry into photomorphogenesis is based on a deep reprograming of the cell. Also, we postulated that BL restrains the cell expansion by the rapid modification

  2. Overexpression of the carbohydrate binding module from Solanum lycopersicum expansin 1 (Sl-EXP1) modifies tomato fruit firmness and Botrytis cinerea susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, M A; Sin, I N; Villarreal, N M; Marina, M; Powell, A L T; Martínez, G A; Civello, P M

    2017-04-01

    Firmness, one of the major determinants of postharvest quality and shelf life of fruits is determined by the mechanical resistance imposed by the plant cell wall. Expansins (EXP) are involved in the non-hydrolytic metabolic disassembly of plant cell walls, particularly in processes where relaxation of the wall is necessary, such as fruit development and ripening. As many carbohydrate-associated proteins, expansins have a putative catalytic domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Several strategies have been pursued to control the loss of fruit firmness during storage. Most of the approaches have been to suppress the expression of key enzymes involved in the cell wall metabolism, but this is the first time that a CBM was overexpressed in a fruit aimed to control cell wall degradation and fruit softening. We report the constitutive overexpression of the CBM of Solanum lycopersicum expansin 1 (CBM-SlExp1) in the cell wall of tomato plants, and its effects on plant and fruit phenotype. Overexpression of CBM-SlExp1 increased the mechanical resistance of leaves, whereas it did not modify plant growth and general phenotype. However, transgenic plants showed delayed softening and firmer fruits. In addition, fruits were less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection, and the "in vitro" growth of the fungus on media containing AIR from the pericarp of transgenic fruits was lower than controls. The possibility of overexpressing a CBM of a fruit-specific expansin to control cell wall degradation and fruit softening is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction and characterization of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) responsive novel microRNAs in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Bhubaneswar; Naqvi, Afsar Raza; Saraf, Shradha; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-02

    Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) infects tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and causes severe crop losses. As the microRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated during stressful events, such as biotic stress, we wanted to study the effect of ToLCNDV infection on tomato miRNAs. We constructed two libraries, isolating small RNAs (sRNAs) from healthy (HT) and ToLCNDV infected (IT) tomato leaves, and sequenced the library-specific sRNAs using the next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. These data helped predict 112 mature miRNA sequences employing the miRDeep-P program. A substantial number (58) of the sequences were 24-mer in size, which was a bit surprising. Based on the calculation of precision values, 53 novel miRNAs were screened from the predicted sequences. Nineteen of these were chosen for expression analysis; a northern blot analysis showed 15 to be positive. Many of the predicted miRNAs were up-regulated following viral infection. The target genes of the miRNAs were also predicted and the expression analysis of selected transcripts showed a typical inverse relation between the accumulation of target transcripts and the abundance of corresponding miRNAs. Furthermore, the cleavage sites of the target transcripts for three novel miRNAs were mapped, confirming the correct annotation of the miRNA-targets. The sRNA deep sequencing clearly revealed that the virus modulated global miRNA expression in the host. The validated miRNAs (Tom_4; Tom_14; Tom_17; Tom_21; Tom_29; Tom_43) could be valuable tools for understanding the ToLCNDV-tomato interaction, ultimately leading to the development of a virus-resistant tomato plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  5. A new genetic linkage map of tomato based on a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium RIL population displaying locations of candidate pathogen response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Hamid; Kinkade, Matthew; Foolad, Majid R

    2009-11-01

    The narrow genetic base of the cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., necessitates introgression of new variation from related species. Wild tomato species represent a rich source of useful genes and traits. Exploitation of genetic variation within wild species can be facilitated by the use of molecular markers and genetic maps. Recently we identified an accession (LA2093) within the red-fruited wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium L. with exceptionally desirable characteristics, including disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and high fruit lycopene content. To facilitate genetic characterization of such traits and their exploitation in tomato crop improvement, we developed a new recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between LA2093 and an advanced tomato breeding line (NCEBR-1). Furthermore, we constructed a medium-density molecular linkage map of this population using 294 polymorphic markers, including standard RFLPs, EST sequences (used as RFLP probes), CAPS, and SSRs. The map spanned 1091 cM of the tomato genome with an average marker spacing of 3.7 cM. A majority of the EST sequences, which were mainly chosen based on the putative role of their unigenes in disease resistance, defense-related response, or fruit quality, were mapped onto the tomato chromosomes for the first time. Co-localizations of relevant EST sequences with known disease resistance genes in tomato were also examined. This map will facilitate identification, genetic exploitation, and positional cloning of important genes or quantitative trait loci in LA2093. It also will allow the elucidation of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying important traits segregating in the RIL population. The map may further facilitate characterization and exploitation of genetic variation in other S. pimpinellifolium accessions as well as in modern cultivars of tomato.

  6. Characterizing nutrient uptake kinetics for efficient crop production during Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef. growth in a closed indoor hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Rahman, Arifur; Azam, Hossain; Kim, Hyung Seok; Kwon, Man Jae

    2017-01-01

    A balanced nutrient supply is essential for the healthy growth of plants in hydroponic systems. However, the commonly used electrical conductivity (EC)-based nutrient control for plant cultivation can provide amounts of nutrients that are excessive or inadequate for proper plant growth. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of major and minor nutrient uptake in a nutrient solution during the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Alef.) in a closed hydroponic system. The concentrations of major and minor ions in the nutrient solution were determined by various analytical methods including inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), ion specific electrodes, and/or colorimetric methods. The concentrations of the individual nutrient ions were compared with changes in the EC. The EC of the nutrient solution varied according to the different growth stages of tomato plants. Variation in the concentrations of NO3-, SO42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ was similar to the EC variation. However, in the cases of PO43-, Na+, Cl-, dissolved Fe and Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+, variation did not correspond with that of EC. These ions were generally depleted (to 0 mg L-1) during tomato growth, suggesting that these specific ions should be monitored individually and their supply increased. Nutrient uptake rates of major ions increased gradually at different growth stages until harvest (from 15 mg L-1 d-1). Saturation indices determined by MINEQL+ simulation and a mineral precipitation experiment demonstrated the potential for amorphous calcium phosphate precipitation, which may facilitate the abiotic adsorptive removal of dissolved Fe, dissolved Mn, Cu2+, and Zn2+.

  7. The Epl1 and Sm1 proteins from Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens differentially modulate systemic disease resistance against different life style pathogens in Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eSalas-Marina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma, commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots, exert beneficial effects on plants, including the promotion of growth and the induction of resistance to disease. T. virens and T. atroviride secrete the proteins Sm1 and Epl1, respectively, which elicit local and systemic disease resistance in plants. In this work, we show that these fungi promote growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants. T. virens was more effective than T. atroviride in promoting biomass gain, and both fungi were capable of inducing systemic protection in tomato against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. Deletion (KO of epl1 in T. atroviride resulted in diminished systemic protection against A. solani and B. cinerea, whereas the T. virens sm1 KO strain was less effective in protecting tomato against Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. Importantly, over-expression (OE of epl1 and sm1 led to an increase in disease resistance against all tested pathogens. Although the Trichoderma WT strains induced both systemic acquired resistance (SAR- and induced systemic resistance (ISR-related genes in tomato, inoculation of plants with OE and KO strains revealed that Epl1 and Sm1 play a minor role in the induction of these genes. However, we found that Epl1 and Sm1 induce the expression of a peroxidase and an α-dioxygenase encoding genes, respectively, which could be important for tomato protection by Trichoderma spp. Altogether, these observations indicate that colonization by beneficial and/or infection by pathogenic microorganisms dictates many of the outcomes in plants, which are more complex than previously thought.

  8. SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating the expression of ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 in Solanum lycopersicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-chun; GAO Yong-feng; ZHANG Ning; LI Hui-rong; YANG Shu-zhang; LIU Yong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    SOM encodes a nucleus-localized CCCH-type zinc finger protein and negatively regulates seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have previously demonstrated that ectopic expression of SlABI3, an important transcription factor in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, resulted in alteration of SlSOM expression patterns in both leaf and seed of tomato. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the function of tomato SlSOM in regarding to seed germination and seedling development. Here, we constructed SlSOM over-expression vector pBI121-SOM driven by CaMV 35S promoter, and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into wild-type tomato by the method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The result showed that over-expression of SlSOM conferred enhanced responses to exogenous ABA application during seed germination and seedling development. In addition, ectopic expression of SlSOM resulted in the alteration of expression level of ABA/GA (gibberel ins) metabolic genes, such as SlABA1, SlCYP707A1, SlGA3ox2, and SlGA2ox4, in both leaf and seed. The ABA anabolic gene SlABA1 and the GA catabolic gene SlGA2ox4 were up-regulated while the ABA catabolic gene SlCYP707A1 and the GA anabolic gene SlGA3ox2 were down-regulated. Compared to wild type, the expression level of SlABI5 was increased by about 40–50%in transgenic seeds while adding exogenous ABA treatment. These results support the notion that SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 expression in Solanum lycopersicum.

  9. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways. PMID:28222174

  10. Calidad e inocuidad de jitomate (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) fresco almacenado a diferentes temperaturas: relación del contenido de azúcares y ácidos orgánicos con la adherencia de Escherichia coli (ECET).

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Cantún, Diego

    2012-01-01

    La inocuidad es un requisito importante de aceptación en el jitomate (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), para permitirle abrir nuevos mercados. En los que además, el fruto debe cumplir con ciertos estándares de calidad relacionados con sus propiedades físicas y químicas. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las propiedades físicas y químicas del fruto de jitomate almacenado a diferentes temperaturas en presencia de Escherichia coli (ECET). Se utilizaron frutos de jitomate variedad Char...

  11. Respuesta fisiológica de semillas de tomate Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Unapal - Maravilla y pimentón Capsicum annuum L.) var Unapal-Serrano en crioconservación

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Conde Carlos Iván; Sánchez Orozco Manuel Salvador; Martinez Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    En el laboratorio de Fisiología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y en los tanques para la crioconservación del Instituto Humboldt del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), ubicados en el municipio de Palmira, en diseños completamente al azar en arreglos factoriales con cuatro repeticiones para la prueba de germinación y dos para la prueba de emergencia, se evaluaron los efectos en la calidad fisiológica de las semillas de tomate Solanum lycopersicum <...

  12. CARACTERIZACIÓN AGROMORFOLÓGICA Y EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA AL TYLCV EN NUEVOS GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) COMO APOYO AL PROGRAMA DE MEJORAMIENTO GENÉTICO DE LA HORTALIZA PARA LA ENFERMEDAD

    OpenAIRE

    F. Dueñas; Yamila Martínez; Marta Álvarez; Moya, C.; Belkis Peteira; Yailén Arias; María J. Diez; Hanson, P.; T. Shagarodsky

    2008-01-01

    Uno de los mayores patógenos virales del cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) en Cuba y en varios países del mundo es el virus del encrespamiento amarillo de la hoja del tomate (TYLCV), Begomovirus de la familia Geminiviridae, que es transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). Actualmente, el mejoramiento genético para la resistencia o tolerancia a la enfermedad constituye una de las vías más promisorias para reducir los daños provocados por la virosis en el cultivo, pues ...

  13. Expression of LHC Genes and their Relation to Photo-Oxidative Stress Tolerance Tolerance in Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum chilense (Dunal Reiche Expresión de Genes LHC y su Relación con la Tolerancia al Estrés Foto-Oxidativo en Solanum lycopersicum L. y Solanum chilense (Dunal Reiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous exposition to low temperature and high light radiation cause photoinhibition of photosynthetic apparatus, affecting the productivity and geographical distribution of agricultural crops. In several Solanaceous species, tolerance to low temperature stress in combination with high light has been associated with some stimulation in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, which involved reorganization in light-harvesting complex (LHC proteins. To study photosynthetic performance in Solanum lycopersicum L. and S. chilense (Dunal Reiche, and to investigate transcriptional regulation of genes encoding LHC proteins and their involvement in the NPQ, plants of both species were exposed to low temperature (4 °C and high light radiation (1300 /La exposición simultánea a las bajas temperaturas y alta intensidad lumínica causa la foto-inhibición del aparato fotosintético, fenómeno que afecta la productividad y la distribución geográfica de los cultivos. En varias especies de solanáceas, la tolerancia a este tipo de estrés se ha asociado con un cierto estímulo en el apagamiento no fotoquímico (NPQ, lo que implica una reorganización en las proteínas pertenecientes a los complejos colectores de luz (LHC. Para evaluar el rendimiento fotosintético de Solanum lycopersicum L. y S. chilense (Dunal Reiche y evaluar la regulación transcripcional de genes que codifican para proteínas del LHC y su participación en el NPQ, plantas de ambas especies fueron expuestas a 4 °C y 1300 pmol m-2 s-1 y se realizaron evaluaciones sobre la peroxidación lipídica, la eficiencia fotosintética y los cambios en los pigmentos del ciclo de las xantófilas. Al utilizar el exceso de energía de excitación en el proceso fotoquímico, según lo indicado por los parámetros qP y ETR, los resultados indican que S. chilense posee una mayor tolerancia a la foto-inhibición que S. lycopersicum. La contribución de las proteínas LHC no estaría relacionada con disipar

  14. Crecimiento en clavel estándar cv. Nelson, en suelo y en sustratos Crescimento de cravo estandar cv. Nelson, em solo e em substratos Growth of standard carnation cv. Nelson, in soil and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Del Pilar Baracaldo Argüello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de clavel en la sabana de Bogotá ha sido importante, ya que representa en la actualidad el segundo lugar de exportación en flores de corte. Recientemente, su producción en sistema de cultivo en sustrato ha aumentado debido fundamentalmente a limitantes de tipo sanitario, por lo cual es importante el estudio del crecimiento de las plantas establecidas en este sistema de cultivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento del clavel estándar cv. Nelson establecido en sustratos y en suelo, a segundo pico de cosecha, para lo cual, en el SENA - Centro Multisectorial de Mosquera, plantas de clavel se sometieron a los siguientes tratamientos: 100% de cascarilla de arroz quemada; 65% cascarilla de arroz quemada - 35% fibra de coco; 35% cascarilla de arroz quemada - 65% fibra de coco y suelo. En muestreos continuos se evaluaron las variables número de hojas, longitud del tallo, diámetro de tallo, número de nudos y diámetro y longitud del botón floral y se ajustaron curvas de crecimiento. Las plantas cultivadas en el tratamiento suelo presentaron mayor número de tallos. En este tratamiento los tallos florales también presentaron un mayor número de nudos y de hojas; sin embargo, fueron más cortos. Así mismo, presentaron menor diámetro de tallo y menor longitud y diámetro del botón floral; características determinantes de la calidad. Por tanto, la producción de tallos exportables de grado "select" fue significativamente inferior en el tratamiento suelo, en comparación con los demás tratamientos.O cultivo de cravo no planalto de Bogotá tem sido importante, visto que representa, na atualidade, o segundo lugar nas exportações colombianas de flores de corte. Recentemente, sua produção em sistemas de cultivo em substrato tem aumentado em consequência de fatores sanitários. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento do cravo tipo estandar cv. Nelson, estabelecido em substratos e em solo, na segunda

  15. 基于 OpenCV 和 Matlab 的摄像机标定系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Camera Calibration System Based on OpenCV and Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江祥奎; 纪旭

    2015-01-01

    以摄像机标定技术为研究对象,对 OpenCV 函数库和 Matlab 标定工具箱中的函数模型进行分析,结合二者优势设计了一款摄像机标定系统。该系统充分发挥了 OpenCV 函数库的性能,并通过 Matlab 标定工具箱对 OpenCV 函数进行补充。最后通过 GUI 方法进行界面编程。实验结果表明,该系统具有较高的标定精度、界面友好、扩展性强,可以更好地满足机器视觉系统的工程需要。%Aiming at camera calibration technology ,the characteristics of OpenCV library and the function model of Matlab calibration toolbox are analyzed .The advantages are used to design a kind of camera calibration system .The system gives full play to the performance of OpenCV function library ,uses Matlab calibration kit as a supplement .Finally the sys-tem is implemented by GUI interface programming method .The system has high calibration precision ,friendly interface , strong expansibility .It can better satisfy the engineering need of machine vision system .

  16. ORGANIC FERTILIZER AS PHOSPHORUS SUPPLIER FOR Brachiaria brizantha CV. MARANDÚ FERTILIZANTE ORGÂNICO COMO FONTE DE FÓSFORO NO CULTIVO INICIAL DE Brachiaria brizantha CV. MARANDÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Henriques Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Phosphorus is considered an essential element for plants, but it is found in low amounts in Brazilian soils, mainly in areas destined to pastures, and the application of organic matter contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and biological soil attributes. The research had the objective of evaluating the application effects of the Bokashi organic compound on soil macro and micronutrients contents and leaves, as well as on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú dry mass yield, evaluating the potential of the organic fertilizer as phosphorus source, in comparison with conventional chemical fertilizers. Different organic compound doses supplied the soil with 17 kg P2O5 ha-1, 34 kg P2O5 ha-1, 68 kg P2O5 ha-1, 136 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 204 kg P2O5 ha-1, comparing it with the conventional chemical fertilizer and the control. The results revealed that the organic fertilizer Bokashi can adequately replace the conventional chemical fertilizer of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú, supplying the soil and plant with appropriate nutrients levels and maintaining the dry mass yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Organic matter; organic fertilizers; plants mineral nutrition; Bokashi

  17. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  18. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  19. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  20. Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (PV1) modulates SV40 virus infectivity in CV-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dan; Armstrong, David A; Oppenheim, Ariella; Kuksin, Dmitry; Norkin, Leonard; Stan, Radu V

    2011-08-26

    Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein (Plvap/PV1) is a structural protein required for the formation of the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations that were implicated in SV40 virus entry in primate cells. Here we show that de novo Plvap/PV1 expression in CV-1 green monkey epithelial cells significantly reduces the ability of SV40 virus to establish productive infection, when cells are incubated with low concentrations of the virus. However, in presence of high viral titers PV1 has no effect on SV40 virus infectivity. Mechanistically, PV1 expression does not reduce the cell surface expression of known SV40 receptors such as GM1 ganglioside and MHC class I proteins. Furthermore, PV1 does not reduce the binding of virus-like particles made by SV40 VP1 protein to the CV-1 cell surface and does not impact their internalization when cells are incubated with either high or low VLP concentrations. These results suggest that PV1 protein is able to block SV40 infectivity at low but not at high viral concentration either by interfering with the infective internalization pathway at the cell surface or at a post internalization step. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Pedro R. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: paranda@unsl.edu.ar; Gil, Raul A. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: ragil@unsl.edu.ar; Moyano, Susana [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: smoyano@unsl.edu.ar; De Vito, Irma [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: devito@unsl.edu.ar; Martinez, Luis D. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: ldm@unsl.edu.ar

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg.

  2. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  3. PENINGKATAN EFEKTIFITAS DAN EFISIENSI BIAYA KUALITAS MELALUI PENEDEKATAN SIMULASI (Studi Kasus di CV. SINAR BAJA ELEKTRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Agus Widyadana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses about how to increase product quality and still concern with quality cost. We add factor of time to count quality cost and the effect to quality product. Time has important function in this research, so simulation is used to analyze quality control system. The simulation on CV. Sinar Baja Elektrik shows that the propose method can decrease product reject about 8% and quality cost until 16,89% from total sales. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini membahas mengenai upaya untuk meningkatkan kualitas produk dengan memperhatikan biaya kualitas. Penelitian ini memasukan tambahan faktor waktu dalam memperhitungkan biaya kualitas serta dampaknya pada kualitas produk. Oleh karena faktor waktu memegang peranan yang penting, maka analisa sistem pengendalian kualitas pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode simulasi. Hasil simulasi di CV. Sinar Baja Elektrik menunjukan metode yang diusulkan dapat menurunkan hasil rata-rata tingkat kelolosan produk cacat untuk tiap tipe speaker hingga berkisar 8%, dan total biaya kualitas secara keseluruhan dapat diturunkan hingga sebesar 16.89% dari total penjualan. Kata kunci: biaya kualitas, efisiensi, efektivitas, simulasi.

  4. Preliminary results of the pCT scanner testing at CV-28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setti, Joao A.P.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Milhoretto, Edney; Rocha, Rodrigo L. [Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: setti@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.brj, E-mail: edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com, E-mail: rodrigo.luis.rocha@gmail.com; Ribeiro Junior, Sebastiao [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: ribeiro@lactec.org.br; Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, Olga [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico], E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: yevseyeva@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear IEN/CNEN-RJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: bira@ien.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    In the present work the first results obtained with the low energy proton beam of CV-28 at IEN/CNEN and the prototype of a computerized tomography device developed in UFTPR are presented. The system installed in the scatterings chamber of the cyclotron line 3 includes the proton scatter, turntable with translation (1st generation CT scheme), the set of collimators for the secondary proton beam formation and the Si(Li) ORTEC detector. The main parameters of the tomography turntable and the collimators were chosen based on computer simulations with SRIM2006 and GEANT4. A cylindrical glass tube was used as the irradiated sample. On this stage, only the translation of the turntable perpendicular to the proton beam direction was fulfilled. The measured proton energy spectra have, in general, a predicted behavior. However, the experiment revealed some problems with the secondary proton beam formation that should be solved prior to obtain a first pCT image at CV-28. (author)

  5. Business Strategy of CV Jaya Sampurna in Facing Soft Drink Distributor Competition in Bekasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Nurmala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CV Jaya Sampurna is a soft drink distributor in Bekasi. Distributor company has a low profit margin, moreover the product sold is Fast Moving Consumers Goods with a very low profit margin (3.5%–5%. Therefore the company depends on a high volume of sales. Besides, there are many competitors in this industry, thus the business strategy is needed to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Given the conditions,this research was to identify the internal and the external factors, to identify the formulation of business strategy alternative, and to identify the recommendation of functional strategy for CV Jaya Sampurna. Research used descriptive method; and the type of research used was case study. Data were gathered from questionnaires and interview to three member of managers: Director, Operational Manager, and Finance Manager. Data wereanalyzed by using EFE, IFE, SWOT, IE, Grand Strategy Matrix and QSPM. The result of this research implies that the alternative strategy based on QSPM’s result was market penetration

  6. Production and quality of mini watermelon cv. Smile irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B. O. de Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salt tolerance of mini watermelon (cv. Smile. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the Department of Biosystems Engineering of ESALQ/USP. The experimental design was randomized blocks. The plants were irrigated with five levels of salinity (S1 = 1.0; S2 = 2.0; S3 = 3.0; S4 = 4.0 and S5 = 5.0 dS m-1. At 85 days after the beginning of the experiment, the plants and the physical and chemical variables of the fruit were evaluated. Salinity negatively affected the variables: length of the main stem, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of branches, leaf area, fresh and dry matter. Regarding the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits, salinity reduced the mass, diameter and the pH of the fruit, but increased its vitamin C content. In general, the results suggest that the mini watermelon (cv. Smile is moderately sensitive to salinity.

  7. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  8. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude.

  9. Evaluation of Doubled Haploid Derivatives of the Flue-cured Nicotianatabacum cv. Wislica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 doubled haploid (DH derivatives of the flue-cured true-breeding tobacco variety Wislica were obtained via anther culture and colchicine-induced chromosome doubling. Of that number eight DH lines showed morphological aberrations and/or reduced vigour that made them unfit to be grown in the field. The remaining 43 DH lines were grown in 2001 under regular flue-cured tobacco management and evaluated for principal growth indicators, yield, curability and gross money returns from unit area. In 2002, the evaluation was scaled down to include 13 best performing DH lines of 2001. The DH lines showed a considerable variation for basic growth parameters. Usually, the DH lines had more leaves but were shorter than the parental genotype mostly due to shorter internodes. The majority of DH lines showed delayed flowering compared to the parental cultivar. Yields of cured leaves varied extensively, some of the DH lines yielding above and some below cv. Wislica. Curability measured as percentage of light (1st to 3rd grades was generally lower in DH lines compared to that in cv. Wislica. However, because of the high leaf yield some of the DH lines were not inferior to the parental cultivar with respect to money returns from unit area.

  10. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (μM trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents.

  11. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  13. Le bureau d'études TS/CV/BE pour les besoins du projet LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, C

    2004-01-01

    Le bureau d'études TS/CV/BE propose un appui technique personnalisé aux différentes sections du groupe TS/CV, responsables des projets liés aussi bien à la machine LHC, ses zones expérimentales, que d'autres projets associés. L'équipe, constituée historiquement et exclusivement de personnel d'entreprise extérieure, dispose d'un effectif variable, adapté à des besoins planifiés. Le choix d'utiliser les mêmes logiciels de CAO que la communauté du CERN, a limité la proportion de spécialistes au sein de l'équipe. Une méthodologie particulière a donc été mise en place pour satisfaire les demandes, tout en faisant face à l'étendue et à la complexité des installations de ventilation et de refroidissement. Des compétences externes spécialisées sont également sollicitées, au cas par cas, pour optimiser les coûts de fonctionnement.

  14. QUALIDADE DE GOIABAS CV. 'PALUMA' SUBMETIDAS A INJÚRIAS MECÂNICAS E FRIGOARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELTON DE SOUZA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical injuries caused by impact, abrasion and cut in guavas cv. 'Paluma' under fruit quality during cold storage at 10°C, and at environment temperature. Was to adopt the completely randomized design in a split-plot in time considering as plots, the mechanical injuries and subplots, the storage periods (0, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 days with four replicates of two fruits per experimental unit. The mechanical injuries were induced considering the following criteria: T1, witness, without fruit visible damage; T2, fruits impacts, two impacts per fruit at a height of 85 cm; T3, fruits subjected two cuts, on opposite sides, depth of 2 mm and length 30 mm; T4, fruits subjected to abrasion, area of 10 cm2. Was evaluated the exterior color, the external appearance, the internal appearance, the severity of disease. Injury due to impact, abrasion and cut no influence on in exterior color, external appearance, internal appearance and severity of diseases of guava cv. 'Paluma' during storage for 11 days at 10oC. But, the quality was impaired by mechanical injuries six days after exposure to 30°C.

  15. New constraints on the magnetic history of the CV parent body and the solar nebula from the Kaba meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattacceca, Jérôme; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of Allende CV chondrite as well as thermal modeling suggest the existence of partially differentiated asteroids with outer unmelted and variably metamorphosed crusts overlying differentiated interiors. To further constrain the magnetic history of the CV parent body, we report here paleomagnetic results on Kaba CV chondrite. This meteorite contains 11 wt% pseudo-single domain magnetite, making it a rock with an excellent paleomagnetic recording capacity. Kaba appears to carry a stable natural remanent magnetization acquired on its parent body upon cooling in an internally generated magnetic field of about 3 μT from temperatures below 150 °C during thermal metamorphism about 10 to several tens of Myr after solar system formation. This strengthens the case for the existence of a molten advecting core in the CV parent body. Furthermore, we show that no significant magnetic field (i.e. lower than ∼ 0.3 μT) was present when aqueous alteration took place on the Kaba parent body around 4 to 6 Myr after solar system formation, suggesting a delay in the onset of the dynamo in the CV parent body and confirming that nebular fields had already decayed at that time.

  16. Proyecto constructivo de la variante de las carreteras CV-35 y CV-345 a su paso por el municipio de Titaguas (provincia de Valencia). Estudio del tráfico y de la seguridad vial.

    OpenAIRE

    ESCRIBANO RUIZ, JUAN MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This study is based on a construction project of a road variant of the highway CV - 35 and CV - 345 in its way to the village of Titaguas that aims to improve road safety deficiencies of the current path. The study towards the targets set is properly adjusted for Final Carrer, and he put into practice the knowledge acquired during the race. First, it has analyzed traffic from a data collection collected in a manual forum. With this, we have proceeded to calculate the daily average intens...

  17. Injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv 'Golden' Chilling injury in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Golden'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Ferreira de Almeida

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os sintomas da injúria pelo frio em frutos de mamoeiro cv 'Golden' foram investigados neste trabalho.Os frutos apresentando de 10% a 15% de coloração amarela na casca, foram classificados na linha de operação de embalagem da Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES e após receberam tratamentos térmicos e químicos. Os frutos foram embalados com filmes plásticos e estocados a 6ºC e 13ºC (85-95% UR em uma incubadora (BOD por 30 dias. Em intervalos de tempo definidos, seis frutos foram analisados quanto à firmeza, mudança de cor e aparência. A firmeza foi analisada tanto na região mais externa quanto na região mais interna do mesocarpo. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, os frutos estocados a 6ºC apresentaram os sintomas de escurecimento da casca entre o sexto e o décimo segundo dia de estocagem e também não perderam a cor verde após trinta dias de estocagem, conforme identificado pelos parâmetros de Hunter L (luminosidade, Hunter a (degradação da clorofila e Hunter b (amarelecimento. A firmeza foi drasticamente reduzida nos seis primeiros dias de estocagem nas duas temperaturas. Contudo, ela permaneceu mais elevada na parte externa do mesocarpo durante todo o período de estocagem à 13ºC. Os frutos estocados à 6ºC mostraram um aumento na firmeza, nas duas partes do mesocarpo, entre o sexto e o décimo oitavo dia de armazenamento devido à incidência da injúria pelo frio.The symptoms of chilling injury in papaya fruit cv -Golden' were investigated in this work. Fruits presenting 10% to 15% of fruit skin yellowing were sorted in the packaging line of the Caliman Agrícola S.A (Linhares-ES, after received chemical and heat treatments. The fruits were wrapped in a plastic film and stored at temperatures of 6ºC and 13ºC (85-95% RH in an incubator (BOD for 30 days. At defined time intervals, six fruits were evaluated regarding to firmness, appearance and color change. The fruit firmness was evaluated as in the outer as in

  18. Organogênese a partir de segmentos foliares e internodais de videira cv. Merlot Organogenesis from leaf segments and internodes of grapevine cv. Merlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Cristina de Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a indução da organogênese em segmentos foliares e internódios de videira cv. Merlot, utilizando diferentes tipos e concentrações de citocininas. O meio de cultura usado foi o MS com redução da metade dos sais e vitaminas, suplementado com 1 µM de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA. Os tratamentos consistiram das concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 ou 10 µM de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP ou 1-fenil-3-(1,2,3,-tiadiazol-5-il uréia (TDZ. Foram avaliados o porcentual de formação de gemas, calos, oxidação e raízes, além do número de raízes e gemas. Aos 60 dias de cultivo in vitro foi observado que concentrações de 2,5-10 µM de BAP e TDZ permitem que segmentos foliares oxidem e não induzam à oxidação nos internódios. O nível de 5 µM de TDZ favore o maior porcentual de formação de gemas em internódios e segmentos foliares não apresentam capacidade para formar gemas nos níveis de 2,5-10 µM de BAP ou TDZ. O uso de BAP nas concentrações de 2,5 e 5 µM favorece altos porcentuais de enraizamento em internódios. O uso de TDZ no nível de 2,5 µM promove elevada taxa de formação de calos em internódios. Os internódios apresentaram maior capacidade organogênica do que os segmentos foliares.The objective of this work was study the induction of organogenesis on leaf segments and internodes of grapevine cv. Merlot using different types and concentrations of cytokinins. MS half strength culture medium supplemented with 1 µM naftalenoacetic acid (NAA was used. The treatments consisted of the concentrations of 2.5; 5.0 or 10 µM 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP or thydiazuron (TDZ. The percentage of buds, callus, oxidation and roots as well as the number of roots and buds were evaluated. After 60 days of in vitro culture it was observed that the concentrations of 2.5-10 µM BAP or TDZ oxidize leaf segments and do not induce oxidation in the internodes. The level of 5 µM TDZ promote the largest formation of

  19. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o

  20. Energy saving in Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V.; Ahorro de energia en Bellota Mexico S.A de C.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Lopez, Jose Albeiro [Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article intends to make a general description of the different activities that were developed in Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. during year 2001 and which lead to obtaining the national prize of energy saving granted by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). In the executed actions stands out an entirely coordinated program that includes: lighting systems, motors, refrigeration systems, transformers, special projects (settling tanks), capacitors, compressed air pipeline, induction furnaces, machinery in general, maximum demand control, preventive maintenance, measuring systems, operational and organizational systems. In all these subjects a fast description is made of the performed actions and the obtained results. It is mentioned in addition the importance of making a power diagnosis and the use of historical data for the planning of the strategies to follow. Also reference is made of the use of appropriate technology that considers the use of high-energy efficiency equipment, such as motors, lamps, compressors, etc. Finally an evaluation is made of the obtained results where the improvement of the electrical parameters stands out such as: reduction of the power index in 35.06%, reduction of the maximum demand in 11.94%, increase of the power factor from 93.53% in 98.21%. The obtained results demonstrate that investing in energy saving it is a good business. [Spanish] El presente trabajo tiene por objeto hacer una descripcion general de las diferentes actividades que se desarrollaron en Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. durante el ano 2001 y que condujeron a la obtencion del premio nacional de ahorro de energia otorgado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). En las acciones ejecutadas se destaca todo un programa coordinado que abarca: sistemas de iluminacion, motores, sistemas de refrigeracion, transformadores, proyectos

  1. Avaliação da cv. Tannat para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Tannat to elaborate red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A uva Tannat, originária do Sudoeste da França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul, pela Estação Experimental de Caxias do Sul. É uma cultivar difundida na Serra Gaúcha para elaboração de vinho tinto, utilizado para corte e para a produção de vinho varietal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial enológico da cv. Tannat para a elaboração de vinho tinto fino nessa região vitícola. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho nas safras de 1987 a 1994, a partir de um vinhedo localizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Tannat tem cacho com peso médio de 216,1g e baga esférica pequena (1,54g. O mosto apresenta teor elevado de acidez titulável (155meq/L-1. O vinho se caracteriza por teores elevados em: polifenóis totais (I 280= 43,0, taninos (1,9g/L, antocianinas (539mg/L, potássio (1.856mg/L-1 e soma dos álcoois superiores (512mg/L-1. As características sensoriais do vinho Tannat na Serra Gaúcha evidenciam uma cor vermelha-violácea intensa, tânicos, nervosos, relativamente duros e aromas de frutas vermelhas. É recomendável para corte com outros vinhos tintos finos para intensificar sua cor e estrutura e também para a produção de vinho varietal podendo melhorar com o amadurecimento em barricas de carvalho.The Tannat grape is native to the Southwest of France, and was introduced into the State of Rio Grande do Sul by the Caxias do Sul Experimental Station. It is a cultivar diffused in the Serra Gaucha region with the purpose of elaborating varietal red wine for blending. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the enological potential of the Tannat grape for red wine in this region. To achieve this objective, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were evaluated from the 1987 to 1994 vintages, in a vineyard established in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. The results showed that Tannat grapes have large clusters (216.1g and

  2. Avaliação da cv. Merlot para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Merlot to make red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A uva Merlot é uma das responsáveis pelas características dos vinhos tintos de Saint Émillion, região de Bordeaux, França. Foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É, atualmente, uma das cultivares tinta de Vitis vinifera L. com maior volume de produção da Serra Gaúcha. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial enológico da cv. Merlot para a elaboração de vinho tinto fino. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho nas safras de 1987 a 1994, em Bento Gonçalves, RS. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Merlot tem cacho com peso médio de 161,9g e baga esférica e pequena, pesando 1,61g. No mosto, o valor médio de açúcar é de 18,4ºBrix; o da acidez total, de 104meqL-1; e o do pH, de 3,21. O vinho se caracteriza por ter teores médios de 10,8% v/v de álcool; 70,3meqL-1 de acidez titulável; e pH de 3,49. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Merlot apresenta cor vermelho-violáceo com boa intensidade. Gustativamente distingue-se pela maciez, equilíbrio e fineza.Merlot is a traditional grape of the Saint Émillion wines, Bordeaux region - France. It was introduced into, the State of Rio Grande do Sul by the Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Today, of the red grape cultivars it shows the largest production in the Serra Gaúcha region. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the enological potential of Merlot grapes for red winemaking. To achieve this purpose, variables related to berry clusters, must and wine were measured between 1987 and 1994 vintages, from Merlot vineyards located in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves. The results showed that Merlot grapes have clusters of medium size (161.9g and small berries (1.61g. The must showed adequate sugar level (18.4ºBrix, high titratable acidity (104mqL-1 and medium pH 3.21. The wine Merlot had an

  3. Kinetic analysis on LiFePO{sub 4} thin films by CV, GITT, and EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Kun; Yu Xiqian; Sun Jinpeng; Li Hong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Huang Xuejie, E-mail: xjhuang@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > The average chemical diffusion coefficients of Li are 1.8 x 10{sup -14}-2.1 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} measured from CV. > The minimum D-tilde{sub Li} values obtained from GITT and EIS are in contradiction with other experimental data. > The deduction of D-tilde{sub Li} is highly dependent on the dE/dx values for GITT and EIS methods. - Abstract: LiFePO{sub 4} thin films were deposited on Ti substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The apparent chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium in the films, D-tilde{sub Li}, were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The average D-tilde{sub Li} values calculated from CV results were in the order of 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The D-tilde{sub Li} values obtained by GITT, and EIS techniques were in the range of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 10{sup -14}-10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The D-tilde{sub Li} values obtained by the two methods show a minimum point at x {approx} 0.5 for Li{sub 1-x}FePO{sub 4}. However, the overpotential values of the LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrodes obtained from the GITT results and the diffusion impedance deduced from the impedance spectra also show the minimum values at x {approx} 0.5 for Li{sub 1-x}FePO{sub 4}. This contradict could be caused by the improper use of GITT and EIS techniques for measuring the chemical diffusion coefficient of Li in Li{sub 1-x}FePO{sub 4} which constitutes two phase, i.e., LiFePO{sub 4} and FePO{sub 4} in this region.

  4. Sub-ns time transfer consistency: a direct comparison between GPS CV and T2L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, P.; Samain, E.; Courde, C.; Aimar, M.; Torre, J. M.; Rovera, G. D.; Abgrall, M.; Uhrich, P.; Sherwood, R.; Herold, G.; Schreiber, U.; Guillemot, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a direct comparison between two satellite time transfer techniques: common-view (CV) of satellites from the global positioning system (GPS) constellation, and time transfer by laser link (T2L2) through the low orbiting satellite Jason-2. We describe briefly both techniques, together with two independent relative calibration campaigns of the links involving four European laboratories. Between the same remote time scale reference points, the mean values of the calibrated differences between GPS CV and T2L2 are below 240 ps, with standard deviations below 500 ps, mostly due to GPS CV. Almost all sample deviations from 0 ns are within the combined uncertainty estimates. Despite the relatively small number of common points obtained, due to the fact that T2L2 is weather dependent, these results provide an unprecedented sub-ns consistency between two independently calibrated microwave and optical satellite time transfer techniques.

  5. Armazenamento de pêssegos (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, cv. Chiripá, em atmosfera controlada The storaging of peaches cv. Chiripá, in controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILMAR ANTÔNIO NAVA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 durante o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a qualidade físico-química de pêssegos, cv. Chiripá. As pressões parciais de gases avaliadas foram: 0,8kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/4kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/5kPaCO2; 2kPaO2/6kPaCO2; 2kPaO2/7kPaCO2, 2kPaO2/8kPaCO2, ar/10kPaCO2 e tratamento-controle, mantido sob armazenamento refrigerado (AR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 20 frutos. As avaliações foram realizadas após 4 e 8 semanas de armazenamento a -0,5ºC ± 0,2ºC, mais 2 dias a 20ºC. Os resultados evidenciaram que o controle de atmosfera reduz a degradação da clorofila da epiderme e a perda de peso, porém tem pouco efeito sobre a firmeza, teor de só lidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável dos frutos. A pressão parcial de 1kPa de O2, associada a 3kPa de CO2, reduz a manifestação dos sintomas de lanosidade durante 8 semanas de armazenamento. A incidência de podridões dos frutos é reduzida quando armazenados sob a condição de 2kPa de O2, associada a 8kPa de CO2. Tanto o armazenamento refrigerado quanto o armazenamento sob atmosfera controlada mantêm boa qualidade dos frutos por quatro semanas a -0,5ºC, mais 2 dias a 20ºC. Oito semanas de armazenamento em AC é um período muito prolongado para uma satisfatória manutenção da qualidade de pêssegos da cultivar Chiripá. A elevada incidência de podridões e de lanosidade são as causas que mais contribuem para a redução da qualidade de pêssegos, cv. Chiripá, durante períodos prolongados de armazenamento.The experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate different partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in controlled atmosphere storage on the quality 'Chiripá' peaches. The evaluated controlled atmospheres conditions were: 0,8kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/4kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/5kPaCO2; 2

  6. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  7. Analisis Pengaruh Kemampuan, Usaha dan Dukungan Perusahaan terhadap Kinerja Karyawan pada CV Sandang Gloria Konveksindo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Marcellinus Logahan

    2012-04-01

    Regression, and Multiple Regression. Data obtained from the appraisal of employee performance by filling in the questionnaire that has been provided by using a Likert scale that is useful to know the degree of disagreement and agreement existing employees to the question on the questionnaire. The results achieved in this study were the ability of employees to work have an influence for 28.8% of employee performance, employee efforts in working to have the effect of 50.6% on employee performance, corporate support for work processes have the effect of 47.7% the performance of employees, while the ability of employees, employee efforts, and support the company has influence for 66.3% of the employee's performance CV Gloria Konveksindo Clothing. With this capability expected of employees, employee efforts, and support the company serve as the main factor to improve employee performance.

  8. Study of the TAF 2012 DriveLine (CV-CD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru POZDÎRCĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TAF is the acronym for Articulated Forestry Tractor – a heavy vehicle uses in a logging operation for pulling cut trees out of a forest, in a process called “skidding”. TAF use a cardan shafts transmission from the gear box (CV to distribution box (CD. The distribution box split the movement thru axels or winch. The study applied the cardan theory on a specific case and based on the numeric results a few design modifications are proposed for reducing the angular velocity pulse on the CD input shaft. Theoretical results may have a significant importance in practice, impacting the reduction of transmission noise and vibrations - already claimed in the case of the distribution box for the current constructive solution. An original AutoLISP program are made in order to analyze and optimize the transmission, with graphical results.

  9. Development of seedlings of watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet irrigated with biosaline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. B. da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe limited access and the scarcity of good quality water for agriculture are some of the major problems faced in agricultural areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of watermelon seedlings (cv. Crimson Sweet, irrigated with different concentrations of biosaline water of fish culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, corresponding to biosaline water at different concentrations (0, 33, 50, 67 and 100%, and four replicates of 108 seedlings. Watermelon seeds were sown in plastic trays filled with commercial substrate and irrigated with different solutions of biosaline water. Seedlings were harvested for biometric analysis at 14, 21 and 28 days after sowing. The use of biosaline water did not affect emergence and establishment of seedlings until 14 days after sowing, the period recommended for transplantation. However, the use of biosaline water affected the development of seedlings with longer exposure time.

  10. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation.

  11. Proliferation Potential of 18-Month-Old Callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. De Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS media, 32.22 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g. Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 μM was economically better.

  12. The effect of shared structure and content on reading nonwords: evidence for a CV skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, I; Bouissa, R; Tuller, B

    2001-07-01

    Four experiments examined the effect of shared skeletal structure versus content overlap on naming printed nonwords. Experiments 1-2 compared priming among nonwords sharing either skeletal structure and content (e.g., dus-DUS) or structure alone (e.g., pid-BAF) with controls that differed from the target in the number of skeleton slots (e.g., pid-BAF vs. plid-BAF). Conversely, in Experiments 3-4, same-versus different-structure primes contrasted only in the ordering of CV skeletal slots (e.g., fap-DUS vs. ift-DUS). Priming effects were modulated by shared content and skeletal similarity. The sensitivity of skeletal priming to the abstract arrangement of consonants and vowels suggests that skeletal representations assign distinct slots for consonants and vowels. Readers' sensitivity to skeletal structure in nonword identification indicates that assembled phonological representations are constrained by linguistic knowledge.

  13. Radical-scavenging activities of new hydroxylated ursane triterpenes from cv. Annurca apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Monaco, Pietro; Pacifico, Severina

    2005-07-01

    Two new ursolic acid triterpene derivatives, compounds 2 and 3, have been isolated from cv. Annurca apple fruit, a high-quality apple variety widely cultivated in southern Italy, together with the known 2-oxopomolic acid (1). The new compounds were identified by means of different spectroscopic techniques as 3-epi-2-oxopomolic acid (= (3alpha)-3,19-dihydroxy-2-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid; 2) and (1alpha)-1-hydroxy-3-oxours-12-en-28-oic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 were tested for their radical-scavenging activities with the aid of a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (Fig. 2). All three constituents showed activities similar to that of the reference antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).

  14. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  15. TS-CV contracts for the LHC case study for the TS workshop 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    The cooling and ventilation group deals with a great number of supplies and installation contracts, as well as some service ones, in relation to the LHC project. In the course of the last years the group has increased its experience in the handling of these contracts in particular as a consequence of the difficult situations sometimes faced, which have been trying but enriching. This paper reviews some statistics on the performance of the CV contracts and draws some conclusions from a set of key cases. These cases can be helpful in identifying possible weak points during the different project phases (engineering, tendering and contracting, installation, etc.) and can provide a basis for the discussion of potential solutions.

  16. Micropropagation from cultured nodal explants of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. ‘Perfume Delight’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamnoon Kanchanapoom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the micropropagation of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. ‘Perfume Delight’ was developed. First to fifth nodal explants from young healthy shoots were excised and cultured on basal medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962, MS containing several concentrations of BA and NAA. Multiple shoot formation of up to 3 shoots was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/l BA and 0.003 mg/l NAA. Shoot readily rooted on ¼MS medium devoid of growth regulators.Rooted plantlets were hardened and established in pots at 100% survival. In vitro flowering was observed on rose plantscultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BA and 0.003 mg/l NAA.

  17. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  18. OpenCV-Based Nanomanipulation Information Extraction and the Probe Operation in SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the established telenanomanipulation system, the method of extracting location information and the strategies of probe operation were studied in this paper. First, the machine learning algorithm of OpenCV was used to extract location information from SEM images. Thus nanowires and probe in SEM images can be automatically tracked and the region of interest (ROI can be marked quickly. Then the location of nanowire and probe can be extracted from the ROI. To study the probe operation strategy, the Van der Waals force between probe and a nanowire was computed; thus relevant operating parameters can be obtained. With these operating parameters, the nanowire in 3D virtual environment can be preoperated and an optimal path of the probe can be obtained. The actual probe runs automatically under the telenanomanipulation system's control. Finally, experiments were carried out to verify the above methods, and results show the designed methods have achieved the expected effect.

  19. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  20. Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

    2006-02-17

    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better.

  1. In vitro reactivity of Begonia semperflorens cv. ‘Ambassador’ white to growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta - Emilia ROMOCEA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the regeneration potential of a Begonia semperflorens cv. ‘Ambassador’ White cultivated on Murashige-Skoog standard mineral medium, supplemented with different combinations of growth regulators. After 90 days of in vitro culture, multiple shoots with 13.3 mm diameter with 12.5 leaves over 6 mm in diameter and with 4-5 buds, were efficiently obtained from the subcultured small propagules on variant V2 - mineral basic medium culture MB - MS supplemented with 1.5 mg / l thidiazuron. Callus induction was favored only on experimental variant V3 - mineral basic medium culture MB - MS supplemented with a mix of 1.5 mg / l 3-Indolebutyric acid plus 1.5 mg / l thidiazuron, with highest diameter of callus of 9 mm.

  2. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit.

  3. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  4. Purification and characterisation of multiple forms of polygalacturonase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poorinima; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2008-11-15

    Three multiple forms of polygalacturonase (PG) namely PGI, PGII and PGIII were isolated, purified and characterized from ripe mango (Mangifera indica cv. Dashehari) fruit. Native molecular weights of PGI, PGII and PGIII were found to be 120, 105 and 65kDa, respectively. On SDS-PAGE analysis, PGI was found to be a homodimer of subunit size 60kDa each while those of PGII and PGIII were found to be heterodimers of 70, 35 and 38, 27kDa subunit size each, respectively. Three isoforms of PG differed with respect to the effect of pH, metals, reducing agents and their susceptibility towards heat. PG isoforms also differed with respect to the effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity. PGI and PGIII exhibited inhibition at high substrate concentration while PGII did not. Km for polygalacturonic acid was found to be 0.02% for PGI.

  5. Clinical Application of Shenque (CV 8) plus Eight Battle Points for Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-hui; HANG Guo-qi

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe the therapeutic effect of Eight Battle Points for simple obesity.Methods:In the treatment of 98 cases of the patients with obesity by the oblique puncture of long needles into Eight Battle Points,the body weight,body weight index (BWI),waist circumference,buttock circumference and fat distribution rate of the patients were measured and assessed respectively before and after the treatments.And the changes of complications of obesity were observed before and after the treatments.Results:There were significant differences (P<0.05) in various indexes of obesity before and after acupuncture treatment.Conclusion:Acupuncture by puncturing Shenque(CV 8) plus Eight Battle Points is positive in the treatment of obesity and has a better therapeutic effect for complications of obesity.

  6. Central heating pipes cause unwanted heating; CV-leidingen zorgen voor ongewenste opwarming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessels, R. [biq-stadsontwerp, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nuijten, O. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Research has shown that the risk of hot spots in the drinking water pipes is very high. Hot spots are, for example, caused by central heating pipes that are too close to the water pipes. The water pipes may be 25 C for a long period, thus creating the risk of legionella growth. The various disciplines need to be careful in the design stage and building stage to prevent such situations from occurring. [Dutch] Onderzoek heeft uitgewezen dat het risico op 'hotspots' in de drinkwaterleidingen erg groot is. Hotspots worden bijvoorbeeld veroorzaakt door cv-leidingen die te dicht in de buurt van waterleidingen lopen. Die waterleidingen kunnen dan langdurig warmer zijn dan 25C en daardoor gevaar opleveren voor legionellagroei. Het vereist zorg van meerdere disciplines in de ontwerpfase en de bouwfase om deze situaties te vermijden.

  7. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  8. Defense gene expression in elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures of french bean cv. Imuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J S; Jennings, A C; Edwards, L A; Mavandad, M; Lamb, C J; Dixon, R A

    1989-12-01

    Cell suspension cultures of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Imuna accumulated isoflavonoid phytoalexins on exposure to elicitor from the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (CL). This was preceeded by rapid increases in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). However, the patterns of expression of PAL and CHS genes differed from those observed in cultures of a previously studied bean cultivar. The relative levels of transcripts from individual members of the CHS multigene family differed significantly at 1.5 h compared to 22.5 h after elicitation. More strikingly, three PAL genes were expressed in cultivar Imuna in response to fungal elicitor, whereas two are expressed in elicitor-treated cell cultures of cultivar Canadian Wonder.

  9. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signals in Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Reporter Strain CV026

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Humayan KABIR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing signals are referred to as acylated homoserine lactones (AHL that are mainly found in Gram-negative bacteria. It implies the ability of certain bacteria of producing different AHL molecules. The bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Xenorhabdus nematophila were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB10 media and CV026 was used as a reporter strain to detect the presence of AHLs produced by the cultured bacteria. In this study, the reporter strain has revealed the quorum sensing ability of P. aureofaciens and X. nematophila by producing the purple pigment violacein in the supply of external AHLs molecules. Thin layer chromatography (TLC bioassay having four controls was conducted to detect specific AHL molecule supplied by P. aureofaciens and X. nematophila. The specific AHL molecule was observed to be migrated according to their polarity on the TLC plate.

  10. Facing the differences between Facebook and OpenCV : A facial detection comparison between Open Library Computer Vision and Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Blomgren, Staffan; Hertz, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Face detection is used in many different areas and with this thesis we aim to show the difference between Facebooks face detection soft-ware compared with an open source version from OpenCV. By using the simplest implementation of OpenCV we want to find out if it is viable for use in personal applications and be of help for others wanting to implement face detection. The dataset was meticulously checked to find the exact number of faces in each image so that the optimal result is given. The c...

  11. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  12. Water relations of GA- and ABA-deficient tomato mutants during seed and fruit development and their influence on germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bino, R.J.; Karssen, C.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    To explain the differing germination behaviour of seeds of wild type, gibberellin-deficient (gib1) or abscisic acid-deficient (sitw) mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker), growth and water relations of fruit tissues, seeds and embryos were determined during development. Th

  13. Introgressions of Lycopersicon pennellii improve growth and development of greenhouse tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manga Owona, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focused on the possibilities to improve greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) in terms of yield. The domestic tomato has a very narrow genetic base which makes breeding for better performance a difficult task. The wild, crossable relatives of tomato present the possi

  14. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  15. Cell division and subsequent radicle protrusion in tomato seeds are inhibited by osmotic stress but DNA synthesis and formation of microtubular cytoskeleton are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    We studied cell cycle events in embryos of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) seeds during imbibition in water and during osmoconditioning ("priming") using both quantitative and cytological analysis of DNA synthesis and -tubulin accumulation. Most embryonic nuclei of dry, untreate

  16. Potassium co-transport and antiport during the uptake of sucrose and glutamic acid from the xylem vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, A.J.E. van; Erven, A.J. van

    1979-01-01

    Perfusion experiments with excised internodes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Moneymaker) showed that the uptake of glutamic acid and sucrose from the xylem vessels is accompanied with coupled proton co-transport and potassium antiport at low pH (<5.5). At high pH (5.5) both proton and potassi

  17. Potassium co-transport and antiport during the uptake of sucrose and glutamic acid from the xylem vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, A.J.E. van; Erven, A.J. van

    1979-01-01

    Perfusion experiments with excised internodes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Moneymaker) showed that the uptake of glutamic acid and sucrose from the xylem vessels is accompanied with coupled proton co-transport and potassium antiport at low pH (<5.5). At high pH (5.5) both proton and potassi

  18. Introgressions of Lycopersicon pennellii improve growth and development of greenhouse tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manga Owona, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focused on the possibilities to improve greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) in terms of yield. The domestic tomato has a very narrow genetic base which makes breeding for better performance a difficult task. The wild, crossable relatives of tomato present the

  19. Effect of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles on the growth and development of Lycopersicon lycopersicum (tomato plants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Martha L; Avilés, Leany Lugo; Pérez, Nitza Guzmán; Irizarry, Bianca Álamo; Perales, Oscar; Cedeno-Mattei, Yarilyn; Román, Félix

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthetized and studied to be incorporated in many industrial and medical applications in recent decades. Due to their different physical and chemical properties compared with bulk materials, researchers are focused to understand their interactions with the surroundings. Living organisms such as plants are exposed to these materials and they are able to tolerate different concentrations and types of NPs. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) NPs are being studied for their application in medical sciences because of their high coercivity, anisotropy, and large magnetostriction. These properties are desirable in magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and cell labeling. This study is aimed to explore the tolerance of Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato) plants to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were grown in hydroponic media amended with CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a range from 0 to 1000mgL(-1). Exposure to CoFe2O4 NPs did not affect germination and growth of plants. Uptake of Fe and Co inside plant tissues increased as CoFe2O4 nanoparticle concentration was increased in the media. Mg uptake in plant leaves reached its maximum level of 4.9mgg(-1) DW (dry weight) at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure and decreased at high CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations. Similar pattern was observed for Ca uptake in leaves where the maximum concentration found was 10mgg(-1) DW at 125mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs exposure. Mn uptake in plant leaves was higher at 62.5mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs compared with 125 and 250mgL(-1) treatments. Catalase activity in tomato roots and leaves decreased in plants exposed to CoFe2O4 NPs. Tomato plants were able to tolerate CoFe2O4 NPs concentrations up to 1000mgL(-1) without visible toxicity symptoms. Macronutrient uptake in plants was affected when plants were exposed to 250, 500 and 1000mgL(-1) of CoFe2O4 NPs.

  20. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  1. Role of dioxygenase α-DOX2 and SA in basal response and in hexanoic acid-induced resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Carlos; de la O Leyva, María; Finiti, Ivan; López-Cruz, Jaime; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; García-Agustín, Pilar; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Resistance of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea requires complex interplay between hormonal signalling. In this study, we explored the involvement of new oxylipins in the tomato basal and induced response to this necrotroph through the functional analysis of the tomato α-dioxygenase2 (α-DOX2)-deficient mutant divaricata. We also investigated the role of SA in the defence response against this necrotrophic fungus using SA-deficient tomato nahG plants. The plants lacking dioxigenase α-DOX2, which catalyses oxylipins production from fatty acids, were more susceptible to Botrytis, and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) was impaired; hence α-DOX2 is required for both tomato defence and the enhanced protection conferred by natural inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) against B. cinerea. The divaricata plants accumulated less pathogen-induced callose and presented lower levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) upon infection if compared to the wild type. Glutathion-S-transferase (GST) gene expression decreased and ROS production significantly increased in Botrytis-infected divaricata plants. These results indicate that absence of α-DOX2 influences the hormonal changes, oxidative burst and callose deposition that occur upon Botrytis infection in tomato. The study of SA-deficient nahG tomato plants showed that the plants with low SA levels displayed increased resistance to Botrytis, but were unable to display Hx-IR. This supports the involvement of SA in Hx-IR. NaghG plants displayed reduced callose and ROS accumulation upon infection and an increased GST expression. This reflects a positive relationship between SA and these defensive mechanisms in tomato. Finally, Hx boosted the pathogen-induced callose in nahG plants, suggesting that this priming mechanism is SA-independent. Our results support the involvement of the oxylipins pathway and SA in tomato response to Botrytis, probably through complex crosstalk of

  2. PARIWISATA KREATIF DAN KEGIATAN EKSTRAKURIKULER BERBASIS BAMBU DALAM PENGEMBANGAN MODEL BISNIS CV SURATIN BAMBOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu Tenara Kardinia Cidhy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a prototype of a future business model which would be adopted to achieve balance between the aspects of new business opportunities and competitive advantages of CV Suratin Bamboo. The analytical method utilized in the study was the business model canvas approach (BMC supported by the blue ocean strategy and SWOT.  The results revealed that through this business model development, bamboo workshop is expected to provide information regarding bamboo derived products, raise awareness of preserving the indigenous bamboo culture, increase sense of belonging to domestic products, as well as become the primary support of innovation and ideas in constructing Indonesia as a nation. Meanwhile, for businesses actors, besides increasing revenue, conducting bamboo workshops is expected to increase the company growths for the long term. The opportunity to maneuver in the development of bamboo-based business model demonstrates that bamboo business with high quality products has both tangible and intangible potentials to be developed further.Keywords: bamboo, blue ocean strategy, business model canvas, creative tourism, extracurricularABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang prototype model bisnis masa depan yang akan digunakan untuk menemukan keseimbangan antara aspek peluang bisnis yang baru dan aspek keuntungan kompetitif CV Suratin Bamboo. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah dengan pendekatan kanvas model bisnis (BMC dilengkapi dengan blue ocean strategy serta SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan melalui pengembangan model bisnis ini, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu memberikan informasi tentang produk turunan bambu, meningkatkan kesadaran melestarikan kearifan lokal budaya bambu, meningkatkan rasa cinta produk dalam negeri, serta menjadi pendorong lahirnya inovasi dan gagasan yang membangun bangsa Indonesia. Sementara bagi pelaku usaha, selain peningkatan revenue, pelatihan bambu diharapkan mampu meningkatkan

  3. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

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    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  4. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  5. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrancosa) from different irrigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Falco, V.; Correia, C. M.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil VOO) from the cv. cobrancosa- integrated into a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2)-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET{sub c}), (T1)-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and (T0)- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts. (Author) 34 refs.

  6. Uso eficiente del agua para el cultivo de rosa cv. Freedom bajo invernadero

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    John J. Arévalo-H

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinar el requerimiento de agua y el momento adecuado de distribución, es un factor fundamental para el cultivo de flores. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la aplicación de tres láminas de riego sobre el desarrollo y producción del cultivo de la Rosa cv. Freedom, bajo invernadero. El experimento se realizó con tres láminas de riego en un cultivo de rosa (Rosa spp. cv. Freedom. Se analizó el crecimiento de los tallos florales, la vida en florero, la producción y la eficiencia en el uso del agua. Los tratamientos se basaron en tres niveles de evapotranspiración de cultivo (ETc (70, 80 y 100%. Durante el estudio, el cultivo se mantuvo en producción constante. Se aplicaron 384,87, 254,25 y 218,97 m³ correspondiente a 100, 80 e 70% de ETc respectivamente, significando un ahorro de agua de 14,0 y 21,8% en el 80 e 70% de ETc respectivamente. El coeficiente de cultivo (Kc vario entre 0,58 y 1,65, con una media de 1,13. No se encontraron diferencias en la producción. Las curvas de crecimiento presentaron incremento continuo, con ajuste al modelo logístico. El 70% de ETc presentó la mayor eficiencia en el uso del agua, con 185 tallos m-3. La conservación media de los tallos florales fue de 12 a 15 días. La mayor causa de pérdida fue la deshidratación, que inició en el día 11, comportamiento normal del tallo floral.

  7. Chemical evolution of metal in refractory inclusions in CV3 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew J.; Simon, Steven B.; Humayun, Munir; Grossman, Lawrence

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure distributions of the siderophile elements V, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in Fremdlinge with a spatial resolution of 15 to 25 μm. A sulfide vein in a refractory inclusion in Allende (CV3-oxidized) is enriched in Rh, Ru, and Os with no detectable Pd, Re, Ir, or Pt, indicating that Rh, Ru, and Os were redistributed by sulfidation of the inclusion, causing fractionation of Re/Os and other siderophile element ratios in Allende CAIs. Fremdlinge in compact Type-A inclusions from Efremovka (CV3-reduced) exhibit subsolidus exsolution into kamacite and taenite and minimal secondary formation of V-magnetite and schreibersite. Siderophile element partitioning between taenite and kamacite is similar to that observed previously in iron meteorites, while preferential incorporation of the light PGEs (Ru, Rh, Pd) relative to Re, Os, Ir, and Pt by schreibersite was observed. Fremdling EM2 (CAI Ef2) has an outer rim of P-free metal that preserves the PGE signature of schreibersite, indicating that EM2 originally had a phosphide rim and lost P to the surrounding inclusion during secondary processing. Most Fremdlinge have chondrite-normalized refractory PGE patterns that are unfractionated, with PGE abundances derived from a small range of condensation temperatures, ˜1480 to 1468 K at P tot = 10 -3 bar. Some Fremdlinge from the same CAI exhibit sloping PGE abundance patterns and Re/Os ratios up to 2 × CI that likely represent mixing of grains that condensed at various temperatures.

  8. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan di Rental Mobil CV. Ilham Motor Gandu Mlarak Ponorogo

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    Dhika Amalia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of quality customer service and loyalty to know a very dominant factor affecting customer loyalty in the CV . Ilham Motor. This research method is the primary data from the questionnaires , sampling technique is a technique associated with customer 100 CV Ilham Motor . Data analysis is a quantitative method to test the validity , reliability testing , multiple linear regression analysis , the correlation coefficient analytic , analytic determination coefficient . And to know the impact of service quality of costumer’s loyalty by T test and F test. The result of double analytic linier regression is obtainable equation Y: 4,413 + 0,144 X1 + 0,026 X2 + 0,162 X3 + 0,151 X4 + 0,223 X5 + e. The result of determination coefficient (R2 is 32.1% and the rest is 67.9% that affected by other variable which is not included in research model. According to T test, the result is that the five costumer service quality (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy contained by a variable that is not impacted, it is reliability; because Ho is accepted and Ha is rejected, whilst the other four are impacting costumer’s loyalty because Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected. The F test result shows that tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy simultaneously have significant effect to costumer’s loyalty because F > F table or 8,898 > 2,33. And, from the five free variable, empathy (X5 is variable that has very dominant effect, the coefficient is 0,223 or 22,3 %.

  9. EFEITO DO ÁCIDO INDOLBUTÍRICO NO ENRAIZAMENTO IN VITRO DE KIWI, CV. HAYWARD

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    Sérgio Lucemar Bonorino Figueiredo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento in vitro de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa, cv. Hayward. O material vegetal utilizado foi proveniente da coleção do Laboratório, de onde retiraram-se explantes, da parte aérea, sem ápice caulinar e com um par de folhas. O AIB foi utilizado através da imersão da base das estacas em solução aquosa, nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 40mg/l. Os explantes permaneceram nesta solução nos seguintes tempos: imersão rápida (5 segundos, 1, 2 e 4 horas. Após os tratamentos, as estacas foram colocadas em meio de cultura MS 50%, acrescido de sacarose, mio-inositol e ágar. Verificou-se que o AIB não teve efeito positivo sobre o número de raízes primárias e comprimento da raiz principal. Verificou-se que, nas concentrações mais elevadas (20 e 40mg/l de AIB e durante a imersão por 4 horas, houve excessiva formação de calos, ocasionando deformação das estacas. Nas condições em que o presente trabalho foi realizado, concluiu-se que não há necessidade de utilização do AIB para o enraizamento in vitro de kiwi, cv. Hayward.

  10. Economic valuation of the Seto Inland Sea by using an Internet CV survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Takahiro; Washida, Toyoaki

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the economic value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea after the introduction of the Law on Temporary Measures for the Environmental Conservation of the Seto Inland Sea (Setouchi Law) and the value of the natural environment that survived, using a Contingent Valuation (CV) survey on an Internet web site. The CV survey contains three plans. Plan 1 is to restore 4 ha of reclaimed land. By estimating the Willingness To Pay (WTP) for plan 1, we can appraise the value of the natural environment that was damaged as a result of the original reclamation. Plan 2 is to transplant Zostera (eel-grass) into an area of 10 ha offshore. Plan 3 is to preserve the shore area, a natural habitat for rare animal species, under the National Trust Program. From the WTP for plans 2 and 3, we can estimate the value of the shore area and the areas a little farther offshore. The value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea as a result of reclaiming projects after the introduction of the Setouchi Law and the value of the existing natural environment of the Seto Inland Sea from the WTP for the plans were estimated to about 172 trillion yen (1.46 trillion dollars) and about 424 trillion yen (3.60 trillion dollars), respectively. The results indicate that in the 25 years since the introduction of the Setouchi Law, we have degraded every year about 6.88 trillion yen (58.5 billion dollars) worth of the natural environment by reclaiming. Some seaweed farms and natural shore areas, natural habitats to rare marine life-forms like the horseshoe crab and the fiddler crab have survived, but their value amounts to about 80% of Japan's GDP.

  11. Efficient Axillary Shoot Proliferation and in Vitro Rooting of Apple cv. ‘Topaz’

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    Snjezana KERESA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Topaz’ is a modern Czech apple cultivar well accepted by consumers and scab-resistant, providing reasons for the significant spreadof cv. ‘Topaz’ in European orchards, especially in the organic fruit production industry. Growing the apple trees on their own rootsprovides some advantages in comparison with grafted trees. Micropropagation is the method of choice for plantlet production for thispurpose as well as for the establishment of healthy mother stock trees as a source of scions. The efficiency of axillary shoot proliferationwas examined on four media differing in plant growth regulators and their concentrations, and from three explant types: intact ordecapitated and defoliated microshoots placed vertically and one-nodal segments placed horizontally. All media consisted of Quoirin andLepoivre (QL macroelements and Murashige and Skoog (MS microelements. Furthermore, rooting efficiency on six different media/treatments was analyzed. Media with 1 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA or BA (0.5 mg/L + 1.5 mg/L kinetin (Kin produced similarnumber of microshoots per inoculated one (2.5 and 2.4, respectively. Medium with 1 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ produced significantlyhigher number of shoots (3.6 but they were fasciated. Three different explant types also produced similar numbers of microshoots.High rooting efficiency (68.7%, a high number of roots per shoot (6.6 and the best quality of shoots were obtained in rooting mediumcontaining 2 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. An efficient method of shoot proliferation was established, and, since rooting was themost critical step, an efficient procedure for rooting apple cv. ‘Topaz’ was established.

  12. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  13. Regeneração in vitro de melão, cv. 'Gaúcho' In vitro regeneration of melon, cv. 'Gaúcho'

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    Daiane Schmidt de Pinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi otimizar um protocolo de regeneração de explantes cotiledonares de melão, cultivar 'Gaúcho', avaliando a composição de meios de germinação e o tempo de permanência dos explantes nesses meios. Para isso, as sementes foram germinadas em meio MS semi-sólido contendo BAP ou ANA e sem esses reguladores de crescimento. As sementes permaneceram nesses meios por um, dois, três e quatro dias, sendo então seus cotilédones inoculados em meio MS contendo diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 0,9; 1,5 e 2,0mg L-1. As maiores taxas de regeneração ocorreram nos cotilédones oriundos de sementes mantidas durante um e dois dias nos meios contendo 0,5 e 0,9mg L-1 de BAP. O aumento da permanência dos explantes nos meios de germinação e as elevadas concentrações de BAP nos meios de regeneração diminuíram a capacidade organogênica dos explantes e incrementaram a formação de calos.The aim of the present study was to optimize a cv. Gaucho melon cotyledon explant regeneration protocol, evaluating the germination media composition and the explant exposition period in these media. For this purpose, seeds were germinated in semi-solid MS medium containing either BAP or ANA, and without growth regulators. The seeds were kept in these media for one, two, three or four days; afterwards, their cotyledons were inoculated in MS medium containing different BAP concentrations (0.5; 0.9; 1.5 and 2.0mg L-1. The highest regeneration rates occurred with cotyledons from seeds which had been kept for one or two days in media containing 0.5 and 0.9mg L-1 BAP. Both the increase in the explant exposition time in germination media and high BAP concentrations in regeneration media decreased explant organogenic capacity, and increased callus formation.

  14. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

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    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  15. Produção integrada e convencional de pêssegos cv. Marli Integrated and convetional production of peach cv. Marli

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    José Luis da Silva Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de pessegueiros é uma atividade de grande importância econômica no Sul do Brasil, onde se destaca o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul como maior produtor brasileiro. Um dos aspectos mais importantes na produção de alimentos da atualidade é a redução no uso de agroquímicos, com menor contaminação do ambiente e riscos reduzidos de resíduos. Este trabalho visou a comparar os sistemas de Produção Convencional (PC e Integrada (PI de pêssegos e foi realizado no ano de 2001, no município de São Jerônimo - RS, latitude 30°05'52" S, longitude 51°39'08" W e altitude de 46 metros. Áreas de um pomar comercial da cv. Marli foram avaliadas em relação às principais práticas de manejo da planta e do solo, controle fitossanitário, aspectos econômicos, bem como à qualidade da fruta. Na área conduzida sob PI, foram utilizadas as práticas de manejo preconizadas pelas Normas de Produção Integrada de Pêssegos (NPIP e, na área conduzida no sistema de PC, as plantas foram manejadas de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas pelo produtor. A produção de pêssegos, em ambos os sistemas, não foi afetada. Na área de PI, houve menor número de pêssegos por planta; entretanto, as frutas apresentaram maior peso médio. A maioria dos pêssegos da PI foram classificados como CAT I (diâmetro superior a 57 mm. As frutas produzidas na PC são, na maioria, de CAT II (de 48 a 57 mm. A qualidade pós-colheita não apresentou diferenças em relação à acidez, firmeza e cor. Com base nestes resultados, podemos concluir que é possível produzir pêssegos de qualidade com produtividade no sistema de PI.The peach-trees cultivation is a very economic important activity in South of Brazil, where highlights the State of Rio Grande do Sul as the largest Brazilian producer. One of the most important aspects in actuality is the food prodution with reduction of agrochemicals components, reducing the risks of environment contamination. This work

  16. Crescimento e desenvolvimento do dossel de Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça Canopy growth and development of Panicum maximum "cv" Mombaça

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    Emerson Alexandrino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Em duas áreas de 1.200m² de capim Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, acompanhou-se a evolução do perfilhamento, da biomassa, do índice de área foliar (IAF, da interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (IRFA e da eficiência de uso da radiação (EUR no verão e outono. Para melhor compreesão do crescimento do dossel, realizou-se também análise do crescimento, estimando-se a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, a taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e a razão de área foliar (RAF da gramínea. Para todas as variáveis, foram consideradas estimativas semanais, realizadas aos 7º, 14º, 21º, 28º, 35º, 42º e 49º dias de rebrotação da gramínea, após pastejo de uniformização. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e duas áreas experimetais: uma no verão e outra no outono. No verão e no outono, foram visualizados, respectivamente, 28 e 24 pontos, sorteados pelos tratamentos experimentais, semelhantes quanto à altura do dossel e à cobertura do solo, após intenso pastejo de uniformização. O perfilhamento da gramínea, intenso na primeira semana, decresceu nas duas semanas seguintes e praticamente cessou a partir da quarta semana. A IRFA evoluiu assintoticamente, atingindo valores de 96% em ambas as estações. O IAF apresentou o mesmo padrão de resposta, com valores de 8 e 4 no verão e no outono, respectivamente. Em ambas as estações, a biomassa evoluiu de forma quadrática com o decorrer da rebrotação. A EUR, mais alta no verão que no outono, decreceu e seus respectivos valores foram 1,76 e 0,54gMS/MJ, em razão da menor precipitação pluviométrica desse período. A eficiência de crescimento do dossel, medida pela TCR, mais alta no verão que no outono e decresceu assintoticamente durante a rebrotação, em ambos os períodos. Enquanto a TAL reduziu durante o período de rebrotação, a RAF aumentou até um ponto de máximo, tanto no verão como no outono

  17. Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Partially Defoliated Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay / Fluorescencia de la Clorofila en Plantas de Uva (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Defoliadas Parcialmente

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    Peña Olmos Jaime Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll content and fluorescence weredetermined in five-year-old grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv.Chardonnay that were subjected to early partial defoliation,in Villa de Leyva, Colombia. The experimental design wascompletely randomized, consisting of two treatments (50%defoliation and control, each with four replications of 35 plants. Every two weeks, one of every two recently-emerged leaves was removed from the non-control plants. The determination of total chlorophyll content was carried out on six leaves per plant using a CCM-200 Plus chlorophyll meter, while chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were taken with one darkadapted leaf per plant using a Junior-PAM fluorometer. Initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, terminal fluorescence (Ft, variable fluorescence (Fv, electron transport rate (ETR, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/ Fm, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (qP, two non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qN and NPQ,quantum yield of light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (Y(NPQ, and quantum yield of non-light-induced non-photochemical quenching (Y(NO were measured. The chlorophyll concentration index showed higher values in the defoliated plants. There were no significant differences for the values of Fm, Ft and Fv. Fo was higher in the defoliated plants, while ETR, Fv/Fm and Y(II showed higher values in the control plants. It is evident that a reduction in leaf area modifies thepartitioning of excitation energy destined for photochemicaland non-photochemical processes, thus directly influencing the photosynthetic process of the plants evaluated. / Utilizando un diseño completamente aleatorizado,con dos tratamientos (defoliación al 50% y control y cuatrorepeticiones de 35 plantas cada una, se determinó el contenido y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en plantas de uva, sometidas a defoliación parcial

  18. Sistemas e condições de colheita e armazenamento na qualidade de morangos cv. Camarosa Systems and conditions of harvest and storage in strawberries cv's Camarosa quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de morangos 'Camarosa' submetidos a diferentes sistemas de colheita, luz UV-C, atmosfera modificada e armazenamento por diferentes períodos, visando ao aumento da vida útil e à redução de perdas após a colheita. A colheita foi realizada em dois sistemas: no sistema um, o produtor realizou a colheita sem luvas, em caixas de madeira e sem utilizar o pré-resfriamento das frutas; no sistema dois, a colheita foi realizada por pessoal treinado, com utilização de luvas desinfetadas, em caixas plásticas lavadas e desinfetadas, foi empregado o pré-resfriamento a -3ºC durante 1 hora, até a temperatura da polpa das frutas atingir 4ºC. Os tratamentos foram: T1- controle (frutas sem luz UV-C e sem filme de polietileno; T2- frutas submetidas à luz UV-C durante 6 minutos; T3- frutas acondicionadas em filme de polietileno; T4- frutas submetidas à luz UV-C e acondicionadas em filme de polietileno. O armazenamento foi realizado à temperatura de 0±0,5ºC e UR de 90-95% por períodos de 3; 6 e 9 dias, seguidos de simulação da comercialização por 3 dias, à temperatura de 8±0,5ºC e UR de 75-80%. Na colheita e após o armazenamento, avaliaram-se: perda de massa; cor; firmeza de polpa; sólidos solúveis (SS; acidez total titulável (ATT; relação SS/ATT; ácido ascórbico, e incidência de podridões. A utilização de pré-resfriamento reduziu a perda de massa e a porcentagem de podridões. A perda de massa diminuiu nas frutas tratadas com filme. A luz UV-C reduziu a porcentagem de podridões. Morangos 'Camarosa' colhidos cuidadosamente, submetidos a pré-resfriamento, com utilização de luz UV-C e filme de polietileno, mantêm a qualidade durante nove dias de armazenamento a 0ºC e 3 dias de comercialização a 8ºC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the cv. Camarosa's quality of strawberries submitted to different harvest systems, UV-C light, exposure modified atmosphere and

  19. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  20. Abscisic acid controls embryo growth potential and endosperm cap weakening during coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Aelst, van A.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism and regulation of coffee seed germination were studied in Coffea arabica L. cv. Rubi. The coffee embryo grew inside the endosperm prior to radicle protrusion and abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the increase in its pressure potential. There were two steps of endosperm cap weakening. An in