WorldWideScience

Sample records for lycopersicoides sect juglandifolia

  1. Compounds from Sorindeia juglandifolia (Anacardiaceae exhibit potent anti-plasmodial activities in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamkumo Raceline G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovering new lead compounds against malaria parasites is a crucial step to ensuring a sustainable global pipeline for effective anti-malarial drugs. As far as we know, no previous phytochemical or pharmacological investigations have been carried out on Sorindeia juglandifolia. This paper describes the results of an anti-malarial activity-driven investigation of the fruits of this Cameroonian plant. Methods Air-dried fruits were extracted by maceration using methanol. The extract was fractionated by flash chromatography followed by column chromatography over silica gel, eluting with gradients of hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures. Resulting fractions and compounds were tested in vitro against the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2, against field isolates of P. falciparum, and against the P. falciparum recombinant cysteine protease falcipain-2. Promising fractions were assessed for acute toxicity after oral administration in mice. One of the promising isolated compounds was assessed in vivo against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Results The main end-products of the activity-guided fractionation were 2,3,6-trihydroxy benzoic acid (1 and 2,3,6-trihydroxy methyl benzoate (2. Overall, nine fractions tested against P. falciparum W2 and falcipain-2 were active, with IC50 values of 2.3-11.6 μg/ml for W2, and 1.1-21.9 μg/ml for falcipain-2. Purified compounds (1 and (2 also showed inhibitory effects against P. falciparum W2 (IC50s 16.5 μM and 13.0 μM and falcipain-2 (IC50s 35.4 and 6.1 μM. In studies of P. falciparum isolates from Cameroon, the plant fractions demonstrated IC50 values of 0.14-19.4 μg/ml and compounds (1 and (2 values of 6.3 and 36.1 μM. In vivo assessment of compound (1 showed activity against P. berghei strain B, with mean parasitaemia suppressive dose and curative dose of 44.9 mg/kg and 42.2 mg/kg, respectively. Active fractions were found to be safe in mice after oral

  2. Mapping of loci from Solanum lycopersicoides conferring resistance or susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel; Yu, Daozhan; Evans, Wendy; Gokirmak, Tufan; Chetelat, Roger T; Stotz, Henrik U

    2009-07-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the necrotrophic ascomycete and causal agent of gray mold, Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to this fungal pathogen is elevated in wild relatives of tomato, including Solanum lycopersicoides. An introgression line population (IL) containing chromosomal segments of S. lycopersicoides within the background of tomato cv. VF36 was used to screen the genome for foliar resistance and susceptibility to B. cinerea. Based on this screen, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, five for resistance and two for susceptibility. Four resistance QTL decreased infection frequency while the fifth reduced lesion diameter. One susceptibility QTL increased infection frequency whereas the other increased lesion diameter. Overlapping chromosomal segments provided strong evidence for partial resistance on chromosomes 1 and 9 and for elevated susceptibility on chromosome 11. Segregation analysis confirmed the major resistance QTL on the long arm of chromosome 1 and susceptibility on chromosome 11. Linkage of partial resistance to chromosome 9 could not be confirmed. The usefulness of these data for resistance breeding and for map-based cloning of foliar resistance to B. cinerea is discussed.

  3. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  4. Chemical markers in Veronica sect. Hebe. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Taskova, Rilka M.; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2009-01-01

    In a continued chemosystematic investigation of the water-soluble compounds in Veronica sect. Hebe, we have investigated two more of the species formerly classified as Parahebe. Both species contained mannitol in considerable amount and in addition some glucosides of iridoid acids. Veronica chees...

  5. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...

  6. Logistic Modeling of a Religious Sect Features

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The financial characteristics of sects are challenging topics. The present paper concerns the Antoinist Cult community (ACC), which has appeared at the end of the 19-th century in Belgium, have had quite an expansion, and is now decaying. The historical perspective is described in an Appendix. Although surely of marginal importance in religious history, the numerical and analytic description of the ACC growth AND decay evolution per se should hopefully permit generalizations toward behaviors of other sects, with either longer life time, i.e. so called religions or churches, or to others with shorter life time. Due to the specific aims and rules of the community, in particular the lack of proselytism, and strict acceptance of only anonymous financial gifts, an indirect measure of their member number evolution can only be studied. This is done here first through the time dependence of new temple inaugurations, between 1910 and 1940. Besides, the community yearly financial reports can be analyzed. They are legal...

  7. A Study of Gelug pa sect with comparison to Nyingma pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Short synopsis and layout of Chapters of the thesis entitled, “A study of Gelugpa sect with comparison to Nyingma Pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet”Around 2500 years ago, a prince of Sākya clan rose against the anguish of life & death and determined to find out the way through which these torments end. That prince was Siddhartha; and whole world came to know him by his enlightened name; Buddha; his path became famous after his name Buddhism. Centuries gone, millennium changed its numbers; still th...

  8. A new species of Lactarius sect. Deliciosi (Russulales, Basidiomycota) from western North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuytinck, Jorinde; Ammirati, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    Although Lactarius sect. Deliciosi (Fr.) Redeuilh, Verbeken & Walleyn (syn. Lactarius sect. Dapetes) is a readily identifiable group in the field, it is exceedingly difficult to correctly identify species with orange to reddish orange latex...

  9. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  10. Plant Regeneration from Stem-Derived Protoplasts of Solanum lycopersicoides%类番茄茄茎段原生质体再生成株的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长远; 吴定华

    2001-01-01

    利用类番茄茄(Solamum lycopersicoides Dun.)无菌苗幼嫩茎段酶解获得大量原生质体(个)(2×106/g),将原生质体密度稀释至1×105/mL于HMA培养基中培养,则10d左右出现小细胞团,38~40d形成肉眼可见的小愈伤组织(1~1.5mm),转移至MC增殖培养基2周后,再转移到15#分化培养基诱导出芽,切取芽体转入50P培养基诱发根原基,再转入50#发根培养基形成发达根系,成为再生植株,整个再生周期80~90d,再生植株移植至土壤中均能正常生长、开花。%A procedure for protoplast isolation, culture and plant regeneration has been developed for solanum lycopersicoides. Stem-protoplasts were diluted to 1×105/mL and cultured in HMA medium, cell colonies (20~30 cells) appeared after 10 days, micro calli (1~1.5mm) formed after 38~40 days from initially culturing. The micro calli were transferred to MC greenig medium for 2 weeks. The green calli were transferred to 15# medium for shoot inducting. The shoots which excised from the callus were transferred to test tubes with 50p medium first for root promoting about 3~4 days and then transferred to 50# rooting medium. Plants regenerated after 80~90 days after initially culturing. All the plants which potted in soil could vigorously grow and blossom.

  11. Las especies de Eryngium Sect. Foetida (Apiaceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Martínez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Eryngium Sect. Foetida (incluida Sect. Flaccida está representado en Argentina por 7 especies: E. chubutense, E. coronatum, E. echinatum, E. ekmanii, E. divaricatum, E. dorae y E. nudicaule. Son hierbas de bajo porte caracterizadas por sus hojas pecioladas con venación reticulada, y sus frutos del tipo “isophlyctide”; se distribuyen principalmente en el NE y centro del país, aunque Eryngium chubutense, endémica, alcanza al sur de su área la provincia de Santa Cruz. Eryngium dorae es una especie poco coleccionada y mal conocida hasta el presente, que se destaca por la presencia de flores subpediceladas y frutos equinados, caracteres poco frecuentes en el género. Se analizan en este aporte los caracteres taxonómicos relevantes en la sección; se describen e ilustran las especies y se proporciona una clave para diferenciarlas

  12. Chromosome number reports in Astragalus sect. Onobrychoidei (Fabaceae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, original mitotic chromosome counts have been presented for 10 populations belonging to 6 species of Astragalus sect. Onobrychoidei: A. aduncus, A. arguricus, A. cancellatus, A. lilacinus and A. vegetus. All taxa were diploid and possessed 2n = 2x = 16 chromosome number, consistent with the proposed base number of x = 8. In addition, meiotic studies revealed chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16 for A. aduncus21 and A. brevidens and also 2n = 4x = 32 for A. vegetus99. Although this taxon displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis, some abnormalities were observed.

  13. Aum Shinrikyô : secte et violence (Partie 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Sylvaine

    2006-01-01

    Aum Shinrikyô : secte et violence Aum Shinrikyô est le seul mouvement religieux qui ait jamais au Japon conçu et perpétré une agression tournée vers l'extérieur de lui-même, un meurtre massif et sans discrimination, avec l'attentat au gaz sarin dans le métro de Tokyo, le 20 mars 1995. Comment, pourquoi ce mouvement religieux a-t-il ainsi sombré à un moment donné dans une violence inouïe ? Celle-ci est-elle produite par la société japonaise, et plus précisément par son système social ? Aurai...

  14. Mapping of QTLs Conferring the Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus(TYLCV)in Solanum lycopersicoides%类番茄茄抗番茄黄花曲叶病毒QTL的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗园园; 刘磊; 李涛; Sayed Rashad Ali Shah; 周龙溪; 孙玉燕; 郑峥; 郑启功; 范淑英; 李君明

    2012-01-01

    An introgression line(IL)population,which was derived from a wild relative Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951,was used to screen the involved loci for resistance to TYLCV by the natural inoculation. In total,7 QTLs conferring the resistance to TYLCV were identified after the analysis of different individuals of IL population,which were respectively located on chromosome 1,3,4,5,6, 7 and 12. Among them,QTL involved in chromosome 1 still need to be addressed further.%采用田间自然接种番茄黄花曲叶病毒(TYLCV)的鉴定方法,对来自番茄野生种类番茄茄Solanum.lycopersicoides LA2951的渐渗系(Introgression Line,IL)群体进行了筛选,发现类番茄茄LA2951对TYLCV的抗性受多个位点控制。通过分析不同IL的抗性,共鉴定出7个QTL,分别位于染色体1、3、4、5、6、7和12上,其中位于染色体1上的QTL有待于进一步确定。

  15. Review: Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bergstresser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria, Martlesham: James Currey, 2014, ISBN 9781847011077, 256 pages

  16. Novel species in Talaromyces sect. Islandici isolated from maize and other substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaromyces sect. Islandici was reexamined to determine the prevalence of isolates from maize and the built environment. Using phenotypic analysis, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic and concordance analysis we discovered and described ten new species in section Islandici and one new species in section...

  17. Nigeria and the Boko Haram Sect: Adopting a Better Strategy for Resolving the Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    ed. Thomas A. Imobighe and Agatha N. T. Eguavoen (Ibadan Nigeria: Heinemann Education Books PLC, 2006), 7; Benjamin Maiangwa and Ufo O. Uzodike, “The...sect were lined up and shot in the back. 111 Hakeem Onapajo and Ufo O. Uzodike, “Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: Man, the State, and the...of Management and Technology, 2008. Maiangwa, Benjamin and Ufo O. Uzodike. “The Changing Dynamics of Boko Haram Terrorism.” Aljazeera Centre for

  18. Phenetic and geographic pattern of Aconitum sect. Napellus (Ranunculaceae in the Eastern Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum sect. Napellus in the Eastern Carpathians was explored with the use of methods of numerical taxonomy*. The taxon consists of A. bucovinense Zapał. pro hybr., A.firmum Rchb. subsp. firmum, A. firmum subsp. fissurae Nyarady, A. fimum nsubsp.fussianum Starmuhl (A.firmum subsp. firmum x subsp. f'issurae, A. x nanum (Baumg. Simonk. (A. bucovinense x A. firmum and a hybrid A. firmum x A. x nanum. The taxi form phenetic continuum in a character hyperspace and their delimitation bases on a few traits, hitherto neglected, e.g. type of hairiness and flower morphology. A key is provided to identify taxa at all ranks within the supplemented of sect. Napellus. There is a regional pattern of particular OTUs distribution, which show local morphological uniqueness within a taxon. The phenomenon was inquired using the concept of "centers of phenetic coherence" (CPC based on overall morphological similarity. The CPC may be interpreteted as regions of neoendemism and/or may reflect a post-glacial migratory route. High-mountain flora of the Western Bieszczady Mts. (sect. Napelus as its example has features of neoendemism (schizoendemism, being most probably a result of geographical vicarism.

  19. Microsculpture of cypselae surface of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae (Asteraceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldrini, Ilsi Iob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the microsculpture of the cypselae surface of the Brazilian species of Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. (Asteraceae, and to compare this data it with the taxonomy of the group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the cypsela surface of 25 taxa of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae from Brazil. According to the micromorphology of the cypsela surface, the species can be classified into five distinct groups. The cypselae of the species of the Baccharis trimera species complex (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala, and B. trimera share the same micromorphological features.Para examinar la superficie de cipselas de 25 táxones de Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. de Brasil se ha utilizado la microscopía electrónica de barrido. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la microescultura de la superficie de cipselas de la sección y colaborar con la delimitación taxonómica a nivel específico. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cinco grupos distintos según la micromorfología y asignados a la terminología existente. El complejo Baccharis trimera (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala y B. trimera mostró afinidades micromorfológicas de las cipselas.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  1. Phenetic and geographic pattern of Aconitum sect. Napellus (Ranunculaceae) in the Eastern Carpathians - a numerical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Mitka

    2014-01-01

    Aconitum sect. Napellus in the Eastern Carpathians was explored with the use of methods of numerical taxonomy*. The taxon consists of A. bucovinense Zapał. pro hybr., A.firmum Rchb. subsp. firmum, A. firmum subsp. fissurae Nyarady, A. fimum nsubsp.fussianum Starmuhl (A.firmum subsp. firmum x subsp. f'issurae), A. x nanum (Baumg.) Simonk. (A. bucovinense x A. firmum) and a hybrid A. firmum x A. x nanum. The taxi form phenetic continuum in a character hyperspace and their delimitation bases on ...

  2. New taxa of Cousinia Cass., Sect. Stenocephalae Bunge (Asteraceae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Attar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Six new species of genus Cousinia, sect. Stenocephalae (Asteraceae including Cousinia ginuae, C. shahuensis from Kurdestan region, C. minuticapitata, C. touchalensis, C. kandavanensis from Tehran region and C. golestanica from Golestan region were described and illustrated. These species which are endemic to Iran are placed in accordance with some characters such as the number of flowers (up to 20, shape of head, decurrent leaves (short- or longly decurrent and their habitat. Comments are also presented about their habitats and geographic distribution as well.

  3. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoko, Mkabwa L. K.; van Weerden, Gerard M.; van Berg, Ronald G.; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits. PMID:23233812

  4. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkabwa L.K. Manoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place S. umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  5. Anthracoidea caricis-meadii is a new North American smut fungus on Carex sect. Paniceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Kyrylo G; Lutz, Matthias; Piatek, Marcin; Heluta, Vasyl P; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of Anthracoidea on Carex meadii (sect. Paniceae) collected in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, USA, were studied by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. As a result A. caricis-meadii sp. nov. is described. The fungus differs morphologically from Anthracoidea laxae and A. paniceae, which also occur on sedges from the section Paniceae. Molecular analyses support the placement of the latter species and Anthracoidea caricis-meadii in different phylogenetic lineages. Because of morphological discrepancies in the literature, A. laxae and A. paniceae also are described and illustrated based on re-examination of respective holotype and isotype specimens.

  6. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Jurjević, Željko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species found worldwide in soils and rhizospheres, indoor and cave environments, as endophytes, food contaminants and occasionally as human pathogens. They produce many extensively studied bioactive secondary metabolites and biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The taxa were revised based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from four loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, RPB2, ITS rDNA), two PCR fingerprinting methods, micro- and macromorphology and physiology. Section Flavipedes includes three known and seven new species: A. ardalensis, A. frequens, A. luppii, A. mangaliensis, A. movilensis, A. polyporicola and A. spelaeus. The name A. neoflavipes was proposed for Fennellia flavipes a distinct species from its supposed asexual state A. flavipes. Aspergillus iizukae, A. frequens and A. mangaliensis are the most common and widely distributed species, whereas A. flavipes s. str. is rare. A dichotomous key based on the combination of morphology and physiology is provided for all recognized species. Aspergillus section Jani is established to contain A. janus and A. brevijanus, species previously classified as members of sect. Versicolores, Terrei or Flavipedes. This new section is strongly supported by phylogenetic data and morphology. Section Jani species produce three types of conidiophores and conidia, and colonies have green and white sectors making them distinctive. Accessory conidia found in pathogenic A. terreus were found in all members of sects. Flavipedes and Jani. Our data indicated that A. frequens is a clinically relevant and produces accessory conidia during infection.

  7. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-01-01

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species. PMID:27681300

  9. Fruit anatomy of species of Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae Anatomía del fruto en especies de Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco E. Chiarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mature fruits of 10 South American species of Solanum sect. Torva were studied. Cross and longitudinal microtome sections, stained with astra blue/basic fuchsin, were made for microscopic examination. All species present an epidermis formed by a unistrate layer of small, isodiametric cells, with dense content and cellulosic walls. Immediately below, a hypodermis is always found, consisting of a well-defined layer of lignified cells with a single calcium oxalate crystal occupying the whole lumen of each cell. This is followed by one layer of cellulosic, isodiametric cells with dense cytoplasm and then several collenchymatous layers, sometimes with sclerified cell walls. The mesocarp comprises two zones histologically differentiated: an external one (formed by regular, vacuolated, medium-sized cells with small intercellular spaces, and an internal one, commonly juicy, and developing proliferations among the seeds. The fruits analyzed are alike, and despite some particularities, they can be classified as berries in the conventional sense. All the traits examined agree with the ornithochorous dispersal syndrome. The homogeneity in fruit traits may be due to shared habit, habitat and sexual system.Se estudiaron los frutos maduros de 10 especies sudamericanas de Solanum sect. Torva. Se examinaron en microscopio cortes microtómicos transversales y longitudinales teñidos con azul astral/fucsina básica. Todas las especies presentaron una epidermis unistrata de células pequeñas, isodiamétricas, de contenido denso y paredes celulósicas. Inmediatamente por debajo se encontró siempre una hipodermis, formada por una capa bien definida de células lignificadas con un cristal de oxalato de calcio en el lúmen de cada célula. A continuación se halló otra capa de celulas isodiamétricas, celulósicas, de contenido denso, y luego varias capas de colénquima, en ocasiones con paredes esclerificadas. El mesocarpo presentó dos zonas histologicamente

  10. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  11. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas. 1. Croton macradenis (sect. Podostachys, fam. Euphorbiacece), a new species from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Punt, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Croton, sect. Podostachys (C. macradenis) from French Guiana and Suriname is described. It has remarkable long glands. The distinctive characters of the species are the following: long, tubiform glands at the base of the leaves; male flowers with a hairy receptacle and 5-6 anthers ;

  12. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Alex D.; Ennos, Richard A.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. • Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. • Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections. PMID:25202548

  13. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  14. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Twyford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections.

  15. Systematic study of simple-leaved group of Astragalus sect. Incani DC. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, morphological pollen characteristics of different populations of 5 species belonging to simple-leaved group of Astragalus sect. Incani DC. in Iran were studied. Results showed that all studied taxa formed two groups. In addition, chromosome number and meiotic behavior were studied in 3 populations belonging to two species of this group. All taxa were diploid and had the basic chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16. Although the taxa represented regular meiosis, but some abnormalities such as laggard and fragmented chromosomes in anaphase/telophase I and II and diakinesis/methaphase I, cytomixis in anaphase/telophase I and II, multipolar cells in telophase II, binucleouli cells in prophase I and bridges in anaphase I and telophase II were obseved.

  16. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  17. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  19. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  20. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas. 1. Croton macradenis (sect. Podostachys, fam. Euphorbiacece), a new species from the Guianas

    OpenAIRE

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Punt, W

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Croton, sect. Podostachys (C. macradenis) from French Guiana and Suriname is described. It has remarkable long glands. The distinctive characters of the species are the following: long, tubiform glands at the base of the leaves; male flowers with a hairy receptacle and 5-6 anthers ; ovary glabrous ; pollen show the Croton-pattern. A comparative study between a number of species of the section is made.

  1. Analisi morfologiche e citotassonomiche su alcune entità di Helleborus l. sect. Helleborus nel Friuli-Venezia Giulia

    OpenAIRE

    Coassini Lokar, Laura; Poldini, Livio; Martini, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    MORPHOLOGIC AND CYTOTAXONOMIC INVESTIGATIONS ON SOME TAXA OF HELLEBORUS SECT. HELLEBORUS IN THE FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA REGION (NORTHEASTERN ITALY) AND ISTRIA On the basis of morphometric, histoanatomic and cytotaxonomic analyses, the populations of Helleborus of the Trieste Karst region (North-Eastern Italy) and Istria with smaller floral diameter (4.4-4.8 cm), currently treated as H. multifidus subsp. istriacus, are here included into the H. odorus complex.

  2. Pollen Morphology of Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora, a Group Endemic to the Eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Yu; Hong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a 'grex' or section and Included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature of it is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Pollen morphology of seven species In sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate) using LM, while examination with SEM made it possible to recognize three types of exine ornamentation (i.e. microscabrate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The microfoveolata exlne ornamentation was found in trisyncolpata pollen grains for the first time. Possible relationships between pollen data and the corolla types were discussed. Comparisons of floral and phyllotaxy characters of the genus Pedicularis, together with the pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, could help us to better understand the evolutionary trends in Pedicularis.

  3. Marginal likelihood estimate comparisons to obtain optimal species delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aydin

    Full Text Available Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF, based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae. We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS, Stepping Stone sampling (SS, and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii.

  4. Morfologia dos tricomas em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma (D. Don cogn. (melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastomataceae é a família que apresenta a maior diversidade de tricomas. Dr. Wurdack em seu "Atlas of hairs" reconheceu 46 tipos de tricomas para as Melastomataceae neotropicais com o uso de MEV, e referiu 17 destes para o gênero Tibouchina. Em Melastomataceae a morfologia dos tricomas tem sido extensivamente usada na delimitação dos táxons, assim como em estudos que antecederam ao trabalho de Cogniaux, a monografia das Melastomataceae brasileiras publicada em 1885. Em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma a morfologia dos tricomas foi substancial para a circunscrição de várias espécies. O uso da MEV permitiu uma caracterização dos 15 tipos diferentes de tricomas observados nas 41 espécies examinadas. Os diferentes tipos são descritos com base no aspecto morfológico tanto em MO como em MEV e ilustrados através de eletromicrografias de varredura e fotomicrografias.The Melastomataceae display greater trichome diversity. Dr. Wurdack, in his Atlas of hairs, recognized 46 types of trichomes for the Neotropical Melastomataceae through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and referred 17 of them to the genus Tibouchina. The trichome morphology has been extensively used in the delimitation of the taxa in Melastomataceae, as well as in previous studies by Cogniaux, the monograph of Brazilian Melastomataceae published in 1885. The morphology of the trichomes was essential for the delimitation of several species in Tibouchina section Pleroma. The use of SEM provided the best characterization of the 15 different types of trichomes recognized among the 41 species examined. These were described based on the morphological appearance, both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and illustrated by scanning electron micrographs and photomicrographs.

  5. Anatomia de escapos, folhas e brácteas de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis (Bong. ex Koern. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae Anatomy of scapes, leaves, and bracts of Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis (Bong. ex Koern. Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a anatomia de escapos, folhas e brácteas de 24 espécimes de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis, que ocorrem nos campos rupestres do Brasil. Os escapos apresentam número variado de costelas, epiderme unisseriada, com células de paredes totalmente espessadas; córtex com esclerênquima e parênquima clorofiliano alternados; endoderme contínua ou descontínua; periciclo estrelado; feixes vasculares colaterais; medula com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. As folhas e as brácteas apresentam epiderme com células de paredes total ou parcialmente espessadas, estômatos na face abaxial, margem com parênquima clorofiliano ou esclerênquima; mesofilo com hipoderme constituída de esclerênquima ou parênquima aqüífero, feixes vasculares colaterais envolvidos externamente pela endoderme e internamente pelo periciclo. Escapos, folhas e brácteas de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis apresentam células com paredes espessadas e grande quantidade de esclerênquima, provavelmente como resposta adaptativa dessas plantas ao vento e à radiação excessiva comum nos campos rupestres. Epiderme com células de paredes espessadas, estômatos com câmara subestomática não especializada, presença de hipoderme, esclerênquima, e parênquima clorofiliano compacto, caracterizam anatomicamente escapos, folhas e brácteas de Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis. No geral, os caracteres anatômicos não são consistentes para separar os táxons dentro da seção.The anatomy of scapes leaves and bracts of twenty four taxa included in Syngonanthus sect. Eulepis (Bong. ex Koern. Ruhland from the Brazilian "campos rupestres" was studied. Scapes present a vary number of ribs, thick-walled uniseriate epidermal cells, alternate sclerenchyma, and chlorenchyma in the cortex, continuous or discontinuous endodermis, star-shaped pericycle, collateral vascular bundles, and pith with thin or thick-walled cells. Leaves and bracts have total or partial thick-walled epidermal cells

  6. 利用类番茄茄LA2951渐渗系群体鉴定番茄抗晚疫病QTL%Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Late Blight in Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951 Introgression Line Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春芝; 刘磊; 孙玉燕; 周龙溪; 杨宇红; 谢丙炎; 李君明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] The objective of this study is to explore the potential loci for resistance to late blight of introgression line (IL) population derived from a nightshade related species Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951. [Method] Detached-leaflet assay (DLA) was used for the artificial inoculation. The abaxial surface of each leaflet was inoculated with a drop of 10 uL sporangial suspension (2x104sporangiums/mL), and the inoculated leaves were incubated at 19'C with 70%-100% relative humidity. Lesion size (LS) of the leaf and disease incidence (DI) were measured 6 d after inoculation. [Result] The resistance of this wild species was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). In total, 5 QTLs {Rpiqlb, Rpiq2b, Rpiq4b, Rpiq8a, Rpiqll) were identified after inoculation with race T,^, which significantly reduced LS, and 3 QTLs (Rpiqla, Rpiqla, Rpiq8b) were indentified which clearly reduced DI. However, only 2 QTLs (Rpiq4a and RpiqS) reducing DI were indentified after inoculation with more virulent race T1,2,4-It proved that QTLs derived from LA2951 showed a clear race-specific resistance. Based on tomato high density genetic linkage map, all QTLs detected in this paper were co-localized with those previously identified in other tomato wild species. In addition, 2 susceptibility QTLs (Spiq4 and SpiqlO) increasing DI were identified after inoculation with both race T1,2 and race T1,2,4 which were located at the end of short arm of chromosome 4 and chromosome 10, respectively. [Conclusion] Ten resistance QTLs and 2 susceptibility QTLs were identified, and they presented a race-specific behavior. The results obtained in this paper provided atheoretical basis for breeding of late blight resistance in tomato.%[目的]利用来自番茄近缘野生种类番茄茄(Solanum Iycopersicoides)LA2951的渐渗系群体,挖掘LA2951中潜在的抗晚疫病基因.[方法]采用离体叶片接种法,每片小叶背面接种10 μL菌液(2×104孢子囊/mL),在温度19℃和相对湿度70

  7. Tipificación y estatus raxonómico de Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens (sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae [Typification and taxonomic status of Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens comb. et stat. nov. (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se reivindica el valor taxonómico y lectotipifica el nombre de Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae propuesto por Carlos Pau para describir una planta presente en la sierra litoral valenciana de Carcaixent (Valencia. Esta variedad se recombina con rango subespecífico dentro C. resupinta Coss., acorde con la actual sistemática propuesta para este complejo grupo de plantas. Morfológicamente esta planta se caracterizada por la ausencia o el pequeño tamaño de las fimbrias en el ápice de las brácteas involucrales del capítulo. ABSTRACT: We both propose the taxonomic value and lectotypify the name of Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae proposed by Carlos Pau to describe a plant taxa living in the Valencian litoral range of Carcaixent (Valencia, Spain. This variety is recombined with subspecific rank inside C. resupinata Coss., following the current systematics proposed for this plant group. As main morphological trait, this subspecies is characterised by the absence or very low size of fimbriae under the involucral bract ápex.

  8. The Origin and Development of Nan Zen Sect Culture and its Modern Cultural Significance%南禅文化的源流及其现代意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曙豪

    2012-01-01

    南禅作为一种宗教,它以六祖为祖,以《坛经》为经。其总体思想内核是"心性自由"。在思想上,南禅文化在宋以降对儒道文化产生了影响。南禅文化不但对思想界产生了重大影响,对文艺界也产生了重大影响。在这个过程中,南禅的心性哲学渐渐演化为一种美学趣味,渗透到文学、艺术各个领域,出现了禅诗、诗僧、禅画、书法等艺术形态。韶关是南禅文化的发源地。南禅在韶关本地的传承甚广。南禅文化是韶关最具有优势的研究文化。%Nan Zen sect is a religion with the Sixth Patriarch being the founder,and Platform Sutra acting as the platform.The core of Nan Zen sect is the freedom of mind,and it exerts an influence on Confucianism and Taoism of Song Dynasty in thoughts.Besides the influence on the circle of thoughts,Nan Zen sect also plays an important role in the circle of literary and art.The philosophy of human nature and mind of Nan Zen sect gradually becomes a sense of aesthetics permeating into areas of literary,art,etc,which covers art forms such as Zen poem,poem-monk,Zen painting and calligraphy.Shaoguan is where Nan Zen sect originates and prevails,having the superiority to intensively study on the Nan Zen sect culture.

  9. DNA barcoding in closely related species: A case study of Primula L.sect.Proliferae Pax (Primulaceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Fei YAN; Gang HAO; Chi-Ming HU; Xue-Jun GE

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a method of identifying species by analyzing one or a few short standardized DNA sequences. There are particular challenges in barcoding plants, especially for distinguishing closely related species. Hence, there is an urgent need to evaluate the performance of candidate loci for distinguishing between species, especially closely related species, to complement the rbcL + matK combination suggested as the core barcode for land plants. We sampled 48 individuals representing 12 species in Primula sect. Proliferae Pax in China to evaluate the performance of eight leading candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoCl, trnH-psbA, psbK-psbI, atpFatpH, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)). The core combination rbcL + matK gave only 50% species resolution in sect. Proliferae. In terms of intraspecies and interspecies divergence, degree of monophyly, and sequence similarity, ITS, trnH-psbA, and psbK-psbI showed good performance as single-locus barcodes. Internal transcribed spacer displayed the highest genetic divergence and best discriminatory power, both alone and in combination with rbcL +matK (83.3% species resolution). We recommend evaluating the use of ITS for barcoding in other species. Low or single copy nuclear regions would provide more sophisticated barcoding tools in the long term, even though further research is required to find suitable loci.

  10. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  11. Le livre décisif sur les religions et les sectes d'Ibn Hazm : entre l'histoire du texte et la critique textuelle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaddouri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Ibn Hazm, an Andalusian polygraph (XI century), is the author of an important critical history of religions and sects called al-Fasl. In the first chapter, the author draws a critical review of modern research on this item. In the second chapter, he establishes a biography of Ibn Hazm studying the c

  12. Meiotic chromosome number and behavior of six populations of Onobrychis melanotricha Boiss. (O. sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Onobrychis Mill. with about 130 species in 9 sections is one of the most valued legumes distributed mainly in temperate regions of north hemisphere. However, its main centers of diversity are eastern Mediterranean and southwestern Asia. O. sect. Heliobrychis is the largest section of the genus and has nearly 21 species in Iran. In this investigation, the chromosome number and meiotic behavior were studied in 6 populations of O. melanotricha. All taxa were diploid and had the basic chromosome number of 2n=2x=16. Although the taxa represented regular meiosis, some abnormalities such as laggard and fragmented chromosomes in anaphase/telophase I, II and diakinesis/methaphase I, cytomixis in anaphase/telophase I, II, micronucleus in telophase II, multipolar cells in telophase II, bridges in anaphase I and asynchronous nuclei in metaphase II and telophase I and II were observed.

  13. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of

  14. Molecular identification of species in Prunus sect.Persica (Rosaceae), with emphasis on evaluation of candidate barcodes for plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu QUAN; Shi-Liang ZHOU

    2011-01-01

    Species of Prunus L. sect. Persica are not only important fruit trees, but also popular ornamental and medicinal plants. Correct identification of seedlings, barks, or fruit kernels is sometimes required, but no reliable morphological characters are available. Nowadays, the technique of DNA barcoding has the potential to meet such requirements. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of 11 DNA loci (atpB-rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-F, trnS-G,atpF-H, rbcL, marK, rpoB, rpoC1, nad1, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) as candidate DNA barcodes for peaches, using samples from 38 populations, covering all the species in sect. Persica. On the whole, the primers worked well in this group and sequencing difficulties were met only in the case of ITS locus. Five loci (rbcL,matK, rpoB, rpoC, and nad1) have very low variation rates, whereas atpB-rbcL, atpF-H, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and trnS-G show more variability. The most variable loci, atpB-rbcL and trnH-psbA, can distinguish three of the five species. Two two-locus combinations, atpB-rbcL+trnL-F and atpB-rbcL+atpF-H, can resolve all five species. We also find that identification powers of the loci are method-dependent. The NeighborNet method shows higher species identification power than maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods.

  15. Cytotaxonomy of North African species of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanché, César

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Both chromosome numbers and karyotype structure from 15 wild North-African populations of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium were studied. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, with a more symmetrical karyotype, appears as a possible perennial ancestor of' the remaining annuals with highly asymmetrical and shorter karyotype. A taxonomical reorganization of this section is proposed: two new series (ser. Macropetala ser. nova and ser. Balansae ser. nova. and two new nomenclatural combinations (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum are proposed.

    S'han estudiat els nombres cromosòmics i l'estructura deis cariotipus de 15 poblacions nordafricanes de Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, amb cariotipus mes simètric, apareix com a possible ancestre perenne de la resta d’espècies anuals amb cariotipus més asimètric i més curt. Es proposa una reorganització taxonòmica de la secció, d'on es descriu en dues series noves (ser. Macropetala ser. nova i ser. Balansae ser. nova. i es proposen dues combinacions noves (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum.

  16. Un nuevo híbrido para el género Teucrium L. (sect. Polium, Lamiaceae en la Comunidad Valenciana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peris, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid is described for the genus Teucrium L. [sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb., Lamiaceae], Teucrium ×guarae-requenae [T. gnaphalodes L’Hér. × T. homotrichum (Font Quer Rivas Mart.] from Fontanars dels Alforins (Valencia Province, Spain. Morphological description and illustrations of the new hybrid are provided.Se describe un nuevo híbrido para el género Teucrium L. [sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb., Lamiaceae], Teucrium ×guaraerequenae [T. gnaphalodes L’Hér. × T. homotrichum (Font Quer Rivas Mart.] procedente de Fontanars dels Alforins (Valencia, España. Se aporta una descripción morfológica detallada así como ilustraciones para esta nueva planta.

  17. 中国秋海棠属等翅组植物订正%Revision to Sect.Petermannia of Begonia (Begoniaceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民; 陈文红

    2004-01-01

    根据海南秋海棠(Begonia hainanensis Chun et F.Chun)、多花秋海棠(B.sinofloribunda L.J.Dorr)及一新种--长柄秋海棠(B.sublongipes Y.M.Shui)的特征比较,订正了中国秋海棠属等翅组[Sect.Petermannia (Klotzsch) A.DC.],使该组在中国增至3个种.

  18. On the Founder of Karma Kargyu Sect:Karmapa Dusum Chenpa%浅析噶玛噶举派创始人都松钦巴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仁青群错

    2015-01-01

    噶玛巴・都松钦巴是藏传佛教噶玛噶举派黑帽系的第一世活佛,也是该派的创始人。他兴建了噶玛噶举派上下二主寺———噶玛寺、楚浦寺。他一生致力于弘扬佛法,利益众生,不仅得到世人的敬仰,也为噶玛噶举派的发展奠定了坚实的基础。%Karmapa Dusum Chenpa was the first incarnated Lama and the founder of the Kagyul Sect ( black hat ) .He founded the two main monasteries of this sect ---Karma monastery and Tsupu mon-astery .He also dedicated his whole life to the work of preaching Dharma and helping other beings .Thus, he gained respect and adoration from the people , which helped him to build a strong foundation for the widespread of the Karma Kargyu Sect .

  19. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shong Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  20. Usefulness and limitations of pollen characters in environmental studies based on Viola L. species (sect. Melanium Ging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Słomka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these studies was to determine the effect of environmental pollution on pollen development. Pollen heteromorphism (the presence of pollen morphs differing in aperture number in one flower of a plant, pollen viability (stainability and pollen grain size in European metallophytes from sect. Melanium Ging. (Viola L., Violaceae were analyzed by SEM and histochemical staining. Plants’ tolerance to heavy metals is positively correlated with their pollen viability, which should be termed stainability as it depends on the staining method applied and is not correlated with pollen germination. Abortive pollen can be produced as an effect of heavy metals but also may result from hybridization, a very common phenomenon in pansies. Pollen stainability in hybrids can be high (even exceeding 70% or low (barely above 20%, and stainable pollen grains can differ greatly in size (from very small to giant, indicating a cytological imbalance resulting from disturbed meiosis. The number of pollen apertures is an adaptive character in facultative metallophytes. Plants from a metallicolous population produced a wider range of aperture number (3, 4, 5 than plants from a non-metallicolous population, which developed only 4- and 5-aperturate pollen. Three-aperturate longer-lived pollen are favored in the harsh conditions of a metal-polluted environment.

  1. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions.

  2. Biosystematic Relationships and Leaf Anatomical Characteristics of Three Sects' Plants in Elymus (Poaceae)%披碱草属3组植物叶片解剖特征及其系统关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏旭; 刘玉萍; 吴学明

    2012-01-01

    采用石蜡切片法对披碱草属中小颖组、宽颖组和长颖组主要代表种的叶片横切面形态学特征进行观察.结果显示:(1)披碱草属3个组植物的叶片均为等面叶,由表皮、叶肉和维管束三部分构成,表现为典型的狐茅型,即表皮细胞形状、大小和排列不均,叶肉无栅栏组织和海绵组织之分,具有双层维管束鞘,周围叶肉细胞呈不规则排列,厚壁组织与表皮相接;但3个组植物在上表皮细胞形状、大小、沟的深浅,以及大型导管数目等叶片横切面特征上存在明显差异.(2)根据3个组植物叶片横切面性状的演化趋势,对各组的演化关系和系统位置分析表明,小颖组最原始,宽颖组较进化,长颖组最高级;小颖组可能直接派生了较进化的宽颖组,并在宽颖组的基础上进而产生了最高级的长颖组;小颖组、宽颖组和长颖组的这一系统关系与利用外部形态特征所获得的演化趋势基本一致.%The transverse sections of leaf blades of the major species of sect. Elymus, sect. Turczaninovia and sect. Macrolepis in Elymus were examined. The results showed that: (l)The leaf blade consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular bundle, which is isobilateral leaf. It belongs to the typical festucoid type. Namely,shape,magnitude and arrangement of epidermises are asymmetric. The mesophyll is not distinguished into palisade tissue and spongy tissue. They have double layer bundle sheath. The ambient mesophyll cells arranged irregularly and sclerenchyma is joined to epidermis. There are also obvious differences existing on the transverse section characteristics of leaf blades including shape.magnitude and depth of furrows in upper epidermises,number of large vessels,etc. (2) According to the evolutionary trends of transverse section characteristics of three sects,their evolutionary positions and relationships were inferred. The results show that the sect. Elymus is the most primitive one

  3. Competition in power grids. The right of grid connection according to Sect. 17 EnWG; Wettbewerb im Stromnetz. Der Netzanschlussanspruch nach paragraph 17 EnWG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Beatrice

    2011-07-01

    The book investigates grid connection, i.e. the physical connection of a household to the grid, on the basis of the current EnWG (Energy Industry Act) and the market situation. In order to analyze the effects of the EnWG, the deregulation period of the late nineties is gone into including the market structure before and after deregulation. The book has five sections. The first chapter describes teh development and structure of the power supply sector. The German power industry, markets and utilities are described, and restructuring attempts are reviewed critically. The second chapter goes into the new legal framework, the relationship between regulation law and cartel law, and the goals of the EnWG 2005. The third chapter goes into grid connection according to Sect. 17 EnWG. The addressees of the norm of this right are analyzed, as well as the petitioners and the objective and reasonable grounds for refusal. Refusal not based on objective and reasonable grounds interferes with competition and puts petitioners at a disadvantage. Sect. 17 EnWG also defines whether the implemented regulation is sufficient for achieving an internal market for electricity. Sect. 110 EnWG poses a problem here as it excludes object grid operators as addressees of the norm of the connection, which may violate European law. The fourth chapter goes into future legal initiatives and discusses whether there is a need for competition and more efficient grid connection in case of ownership unbundling. Compliance with European law and constitutional law must be analyzed. The fifth and final chapter summarizes the results. (orig./RHM)

  4. 董其昌与“南北宗”画论分析%The Analysis of Dong Qichang and the Theory of Southern and Northern Sects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正俊; 马清越

    2011-01-01

    Dong Qichang is a famous artist,art connoisseur and theorist,who lived in late Ming dynasty,his painting practice and art theory have a significant influence on Chinese painting development.the proposal of southern and northern sects theory make him popular in Chinese painting history,it's very complex when talking about the consequence that the theory bring to us,different people have different view towards this theory.This paper puts the emphasis on the origin and the history significance of southern and northern sects theory,also presents the author's own perspective on the controversy which exists in the art history and the painting theory history fields.%董其昌是明代中后期画坛享有盛名的书画家、美术鉴赏家和理论家,他的绘画实践和绘画理论对中国画的发展影响巨大且深远。但其后人们对这一论断褒贬不一。应将其绘画理论放在特定的历史环境中辩证地分析,以更好地指导中国画的创作。

  5. From original enlightment critics to the genealogy of Chan sect Inquiry to Chan sect by Lv Cheng%从“本觉批判”到“禅宗谱系学”吕潋《禅宗》考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海虎

    2012-01-01

    The Chan sect by Lv Cheng is a classics in the history of the criticism of Chan sect in modem China. It not only made articulation of original enlightenment in the whole process of China Chart, but also made the initial analysis of the relation between Chan, Dhyana and Buddhism. It suggests a possible " genealogy of Chan" from the overall perspective. From the framework of historical narrative and the theoretical analysis, the interpretation of Chan in the book of The Origin and History of Chinese Buddhist philosophy is " the genealogy of Chan sect" on the basis of Chan Sect.%摘要:吕激先生的《禅宗》一文是我国现代思想史上禅批判的经典文本,此文不但对中国禅前后期的本觉论的脉络作了明确刻画,而且对禅宗发展过程中禅与禅定以及言教的关系也作了初步梳理。从整体上看,《禅宗》标示了一种可能的“禅宗谱系学”,从历史叙述的框架或理论分析的框架看,《中国佛学源流略讲》的禅学论述是以《禅宗》为蓝本而展开的“禅宗谱系学”。

  6. Clinical Analysis of Anodyne Labor to Decrease C-sect%镇痛分娩降低剖宫产的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳; 普玲玉; 王琴; 张德军; 李荣敏; 朱廷芬

    2016-01-01

    目的 对镇痛分娩降低剖宫产发生比例的效果进行分析. 方法 随机选取2014年1月—2015年1月在该院进行分娩的产妇200例,根据分娩方法的选择进行分组,常规组患者100例,进行正常分娩;镇痛组患者100例,应用镇痛麻醉措施下分娩,对两组患者的分娩情况进行分析.结果 镇痛组患者剖宫产比例、成功阴道分娩的比例、患者满意度、总产程时间、产后出血发生比例、胎儿窘迫发生比例、新生儿评分均明显优越与常规组患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患者均没有发生严重不良反应和不良事件发生. 结论 应用镇痛分娩可有效的降低剖宫产发生率,明显提高顺产比例,有效提高患者的满意度,缩短产程时间,降低胎儿窘迫发生比例,提高新生儿评分,减轻产妇的心理和身体负担,增强产妇顺产分娩的自信心,有效降低剖宫产发生比例.%Objective To analyze the effect of anodyne labor to decrease the occurring ratio of C-sect. Methods 200 cases of?delivery women laboring in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 were selected and divided into two groups with 100 cases in each according to the delivery method, the conventional group labored normally, the analgesia group la-bored with analgesic anesthesia measures, the delivery conditions of the two groups were analyzed. Results The cesarean section ratio ,successful vaginal delivery ratio, patient satisfaction degrees, duration of total labour course, incidence of postpartum hemorrhage, incidence of fetal distress and neonatal apgar score in the analgesia group were obviously better than those in the conventional group, the difference was obvious with statistical significance (P<0.05),both groups had no serious adverse reactions and adverse events. Conclusion The application of anodyne labor can effectively decrease the in-cidence of C-sect ,obviously improve the ratio of natural labour, effectively improve the

  7. The regulation of self-consumption in paragraph 33 Sect. 2 EEG according to the PV novella 2010; Die Eigenverbrauchsregelung in paragraph 33 Abs. 2 EEG nach der Photovoltaik-Novelle 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany). Oeffentliches Recht, insb. Energie- und Umweltrecht; Scheel, Benedikt [greentech GmbH und Cie. KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The regulation of power consumption regulation for solar power plants on roof areas in paragraph 33 Sect. 2 Renewable Energy Law (EEG) apart from the direct marketing after paragraph 17 EEG may promote the attainment of grid parity. With the PV novella 2010, the regulation of paragraph 33 Sect. 2 EEG was extended on plants with an electrical performance of up to 500 kW. At the same time the level of remuneration was attached to a gradation up to 30 % and more than 30 % of the produced and self-used electricity. The new regulation results in some questions of law with respect to the requirements of the claim of remuneration with the power consumption, the legal consequences and the temporary regulations.

  8. Interspecific Relationships among the Wild Species of Paeonia Sect.Moutan DC.Based on DNA Sequences of Adh Gene Family%基于Adh基因家族序列的牡丹组 (Sect.Moutan DC.)种间关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林启冰; 周志钦; 赵宣; 潘开玉; 洪德元

    2004-01-01

    测定了牡丹组7个种10个野生居群共10份样品的全部Adh1A、Adh1B和Adh2基因序列.结合前人已报道的牡丹野生种的Adh基因序列,以芍药组(Sect. Paeonia)和北美芍药组(Sect. Oneapia)的种作外类群,用PAUP*(4.0 b 4 a)计算机程序构建了牡丹组全部8个种的Adh1A、Adh1B和Adh2基因树(最大简约树和邻接树),同时进行了Adh1A、Adh1B和Adh2基因序列的合并分析.结果表明,牡丹组的8个种分为两个具有90%以上自展值支持的单系分支,分别对应Stern(1946)根据形态划分的革质花盘亚组(Subsect. Vaginatae)和肉质花盘亚组(Subsect. Delavayanae).在革质花盘亚组内,本研究结果支持银屏牡丹(Paeonia suffruticosa ssp. yinpingmudan)和凤丹(P.ostii)、紫斑牡丹(P. rockii)和四川牡丹(P. decomposita)以及矮牡丹(P. jishanensis)和卵叶牡丹(P. qiui)各种之间有更近的亲缘关系,但有关牡丹复合体(P. suffruticosa complex)内各种间更进一步的关系还有待进一步研究.根据Adh基因树并结合前人的结果对牡丹组的种间关系进行了详细的讨论.

  9. Analysis of Subjectivity Impact of the Founders of Eastern Esotericism and Tiantai Sect in Cultural Communication%论东密和台密创始人在文化交流中的主体影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2012-01-01

    This paper,considering the media subject as an important factor in cultural communication,analyses the different roles of Kukai and Saicho,the respective founder of Eastern Esotericism and Tiantai Sect,established during the Heian period of Japan.%基于传播主体是文化交流过程中重要因素之一,尝试分析了日本平安时代东密创始人空海与台密创始人最澄在中日文化交流过程中起到的不同作用。

  10. 论全真音乐机制与全真道士的诗词艺术%On the Music Mechanism and the Poetry of the Quanzhen Sect of Taoism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于东新

    2012-01-01

    Music of the Quanzhen Sect is mainly applied in self-cultivation by chanting and reciting.It is also applied in the ceremonies of celebration or prayer by vocal performance.Under the influence of the music context,the creation of poetry styles by Taoists of the Quanzhen Sect is active and fruitful during their missionary process.On the one hand,they came in contact with the scholar-officials through the exchange of poetry,and,on the other hand,the musical merits of poetry were intensively emphasized in sermons to the general public.Methods to deal with the tonal patterns and rhyme schemes of poetry are: inheriting the traditional ones,modifying the unsuitable ones or creating new ones.Thus,the literary attainments of the Quanzhen Sect promote poetry to a further step as the refined and petrified styles turned to become vivid and vulgar.Making the poetry more suitable for singing and the music more applicable for poetry,the music mechanism and the poetry of the Quanzhen Sect are undoubtedly very important in the literary history.%全真音乐主要是施之于修持,其法有唱诵与吟诵等;另一种是施之于庆祝、祈祷等法事的,以声乐演唱为主。全真道士在传教过程中,既与士大夫唱和赠答;亦面向大众布道而强化词的音乐性,其方式是或继承能歌的词调,或将词调进行改造,或自创词牌,使渐趋雅化乃至僵化的词变得鲜活、俚俗,使词体更容易向曲体发生转换,成为词曲之间流变的中介和津梁。这无疑具有重要的文学史意义。

  11. When Should Sects be Tolerated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Jehovas vidners kontroverser med majoritetssamfundet gør dem til et godt test-case for tolerance. I artiklen bruges udviklingen af bevægelsens syn på blodstransfusioner til at diskutere, hvordan institutionaliseringen af en minoritetsbevægelse får kontroversernes styrke til at mindskes, men også...... hvordan udviklingen af tolerance er en gensidig proces, hvor minoritetsreligionen og majoritetssamfundet påvirker hinanden....

  12. Revisión del género Salvia L. sect. Aethiopis Benth. (Lamiaceae en el Mediterráneo Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosúa, J. L.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of Salvia L. sect. Aethiopis Benth. in Western Mediterranean is presented. 4 species and 3 subspecies are recognized. A key to the species is given, together with the correct name, synonymy, description, type, chromosome number, distribution, ecology, phytosociology and a list of localities for each taxon. The new combination Salvia phlomoides Asso subsp. boissieri (Noë Rosúa & Blanca is proposed. The general distribution and the possible origin of the studied taxa is shortly discussed.

    Se revisa taxonómicamente la sect. Aethiopis Benth. del género Salvia L. en el Mediterráneo Occidental. Se reconocen 4 especies y 3 subespecies. Para cada taxon se indica el nombre correcto, sinonimia, descripción, tipo, número cromosómico, distribución, ecología, fitosociología y localidades estudiadas. Se propone la nueva combinación Salvia phlomoides Asso subsp. boissieri (Noë Rosúa & Blanca. Se establece la distribución actual de los táxones estudiados y se analiza su posible origen.

  13. 民国时期医派纷争的原因及影响%Formation Cause and Effects of the Feuds of Medical Sects in Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏媛媛

    2016-01-01

    考察德日派西医与英美派西医的形成及影响,描述德日派与英美派斗争的过程,比较两派医学校的异同,分析各医派的特点,指出医派纷争的根本原因在于后殖民现代性在政治、经济、文化三个方面的影响,以及医学教育体系建构过程的复杂性。%The article examined the formation and influence of German-Japanese medicine and Anglo-American medicine, described the German-Japanese disputed with the Anglo-American sect of the process, compared the similarities and differences between the two medical schools, analyzed the traits of the medical sects, pointed out the root cause of the feuds lied in the influences of the colonial modernity in the polit-ical, economic and cultural, as well as the complexity of the construction of medical education system.

  14. New Data of Sect. Coelocentrum (Begonia) in Begoniaceae%世界秋海棠属侧膜组植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民; 陈文红

    2005-01-01

    记述了秋海棠属侧膜组11新种,即星果草叶秋海棠(Begonia asteropyrifolia Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、耳托秋海棠(B.auritistipula Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、桂南秋海棠(B.austroguangxiensis Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、水晶秋海棠(B.crystallina Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、须苞秋海棠(B.fimbribracteata Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、巨叶秋海棠(B.gigaphylla Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、黄氏秋海棠(B.huangii Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、长柱秋海棠(B.longistyla Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、扁果秋海棠(B.platycarpa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、喙果秋海棠(B.rhynchocarpa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、多变秋海棠(B.variifolia Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen);并报道了3新变种及1新名称,即疏毛越南秋海棠(B.bonii Gagnep.var.remotisetulosa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、密毛龙州秋海棠(B.morsei Irmsch.var.myriotricha Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)、簇毛伞叶秋海棠(B.umbraculifolia Y.Wan et B.N.Chang var.flocculosa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen)及彩纹秋海棠(B.variegata Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen).%Eleven new species of sect.Coelocentrum (Begonia Linn.) in Begoniaceae are described and illustrated,e.g.Begonia asteropyrifolia Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.auritistipula Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.austroguangxiensis Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.crystallina Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.fimbribracteata Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.gigaphylla Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.huangii Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.longistyla Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.platycarpa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.rhynchocarpa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.variifolia Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen;three new varieties and a new name are also reported,e.g.B.bonii Gagnep.var.remotisetulosa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.morsei Irmsch.var.myriotricha Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.umbraculifolia Y.Wan et B.N.Chang var.flocculosa Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen,B.variegata Y.M.Shui et W.H.Chen.

  15. Bâtınî Ekolleri Anlamada Anahtar Bir Kavram: Ezılle Gölgeler Nazariyesi / A Key Concept in Understanding of Esoteric Sects: The Theory of Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies on the esoteric sects in Islam. Though in these studies they have been discussed from different respects, none of them draws attention to the place and importance of the theory of shadows (aẓilla in the esoteric sects. In this article, after the identification of the meaning of the theory of shadows, it has been argued that the concept of shadows has a central role in understanding the esoteric system of thought. In this context, it has been tried to reveal the central effect of the theory of shadows on the basic ideas of esoteric sects. SUMMARY There are numerous studies on the esoteric sects in Islam. Though in these studies they have been discussed from different respects, none of them draws attention to the place and importance of the theory of shadows (aẓilla in the esoteric sects. In this article, after the identification of the meaning of the theory of shadows, it has been argued that the concept of shadows has a central role in understanding the esoteric system of thought. In this context, it has been tried to reveal the central effect of the theory of shadows on the basic ideas of esoteric sects. The theory of shadows can be defined as the reflection of the shadows or non-material beings, which appear in the divine world, in this world in a material form. The origins of this view go back to the Plato’s theory of ideas that he formulated as ideas and forms and to his allegory of cave that he used to explain this theory. This theory which was formulated and developed by the pre-Islamic various religious and philosophical traditions took an Islamic form through the bāṭinī/esoteric schools. The theory of shadows was first developed by the extremist groups of shiʿa. Though the early classical works referred the theory of shadow to the extremist shiʿas, they do not give any detail thereof. Nevertheless, it is possible to find in some views of theirs and in the esoteric sects such as Ismailites

  16. 史与法相融,身与德共长--评索南才让的专著《觉囊派教法史略》%A Method Shining Through History and Wisdom:A Review of The Brief History of Jonangpa Sect by Sonam Tsering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙江龙

    2015-01-01

    索南才让的专著《觉囊派教法史略》从藏传佛教历史遗址考证、教派史源流、仪轨缘、教义传承等方面发掘觉囊派的历史发展与文化内涵,旨在揭示觉囊派教义思想与现代人所倡的身、心、德、志全面修行的内在联系,继而提高现代国民的身体和精神素质,为觉囊派思文化的发掘、弘扬和传承奠定基石。该书不仅是教派史的研究专著,更是一本研究觉囊派宗哲学思想的重要理论著作。%Mr.Sonam Tsering’ s monographs The Brief History of Jonangpa Sect has excavated the history of Jonangpa sect and cultural connotations from doing textual research on Tibetan Buddihism,studying of historiography,religious doctrine, aims to reveal inner link of Jonangpa sect religious thought and the ind,body,character, spirits.And then improving the physical and mental quality of modern citizens to ay the foundation for Jonangpa sect ’ s thought developing, promoting, inheritance.The book is not only he history of Jonangpa Sect’ s but also the one for studying philosophy and thought.

  17. 芍药组内不同类群间光合特性及叶绿素荧光特性比较%Comparison of photosynthetic and fluorescence characteristics among taxa in Paeonia sect. Paeonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简在友; 王文全; 孟丽; 许桂芳; 王秋玲; 李卫东; 俞敬波

    2010-01-01

    为了比较分析芍药组不同类群光合生理差异以及它们对各自不同光照环境的适应性,测定了芍药组(Paeonia sect.Paeonia)4种2变种的光合日变化、光响应曲线、CO2响应曲线,以及叶绿素荧光特性.结果显示,芍药组中不同类群之间光合速率差异明显,各个种类的"午休"程度不同,芍药(Paeonia lactiflora)和毛果芍药(P.lactiflora var.trichocarpa)的强光抑制现象没有川赤芍(P.veitchii)、美丽芍药(P.mairei)和窄叶芍药(P.anomata)明显.叶绿素荧光特征能够反映芍药组不同类群光合生理的差异.芍药组内不同类群地理分布的差异能部分从光合生理特征的适应性方面得到解释.

  18. Aspergillus keveioides, a new species of Aspergillus sect. Usti from Shandong Province, China%类开费曲霉Aspergillus keveioides——曲霉属焦曲霉组一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙

    2013-01-01

    A new Aspergillus species,A.keveioides (AS3.15305T=CBS 132737) was isolated from soil in Shandong Province,China.Morphologically,it resembles A.pseudodeftectus,A.germanieus,A.insuetus,A.keveii and A.thesauricus,but is readily different from them by sparse sporulation,smooth and warty stipe walls with conspicuous concretions,and globose warty conidia.The analyses of partial calmodulin gene (CaM),β-tubulin gene (BenA) and rDNA ITS 1-5.8S-ITS2sequence data showed that although A.keveioides was accommodated in the clade with A.keveii,A.insuetus,A.germanicus and A.thesauricus,it is distinctive and lack close relatives among described species of Aspergillus sect.Usti.%报道分离自中国山东泰山土壤的曲霉属焦曲霉组的一个新种——类开费曲霉Aspergillus keveioides.基于形态学及钙调蛋白、β-微管蛋白基因部分序列和核糖体DNAITSl-5.8S-ITS2序列分析的证据支持新种的建立.

  19. 两段错向流曝气生物滤池处理生活污水%Two-sect Up and Down Flow Biological Aerated Filter for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马卫平; 董建威

    2011-01-01

    采用半柔性填料和酶促好氧填料的两段错向流曝气生物滤池(TUDBAF)处理生活污水,考察了试验启动阶段水力停留时间对SS、COD和NH3-N的去除效果的影响,并分析了反冲洗对BAFU段生物膜活性的影响.结果表明:在水力停留时间6.5~13.0 h条件下,SS 和COD的去除率随水力停留时间的增加而增大,且其去除率分别达91.6%和83.6%以上;反应器对氨氮的去除主要集中在BAFU段,该段对氨氮的去除占总去除率的70%以上;BAFU段采用气水联合反冲洗过程中可以出水TSS浓度(708mg/L)作为该段反冲洗的终点.%A two-sect up and down flow biological aerated filter (TUDBAF) with semi-soft media and enzyme-enhanced aerobiosis biofilling was used to treat domestic wastewater. Influence of HRT on SS, COD and NH3-N removal efficiency was investigated. Also the influence of backwash on the activity of biofilms was analyzed. Experimental results showed that under HRT of 6.5~13.0h, removal rates of SS and COD both increased with the increasing HRT and that both removal rates of which was above 91.6% and 83.6% respectively. It also indicated that removal of NH3-N mainly concentrated in BAF U and that of NH3-N in BAF U was over 70% of total removal rate. Effluent concentration of TSS of 708mg/L in BAF U using of air and water backwash process can serve as the end of backwash.

  20. Galen. On the sects for beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Afonasin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A short polemical treatise of Galen, dedicated to the nature of medical knowledge, is now translated from the Greek into Russian for the first time. Galen outlines the position of two opposing camps in the Hellenistic medicine, the Rationalists and the Empiricists. The dispute culminates with the appearance of the third camp, the so-called Methodists, who claim to have found a position immune to criticism from the both sides. The majority of counterarguments of Galen are directed against this school. The translation is supplemented with an introduction, notes, and bibliography.

  1. Le logement, une secte ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Jezewski-Bec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La politique du logement est décidément au cœur de bien des controverses, des plus basses… aux plus nobles. Dans cette dernière veine, deux parutions de L'Harmattan offrent en duel une émulation savante entre deux chercheurs en sciences-politiques. Le premier, Philippe Zittoun, se livre à une autopsie du désengagement de l'État à propos d'une politique publique controversée dont il examine en médecin légiste l'extinction annoncée et l'entrée en économie. ...

  2. Chemical markers in Veronica sect. Hebe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria; Larsen, Tania Surrow; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm;

    2007-01-01

    of the two hybrids had esters of 6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, while the other contained neither type of compounds but instead had arbutin and two acetophenone glucosides. All species contained verbascoside and/or derivatives of this. Among the compounds isolated, two iridoid esters brachysiphonoside...

  3. 松属近缘种形态和分子鉴定及其亲缘关系探讨%Species Identification and Genetic Relationship Assessment of Pinus (Sect.Pinus) Related Species Based on Morphological and Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洑香香; 赵虎; 王玉

    2011-01-01

    松属(油松组)树种是我国重要的造林树种,但其种子和幼苗难以区分.通过比较种子的千粒质量、种子形状、颜色、幼苗子叶数、幼苗下胚轴颜色和苗高,结合ISSR和SSR标记技术,鉴定松属(油松组)11个近缘种,并对其亲缘关系进行探讨.研究结果表明:通过种子和幼苗的形态比较鉴定,可准确鉴定油松和加勒比松;ISSR和SSR标记则可把油松组的11个树种中的10个准确鉴定出来,仅有高山松由于遗传背景的复杂性没有发现种特异性引物(位点).利用5对SSR引物获得的41个种间多态性位点构建的10个树种的近缘种亲缘关系与传统的研究结果基本一致.系统聚类分析在相似系数0.60处将10个树种分为3个类群:马尾松和赤松聚为第1个类群;云南松、思茅松、高山松、油松聚成一小类,和另一小类即黑松、樟子松聚成第2个类群;第3类群为火炬松和加勒比松,它与前2个类群亲缘关系较远,相似系数仅为0.42.%Many pine trees of Sect. Pinus are distributed throughout China, and are important species for afforestation in China. Seeds and seedlings of these closely related species are similar in morphological characters. It is difficult to identify them according to their morphology. Seeds and seedlings from 11 pine species were identified by integrating their different morphological characters of seeds (1 000-seeds weight, seeds shape and color) and seedlings (number of cotyledon, color of hypocotyls and seedling height) , with their ISSR and SSR markers. At the same time, genetic relationship between those closely related species was assessed based on information from SSR markers. The results showed that P. Tabulaeformis and P. Caribaea were easily distinguished from 11 pine species according to morphological differences of seeds and seedlings, and 10 of 11 species were identified accurately based on ISSR and SSR markers. However, no species-specific primer (loci) was found

  4. 基于 EFDC 模型的感潮江段溢油事故风险预测%Prediction of oil spill risk on tide sect of Yangtze River based on EFDC model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田威; 邱利; 李一平

    2015-01-01

    为了在溢油事故发生后能够立即采取有效措施控制和减轻油污染,降低事故危害,采用环境流体动力学模型(EFDC)对长江下游靖江段某码头进行溢油事故风险影响预测。通过EFDC准确地模拟出该江段的二维流场,在流场、风场以及复杂地形等综合条件下,采用拉格朗日质点追踪法计算油品入江后油膜漂移轨迹以及到达、离开下游保护区的时间。结果表明:油膜沿水流方向逐渐被拉伸,覆盖面积逐渐增大,且受长江地形条件影响;在感潮江段,潮流场对油膜漂移行为的影响占主导作用,同时风场也会影响油膜的漂移行为。受涨落潮的影响,油膜向下游来回震荡漂移;溢油事故发生时刻的流场不同,油膜往下游漂移的速度也不同,当溢油事故发生在落潮时,油膜往下游漂移速度更快;不利风向时风速越大,油膜往下游漂移的速度越快。%In order to take effective measures in time to alleviate and control the oil pollution and minimize the damage after the accidents, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code ( EFDC) was applied to simulate the oil spill risk occurred in Jingjiang section in the downstream area of Yangtze River. Through EFDC, two-dimensional hydrodynamic of this section was accurately simulated.Considering the flow fields, wind fields and complex topographic conditions, Lagrange tracking method was used to calculate the oil film trajectory after oil spilling into the river, as well as the arrival and leave time to the Reserve in the downstream.The results showed that the oil film was stretched gradually along the flow direction, whose coverage area increased gradually, which was influenced by the terrain condition of Yangtze River.In the tide sect of the Yangtze River, flow fields played a dominant role in oil pollution diffusion, and wind fields also had an impact on oil pollution diffusion.The oil film moved downstream in terms of

  5. 元朝统治者信奉藏传佛教倚重萨迦派的原因探析%Reason Analysis of the Rulers of the Yuan Dynasty Believing in Tibetan Buddhism and Relying Heavily on the Sakyapa Sect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文萍; 张付新

    2015-01-01

    The rulers the Yuan dynasty converted to Tibetan Buddhism and relied heavily on the Sakyapa sect to manage local affairs in Tibet, which became one of their management and governance policies in Tibet. An analy⁃sis has been done on the reasons of why the Yuan’s rulers executed the policy by referring to a large number of historical facts, and it is found that the rebellions of other Mongolian tribes in Central Asia and the close relation⁃ship between the Sakyapa and Mongolian royalty were the main reasons why the Yuan rulers adopted this policy.%元朝统治者选择信仰藏传佛教,并倚重萨迦派管理西藏地方事务,成为其管理和治理西藏的策略之一。文章基于大量的历史事实,分析了藏传佛教界对蒙古王室的积极传教,元朝中央为应对中亚蒙古宗王的反叛以及萨迦派与元王室的联姻等是影响元统治者采取这一政策的重要因素。

  6. I crimini nelle sette sataniche: un’analisi “sistemica” della scena del crimine / Les sectes sataniques et leurs crimes : une analyse 'systémique' de la scène du crime / Criminal satanic cults: a 'systemic' analysis of crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariconda Laura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le fondamenta di ogni attività investigativa relativa ad un delitto si trovano nell’analisi della scena del crimine ovvero nel sopralluogo. E’ da lì che si parte con le indagini ed è lì che, eccetto casi particolari, si nascondono i dettagli che possono contribuire all’individuazione dell’autore del reato. L’obiettivo di questa trattazione è quello di porre in evidenza la necessità di adottare una prospettiva diversa nell’analisi della scena del crimine, specie per quanto riguarda i crimini di stampo occultista. Bisogna necessariamente abbandonare ogni tipo di analisi che tenda a scomporre gli eventi e gli elementi presenti sulla scena del crimine e adottare una prospettiva che unisca, che guardi al tutto per comprenderne le parti, una prospettiva, dunque, di tipo sistemico.Les bases de chaque enquête criminelle sont dans l’analyse de la scène de crime, c’est-à-dire l’inspection.L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en évidence la nécessité d’adopter une perspective différente pour analyser la scène du crime, en particulier pour des crimes liés aux sectes sataniques. Dans ces cas, il est nécessaire d’abandonner toutes les analyses qui visent à morceler les événements et les éléments de la scène de crime. En revanche, il faut adopter une perspective systémique qui examine le tout et les parties en les considérant dans leur ensemble.The first step in any background investigation related to a crime may be found in crime scene analysis, or rather in the inspection. The goal of this article is to highlight the need to adopt a different approach in crime scene analysis particularly for crimes linked to satanic cults. In these cases, we need to give up any analysis aimed at breaking up all the events and elements of the crime scene; a systemic perspective looking at all parts must be adopted in order to combine them and to understand each of these.

  7. Solanum sect. Petota in Guatemala: taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Hoekstra, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Martinez, V.

    1998-01-01

    There are five wild potato species in Guatemala:Solanum agrimonifolium,S. bulbocastanum,S. clarum,S. demissum, andS. morelliforme. We conducted a collecting expedition there from September 11 to November 5, 1995. The goals of the expedition were to gather field data for taxonomic studies of the five

  8. Iridoid and Phenylethanoid Glucosides from Veronica (sect. Hebe) lavaudiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Rilka Mladenova; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Ryan, Ken G.;

    2011-01-01

    by spectroscopic analysis, but also by chemical degradation. In the course of the present work, we have demonstrated that the structures of the known glycosides globularitol as well as hebitols I and II should be revised. These compounds are derivatives of mannitol and not glucitol as previously believed....

  9. Psycho-labor risk factors in the mining sect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Karine Jiménez Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes demandas laborales a las que están sometidos los trabajadores, obliga a las empresas a la utilización de métodos cualitativos y cuantitativos que les permitan identificar cuáles son las condiciones y actos que están relacionados con los factores de riesgo psicosocial, así como; determinar cuáles son los indicadores a intervenir en cada una de las áreas, teniendo en cuenta, que aunque todas las personas estén expuestas a símiles condiciones de trabajo, no todas desencadenan estrés laboral. Esta investigación se adelantó con el objetivo de identificar los factores laborales de riesgo psicosocial intralaboral en una empresa multinacional que explota actualmente carbón mineral en el Departamento del Cesar, para tal fin se realiza un estudio descriptivo-transversal con la utilización de la batería de instrumentos para la evaluación de factores de riesgo psicosocial avalado por el Ministerio de la Protección social, en 26 operadores de camión minero. Los resultados muestran que la mayor fuente de factores de riesgo psicosocial intralaborales se encuentran en el dominio de control, exactamente en las dimensiones de carga mental, condiciones físicas, ambientales y jornadas de trabajo.

  10. Refuge Begonias : taxonomy, phylogeny and historical biogeography of Begonia sect. Loasibegonia and sect. Scutobegonia in relation to glacial rain forest refuges in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Begonia is a genus of + 1000 species and is represented in all tropical areas. In Wageningen, under the guidance of dr J.J.F.E. de Wilde, the continental African begonias are being studied. Continental Africa has some 120

  11. Refuge Begonias. Taxonomy, phylogeny and historical biogeography of Begonia sect. Loasibegonia and sect. Scutobegonia in relation to glacial rain forest refuges in Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Begonia is a genus of + 1000 species and is represented in all tropical areas. In Wageningen, under the guidance of dr J.J.F.E. de Wilde, the continental African begonias are being studied. Continental Africa has some 120 species, divided over 10 sections, and compared with the amount of spe

  12. Refuge Begonias : taxonomy, phylogeny and historical biogeography of Begonia sect. Loasibegonia and sect. Scutobegonia in relation to glacial rain forest refuges in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Begonia is a genus of + 1000 species and is represented in all tropical areas. In Wageningen, under the guidance of dr J.J.F.E. de Wilde, the continental African begonias are being studied. Continental Africa has some 120 species

  13. 噶玛噶举派黑帽系活佛述略%Commentary on reincarnated living Buddha of Black-hat Sect,Karmakagyupa Sect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    克珠群佩

    2004-01-01

    噶玛噶举是达布噶举派之四大支系中影响最大、流传最广的一个派别,创立于宋代,发展于元明时期.在元时,其势力与萨迦派相当,十七世纪前半期曾间接控制过西藏政教大权.藏传佛教的活佛转世制是噶玛噶举派最早采用的,而且对后世的西藏社会产生了巨大影响.纵观噶玛噶举派的发展历史,其之所以有重大影响,主要靠代表人物的活动和威望.尤其是作为噶玛噶举派中影响最大的活佛系统黑帽系,其历辈活佛在噶玛噶举的发展史上乃至在整个西藏佛教的历史上都起到过举足轻重的作用.

  14. Isolation of 24 novel cDNA fragments from microdis—sected human chromosome band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMIN; LONGYU; 等

    1998-01-01

    The strategy of isolating the band0specific expression fragments from a probe pool generated by human chromosome microdissection was reported.A chromosome 14q 24.3 band-specific single copy DNA pool was constructed based on this probe pool.Using total DNA of the pool as probe to hybridize the human marrow cDNA library,68 primary positive clones were selected from 5×105 cDNA clones.Among these primary clones,32 secondary clones were obtained after second-round screening and designed as cFD14-1-32.Finally,24 band-specific expression fragments were identified from these 32 positive clones by DNA hybridization.Those band-specific clones can hybridize to both 14q24.3 DNA and human genomic DNA but cann't hybridize to 17q11-12 DNA,Partial sequences of 13 fragments of them were sequenced and idenfified as novel cDNA sequences,and these sequences were proved to have some homology with known genes in NCBI database.Analysis of expression spectrum of cFD 14-1 suggested that the cDNA fragments thus obtained should be used to isolate the genes can not been cloned in 14q24.3 region.

  15. Four new morel (Morchella) species in the Elata Subclade (sect. Distantes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four Turkish Morchella species identified in published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses are described here as new, using detailed macro- and microscopic data: M. mediterraneensis (Mel-27), M. fekeensis (Mel-28), M. magnispora (Mel-29), and M. conifericola (Mel-32). A distribution map of m...

  16. Taxonomy of Mexican and Central American Members of Solanum series Conicibaccata (sect. Petota).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Velguth, P.; Rio, del A.; Salas-Lopez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Members of Solanum series Conicibaccata in Mexico and Central America are very similar. All are tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48). Recent authors have recognized three or four species: S. agrimonifolium, S. woodsonii, S. longiconicum (sometimes included in the next), and S. oxycarpum. We had difficulty

  17. Begonia yapenensis (sect. Symbegonia, Begoniaceae, a new species from Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Begonia yapenensis M.Hughes, in Begonia section Symbegonia (Begoniaceae is described and diagnosed against Begonia sympapuana. The new species is endemic to Yapen Island, Papua, Indonesia, and is currently known from a single collection.

  18. Taxonomy and genetic differentiation among wild and cultivated germplasm of Solanum sect. Petota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their adaptation to a diverse set of habitats and stresses, wild species of cultivated crops offer new sources of genetic diversity for germplasm improvement. Using an Infinium array representing a genome-wide set of 8303 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we evaluated phylogenetic relat...

  19. Paraphyly of organelle DNAs in Cycas Sect. Asiorientales due to ancient ancestral polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tsai-Wen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study addresses the apportionment of genetic diversity between Cycas revoluta and C. taitungensis, species that constitute the section Asiorientales and represent a unique, basal lineage of the Laurasian genus Cycas. Fossil evidence indicates divergence of the section from the rest of Cycas at least 30 million years ago. Geographically, C. taitungensis is limited to Taiwan whereas C. revoluta is found in the Ryukyu Archipelago and on mainland China. Results The phylogenies of ribosomal ITS region of mtDNA and the intergenic spacer between atpB and rbcL genes of cpDNA were reconstructed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed paraphyly of both loci in the two species and also in the section Asiorientales. The lack of reciprocal monophyly between these long isolated sections is likely due to persistent shared ancestral polymorphisms. Molecular dating estimated that mt- and cp DNA lineages coalesced to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCA about 327 (mt and 204 MYA (cp, corresponding with the divergence of cycad sections in the Mesozoic. Conclusion Fates of newly derived mutations of cycads follow Klopfstein et al.'s surfing model where the majority of new mutations do not spread geographically and remain at low frequencies or are eventually lost by genetic drift. Only successful 'surfing mutations' reach very high frequencies and occupy a large portion of a species range. These mutations exist as dominant cytotypes across populations and species. Geographical subdivision is lacking in both species, even though recurrent gene flow by both pollen and seed is severely limited. In total, the contrasting levels between historical and ongoing gene flow, large population sizes, a long lifespan, and slow mutation rates in both organelle DNAs have all likely contributed to the unusually long duration of paraphyly in cycads.

  20. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  1. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  2. Borreria sect. Pseudodiodia (Rubiaceae taxonomic and palynological contributions BORRERIA SECC. PSEUDODIODIA (RUBIACEAE, APORTES TAXONÓMICOS Y PALINOLÓGICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L. Cabral

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Taxonomy and palynology of the genus Borreria G. Mey. section Pseudodiodia Hassl. are
    updated. Four species are added to the section, three of them are described and
    illustrated, raising to ten the number of taxa included in it. Two of them live in Galapagos
    (B. suberecta Hook. f. and B. dispersa Hook. f. and the other (B. decipiens K. Schum. and
    B. tocantinsiana E.L. Cabral & Bacigalupo grow in Brazil. Pollen grains of these species
    were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The continental species
    present the typical pollen characteristics of Pseudodiodia (long colpi and tectatespinulate
    exine, whereas pollen produced by species living in Galapagos have
    variations in the exine
    Se actualiza la taxonomía de la sección Pseudodiodia Hassl. del género Borreria G.
    Mey., en la cual se incluían hasta ahora seis especies. En este trabajo se agregan
    cuatro especies a la sección, elevando el número a un total de diez taxones: dos de las
    Islas Galápagos (B. suberecta Hook. f. y B. dispersa Hook. f. y dos continentales, de
    Brasil (B. decipiens K. Schum. y B. tocantinsiana E. L. Cabral & Bacigalupo. Se examinaron
    los granos de polen de esas especies mediante microscopio óptico y microscopio
    electrónico de barrido. Las especies continentales presentan el polen característico
    de Pseudodiodia (colpos largos y exina tectado-espinulosa, mientras que el polen
    producido por las especies insulares presenta variaciones en la exina

  3. Chemical composition of essential oil and leaf anatomy of Salvia bertolonii Vis. and Salvia pratensis L. (Sect. Plethiosphace, Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anackov, Goran; Bozin, Biljana; Zorić, Lana; Vukov, Dragana; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Merkulov, Ljiljana; Igić, Ruzica; Jovanović, Marina; Boza, Pal

    2008-12-23

    The taxonomical relationship between Salvia pratensis and S. bertolonii has been unclear for a long time. Salvia bertolonii has alternatively been considered a synonym, a subspecies, a problematic subspecies and a form of Salvia pratensis. However, both these two species are sometimes used in traditional medicine instead of sage (Salvia officinalis) or as an adulteration for the same drug. In order to confirm the status of S. bertolonii, together with the potential identification characteristics for differentiation from sage, both taxa were analyzed through the analysis of their essential oils, together with the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf surface and the anatomy and morphology of the leaves. The obtained results show that there are clear differences in the quantity of essential oil (0.073% for S. pratensis and 0.0016% for S. berolonii). The major compound in the essential oil of S. pratensis was E-caryophyllene (26.4%) while in S. berolonii essential oil caryophyllene oxide was the major component (35.1%). The micromorphological differences are also pronounced in the leaf indumentum (density and distribution of certain types of non-glandular and glandular trichomes). Clear distinction between the investigated Salvia species is also observed in the leaf anatomy (in S. pratensis leaves are thinner, palisade tissue is made of 1-2 layers of cells, and leaves of S. bertolonii are characterized by 2-3 layers of palisade tissue cells, and consequently thicker).

  4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and Leaf Anatomy of Salvia bertolonii Vis. and Salvia pratensis L. (Sect. Plethiosphace, Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Boža

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomical relationship between Salvia pratensis and S. bertolonii has been unclear for a long time. Salvia bertolonii has alternatively been considered a synonym, a subspecies, a problematic subspecies and a form of Salvia pratensis. However, both these two species are sometimes used in traditional medicine instead of sage (Salvia officinalis or as an adulteration for the same drug. In order to confirm the status of S. bertolonii, together with the potential identification characteristics for differentiation from sage, both taxa were analyzed through the analysis of their essential oils, together with the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf surface and the anatomy and morphology of the leaves. The obtained results show that there are clear differences in the quantity of essential oil (0.073% for S. pratensis and 0.0016% for S. berolonii. The major compound in the essential oil of S. pratensis was E-caryophyllene (26.4% while in S. berolonii essential oil caryophyllene oxide was the major component (35.1%. The micromorphological differences are also pronounced in the leaf indumentum (density and distribution of certain types of non-glandular and glandular trichomes. Clear distinction between the investigated Salvia species is also observed in the leaf anatomy (in S. pratensis leaves are thinner, palisade tissue is made of 1-2 layers of cells, and leaves of S. bertolonii are characterized by 2-3 layers of palisade tissue cells, and consequently thicker.

  5. Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (Sect. Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae, a new species from north-western Pamir-Alay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Beshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (section Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae from Nuratau mountain ridge (North-Western Pamir-Alay, Uzbekistan is described. A morphological description is given. Differences from related species A. nuratavicum Zakirov, A. subavenaceum Lincz. and A. gontscharovii Czerniak. are discussed.

  6. Phylogeographic patterns in Leccinum sect. Scabra and the status of the arctic/alpine species L. rotundifoliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships in the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus Leccinum section Scabra. Species of this section are exclusively associated with Betula and occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of arctic, alpine,

  7. 新疆棘豆属棘豆组的修订%The Revision of Sect. Protoxytropis Bunge from Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高木木; 阎平; 翟伟

    2008-01-01

    通过对大量标本和文献的研究,并结合野外居群的观察分析,澄清了棘豆组中存在的分类学问题,对新疆棘豆属棘豆组植物的分类进行修订,确认产于新疆的棘豆属棘豆组植物8种、1变型,并重新编制了新疆棘豆属棘豆组的分种检索表,以及各种的分类学处理及地理分布.研究结果表明:少花棘豆归并在宽瓣棘豆中,其中少花棘豆为新异名;冰河棘豆应改为球花棘豆;冰川棘豆的学名更正为Oxytropis proboscidea;将黑萼棘豆并入长茎棘豆组中.此外,棘豆组增加了3个类群:等瓣棘豆、伊朗棘豆和奇台棘豆,其中等瓣棘豆和伊朗棘豆为新疆新记录种,白花球花棘豆为新变型.

  8. 印度教派冲突与政治斗争%Conflicts and Political Struggle among Indian Religious Sects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟有为

    2005-01-01

    近年来,印度教派冲突接连不断.教派冲突早已越出宗教内部的范围,而与政治斗争交织在一起.不仅教派组织与政党关系密切,政党代表教派利益,而且教派主义与民族分离主义相结合,直接影响着印度政局的稳定和民族团结,甚至影响着与周边国家的关系.

  9. No evidence of contemporary interploidy gene flow between the closely related European woodland violets Viola reichenbachiana and V. riviniana (sect. Viola, Violaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdałek, G; Nowak, J; Saługa, M; Cieślak, E; Szczepaniak, M; Ronikier, M; Marcussen, T; Słomka, A; Kuta, E

    2017-07-01

    Viola reichenbachiana (2n = 4x = 20) and V. riviniana (2n = 8x = 40) are closely related species widely distributed in Europe, often sharing the same habitat throughout their overlapping ranges. It has been suggested in numerous studies that their high intraspecific morphological variability and plasticity might have been further increased by interspecific hybridisation in contact zones, given the sympatry of the species and the incomplete sterility of their hybrid. The aims of this study were to: (i) confirm that V. reichenbachiana and V. riviniana have one 4x genome in common, and (ii) determine the impact of hybridisation and introgression on genetic variation of these two species in selected European populations. For our study, we used 31 Viola populations from four European countries, which were analysed using AFLP and sequencing of a variable plastid intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA. Our analysis revealed that V. reichenbachiana exhibited larger haplotype diversity, having three species-specific haplotypes versus one in V. riviniana. The relationships among haplotypes suggest transfer of common haplotypes into V. riviniana from both V. reichenbachiana and hypothetically the other, now extinct, parental species. AFLP analysis showed low overall genetic diversity of both species, with V. riviniana showing higher among-population diversity. None of the morphologically designated hybrid populations had additive AFLP polymorphisms that would have indicated recent hybridisation. Also, kinship coefficients between both species did not indicate gene flow. V. riviniana showed significant population subdivision and significant isolation by distance, in contrast to V. reichenbachiana. The results indicate lack of gene flow between species, high influence of selfing on genetic variability, as well as probably only localised introgression toward V. riviniana. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Hypericum sect. Ascyreia (Clusiaceae): new species and subspecies from China%中国金丝桃属金丝桃组(藤黄科)新分类群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norman K. B. ROBSON

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, both related to H. hookerianum Wight & Arn., are described from northern Yunnan, H. fosteri N. Robson and H. wardianum N. Robson. The former is apparently endemic, having been found in only one locality, whereas the latter also occurs in north-eastern Myanmar. Both differ in particular from H. hookerianum in that the capsule is elongate, not ovate-subglobose and the sepals are not ribbed. In addition, H. bellum ssp. latisepalum is raised to specific rank as H. latisepalum (N. Robson) N. Robson and the variable H. lagarocladum is divided into two subspecies, one broad-leaved with a spreading habit (ssp. lagarocladum) and the other narrow-leaved and more erect (ssp. angustifolium N. Robson).%描述了中国云南北部的金丝桃属Hypericum L.(藤黄科)两个新种,即楚雄金丝桃H. fosteri N. Robson和漾濞金丝桃H. wardianum N. Robson.二者均与短柱金丝桃H. hookerianum Wight & Arn.相近.楚雄金丝桃为一地方特有种,目前仅在模式地点发现;漾濞金丝桃在缅甸东北部还有分布.二者主要以蒴果伸长,非卵状近球形,萼片无中脉而有别于短柱金丝桃.此外,将宽萼金丝桃H. latisepalum (N. Robson) N. Robson从亚种提升为种;将变异较大的纤枝金丝桃H. lagarocladum N. Robson划分为两个亚种,即叶较宽、具有开张习性的原亚种纤枝金丝桃H. lagarocladum ssp. lagarocladum和叶较窄、更为直立的新亚种狭叶金丝桃H. lagarocladum ssp. angustifolium N. Robson.

  11. The privilege of producing the own electricity according to paragraph 37 sect. 3 EEG 2012; Das Eigenstromerzeugerprivileg nach paragraph 37 Abs. 3 EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Hans Anton [Deutscher Bundestag, Berlin (Germany). Bundestagsverwaltung

    2012-02-15

    With the use of the new privilege of private power gegeneration according to paragraph 37 section 3, No. 2b EEG 2012, it is not important who is the owner of the power plant or a power generation plant. However, it is absolutely necessary that the company that uses the electric current, also produces this electric current. For this purpose useful criteria have been developed. In this case, the end consuming juridical person is regarded as a power generator. Furthermore, it is absolutely necessary that the generation of own power takes place in the spatial context of the consumption of own electricity by non-public networks by the same legal person. In particular, contracting models are likely to fail in this.

  12. 中国秋海棠属等翅组的补遗%Additional Notes on the Begonia Sect.Petermannia (Begoniaceae) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健; 陈文红; HUGHES Mark; 杨珍珍; 税玉民

    2015-01-01

    报道了中国秋海棠属等翅组一新种,即赤车叶秋海棠(Begonia pellionioidesY.M.Shui&W.H.Chen).此新种特产于云南东南部的石灰岩山生境,与海南秋海棠(Begonia hainanensis Chun&F.Chun)相似,但不同在于其叶片较长,叶基楔形,叶尖渐尖至尾尖,花被片背面具刺毛,蒴果具上边缘平截的三角形翅.此外,补充描述了秋海棠属等翅组拟长柄秋海棠(Begonia sublongipes Y.M.Shui)的花部特征.

  13. Cracks in Tianshengqiao CFRD Versus Sect ionalized Filling%天生桥面板堆石坝分块填筑与坝体裂缝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Sheng-ping

    2001-01-01

    During the later period of construction of Tianshengqiao con crete faced rockfill dam(CFRD), cracks appeared in the upstream fill sl ope. The main reason was the nonuniform deformation. The treatment methods were: for cracks with opening less than 1 cm, the cracked slope was compacted with added effort to eliminate cracks; for cracks with open ing greater than 1 cm , crack grouting was carried out . The practice demonstrated the treatment was successful. Careful analysis of the rel ation between sectionalized filling and crack emergence is of significa nce in guiding the construction design and drawing out filling plan fo r a high CFRD.

  14. Ultra-esquerdistas e sectários, anotações para uma história do extremismo de esquerda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valério Arcary

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available International socialist movement, through the last one hundred and fifty years, did not divide only in reformist and revolutionaries. These have been the two decisive programmatic fields in marxism, but, as well as those claimed as gradualists or reformists, imprisoned in their orbit - to the left - a specter, the centrism, the radical or revolutionary tendencies needed to differentiate themselves from their ultra-left shadows. Reformism, centrism, revolutionarism and ultra-leftism are concepts that might seem insults, but they had been seriously considered in the marxist tradition as theoretical categories with necessary meanings. Historians of the left organizations that surprise themselves with the splits of the socialist left, should not ignore them in their investigations on the factors that could explain the divisions of socialists

  15. To be or not to be the odd one out - Allele-specific transcription in pentaploid dogroses (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC. Ser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theißen Günter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple hybridization events gave rise to pentaploid dogroses which can reproduce sexually despite their uneven ploidy level by the unique canina meiosis. Two homologous chromosome sets are involved in bivalent formation and are transmitted by the haploid pollen grains and the tetraploid egg cells. In addition the egg cells contain three sets of univalent chromosomes which are excluded from recombination. In this study we investigated whether differential behavior of chromosomes as bivalents or univalents is reflected by sequence divergence or transcription intensity between homeologous alleles of two single copy genes (LEAFY, cGAPDH and one ribosomal DNA locus (nrITS. Results We detected a maximum number of four different alleles of all investigated loci in pentaploid dogroses and identified the respective allele with two copies, which is presumably located on bivalent forming chromosomes. For the alleles of the ribosomal DNA locus and cGAPDH only slight, if any, differential transcription was determined, whereas the LEAFY alleles with one copy were found to be significantly stronger expressed than the LEAFY allele with two copies. Moreover, we found for the three marker genes that all alleles have been under similar regimes of purifying selection. Conclusions Analyses of both molecular sequence evolution and expression patterns did not support the hypothesis that unique alleles probably located on non-recombining chromosomes are less functional than duplicate alleles presumably located on recombining chromosomes.

  16. The 20th Century's Biggest Field Study on Chinese Popular Sects:Reviewing on Luyao's Popular Secrect Sects in Shandong%20世纪规模最大的中国民间教门田野调查--评路遥《山东民间秘密教门》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程(肃欠); 曹新宇

    2002-01-01

    @@ 路遥教授著《山东民间秘密教门》(当代中国出版社,2000年版,以下简称《山东教门》),是一部经过田野调查和口述史研究,将乡土社会的越轨信仰集团引入历史学的力作.这项研究自1990年被确定为山东省社会科学"八五"规划的重点项目之后,作者和他的助手们费时近10年,足迹遍及山东境内及河北部分地区计70多县的广袤的乡村集镇,不论从时间跨度还是从地域范围看,都可以称得上是20世纪中国规模最大的一次民间教门的田野调查.45万余字的著述凝结了作者创获性的丰硕成果:在前人相关研究的基础上,该书进一步理清了历史上发源于山东并对华北乃至全国具有影响的几支重要的教门--"一炷香"、"八卦教"、"离卦教"、"圣贤道"、"九宫道"、"皈一道"、"一贯道"以及"一心天道龙华圣教会"、红枪会等组织的起源、教理、组织形式及其主要发展脉络;挖掘整理了这9种组织的地域分布、祭献仪式、道书家谱、灵文口诀,以及这类组织在历史演进不同时段的活动特征.

  17. The Propagation and Influence of Jing Ming (Purification and Brightness ) Sect of Taoism in the Southern Areas to the Yangtze River: to concentrate on analyzing the History of all Taoist sects' relations%净明道在江南的传播及其影响--以道派关系史为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽洪

    2002-01-01

    净明道是江南传承绵远的道派,净明道与其他道派的交往,是净明道史研究中值得关注的问题.本文依据史籍道经的记载,对净明道受灵宝派、早期正一道影响的历史事实进行了详细考述,认为净明道与灵宝派和正一道有着密切的关系.净明道融摄两大道派的经法,为特殊的地域、历史因素所决定.净明道在明代与全真道的交往,是道教发展大势所致.

  18. 40 CFR 52.1770 - Identification of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../02 12/27/02, 67 FR 78987 Sect .1419 Nitrogen Oxide Budget Trading Program 07/15/02 12/27/02, 67 FR.... Sect .2408 Trading Program and Banking 7/1/06 11/30/09, 74 FR 62496. Sect .2409 Designated... Air Quality Technical Code Sect. .0401 Adopted 06/14/90 05/02/91, 56 FR 20140. Subchapter...

  19. Sectional rearrangement of arborescent clades of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in South America : evolution of arillate seeds and a new species, Croton domatifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarda Riina; Benjamin van Ee; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Alfonso Cardozo; Paul E. Berry

    2010-01-01

    Most of the arborescent Croton species in the New World were treated by Webster as belonging either to C. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. or C. sect. Luntia (Neck. ex Raf.) G.L. Webster. The circumscription of C. sect. Cyclostigma has been treated recently. In this paper we focus on C. sect. Luntia, which was subdivided by Webster into two subsections, C. subsect....

  20. New species of Streblus and Ficus (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1970-01-01

    New Taxa. — Streblus Lour. sect. Protostreblus, sect. nov., with the single species S. ascendens sp. nov. (Solomon Isl.); S. sclerophyllus sp. nou. (sect. Paratrophis, New Caledonia). Ficus cristobalensis var. malaitana var. nov. (subgen. Pharmacosycea, Solomon Isl.); F. hesperia sp. nov. (sect. Syc

  1. Some Remarks on the Translation and Understanding of Wittgenstein's Philosophische Untersuchungen Sect.109%维特根斯坦《哲学研究》第109节的翻译及理解问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林合

    2011-01-01

    是后期维特根斯坦的代表作.第109节是该书中非常关键的一节.在其翻译和理解上在诸多解释者之间存在着比较严重的分歧.在这篇文章中,笔者对相关的不同的翻译和理解进行了简要的分析和批评,并给出了自己的处理.

  2. 孙悟空的形象塑造与禅宗的关系%This relationship between the portrayal of, Monkey King's image and the Chan sect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金梅

    2002-01-01

    通过对孙悟空形象的分析,探讨了中所蕴含的禅宗重领悟贵言外的宗教哲理.尤其是它注重内心的感悟,擅长富于哲理的启示,对中国小说创作的丰富和完备起到了重要的作用.

  3. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  4. On Pristine Subtlety sect's thought of inner refinement combining Magical Arts and inner alchemy%论清微派法术与丹功相结合的内炼思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钦

    2003-01-01

    本文简明阐述了清微派的法脉,以原典为本对清微雷法与内丹相结合的内炼思想进行了详细阐论;并对其雷法"内炼为本,外用为末"的思想做了梳理,指出此为宋元间新出之符箓道派共同的重要特征.

  5. Notes on Potentilla (Rosaceae of Altai. 1. New hybrid from East Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kechaykin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new nothospesies of Potentilla, P. × jakovlevii from East Kazakhstan is described and illustrated. It is an intersectional hybrid purportedly between P. chrysantha (P. sect. Chrysanthae and P. longifolia (P. sect. Tanacetifoliae.

  6. Distribution, ecology and reproductive biology of wild tomatoes and related nightshades from the Atacama Desert region of northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Chetelat, Roger T.; Pertuzé, Ricardo A.; Faúndez, Luis; Graham, Elaine B.; Jones, Carl M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several expeditions were made to northern Chile to collect populations of wild tomatoes (Solanum chilense, S. peruvianum) and allied nightshades (S. lycopersicoides, S. sitiens), and obtain information about their geographic distribution, ecology and reproductive biology. Restricted mainly to drainages of the Andean and the coastal cordillera, populations are geographically fragmented. The two nightshade species are rare and threatened by human activities. Adaptation t...

  7. New sections of the genus Clinopodium L. (Lamiaceae) and their synopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikov, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the two new sections and one subsection (sect. Oreokermatoria, sect. Brachyodontia, subsect. Inkermenia) of the genus Clinopodium L. is provided in the article. The new combinations Clinopodium sect. Pseudomelissa, C. albanicum, C. barbatum, C. brachycalyx, C. giresunicum, and a replacement name C. hispanicum are validated. Clinopodium barbatum, C. dalmaticum, C. frivaldszkyanum, C. molle, C. nummulariifolium, and C. serpyllifolium are lectotypified.

  8. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  9. 基于ITS与 trn L-F序列探讨槭树科的系统发育%Phylogeny of Aceraceae Based on ITS and trn L-F Data Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田欣; 郭振华; 李德铢

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the plastid encoded trn L-F region were sequenced for 41 species of the Aceraceae,representing both genera Acer and Dipteronia,to reconstruct phylogeny of this family,especially within Acer.The analyses were performed in separate and combined sequence data sets,with the Sapindaceae and Hippocastanaceae being selected as outgroups.It was indicated that the Aceraceae was monophyletic and D.sinensis was basal to the rest of the family but the two genera of it might be not monophyletic because Dipteronia dyerana was nested within Acer.The result inferred from the combined data showed greater resolution within Acer than that from the two separate data sets.The monophyly of most sections in Xu's system (1996) were supported with high bootstrap values,and some relationships between (or among) sections were also inferred,such as sect.Palmata and sect.Microcarpa ; sect.Platanoidea ,sect.Lithocarpa and sect.Macrophylla ; sect.Integrifolia ,sect.Trifoliata and sect.Pentaphylla ; and sect.Acer ,sect.Goniocarpa and sect.Saccharina (sensu Ogata).However,the sectional status and circumscriptions of some of the above-mentioned sections should be further adjusted.It seemed that the Xu's delimitations of sect.Rubra and sect.Saccharodendran should be revaluated.%报道了槭树科41种(其中槭属39种)植物的 trn L-F和ITS序列(其中部分种的ITS序列为重新测定),以期通过分子手段对槭树科内部尤其是复杂的槭属的系统发育关系进行重建.以无患子科和七叶树科为外类群,基于对57个种单独的ITS序列(包括从GenBank下载的16种的序列)、41种 trn L-F序列及41种两者序列的联合数据,分别采用最大简约法(Maximum Parsimony Method)和邻接法(Neighbor-Joining Method)对槭树科的系统发育进行了分析.结果显示,整个槭树科为一单系类群;金钱槭位于槭树科的基部;但由于云南金钱槭( Dipteronia dyerana )聚在了槭属

  10. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    -oriented methods to analysis-oriented methods. Then, Sect. 2, we shall provide a "survey": which are the 'prerequisite works' that have enabled formal methods, Sect. 2.1, and which are, to us, the, by now, classical 'formal methods', Sect. 2.2. We then ask ourselves the question: have formal methods for software......" is complemented, in Sect. 3.4, by a "looking forward" at some promising developments-besides the alleviation of the (eighth or more) hindrances! © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland....

  11. [Sequence of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA(nrDNA) in Xinjiang wild Dianthus and its phylogenetic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Cai, You-Ming; Zhuge, Qiang; Zou, Hui-Yu; Huang, Min-Ren

    2002-06-01

    Xinjiang is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Dianthus in China, and has a great deal of species resources. The sequences of ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 8 species of genus Dianthus wildly distributed in Xinjiang were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The result showed that the size of the ITS of Dianthus is from 617 to 621 bp, and the length variation is only 4 bp. There are very high homogeneous (97.6%-99.8%) sequences between species, and about 80% homogeneous sequences between genus Dianthus and outgroup. The sequences of ITS in genus Dianthus are relatively conservative. In general, there are more conversion than transition in the variation sites among genus Dianthus. The conversion rates are relatively high, and the ratios of conversion/transition are 1.0-3.0. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences the species of Dianthus in China would be divided into three sections. There is a distant relationship between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Dianthus and between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Fimbriatum Williams, and there is a close relationship between sect. Dianthus and sect. Fimbriatum Williams. From the phylogenetic tree of ITS it was found that the origin of sect. Dianthusis is earlier than that of sect. Fimbriatum Williams and sect. Barbulatum Williams.

  12. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  13. Transmission and recombination of homeologous Solanum sitiens chromosomes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuzé, Ricardo A; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the present experiments was to transfer the chromosomes of Solanum sitiens (syn. Solanum rickii) into cultivated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum). By crossing an allotetraploid L. esculentum x Solanum sitiens hybrid to sesquidiploid L. esculentum x S. lycopersicoides, a trigenomic hybrid (2n+14=38) was obtained. Analysis of the latter by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) indicated it contained a full set of 12 S. sitiens chromosomes, plus two extras from S. lycopersicoides. This and other complex hybrids were pollinated with Lycopersicon pennellii-derived bridging lines to overcome unilateral incompatibility. A total of 40 progeny were recovered by embryo rescue, including diploids and aneuploids (up to 2n+8). In order to determine the origin of chromosomes and the location of introgressed segments, progeny were genotyped with RFLP markers. S. sitiens-specific markers on all chromosomes, except 6 and 11, were detected in the progeny. Several S. sitiens chromosomes were transmitted intact, either through chromosome addition (i.e., trisomics) or substitution (i.e., disomics). Recombination between S. sitiens and L. esculentum was detected on most chromosomes, in both diploid and aneuploid progeny. A monosomic alien addition line for S. sitiens chromosome 8 was identified, and the extra chromosome was stably transmitted to approximately 13% of the backcross progeny. This study demonstrates the feasibility of gene transfer from S. sitiens to L. esculentum through chromosome addition, substitution, and recombination in the progeny of complex aneuploid hybrids.

  14. Fine Mapping of ui6.1, a Gametophytic Factor Controlling Pollen-Side Unilateral Incompatibility in Interspecific Solanum Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Royer, Suzanne; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a prezygotic reproductive barrier in plants that prevents fertilization by foreign (interspecific) pollen through the inhibition of pollen tube growth. Incompatibility occurs in one direction only, most often when the female is a self-incompatible species and the male is self-compatible (the “SI × SC rule”). Pistils of the wild tomato relative Solanum lycopersicoides (SI) reject pollen of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum, SC), but accept pollen of S. pennellii (SC accession). Expression of pistil-side UI is weakened in S. lycopersicum × S. lycopersicoides hybrids, as pollen tube rejection occurs lower in the style. Two gametophytic factors are sufficient for pollen compatibility on allotriploid hybrids: ui1.1 on chromosome 1 (near the S locus), and ui6.1 on chromosome 6. We report herein a fine-scale map of the ui6.1 region. Recombination around ui6.1 was suppressed in lines containing a short S. pennellii introgression, but less so in lines containing a longer introgression. More recombinants were obtained from female than male meioses. A high-resolution genetic map of this region delineated the location of ui6.1 to ∼0.128 MU, or 160 kb. Identification of the underlying gene should elucidate the mechanism of interspecific pollen rejection and its relationship to self-incompatibility. PMID:20439771

  15. 大鼠脊髓部分横切损伤后APC-Cdh1在损伤脊髓组织中的表达%Expression of Cdh1-anaphase-promoting Complex (APC-Cdh1) in the Injured Myeloid Tissue after Hemi-sected Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁月红; 钱巍; 李平; 姚文龙; 邱瑾; 张传汉

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠脊髓部分横切损伤后损伤脊髓组织中APC-Cdh1 mRNA的表达变化,探讨APC-Cdh1在脊髓损伤修复中的作用.方法 建立成年SD大鼠脊髓部分横切模型(T10~T11),将40只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组和模型组,于损伤后不同时间点按实验性脊髓损伤神经功能综合评分标准进行CBS评估,采用实时荧光定量PCR检测损伤区脊髓组织APC-Cdh1 mRNA的表达,并用免疫组化染色检测Cdh1表达的部位.结果 对照组和模型组术后不同时间点CBS评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与对照组比较,术后第1天Cdh1 mRNA表达减少(P<0.05),术后第7天显著升高(P<0.05),术后第14天又降低(P<0.05).免疫组化检测结果显示在脊髓前角和后角中有大量APC-Cdh1表达.结论 APC-Cdh1在损伤脊髓组织中大量表达,表明其可能参与脊髓损伤修复的病理生理过程.

  16. New technical aspects for operators of photovoltaic power plants {<=} 30 kWp according to paragraph 6 sect. 2 No. 2 EEG. A critical evaluation; Neue technische Vorgaben fuer Betreiber von PV-Anlagen {<=} 30 kWp gem. paragraph 6 Abs. 2 Nr. 2 EEG. Eine kritische Betrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht; Schneidewindt, Holger [Verbraucherzentrale NRW (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    It is narrow in some German powerdistribution networks, especially in the southern Germany, where the sun appears frequently and extensively. And it gets even more closely. With the expansion of the technical requirements in paragraph 6, paragraph 2, No. 2 EEG (Renewable Energy Law) as a prerequisite for ensuring the network stability, since 1st January, 2012, the legislature responds to the plant growths of the recent years. Not always with a sense of proportion and under acceptance of a great legal uncertainty.

  17. Selecting the correct grid connection point according to Sect. 5 No. 1 EEG. Legal uncertainty and liability risks at the disadvantage of the grid operators; Die Wahl des richtigen Netzverknuepfungspunktes gemaess paragraph 5 Abs. 1 EEG. Rechtsunsicherheit und Haftungsrisiken zum Nachteil der Netzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruell, Frederick; Goege, Marc-Stefan [Kanzlei Hoech und Partner, Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The central question, i.e. if a total cost comparison between all possible connecting points within a power grid is relevant, is answered in the positive. The author points out the shortcomings of the new EEG and hopes that the legal uncertainty resulting from three recent court rulings will soon be cleared ulp by the Federal Court of Justice.

  18. Attempts of Reconciliation between the 20th Century Islamic Sects: Starting with the Reconciliation Society for Schools of Sharia Law%20世纪伊斯兰教派和解的尝试——从伊斯兰教法学派和解协会谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福泉

    2011-01-01

    二战后,教派和解运动在逊尼派和什叶派宗教界兴起,1 947年伊斯兰教法学派和解协会的成立便是其最重要的标志.在30多年的时间内,和解协会推动了两大教派的交流,取得了一些重要成果,但由于种种原因,最终走向解体.和解协会的兴衰历程为伊斯兰教后继的教派对话提供了宝贵的经验教训.

  19. A Temple as the Birthplace of Two Buddhism Sects--On the Status and Influence of Hubei Dangyang Yuquan Temple in Chinese Buddhism History%一寺而兼两祖庭--论湖北当阳玉泉寺在中国佛教史上的地位和影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏翔

    2006-01-01

    被誉为"荆州丛林之冠"的湖北当阳玉泉寺在中国佛教史上有着极为重要的地位和影响.它既是中国第一个佛教宗派天台宗的祖庭①之一,又是禅宗北宗的祖庭.此外玉泉寺还与其它佛教宗派如律宗、净土宗、禅宗南宗等也有着极为密切的关系.隋唐之时,玉泉寺高僧辈出,国师云集;诸宗竞秀,蔚为大观,是当时全国的佛教中心之一.

  20. Habits, Priming and the Explanation of Mindless Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    then argue that this evidence challenges traditional belief-desire-based approaches in the philosophy of action (Sects. 1, 2). I further discuss a recently proposed solution to this challenge, Gendler’s Alief, finding it unsatisfactory (Sect. 3). I conclude by sketching my own alternative solution, based...

  1. A taxonomic revision of the small Cape genus Steirodiscus (Asteraceae: Senecioneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Steirodiscus Less. is revised, with full descriptions, nomenclature, illustrations and distribution data. Five species are recognised in two sections: sect. Steirodiscus with free involucral bracts and sect. Psilothonna with bracts connate into a smooth cup. S. linearilobus DC. is established as an earlier name for S. schlechteri Bolus, which is relegated to synonomy.

  2. Didymocarpus corchorifolius and its allies (Gesneriaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; Burtt, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Didymocarpus sect. Elati Ridley, later reduced by its author to sect. Didymocarpus, is redefined and reinstated for the accommodation of 4 or 5 morphologically distinctive Malayan species: D. corchorifolius DC. (Pulau Penang, S. Thailand), D. antirrhinoides A. Weber, sp. nov. (confused under the for

  3. NOTES ON MALESIAN FERNS—I On the genus Lemmaphylluin Presl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The genera Lepidogrammitis Ching and Weatherbya Copel. are merged inLemmaphyllum. Presl. The inconstancy of the characters on which these genera havebeen separated in discussed.2. The following new combinations are proposed: Lemmaphyllum accedens (Bl.Donk (basinym, Polypodium accedens Bl. and Lemmaphyllum sect. Phlebodiopsis(Moore Donk (basinym, Pleopeltis sect. Phlebodiopsis Moore.

  4. Didymocarpus corchorifolius and its allies (Gesneriaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; Burtt, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Didymocarpus sect. Elati Ridley, later reduced by its author to sect. Didymocarpus, is redefined and reinstated for the accommodation of 4 or 5 morphologically distinctive Malayan species: D. corchorifolius DC. (Pulau Penang, S. Thailand), D. antirrhinoides A. Weber, sp. nov. (confused under the

  5. Taxonomic re-evaluation of species in Talaromyces section Islandici, using a polyphasic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C. M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of Talaromyces rugulosus, T. wortmannii and closely related species, classified in Talaromyces sect. Islandici, is reviewed in this paper. The species of Talaromyces sect. Islandici have restricted growth on MEA and CYA, generally have yellow mycelia and produce rugulosin and/or skyr...

  6. Two new species of Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) from New Caledonia: dual characterisation with morphology and nrDNA sequence variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, John W.; Whitaker, Anthony H.; Whitaker, Vivienne A.; Gardner, Richard C.; Wright, Shane D.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified two new species of Metrosideros subg. Mearnsia (Myrtaceae) growing on, and apparently endemic to, the massif known as the Roches d’Ouaïème in New Caledonia. Of these two species, we include M. whitakeri in sect. Mearnsia and M. rotundifolia in sect. Calyptropelala. Both morphologi

  7. The Wonderful Winter——Report on Monlam Religious Ritual in Labrang Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Dazhou

    2002-01-01

    lwant to revlst a monastery have been toseven orelghttlmeSItiSthe eeb FSF8ngMonasterymxl眈e C口U*…I****Bn丁巾曰*n AUt口nom口USPrefeCture In Gansu Provinc民 a famous monasterybuilt by the Ge峋Sect(Whow Sect)ofTibetanBUddhistS

  8. Introduction to Integrable Many-Body Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamaj, Ladislav

    2010-04-01

    This is the second part of a three-volume introductory course about integrable systems of interacting bodies. The models of interest are quantum spin chains with nearest-neighbor interactions between spin operators, in particular Heisenberg spin-1/2 models. The Ising model in a transverse field, expressible as a quadratic fermion form by using the Jordan-Wigner transformation, is the subject of Sect. 12. The derivation of the coordinate Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg chain and the determination of its absolute ground state in various regions of the anisotropy parameter are presented in Sect. 13. The magnetic properties of the ground state are explained in Sect. 14. Sect. 15 concerns excited states and the zero-temperature thermodynamics of the XXZ model. The thermodynamics of the XXZ Heisenberg chain is derived on the basis of the string hypothesis in Sect. 16; the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations are analyzed in high-temperature and low-temperature limits. An alternative derivation of the thermodynamics without using strings, leading to a non-linear integral equation determining the free energy, is the subject of Sect. 17. A nontrivial application of the Quantum Inverse Scattering method to the fully anisotropic XYZ Heisenberg chain is described in Sect. 18. Sect. 19 deals with integrable cases of isotropic spin chains with an arbitrary spin.

  9. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  10. Pollen morphology of Rhododendron subgen. Tsutsusi and its systematic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Jiao ZHANG; Xiao-Feng JIN; Bing-Yang DING; Jing-Ping ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four pollen samples were obtained for 80 taxa, of which, 13 species and one variety are from sect. Brachycalyx Sweet, 58 species and two varieties from sect. Tsutsusi Sweet, and six species from subgen. Pentanthera (G. Don) Pojarkova, respectively. Pollen morphology of all samples was observed using LM and SEM. Pollen grains are revealed to be spheroidal and tetrahedral with tricolporate apertures. Pollen sizes of sub-gen. Tsutsusi (Sweet) Pojarkova range from 37.67 μm to 61.06 μm, and the exine sculptures are more or less compactly granulated. Pollen sizes are significantly different between sect. Brachycalyx and sect. Tsutsusi of subgen. Tsutsusi. Rhododendron tashiroi Maxim. of sect. Tsusiopsis Sleumer shows a close affinity to sect. Brachycalyx. Pollen size and exine are consistent with general morphology in differentiating species in sect. Tsutsusi. Rhododendron huadingense B. Y. Ding & Y. Y. Fang, once placed as a member of sect. Brachycalyx, should be considered as a species in subgen. Pentanthera.

  11. 78 FR 27065 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Control Techniques Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... available control measures (RACM) as expeditiously as practicable. RACT, a subset of RACM, relates... Repealed. Emission Control publication]. System Efficiency. Sect .0915 Determination of 6/1/2008 5/9/2013... Combustion 7/15/2002 5/9/2013 [Insert citation of Turbines. publication]. Sect .1409 Stationary Internal 3/13...

  12. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. ...... claim that both sections, Sects. 2–3, contribute to a methodology of software engineering.......We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. We...

  13. Sitnikov cyclic configuration of N+1-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz Ullah, M.; Hassan, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript deals with the generalisation of all previous works on series solutions and linear stability of equilibrium points of the Sitnikov problem. Following Giacaglia (1967), in Sect. 2 we have derived the equation of motion of the infinitesimal mass moving along the z-axis about which the plane of motion is rotating with unit angular velocity. In Sects. 3, 4 and 5 the series solutions of the Sitnikov problem have been developed by the method of MacMillan, Lindstedt-Poincaré and iteration of Green's function respectively. In Sect. 6 the three series solutions have been compared graphically by putting N=2, 3, 4. In Sect. 7 the coordinates of equilibrium points have been calculated. In Sect. 8 the linear stability of equilibrium points has been examined by the method of Murray and Dermott (Solar System Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999) and it was found that the equilibrium points are stable in Sitnikov problem.

  14. Technology for the next gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrofanov, Valery P; Pan, Huang-Wei; Kuo, Ling-Chi; Cole, Garrett; Degallaix, Jerome; Willke, Benno

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the key enabling technologies for advanced and future laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, which must combine test masses with the lowest possible optical and acoustic losses, with high stability lasers and various techniques for suppressing noise. Sect. 1 of this paper presents a review of the acoustic properties of test masses. Sect. 2 reviews the technology of the amorphous dielectric coatings which are currently universally used for the mirrors in advanced laser interferometers, but for which lower acoustic loss would be very advantageous. In sect. 3 a new generation of crystalline optical coatings that offer a substantial reduction in thermal noise is reviewed. The optical properties of test masses are reviewed in sect. 4, with special focus on the properties of silicon, an important candidate material for future detectors. Sect. 5 of this paper presents the very low noise, high stability laser technology that underpins all advanced and next generation laser inter...

  15. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter Seithe, sect. Lysiphellos (Bitter Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., S. crispum Ruiz & Pav., S. laxum Spreng., S. seaforthianum Andrews are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes, preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species.

  16. Summary of Recent Progress in Understanding HVCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wakker, B P; Gibson, B K; Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Gibson, Brad K.

    1999-01-01

    The study of high-velocity clouds has progressed much since the appearance of the review article by Wakker & van Woerden (1997), less than two years ago. Much of this progress is described in these workshop proceedings. Here we update the review article, summarizing the topics discussed at the workshop as well as covering the recent literature. We follow the outline of the review, describing HI properties in Sect. 2 and 3, interactions between HVCs and other gas in Sect. 4, observations at wavelengths other than 21-cm in Sects. 5 and 6, absorption-line studies of metallicities and distances in Sects. 7 and 8, extra-galactic HVCs in Sect. 9, the Magellanic Stream in Sect. 10, and a discussion of HVC origins in Sect. 11. Key contributions of the past two years include (a) the first determination of a distance bracket for an HVC: d=4-10 kpc for Complex A (van Woerden et al. 1999); (b) the first determinations of a true metallicity: 1/4 solar for HVC 287+22+240 (Lu et al. 1998), and 1/10 solar Complex~C (Wakk...

  17. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  18. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  19. Ajaran Syaikh Khusaeri Hikmatullah “Si Wali Kutub” Tentang PuasaDi Kota Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    A.M Wibowo

    2009-01-01

    Sect Khusaeri Hikmatullah is one of sect that use Islam as their symbol.He claims his self as “walikutub” (leader of wali). There is different in thissect with Islam that publicy known. The difference is in Ramadhan determi-nation. In determining compulsory fasting for its follower this sect utilizescalendar syamsiah (Masehi) not qamariah as as conducted by muslim ingeneral.This is qualitative research by using case study approach. Data Source inthis research this is famili’s Khusaeri in Peka...

  20. Studies on Protoplasts Culture of Tomato and its Wild Relative Species%番茄及其近缘野生种茎段原生质体培养的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长远; 吴定华

    2000-01-01

    利用番茄茎段作为原生质体来源的外植体,在适宜的培养基中,成功地获得了野生秘鲁番茄(Lycopersicon peruvianum Mill.)、栽培番茄‘粤农2号'(Lycopersicon esculentum‘Yuenong No.2’)和番茄近缘野生种类番茄茄(Solanum lycopersicoides Dun.)的再生植株.3种材料的再生植株移植到土壤中均能正常生长,植株性状与对照无差异.

  1. A new species of Begonia L.(Begoniaceae) from Yunnan, Chinas Y. Y. Qian; New species; China%云南秋海棠属一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱义咏

    2001-01-01

    @@ Begonia menglianensis Y. Y. Qian, sp. nov. (Sect. Platycentrum Ser. Cathayanae). Fig. 1 Habitu B. versicolori lrmsch. similis, sed foliorum laminis supra glabris, florum staminatorum tepalis 4, capsularum alis majoribus ligulatis, 20~22 mm longis differt.

  2. Neutrino Sources and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vissani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture, prepared for PhD students, basic considerations on neutrino interactions, properties and sites of production are overviewed. The detailed content is as follows: Sect. 1, Weak interactions and neutrinos: Fermi coupling; definition of neutrinos; global numbers. Sect. 2, A list of neutrino sources: Explanatory note and examples (solar pp- and supernova-neutrinos). Sect. 3, Neutrinos oscillations: Basic formalism (Pontecorvo); matter effect (Mikheev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein); status of neutrino masses and mixings. Sect. 4, Modifying the standard model to include neutrinos masses: The fermions of the standard model; one additional operator in the standard model (Weinberg); implications. One summary table and several exercises offer the students occasions to check, consolidate and extend their understanding; the brief reference list includes historical and review papers and some entry points to active research in neutrino physics.

  3. 78 FR 63211 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered CMS System of Records Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-applicant tax payers or tax filers, and spouses and parents of applicants, who are listed on the application... responsibility exemptions, including membership in a certain type of recognized religious sect or health...

  4. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2016-01-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...

  5. Florae Malseianae Precursores XXV. Notes on Malaysian and some S.E. Asian Cyperaceae VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    1. Fimbristylis savannicola Kern, spec. nov. — Sect. Fuscae Ohwi. — Fig. 1. Herba perennis, rhizomate lignoso brevissimo vaginis brunneis parce dissolutis circumdato. Culmi caespitosi, erecti, graciles sed firmuli, compressi, sulcati, dense puncticulati, glabri laevesque vel praesertim basin versus

  6. Genetic variability of sorghum landraces from lower Eastern Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reuben M. Muasya

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... Key words: Genetic variability, landraces, simple sequence repeats, sorghum. ... determining the fate of new genetic combinations from ..... Systematics and evolution of Sorghum Sect. ... Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, ... environment for genetic marker analysis. ... Introduction to population biology.

  7. Amorphophallus bonaccordensis, a new species of Araceae from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivadasan, M.; Mohanan, N.; Rajkumar, G.

    1994-01-01

    Amorphophallus bonaccordensis, a new species belonging to Amorphophallus sect. Rhaphiophallus of the family Araceae, is described from India. The section is characterized by the presence of a zone of neuter flowers between the pistillate and staminate zones.

  8. Swainsonine biosynthesis genes in diverse symbiotic and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...

  9. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) III — Supplement. Additional species of section Plenodomus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Gruyter, de J.

    1999-01-01

    This supplement deals with the diagnostic characteristics and literature data of three species of Phoma sect. Plenodomus: Phoma korfii spec. nov. (synanamorph Sclerotium orobanches Schwein.: Fr.), Phoma pimpinellae spec. nov. (teleomorph Leptosphaeria pimpinellae Lowen & Sivan.) and Phoma etheridgei

  10. Phylogeny of Chinese Allium (Liliaceae) using PCR-RFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兴金; 葛颂; 许介眉; 洪德元

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen representative species were selected from all the nine sections of Chinese Allium on the basis of the classification of morphology and cytotaxonomy. The trnK and rpL16 gene fragments of chloroplast DNA were amplified from 18 species by PCR method. The two cpDNA fragments were digested by 26 restriction enzymes, and 303 polymorphic restriction sites were found, of which 163 were informative. The restriction site data were analyzed with PAUP (version 3.1.1) and MEGA (version 1.01) as well as PHYLIP. As a result, the genus Allium could be classified into six subgenera. The recognition of Sect. Anguinum in the Flora of China is reasonable, Sect. Rhizirideum, Sect. Haplostemon and Sect. Cepa are not monophyletic. The infrageneric system of this genus was also discussed.

  11. Basic or clinical research of several parasitoses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋次鹏

    2002-01-01

    @@ In this special issue, a few research papers, in the field of medic al parasitology are related to protozoa (viseral leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, giardiasis), trematode (schistosomiasis), cestode (echinococcosis) and medical in sect (myiasis) from different institutions in China are presented.

  12. Notes on New World Zingiberaceae: IV. Some new species of Costus and Renealmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Maas, H.

    1988-01-01

    Three new species of Costus (sect. Ornithophilus) and two new species of Renealmia are described, and a revised key to the species of Costus with separate flowering shoots and unappendaged bracts is given.

  13. Numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase jet flow in air-bubble generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文义; 王静波; 姜楠; 赵斌; 王振东

    2008-01-01

    Air-bubble generator is the key part of the self-inspiration type swirl flotation machines,whose flow field structure has a great effect on flotation.The multiphase volume of fluid(VOF),standard k-ε turbulent model and the SIMPLE method were chosen to simulate the present model;the first order upwind difference scheme was utilized to perform a discrete solution for momentum equation.The distributing law of the velocity,pressure,turbulent kinetic energy of every section along the flow direction of air-bubble generator was analyzed.The results indicate that the bubbles are heavily broken up in the middle cross section of throat sect and the entrance of diffuser sect along the flow direction,and the turbulent kinetic energy of diffuser sect is larger than the entrance of throat sect and mixing chamber.

  14. The attitude of Iranian nurses about do not resuscitate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mogadasian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

  15. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FINAL FINALweb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    frontiers. Attempts at a proper classification of the sect prove elusive given the spread ... second-most important Muslim leader in Nigeria behind the Sultan of Sokoto, was .... In various forms, the South/East, South/ South regions of Nigeria,.

  16. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications.

  17. Taxonomical and nomenclatural notes on Centaurea: A proposal of classification, a description of new sections and subsections, and a species list of the redefined section Centaurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilpold, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we summarize the results of our long-date research on the genus Centaurea. The first part of the paper deals with the overall classification of the genus, which we propose to divide into three subgenera: subgenus Centaurea, subgenus Cyanus and subgenus Lopholoma. The second part of this publication gives a recopilation of the species of the redefined section Centaurea, a group that includes former sections Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis and Willkommia, together with taxonomical, geographical, ecological and karyological considerations. Finally, new descriptions or nomenclatural combinations are proposed to correlate nomenclature to the new classification: a new combination (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus is proposed in subgenus Lopholoma; three new sections (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus, and Hyerapolitanae are described in subgenus Centaurea; two subsections (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia in sect. Centaurea; and three subsections (subsects. Exarata, Jacea, and Subtilis in sect. Phrygia.En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de nuestras investigaciones de larga fecha en el género Centaurea. La primera parte del trabajo trata de la clasificación del género, que proponemos dividir en tres subgéneros: subgénero Centaurea, subgénero Cyanus y subgénero Lopholoma. La segunda parte es una recopilación de las especies de la redefinida sección Centaurea, que incluye las antiguas secciones Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis y Willkommia, junto con consideraciones geográficas, ecológicas y cariológicas. Por último, proponemos nuevas secciones, subsecciones y combinaciones para correlacionar nomenclatura y clasificación: proponemos una nueva (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus en el subgénero Lopholoma; se describen tres secciones nuevas (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus y Hyerapolitanae en el subgénero Centaurea; dos subsecciones (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia en la secci

  18. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  19. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  20. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  1. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae. 3. Sections Hyalis and Morphixia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A revised classification is presented for Ixia L., a southern African genus restricted to the winter rainfall zone of the western part of the subcontinent, in which the four sections Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, Hyalis (Baker Diels, Ixia, and Morphixia (Ker Gawl. Pax are recognized and diagnosed. The circumscription of sect. Hyalis is emended to include both short- and long-tubed species, mostly with four or more leaves with the uppermost not sharply differentiated from the lower. This contrast with sect. Morphixia, also with short- and long-tubed species, in which the entirely sheathing uppermost leaf (rarely upper two leaves is distinct from the lower two or rarely three leaves, which have well-developed blades. We revise these two sections, recognizing 18 species in sect. Hyalis, including the two new species, I. linderi and I. recondita, and recognizing 31 species in sect. Morphixia, including the 11 new species, I. alata, I. cedarmontana, I. dolichosiphon, I. ecklonii, I. linearifolia, I. monticola (previously included in I. latifolia var. angustifolia, I. pavonia, I. parva and I. ramulosa (raised from varietal rank as var. parviflora and var. ramulosa respectively of I. latifolia, I. saundersiana and I. stenophylla (previously I. fucata var. filifolia. We also provide a new name, I. mollis for the illegitimate homonym I. flaccida. Lastly, we transfer I. purpureorosea from sect. Ixia to sect. Hyalis. We recognize eight informal series, three in sect. Hyalis and five in sect. Morphixia. With these changes and additions the genus Ixia now comprises 78 species.

  2. Moderasi Khawarij Ibadiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Choirul Rofiq

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally many historians depict Kharijite sect with nega­tive image as a group that has an extreme religious ideas and noncon­formist political attitudes. Furthermore Kharijite sect was regarded as an extremist faction and radical terrorist who prefers violence against any goverment that has deviated from Islamic doctrine according to Kharijite perspective. Similar to many religious sects, Kharijite sect also separated into many factions. This separation is usually caused by difference views that frequently arouse a dispute and conflict among them. In addition, they occasionally consider another faction as an un­believer and infidel group. Because of this schism, the Kharijite sect became very weak so that can be destroyed easily. One of the Kharijite factions is Ibadite faction that is assessed by scholars as the closest fac­tion to Sunnite sect because the Ibadites have moderate views so that can survive and exist until now whereas almost Kharijite factions tend to have extreme views and perform violent actions to achieve their aims. The successful indoctrination and thorough strategy might cause this moderation attitude.

  3. CROMOSOMAS Y EVOLUCION EN ARACHIS (LEGlIMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Fueron analizadas citológicamente cuarenta y un especies pertenecientes a ocho de las nueve secciones del género Arachis. Se analizaron en detalle los cariotipos veinticuatro de las cuarenta y un especies. Todas las especies tienen un par de cromosomas con satélite, excepto A. valida, que tiene dos pares. Los satélites se clasifican en diez tipos. Las secciones Procumbentes, Erectoides, Extranervosae, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae, Heteranthae y Trierectoides tienen sólo uno o dos tipos de cromosomas con satélite, mientras que la sect. Arachis tiene seis tipos. Un par de cromosomas pequeños se encuentran en la sect. Arachis, excepto en A.batizocoi, A. ipaensis, A. glandulifera, A. magna y A. benensis. A. glandulifera (sect. Arachis tiene el cariotipo más asimétrico, con seis pares de cromosomas subtelocéntricos y A.guaranitica (sect. Trierectoides tiene el cariotipo más simétrico. Esto apoya la hipótesis de que la sect. Trierectoides es la más antigua en el género y la sect. Arachis tiene un origen más reciente. Teniendo en cuenta los cariotipos, morfología externa y la distribución geográfica, A. duranensis y A. ipaensis son probablemente los donantes del genoma de A.hypogaea.

  4. Especies nuevas y una lectotipificación en Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae para Mesoamérica New species and one lectotypification in Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran 7 especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae: Lonchocarpus bracteolatus endémica de Honduras, L. hydrophilus endémica de Guatemala, L. nebularis endémica de Panamá, L. sericocarpus endémica de Nicaragua, L. barbatus y L. multifoliolatus, ambas endémicas de la cuenca del golfo de México, y L. congestiflorus que se ubica en las montañas de Chiapas hasta Honduras. Estas especies pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., sect. Obtusifolii (Benth. M. Sousa y sect. Standleyi M. Sousa. En L. wendtii M. Sousa se designa lectotipo, debido a que 2 recolectas fueron citadas para el tipo.Seven new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae are described and illustrated: L. bracteolatus, endemic to Honduras; L hydrophilus, endemic to Guatemala, L. nebularis, endemic to Panama, and L. sericocarpus, endemic to Nicaragua. Two are found in the Gulf of Mexico's basin: L. barbatus and L. multifoliolatus, and L. congestiflorus is found in the mountains from Chiapas to Honduras. These species belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., sect. Obtusifolii (Benth. M. Sousa and sect. Standleyi M. Sousa. A lectotype is designated for L. wendtii M. Sousa, since 2 collections were cited as the type.

  5. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered from anticipated climate change. How well do we understand these changes today, and what are implications for water resources management and for policy?

    With these questions in mind, a dozen researchers – most of them with experience in collaborating with water managers – from around the world assembled for a workshop in Göschenen, Switzerland on 16–19 September 2009 by invitation of the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI. Their goal was to develop an up-to-date overview of mountain water resources and climate change and to identify pressing issues with relevance for science and society.

    This special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences assembles contributions providing insight into climate change and water resources for selected case-study mountain regions from around the world. The present introductory article is based on analysis of these regions and on the workshop discussions. We will give a brief overview of the subject (Sect. 1, introduce the case-study regions (Sect. 2 and examine the state of knowledge regarding the importance of water supply from mountain areas for water resources in the adjacent lowlands and anticipated climate change impacts (Sect. 3. From there, we will identify research and monitoring needs (Sect. 4, make recommendations for research, water resources management and policy (Sect. 5 and finally draw conclusions (Sect. 6.

  6. Geographical Distribution of Avena L. (Poaceae)%禾本科燕麦属植物的地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林磊; 刘青

    2015-01-01

    The geographical distribution of Avena L. (Aveneae, Poaceae) was studied by ifeld investigation and reviewing specimens and literature. The results showed that 29 species in Avena were distributed in Europe, Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, and the Americas. In China, four species of Avena distribute in high altitude areas in the northern, northwestern, and southwestern provinces. Seven sections are delimited in Avena, including sect. Avenotrichon (Holub) Baum, sect. Ventricosa Baum, sect. Agraria Baum, sect. Tenuicarpa Baum, sect. Ethiopica Baum, sect. Pachycarpa Baum, and sect. Avena. The sect. Ethiopica occurs in Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and the remaining six sections occur in Mediterranean, Southwestern Europe, Northwestern Africa, Western Asia, Eastern Asia, and the Americas. The results suggest that the Mediterranean, Northwestern Africa, and Western Asia are the distribution centers and diversiifcation centers of Avena, while the origin center of Avena needs to be further studied.%为探讨燕麦属(Avena L.)植物的地理分布,通过野外调查及查阅标本和文献资料,对燕麦属植物的地理分布进行整理和研究。结果表明,燕麦属植物约有29种,主要分布在欧洲、地中海地区、北非、西亚、东亚和美洲。中国有4种,分布于华北、西北、西南各省(区)的高海拔地区。燕麦属下分7个组,分别是多年生燕麦组[sect. Avenotrichon (Holub) Baum]、偏凸燕麦组(sect. Ventricosa Baum)、耕地燕麦组(sect. Agraria Baum)、软果燕麦组(sect. Tenuicarpa Baum)、埃塞俄比亚燕麦组(sect. Ethiopica Baum)、厚果燕麦组(sect. Pachycarpa Baum)和真燕麦组(sect. Avena)。其中,埃塞俄比亚燕麦组分布在埃塞俄比亚、沙特阿拉伯、也门,其他6个组分布在欧洲、地中海、西北非洲、西亚、东亚和美洲地区。地中海、西北非洲、西亚地区分布有除埃塞俄比亚燕麦组之外的所有6

  7. Comparison of proton therapy treatment planning for head tumors with a pencil beam algorithm on dual and single energy CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudobivnik, Nace; Dedes, George; Parodi, Katia; Landry, Guillaume, E-mail: g.landry@lmu.de [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 85748 (Germany); Schwarz, Florian; Johnson, Thorsten; Sommer, Wieland H. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Agolli, Linda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377, Germany and Radiation Oncology, Sant’ Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome 00189 (Italy); Tessonnier, Thomas [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 85748, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht 6229 ET, the Netherlands and Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0G4 (Canada); Thieke, Christian; Belka, Claus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) has recently been proposed as an improvement over single energy CT (SECT) for stopping power ratio (SPR) estimation for proton therapy treatment planning (TP), thereby potentially reducing range uncertainties. Published literature investigated phantoms. This study aims at performing proton therapy TP on SECT and DECT head images of the same patients and at evaluating whether the reported improved DECT SPR accuracy translates into clinically relevant range shifts in clinical head treatment scenarios. Methods: Two phantoms were scanned at a last generation dual source DECT scanner at 90 and 150 kVp with Sn filtration. The first phantom (Gammex phantom) was used to calibrate the scanner in terms of SPR while the second served as evaluation (CIRS phantom). DECT images of five head trauma patients were used as surrogate cancer patient images for TP of proton therapy. Pencil beam algorithm based TP was performed on SECT and DECT images and the dose distributions corresponding to the optimized proton plans were calculated using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation platform using the same patient geometry for both plans obtained from conversion of the 150 kVp images. Range shifts between the MC dose distributions from SECT and DECT plans were assessed using 2D range maps. Results: SPR root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the inserts of the Gammex phantom were 1.9%, 1.8%, and 1.2% for SECT phantom calibration (SECT{sub phantom}), SECT stoichiometric calibration (SECT{sub stoichiometric}), and DECT calibration, respectively. For the CIRS phantom, these were 3.6%, 1.6%, and 1.0%. When investigating patient anatomy, group median range differences of up to −1.4% were observed for head cases when comparing SECT{sub stoichiometric} with DECT. For this calibration the 25th and 75th percentiles varied from −2% to 0% across the five patients. The group median was found to be limited to 0.5% when using SECT{sub phantom} and the 25th and 75th percentiles

  8. Anatomia do escapo floral de espécies brasileiras de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae Anatomy of the inflorescence scape of Brazilian species of the Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Scatena

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia dos escapos de 17 espécies de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon, sendo 10 da sect. Divisi e sete da sect. Conferti. O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar anatomicamente os escapos. como contribuição para o entendimento do grupo, uma vez que. morfologicamente, esse é o caráter laxonômico mais importante. Procurou-se, também, confirmar ou não o reconhecimento das duas seções dentro do subgênero. Para os estudos anatômicos utilizou-se material proveniente do Brasil, obtido de exsicatas de diferentes herbários e/ou coletado na Serra do Cipó, MG. Neste trabalho observou-se que Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon é caracterizado morfologicamente por apresentar escapos pluricapitulados no ápice. Anatomicamente, as espécies estudadas da sect. Divisi apresentam escapos com vários cilindros vasculares, na região mediana e, ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus vellozioides e P. spixianus, feixes vasculares corticais, características únicas na família. Diferentemente, as espécies avaliadas da sect. Conferti apresentam escapos com cilindro vascular único na região mediana, padrão análogo ao das demais Eriocaulaccae, e ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus itatiaiensis, P. planifolius e P. paulensis, feixes vasculares medulares, que até então não haviam sido referidos para a família.The scape anatomy of 17 taxa of Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon were studied, being 10 taxa of sect. Divisi and seven of sect. Conferti. The study was carried out to see whether scape morphology and anatomy provide valid taxonomic characters at the subgeneric level in Paepalanthus and to lest a proposal to recognize two sections within Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon: sect. Divisi and sect. Conferti. The material for anatomical study was collected in Brazil, partly from herbarium specimens and partly from fresh material collected in the field, from the Serra do Cipó. Minas Gerais State. In this work, we observe that

  9. Anatomía y desarrollo de fruto y semilla de Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae Anatomy and development of fruit and seed of Solanum palinacanthum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Dottori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el desarrollo y anatomía de fruto y semilla en Solanum palinacanthum Dunal, sect. Acanthophora Dunal, subgénero Leptostemonum (Dunal Bitter (Solanaceae. Se describen las características del pericarpo, (exocarpo, mesocarpo, endocarpo y de la semilla (incremento en el número de estratos medios y las particularidades de la exotesta y endotesta que permitieron caracterizar la especie. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con lo conocido en Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., S. juvenale Thell., S. hieronymi Kuntze y S. euacanthum Phil., especies pertenecientes al mismo subgénero pero a la sect. Melongena. Se concluye que S. palinacanthum de la sect. Acanthophora y los representantes analizados de la sect. Melongena tienen características semejantes, las diferencias radican en S. palinacanthum en la ausencia de pseudoseptos, de tricomas estrellados en el cáliz persistente y al espesor del pericarpo de 6 a 8 mm. Por el contrario las especies de la sect. Melongena presentan pseudoseptos, tricomas estrellados en el cáliz persistente y el espesor del pericarpo varía de 0,5 a 5 mm. Dentro de la sect. Acanthophora, S. palinacanthum se diferencia de las restantes especies del grupo por poseer el cariótipo más asimétrico y semillas sin alas, por lo que las diferencias observadas en este estudio no permiten separar ambas secciones.Fruit and seed development and anatomy of Solanum palinacanthum Dunal section Acanthophora Dunal, subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal Bitter (Solanaceae were analyzed. Characteristics of pericarp layers (exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp and seed details (number of median layers exotesta sclereids and endotesta characteristics were used to characterize these species. Results were compared with similar studies in Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., S. juvenale Thell., S.hieronymi Kuntze and S. euacanthum Phil., species that belong to the same subgenus but to another section, Melongena. We conclude that S. palinacanthum, sect

  10. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging. (orig.)

  11. Cladistic Evolution Analysis of Asparagus Genus in the Mongolian Plateau%蒙古高原天门冬属植物分支系统演化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰; 赵一之; 田桂泉

    2003-01-01

    利用最大同步法对蒙古高原天门冬属植物进行了分支分类研究,将本属植物分为2个亚属,天门冬亚属分为2个组.其结果与的分类系统一致.亚属、组的进化顺序为:Subgen. Asparagopsis → Subgen. Asparagus;Sect. densiflorus → Sect. Archiasparagus → Sect. Asparagus.蒙古高原天门冬属植物除Subgen. Asparagopsis中的栽培种A.setaceus和Subgen. Asparagus中Sect. Archiasparagus的A. schoberioides两种外,其余11种均属于Sect. Asparagus的Ser Foliati Iljin.根据分支演化树系图,又可分为Subser. Brachyphyllus和Subser. Persicus.本属的进化趋势为:花两性→花单性;叶状枝具中脉→不具中脉;花梗由短→长;由肉质纺锤状根→绳状根;短粗根状茎→细长根状茎.本文编制了蒙古高原天门冬属植物的分亚属、分组、分种检索表.

  12. Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.

  13. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  14. Available Energy for Life on a Planet, with or without Stellar Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sertorio, L

    2001-01-01

    The quest for life in the Universe is often affected by the free use of extrapolations of our phenomenological geocentric knowledge. We point out that the existence of a living organism, and a population of organisms, requires the existence of available energy or, more precisely, available power per unit volume (Sect. 1). This is not a geocentric concept, but a principle that belongs to the foundations of thermodynamics. A quest about availability in the Universe is justified. We discuss the case in which power comes from mining (Sect. 2), and from thermal disequilibrium (Sect. 3). Thermal disequilibrium may show up in two ways: on planets without a star (Sect. 4), and on planets where the surface thermal disequilibrium is dominated by the incoming photon flux from the nearest star (Sect. 6). In the first case we study the availability by simulating the structure of the planet with a simple model that contains the general features of the problem. For the first case we show that the availability is in general ...

  15. Mapping of QTLs for Drought Tolerance During Seedling Stage Using Introgression Line Populations in Tomato%利用渐渗系群体初步定位番茄苗期耐旱QTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 宋燕; 李君明

    2011-01-01

    利用来自耐旱野生番茄资源Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951和Solanum pennellii LA0716的渐渗系(introgression line,IL)群体,对野生种可能存在的苗期耐旱位点进行了初步定位。从LA2951群体定位了牡)T-l-3、cpT-l-6和qDT-I-123个QTLs,它们分别位于染色体3、6和12上;利用LA0716群体定位了qDr-p-1、qDT-p-2a、qDT-2b、qDT-p-3、qDT-p-4、qDT-p-5、qDT-p-8、qDT-p-9、qDT-p-10a、qDT-p-20b和qDT-p-12 11个QTLs,它们分别位于染色体1、2、3、4、5、8、9、10和12上。利用番茄高密度遗传图谱分析表明,上述2个群体位于第12染色体上的QTL可能等位,qDT-p-9可能与前人从野生种Solanum pimpinellifolium LA0722鉴定的位于第9染色体上芽期耐旱的QTL等位。%In this paper, two introgression line (IL) populations respectively derived from the wild species Solanum lycopersicoides LA2951 and S. pennellii LA0716 were used to map the possible loci for drought tolerance during the seedling stage. The results showed that 3 QTLs (qDT-I-3, qDT-l-6 and qDT-l-12) located on chromosome 3, 6 and 12 were identified from S. lycopersicoides LA2951 introgression line population and 11 QTLs (qDT-p-1, qDT-p-2a, qDT-p-2b, qDT-p-3, qDT-p-4, qDT-p-5, qDT-p-8, qDT-p-9, qDT-p-lOa, qDT-p-lOb and qDT-p-12 ) located on chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 12 from S. pennellii LA0716 population. Based on the high density tomato linkage map, QTL located on chromosome 12 might be co-localized from the above two IL populations and QTL qDT-p-9 might be co-localized with a previously identified QTL conferring drought tolerance during seed germination from S. pimpinellifolium LA0722 on chromosome 9.

  16. Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1995-09-01

    An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

  17. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression......, although the various materials that he considers are not linked in a simple, compelling logical way. The paper discusses what Hegel aimed at and the methods he used to reach his goal (sect. 1). These considerations are then used to cast an eye on the development of the contents of the book (sect. 2). Last......, the paper presents a metaphysical interpretation of the course of experiences and discusses why Hegel's sceptical method is adequate to the metaphysics of spirit with which the book concludes (sect. 3)....

  18. Microsatellites for Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia (Onagraceae), and their utility in section Calylophus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Emily M.; Fant, Jeremie B.; Moore, Michael J.; Hastings, Amy P.; Larson, Erica L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Skogen, Krissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Eleven nuclear and four plastid microsatellite markers were screened for two gypsum endemic species, Oenothera gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia, and tested for cross-amplification in the remaining 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus (Onagraceae). Methods and Results: Microsatellite markers were tested in two to three populations spanning the ranges of both O. gayleana and O. hartwegii subsp. filifolia. The nuclear microsatellite loci consisted of both di- and trinucleotide repeats with one to 17 alleles per population. Several loci showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, which may be evidence of chromosomal rings. The plastid microsatellite markers identified one to seven haplotypes per population. The transferability of these markers was confirmed in all 11 taxa within Oenothera sect. Calylophus. Conclusions: The microsatellite loci characterized here are the first developed and tested in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. These markers will be used to assess whether pollinator foraging distance influences population genetic parameters in predictable ways. PMID:26949578

  19. New Microsatellite Markers for Tricyrtis macrantha (Convallariaceae and Cross-Amplification in Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ohki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were characterized in Tricyrtis macrantha (sect. Brachycyrtis, Convallariaceae, a vulnerable species endemic to Japan, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven, and genetic diversity per locus ranged from 0.142 to 0.812. Four markers were successfully amplified in other species of sect. Brachycyrtis (T. ishiiana, T. ishiiana var. surugensis, and T. macranthopsis. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the vulnerable and endangered species of Tricyrtis sect. Brachycyrtis, to aid in the development of conservation strategies for each species.

  20. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.F.; Bradley, R.A.; Weir, J.R. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of activities and accomplishsments of the division from October 1992 through December 1993; the division is organized to provide technical support, mainly in the area of high-temperature materials, for technologies being developed by DOE. Activities span the range from basic research to industrial interactions (cooperative research and technology transfer). Sections 1-5 describe the different functional groups (engineering materials, high-temperature materials, materials science, ceramics, nuclear fuel materials). Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines. Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative R and D programs and technology transfer functions. Finally, Sect. 8 briefly describes the division`s involvement in educational activities. Several organizational changes were effected during this period.

  1. Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae (Bryophyta in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzberger Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Racomitrioideae of the Grimmiaceae is represented in Hungary by seven species belonging to four genera, including Bucklandiella affinis (F. Weber & D. Mohr Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, B. heterosticha (Hedw. Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, B. microcarpa (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, Codriophorus aciculare (Hedw. P. Beauv., C. aquaticus (Brid. Brid., Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw. Brid. and Niphotrichum canescens (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. All species are briefly described and illustrated and their distribution in Hungary is mapped. A key for determination of genera and species is provided. Some ecological, bryogeographical and conservation questions related to particular species are discussed. The following new statuses and combinations are proposed: Codriophorus P. Beauv. sect. Hydrophilus (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek- Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., Codriophorus sect. Depressi (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov., and Codriophorus sect. Andicola (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra, stat. et comb. nov.

  2. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Miao, Haixing; Cai, Ronggen; Gao, Jiangrui; Lin, Xuechun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, Zonghong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Ma, Yiqiu; Qin, Jiayi; Page, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which ari...

  3. El género Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae en el nordeste del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the genus Ocimum L. from North-East Brazil, including native species, in addition to naturalized and cultivated species, is presented here. Attention is paid to morphological characters, both vegetative and reproductive, and the nutlets and seedlings of two problem species are emphasized. Seven species belonging to three sections are recognized: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. gratissimum L., O. transamazonicum C. Pereira, O. minimum L. (sect. Ocimum, O. campechianum Mill. (sect. Gymnocimum and O. tenuiflorum L. (sect. Hierocimum. The accepted species, with their most important synonyms, detailed description and geographical distribution are given, after the Identification keys. Morphological variety is also discussed, and illustrations are given of all species.Presentamos aquí una revisión taxonómica del género Ocimum L. en el nordeste del Brasil, en la que figuran tanto las especies autóctonas como las naturalizadas y cultivadas. En ella se atendió a los caracteres morfológicos -vegetativos y reproductivos-, y se hizo hincapié en el estudio de núculas y plántulas en dos especies problemáticas. Reconocemos siete especies pertenecientes a tres secciones: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. gratissimum L., O. transamazonicum C. Pereira, O. minimum L. (sect. Ocimum, O. campechianum Mill. (sect. Gymnocimum y O. tenuiflorum L. (sect. Hierocimum. Tras las claves de identificación van las especies aceptadas con sus sinónimos más importantes, descripción detallada y distribución geográfica. Asimismo se hacen comentarios referentes a la variabilidad morfológica y se presentan ilustraciones de todas las especies.

  4. Radiation Doses of Dual-Energy CT for Abdominopelvic CT: Comparison with Single-Energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Seo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Yong Soo; Heo, Jeong Nam [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Guro Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To compare radiation doses of dual-energy CT (DECT) to single-energy CT (SECT) by a phantom experiment, with the application of mean tube currents for abdomino-pelvic CT. This study includes patients who were examined by contrast-enhanced CT for kidney evaluation. We divided the patients into six groups according to sex and body mass index. Each group consisted of five patients and a total of 30 patients were evaluated. We split the body parts (abdomen and pelvis), and calculated the mean tube current of each group as well as investigated the image noise. Applying the mean mAs from a CT scan, we measured the weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) of DECT and SECT. We compared the measured CTDIw to an estimated CTDI value displayed on the CT console. We also compared the radiation dose ratio of DECT to SECT (D/S ratio) for each subgroup. The radiation doses were compared by the student's t-test and analysis of variance. The difference of image noise between DECT and SECT was not statistically significant. Radiation dose of DECT was higher than SECT by about 21.6% (10.69 mGy, 8.79 mGy; p < 0.0001), and the measured CTDI of the DECT was significantly higher than the estimated CTDI by about 6% (p < 0.001). The D/S ratio was not significant between the six groups. The measured CTDIw of abdominopelvic DECT studies were significantly higher than those of SECT.

  5. NEW BOOKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    4th Dalai Lama Yundain GyamcoAuthored by 5th Dalai Lama and translated by Chen Qingying and Ma Lianlong, the book tells the life of the 4th Dalai Lama who was the only non-Tibetan among the various generations of the Dalai Lama.As he was the first reincarnated Mongolian Living Buddha of the Gelug Sect, he held an important position in the history of the Gelug Sect. His period was a period filled with social changes, and little historical materials are found to cover his period. Publication of the book, published by the Tapei All Buddhist Cultural Undertakings Co. Ltd., is obviously a must-read book.

  6. A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae from west coast of Baikal Lake (Irkutsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Stepantsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Astragalus rytyensis Stepantsova (Fabaceae, growing on the west coast of the lake Baikal, is described. Morphological differences from related taxa – A. versicolor Pall., A. austrosibiricus Schischk., and A. inopinatus Boriss., are discussed and uncertain position of the new species in the system of the genus is emphasized which is intermediate between subg. Phaca (L. Bunge sect. Hemiphaca Bunge and subg. Cercidothrix Bunge sect. Onobrychium Bunge. Ecological and phonological features of A. rytyensis are reported and chromosome numbers of the new (2n = 6x = 48 and related species are counted.

  7. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the name sect.  Pelargium DC. must be replaced by sect.  Pelargonium, and Pelargonium cardiophyllum Harv. (1860 by P. setulosum Turcz. (1858; P. mossambicense Engl, is reported as a new record for the Transvaal; a new name P. ternifolium Vorster is given to  P. trifolia turn Harv., nom. illeg.; and the typification of  P. multificlum Harv.,  P. plurisectum Salter,  P. dolomiticum Knuth and  P. dasyphyllum E. Mey. ex Knuth is discussed.

  8. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the name sect.  Pelargium DC. must be replaced by sect.  Pelargonium, and Pelargonium cardiophyllum Harv. (1860 by P. setulosum Turcz. (1858; P. mossambicense Engl, is reported as a new record for the Transvaal; a new name P. ternifolium Vorster is given to  P. trifolia turn Harv., nom. illeg.; and the typification of  P. multificlum Harv.,  P. plurisectum Salter,  P. dolomiticum Knuth and  P. dasyphyllum E. Mey. ex Knuth is discussed.

  9. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: A summary update on the scientific potential for pulsating star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide hundreds of deep images of the southern sky over its 10 year duration, enabling variability studies for an unprecedentedly large and unbiased population of objects. In this proceeding paper I will cover the aspects of the LSST's survey and data products that are most relevant to the study of stellar pulsations (Sect. 1), and provide a directory of pertinent materials for further information. I will also summarize the anticipated variable star sample sizes from the LSST, and highlight recent research from several members of the scientific community which evaluates the scientific potential of the LSST's data products with respect to pulsating stars (Sect. 2).

  10. Five Major Religions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    CHINA is a nation of many religions, the main five ones being Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Roman Catholicism and Christianity (Protestantism). There are also some special religions of some minority nationalities or regional beliefs. Buddhism was introduced into China from India around the First Century, and gradually developed into several sects including the Han-language-family Buddhism, the Tibetan-language-family Buddhism (or Lamaism) and Pali-language-family Buddhism. For all of these sects, recent data reveals there are more than 9,500 Buddhist temples and 170,000 monks

  11. 40 years of formal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met......In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification...

  12. 独树一帜的藏传佛教觉域派尼僧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    德吉卓玛

    2005-01-01

    The Joyul tradition, which was founded in the 11th century; was one of the most important sects of Tibetan Buddhism. This tradition may trace its origins back to Pha Dampa Sangye, a well-known monk who was a native of South India, and was founded by Macik Labdron(ma-cig lab-sgron), a famous Tibetan Yogini (a female practitioner of the Yogachara schooD. It was the only sect founded by a female in the history of Tibetan Buddhism, and this is also rarely seen in the world history of world religions.

  13. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — VII. Section Sclerophomella: Taxa with thick-walled pseudoparenchymatous pycnidia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Gruyter, de J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with ten species of Phoma, characterized by thick-walled pseudoparenchymatous pycnidia. They superficially resemble the thick-walled pycnidial phenotype in species of Phoma sect. Plenodomus, but scleroplectenchyma is lacking and teleomorphs belong to Didymella, not Leptosphaeria. Ke

  14. Interview with Village Leaders(III):Political,Legal and Public Services in Rural Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2006-01-01

    Village Head Nyima Cering Ready to Leave His Office Omda is a village within the jurisdiction of Chewei Township of Qamdo County, lying some 80 km from Qamdo Town, the county headquarters. About 40 km to the north of Omda Village is Garma Monastery of the Garma Gagyu Sect, famous for its Buddhist images and

  15. Begonia siccacaudata (Begoniaceae). A new species from Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenbos, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new species Begonia siccacaudata is described. It belongs to the sect. Petermannia but is distinguished from other species by being stemless with a short fleshy rhizome. The female flowers are solitary, the male flowers are borne on a many-flowered thyrsoid inflorescence of a type not yet describe

  16. 云南东南部秋海棠属侧膜组一新种%A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae)from SE Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税玉民

    2002-01-01

    @@ 吴氏秋海棠新种(侧膜组) 图1 Begonia zhengyiana Y. M. Shui, sp. nov. (sect. Coloecentrum Irmsch.), Fig. 1 Species similis B. luzhaiensi Ku, quae foliorum laminis inaequilateralibus, basi valde obliquis, ambitu late ovatis vel suborbicularibus, apice caudato-acuminatis, capsulae alis tribus inaequimagnis recedit.

  17. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  18. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr ghorban Elmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century; the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society; and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership. Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared; and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  19. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorban Elmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership.   Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules.   In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  20. Evaluation of Various Organic Fertilizer Substrates and Hydraulic Retention Times for Enhancing Anaerobic Degradation of Explosives-Contaminated Groundwater While Using Constructed Wetlands at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    sparging or pruning -. Seei manual sect: 5. Injection Technique As soon as the INJECT light comes on, inject the sample into the POC sparger through the...or perforated glass beads is not satisfactory to obtain smooth boiiing. Hengar chips are available from Arthur H. Thomas Company, Vine & Third

  1. A new species of Miconia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg, R.; Kollmann, L.J.Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Miconia michelangeliana belongs to Miconia sect. Tamonea. This new species can be distinguished from other species in this section by the strongly winged branches and the glabrous leaves. The flowers are larger than usual in the genus, and are 6-merous, pleiostemonous (with 18–24 stamens each), with

  2. New and noteworthy species of Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from Kerala State, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradeek, C.K.; Vrinda, K.B.

    2006-01-01

    During our study on the agaric family Pluteaceae of Kerala State, India, several interesting collections belonging to the genus Pluteus were made. Subsequently, a preliminary account of the genus Pluteus sect. Pluteus was published (Pradeep et al., 2002). Further study on the genus revealed two more

  3. Qualea amapaensis (Vochysiaceae), a new and phytogepgraphically interesting species from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Mori, Scott A

    1981-01-01

    Qualea amapaËnsis, the second species of sect. Polytrias Stafleu is described. It differs from its close relative, Q. cymulosa, principally in its entirely glabrous leaves and more profusely branched cymes. The two species add a new pair to the growing list of taxa disjunct between eastern Panama...

  4. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Children With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefichaijan; Mosayebi; Sharafkhah; Kahbazi; Heydarbagi; Rafiei

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and the occurrence of asthma or other allergies. However, data are inconsistent, and few studies have been performed in children. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate H. pylori seropositivity in children with and without asthma. Patients and Methods This cross-sect...

  5. Aspects of Poincare's program for dynamical systems and mathematical physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    This article is mainly historical, except for the discussion of integrability and characteristic exponents in Sect. 2. After summarising the achievements of Henri Poincaré, we discuss his theory of critical exponents. The theory is applied to the case of three degreesof- freedom Hamiltonian systems

  6. 32 CFR 1636.6 - Analysis of belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS § 1636.6 Analysis of belief. (a) A registrant claiming conscientious objection is not... institution whose teachings he claims as the basis of his conscientious objection. He need not adhere to all... organization, or religious sect, and where his claim of a conscientious objection is related to such...

  7. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium  Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation  by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sect

  8. THE ART OF STONE CARVINGS AT DOLHA RI KHROD IN MARKHAM COUNTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUGAR

    2007-01-01

    Dolha in Tibetan refers to stone carvings,and Ri Khord is"the meditation place at the mountainside".In accordance with an introduction by staff from the Bureau of Ethnic Groups and Religious Affairs in Markham County,we know that Dolha Ri Khrod was built in 1566 and is currently a nunnery of the Nyima Sect of Tibetan Buddhism.

  9. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  10. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar;

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  11. Complementary and emendatory descriptions of Orchid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Neuwiedia (sect. Euneuwiedia) Griffithii Rehb.f. Xenia Orch. II (1874), 215; Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. XXV (1890), 235, 241, t. XLVIII, fig. 2—9; in Orch. Rev. II (1894), 276; IV (1896), 329; Hook. f. Fl. Br. Ind. VI (1890), 176; in Bot. Mag. CXXI (1895), t. 7425; Krzl. Orch. I (1897), 4; Pfitz. in

  12. Development of a chitinase and v-cathepsin negative bacmid for improved integrity of secreted recombinant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaba, S.A.; Salcedo, A.M.; Wafula, P.O.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The application of the baculovirus-in sect cell expression system for the production of integral membrane and secreted proteins is often more troublesome than for cytoplasmic proteins. One protein expressed at low levels in insect cells is the Theileria parva sporozoite surface protein p67. Theileri

  13. Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, JH; THart, H; Stevens, JF

    1996-01-01

    The leafy parts of 16 Asian species belonging to the three sections of Sedum were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. Only in seven species of Sedum sect. Sedum were alkaloids found. Sedum bulbiferum, S. japonicum, S. lepidopodium, S. morrisomensis, S. oryzifolium, S. polytrichoides and S. s

  14. A Small War: The Development of the Russian-Chechen Conflict, 1994-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    practices that Basayev’s sect conducted and the actual religion . Although Basayev said he was a Salafi Jihadist and practiced Islam in its "pure" form...government-in -exile-lays-down- weapons/print/ (accessed 20 December 2010) Sedlickas, Romanas and Stasys Knezys. The War in Chechnya. Texas A&M

  15. 75 FR 14190 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act''), Joint ] Venture to Perform Project Entitled... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture To Perform Project Entitled Robotic Rehabilitation of Aging Water Pipelines Notice is hereby...

  16. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  17. The correct binomial for Rumph’s “Folium tinctorum”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1956-01-01

    In my “Notes on the Acanthaceae of Java” (in Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. v. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk. 2nd Sect. 45, 2: 29,1948) I discussed the three epithets that had been applied to Rumph’s “Folium tinctorum” after the latter had been transferred to the genus Peristrophe, which, as is well known, was bas

  18. Social Class, Amish Culture, and an Egalitarian Ethos: Case Study from a Rural School Serving Amish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig; Burgess, Larry; Pusateri, Drew

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of egalitarian educational practices evident in a rural school that served a large proportion (40%) of Amish students. The Amish are a pacifist Christian sect widely misunderstood as quaint and even backward; their traditional work is small-scale farming. In 1972 the Amish wrested the national right--via a US…

  19. A Military Force for a Globally Engaged Super Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Autumn 2009): 85. 24 Stephen D. Krasner and Carlos Pascual, “Addressing State Failure,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 84, no. 4 (July/August 2005): 153. 25...Security Council Paper: NSC 68 (Washington, DC: The White House, April 7, 1950), sect. VI, subpar. a. 2 Stephen Daggett and Amy Belasco, Defense

  20. The special equalisation scheme of the EEG as a tool for relieving power-intensive industries; Die besondere Ausgleichsregelung im EEG als Instrument zur Entlastung der stromintensiven Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachel, Markus [Becker Buettner Held Rechtsanwaelte Wirtschaftspruefer Steuerberater, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The special equalisation scheme in Sects. 50 ff EEG is a very important tool for industrial policy in Germany. The regulations have significantly reduced the power acquisition cost of the privileged organisations and will be further enhanced from 2013. The contribution describes the changes and discusses new and older legal problems occurring in practice.

  1. Complementary and emendatory descriptions of Orchid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Neuwiedia (sect. Euneuwiedia) Griffithii Rehb.f. Xenia Orch. II (1874), 215; Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. XXV (1890), 235, 241, t. XLVIII, fig. 2—9; in Orch. Rev. II (1894), 276; IV (1896), 329; Hook. f. Fl. Br. Ind. VI (1890), 176; in Bot. Mag. CXXI (1895), t. 7425; Krzl. Orch. I (1897), 4; Pfitz. in

  2. Resurrection of the genus Aphyllon for New World broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies support a monophyletic clade of New World broomrapes (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon) sister to the Old World genus Phelipanche. I place the New World taxa in the genus Aphyllon, propose 21 new combinations, and provide a list of currently accepted taxa.

  3. Habits, Priming and the Explanation of Mindless Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence on the influences of automatic and unconscious processes on our actions. In this article I introduce some representative examples of this growing body of evidence, chosen so as to form a diverse group of related mindless phenomena: habits, skills, priming and nudges. I...... on the old story of Buridan’s ass (Sect. 4)....

  4. Piecing Together the Past: The Dead Sea Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Eugene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the astonishing coordination of archaeological and scholarly activities surrounding the Dead Sea Scrolls. First discovered by Bedouin nomads in 1947, the Scrolls consist of a few complete manuscripts and over 80,000 fragments. Discusses the early Christian sect that produced the Scrolls, and provides current perspectives on the…

  5. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-08-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of β-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on β-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals.

  6. An account of the genus Portulaca in Indo-Australia and the Pacific (Portulacaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, R.

    1969-01-01

    In the introduction a brief historical review is given of the more important earlier treatment of the genus. In chapter 2, covering morphological observations, I have also inserted remarks on the systematic value of certain features. The axillary (and in sect. Neossia, nodal) hairs have often been i

  7. Phyllanthus balgooyi (Euphorbiaceae s.l.), a new nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Palawan and Sabah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, P.; Baker, A.J.M.; Madulid, D.A.; Proctor, J.

    2003-01-01

    Phyllanthus balgooyi Petra Hoffm. & A.J.M. Baker (Euphorbiaceae s.l. or Phyllanthaceae) is described from Palawan (Philippines) and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) as a species of Phyllanthus sect. Emblicastrum. The species is restricted to ultramafic sites and easily identified by its unusual leaf venation

  8. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the IREAPS Technical Symposium, Paper No. 28: U.S. Shipbuilding Standards Program: Long-Range Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Jefferson Davis Hwy - Suite 1300 Arlington, VA 22202 Barry L. Batchelor System Analyst Eric Byler Systems Analyst Dave Helgerson Chief Hull Scientific Sect...MD 21146 Paul R. Van Mater, Jr Senior Naval Architect 604 BATH IRON WORKS 700 Washington Street Bath, Maine 04530 David Blais J. R. Erikson FFG Design

  9. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.

    2000-01-01

    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  10. On the Relation between Stable Matrix Fraction Factorizations and Regulable Realizations of Linear Systems Over Rings,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-13

    they apply to algebraic terms, the reader should consult Bourbaki Ill. all possible interpretations. Examples of rings of system-theoretic interest are... Bourbaki [1, sect. 11.2.71). A fstrictly) proper map from Xl: -" UfzJ with S ’A[z] into S- B[z) will be. by definition, one which is a (strictly

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13400-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12, whole genom... 44 5.0 2 ( AE002123 ) Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 str. ATCC 700970 sect... 32 5.3 4 ( DL005607 ) NUCLEIC... ACID PROBES AND NUCLEIC ACID ANALOG PROBES. 36 5.8 5 ( CS459532 )

  12. Bollen boeiend vanwege complexiteit; (een interview met) Aad Koster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, A.; Koster, A.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Na 33 jaar verlaat Aad Koster als onderzoeker gewasbeschermingsmiddelen PPO. In die periode is het middelenpakket drastisch gewijzigd. Het zoeken naar alternatieven was altijd weer een uitdaging. Hij blikt terug op een sector die de veranderingen goed aankan. Het zal een complexe, maar boeiende sect

  13. Living Buddha Dorje Zhaxi and His Things Unusual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGYI

    2004-01-01

    Editor's Note: Dorje Zhaxi in Garze Prefecture, Sichuan Province,used to be the living Buddha of the Zuqen Monastery, number two monastery of the Nyingma Sect. But he didn't reside in the monastery,instead spending his time in the Tagong Grassland helping his welfare school and Buddhist institutes. People call him “Living Buddha Dorje Zhaxi”.

  14. Integrative taxonomy reveals an unexpected diversity in Geastrum section Geastrum (Geastrales, Basidiomycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora, J.C.; Calonge, F.D.; Martín, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the classification of Geastrum sect. Geastrum is presented on the basis of an integrative taxonomic approach, which involves the study of morphological, molecular, ecological, and chorological data. Four DNA regions are analysed: the ITS and LSU nrDNA, rpb1, and atp6. Phylogenetic reco

  15. Forming Social Capital: The Bruderhof Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines schools of the Bruderhof, a small, German, Protestant sect which arrived in the United States in 1954. This self-sufficient, educational community runs two businesses directly related to children's needs. Bruderhof education has its roots in the educational philosophy of Friedrich Froebel. The Bruderhof community provides in full four…

  16. Age-specific associations between cardiac vagal activity and functional somatic symptoms : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Lineke M.; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Dietrich, Andrea; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS) are symptoms not explained by underlying organic pathology. It has frequently been suggested that dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contributes to the development of FSS. We hypothesized that decreased cardiac vagal activity is cross-sect

  17. Moderate Secularism: Constructing a Language of Possibility for Religion in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Barbara K.; Houser, Neil O.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the current status of religion in education and considers the implications for policy making and practice. Frames the discussion by reviewing recent Pennsylvania and New York cases that challenged educational policy concerning outcomes-based education and the Kirjas Joel Hasidic sect, respectively. Proposes a "moderate…

  18. Novel clinical finding in MECP2 duplication syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Budisteanu, Magdalena; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Tutulan-Cunita, Andreea; Budisteanu, Bogdan; Arghir, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Novel clinical finding in MECP2 duplication syndrome phone: +40-213349068 (Budisteanu, Magdalena) (Budisteanu, Magdalena) ?Victor Babes? National Institute of Pathology - 99-101 Splaiul Independentei, Sect. 5 - 050096 - Bucharest - ROMANIA (Budisteanu, Magdalena) ?Prof. Dr. Alexandru Obregia? Clinical Hospital of Psychiatry - 10-12 Berceni Av., Sector 4 - 041914 - Bucharest - ROMANIA (Budisteanu, Magdalena) ?Victor Babes? National Institute of Patholog...

  19. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium  Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation  by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sect

  20. Three New Species of Begonia fron Yunnan%云南秋海棠属三新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管开云; 田代科

    2000-01-01

    @@ Begonia acutitepala Guan et Tian, sp.nov.(Sect.Begonia) Species B.asperifoliae Irmscher et B.labordei Lévl. affinis, differt ab illa scapis efoliolatis, laminis foliorum non lobulatis vel duplicato-serratis, tepalis exteriorbus ovato-lanceolatis apice acuminatis; ab hac inflorescentiis typice symmetrico-dicharioidibus, tepalis floris feminei 5, quorum exterioribus 2 apice acutis, stylis omnino discrets.

  1. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Truter, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e

  2. Long-term evaluation of eccentric viewing spectacles in patients with bilateral central scotomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verezen, C.A.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klevering, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Yoked prism spectacles (eccentric viewing spectacles [EVS]) facilitate eccentric viewing in patients with bilateral central scotomas. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term success and patient satisfaction of this type of low-vision aid. METHODS. In this retrospective cross-sect

  3. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. and S. nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two hexaploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has be

  4. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 3: Ficus subgenus Ficus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    The sections of Ficus L. subg. Ficus are described and their Malesian species listed and a key to their identification is provided. One new subsection is established: Ficus subg. Ficus sect. Eriosycea subsect. Auratae. Four new species and two new subspecies are described: F. auricoma, F.

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Review Starlab Site On Antigua; Phase II Archeological Surveys of Proposed Ground Calibration Sites on Antigua, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    3, the crew via an umbilical connection (i.e., egress tunnel) accesses the Spacelab module, located forward of the pallet. Primary tasks of the...been observed offshore , near the southeastern end of Antigua (Sect 3.4.3). Although this species could be present in the general area during spring

  6. Emulation Aid System II (EASY II) System Programmer’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    file. E End - Terminate FILES program. H-I -tT Suht omands under A or C: A Filename ADR = - Enter address of disk location (octal format); cyl, sect...Group of TRW Inc. One Space Park Redondo Beach, CA 90278 ATTN: David Bixler Herb Wangenheim John S. Hale P.O. Box D5 Stony Brook, NY 11790 Dr. John

  7. Antenna array characterisation and signal processing for an FM radio-based passive coherent location radar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Monni, S.; Rossum, W.L. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2012-01-01

    The design of passive coherent location radar, which exploits broadcasting transmitters of opportunity in the very high frequency (VHF) radio bandwidth, is presented. Here, the authors primarily focus on the system set-up and on the digital pre-processing steps. Emphasis is given to the antenna sect

  8. An interesting new Bulbophyllum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1935-01-01

    Bulbophyllum (sect. Cirrhopetalum) Jacobsonii J. J. S. n. sp. — Rhizoma repens, teres. Pseudobulbi remoti, oblique ovoidei, manifesto quadranguli cum lateribus concavis, 1.8 cm longi, 0.75 et 0.95 cm diam., 1-folii. Folium lanceolatum, apice recurvulum, basi brevissime conduplicato-petiolatoacuminat

  9. Comparative study of ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the diagnosis for fatty liver in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hoon; Song, Xiao Li; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kyu Youn [Dept. of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography (US), single-energy CT (SECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), MR imaging (MRI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) for detecting fatty liver in a rat model. Fatty liver was induced by 60% high-fat diet for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks (3 rats per group, a total of 15 rats). The control group comprised of five rats fed 10% high-fat diet. US, SECT, DECT, MRI, and MRS of the liver were performed weekly. Histologic steatosis grade and intrahepatocelluar triglyceride level were determined histologically for the livers of sacrificed rats. Pearson correlation test was used to assess the correlation between examinations and standard reference levels. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. US, SECT, DECT, MRI, and MRS were significantly correlated with histologic steatosis grade. The diagnostic performance of AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.893, 80%, and 80% for US, 0.960, 80%, and 80% for SECT, 0.947, 100%, and 60% for DECT, 0.933, 93.3%, and 100% for MRI, and 0.960, 93.3%, and 100% for MRS. MRS showed the strongest correlation with histologic steatosis grade with the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of fatty liver compared to other modalities.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships within Pelargonium section Peristera (Geraniaceae) inferred from nrDNA and cpDNA sequence comparisons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.T.; Helbrugge, D.; Culham, A.; Gibby, M.

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA ITS and tmL (UAA) 5' exon-tmF (GAA) chloroplast DNA sequences from 17 species of Pelargonium sect. Peristera, together with nine putative outgroups, suggests paraphyly for the section and a close relationship between the highly disjurmt South African and Australian spe

  11. The vagaries of violence and power in post-colonial Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seibert, G.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    Renamo fought a bloody war from 1976 to 1992 against the socialist Frelimo government that devastated the country, but since Renamo had been created by Rhodesia and subsequently supported by South Africa, the internal dimensions of the conflict were played down. However, the resistance of large sect

  12. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  13. 32 CFR Attachment A to Subpart B... - Standard A-National Agency Check With Local Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Access Programs by sect. 4.4 of Executive Order 12958) (60 FR 19825, 3 CFR 1995 Comp., p. 333); (2) “L... Agency Checks and Credit Check (NACLC) A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense..., Subpt. B, Att. A Attachment A to Subpart B of Part 147—Standard A—National Agency Check With...

  14. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Truter, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e

  15. Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadima Fuentes, X.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thesis Ximena Cadima Fuentes (to be defended on 8 Dec 2014): Conserving the genetic diversity of Bolivian wild potatoes The wild relatives of potatoes (Solanum sect. Petota) form the genetic reservoir for the improvement of the cultivated

  16. Novitates Gabonenses 69. A new endemic species of and a new combination in campylospermum (Ochnaceae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Campylospermum endemic to the Crystal Mountains, Gabon, and belonging to sect. Notocampylum is described. Besides that, a West-Central African species of Ouratea, nowadays a strictly South American genus, is transferred to Campylospermum and the necessary new combination made

  17. Novitates Gabonenses 69. A new endemic species of and a new combination in Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Campylospermum endemic to the Crystal Mountains, Gabon, and belonging to sect. Notocampylum is described. Besides that, a West-Central African species of Ouratea, nowadays a strictly South American genus, is transferred to Campylospermum and the necessary new combination made.

  18. Sectoral emission inventories of greenhouse gases for 1990 on a per country basis as well as on 1°×1°

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; Berdowski, J.J.M.; Veldt, C.; Bloos, J.P.J.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Maas, C.W.M. van der; Zandveld, P.Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    A set of global greenhouse gas emission inventories has been compiled per source category for the 1990 annual emissions of the direct greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O, as well as of the indirect greenhouse gases (ozone precursors) CO, NOx and NMVOC, and of SO2. The inventories are available by sect

  19. ADA Integrated Environment I. System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    returned. UNCLASSIFIED SECt AITY CLASSIFICATION O r THiS PAGE ("On’ Dese ,9nA.,d)l ,_ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFO scOL’No RM 1. RqEPl~ORT, NUM1191N 2...keyboard interactive, and high-band-width graphics terminals. The standard Ada character set is specified; 5. establish and maintain (that is, enter

  20. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  1. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  2. Revision of the Malesian species of Lobelia section Rhynchopetalum (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Th.G.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed morphological study of specimens of Lobelia sect. Rhynchopetalum from Malesia revealed that this material could be divided into five species, all endemic to the region: L. philippinensis (three subspecies) and L. proctorii, endemic to the Philippines; L. sulawesiensis, sp. nov., endemic to

  3. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  4. 北京小龙门地区元宝枫的种群结构及点格局分析%Population Structure and Point Pattern of Acer truncatum Bunge in Xiaolongmen Reserve, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲慧; 毛伊幻

    2013-01-01

    The distribution pattern of plant populations is closely related to spatial scale.By traditional sampling method,only one-scale point pattern can be studied.By comparison,point pattern analysis method is based on spatial mapped points of individual distribution and can analyze patterns under all scales along a gradient.The results are more consistent to the reality,especially for population structure.By using point pattern analysis method,the distribution pattern of all age-classes of Acer truncatum in Xiaolongmen Reserve,Beijing and its relationship with that of other arbors were studied.The results show that the distribution of Acer truncatum Bunge in the sampling area is centralization distribution,and it varies from age class to age class.Other arbors have obvious (positive or negative) effects on the distribution of Acer truncatum.The relationship between Acer truncatum and JugIans mandshurica,Tilia cordata,Fraxinus americana L var juglandifolia Rehd is different.%植物群落的分布格局与空间尺度有着密切关系.在传统取样方法下,只能研究一种尺度下的格局,与之相比点格局分析法是以种群个体空间分布的坐标点图为基础,通过单一的分布情况分析各种尺度下的格局.该文通过点格局分析对北京小龙门地区元宝枫分布格局、各龄级的分布格局以及其与其他乔木的相关关系进行了研究.结果表明:元宝枫在样地内呈明显的集群分布,各龄级密度差异显著.幼龄级在小尺度下集群分布,大尺度下随机分布;随着龄级的增长,种群显著地趋于随机分布.核桃楸是该群落的优势种,且元宝枫和核桃楸、大叶白蜡、小叶椴之间在不同尺度下相关关系不同.

  5. Deriving concentrations of oxygen and carbon in human tissues using single- and dual-energy CT for ion therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Dedicated methods of in-vivo verification of ion treatment based on the detection of secondary emitted radiation, such as positron-emission-tomography and prompt gamma detection require high accuracy in the assignment of the elemental composition. This especially concerns the content in carbon and oxygen, which are the most abundant elements of human tissue. The standard single-energy computed tomography (SECT) approach to carbon and oxygen concentration determination has been shown to introduce significant discrepancies in the carbon and oxygen content of tissues. We propose a dual-energy CT (DECT)-based approach for carbon and oxygen content assignment and investigate the accuracy gains of the method. SECT and DECT Hounsfield units (HU) were calculated using the stoichiometric calibration procedure for a comprehensive set of human tissues. Fit parameters for the stoichiometric calibration were obtained from phantom scans. Gaussian distributions with standard deviations equal to those derived from phantom scans were subsequently generated for each tissue for several values of the computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol). The assignment of %weight carbon and oxygen (%wC,%wO) was performed based on SECT and DECT. The SECT scheme employed a HU versus %wC,O approach while for DECT we explored a Zeff versus %wC,O approach and a (Zeff, ρe) space approach. The accuracy of each scheme was estimated by calculating the root mean square (RMS) error on %wC,O derived from the input Gaussian distribution of HU for each tissue and also for the noiseless case as a limiting case. The (Zeff, ρe) space approach was also compared to SECT by comparing RMS error for hydrogen and nitrogen (%wH,%wN). Systematic shifts were applied to the tissue HU distributions to assess the robustness of the method against systematic uncertainties in the stoichiometric calibration procedure. In the absence of noise the (Zeff, ρe) space approach showed more accurate %wC,O assignment (largest error of

  6. Microbial Siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzikiewicz, Herbert

    Iron is of great importance for many metabolic processes since the redox potential between its two valence states Fe2+ and Fe3+ lies within the range of physiological processes. Actually, iron is not a rare element, it is fourth in abundance in the earth crust, but it is not readily available for microorganisms. In the soil ferric oxide hydrates are formed at pH values around seven and the concentration of free Fe3+ is at best 10-17 mol/dm3 while about 10-6 mol/dm3 would be needed. In living organisms iron is usually strongly bound to peptidic substances such as transferrins. To increase the supply of soluble iron microorganisms other than those living in an acidic habitat may circumvent the problem by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ (182), which seems to be of major importance for marine phytoplankton (151); see also amphiphilic marine bacteria (Sect.2.8) and Fe2+ binding ligands (Sect. 7) below. An important alternative is the production of Fe3+ chelating compounds, so-called siderophores. Siderophores are secondary metabolites with masses below 2,000 Da and a high affinity to Fe3+. Small iron-siderophore complexes can enter the cell via unspecific porins, larger ones need a transport system that recognizes the ferri-siderophore at the cell surface. In the cell, iron is released mostly by reduction to the less strongly bound Fe2+ state (137), and the free siderophore is re-exported ("shuttle mechanism"); for a modified shuttle system see pyoverdins (Sect. 2.1) and amonabactins (Sect. 2.7). Rarely the siderophore is degraded in the periplasmatic space as, e.g. enterobactin (Sect. 2.7). Alternatively Fe3+ is transferred at the cell surface from the ferri-siderophore to a trans-membrane transport system ("taxi mechanism"). A probably archaic and unspecific variety of the taxi mechanism comprises the reduction of Fe3+ at the cell surface (see ferrichrome A, Sect. 2.6 (99, 105)). The terms "shuttle" and "taxi mechanism" were coined by Raymond and Carrano (296).

  7. The Human Voice in Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Björn; Sundberg, Johan

    This chapter speech describes various aspects of the human voice as a means of communication in speech and singing. From the point of view of function, vocal sounds can be regarded as the end result of a three stage process: (1) the compression of air in the respiratory system, which produces an exhalatory airstream, (2) the vibrating vocal folds' transformation of this air stream to an intermittent or pulsating air stream, which is a complex tone, referred to as the voice source, and (3) the filtering of this complex tone in the vocal tract resonator. The main function of the respiratory system is to generate an overpressure of air under the glottis, or a subglottal pressure. Section 16.1 describes different aspects of the respiratory system of significance to speech and singing, including lung volume ranges, subglottal pressures, and how this pressure is affected by the ever-varying recoil forces. The complex tone generated when the air stream from the lungs passes the vibrating vocal folds can be varied in at least three dimensions: fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectrum. Section 16.2 describes how these properties of the voice source are affected by the subglottal pressure, the length and stiffness of the vocal folds and how firmly the vocal folds are adducted. Section 16.3 gives an account of the vocal tract filter, how its form determines the frequencies of its resonances, and Sect. 16.4 gives an account for how these resonance frequencies or formants shape the vocal sounds by imposing spectrum peaks separated by spectrum valleys, and how the frequencies of these peaks determine vowel and voice qualities. The remaining sections of the chapter describe various aspects of the acoustic signals used for vocal communication in speech and singing. The syllable structure is discussed in Sect. 16.5, the closely related aspects of rhythmicity and timing in speech and singing is described in Sect. 16.6, and pitch and rhythm aspects in Sect. 16.7. The impressive

  8. Anatomy, Morphology, and Cladistic Analysis of Monsonia L. (Geraniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldasoro, Juan Jose

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetip relationships among the 25 species of the old-world genus Monsonia are explored by means of a cladistic analysis. After a detailed revision, 20 morphological and anatomical characters were selected, including some new ones from nectaries, androecium, and mericarps. Phylogenetic analysis yielded 9 most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus tree showed two major clades: one is formed by the 9 species of Monsonia sect. Monsonia, characterised by plumose awns, plus Sarcocaulon; and a second with the 16 species of Monsonia sect. Olopetalum which share the type of mericarp detaching, consistency of columella and the thick mericarp walls. Consequently, some doubts about the monophyly of Monsonia exists. However, the current infrageneric classification of Monsonia is supported after transferring M. longipes and M. speciosa to sect. Olopetalum. Several characters of the mericarp are related to zoochory, which seems to be a derived syndrome in Monsonia, as in the other Geraniaceae.Se exploran mediante un an41isis cladístico las relaciones filogenéticas entre las 25 especies incluidas en el genero Monsonia. Tras una detallada revisi6n se seleccionan 20 caracteres morfológicos y anatómicos, entre ellos algunos previamente no descritos sobre los nectarios, el androceo y los mericarpos. El análisis filogenético produjo nueve árboles más parsimoniosos. El árbol de consenso estricto muestra dos clados principales: uno, formado por las nueve especies de Monsonia sect. Monsonia, caracterizadas por las aristas plumosas y las tres de Sarcocaulon que se usaron como grupo externo; y el segundo, formado por las 16 especies de Monsonia sect. Olopetalum, que comparten el tipo de separación del mericarpo, la consistencia de la columela y las paredes gruesas en el mericarpo. Como consecuencia surgen nuevas dudas sobre la monofilia de Monsonia. Sin embargo, nuestros datos apoyan la clasificación subgenérica actual de Monsonia si se incluyen M

  9. Guizhou Tree Tea Catechin and Its Quality Analysis%贵州大树茶儿茶素组分及其品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学艺; 胡华健; 朱强; 王家伦; 陈正武; 何萍; 高秀兵

    2013-01-01

    为研究贵州大树茶(Camellia thea L.)儿茶素组分含量、品质及酯型儿茶素比例等问题,以安顺、六盘水、兴义、黔西南大树茶资源和‘福鼎大白茶’为试验材料,采用平均数差异性分析对各资源的6项儿茶素组分进行了研究.结果表明,安顺、六盘水、兴义、黔西南大树茶资源及‘福鼎大白茶’的酯型儿茶素比例(EGCG、ECG、GCG)依次为81.55%、41.10%、83.13%、77.03%、82.85%,儿茶素品质指数依次为5.39、19.79、7.84、5.25、6.65.当欧式距离阀值为0.9~3.2时,兴义大树茶资源与‘福鼎大白茶’较为相似,安顺与黔西南的大树茶资源较为相似.%In view the catechin components determination, quality and ester catching proportion of the Sect. Thea tea trees in southwestern Guizhou Province, we used Sect. Thea tea trees natural resources in Anshun City, Liupanshui City, Xingyi City, Qianxinan State of Guizhou Province and 'Fudingdabaicha' tea trees as the test material and took the average differences analytic methods to analysis the 6 catechin components determination (EGC, DL-EC, EGCG, GCG, ECG). The results showed that the esterncatechines of Sect. Thea tea trees in Anshun City, Liupanshui City, Xingyi City, Qianxinan state were 81.55%, 41.10%, 83.13%, 77.03%, 82.85%, and the quality index were 5.39, 19.79, 7.84, 5.25, 6.65, respectively. Cluster analysis results showed that Sect. Thea tea tree in Xingyi City was similar to 'Fudingdabaicha' tea trees, while Sect. Thea tea tree in Anshun City was similar to Sect. Thea tea trees in Qianxinan state when the threshold value of Euclid distance were 0.9 to 3.2.

  10. Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of Begoniaceae from Yunnan, China%中国云南秋海棠属(秋海棠科)一新种——假侧膜秋海棠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志丹; 税玉民; 张美德; 张嵘梅

    2007-01-01

    Begonia coelocentroides Y. M. Shui & Z. D. Wei, a new species of the genus Begonia L. (sect. Platycentrum, Begoniaceae) from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It resembles B. oreodoxa Chun & F. Chun in having parietal placentas at the upper part of the ovary, differing mainly in the female flowers with 5 tepals and the largest wing of the capsule being 20-22 mm long and ligulate.%描述了中国云南秋海棠科Begoniaceae秋海棠属Begonia扁果组sect.Platycentrum的一新种--假侧膜秋海棠Begonia coelocentroides Y.M.Shui & Z.D.Wei.该种与山地秋海棠B.oreodoxa Chun & F.Chun相似,子房上部为侧膜胎座,但雌花被片5,蒴果最大翅舌形,长20-22 mm,而易于区别.

  11. Two New Records of Begonia L.(Begoniaceae) from China%中国秋海棠属植物两新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珍珍; 周仕顺; 李智宏; 汪健; 陈文红; 税玉民

    2015-01-01

    报道了中国秋海棠属两个新记录种:钩翅秋海棠Begonia demissa Craib和抱茎叶秋海棠Begonia subperfoliata Parish ex Kurz,两个种分别属于小秋海棠组Begonia sect.ParvibegoniaA.DC.和东亚秋海棠组Begonia sect.Diploclinium(Wight)A.DC..钩翅秋海棠和抱茎叶秋海棠模式产地分别为泰国和缅甸,两个种的地理新分布分别为云南省西双版纳傣族自治州的勐腊县勐远村和普洱市六顺镇.

  12. KARYTYPES ANALYSIS OF FOUR SPECIES OF PAEONIA L FROM ANHUI%安徽芍药属四种植物的核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定成; 邵建章

    2000-01-01

    报道了芍药属4种植物染色体数目和核型,它们是木本类型牡丹组(Sect.Moutan DC.)的凤丹P. ostii T.Hong et J.X.Zhang和牡丹P.suffruticosa Andr.;草本类型芍药组(Sect.Paconia DC.)的芍药P. lactiflora Pall. 和草芍药P.obovata Maxim.,除牡丹的核型公式2n=2x=10=4m+4sm+2st外,其余3种植物均为2n=2x=6m+2sm+2st,全部未见随体.本文凤丹的染色体数目和核型为首次报道.

  13. 349 ESTUDIOS MORFO-ANATÓMICOS DE GINECEO Y FRUTO EN ESPECIES DE MENTHA (LAMIACEAE DE ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonzani Norma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron estudios morfológicos y anatómicos de gineceo y fruto, utilizando microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido, en especies de Mentha (sect. Mentha L.y sect. Pulegium (Mill. Coss. & Germ.. Se registran por primera vez para el género algunas novedades sobre el gineceo, histología del nectario, microesculturas en el epicarpo, presencia de ceras epicuticulares en el hilo y la morfología de los cristaloides. Se establecieron cuatro tipos de microesculturas en núculas maduras. Los resultados son evaluados desde el punto de vista taxonómico para la delimitación de las especies. Además, se registra por primera vez mixocarpia en M. citrata, M. x piperita y M. spicata y se plantean algunas consideraciones sobre este fenómeno.

  14. Measuring JHH values with a selective constant-time 2D NMR protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Proton-proton scalar couplings play important roles in molecule structure elucidation. However, measurements of JHH values in complex coupled spin systems remain challenging. In this study, we develop a selective constant-time (SECT) 2D NMR protocol with which scalar coupling networks involving chosen protons can be revealed, and corresponding JHH values can be measured through doublets along the F1 dimension. All JHH values within a network of n fully coupled protons can be separately determined with (n - 1) SECT experiments. Additionally, the proposed pulse sequence possesses satisfactory sensitivity and handy implementation. Therefore, it will interest scientists who intend to address structural analyzes of molecules with overcrowded spectra, and may greatly facilitate the applications of scalar-coupling constants in molecule structure studies.

  15. Molecular Phylogeny, Recent Radiation and Evolution of Gross Morphology of the Rhubarb genus Rheum (Polygonaceae) Inferred from Chloroplast DNA trnL-F Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, AILAN; YANG, MEIHUA; LIU, JIANQUAN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Rheum, a highly diversified genus with about 60 species, is mainly confined to the mountainous and desert regions of the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau and adjacent areas. This genus represents a good example of the extensive diversification of the temperate genera in the Qinghai–Tibetan plateau, in which the forces to drive diversification remain unknown. To date, the infrageneric classification of Rheum has been mainly based on morphological characters. However, it may have been subject to convergent evolution under habitat pressure, and the systematic position of some sections are unclear, especially Sect. Globulosa, which has globular inflorescences, and Sect. Nobilia, which has semi-translucent bracts. Recent palynological research has found substantial contradictions between exine patterns and the current classification of Rheum. Two specific objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate possible relationships of some ambiguous sections with a unique morphology, and (2) to examine possible occurrence of the radiative speciation with low genetic divergence across the total genus and the correlation between the extensive diversification time of Rheum and past geographical events, especially the recent large-scale uplifts of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. • Methods The chloroplast DNA trnL-F region of 29 individuals representing 26 species of Rheum, belonging to seven out of eight sections, was sequenced and compared. The phylogenetic relationships were further constructed based on the sequences obtained. • Key Results Despite the highly diversified morphology, the genetic variation in this DNA fragment is relatively low. The molecular phylogeny is highly inconsistent with gross morphology, pollen exine patterns and traditional classifications, except for identifying all samples of Sect. Palmata, three species of Sect. Spiciformia and a few species of Sect. Rheum as corresponding monophyletic groups. The monotypic Sect. Globulosa

  16. Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPU-implemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used...

  17. The green power privilege of paragraph 39 EEg 2012. On the significance of sales companies within a concern and proofs of origin according to paragraph 55 EEG 2012; Das Gruenstromprivileg des paragraph 39 EEG 2012. Zur Bedeutung von Vertriebsgesellschaften innerhalb eines Konzerns und den Herkunftsnachweisen nach paragraph 55 EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moench, Christoph [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bau-, Planungs- und Umweltrecht; Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany); Ruttloff, Marc [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bau-, Planungs- und Umweltrecht

    2012-04-15

    The Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy regulates in detail the conditions of the remuneration claims of the operators of facilities that only use renewable energy sources or mine gas, to the operators. paragraph 39 sect. 1 EEG 2012 provides exemption clauses in the form of so-called green power privilege, a synonym for green power privilege. This green power privilege enables design possibilities for a sale of electricity from renewable energy sources within the given regulatory framework. This is especially true in the power marketing by a related company of a concern. This is one main theme of the contribution under consideration. Furthermore, the authors report on the proofs of origin according to paragraph 55 EEG 2012, the demands on the power according to paragraph 39 sect. 1 EEG 2012 as well as on the conversion of gray power to green power.

  18. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin-producing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W.;

    2016-01-01

    that codon usage analysis can easily distinguish between these paralogues, and we provide primer pair options to allow benA amplifications. Two new sect. Nidulantes species are described from European caves, A. croceus (Spain) and A. askiburgiensis (Czech Republic). The analysis of exometabolites showed......Aspergillus section Nidulantes is a speciose group of microscopic fungi whose species are important in indoor air quality, food spoilage, mycotoxin production and human pathogenicity. We assembled as many species from the section as possible with either type specimens or protologues for analysis....... DNA sequences were obtained from up to four loci to conduct phylogenetic analysis of sect. Nidulantes and other species in subgenus Nidulantes. Comparisons of phenetic characters were made. Our goal was to recognize monophyletic taxa for section Nidulantes as well as the other taxa in the subgenus...

  19. THE RELIGIOUS ECONOMY OF TEXAS: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Lile

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing market shares of major Texas religious groups during this century. Market shares are computed by dividing membership by Texas population. Results show that certain religious groups (firms have performed much better in terms of market share than others. The better performers are the more conservative Protestant denominations along with the Roman Catholic Church. Groups losing market share tendto be the more liberal Protestant denominations. This finding would appear to be consistent with Niebuhr’s church-sect theory which, among other things, predicts that religious groups (sects characterized by a high degree of tension with society grow whereas groups (churches characterized by alow degree of tension with society tend to decline.

  20. Service concessions in the water management; Dienstleistungkonzessionen in der Wasserwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byok, Jan; Dierkes, Mathias

    2011-04-15

    By decision of 8th May 2008 and with regard to article 234 sect. 1 EGV old version (article 267 sect. 1 AEUV), the Higher Regional Court Jena presented three questions to the European Court of Justice (Brussels, Belgium). These questions refer to the differentiation of service concessions from public contracts in the water management. The subject of the process was the intended award of a concession for water supply and sewage disposal by means of the water and sewage authority Gotha (Federal Republic of Germany). The thereupon resulted decision of the European Court of Justice throws a spotlight on the market and legal development in an economically important, dogmatic area of German water management and anchored the service concession finally as a separate legal entity next to the public order after the cartel procurement law.

  1. Confinement of the antitrust control of abuse in the energy sector. At the same time comment to OLG Duesseldorf from 19th October, 2011. Reference VI-3 Kart 1/11 (V) - GAG Ahrensburg; Grenzen der kartellrechtlichen Missbrauchskontrolle im Energiebereich. Zugleich Anmerkung zu OLG Duesseldorf v. 19.10.2011. Az. VI-3 Kart 1/11 (V) - GAG Ahrensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Up to the amendment of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) 2005 the legislator permitted parallel applicability of the Energy Economy law as well as the Restriction of Competition (GWB) to energy situations. Based on the GWB, especially in procedures by competition authorities key decisions on the reliable behaviour of operators of power distribution systems and natural gas distribution systems were disposed. This approach was restricted by the amendment of the EnWG 2005 with the introduction of paragraph 111 EnWG. In compliance with this, this restriction was implemented in paragraph 130 sect. 3 GWB. From now on, paragraph 111 Sect. 1 and 2 EnWG exclude the antitrust control of abuse according to the paragraphs 19, 20 and 29 GWB. With this, the competence of the cartel authorities are excluded in favour of the regulatory legal prescriptions of the EnWG.

  2. Explosion models, light curves, spectra and H$_{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Höflich, P; Wheeler, J C; Nomoto, K; Thielemann, F K

    1996-01-01

    From the spectra and light curves it is clear that SNIa are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. However, details of the explosion are highly under debate. Here, we present detailed models which are consistent with respect to the explosion mechanism, the optical and infrared light curves (LC), and the spectral evolution. This leaves the description of the burning front and the structure of the white dwarf as the only free parameters. The explosions are calculated using one-dimensional Lagrangian codes including nuclear networks. Subsequently, optical and IR-LCs are constructed. Detailed NLTE-spectra are computed for several instants of time using the density, chemical and luminosity structure resulting from the LCs. The general methods and critical tests are presented (sect. 2). Different models for the thermonuclear explosion are discussed including detonations deflagrations, delayed detonations, pulsating delayed detonations (PDD) and helium detonations (sect.3). Comparisons between theoretical and obs...

  3. The "Bestie di Satana" murders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhoff, Jutta; Candelli, Chiara; Zeroli, Stefania; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential.

  4. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF CEPHALOTAXACEAE BASED ON RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA%三尖杉科植物RAPD分析及其系统学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艇; 苏应娟; 黄超; 朱建明

    1999-01-01

    利用随机扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)技术分析了三尖杉科(Cephalotaxaceae)植物三尖杉Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook.f.、粗榧Cephalotaxus sinensis(Rehd.et Wils.)Li、海南粗榧Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li 和篦子三尖杉Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast.,经筛选Operon公司的4组80个引物,其中14个引物的谱带清晰呈多态性.采用UPGMA法对各样本之间的遗传距离进行聚类分析,结果显示:在三尖杉科内建立篦子三尖杉组(Sect.Pectinatae)和三尖杉组(Sect.Cephalotaxus)是合理的.

  5. Integration and Evaluation of Nanophotonic Devices Using Optical Near Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Nomura, Wataru; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    In this chapter, we review the optical near-field phenomena and their applications to realize the nanophotonic device. To realize the nanometer-scale controllability in size and position, we demonstrate the feasibility of nanometer-scale chemical vapor deposition using optical near-field techniques (see Sect. 15.2). In which, the probe-less fabrication method for mass production is also demonstrated. To confirm the promising optical properties of individual ZnO for realizing nanophotonic devices, we performed the near-field evaluation of the ZnO quantum structure (see Sect. 15.3). To drive the nanophotonic device with external conventional diffraction-limited photonic device, the far-/near-field conversion device is required. Section 15.4 reviews nanometer-scale waveguide to be used as such a conversion device of the nanophotonic ICs.

  6. Multiple-Active Multiple-Passive Antenna Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki

    2013-01-01

    -passive (MAMP) antenna topologies, as explained in Sect. 8.1. Then, Sect. 8.2 proposes MAMP antenna structures with application to reconfigurable MIMO transmission in the presence of antenna mutual coupling under poor scattering channel conditions. For this purpose, the section presents an adaptive MAMP antenna......This chapter focuses on extensions and foreseen applications of the parasitic antenna array technology. Moving beyond the single-active (single-RF) communication setup, hitherto discussed in the previous chapters, the work in this chapter extends the analysis to generalized multiple-active multiple...... adaptive MAMP system can be limited to practical dimensions whereas the passive antennas require no extra RF hardware, thus meeting the cost, space, and power constrains of the users’ mobile terminals. The simulation results show that the adaptive MAMP system, thanks to its “adaptivity”, is able to achieve...

  7. CTC Sentinel. Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    conducted interviews with al-Jazira while sitt ing in front of bookshelves l ined with leather -bound volumes. Tapes from 1996 onward, including his... NIGERIA ): A video obtained by Agence France-Presse purportedly features a suicide bomber alleged to have been responsible for the August 26, 2011...bombing against the UN headquarters in Abuja. The attack was claimed by Boko Haram, an Islamist sect based in northern Nigeria . According to the BBC

  8. Toleransi Keberagamaan Sekte Ibâdîyah Era Dinasti Rustamîyah

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Choirul Rofiq

    2014-01-01

    Similar to any theological sect, the Kharijite has split into many smaller groups. Usually all these groups were characterized as extreme factions who used violence in the pursuit of their purposes. However, the factual evidence proved that there was Ibadite which was considered as the most moderate group. The Ibadites tend to avoid  extreme behaviour. Due to their moderation, they successively ascended to power. The example of their remarkable achievement was the Rustamid Dynasty in Maghreb ...

  9. Neural Network Model for Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Bağcı, Muhiddin

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of moment-curvature relationship of reinforced concrete sections is complex due to large number of variables as well as non-linear material behavior involved. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are found to be a tool capable of solving such problems. This has led to increasing use of ANN for analyzing the behavior of reinforced concrete sections. This paper reports the details of a study conducted using ANN for predicting moment-curvature relationship of a reinforced concrete sect...

  10. Noise as a Boolean algebra of sigma-fields. III. An old question of Jacob Feldman

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirelson, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The noise-type completion C of a noise-type Boolean algebra B is generally not the same as the closure of B. As shown in Part I (Introduction, Theorem 2), C consists of all complemented elements of the closure. It appears that C is the whole closure if and only if B is classical (as defined in Part II, Sect. 1a), which is the main result of this Part III.

  11. "The anti-developmental, the anti-narrative, the anti-historical": Mondrian as a paradigmatic artist for empirical aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Chris

    2013-04-01

    In addition to general criticisms of scientific studies on empirical aesthetics, Bullot & Reber (B&R) particularly criticise two "representative studies" that manipulated paintings by Mondrian, those studies seemingly, "fail[ing] to consider the predictions suggested by a contextualist approach to the appreciation of imbalance" (sect. 4.2, para.2). Those criticisms are unjustified, both within the approaches of empirical aesthetics and the historical context and aims of Mondrian's work.

  12. Hezbollah: The Myth of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    their true intentions and in some cases even their sect to outsiders.26 In Shi’a logic, this ensured the survival of the Shi’a community until such time... case remains to be seen. Analysis of Hezbollah Information Operations Hezbollah has one of the most extensive media operations of any sub...Shi’a, poverty in Lebanon was not exclusively a Shi’a problem.140 As far back as 1969, Sadr had warned the Lebanese against fanaticism and egoism .141

  13. In the Eye Of a Storm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Spiraling sectarian violence in Iraq triggers fresh fears of an outright civil war breaking out In addition to lingering terrorism, Iraqis have recently fallen prey to a more insidious threat, with casualties inflicted by violence between the country's two major religious sects, Sunnis and Shiites, constantly on the rise. The deteriorating security situation sounds the alarm over a possible all-out civil war. While

  14. Leaf stomatal characteristics and correlation analysis of thirteen species in Quercus Linn. and taxonomic significance%13种栎属植物叶片的气孔特征及其相关性分析和分类学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连珍; 郎庆龙; 夏兴宏; 仝振祥; 孙娟; 高伟

    2015-01-01

    Taking 13 species in Quercus Linn. including 8 species in Sect. Quercus and 2 species in Sect. Aegilops collected from Liaoning Province and 2 species in Sect. Erythobalanus introduced from North America and 1 species in Sect. Lepidabalanus introduced from Poland as tested materials, leaf stomatal morphology of these species was observed, and morphological parameters of stomatal apparatus and stoma were analyzed, correlations among these morphological parameters were also analyzed. On this basis, cluster analysis of 13 species in Quercus was carried out. The results show that leaf stomata of Quercus species distribute only on lower epidermis, arrangement of stomatal apparatus belongs to irregular type;stomatal guard cells appear reniform with thickening inner wall, stomata sunken and appear theshape of oval or long oval. Differences in morphological parameters of stoma and stomatal apparatus of species tested are obvious, and those in their coefficient of variation are also bigger. Long axis length, short axis length and area of stomatal apparatus are 18. 24-27. 46 μm, 14. 63-23. 18 μm and 221. 56-501. 70 μm2 , respectively, their coefficient of variation are 7. 73%-15. 90%, 7. 10%-17. 44% and 14. 13%-32. 73%, respectively, and stomatal apparatus index is 0. 73-0. 85. Long axis length, short axis length, area and density of stoma are 8. 69-15. 41 μm, 1. 94-8. 49 μm, 15. 15-104. 93 μm2 and 462. 32-984. 44 mm-2 , respectively, their coefficient of variation are 12. 03%-22. 17%, 13. 65%-34. 10%, 27. 95%-54. 13% and 8. 10%-16. 99%, respectively, and stomatal index is 0. 22-0. 57. Overall, according to change trend from big to small of most parameters of stomatal apparatus and stoma, the order in turn is Sect. Erythobalanus, Sect. Lepidabalanus, Sect. Aegilops, Sect. Quercus. The results of correlation analysis show that stomatal density appears extremely significantly negative ( P<0 . 01 ) correlation with long axis length and short axis length of stomatal

  15. Characteristic Properties of Large Subgroups in Primary Abelian Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter V Danchev

    2004-08-01

    Suppose is an arbitrary additively written primary abelian group with a fixed large subgroup . It is shown that is (a) summable; (b)$\\sum$-summable; (c) a $\\sum$-group; (d) $p^{+1}$-projective only when so is . These claims extend results of such a kind obtained by Benabdallah, Eisenstadt, Irwin and Poluianov, Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae (1970) and Khan, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A (1978).

  16. Moral and Ethical Relativism and the US Armed Forces A Course for Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    suicide, euthanasia … It is the same crisis that faces our culture in every other area: How do we decide ethics? That is, how do we decide right from...presidential farewell address, Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion . Whatever may be conceded to...Christianity should be encouraged, but not any one sect [denomination]…In this age, there is no substitute for Christianity…That was the religion of the

  17. Domácí vzdělávání

    OpenAIRE

    MORAVOVÁ, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with homeschooling. Theoretical part defines the basic concepts of homeschooling and describes the development of a child from six to eleven years of age. There is also analysis of history, development and legislation of homeschooling. The last part describes the practice of homeschooling from the perspective of the family and the institutions. Practical part of the thesis is focused on the search for common characteristics of families and children in homeschooling. This sect...

  18. Garcinia hopii (Clusiaceae), a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Hironori; Dang, Van-Son; Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Ngoc Van; Naiki, Akiyo; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-01-01

    A new species, Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina.

  19. HOT BRICK III Airworthiness Evaluation OV-1D Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    endorsement Or approval of Ilse iase of the commercial hardware and software . UINCLASSIFIEI) SECt.ATV CLASI.FI, - TNOf T*IS PAGE ~ fc*y,,t USAAEFA -42...crew with an adequate cue to approaching the stall angle of attack. Single- Enine Control Margins 1). The single-engine control margins were evaluated in...toward the operating engine. Sinile- Enine Minimum Control Airspeed 7. The single-engine minimum cortrol airspeed tests were conducted by stabilizing the

  20. A Structural Weight Estimation Program (SWEEP) for Aircraft. Volume 6 - Wing and Empennage Module. Book 3: Technical Discussion, Section 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    TECHNI- CAL DISCUSSION, SECTION V G. Hayase Rockwell International Corporation Prepared for: Aeronautical Systems Division June 1974...coefficient for intermediate rib or spar. iö • ) i^uji variable DBLAT, bulkhead attachment coefficient. v misc7 blhd’ d__, variable DELFS , front...J5./2, center-section box width at side-of-body station, in. (Width) „y., center-sect ion box width at centerline, in. b1 /2, side-of-body station

  1. 蜘蛛抱蛋属一新种%A new species of Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Liliaceae) from Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何顺志

    2002-01-01

    @@ 刺果蜘蛛抱蛋新种图1 Aspidistra spinula S. Z. He, sp. nov. (sect. Luridae G. Z. Li), Fig. 1 Species A. longanensi Y. Wan affinis, quae stigmate medio faciei superae valde convexo, tetrapartito, margine 16-lobo, facie infera aciebus 16 longitudinalibus aliformibus ornato differt; et similis A. cruciformi Y. Wan et X. H. Lu, quae lobis perianthii basi intus sine projecturis calcariformibus.

  2. SOME ASPECTS OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. MATHEW

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Juno group of Iris (Mathew, 1981 have been treated taxonomically as a section (sect. Juno, as a subgenus (subg. Scorpiris and as a separate genus (Juno. Whatever its status, the group, comprising some 57 species, is a morphologically convincing assemblage, occurring in the Mediterranean region eastwards into western and central Asia. The distribution, habitat and characteristics of the group are described.

  3. SOME ASPECTS OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. MATHEW

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Juno group of Iris (Mathew, 1981 have been treated taxonomically as a section (sect. Juno, as a subgenus (subg. Scorpiris and as a separate genus (Juno. Whatever its status, the group, comprising some 57 species, is a morphologically convincing assemblage, occurring in the Mediterranean region eastwards into western and central Asia. The distribution, habitat and characteristics of the group are described.

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    aid, especially in the fields of geology and mines. [Text] [Maputo Domestic Service in Portuguese 0800 GMT 28 Mar 87 MB] 76662 28 POTENTIAL PRC... Bangladesh and follow, for the most part, differing sects and factions. [Question] The Islamic minorities in South Africa, like other Muslims in the...institutions. As you know, most Muslims and those who are called shaykhs immigrated to South Africa from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh . Most of them

  5. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was the Tijaniyah, a sect begun by Ahmad at Tijani in Morocco, which eventually penetrated Sudan in about 1810 via the western Sahel (see Glossary...rainfall in the usually productive regions of the Sahel (see Glossary) and southern Sudan added to the country’s economic problems. Refugees, both Sudanese...be irrigated for the first time. Heavy silting as well as serious problems of drainage and salinity occurred. As a result, by the late 1970s the

  6. Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Bianca; Landry, Guillaume; Schwarz, Florian; Tessonnier, Thomas; Kamp, Florian; Dedes, George; Thieke, Christian; Würl, Matthias; Kurz, Christopher; Ganswindt, Ute; Verhaegen, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Belka, Claus; Sommer, Wieland; Reiser, Maximilian; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β + activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods. A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated. For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECTSchneider for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECTdist to a measured patient PET scan showed improved agreement when compared to SECTSchneider. The agreement between predicted and measured PET

  7. Standard Method for Measurement of Nonvolatile Residue on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-10

    hydrogen chloride. Violent reactions or explosions can occur with incompatible materials, such as barium , lithium, sodium, and potassium metal ...hydrolysis above 60 C. ?revent contact with alkali metals (for example: Na,K, Li, NaK ), potassium tert-butoxide and finely powdered aluminum and...personnel and evacuate area. Use protective equipment during clean-up (see Sect. VIII). Ventilate area. Contain liquid , pick up and place in closed metal

  8. Atomic energy after Fukushima; Atomenergie nach Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosack, Tilman; Enders, Rainald [FH Trier, Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld (DE). Inst. fuer das Recht der Erneuerbaren Energien, Energieeffizienzrecht und Klimaschutzrecht (IREK); Kanzlei VRT, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Fukushima catastrophe caused a complete turnaround of German energy policy. The first part of this contribution investigates if the moratorium of the German government and the resulting shutdown of seven nuclear power plants on the basis of Sect. 19 No. 3 AtG was in compliance with current law. The second part discusses if the legal measures for nuclear phaseout as specified in the 13th Act to Amend the Atomic Energy Act were at all necessary.

  9. Single- and dual-energy CT of the abdomen: comparison of radiation dose and image quality of 2nd and 3rd generation dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Hardie, Andrew D.; Felmly, Lloyd M.; Perry, Jonathan D.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Latina (Italy); Canstein, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA (United States); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To compare single-energy (SECT) and dual-energy (DECT) abdominal CT examinations in matched patient cohorts regarding differences in radiation dose and image quality performed with second- and third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT). We retrospectively analysed 200 patients (100 male, 100 female; mean age 61.2 ± 13.5 years, mean body mass index 27.5 ± 3.8 kg/m{sup 2}) equally divided into four groups matched by gender and body mass index, who had undergone portal venous phase abdominal CT with second-generation (group A, 120-kV-SECT; group B, 80/140-kV-DECT) and third-generation DSCT (group C, 100-kV-SECT; group D, 90/150-kV-DECT). The radiation dose was normalised for 40-cm scan length. Dose-independent figure-of-merit (FOM) contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated for various organs and vessels. Subjective overall image quality and reader confidence were assessed. The effective normalised radiation dose was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in groups C (6.2 ± 2.0 mSv) and D (5.3 ± 1.9 mSv, P = 0.103) compared to groups A (8.8 ± 2.3 mSv) and B (9.7 ± 2.4 mSv, P = 0.102). Dose-independent FOM-CNR peaked for liver, kidney, and portal vein measurements (all P ≤ 0.0285) in group D. Subjective image quality and reader confidence were consistently rated as excellent in all groups (all ≥1.53 out of 5). With both DSCT generations, abdominal DECT can be routinely performed without radiation dose penalty compared to SECT, while third-generation DSCT shows improved dose efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  11. Aliran Batiniah; Dulu dan Sekarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholili Hasib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Batiniah is a particular faith that believes the most important quality in everything spirituality (batin, not physically (zahir. Batin is the essence and nature (hakikat, whereas zahir is unreal sightings. This faith goes into several sects that form their own beliefs. Its influence gets into the sects of Shi’ism philosophy, Ibahiyah, and others. In it development of faith gives influence to the teaching of syncretism, pluralism, and abortion of beliefs to sharia obligations. Finally, some famous scholars paid attention to their teachings. For example Imam al-Ghazali who wrote a special note of criticism against this sect in his book Faḍāiḥ al-Bāṭiniyyah. He explained that the characteristics of Batiniah is to deny the literal meaning of the Qur’an and Hadith. In addition, Imam Abu al-Fadl Qadi Iyad, in al-Syifā bi Ta’r īfi Ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafa, explained that Batiniah, are those who believes that sharia and a large part of the message brought by the Prophets did not correspond to their inner meaning. This doctrine actually is a mixture of the teachings of Neo-Platonism, Aristotelian philosophy, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Islam. So that Batiniah can be said as the faith of syncretism comes into the sects of Islam. Although it has grown and divided since it’s beginning, the basic beliefs are still consistent, that the batin is real and zahir is not real. Thus it tends to trust dualism, the essentials of everything is batin, not the zahir.

  12. Marketingový mix

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis, entitled The marketing mix, is engaged in the marketing mix of a company which offers services, and its seven components, which are product, price, distribution, promotion, physical environment, people and processes. In the first, theoretical part, they are based on the study of scientific literature discussed in more detail the concepts of marketing and marketing mix. The second part represents the company Podbaba Fitness Centre, which is under investigation. This sect...

  13. Taxonomic value of stem anatomical characters in classification of some Adonis (Ranunculaceae) species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Ghorbani Nohooji; Dina Azizian; Masoud Sheidaih; Mahboobeh Khatamsaz

    2011-01-01

    The genus Adonis L. belongs to the Ranunculaceae family and consists of some species in Iran among which majority of the species are annual and belong to the Sect. Adonis. The Middle East is the most important area of annual species distribution. Species in the section are often morphologically very similar and this defies species recognition and imposes some difficulties. In this study, different anatomical characters of various populations of three species of Adonis (A. aestivalis, A. fl...

  14. Noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic images and iodine maps for the detection of venous thrombosis in second-generation dual-energy CT (DECT): an ex vivo phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, Malte N.; Schabel, Christoph; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Ketelsen, Dominik; Mangold, Stefanie; Claussen, Claus D.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Thomas, Christoph [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Krauss, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) can be difficult to detect using CT due to poor and heterogeneous contrast. Dual-energy CT (DECT) allows iodine contrast optimization using noise-optimized monoenergetic extrapolations (MEIs) and iodine maps (IMs). Our aim was to assess whether MEI and IM could improve the delineation of thrombotic material within iodine-enhanced blood compared to single-energy CT (SECT). Six vessel phantoms, including human thrombus and contrast media-enhanced blood and one phantom without contrast, were placed in an attenuation phantom and scanned with DECT 100/140 kV and SECT 120 kV. IM, virtual non-contrast images (VNC), mixed images, and MEI were calculated. Attenuation of thrombi and blood were measured. Contrast and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared among IM, VNC, mixed images, MEI, and SECT using paired t tests. MEI40keV and IM showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV from high to intermediate iodine concentrations (contrast:pMEI40keV < 0.002,pIM < 0.005;CNR:pMEI40keV < 0.002,pIM < 0.004). At low iodine concentrations, MEI190keV and VNC images showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV with inverted contrasts (contrast:pMEI190keV < 0.008,pVNC < 0.002;CNR:pMEI190keV < 0.003,pVNC < 0.002). Noise-optimized MEI and IM provide significantly higher contrast and CNR in the delineation of thrombosis compared to SECT, which may facilitate the detection of DVT in difficult cases. circle Poor contrast makes it difficult to detect thrombosis in CT. (orig.)

  15. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sect...

  16. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    fundamentalist sects and "humani- 62 tarian" organizations that have been introduced in the Philippines are part of a transnational effort of extreme...debts and transnationals . ’: "• The rectification mentioned above involves not just tactics but the whole "democratic way of doing things in the...where consumer co-operatives buy supplies and discussions on feminism are convened in a local chapel visited only once a year by the travelling priest

  17. Area Handbook Series: Bulgaria. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    interests of their peasant constituency. Meanwhile, the Macedonian situition in the early 1930s blocked further attempts to heal Balkan disputes. Four Balkan...6,000 Pentecostals in Bulgaria made that sect the largest Protestant group (see table 7, Appendix). The Pentecostal movement was brought to Bulgaria in...declared in 1944, and the fall of Zhivkov brought another surge of interest. In 1991 the Pentecostal Church 92 The Society and Its Environment had

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-10

    gradually envelopes the human brain. JPRS-UPA-89-044 10 July 1989 10 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS Today we are in the process of healing , and a great deal...has been made clear to us as well, who were still rather sick yesterday. Perestroyka is healing us all, including the idealists and the inert; but...registration of sects such as the Jehovah’s Witnesses, Pentecostals , True Orthodox Christians, True Orthodox Church, Reform Adventists, or Moravian Breth- ren

  19. Micro-Scale Flapping Wings for the Advancement of Flying MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    wings. These devices are often called entomopters, winged in- sect machines, or ornithopter , winged bird machines. The flapping wing benefits from both...minutes of flight before refueling is required [26–28]. An ornithopter from Tamkang University was reviewed. It was constructed using titanium alloy...Grasmeyer, Y. C. Tai, C. M. Ho, and M. Keennon, “Mems wing technology for a battery-powered ornithopter ,” Proceedings of the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical

  20. The effect of globalisation on industrial districts in Italy: evidence from the footwear sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rabellotti, Roberta; Amighini, Alessia

    2003-01-01

    One of the most pervasive and disruptive effects of globalisation is the fragmentation of production processes across countries. This phenomenon is the result of delocalisation strategies pursued by firms in industrialised countries to counter increasing competitive pressures from low labour-cost producers in emerging economies. Many Italian industrial districts are deeply interested by this phenomenon. This paper will be focussed on footwear industrial districts. In the Italian footwear sect...

  1. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    López, Eusebio; Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea) in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau) E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aris...

  2. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa, J. A.; López, E.

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea) in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau) E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aristifera (Pau...

  3. Acetabular QCT in Total Hip Arthroplasty - a reliability study using porcine hips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine;

    difference between the double measurements in SECT was 8 mg/cm3 (p=0.64) and 2 mg/cm3 in DECT (p=0.6). In the cemented concept the differences were 33 mg/cm3 (p=0.054) and 11 mg/cm3 (p=0.014), respectively. ICC was >0.90 regardless of scan mode and cup type. In both cup types the Bland-Altman limits...

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa Report, No. 2825.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-26

    a way of artificially keeping alive parties that should be dead. Euthanasia is the only solution for them," she said. Spokesmen for the DTA...you don’t even need to "be Christian - for practical purposes Christian values are pretty much the same^alues as the values of any other religion ...of "real" religion . But despite some unease over their growing numbers, the Apostolics were conveniently dismissed as "sects" rather than proper

  5. Research in Laser Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-15

    that the actual long-range AV(fl) ap- pears to vary somewhat more slowly than R’*. Often a quasistatic term also contributes to the mar blue wings...the blue wing at ~559 nm (Fig. 2). The lower intensity of this satellite precluded an equivalent search for undulatory structure in its...Johnsion, and E. W. Halbach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect A 64, 291 (1960), "j, 1. Moruzzi, Rev. Sei. Instrum. 38, 1284 (1967); K. Mar

  6. JPRS Report. West Europe, Turkish Expatriates’ Religious Developments, Home Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-05

    and hollers but pronounces words incorrectly. For example, he says "masum [innocent]" for "Mason [ Freemason ]." Somehow, he cannot manage to say...individuals and organizations: Communism, capitalism, Kemalism, Zionism, Freemasonism , the Church, the Synagogue and pseudo-Muslims. Cemalettin Kaplan calls...if there is or has been a relationship between the Suleymanists and Freemasons . What is "Suleymanism"? Is it a cult? If so, what sect do the

  7. Southeast Asia Report, No. 1357

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Higher Education (MATICHON, 24 Aug 83) 49 Chao Phraya Pollution Worsens; Fishing Industry Lost (Phaibun Suksumek; MATUPHUM, 11 Jul 83) 52...against the new sect which they saw as a continuation of previously banned religious move- ments, the paper said.—AFP. [Text] [ Penang THE STAR in...have been talking too much and too long. The talking has, in fact, even served to defuse the situation because the airing has let off some steam

  8. Final Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction of a New Civil Engineering Workshop at Bellows Air Force Station, O’ahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai?i 96795-1903. Requests can also be made by addressing...this document should be directed to Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai‘i 96795-1903...be conducted to rul611 Sect. 106, and CZMA requirements. 5. Please provide comments directly to Mr. Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Civil

  9. [The origin of mental hospital in Japan and its typological classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Waichiro

    2003-01-01

    Before the beginning of the Modernization in 1868, there were no psychiatric hospitals in the sense of Modern-Western in Japan. Instead of them, as far as I ascertained, altogether 30 asylums are existed in the whole country. They are mainly buddhistic temples and shrines, where psychotic patients and their families are treated by monks in various way. The ways of treatment are quite different, so that the typological classification of asylums is possible according to this point: 1. treatment by waterfall or water, 2. treatment with old Chinese herbal medicine, 3. treatment with collaborative conjuration associated musical instrument (drum). From the historical standpoint of view the Type 1 has oldest tradition. In the late of 11th century a daughter of the emperor was psychotic and sent into the temple Iwakura-Daiunji in northern suburb in Kyoto-City. She was treated successfully with holly waterfall and water and after this legend many psychotic patients gathered there. From the end of 14th century the Temple Juninji near the City of Okazaki began treatment with Chinese herb for the psychotics. Compared to Daiunji which belongs to Mikkyo-sect in the national Buddhism Juninji belongs to Jodoshin-sect in the frame of the reformed Buddhism. Altogether 4 temples of Type 2 are belonging to this new sect without exception and after the Modernization (Meiji-Restoration in 1868) became psychiatric hospitals. The all temples belonging to Type 3 are Nichiren-sect also in the reformed Buddhism and began the conjuration-treatment after 17th. century. The typology of asylums before the Modernization brings us necessary to the question on the origin of the ways and methods in psychiatric treatments in the history.

  10. Spatial Orientation in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    cone cells, the bipolar and horizontal cells that comprise the intraretinal afferent pathway from the rods and cones, and the multipolar Fanglion cells...axons that synapse with the dendiites .,r cell bodies of the multipolar ganglion cells, whose axons in turn course parallel to the retinal surface and...area. Sect.nil ,,er neurons from the lateral geniculate body comprise the 14 geniculocalcarine tract, which becomes the optic radiation and terminates in

  11. Attitudes towards to sexuality among older people: a qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Patricia; Teixeira,Cristina; Sousa, Filomena; Antão, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality is an important component of human being and contributes to the quality of life. Sexual activity dependa on altitudes toward sexuality. Although this is an important issue, the research on attitudes toward sexuatity among older people hás been a neglected topic. Objectives: To understand altitudes towards sexuality among older people and to assess the relationship between sociodemographic factors and such attitudes.Methods: This cross-sectíonal study was conduct...

  12. Working Together to Address Terrorist Threats and Build a New Middle East of Peace, Tolerance and Self-Advancement——Speech at the 19th Eurasian Economic Summit on “Terrorism and the Refugee Issue”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Mr.Chairman,Ladies and Gentlemen,Dear Friends,It is a great honor for me to share thoughts and ideas with all participants on Working Together to Address Terrorist Threats and Build a New Middle East of Peace,Tolerance and Self-Advancement.The situation in the Middle East region is serious.Differences among nations,religious sects and ethnic groups aggravate one another.Wars and conflicts,terrorist threats,migrant

  13. The Shi’a Crescent: A Misconception of Shi’a Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    systems, agricultural care and foresting, and architecture. According to Aramajani, the Persian king who had the absolute power, followed a liberal...the banning of music and entertainment programs on television and radio, and the requirement of the hijab (Islamic dress) for women.”78 In addition to...Muslim sects, has a constitution that guarantees them absolute political power. On the socioeconomic level, once again Iraq’s geography and demography

  14. Comment on "Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis" by McMahon et al. (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. McMahon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper by McMahon et al. (2013, Supplement Sects. S8 and S19 (Worked Example 8, the Szilagyi–Jozsa Advection–Aridity model (Szilagyi, 2007; Szilagyi and Jozsa, 2008, which is a modification of the original Advection Aridity model of Brutsaert and Strickler (1979, was not applied in the worked example as intended by author J. Szilagyi. This Commentary seeks to clarify the issue and provide the correct procedure.

  15. Electroweak Baryogenesis and the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huet, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Electroweak baryogenesis is addressed within the context of the standard model of particle physics. Although the minimal standard model has the means of fulfilling the three Sakharov's conditions, it falls short to explaining the making of the baryon asymmetry of the universe. In particular, it is demonstrated that the phase of the CKM mixing matrix is an insufficient source of {\\it CP} violation. The shortcomings of the standard model could be bypassed by enlarging the symmetry breaking sect...

  16. Ecological Assessment of the Effects of Army Training Activities on a Desert Ecosystem. National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Soil shrinkage may also contribute to an upward movement of gravel (Ref. 117). Associated algae and lichens provide a "cement" that gives rigidity to the...The mechanism of its origin has been debated for more than 100 years. The involvement of a variety of biological agents has been proposed: lichens ...20310 ATTN% DEN (23) US Govt Printing Office 22304 DLA ATTN: DLA-WI 22314 Receiving Sect/Depository Copies (2) DNA ATTN: NADS 20305 US Army Env. Hygiene

  17. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Lichen-Forming Fungi of Bryoria Section Implexae (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nadyeina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The locally rare, haploid, lichen-forming fungi Bryoria capillaris, B. fuscescens, and B. implexa are associated with boreal forests and belong to Bryoria sect. Implexae. Recent phylogenetic studies consider them to be conspecific. Microsatellite loci were developed to study population structure in Bryoria sect. Implexae and its response to ecosystem disturbances. Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data assessed in 82 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13 with an average of 4.6. Nei's unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.38 to 0.52. The markers amplified with all three species, except for markers Bi05, Bi15, and Bi18. Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of population subdivision, levels of gene introgression, and levels of clonal spread of Bryoria sect. Implexae. They will also facilitate an understanding of the effects of forest disturbance on genetic diversity of these lichen species.

  18. Open-Source GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Burk, Thomas E [University of Minnesota; Lime, Steve [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  19. Investigation of relativistic runaway electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, R.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Schueller, F.C. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Finken, K.H.; Mank, G.; Hoenen, F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Boedo, J. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research

    1993-12-31

    The runaway generation during disruptions is regarded as a serious problem in future tokamak devices. The number and the high energy of these runaways can lead to considerable damage of wall components. In the TEXTOR tokamak (R{sub 0}=1.75 m, a=0.46 m; I{sub p}=350 kA, B{sub t}=2.25T, flat top time {approx_equal}2 s), low density discharges (n{sub e} < 1x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) are analyzed to study the creation mechanism and the energy increase of the runaways. This is mainly done by the synchrotron radiation emitted by highly relativistic runaways (> 20 MeV). The general features of this synchrotron radiation will be described in Sect.2. In Sect.3 the creation rate of runaways is derived from this radiation. An intriguing observation made at the end of low density ohmic discharges is a fast increase in the pitch angle (i.e. the ratio of perpendicular to parallel velocity) from the runaways on a time scale of less than 65 {mu}s. This phenomenon is discussed in Sect.4. Finally some conclusions will be drawn on the implications these results have for future tokamak operation. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Boko Haram and the Nigerian State: a Different Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaretin Idahosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There exist several religions in Nigeria. Many of them are exploited for political gains. As Samuel Huntington has predicted, given the collapse of communism, the main contention and controversy in the world would revolve around religion. The religious tension in present day Nigerian tends to fulfill the logic of the above stated position. This phenomenon has a long history in the country. Within the last couple of decades, Nigeria has witnessed a rise in the numbers of radical Islamic sects notably among them, Maitasine, Darul Islam, and Boko Haram. These sects have resorted to the use of violence in a bid to realizing their ambitions of a wider Islamization of the Nigerian Population. Three of the most prominent perspectives shared on the rise of these radical movements are: poor socio-economic infrastructures and poor governance, poverty as a major catalyst to the rapid increase in the membership of these groups and the increase and aiding of religious extremist by politicians for their selfish ambition. This study reveals that while it is true that socio-economic factors may drive the radicalization and politicization of religious sects in the country, the fear of domination and indeed the fight for supremacy is at the heart of the current insurgency in northeastern Nigeria.

  1. IMAGES OF CULT FOLLOWERS IN DOSTOYEVSKY'S A WRITER'S DIARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Sergeevna Karpacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a theme of religious sects in A Writer's diary of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Dostoyevksy, who readily responded to all the vital questions of contemporary life, obviously could not ignore the theme of pseudospirityality and involvement of people in diff erent organizations masked by prayerful meetings; organizations that oft en set political rather than religious goals. In the article the image of a stundist parson as a religious sect leader is compared with the image of Elder Zosima from Dostoyevsky's novel The Brothers Karamazov seen as a real saint, leading people to Christ. F. М. Dostoyevsky actually demarcates the concepts of sectarian teaching and its practical implementation. According to the writer, the destructive activities of sects are much more dangerous than their theoretical views. Immersed into all sorts of trance states (“whirling and prophecy”, a person broadcasts a distorted view of Christ, rejects the true faith, and without knowing it, revitalizes the ancient pagan cults of idolatry.

  2. Principles of longitudinal beam diagnostics with coherent radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, O.; Schmueser, P.

    2006-04-24

    The FLASH facility requires novel techniques to characterize the longitudinal charge distribution of the electron bunches that drive the free-electron laser. Bunch features well below 30 {mu}m need to be resolved. One technique is based on the measurement of the far-infrared radiation spectrum and reconstruction of the bunch shape through Fourier analysis. Currently, experiments using synchrotron, transition and diffraction radiation are operating at FLASH, studying the emission spectra with various instruments. This report describes the basic physics, the measurement principles, and gives explicit mathematical derivations. References to more comprehensive discussions of practical problems and experiments are listed. After a brief introduction in Sect. 1, the radiation spectrum emitted by an electron bunch is calculated in Sect. 2 in far-field approximation. The technique to reconstruct the bunch shape from the spectrum and its basic limitations are then explained in Sect. 3. Practical examples are given. The typical radiation pulse duration ranges from less than 100 femtoseconds to several picoseconds. (orig.)

  3. Algebraic Systems and Pushdown Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Ion; Salomaa, Arto

    We concentrate in this chapter on the core aspects of algebraic series, pushdown automata, and their relation to formal languages. We choose to follow here a presentation of their theory based on the concept of properness. We introduce in Sect. 2 some auxiliary notions and results needed throughout the chapter, in particular the notions of discrete convergence in semirings and C-cycle free infinite matrices. In Sect. 3 we introduce the algebraic power series in terms of algebraic systems of equations. We focus on interconnections with context-free grammars and on normal forms. We then conclude the section with a presentation of the theorems of Shamir and Chomsky-Schützenberger. We discuss in Sect. 4 the algebraic and the regulated rational transductions, as well as some representation results related to them. Section 5 is dedicated to pushdown automata and focuses on the interconnections with classical (non-weighted) pushdown automata and on the interconnections with algebraic systems. We then conclude the chapter with a brief discussion of some of the other topics related to algebraic systems and pushdown automata.

  4. Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) Is Not Monophyletic – Evidence from Phylogenetic Analyses Based on Five Nuclear and Five Plastid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Wen, Jun; Duan, Lei; Arslan, Emine; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Chang, Zhao-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The legume family (Fabaceae) exhibits a high level of species diversity and evolutionary success worldwide. Previous phylogenetic studies of the genus Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) showed that the nuclear and the plastid topologies might be incongruent, and the systematic position of the Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade was uncertain. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of Hedysarum were investigated based on the nuclear ITS, ETS, PGDH, SQD1, TRPT and the plastid psbA-trnH, trnC-petN, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG, petN-psbM sequences. Both nuclear and plastid data support two major lineages in Hedysarum: the Hedysarum s.s. clade and the Sartoria clade. In the nuclear tree, Hedysarum is biphyletic with the Hedysarum s.s. clade sister to the Corethrodendron + Eversmannia + Greuteria + Onobrychis clade (the CEGO clade), whereas the Sartoria clade is sister to the genus Taverniera DC. In the plastid tree, Hedysarum is monophyletic and sister to Taverniera. The incongruent position of the Hedysarum s.s. clade between the nuclear and plastid trees may be best explained by a chloroplast capture hypothesis via introgression. The Hedysarum sect. Stracheya clade is resolved as sister to the H. sect. Hedysarum clade in both nuclear and plastid trees, and our analyses support merging Stracheya into Hedysarum. Based on our new evidence from multiple sequences, Hedysarum is not monophyletic, and its generic delimitation needs to be reconsidered. PMID:28122062

  5. Head-Mounted Display Screens: A (DeConstruction of Sense-Certainty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Friedman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the philosophical and epistemological aspects of spatialization of the field of vision as manifested in two of the most cutting-edge innovations in the field of head-mounted displays (HMDs: Birdly and EyeSect. The notion of space in both installations is problematized. Birdly re-enacts the familiar ways of envisaging the Cartesian model of space: a point of origin is determined and, hence, the construction of space itself with its three redefined dimensions is established—the (anchor point of certainty is given by the apparatus itself. With EyeSect, however, the field of vision disintegrates. This paper asserts that there is no fixed point of origin from which space can be constituted. Using a Deleuzian analysis of “nomad sciences,” this point is exposed—through the unconstrained operation of the cameras in perpetual motion—as an imaginary, unstable point of reference. While Birdly recreates a unified space through an apparatus that affords certainty, EyeSect disintegrates both the body, as the point of origin, and the “natural” perception of space, suggesting that a complete integration of these two notions is illusory at best.

  6. [The Essenes and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion, their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect, or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100 years.

  7. Phylogeny of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from nuclear ITS sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Colwell, A.; Park, J.-M.; Jang, C.-G.; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2004-01-01

    Orobanche is the largest genus among the holoparasitic members of Orobanchaceae. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis (using nuclear ITS sequences) that includes members of all sections of Orobanche, Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon, and Orobanche. Orobanche is not monophyletic, but falls into two lineages: (1) the Orobanche group comprises Orobanche sect. Orobanche and the small Near Asian genus Diphelypaea and is characterized by a chromosome base number of x = 19 and (2) the Phelipanche group contains Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, and Trionychon and possesses a chromosome base number of x = 12. The relationships between these two groups and to other genera such as Boschniakia or Cistanche remain unresolved. Within the Orobanche group, Orobanche macrolepis and Orobanche anatolica (including Orobanche colorata) constitute two phylogenetically distinct lineages. Intrasectional structurings proposed by some authors for O. sect. Orobanche are not confirmed by the molecular data. In most cases, intraspecific sequence divergence between accessions, if present, is negligible and not correlated with morphological or ecological traits. In a few cases, however, there is evidence for the presence of cryptic taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of species composition and fumonisin production in Aspergillus section Nigri populations in maize kernels from USA and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Moretti, Antonio; Stea, Gaetano; Villani, Alessandra; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Fumonisin contamination of maize is considered a serious problem in most maize-growing regions of the world, due to the widespread occurrence of these mycotoxins and their association with toxicosis in livestock and humans. Fumonisins are produced primarily by species of Fusarium that are common in maize grain, but also by some species of Aspergillus sect. Nigri, which can also occur on maize kernels as opportunistic pathogens. Understanding the origin of fumonisin contamination in maize is a key component in developing effective management strategies. Although some fungi in Aspergillus sect. Nigri are known to produce fumonisins, little is known about the species which are common in maize and whether they make a measurable contribution to fumonisin contamination of maize grain. In this work, we evaluated populations of Aspergillus sect. Nigri isolated from maize in USA and Italy, focusing on analysis of housekeeping genes, the fum8 gene and in vitro capability of producing fumonisins. DNA sequencing was used to identify Aspergillus strains belonging to sect. Nigri, in order to compare species composition between the two populations, which might influence specific mycotoxicological risks. Combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences were used to genetically characterize 300 strains (199 from Italy and 101 from USA) which grouped into 4 clades: Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. Aspergillus awamori, 14.7%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.0%) and Aspergillus niger group 1 (6.7%) and group 2 (41.3%). Only one strain was identified as Aspergillus carbonarius. Species composition differed between the two populations; A. niger predominated among the USA isolates (69%), but comprised a smaller percentage (38%) of Italian isolates. Conversely, A. tubingensis and A. welwitschiae occurred at higher frequencies in the Italian population (42% and 20%, respectively) than in the USA population (27% and 5%). The evaluation of FB2 production on CY20S agar revealed 118 FB2 producing and 84

  9. Taxonomic revision of the genus Thereianthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thereianthus G.J.Lewis is revised, with full descriptions and synonomy, distribution maps, and notes on ecology and taxonomic history. All species are illustrated, and capsule and seed morphology are described for many of the species for the first time. Novel characteristics of the bract, seed, and pollen operculum are used to separate the species into two sections: sect. Brevibracteae Goldblatt & J.C.Manning is distinguished by relatively small bracts, 3–8 mm long and uniformly leathery or soft-textured without thickened veins, seeds with filiform chalazal extension, and pollen grains with 1-banded operculum; and sect. Thereianthus by relatively larger bracts, (7–8–15 mm long with prominently sclerified veins, seeds without any extension to the chalazal crest, and pollen grains with ± 2-banded operculum. Species in sect. Thereianthus are further segregated into ser. Thereianthus, with heavily ribbed leaves and suberect flowers with arcuate or erect stamens, and ser. Bracteolatus, with plane, inconspicuously veined leaves and ± spreading flowers with declinate stamens. Eleven species are recognized in the genus, all restricted to the southwestern portion of Western Cape. Two new species are described in sect. Thereianthus: T. bulbiferus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, known from three populations along the West Coast, is distinguished by the unique development of cormels in the lower leaf axil, and by its actinomorphic perianth with white marks at the base of each tepal and ± declinate stamens; and T. elandsmontanus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, known from a single population in Elandsberg Nature Reserve near Wellington, has distinctive cream-coloured, moderately long-tubed flowers with unusually narrow, linear tepals heavily marked with purple near the base. In adddition, T. lapeyrousioides [now T. minutus] var. elatior G.J.Lewis in sect. Brevibracteae is raised to species status as T. intermedius Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, differing from typical T

  10. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  11. Tissue decomposition from dual energy CT data for MC based dose calculation in particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hünemohr, Nora, E-mail: n.huenemohr@dkfz.de; Greilich, Steffen [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Paganetti, Harald; Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Jäkel, Oliver [Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, University Hospital of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a novel method of predicting mass density and elemental mass fractions of tissues from dual energy CT (DECT) data for Monte Carlo (MC) based dose planning. Methods: The relative electron density ϱ{sub e} and effective atomic number Z{sub eff} are calculated for 71 tabulated tissue compositions. For MC simulations, the mass density is derived via one linear fit in the ϱ{sub e} that covers the entire range of tissue compositions (except lung tissue). Elemental mass fractions are predicted from the ϱ{sub e} and the Z{sub eff} in combination. Since particle therapy dose planning and verification is especially sensitive to accurate material assignment, differences to the ground truth are further analyzed for mass density, I-value predictions, and stopping power ratios (SPR) for ions. Dose studies with monoenergetic proton and carbon ions in 12 tissues which showed the largest differences of single energy CT (SECT) to DECT are presented with respect to range uncertainties. The standard approach (SECT) and the new DECT approach are compared to reference Bragg peak positions. Results: Mean deviations to ground truth in mass density predictions could be reduced for soft tissue from (0.5±0.6)% (SECT) to (0.2±0.2)% with the DECT method. Maximum SPR deviations could be reduced significantly for soft tissue from 3.1% (SECT) to 0.7% (DECT) and for bone tissue from 0.8% to 0.1%. MeanI-value deviations could be reduced for soft tissue from (1.1±1.4%, SECT) to (0.4±0.3%) with the presented method. Predictions of elemental composition were improved for every element. Mean and maximum deviations from ground truth of all elemental mass fractions could be reduced by at least a half with DECT compared to SECT (except soft tissue hydrogen and nitrogen where the reduction was slightly smaller). The carbon and oxygen mass fraction predictions profit especially from the DECT information. Dose studies showed that most of the 12 selected tissues would

  12. 两栖蓼的分子系统学研究%Phylogeny of Polygonum amphibium inferred from molecular sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲畅游; 许崇梅

    2015-01-01

    distinct under different eco-logical environment.Terrestrial plants can be converted to aquatic plants,aquatic plants could also be converted to terrestrial plants under appropriate ecological condition.Meanwhile,the systematic position of P .amphibium is in dispute,and the species had been placed within sect.Persicaria or treated as sect.Amphibium .The ribosomal ITS sequences and chloroplast trn L-F sequences are very widely used in plants of phylogenetic investigations,including for the genus Polygonum ,and which has provided many new phylogenetic evidences for Polygonum .In this paper,a total of 23 kinds of plants including 12 representatives of sect.Persicaria (P .amphibium ),10 representatives of other sections of Polygoum (sect.Echinocaulon ,sect.Bistorta ,sect.Cephalophilon ,sect.Aconogonon ,sect.Avicularia )and one outgroup Rheum palmatum were included in the survey.The total DNA was isolated by im-proved CTAB methods.The ITS region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2)was amplified with primers ITS1 and ITS4 described by White et al .(1990).The plastid trn L-F sequences was achieved using primers c and f described by Taberlet et al . (1991).All PCR products were purified using a QIA quick gel extraction kit and then sequenced directly on an ABI3770 automated sequencer.The sequenced sequences and the sequence download from Genbank were analysized. The ITS and trn L-F sequences were aligned separately using the program CLUSTALX 1.83.Rheum palmatum was designed as outgroup.Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses were made on sequences of nuclear ITS and plastid trn L-F data sets using the program MrBayes 3.0b4 and PAUP∗4.0b respectively.The sequenced nuclear ITS en-compassed 735 bp aligned nucleotide positions,of which 489 sites were variable and 272 sites were parsimony in-formative.The heuristic search yielded 9 trees that were 1 084 steps long (CI=0.680,RI=0.614).The plastid trn L-F region comprised 1 121 bp nucleotide positions.A total of 427 positions were variable,and 239 sites

  13. Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae ocorrentes no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Morphology pollen of species genus Merremia Dennst. (Convolvulaceae ocurring in Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Regina Batista Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Merremia (Convolvulaceae teve as espécies nativas na Bahia inventariadas e estudadas sob o ponto de vista palinológico. Foram registrados nove táxons do gênero: M. aegyptia (L. Urb., M. cissoides (Lam. Hallier f., M. digitata (Spreng. Hall. f. var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides (Meissn. Austin & Staples, M. dissecta (Jacq. Hall. f. var. edentata (Meisn. O'Donell, M. flagellaris (Choisy O'Donell, M. macrocalyx (Ruiz et Pav. O'Donell, M. tomentosa (Choisy Hall. f. e M. umbellata (L. Hall. f. Em M. digitata var. digitata e M. flagellaris os grãos de pólen apresentavam-se irregularmente e com três e seis colpos; membrana apertural espessa em M. aegyptia, M. cissoides, M. digitata var. ericoides; a exina é espessa e granulada em todas as espécies, o teto é fino; sexina mais espessa que nexina. Os grãos de pólen com 6 aberturas são zonocolpados (M. umbellata ou pantocolpados (M. digitata var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides, e M. flagellaris, podendo ocorrer em um mesmo espécime mais de um tipo apertural de grão de pólen. Os dados palinológicos observados vêm fortalecer a união das espécies M. aegyptia, M. dissecta var. edentata e M. macrocalyx em M. sect. Schizips, M. umbellata em M. sect. Xanthips e as demais em M. sect. Cissoides. Nesta última seção, com exceção de M. tomentosa, as espécies restantes pertencem ao complexo M. digitata. No referido complexo as espécies não estão bem delimitadas sendo necessário que estudos mais profundos sejam realizados afim de melhor delimitá-las.Species of the genus Merremia (Convolvulaceae from State of Bahia were surveyed, and their pollen grains were studied by usual methods. Nine taxa were recorded: M. aegyptia (L. Urb., M. cissoides (Lam. Hallier f., M. digitata (Spreng. Hall. f. var. digitata, M. digitata var. ericoides (Meissn. Austin & Staples, M. dissecta (Jacq. Hall. f. var. edentata (Meisn. O'Donell, M. flagellaris (Choisy O'Donell, M. macrocalyx

  14. Impact of low-energy CT imaging on selection of positive oral contrast media concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Manuel; Murcia, Diana J; Iamurri, Andrea Prochowski; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2017-05-01

    To determine to what extent low-energy CT imaging affects attenuation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) opacified with positive oral contrast media (OCM). Second, to establish optimal OCM concentrations for low-energy diagnostic CT exams. One hundred patients (38 men and 62 women; age 62 ± 11 years; BMI 26 ± 5) with positive OCM-enhanced 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT), and follow-up 100-kVp acquisitions (group A; n = 50), or 40-70-keV reconstructions from rapid kV switching-single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) (group B; n = 50) were included. Luminal attenuation from different GIT segments was compared between exams. Standard dose of three OCM and diluted solutions (75%, 50%, and 25% concentrations) were introduced serially in a gastrointestinal phantom and scanned using SECT (120, 100, and 80 kVp) and DECT (80/140 kVp) acquisitions on a ssDECT scanner. Luminal attenuation was obtained on SECT and DECT images (40-70 keV), and compared to 120-kVp scans with standard OCM concentrations. Luminal attenuation was higher on 100-kVp (328 HU) and on 40-60-keV images (410-924 HU) in comparison to 120-kVp scans (298 HU) in groups A and B (p concentration.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  16. Metallic artefact reduction with monoenergetic dual-energy CT: systematic ex vivo evaluation of posterior spinal fusion implants from various vendors and different spine levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggenberger, R.; Winklhofer, S.; Andreisek, G.; Alkadhi, H.; Stolzmann, P. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Osterhoff, G.; Wanner, G.A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Fortunati, M. [The Spine Center, Thun (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate optimal monoenergetic dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) settings for artefact reduction of posterior spinal fusion implants of various vendors and spine levels. Posterior spinal fusion implants of five vendors for cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine were examined ex vivo with single-energy (SE) CT (120 kVp) and DECT (140/100 kVp). Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimised image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Two independent radiologists assessed quantitative and qualitative image parameters for each device and spine level. Inter-reader agreements of quantitative and qualitative parameters were high (ICC = 0.81-1.00, {kappa} = 0.54-0.77). HU values of spinal fusion implants were significantly different among vendors (P < 0.001), spine levels (P < 0.01) and among SECT, monoenergetic DECT of 64, 69, 88, 105 keV and OPTkeV (P < 0.01). Image quality was significantly (P < 0.001) different between datasets and improved with higher monoenergies of DECT compared with SECT (V = 0.58, P < 0.001). Artefacts decreased significantly (V = 0.51, P < 0.001) at higher monoenergies. OPTkeV values ranged from 123-141 keV. OPTkeV according to vendor and spine level are presented herein. Monoenergetic DECT provides significantly better image quality and less metallic artefacts from implants than SECT. Use of individual keV values for vendor and spine level is recommended. (orig.)

  17. Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongbai, Benjarong; Miller, Steven L; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin; Hyde, Kevin D; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Raspé, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A. ballerina shows clear affinities with stirps Limbatula of sect. Lepidella. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg. Lepidella, A. ballerina and two other species, including A. zangii, form a well-supported clade sister to the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969, which include the lethal "death caps" and "destroying angels". Together, the A. ballerina-A. zangii clade and the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969 also form a well-supported clade. We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata. Interestingly, neither α-amanitin nor phalloidin was found in A. ballerina, whereas Amanita fuligineoides was confirmed to contain both α-amanitin and phalloidin, and A. brunneitoxicaria contained only α-amanitin. Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. ballerina is either an important link in the evolution of the deadly Amanita sect. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. zangii.

  18. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 14: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation using DECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Salvio, A.; Bedwani, S.; Carrier, J-F. [Centre hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal (Canada); Bouchard, H. [National Physics Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To improve Monte Carlo dose calculation accuracy through a new tissue segmentation technique with dual energy CT (DECT). Methods: Electron density (ED) and effective atomic number (EAN) can be extracted directly from DECT data with a stoichiometric calibration method. Images are acquired with Monte Carlo CT projections using the user code egs-cbct and reconstructed using an FDK backprojection algorithm. Calibration is performed using projections of a numerical RMI phantom. A weighted parameter algorithm then uses both EAN and ED to assign materials to voxels from DECT simulated images. This new method is compared to a standard tissue characterization from single energy CT (SECT) data using a segmented calibrated Hounsfield unit (HU) to ED curve. Both methods are compared to the reference numerical head phantom. Monte Carlo simulations on uniform phantoms of different tissues using dosxyz-nrc show discrepancies in depth-dose distributions. Results: Both SECT and DECT segmentation methods show similar performance assigning soft tissues. Performance is however improved with DECT in regions with higher density, such as bones, where it assigns materials correctly 8% more often than segmentation with SECT, considering the same set of tissues and simulated clinical CT images, i.e. including noise and reconstruction artifacts. Furthermore, Monte Carlo results indicate that kV photon beam depth-dose distributions can double between two tissues of density higher than muscle. Conclusions: A direct acquisition of ED and the added information of EAN with DECT data improves tissue segmentation and increases the accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation in kV photon beams.

  20. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro; Reddy, Naveen; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.

    2016-07-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the current status of observational and computational studies on galaxy formation and evolution. In particular, a joint analysis of star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and metallicities of galaxies throughout cosmic time can shed light on the processes by which galaxies build up their stellar mass and enrich the environment with heavy elements. Comparison of such observations and the results of numerical simulations can give us insights on the physical importance of various feedback effects by supernovae and active galactic nuclei. In Sect. 1, we first discuss the primary methods used to deduce the SFRs, stellar masses, and (primarily) gas-phase metallicities in high-redshift galaxies. Then, we show how these quantities are related to each other and evolve with time. In Sect. 2, we further examine the distribution of SFRs in galaxies following the `Main Sequence' paradigm. We show how the so-called `starbursts' display higher specific SFRs and SF efficiencies by an order of magnitude. We use this to devise a simple description of the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population since z ˜3 that can successfully reproduce some of the observed statistics in the infrared (IR) wavelength. We also discuss the properties of molecular gas. In Sect. 3, we highlight some of the recent studies of high-redshift galaxy formation using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We discuss the physical properties of simulated galaxies such as luminosity function and escape fraction of ionizing photons, which are important statistics for reionization of the Universe. In particular the escape fraction of ionizing photons has large uncertainties, and studying gamma-ray bursts (which is the main topic of this conference) can also set observational constraints on this uncertain physical parameter as well as cosmic star formation rate density.

  1. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2014-09-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia.

  2. A synopsis or chinese euphorbia L. s.l. (euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majinshuang, J. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic treatment or the Chinese species or Euphorbia (s.l. is summarized. Altogether 5 subgenera., 12 sections and 77 species (including cultivated and escaped ones are recognized as occurring in China. Keys to subgenera., sections and species of Euphorbia (s.l. found in China are presented; the original literature of each species, synonyms and distribution to the provincial level within China and more briefly outside China, as well as comments where necessary, are reported also. One new species (E.tlongchuanensis C. Y. Wu & J. S. Ma, sp. nov. and one new section (Sect. Wentsai C. Y. Wu & J.S. Ma, sect. nov. are described.

    Síntesi del tractament taxonòmic de les espècies d'Euphorbia s.l. de la Xina. En conjunt es reconeixen per aquest país 5 subgèneres, 12 seccions i 77 espècies (incloent cultivades i naturalitzades. També es presenten claus de subgèneres, seccions i espècies; a més s'apona per a cada espècie lloc de publicació. sinònims i distribució a nivell provincial dins la Xina i més breument per a fora de la Xina, així com comentaris on siguin precisos. Es descriu una nova espècie (E. tongchuanensis Wu & Ma. i un nova secció (Sect. Wentsai Wu & Ma..

  3. Colombo cabri or vegetarian meal: wherein lies the power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Martín-i-Pardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available “Colombo Cabri or Vegetarian Meal” montre que certains aliments sont utilisés pour définir deux sectes Hindouistes concurrentes en Guadeloupe, dans les Antilles françaises. Ces groupes expriment des identités différentes concurrentes en termes de visibilité et de revendication de pouvoir pour contrôler l’avenir de l’Hindouisme sur l’île. Ces deux entités, identifiées à juste titre comme Hindouistes « traditionalistes » d’une part et « globalistes » d’autre part, mettent en œuvre une rhétorique pour légitimer leurs différentes revendications qui passe par l’adoption ou le rejet du « colombo », un curry de viandes marinées dans cette sauce, comme repas rituel de la secte dont le discours vise à dicter le droit chemin de la communauté Hindouiste de l’île.“Colombo Cabri or Vegetarian Meal” argues that certain foods are used to configure two competing sectarian Hindu groups in Guadeloupe, French West Indies. These groups configure different identities to compete for the attention and claim effective power to control the future of Hinduism on the island. What are appropriately identified as “traditionalist” and “globalist” Hindus define a rhetoric for legitimating their different claims by appropriating or rejecting “colombo,” a curry of meats simmered in this sauce, as the ritual meal for the sect whose narrative rightly claims to define the correct path for the Hindu community on the island.

  4. Operation and Symptom Collection Manual High Power Illuminator Radar (HPIR) AN/MPQ-39 (Experimental Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-03-01

    LOCAL ACKT Az Bal & El Bal UND Antenna Opera te SAUTO -MAN sw: MA .• IND Antenna does not drift in either Az or El .- S(Perform Balance as in Steps 4...5a-Se, Table 19, TM-5ll-1211) yCKT Az Positioning • SAUTO -MAN sw: MA Azimuth Handwheel rotated . IND Antenna follows properly ICKT Az I3andwheel "CO...CNI D Ante nna Opesate rd b SAUTO -MAN sw: MAN "Eother or botf Earch functonshipb: dep & pel LNo Antenna: any movement i n el for aSe C b CKT Az Sect

  5. A New Optimal Bound on Logarithmic Slope of Elastic Hadron-Hadron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ion, D B

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we prove a new optimal bound on the logarithmic slope of the elastic slope when: elastic cross section and differential cross sections in forward and backward directions are known from experimental data. The results on the experimental tests of this new optimal bound are presented in Sect. 3 for the principal meson-nucleon elastic scatterings: pion-nucleon, kaon-nucleon at all available energies. Then we have shown that the saturation of this optimal bound is observed with high accuracy practically at all available energies in meson-nucleon scattering.

  6. Notas taxonómicas sobre el género Centaurea (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica. C. paniculata, C. hanryi y C. diffusa

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio; López, Eusebio

    2010-01-01

    Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica en la Península Ibérica de Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea), un endemismo del SW de Europa, para el que reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. paniculata subsp. paniculata, C. paniculata subsp. leucophaea (Jord.) Arcang. y C. paniculata subsp. oscensis, una nueva subespecie para la que se estudia además el número cromosómico (2n = 18). También se comenta la variabilidad en el territorio de C. ha...

  7. Vochysia awasensis (Vochysiaceae, nueva especie de los Bosques Montanos del Chocó ecuatoriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isau Huamantupa Chuquimaco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vochysia awasensis I. Huamantupa, es descrita e ilustrada como especie nueva de la familia Vochysiaceae, perteneciente a la sect. Ciliantha Stafleu subsect. Megalanthae Stafleu, proviene de los bosques montanos de la región biogeográfica del Chocó en el noroeste de Ecuador. Presenta mayor afinidad a V. megalantha y V. duquei, pero a su vez se distingue de estas por presentar el peciolo sésil poco conspicuo y decurrente, limbo foliar de 17-33,5 (-35 x 4,5-10 cm; pétalos florales entre 2,4-3 x 0,6-0,9 cm.

  8. Practical Session: Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    An exercise is proposed to illustrate the logistic regression. One investigates the different risk factors in the apparition of coronary heart disease. It has been proposed in Chapter 5 of the book of D.G. Kleinbaum and M. Klein, "Logistic Regression", Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer Science Business Media, LLC (2010) and also by D. Chessel and A.B. Dufour in Lyon 1 (see Sect. 6 of http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/R/pdf/tdr341.pdf). This example is based on data given in the file evans.txt coming from http://www.sph.emory.edu/dkleinb/logreg3.htm#data.

  9. Simulation study on potential accuracy gains from dual energy CT tissue segmentation for low-energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; Granton, Patrick V.; Reniers, Brigitte; Öllers, Michel C.; Beaulieu, Luc; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-10-01

    This work compares Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for 125I and 103Pd low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources performed in virtual phantoms containing a series of human soft tissues of interest for brachytherapy. The geometries are segmented (tissue type and density assignment) based on simulated single energy computed tomography (SECT) and dual energy (DECT) images, as well as the all-water TG-43 approach. Accuracy is evaluated by comparison to a reference MC dose calculation performed in the same phantoms, where each voxel's material properties are assigned with exactly known values. The objective is to assess potential dose calculation accuracy gains from DECT. A CT imaging simulation package, ImaSim, is used to generate CT images of calibration and dose calculation phantoms at 80, 120, and 140 kVp. From the high and low energy images electron density ρe and atomic number Z are obtained using a DECT algorithm. Following a correction derived from scans of the calibration phantom, accuracy on Z and ρe of ±1% is obtained for all soft tissues with atomic number Z in [6,8] except lung. GEANT4 MC dose calculations based on DECT segmentation agreed with the reference within ±4% for 103Pd, the most sensitive source to tissue misassignments. SECT segmentation with three tissue bins as well as the TG-43 approach showed inferior accuracy with errors of up to 20%. Using seven tissue bins in our SECT segmentation brought errors within ±10% for 103Pd. In general 125I dose calculations showed higher accuracy than 103Pd. Simulated image noise was found to decrease DECT accuracy by 3-4%. Our findings suggest that DECT-based segmentation yields improved accuracy when compared to SECT segmentation with seven tissue bins in LDR brachytherapy dose calculation for the specific case of our non-anthropomorphic phantom. The validity of our conclusions for clinical geometry as well as the importance of image noise in the tissue segmentation procedure deserves further

  10. Simulation study on potential accuracy gains from dual energy CT tissue segmentation for low-energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Guillaume; Granton, Patrick V; Reniers, Brigitte; Oellers, Michel C; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Wildberger, Joachim E [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, P. Debijelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-07

    This work compares Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources performed in virtual phantoms containing a series of human soft tissues of interest for brachytherapy. The geometries are segmented (tissue type and density assignment) based on simulated single energy computed tomography (SECT) and dual energy (DECT) images, as well as the all-water TG-43 approach. Accuracy is evaluated by comparison to a reference MC dose calculation performed in the same phantoms, where each voxel's material properties are assigned with exactly known values. The objective is to assess potential dose calculation accuracy gains from DECT. A CT imaging simulation package, ImaSim, is used to generate CT images of calibration and dose calculation phantoms at 80, 120, and 140 kVp. From the high and low energy images electron density {rho}{sub e} and atomic number Z are obtained using a DECT algorithm. Following a correction derived from scans of the calibration phantom, accuracy on Z and {rho}{sub e} of {+-}1% is obtained for all soft tissues with atomic number Z in [6,8] except lung. GEANT4 MC dose calculations based on DECT segmentation agreed with the reference within {+-}4% for {sup 103}Pd, the most sensitive source to tissue misassignments. SECT segmentation with three tissue bins as well as the TG-43 approach showed inferior accuracy with errors of up to 20%. Using seven tissue bins in our SECT segmentation brought errors within {+-}10% for {sup 103}Pd. In general {sup 125}I dose calculations showed higher accuracy than {sup 103}Pd. Simulated image noise was found to decrease DECT accuracy by 3-4%. Our findings suggest that DECT-based segmentation yields improved accuracy when compared to SECT segmentation with seven tissue bins in LDR brachytherapy dose calculation for the specific case of our non-anthropomorphic phantom. The validity of our conclusions for clinical geometry as well as the importance of image noise

  11. French grammar made easy

    CERN Document Server

    McNab, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    The Grammar Made Easy series is ideal for complete beginners as well as for those non-linguists who have some knowledge of the language but need to know the basics of grammar to progress beyond phrasebook level. The books consist of seven units that present basic grammar topics in an accessible and non-patronising manner. The interactive CD-ROM provides extensive interactive grammar practice, it contains around 220 activities (those included in the book plus extra ones) covering all the language in French Grammar Made Easy. Learners work at their own pace and move through the different sect

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Cairo fourth sub-district court last Thursday [18 May] decided to release the Palestinian detainee, Hamad Ahmad Hasan al-’Uwaysi, who is accused of...44040370B Kuwait AL-WATAN in Arabic 23 Mar 89 p 15 [Interview with PLO executive committee member, Sulayman al-Najjab in Tunis, by Bilqasim Hasan ; date...cannot be made a part of the Druze sect, while Khawlah Arslan is made another part of it. Walid Junblatt sees himself as bigger than all of Lebanon

  13. Astragalus eerqisiensis and A. shadiensis, Two New Species of Leguminosae from Xinjiang, China%中国黄耆属(豆科)丁字毛类群2新种——额尔齐斯黄耆和沙地黄耆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常朝阳; 徐朗然; DIETER Podlech

    2007-01-01

    Astragalus eerqisiensis Z. Y. Chang, L. R. Xu & D. Podlech and A. shadiensis L. R. Xu, Z. Y.Chang & D. Podlech (Leguminosae) are described and illustrated from Xinjiang,China. Of these,A. eerqisiensis is known only from Burqin County, Xinjiang, and closely related to A. habaheensis, but differs by having rhomboid,obovate or elliptic leaflets which are 15~25(30) mm long, (3) 7~12(15) mm broad,and standard 20~22(25) mm long,wings bilobed at apex. A. shadiensis occurs in Tuokexun County,Xinjiang,and is similar to A. variabilis Bunge ex Maxim.,but differs by its leaves with 5~7(9) leaflets (not 11~19),standard constrict in the middle,and plant very distinctly gray in color. Both species are endemic to China,with A. eerqisiensis belonging to Sect. Helmia Bunge, and A. shadiensis to Sect. Craccina (Stev.)Bunge.%描述了产于中国新疆的黄耆属(Astragalus)丁字毛类群2新种,即额尔齐斯黄耆(Astragalus eerqisiensis Z.Y.Chang,L. R. Xu & D.Podlech)和沙地黄耆(A.shadiensis L. R. Xu,Z.Y.Chang & D.Podlech).其中,额尔齐斯黄耆仅见于新疆布尔津县的额尔齐斯河流域,与哈巴河黄耆(A.habaheensis)近缘,区别在于前者小叶菱形、倒卵形或椭圆形,长15~25(30)mm,宽(3)7~12(15)mm,旗瓣长20~22(25)mm,翼瓣顶端2裂;沙地黄耆产于新疆托克逊县东北部,散生于沙地荒漠,形态上与变异黄耆(A. variabilis Bunge ex Maxim.)接近,区别在于小叶5~7(9)枚而非11~19枚,旗瓣在中部收缩,植株全体被灰色毛而呈灰色.2新种均系中国特有种,其中额尔齐斯黄耆隶属于乌拉尔组(A. Sect.Helmia Bunge),沙地黄耆隶属于旱生组[A. Sect.Craccina(Stev.)Bunge].

  14. Computer Aided Antenna Design and Frequency Selection for HF Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    uency tak"le s.iiiar to thaz ZLowz 0 in table 19 would be provide,. in addition to the instruc- tions accom-azyin; it in the dijpo.’O sectIoL azove . 161...CA 93S43 * 172 28. i~ hn~cchaJ. )A dvlsc’x Develoent Cnter LCLiC Cuattico, VA 22134 29. Cajpt Warren Averill USBC Lept of Enqx. amd Weapciis U. S . Naval Academy ADDnJcl.Ls, M1D i114O2I 173 FILMED 3-85 * DTIC

  15. Una nueva especie de Pellaea (Pteridaceae) del estado de San Luis Potosí, México

    OpenAIRE

    Aniceto Mendoza; Mike Windham; Blanca Pérez García; George Yatskievych

    2001-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Pellaea ribae Mendoza Windham, una nueva especie de Pellaea sect. Pellaea la cual se distingue claramente de otros representantes del género por sus abundantes tricomas blanquecinos presentes en el pecíolo, en el raquis y en la superficie abaxial de la lámina. Hasta ahora P. ribae se conoce solamente de dos localidades en San Luis Potosí, México. Se discuten las posibles relaciones de esta nueva especie con otros helechos cheilantoides.

  16. 3-Substituted Indole Inhibitors Against Francisella tularensis FabI Identified by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    FabI, but share low sequence identity and are poorly inhibited by triclosan.25,26 S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa contain FabK,24 and Vibrio cholerae ,27...Massengo-Tiasse, R. P.; Cronan, J. E. Vibrio cholerae FabV defines a new class of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 1308...of enoyl- (acyl-carrier protein) reductase, FabV, from Vibrio fischeri. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. F: Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 2012, 68, 78−80. (27

  17. Sókratés v starej attickej komédii (Socrates in the Old Attic Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Škvrnda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a brief outline of the general characteristics of the Socratesʼ comic portrayal. It is argued, that Aristophanesʼ portrait of Socrates is based on earlier writings and that there is a certain unity of all preserved comic portraits of Socrates. This unity is linguistically analysed and further characterised as a peculiar merging of physiological and mystical features, which can be found also in the philosophical sects of the southern Italy. The conclusion is that Socrates was in these comedies portrayed as pythagorizing mystic.

  18. Clinical Analysis of 32 Dangerous Placenta Previas%32例凶险性前置胎盘的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes and consequences of clinical analysis of dangerous placenta previa in order to the recognition of this one and have better precaution and therapy methods to it.Methods We have retrospective clinical analysis on 32 dangerous placenta previa examples from January 2000 to December 2009 in our hospital.Results 32 dangerous placenta previa examples are diagnosed by clinical manifestation of indolence vaginal bleeding and B-ultrasound.Most of these ones is operated by C-sect until foetus are matured. Conclusion Along with the height of C-sect rate,the rate of clinical dangerous placenta previa is heightened and the rate of postnatal hemorrhage is heightened.It harms to mother and baby.So only have we to grasp C-sect indication and decrease C-sect rate,we will decrease the rate of clinical dangerous plcenta previa.%目的分析凶险型前置胎盘病因和后果,提高对凶险型前置胎盘的认识,而更好地预防和治疗。方法对2000年1月~2011年12月收治的32例凶险型前置胎盘进行回顾性分析。结果32例凶险性前置胎盘主要是通过无痛性阴道出血的临床表现和B超确诊,大部分经过期待治疗至胎儿成熟而剖宫产终止妊娠。结论近年来随着剖宫产率的上升,凶险型前置胎盘发生率也随之急剧上升,发生产后大出血的几率增高,严重危害母婴安全。所以只有严格掌握剖宫产指征,定期产检,才是减少该病发生的关键。

  19. Garcinia hopii (Clusiaceae, a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Toyama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina.

  20. La leyenda madrileña del reloj de las monjas de San Plácido y el Semanario Pintoresco Español

    OpenAIRE

    Labrador Ben, Julia M.ª

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers and writers have written about the legend of the Monastery de la Encarnación, formerly the convent of San Plácido, starting, in many cases, with the text published by Carlos García Doncel in the Semanario Pintoresco Español . The sect of the Illuminati, the convent’s “possessed”, Felipe IV’s love affair with the novice Margarita, and the clock that the King bought her as a present, which sounded a death knell each quarter, are the core narrative elements of the legend of the ...

  1. A taxonomic review of the dry-fruited species of Anemone (Ranunculaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three dry-fruited species of Anemone sect. Pulsatilloides subsect. Alchemillifoliae (Ranunculaceae from southern Africa are reviewed, with full descriptions and nomenclature, including complete synonomy, taxonomic history with nomenclatural corrections, ecological notes, and distribution. A. tenuifolia (L.f. DC. from the Cape Floristic Region is segregated as ser. Pinnatifoliae from the two summer rainfall species, A. caffra (Eckl. & Zeyh. Harv. and A. fanninnii Harv. ex Masters, which remain in ser. Alchemillifoliae, emphasising the strong vegetative differences between the two series.

  2. Simulation study on potential accuracy gains from dual energy CT tissue segmentation for low-energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; Granton, Patrick V; Reniers, Brigitte; Ollers, Michel C; Beaulieu, Luc; Wildberger, Joachim E; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-10-07

    This work compares Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for (125)I and (103)Pd low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy sources performed in virtual phantoms containing a series of human soft tissues of interest for brachytherapy. The geometries are segmented (tissue type and density assignment) based on simulated single energy computed tomography (SECT) and dual energy (DECT) images, as well as the all-water TG-43 approach. Accuracy is evaluated by comparison to a reference MC dose calculation performed in the same phantoms, where each voxel's material properties are assigned with exactly known values. The objective is to assess potential dose calculation accuracy gains from DECT. A CT imaging simulation package, ImaSim, is used to generate CT images of calibration and dose calculation phantoms at 80, 120, and 140 kVp. From the high and low energy images electron density ρ(e) and atomic number Z are obtained using a DECT algorithm. Following a correction derived from scans of the calibration phantom, accuracy on Z and ρ(e) of ±1% is obtained for all soft tissues with atomic number Z ∊ [6,8] except lung. GEANT4 MC dose calculations based on DECT segmentation agreed with the reference within ±4% for (103)Pd, the most sensitive source to tissue misassignments. SECT segmentation with three tissue bins as well as the TG-43 approach showed inferior accuracy with errors of up to 20%. Using seven tissue bins in our SECT segmentation brought errors within ±10% for (103)Pd. In general (125)I dose calculations showed higher accuracy than (103)Pd. Simulated image noise was found to decrease DECT accuracy by 3-4%. Our findings suggest that DECT-based segmentation yields improved accuracy when compared to SECT segmentation with seven tissue bins in LDR brachytherapy dose calculation for the specific case of our non-anthropomorphic phantom. The validity of our conclusions for clinical geometry as well as the importance of image noise in the tissue segmentation procedure deserves

  3. Une transe dénaturée ?

    OpenAIRE

    Muchnik, Maïra

    2011-01-01

    À partir du cas de l’exportation des religions afro-brésiliennes, umbanda et batuque, depuis le sud du Brésil (Porto Alegre) vers l’Argentine (Buenos Aires), cet article analyse les adaptations et transformations de la pratique de la transe dans ce nouveau contexte socioculturel, vierge de toute tradition d’origine africaine collectivement partagée et hostile à l’installation de ces nouvelles religions perçues comme de dangereuses sectes étrangères envahissant le pays. Partant des discours de...

  4. A New Morphological Type of Volvox from Japanese Large Lakes and Recent Divergence of this Type and V. ferrisii in Two Different Freshwater Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Ueki, Noriko; Isaka, Nanako; Saigo, Tokiko; Yamamoto, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Takahashi, Fumio; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Kawachi, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    Volvox sect. Volvox is characterized by having unique morphological characteristics, such as thick cytoplasmic bridges between adult somatic cells in the spheroids and spiny zygote walls. Species of this section are found from various freshwater habitats. Recently, three species of Volvox sect. Volvox originating from rice paddies and a marsh were studied taxonomically based on molecular and morphological data of cultured materials. However, taxonomic studies have not been performed on cultured materials of this section originating from large lake water bodies. We studied a new morphological type of Volvox sect. Volvox (“Volvox sp. Sagami”), using cultured materials originating from two large lakes and a pond in Japan. Volvox sp. Sagami produced monoecious sexual spheroids and may represent a new morphological species; it could be clearly distinguished from all previously described monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox by its small number of eggs or zygotes (5–25) in sexual spheroids, with short acute spines (up to 3 μm long) on the zygote walls and elongated anterior somatic cells in asexual spheroids. Based on sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA; ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) and plastid genes, however, the Volvox sp. Sagami lineage and its sister lineage (the monoecious species V. ferrisii) showed very small genetic differences, which correspond to the variation within a single biological species in other volvocalean algae. Since V. ferrisii was different from Volvox sp. Sagami, by having approximately 100–200 zygotes in the sexual spheroids and long spines (6–8.5 μm long) on the zygote walls, as well as growing in Japanese rice paddies, these two morphologically distinct lineages might have diverged rapidly in the two different freshwater habitats. In addition, the swimming velocity during phototaxis of Volvox sp. Sagami spheroids originating from large lakes was significantly higher than that of V

  5. Estrategias comunicacionales para la promoción de la gastronomía Tungurahuense en las escuelas de la ciudad de Ambato

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La aplicación de estrategias de comunicación publicitaria se convierte en una herramienta de gran utilidad para dar a conocer un producto, ya que ésta se centra en las decisiones para comunicar un mensaje basándose en dos importantes ítems, como lo son: la creación del mensaje y la selección de medios de comunicación mediante las cuales se darán a conocer, de forma sinérgica y con una clara planificación estratégica puede lograr excelentes resultados del producto promocionado. En este sect...

  6. Dhyana-thumb-pus hing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; CUI Xue-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ The dhyana-thumb-pushing manipulation is the chief one inthe Dhyana Thumb Tuina School; it's also a characteristic manipulation and plays an important role in the TCM Tuina teaching and clinical treatment. The name came from Jingdechuanzhonglu() and was used in the Chan sect of Buddhism. According to the book, in Song Dynansty, Judi Buddhist Monk asked Tianlong Buddhist Monk for the dhyana. Tianlong erected a finger but said nothing, Judi deeply comprehended the dhyana. Later on, if someone asked him for the Buddhism doctrine, he did the same act. Before Judi died, he said: "I accepted a thumb Dhyana from Tianlong and benefited from it all my life."

  7. Análisis financiero de la empresa E.M.E. Estructuras Metálicas S.A. y el sector metalmecánico

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Londoño, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado se basa en el estudio y análisis financiero de la empresa E.M.E. Estructuras Metálicas S.A., ubicada en la ciudad de Manizales, Caldas, éste tomará como referencia los últimos cuatro años de funcionamiento operativo de la empresa y se realizará una comparación en el comportamiento de los mismos. El trabajo busca identificar las fortalezas y las debilidades que presentó el desarrollo de las actividades de la empresa, a su vez se realizará un breve análisis del sect...

  8. The plan requirement as a demand of the reimbursement rate for solar parks according to EEG 2012; Das Planerfordernis als Voraussetzung der Einspeiseverguetung fuer Solarparks nach dem EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Stefan [Sozietaet WKN, Hamburg (Germany); Bauer, Philipp Joseph [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    On 1st January 2012, the fundamentally amended Renewable Energy Act 2012 comes into effect. In this, the regulations of the compensation events for photovoltaic systems have been designed newly. In addition to a systematic reorganization of paragraph 32 and 33 EEG also substantive changes were performed, especially in the remuneration of solar farms. The substantive changes apply are valid for installations being established after 31st December, 2011. In accordance with paragraph 66 sect. 1 EEG 2012, the existing regulations are to be applied to old sites.

  9. JPRS Report Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-24

    quantitatively reduce the party appart which rules on behalf of the party. The hour has come when we cannot delay in resigning from the CPSU. I began...protection and rational utilization of water . 20. On state reserves. 21. On sects. Party Metes Out Punishment for Unlawful ’Chernobyl’ Cruise 90UN2496A...there be when, as in the biblical Apocalypse, the earth is slipping from under your feet and you do not know what will happen in the future and how

  10. Health Equity and Financial Protection Streamlined Analysis with ADePT Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bank, World

    2011-01-01

    Two key policy goals in the health sector are equity and financial protection. New methods, data and powerful computers have led to a surge of interest in quantitative analysis that permits monitoring progress toward these objectives, and comparisons across countries. ADePT is a new computer program that streamlines and automates such work, ensuring that results are genuinely comparable and allowing them to be produced with a minimum of programming skills. This book provides a step-by-step guide to the use of ADePT for quantitative analysis of equity and financial protection in the health sect

  11. Was Halabja a turning point for the poet Buland al-Haydari?

    OpenAIRE

    Hilla Peled-Shapira

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the writings of the emigré Iraqi-Kurdish poet Buland al-Haydari (1926-1996) and thus explores components of his identity as reflected in themes and motifs of his poetry, in light of the fact that Iraqis belong to a variety of ethnicities, religions and sects. This article will also address the question of whether the poet's self-perception was transformed from a complex hybrid identity with Muslim, Christian, and other influences but excluding Kurdish elements, to a "new...

  12. A practitioner’s guide for facilitating people centred adaptation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oettle, N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available , CSIR, Indigo development and change, Environmental Monitoring Group) and Ethiopia (Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hawassa University, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Acknowledgement SectIon 1: tHe conteXt 1.... S e c t Io n 1: t H e c o n t e X t 4A few decades ago there was still some doubt as to whether the world’s climate was changing. But today, with temperature measurements from over 17,000 weather stations around the world, and 10 orbiting weather...

  13. World checklist of Geranium L. (Geraniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aedo, Carlos

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae is presented. Four hundred and twenty three species are recognized in 3 subgenera and 18 sections. Our classification differs from Yeo's only in some aspects of subg. Erodioidea and Geranium. Section Brasiliensia is included in subg. Erodioidea, and sect. Neurophyllodes, Paramensia and Azorelloida in subg. Geranium. Section Azorelloida is proposed as an avowed substitute (nom. nov. for sect. Petraea R. Knuth, nom. illeg. G. collae is proposed as avowed substitute (nom. nov. for G. intermedium Colla, nom. illeg. An identification key to subgenera and sections is presented. A thorough revision of available names in the genus, and a review of their nomenclatural status were carried out. Correct name, place of publication and distribution are given for each species. Geographical distributions are given at region and botanical country leveis following the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases (TDWG standard. When possible, selected references with relevant information are also included.Se presenta una "checklist" del género Geranium L. (Geraniaceae en la que se aceptan 423 especies, repartidas en 3 subgéneros y 18 secciones. Seguimos la clasificación propuesta por Yeo, aunque reconocemos la sección Brasiliensia en el subg. Erodioidea, y las secciones Neurophyllodes, Paramensia y Azorelloida en el subg. Geranium. La sect. Azorelloida es propuesta como nombre nuevo para la sect. Petraea R. Knuth, nom. illeg. Asimismo se propone G. collae como nombre nuevo para G. intermedium Colla, nom. illeg. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de los subgéneros y secciones. Después de revisar la práctica totalidad de los nombres publicados en Geranium se da el nombre correcto, el lugar de publicación y el área de distribución de cada especie aceptada, así como las referencias bibliográficas más importantes para cada una de ellas. Para codificar las distribuciones geográficas, en los

  14. 長崎・興福寺唐人墓碑群の新発見区域に関する報告

    OpenAIRE

    姜, 楠

    2015-01-01

    Kōfukuji, a temple of the Ōbaku Zen Sect in Nagasaki, Japan, contains a Chinese Cemetery with gravestones dating from 1757 to 1887. Past research indicated the presence of 111 gravestones commemorating the deaths of 128 people, almost all seamen involved in the Japanese-Chinese trade. Previous maps grouped these 111 gravestones in eight sections designated by the letters A to H. The author discovered five new gravestones in the cemetery and added a new section “I” to the map. This is a report...

  15. Request for information within the limits of concession contracts; Auskunftsverlangen im Rahmen von Konzessionsvertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Christian [Sozietaet SBR Schuster Berger Bahr Ahrens Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany); Sassenberg, Thomas [Sozietaet SBR Schuster Berger Bahr Ahrens Rechtsanwaelte, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    According to paragraph 46 sect. 3 Energy Economy Law, a lot of communities currently have to announce the course of concession contracts. In connection with this announcement and the new award, the question of whether the net data have to be published by the existing authorized holders already within the limits of the announcement raises. Taking into account the common guidelines published in December 2010 by the Federal Cartel Office and the Federal Network Agency, the authors of the contribution under consideration report om this question. The authors present fundamental possibilities in order to enforce a claim.

  16. Federal Cartel Office interferes with the issuing of concessions for electricity and gas supply; Bundeskartellamt greift Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvergaben an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Ute; Biemann, Jens [Heuking Kuehn Lueer Wojtek, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-03-08

    Direct awarding of electricity or gas concessions to utility-owned companies or communal subsidiaries without competition is not permissible, according to current rulings of the BKartA. The BKartA assumes misuse of the market-dominating position of a community if it violates the specifications of Sect. 46 EnWG for the issuing of concessions. The trend towards recommunalisation is stopped at least in those cases where both an electricity concession and a gas concession are to be transferred simultaneously to a new community-owned utility.

  17. Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    ofI resource acquisition, but their genetic determinants are physicall .- linked and possibly co-regiulated or, the same sect ion of DNA. Thec o-eria...7473-7481. Garen, A. (1968). Sense and Nonsense in the Genetic Lode. Science 160:149-159. ( elIer, A. I . and A. rich (1980). A LGA ferarinatio...Mutants Deficient in rni Exclusion. Science 158:1588-1589. 11saio, C. L. and L. W. Black (1977). DNA Plackaging- and the Pathway of Bacteriophage T4

  18. A new systematic arrangement of the genus Oudemansiella s. str. (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales)%狭义小奥德蘑属(膨瑚菌科,蘑菇目)的一个新系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祝良; 张丽芳; Gregory M.MUELLER; Gerhard W.KOST; Karl-Heinz REXER

    2009-01-01

    本文对狭义小奥德蘑属Oudemansiella s.str的概念做了修订,在修订后的属中,狭义干蘑属Xerula s.str.的物种不纳入其中.在狭义小奥德蘑属下,提出了一个包含4个组O.sect.Oudemansiella、Mucidula、Dactylosporina和Radicatae的新系统.小奥德蘑组sect.Oudemansiella包括热带至南温带的一些物种,如新热带小奥德蘑O.platensis、澳洲小奥德蘑O. australis、旧热带小奥德蘑O. canarii和宽褶小奥德蘑O. crassifolia,这些物种的菌盖表皮为粘栅栏型,由菌丝组成,但其中常夹杂有链状排列的膨大细胞.粘蘑组sect.Mucidula包含北半球温带至亚热带的一些物种,如粘小奥德蘑O. mucida、网褶小奥德蘑O.venosolamellata和近粘小奥德蘑O.submucida,其菌盖表皮为粘子实层-栅栏型,由近棒状的顶端膨大细胞组成.小奥德蘑组和粘蘑组的物种,在外形和小生境上有相似之处,其担子果皆生于地表外的腐木上,菌柄上有或无菌环.刺孢组sect.Dactylosporina包含中南美洲那些孢子表面有指状凸起的物种.长根组sect.Radicatae由长根小奥德蘑O. radicata及其近缘种为代表,是该属中最大的组,包括该属其他三组之外的所有种.北美的O.americana、欧洲的O. caussei和东亚的O. hongoi曾被置于小奥德蘑属中的白毛组O. sect.dlbotomentosae或干蘑属的亮毛组X. sect.Hyalosetae,在本系统中它们没有纳入小奥德蘑属,因为它们可能代表一个单独的属.本文还提出了1新等级、32个新组合和1个新名称.%The genus Oudemansiella s. sir. has been revised and circumscribed as an assemblage of taxa excluding the genus Xerula s. str. A new systematic arrangement with four sections, i.e., Oudemansiella, Mucidula, Dactylosporina and Radicatae, is proposed. Section Oudemansiella is comprised of tropical to south temperate species, e.g., O. platensis, O. australis, O. canarii and O. crassifolia, with an ixotrichoderm pileipellis composed of filamentous

  19. Strategické riadenie značky

    OpenAIRE

    Puškárová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor´s Thesis deals with brand building and strategic brand management. The aim of this thesis is to determine on the basis in depth interviews and subsequent analysis to determine what kind of activities Samsung uses to develop and build its brand and what their impact. In the theoretical part, there are presented definitions related to the concept of a brand as an element of brand identity and brand image, positioning of a brand, brand equity and its measurement. The following sect...

  20. Characterisation of Holocene plant macrofossils from North Spanish ombrotrophic mires: bryophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Souto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods and criteria used for the identification of bryophytes from the peat deposits of four ombrotrophic mires in northern Spain are presented. Two liverworts and fifteen moss taxa were recorded. Twelve were identified to species level, two to genus level (Polytrichum sp., Campylopus sp. and another to section level (Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia. All taxa were identified from their vegetative remains, mainly leaves. Only sporangia of Sphagnum species were recorded. Descriptions of the most relevant characters for taxa identifications are shown, accompanied by illustrations that facilitate their interpretation. A dichotomous identification key is also provided.

  1. Dos novedades de Marruecos: Linaria imzica Gómiz, sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae: y Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech: Gómiz, comb. & stat. nov. (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz García, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Linaria imzica of the western end of the mountain range of Antiatlas (S of Morocco is described. The new species is characterized by its leaves proportionally quite wide (relation length/width Se describe Linaria imzica del extremo occidental de la cordillera del Antiatlas (sur de Marruecos. La nueva especie se caracteriza por sus hojas proporcionalmente bastante anchas (relación longitud/anchura <5 para lo que es habitual en la sect. Versicolores. Asimismo se propone la nueva combinación Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech Gómiz.

  2. Proyecto de mejoramiento para la estacion de servicio "La Americana S.A.S"

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Cepeda, Miguel Santiago; Ramírez Hernández, Javier Andrés

    2016-01-01

    La estación de servicio “La Americana S.A.S” ha sido una de las primeras estaciones de servicio ubicada en Bucaramanga, dedicada a la comercialización y distribución tanto de gasolina como de los diferentes repuestos y accesorios para los vehículos, razón por la cual desde su fundación y hasta nuestros días, ha venido prestando un servicio destacado, efectivo y cumpliendo siempre con la demanda del mercado proporcionalmente a su consumo. Del mismo modo dicha experiencia dentro de este sect...

  3. Floral development and vascularization help to explain merism evolution in Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur de Lima Silva

    2016-12-01

    , a flower sector comprising the adaxial median sepal, a lateral petal, a lateral stamen and the adaxial median carpel was lost. In the staminate flower, the outer whorl of staminodes, previously reported by different authors, is correctly described as the apical portion of the petals and the pistillodes are reinterpreted as carpellodes. The occurrence of fused stigmatic branches and protected nectariferous carpellodes substantiates a close relationship between P. sect. Conodiscus and P. subg. Thelxinoë. Free stigmatic branches and exposed carpellodes substantiate a close relationship between P. sect. Diphyomene, P. sect. Eriocaulopsis and P. ser. Dimeri. Furthermore, the loss of nectariferous branches may have occurred later than the fusion of stigmatic branches in the clade that groups P. subg. Thelxinoë and P. sect. Conodiscus.

  4. Synthesis and Electrochemistry of 2,2’-Bipyridyl Complexes of Dioxorhenium(V). Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Chem. 1982, 21, 549. 4. (a) Beard, J. H.; Calhoun, C.; Casey, J.; Murmann , R. K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1968, 90, 3389. (b) Lock, C. J. L.; Turner, G...Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 1978, B34, 923. (c) Beard, J. H.; Casey, J.; Murmann , R. K. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10, 2353. (d) Murmann , R. K. Inorg. Synth. 1968...8, 173. (e) Murmann , R. K.; Schlemper, E. 0. Inorg. Chem. 1971, 10, 2352. (f) Fenn, R. H.; Graham, A. J. J. Chem. Soc., A 1971, 2880. (g

  5. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    a native SiO2 oxide layer (P-type; 1 Ω·cm, SQI, San Jose, CA) were washed with persulfuric acid solution prior to use. Oxidation of Diamond... Graphene . Phys. Rep.: Rev. Sect. Phys. Lett. 2009, 473, 51−87. (34) Ferrari, A. C.; Meyer, J. C.; Scardaci, V.; Casiraghi, C.; Lazzeri, M.; Mauri, F...Piscanec, S.; Jiang, D.; Novoselov, K. S.; Roth, S.; Geim, A. K. Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 97, 187401−18740

  6. IOT Overview Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageorges, N.

    This contribution concentrates on the polarimetric modes offered by different instruments at ESO. In the introduction, I will demonstrate the importance of polarimetry, the kind of science it permits to achieve and list the instruments which offer these modes. Sects. 2 and 3 will present the involved modes in more details as well as the currently related calibrations, as part of the calibration plans.ESO does not offer any pure polarimetric instrument. As a consequence the polarimetric modes are just one (or more) mode(s) of the given instruments. Polarimetric modes might be mentioned in the related IOT but are not followed up thoroughly as is e.g. spectroscopy.

  7. Summary of the 2014 IACHEC Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, David; Grant, Catherine E; Guainazzi, Matteo; Madsen, Kristin; Miller, Eric; Nevalainen, Jukka; Plucinsky, Paul P; Sembay, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We present the main results of the 9th meeting of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration (IACHEC), held in Warrenton (Virginia) in May 2014. Over 50 scientists directly involved in the calibration of operational and future high-energy missions gathered during 3.5 days to discuss the status of the X-ray payloads inter-calibration, as well as possible ways to improve it. Sect.2 of this Report summarises our current understanding of the energy-dependent inter-calibration status.

  8. Command History. 1964. Sanitized

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    8217at t racin o cv’m1unist model If these acts are insutzfileent to lure the Vtt’tnamese youth, terror and force are applied without hes~tance in wV...sect-or teams neces- sarilyv daubled and tripled. Saneone had to furnish ration break- *do=#, prepVare s’~pl requisitions# and prepare zepordbs. Thi...the UIS to makeý one final effoart to secutre the freedom or nre Vietnamese prisoners and to perstinde the I’xs to return to th.- fold . Colonel Fruend’s

  9. The Euler Function of Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers and Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the Fibonacci sequence given by F0 = 0, F1 = 1 and Fn+2 = Fn+1+Fn for all n ≥ 0. Let (Ln)n≥0 be the companion Lucas sequence satisfying the same...Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest., Sect. Comp. 40 (2013) nn–nnn THE EULER FUNCTION OF FIBONACCI AND LUCAS NUMBERS AND FACTORIALS Florian Luca (Morelia...Communicated by Bui Minh Phong (Received December 22, 2012; accepted July 18, 2013) Abstract. Here, we look at the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers whose Euler

  10. Studies in the Justicia and Siphonoglossa (Acanthaceae species of southern Africa: final conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Immelman

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of seed surface micromorphology, pollen and inflorescence type, as well as characters of the capsule, seven sections can be distinguished in the southern African species of Justicia. The relationship of these to the sections recognised by Graham is discussed. A key to the sections and a synopsis of their main distinguishing characters are presented. One new section, sect. Minima lmmelman, is described. A short note on the generic position of the Siphonoglossa species of the region, following on from a previous paper, is also given.

  11. Al-Ummah fī Indūnīsīya: Mafhūmuhā, Wāqi‘uhā wa Tajrībatuhā

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quraish Shihab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Islam has undergone several renewals throughout its long history in Indonesia. These renewals have resulted in stratifications leading to the formation of sects within Indonesian Muslim community. Meanwhile, Hinduism and Buddhism -  the two dominant religions which came before Islam - still exist amongst a small number of the population, and Christianity is gaining more adherents. In effect Indonesia is becoming an ethnically, religiously and professionally pluralistic nation. Differences in opinion are thus unavoidable.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v1i1.867

  12. An Improvement of Ozaki’s P-Valent Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamoru NUNOKAWA; Nak Eun CHO; Oh Sang KWON; Janusz SOK OL

    2016-01-01

    The old result due to [Ozaki, S.: On the theory of multivalent functions II. Sci. Rep. Tokyo Bunrika Daigaku Sect. A, 45–87 (1941)], says that if f(z) = zp+? ∞n=p+1 anzn is analytic in a convex domain D and for some real α we have Re{exp(iα)f (p)(z)} > 0 in D, then f (z) is at most p-valent in D. In this paper, we consider similar problems in the unit disc D={z∈C:|z|<1}.

  13. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation...... of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified...

  14. Neutron Imaging of Lithium Concentration in Battery Pouch Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Street, San Francisco, CA, USA June 29 - July 01, 2011 978-1-4577-0079-8/11/$26.00 ©2011 AACC 376 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...erroneous estimate of the change in lithium concentration. Therefore methods developed in subsection III-C are used to estimate and correct for the...Boillat, G. Scherrer, and G. Frei, “Fuel cell studies with neutrons at the psi’s neutron imaging facilities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A

  15. DESERTED VILLAGES AND DESTROYED DREAMS: AN INDICATION OF CULTURE EXTINCTION

    OpenAIRE

    RAJESH BOJAN

    2012-01-01

    What I propose to pen in the following pages is not about the history of my people, but about their contemporary condition of living that I aspire to explore. I come from the badaga community, a distinctive sect of tribes accommodating most regions of the Niligiri district of Tamilnadu. I have no doubt that those who are familiar with the Niligiri district are well aware of the people in it. Especially, nobody would have left their thoughts of Nilgiris without contemplating about the special ...

  16. EMPRESAS DE DISEÑO E INGENIERÍA CUBANAS EN SU TRÁNSITO HACIA EMPRESAS DE CLASE MUNDIAL

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfonso Macías Mesa; María de Lourdes Artola Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Las empresas de diseño e ingeniería cubanas tienen ante sí el reto de la competitividad, siendo empresas estatales socialistas que aplican el perfeccionamiento empresarial. Deben lograr estar posicionadas adecuadamente y transitar hacia empresas de clase mundial. En este artículo los autores presentan sus consideraciones, de cómo, en el entorno cubano y dadas las experiencias pretéritas de este sect...

  17. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the activities and accomplishments of the Metals and Ceramics (M C) Division during fiscal year (FY) 1991. The division is organized to provide technical support, primarily in the area of high-temperature materials, for the various technologies being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Activities span the range from basic research (through applied research and engineering development) to industrial interactions (through cooperative research and a strong technology transfer program). The division is organized in functional groups that encompass nearly all of the disciplines needed to develop and to apply materials in high-temperature applications. Sections I through 5 describe the different functional groups; Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines; and Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative research and development programs, educational activities, and technology transfer functions. Appendices describe the organizational structure, note personnel changes, present honors and awards received by division members, and contain listings of publications completed and presentations made at technical meetings.

  18. Validation of KENO V.a Comparison with Critical Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Section 1 of this report documents the validation of KENO V.a against 258 critical experiments. Experiments considered were primarily high or low enriched uranium systems. The results indicate that the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program accurately calculates a broad range of critical experiments. A substantial number of the calculations showed a positive or negative bias in excess of 1 1/2% in k-effective (k{sub eff}). Classes of criticals which show a bias include 3% enriched green blocks, highly enriched uranyl fluoride slab arrays, and highly enriched uranyl nitrate arrays. If these biases are properly taken into account, the KENO V.a code can be used with confidence for the design and criticality safety analysis of uranium-containing systems. Section 2 of this report documents the results of investigation into the cause of the bias observed in Sect. 1. The results of this study indicate that the bias seen in Sect. 1 is caused by code bias, cross-section bias, reporting bias, and modeling bias. There is evidence that many of the experiments used in this validation and in previous validations are not adequately documented. The uncertainty in the experimental parameters overshadows bias caused by the code and cross sections and prohibits code validation to better than about 1% in k{sub eff}.

  19. A Discussion on the Restriction of the Qing Government on Dalai Lama’s Political Power%浅谈清政府对达赖喇嘛政教权力的制约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕

    2015-01-01

    Dalai Lamas are important religious leaders of the Gelugpa sect of the Tibetan Buddhism, especially after its religious authority was highlighted in the early Qing dynasty. However, while the Qing government up⁃held the Gelugpa sect by empowering Dalai Lamas huge political power, but it also limited their power at the same time. Thus, it is of great significance to clarify Dalai Lamas’political and religious power while they were ruling Tibet so as to understand explicitly their religious title, and the dominance of the central government of the Qing dynasty's in the local governance of Tibet.%达赖喇嘛是藏传佛教格鲁派的重要首领,尤其是清初确立尊崇格鲁派后,其宗教权威凸显。但是,清政府在扶植格鲁派,赋予达赖喇嘛巨大政教权力的同时,也对其权力有诸多限制,所以,厘清达赖喇嘛治藏的政教权限,既有助于人们正确认识这一宗教名号,更能体现清朝中央在西藏地方治理中的主导地位。

  20. Considering CL 1699, is there enough evidence to correct the attestation of copt, –ă (1887, DLR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Chirilă

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1699, translating from Greek a text by Maxim the Peloponnesian, Antim Ivireanul uses a word that, at first glance, coincides with a neologism attested in Romanian no sooner than the end of the 19th century, as a French loan: copt, –ă, ‘Locuitor [...] al Egiptului, descinzând din vechile secte creștine ale Euticheenilor’ [Inhabitant (... of Egypt, descending from the ancient Chris- tian sects of the Euticheens]. In order to answer the question in the title, the author had to conduct a semantic analysis of the corresponding word in the Greek source-text, i.e. κóπται (and also its etymology, since, for the period when Maxim the Peloponnesian writes, the Greek lexicography indicates only the existence of the ancient form κóπτης (pl. κóπται, derivative of the verb κóπ(τω –της ‘to cut, to strike’. The study leads towards an affirmative answer, and might also cast a new light on the language dynamics of the post-byzantine era.

  1. Notas taxonómicas sobre el género Centaurea (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica. C. paniculata, C. hanryi y C. diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphologic variability in the Iberian Peninsula of Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea, an endemic species of SW Europe, is discussed. It is represented by three subspecies with well-defined areas: subsp. paniculata, subsp. leucophaea (Jord. Arcang. and subsp. oscensis, a new subspecies, whose chromosome number is counted (2n = 18. Moreover, the variability of C. hanryi Jord, an endemism of NE Spain and SE France is studied, and finally, the distribution in the Iberian Peninsula of the neophyte C. diffusa Lam. is commented.Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica en la Península Ibérica de Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea, un endemismo del SW de Europa, para el que reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. paniculata subsp. paniculata, C. paniculata subsp. leucophaea (Jord. Arcang. y C. paniculata subsp. oscensis, una nueva subespecie para la que se estudia además el número cromosómico (2n = 18. También se comenta la variabilidad en el territorio de C. hanryi Jord., endémica del NE de España y SE de Francia y se comenta el área de distribución peninsular del neófito C. diffusa Lam.

  2. Заметки о лапчатках (Potentilla, Rosaceae Алтая. 4. Новый гибрид из Южной Сибири

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kechaykin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Приводится описание и иллюстрация нового для науки нотовида из рода Potentilla. Собранная на территории Южной Сибири Potentilla × habievii представляет собой межсекционный гибрид P. multifida (P. sect. Multifidae × P. exuta (P. sect. Tanacetifoliae.

  3. The pre-Flexnerian reports: Mark Twain's criticism of medicine in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, K P

    1997-01-15

    By the time Mark Twain was born, in 1835, the political forces of Jacksonian democracy had created an era of unregulated medical practice in the United States. Licensure laws were almost nonexistent, and any citizen could practice medicine. Regular ("allopathic") medicine was competing with at least two dozen other sects, including homeopathic, botanical, and hydropathic medicine. Although allopathy presented itself as the "scientific" branch of medicine and proclaimed the practices of the other sects to be "quackery," its therapies were aggressive and toxic and had no proven advantage over the treatments used by competitors. Through the efforts of the American Medical Association (AMA), allopathic medicine eliminated its competition by promoting the reestablishment of licensure laws in the late 1800s. In a continuation of the same endeavor, the AMA sought to identify weak and inadequate medical schools and commissioned Abraham Flexner to write the famous Flexner report of 1910 (the year of Mark Twain's death). Twain, an insightful political observer and social critic who was familiar with the competing medical systems and the medical politics of the 19th century, questioned the wisdom of limiting patients' medical options. He doubted the competence and intentions of physicians as a group even as he maintained confidence in the abilities of his own physicians. He was critical of the empirical medical practices used during his youth, but he saw hope in the new scientific orientation of medicine in the early 20th century. Twain's commentaries provide a unique perspective on pre-Flexnerian medicine in the United States.

  4. Impact Of Modernization On Religious Institution: A Case Study Of Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menhas Rashid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion is a unified system of sacred norms, values, beliefs and objects. In any society religion plays an important role in the shaping of the people’s lives, behaviour and interactions. In every aspect of life people consult with their religion and act according to the teachings of religion. At present modernization, globalization and social change are creating very drastic changes in every sphere of life. These changes have both negative and positive impacts on the society. Modernisation is also creating very serious changes in the social institution of religion. In Pakistan, modernization have very severe impact on religion and many sub-sects have been created under the religion of Islam. Each and every sect is claiming that their teachings are true. This phenomenon is crating sectarian violence in Pakistani society. Present study was conducted in the province of “Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan”. Pakhtun people follow religion strictly in every segment of life. They sacrifices their lives on the name of Islam. But at present due to modernization, this phenomenon has been changed. Main objective of this study was to analyze the major impacts of modernisation on the religion of Islam in “Pakhtun” culture and society.

  5. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF FICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. H. CORNER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus displays many problems fundamental to the distribution of tro-pical plants. As a natural g-enus, one of the most derived of its family, it shows that these problems refer not to the origin of the genus or of its major groups, but to the subsequent course of sectional evolution. Detailed morphological revision must, therefore, precede phytogeography. The facts, here epitomised, are based on monographic revision of the species of Asia and Australasia, and have not been called from other writings. Seed-dispersal in Ficus must be accompanied by dispersal of the pollinating wasp. It seems true, as Beccari pointed out, that the large banyans have an advantage in this respect over small trees impeded by the dense forest.Two subgenera, Pharmaeosycea and Urostigma, suggest a southern migration, but the third subgenus Ficus suggests a northern origin and dispersal. Pharmaeosycea, hitherto regarded as American, has 46 species in Asia and Australasia, and it comprises most of the fig-flora of New Caledonia (26 species in all, 20 endemic species of Pharmaeosycea. Ficus prolixa (Polynesia seems related to sect. Americana of Urostigma. The F. elastica group (Queensland, Papua, Solomon Islands seems related to the African sect. Bibracteata of Urostigma. The F, benghalensis group parallels the distribution of the Dipterocarpaceae, but does not occur inAfrica.

  6. Vicia vulcanorum (Fabaceae a new species from the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Mateos, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, a new species of subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. is described and illustrated from the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, north-west of Africa. It is related to and compared with Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. and Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., two endemic species from the western and central group of the Canary Islands, and Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, an endemic species from Porto Santo Island, Madeira Archipelago.Se describe e ilustra Vicia vulcanorum J. Gil & M. L. Gil (Fabaceae, una nueva especie y endemismo de la isla de Lanzarote, Islas Canarias, perteneciente al subg. Cracca (Dumort. Peterm., sect. Cracca Dumort. Se encuentra relacionada y es comparada con Vicia cirrhosa C. Sm. ex Webb & Berthel. y Vicia filicaulis Webb & Berthel., especies endémicas de las islas centrales y occidentales del archipiélago canario, y con Vicia ferreirensis Goyder, especie endémica de la isla de Porto Santo, en el archipiélago de Madeira.

  7. Polymer Self-assembly on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianini, Michele; Motta, Nunzio

    This chapter analyses the poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-assembly on carbon nanotubes and the interaction between the two materials forming a new hybrid nanostructure. The chapter starts with a review of the several studies investigating polymers and biomolecules self-assembled on nanotubes. Then conducting polymers and polythiophenes are briefly introduced. Accordingly, carbon nanotube structure and properties are reported in Sect. 3. The experimental section starts with the bulk characterisation of polymer thin films with the inclusion of uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes. By using volume film analysis techniques (AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and Raman), we show how the polymer's higher degree of order is a direct consequence of interaction with carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, it is through the use of nanoscale analysis and molecular dynamic simulations that the self-assembly of the polymer on the nanotube surface can be clearly evidenced and characterised. In Sect. 6, the effect of the carbon templating structure on the P3HT organisation on the surface is investigated, showing the chirality-driven polymer assembly on the carbon nanotube surface. The interaction between P3HT and CNTs brings also to charge transfer, with the modification of physical properties for both species. In particular, the alteration of the polymer electronic properties and the modification of the nanotube mechanical structure are a direct consequence of the P3HT π-π stacking on the nanotube surface. Finally, some considerations based on molecular dynamics studies are reported in order to confirm and support the experimental results discussed.

  8. 论日本无赖派作家太宰治的文学思想%The Analysis about the Thought of Japanese Mulaiha Literature Writer Osamu Dazai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任江辉

    2012-01-01

    日本无赖派文学是在第二次世界大战结束后出现的重要文学派别,而太宰治是无赖派文学派别中的最为著名作家之一。太宰治文学思想意识是在其生活阅历和文学创作经历的基础上形成的,其思想意识主要有“颓废堕落”意识,“自杀”意识,“罪”意识,“孤独”意识,“基督”意识等,被日本学界称为“昭和文学不灭的金字塔”。%Japanese mulaiha literature sect appeared after World War Ⅱ , and Osamu Dazai is one of the famous writers of Japanese mulaiha literature sect. Osamu Dazai literature thought developed from his life and literature production career, his literature thought included corruption thought, suicide thought, evil thought, loneliness thought, Christ thought, ect. , he is regarded as the immortal pyramid of syouwa literature by Japanese academic community.

  9. Systematic positions of Lamiophiomis and Paraphlomis (Lamiaceae) based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Zhi PAN; Li-Qin FANG; Gang HAO; Jie CAI; Xun GONG

    2009-01-01

    Genera Lamiophlomis and Paraphlomis were originally separated from genus Phlomis s.l. on the basis of particular morphological characteristics. However, their relationship was highly contentious, as evidenced by the literature. In the present paper, the systematic positions of Lamiophlomis, Paraphlomis, and their related genera were assessed based on nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast rpl16 and trnL-F sequence data using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian methods. In total, 24 species representing six genera of the ingroup and outgroup were sampled. Analyses of both separate and combined sequence data were conducted to resolve the systematic relationships of these genera. The results reveal that Lamiophlomis is nested within Phlomis sect. Phlomoides and its genetic status is not supported. With the inclusion of Lamiophlomis rotata in sect. Phlomoides, sections Phlomis and Phlomoides of Phlomis were resolved as monophyletic. Paraphlomis was supported as an inde-pendent genus. However, the resolution of its monophyly conflicted between MP and Bayesian analyses, suggesting the need for expended sampling and further evidence.

  10. Influence of Culturing Conditions on Bioprospecting and the Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi from Schinus terebinthifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonial, Fabiana; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Gomes-Figueiredo, Josiane A; Sobottka, Andrea M; Bertol, Charise D; Nepel, Angelita; Savi, Daiani C; Vicente, Vânia A; Gomes, Renata R; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activity of extracts harvested from 17 endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant Schinus terebinthifolius. Morphological and molecular analyses indicated that these fungal species belonged to the genera Alternaria, Bjerkandera, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Penicillium, and Xylaria. Of the endophytes analyzed, 64.7 % produced antimicrobial compounds under at least one of the fermentation conditions tested. Nine isolates produced compounds that inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, four produced compounds that inhibited Candida albicans, and two that inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fermentation conditions of the following endophytes were optimized: Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626, Xylaria sp.-LGMF673, and Bjerkandera sp.-LGMF713. Specifically, the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH, temperature, and length of incubation were varied. In general, production of antimicrobial compounds was greatest when galactose was used as a carbon source, and acidification of the growth medium enhanced the production of compounds that inhibited C. albicans. Upon large-scale fermentation, Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626 produced an extract containing two fractions that were active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. One of the extracts exhibited high activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.52 µg/mL), and the other exhibited moderate activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 55.55 µg/mL). The compounds E-2-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde and two compounds of the pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids class were identified in the active fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) equiv {cal T}(*(2F)) -> T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering MATH {cal C}(s_{{cal) T}(*(A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6), MATH {cal C}_{{cal T}(*(D_6)}) -> CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  12. ALEVISM AS A HETERODOX BELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki DUMAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an effort for a sociological assessment of an Alevi identity. Here, first the theological pillars of the Alevi belief and the historical and cultural reality of these pillars, and in detail the identities of Turkish Alevis and their criticizing behaviour against the Sunni tradition are mentioned. The historical/cultural conflicts between Alevi and Sunni sects demonstrate that Alevism is not only a heterodox cult of sect, but also a life practice containing strong customs and legacies historically, having its own values, rituals and beliefs. However, it can be said that the Alevis living in Turkey, despite their efforts to present themselves with a religious identity, they try to exhibit an existence by their opposition concept, manners towards the current political order, political choices and initiatives; apart from this religious identity. What this existence includes, especially the historical roots of Alevism, its cultural identity, religious phenomena and most importantly their political expectations constitute the main subjects of this article.

  13. Reproductive biology and variation of nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequences in the Calligonum mongolicum complex (Polygonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wen, Jun; Zhao, Yanfeng; Johnson, Gabriel; Pan, Borong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the biosystematics of the Calligonum mongolicum complex (Polygonaceae), the flowering phenological period, breeding and pollination characters and seed set of the complex (Calligonum Mongolicum Turze, Calligonum chinense A. Los., Calligonum gobicum A. Los., Calligonum pumilum A. Los. and Calligonum zaidamense A. Los.) were documented in the Turpan Eremophyte Botanical Garden, China. The sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS region were employed to differentiate the Calligonum mongolicum complex and other species in sect. Medusae. The results showed species of the Calligonum mongolicum complex occupied overlapping flowering periods and had consistent pollination agents. Their breeding systems are all self-compatible, tend to be out-crossing and they interbreed amongst each other (out-crossing index, OCI = 4).The crosses within and amongst species had high seed sets (44 - 65%). Phylogenetic analyses of Calligonum sect. Medusae and the network analysis of nrDNA (ITS and ETS) in the complex suggest interbreeding amongst "species" within the complex and provide evidence for taxonomically merging the five species in the complex. The detected hybridisation, occurring within the complex, suggests the need to improve traditional methods of ex situ plant conservation in botanical gardens for maintaining genetic diversity of Calligonum within and amongst species from different geographic areas.

  14. The authenticity of the letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ to ‘Abd al-Malik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilferd Madelung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called first letter of Ibn Ibâḍ was long considered in modern scholarship as an authentic letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ, the reputed founder of the Ibâḍiyya sect, to the Umayyad caliph ‘Abd al-Malik. This was questioned first by John Wilkinson and then by Michael Cook in his book on Early Muslim Theology, who proposed that the letter was written rather by Jâbir b. Zayd to the Muhallabid amîr ‘Abd al-Malik b. al-Muhallab. In his recent book on Ibadism, John Wilkinson has argued that the letter was addressed to ‘Abd al-Malik, the son of the caliph ‘Umar II, and that Jâbir b. Zayd could not have been its author. It will be argued in this paper that the letter is an authentic letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ addressed to the son of ‘Umar II. Ibn Ibâḍ was not the founder of the Ibâḍiyya sect, but rather a contemporary and rival of Abû ‘Ubayda Muslim b. Abî Karîma.

  15. Monoenergetic computed tomography reconstructions reduce beam hardening artifacts from dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzmann, Paul; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Schwendener, Nicole; Alkadhi, Hatem; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of monoenergetic computed tomography (CT) images to reduce beam hardening artifacts in comparison to standard CT images of dental restoration on dental post-mortem CT (PMCT). Thirty human decedents (15 male, 58 ± 22 years) with dental restorations were examined using standard single-energy CT (SECT) and dual-energy CT (DECT). DECT data were used to generate monoenergetic CT images, reflecting the X-ray attenuation at energy levels of 64, 69, 88 keV, and at an individually adjusted optimal energy level called OPTkeV. Artifact reduction and image quality of SECT and monoenergetic CT were assessed objectively and subjectively by two blinded readers. Subjectively, beam artifacts decreased visibly in 28/30 cases after monoenergetic CT reconstruction. Inter- and intra-reader agreement was good (k = 0.72, and k = 0.73 respectively). Beam hardening artifacts decreased significantly with increasing monoenergies (repeated-measures ANOVA p < 0.001). Artifact reduction was greatest on monoenergetic CT images at OPTkeV. Mean OPTkeV was 108 ± 17 keV. OPTkeV yielded the lowest difference between CT numbers of streak artifacts and reference tissues (-163 HU). Monoenergetic CT reconstructions significantly reduce beam hardening artifacts from dental restorations and improve image quality of post-mortem dental CT.

  16. Managing Research Data in Big Science

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Norman; Woan, Graham

    2012-01-01

    The project which led to this report was funded by JISC in 2010--2011 as part of its 'Managing Research Data' programme, to examine the way in which Big Science data is managed, and produce any recommendations which may be appropriate. Big science data is different: it comes in large volumes, and it is shared and exploited in ways which may differ from other disciplines. This project has explored these differences using as a case-study Gravitational Wave data generated by the LSC, and has produced recommendations intended to be useful variously to JISC, the funding council (STFC) and the LSC community. In Sect. 1 we define what we mean by 'big science', describe the overall data culture there, laying stress on how it necessarily or contingently differs from other disciplines. In Sect. 2 we discuss the benefits of a formal data-preservation strategy, and the cases for open data and for well-preserved data that follow from that. This leads to our recommendations that, in essence, funders should adopt rather lig...

  17. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSLIM LAW AND ITS MAIN SOURCES, INFLUENCE OF WESTERNIZATION ON LEGAL SYSTEMS OF MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND ISLAMIZATION OF ROMANGERMANIC AND ANGLO-SAXON LEGAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the Genesis of Islam and its role in the development of Muslim law family, highlights the main sources of Muslim law legal families. It is noted an important role of standards in Islamic law developed by the theologians of the activities in the process of interpretation in filling gaps in the law. All this has led to the emergence of different schools or sects, which contributed to the creation of many ideologically warring with each other Muslim sects. The followers of these movements convince their supporters that the rest courses are false. The article notes that currently, in general, the Muslim law has not lost its position. Modern Islamic community of the world has about a billion and a half followers. The Muslim law has not only maintained its position, but also extends its sphere of influence. Islam – the youngest world religion - enters the countries whose people earlier professed Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., the Followers of Islam, moving to other countries, almost do not assimilate. So, the Islamic community in Europe is practically not subjected to European influence. Some of the legal institutions in a number of non-Muslim countries are subjected to Islamization. In some countries, Islamic law is not considered as legally valid, but it works in fact. This happens in the Muslim enclaves of Europe, it is happening in Russia, particularly in the republics of the North Caucasus

  18. Advances in taxonomy of genus phoma: polyphyletic nature and role of phenotypic traits and molecular systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra Kumar; Tiwari, Vaibhav V; Irinyi, László; Kövics, György János

    2014-06-01

    Phoma is a highly polyphyletic genus with its unclear species boundaries. The conventional system of identification is functional but it has its limitations. Besides morphological studies, chemotaxonomy, secondary metabolite and protein profiling have been assessed for the classification and identification of these fungi. Molecular datasets have provided a better outlook towards the phylogenetic and evolutionary trends of Phoma. Molecular markers such as ITS-rDNA, tubulin, actin, translation elongation factor have been widely used by the taxonomists to demarcate species. However, outcomes gained up till now represent preliminary step towards the study of Phoma systematics and a combined approach would be beneficial in the understanding of this polyphyletic group members. Lately, on the base of molecular phylogeny of the type species of the seven Phoma sections a new teleomorph family, Didymellaceae has been established, besides the Phaeosphaeriaceae related to sect. Paraphoma anamorphs, and the Leptosphaeriaceae to sect. Heterospora anamorphs. The estimated ratio is about 70 % of the recognized Phoma-like species can be associated with the Didymellaceae ascomycetous family.

  19. THE ADAPTABLE CHANGE OF THE FUNCTION OF T LYMPHOCYTES FOR PHYSICAL EXERCISE WITH OXYGEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To find out the possible regularity and mechanism of the adaptable change of human being T lymphocytes for physical exercise with oxygen and bring the original data for the Movement of All People Improving their Health. Methods We selected 16 untrained female students in university and let them had the same amount of exercise for 8 weeks. After that, we collected the cycle blood at the time point of before exercise, the end of exercise and 1 hour after exercise at the end of the 0,first,2 nd,4 nd,6 nd and 8 nd week respectively, so as to determine its stimuli index (SI) by MTT method. Results In the different time sect, such as the early stage of exercise, quiet condition,as soon as the end of exercise and 1 hour after exercise, we found that the SI were obviously Iower than that of normal (P<0. 05) ,especially in the time sect of the end of exercise. Continuing to 4 weeks,the function of T lymphocytes restored gradualy and it lasted to the 8 th week, the SI in quiet condition and 1 hour after exercise had restored to normal(P>0.05),but in the end of exercise, it still was Iow,however, the extent of the cases selected was in a condition of acute excitability. Conclusion As the bodies adapting to the exercise, the function of T lymphocytes restored slowly and the rate increased faster and faster.

  20. A Study of the Hồi giáo Religion in Vietnam: With a Reference to Islamic Religious Practices of Cham Bani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Yoshimoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Hồi giáo, a state-recognized religion translated as “Islam” in Vietnam, and will focus on the Islamic religious practices of the Cham Bani, one of two groups of Muslims in Vietnam. While it is recognized that diverse Islamic religious practices have taken root in various areas, there is a tendency to view religious practices such as the Quran recital, Ramadan, Salat, and so on, with a sweeping uniformity. As such, regardless of how “unorthodox” they are, the people who engage in such practices within society are regarded, or classified, as Muslim. The Cham Bani have also been described as an unorthodox Muslim sect, on the basis of its syncretic religious practices. However, the Cham Bani practitioners see themselves as neither Muslim nor members of the Islam community, and consider that they have experienced a different evolution of Islamic religious elements. Is it possible to equate Hồi giáo with Islam and its followers with Muslim? This paper examines these questions through observations of the self-recognition, as well as the actual conditions of Islamic practices among the Cham Bani, especially the rituals that are observed during Ramadan. It reveals the possibility that Vietnam’s state-recognized religious sect of “Islam” and its “Muslim” followers are polythetic in nature and differ from the conventional definitions of Islam and Muslim, based on a monothetic classification.

  1. Aspherical-atom modeling of coordination compounds by single-crystal X-ray diffraction allows the correct metal atom to be identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Birger; Wandtke, Claudia M; Meents, Alke; Pröpper, Kevin; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Amin Sk, Nurul; Singh, Amit Pratap; Roesky, Herbert W; Sidhu, Navdeep

    2015-02-02

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is often considered the gold standard in analytical chemistry, as it allows element identification as well as determination of atom connectivity and the solid-state structure of completely unknown samples. Element assignment is based on the number of electrons of an atom, so that a distinction of neighboring heavier elements in the periodic table by XRD is often difficult. A computationally efficient procedure for aspherical-atom least-squares refinement of conventional diffraction data of organometallic compounds is proposed. The iterative procedure is conceptually similar to Hirshfeld-atom refinement (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A- 2008, 64, 383-393; IUCrJ. 2014, 1,61-79), but it relies on tabulated invariom scattering factors (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B- 2013, 69, 91-104) and the Hansen/Coppens multipole model; disordered structures can be handled as well. Five linear-coordinate 3d metal complexes, for which the wrong element is found if standard independent-atom model scattering factors are relied upon, are studied, and it is shown that only aspherical-atom scattering factors allow a reliable assignment. The influence of anomalous dispersion in identifying the correct element is investigated and discussed.

  2. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  3. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  4. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

  5. Dilutineuron, a new moss genus of the subfamily Racomitrioideae (Grimmiaceae, Bryophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek-Ochyra Halina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on available molecular and morphological evidence, the genus Codriophorus P.Beauv. (Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae proved to be a polyphyletic taxon. It consists of two distinct genera which correspond to two sections of Codriophorus, namely sect. Codriophorus and sect. Fascicularia (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. The latter section is raised to generic rank as Dilutineuron Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek. The new genus consists of the following five species: D. fasciculare (Hedw. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. brevisetum (Lindb. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. anomodontoides (Cardot Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. corrugatum (Bednarek-Ochyra Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov. and D. laevigatum (Mitt. Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov.

  6. Reproductive biology and variation of nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS sequences in the Calligonum mongolicum complex (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the biosystematics of the Calligonum mongolicum complex (Polygonaceae, the flowering phenological period, breeding and pollination characters and seed set of the complex (C. Mongolicum Turze, C. chinense A. Los., C. gobicum A. Los., C. pumilum A. Los. and C. zaidamense A. Los. were documented in the Turpan Eremophyte Botanical Garden, China. The sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS region were employed to differentiate the C. mongolicum complex and other species in sect. Medusae. The results showed species of the C. mongolicum complex occupied overlapping flowering periods and had consistent pollination agents. Their breeding systems are all self-compatible, tend to be out-crossing and they interbreed amongst each other (out-crossing index, OCI = 4.The crosses within and amongst species had high seed sets (44 - 65%. Phylogenetic analyses of Calligonum sect. Medusae and the network analysis of nrDNA (ITS and ETS in the complex suggest interbreeding amongst “species” within the complex and provide evidence for taxonomically merging the five species in the complex. The detected hybridisation, occurring within the complex, suggests the need to improve traditional methods of ex situ plant conservation in botanical gardens for maintaining genetic diversity of Calligonum within and amongst species from different geographic areas.

  7. Pollen Morphology of Parnassia L. (Parnassiaceae) and Its Systematic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding WU; Hong WANG; De-Zhu LI; Stephen BLACKMORE

    2005-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 28 species of Parnassia L. was investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The shape of pollen grains in this genus varies from subspheroidal to prolate in equatorial view and is three-lobed circular in the polar view. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate or syntricolporate, with reticulate sculpture. The pollen characteristics among species are fairly similar to each other. Morphological information regarding the pollen grains shows that Parnassia is a natural genus. Based on exine ornamentation observed under SEM, three types of pollen grains were recognized: (i) type Ⅰ, with foveolate-reticulate sculpture; (ii) type Ⅱ, with a finely reticulate sculpture; and (iii) type Ⅲ, with a coarsely reticulate sculpture. Most sections of this genus have one type of sculpture of pollen morphology, but Sect. Nectarotrilobos has three types of sculpture and Sect.Saxifragastrum has two types of sculpture. All three types of sculpture can be found in Southwest China,with species with the longest (Parnassia delavayi Franch.) and shortest (Parnassia faberi Oliv.) colpi,implying that Southwest China is the center of diversification of the genus.

  8. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  9. Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    A number of important conclusions can be drawn as a result of this broad, first-phase market evaluation. The more important conclusions include the following: (1) A very significant market opportunity will exist for specialized outdoor air-handling units (SOAHUs) as more construction and renovation projects are designed to incorporate the recommendations made by the ASHRAE 62-1989 standard. Based on this investigation, the total potential market is currently $725,000,000 annually (see Table 6, Sect. 3). Based on the market evaluations completed, it is estimated that approximately $398,000,000 (55%) of this total market could be served by DBC systems if they were made cost-effective through mass production. Approximately $306,000,000 (42%) of the total can be served by a non-regenerated, desiccant-based total recovery approach, based on the information provided by this investigation. Approximately $92,000,000 (13%) can be served by a regenerated desiccant-based cooling approach (see Table 7, Sect. 3). (2) A projection of the market selling price of various desiccant-based SOAHU systems was prepared using prices provided by Trane for central-station, air-handling modules currently manufactured. The wheel-component pricing was added to these components by SEMCO. This resulted in projected pricing for these systems that is significantly less than that currently offered by custom suppliers (see Table 4, Sect. 2). Estimated payback periods for all SOAHU approaches were quite short when compared with conventional over-cooling and reheat systems. Actual paybacks may vary significantly depending on site-specific considerations. (3) In comparing cost vs benefit of each SOAHU approach, it is critical that the total system design be evaluated. For example, the cost premium of a DBC system is very significant when compared to a conventional air handling system, yet the reduced chiller, boiler, cooling tower, and other expense often equals or exceeds this premium, resulting in a

  10. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  11. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romulea pilosa J.C.Manning & Goldblatt and R. quartzicola J.C.Manning & Goldblatt are two narrow endemics from the southern African winter rainfall region. An early, fragmentary collection of R. pilosa from Riviersonderend lacked the diagnostic corm and was thus mistakenly associated with R. tetragona (sect. Ciliatae as var. flavandra M.P.de Vos because of the highly distinctive pilose, H-shaped leaf. The rediscovery of the taxon in the wild shows it to be a previously unrecognized member of sect. Aggregatae, distinguished by its unusual foliage and bright orange flowers. R. quartzicola was grown to flowering from seeds collected from quartz patches in southern Namaqualand and proved to be a new species of sect. Ciliatae, distinguished by its early flowering, short, subclavate leaves with reduced sclerenchyma strands, and bright yellow flowers with short bracts. R. neglecta M.P.de Vos, a rare endemic from the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape, is a later homonym for the Mediterranean R. neglecta Jord. & Fourr., and the earliest name for this plant is shown to be R. speciosa (Ker Gawl. Baker, typified by an illustration in Andrews’ The botanist’s repository. An epitype is designated to fix the application of the name. We have also examined the type illustration of R. pudica (Sol. ex Ker Gawl. Baker, hitherto treated as an uncertain species, and are confident that it represents the species currently known as R. amoena Schltr. ex Bég., and takes priority over it as being the earlier name. The type of R. reflexa Eckl., a new name for the later homonym I. reflexa Thunb. and the basionym of R. rosea var. reflexa (Eckl. Bég., has been mistakenly identified as an Ecklon collection but is in fact the collection that formed the basis of Thunberg’s I. reflexa. This collection is actually a form of R. flava Lam., and the name R. rosea var. reflexa is thus moved to the synonomy of that species. The variety currently known under this name should now be

  12. Report from AmSECT’s International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion: American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology Standards and Guidelines for Perfusion Practice: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A.; Bronson, Shahna L.; Dickinson, Timothy A.; Fitzgerald, David C.; Likosky, Donald S.; Mellas, Nicholas B.; Shann, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: One of the roles of a professional society is to develop standards and guidelines of practice as an instrument to guide safe and effective patient care. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) first published its Essentials for Perfusion Practice, Clinical Function: Conduct of Extracorporeal Circulation in 1993. The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (ICEBP), a committee within AmSECT, was tasked with updating this document in 2010. The aim of this report is to describe the method of development and content of AmSECT’s new professional standards and guidelines. The ICEBP committee independently evaluated and provided input regarding the current “Essentials and Guidelines.” Structural changes were made to the entire document, and a draft document was developed, presented, and circulated to the AmSECT Board of Directors and broader membership for comment. Informed by these reviews, a revised document was then presented to the Society for a membership vote. The final document consists of 15 areas of practice covered by 50 Standards and 38 Guidelines (see Appendix 1) with the first standard focusing on the development of institutional protocols to support their implementation and use. A majority of the membership voted to accept the document (81.2% of the voting membership accepting, 18.8% rejecting). After an audit of the balloting process by AmSECT’s Ethics Committee, the results were reported to the membership and the document was officially adopted on July 24, 2013. The Standards and Guidelines will serve as a useful guide for cardiac surgical teams that wish to develop institution-specific standards and guidelines to improve the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of adult cardiopulmonary bypass. The ICEBP recognizes that the development of a Standards and Guidelines statement alone will not change care. Safe, reliable, and effective care will be best served through the development and implementation of

  13. Chromosome number and satellited chromosome morphology of eleven species of Arachis (Leguminosae Número cromosómico y morfología del cromosoma satelitado en once espécies de Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa del Pilar De Souza Penaloza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromosome number was determined in eleven recently-described species of Arachis belonging to five different taxonomic sections. Two new species of section Arachis, A. Gregor/i and A. Krapovickasii, present 2n=20 chromosomes and lack the small 'A' pair, while A. linearifolia and A. Schininii have 2n=20, including the small 'A' pair of chromosomes, typical of the A genome of A. hypogaea. Arachis Schininii, previously listed under A. Hoehnei, a species lacking this pair of chromosomes, has many morphological differences, and is therefore considered to be a new species. Arachis submarginata (sect. Extranervosae, A. Pflugeae and A. Hassleri (sect. Procumbentes, and A. serdoensis and A. interrupta (sect. Heteranthae also have 2n=20. One species of section Rhizomatosae, A. nitida, is tetraploid (2n=40, but is morphologically distinct from the other tetraploids in this section. The new species of section Erectoides, A. porphyrocalyx, shows 2n=18. This is the first count of 2n=18 chromosomes for an Arachis species outside section Arachis and its origin is probably not associated with the origin of the 18 chromosomes occurring in three species of section Arachis Se determinó el número cromosómico de once especies recientemente descriptas del género Arachis, pertenecientes a cinco secciones taxonómicas. En la sección Arachis, A. Gregoryi y A. Krapovickasii presentan 2n=20 cromosomas sin el par "A", mientras A. linearifolia y A. Schininii presentan 2n=20, incluyendo el par "A", típico del genomio A de A. hypogaea. Arachis Schininii presenta características citológicas (presencia del par "A" y morfológicas distintas de A. Hoehnei, bajo la cual estuvo incluida. Arachis submarginata (sección Extranervosaé, A. Pflugeae y A. Hassleri (sección Procumbentes, y A. seridoensis y A. interrupta (sección Heteranthae también presentan 2n=20. Una especie de la sección Rhizomatosae, A. nitida, es tetraploide, con 2n=40, pero morfológicamente distinta

  14. Cytotaxonomy study of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of section Malacothrix Bunge from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, meiotic chromosome number and the behavior of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of Astragalus sect. Malacothrix were studied. All wild populations were diploid and showed 2n=2x=16 chromosome number, consistent with the proposed base number of x=8 from IPCN. Although all taxa displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis, some meiotic abnormalities included varied degrees of fragmented and sticky chromosomes in metaphase I, polynucleate and a variable number of laggards, forwarded chromosomes and bridges in anaphase I/telophase I, asynchronous nucleus and precocious chromosome migration in metaphase II and laggards, bridges and cytomixis in anaphase II/telophase II were observed.

  15. The demonological treatise as a space of political conflict between religious authority and emerging territorial States: the Malleus Maleficarum and the subordination of the secular to the ecclesiastical authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Macías

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the particular motives of the authors of the Malleus Maleficarum and the cultural conditions of its writing, this paper will focus on the thoughts expressed there about the role of secular authority, and its relationship to face the inquisitors as church representatives, in the removal of the new sect of witches. Finally it will be establish the relationship between the production of the text and the emergence of the modern territorial State. We can anticipate that in a period where begins to emerge the new state structures, our theologians exalted, above any other source of real power, the power of the Vicar of Christ, doing the demonological discourse a space for political debate between two sources of authority in conflict (although supported by the same foundation -God-

  16. High resolution x-ray Thomson scattering measurements from cryogenic hydrogen jets using the linac coherent light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, L B; Zastrau, U; Galtier, E; Gamboa, E J; Goede, S; Schumaker, W; Ravasio, A; Gauthier, M; MacDonald, M J; Chen, Z; Granados, E; Lee, H J; Fry, A; Kim, J B; Roedel, C; Mishra, R; Pelka, A; Kraus, D; Barbrel, B; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S H

    2016-11-01

    We present the first spectrally resolved measurements of x-rays scattered from cryogenic hydrogen jets in the single photon counting limit. The 120 Hz capabilities of the LCLS, together with a novel hydrogen jet design [J. B. Kim et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)], allow for the ability to record a near background free spectrum. Such high-dynamic-range x-ray scattering measurements enable a platform to study ultra-fast, laser-driven, heating dynamics of hydrogen plasmas. This measurement has been achieved using two highly annealed pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometers to spectrally resolve 5.5 keV x-rays elastically and inelastically scattered from cryogenic hydrogen and focused on Cornell-SLAC pixel array detectors [S. Herrmann et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 718, 550 (2013)].

  17. The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams

    2000-12-01

    The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa.

  18. Visible light emission in collisions between O5+ ions and He atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大万; 潘广炎; 杨锋; 刘占稳; 周嗣信; 张文; 张雪珍; 郭晓虹; 王友德; 杨治虎; 马新文; 刘惠萍; 赵孟春

    1997-01-01

    Visible light emission spectra during collisions between O5 + ions and He atoms in the range of 200-800 nm at different projectile energies (4.06-5.31 keV·u 1) have been measured. Emission spectra show that there arc three channels of excitation in the O5+ -He collision system; (i) single-electron capture into excited states; (ii) double-electron capture into excited states; (iii) direct excitation of target atoms. There are transitions between states with comparably high quantum numbers nl The absolute emission cross-sections of every spectral line are calculated. The relations of these cross-sect ions with the energy of the projectiles are studied.

  19. ROSAT巡天X射线选活动星系核的光学证认%Optical Identification of ROSAT Survey X-ray Selected AGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳春; 白宇; 何香涛; 陈阳; 吴江华; 李庆康; Green Richard F.; Voges Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    获得完备的样本一直是类星体统计分析工作中至关重要的第一步.类星体巡天选择候选体的方法主要有射电波段筛选、色指数筛选、无缝光谱筛选、X射线波段筛选、对红外源或变源进行筛选和零自行的方法.单独运用任一方法都有选择效应,采用多波段方法可以极大地提高样本的完备性.阐述了使用多波段方法选择活动星系核样本的研究现状,提出多波段类星体巡天方法和选源判据,给出ROSAT巡天中F.1002,F.Coma,F.836和F.Leo 4个天区以及空源的15年来X射线选活动星系核的选源和光学新证认的AGN结果,表明多波段类星体巡天方法能有效地提高观测效率.%The completeness of sample is especially important for the research of quasar, and using data in one wavelength, such as in radio, infrared, optical or X-ray selection, to make candidate selection always suffers significant selection effect to some extent. Fortunately, some large area surveys have become increasingly prevalent across all wavelengths over the past decade, such as SDSS, NVSS, FIRST, RASS, etc. These surveys make it possible to select candidates in multiple wavelengths and the resulting sample is more complete.A summary of quasar candidate selection methods employed by previous surveys and our method of Multi-wavelength Quasar Survey (MWQS) are presented in Sect.l. Because the most effective way to maximize completeness is to select candidates in multi-wavelength, the MWQS has combined data from RASS, UKST, FIRST and NVSS in multiple wavelengths, to greatly reduce selection effects and the survey can produce a quasar sample more complete than that of any previous surveys. The MWQS includes four fields of sky, each covering an area of 6°×6°, and blank field sources in all sky. Two of the four survey fields are the rich Leo and Coma clusters and others are F.1002 and F.836. In Sect.2, the candidate selectionprocedures in three wavelengths are given

  20. Kinetic Monte Carlo Studies of Hydrogen Abstraction from Graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Cuppen, H M

    2008-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo simulations on Eley-Rideal abstraction reactions of atomic hydrogen chemisorbed on graphite. The results are obtained via a hybrid approach where energy barriers derived from density functional theory calculations are used as input to Monte Carlo simulations. By comparing with experimental data, we discriminate between contributions from different Eley-Rideal mechanisms. A combination of two different mechanisms yields good quantitative and qualitative agreement between the experimentally derived and the simulated Eley-Rideal abstraction cross sections and surface configurations. These two mechanisms include a direct Eley-Rideal reaction with fast diffusing H atoms and a dimer mediated Eley-Rideal mechanism with increased cross section at low coverage. Such a dimer mediated Eley-Rideal mechanism has not previously been proposed and serves as an alternative explanation to the steering behavior often given as the cause of the coverage dependence observed in Eley-Rideal reaction cross sect...

  1. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from...... suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were......, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37 degrees C...

  2. Advanced technology payoffs for future rotorcraft, commuter aircraft, cruise missile, and APU propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, M. A.; Zeiner, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the significant advances made regarding the performance of larger gas turbines, challenges arise concerning the improvement of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1000 horsepower range. In response to these challenges, the NASA/Army-sponsored Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study was undertaken with the objective to identify the engine cycle, configuration, and component technology requirements for the substantial performance improvements desired in year-2000 small gas turbine engines. In the context of this objective, an American turbine engine company evaluated engines for four year-2000 applications, including a rotorcraft, a commuter aircraft, a supersonic cruise missile, and an auxiliary power unit (APU). Attention is given to reference missions, reference engines, reference aircraft, year-2000 technology projections, cycle studies, advanced engine selections, and a technology evaluation.

  3. Linking Wayfinding and Wayfaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we propose to expand and enhance the understanding of wayfi nding beyond the strictly “instrumental” (i.e., getting from point A to point B), to include the qualities and multi-sensorial inputs that inform and shape people’s movement through space. We take as a point of departure...... the concept of wayfi nding offered by Hunter and colleagues in the introductory chapter as “a process by which people use environmental information to locate themselves and fi nd the way from place to place” (see Chap. 1 , Sect. 1.2 ). Our contribution is to offer a widened understanding of the key notion...... of environmental information , which includes the embodied, multi-sensorial experience of moving through physical space. We base our examination in part on the classic positions of the wayfi nding literature—for example, Lynch’s seminal study, The Image of the City ( 1960 ). However, we also examine the so...

  4. Una nueva especie de Hyptis (Labiatae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Alonso, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The shruby new species, Hyptis jacobi Fern. Alonso, only known from the central Chicamocha valley (Department of Santander in the western slope of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, is described and illustrated. This species is related to the Andine H. tafallae (Sect. Umbellatae but is quite different from other Hyptis previously known from Colombia.Se describe e ilustra Hyptis jacobi Fern. Alonso, una nueva especie de porte arbustivo, conocida sólo de la cuenca media del río Chicamocha (departamento de Santander en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia. Esta planta que tiene alguna afinidad con la especie andina H. tafallae (sección Umbellatae es muy diferente de las especies de Hyptis conocidas previamente de Colombia.

  5. Collective refraction of a beam of electrons at a plasma-gas interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In a recent Brief Comment, the results of an experiment to measure the refraction of a particle beam were reported [P. Muggli et al., Nature 411, 43 (2001]. The refraction takes place at a passive interface between a plasma and a gas. Here the full paper on which that Comment is based is presented. A theoretical model extends the results presented previously [T. Katsouleas et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 455, 161 (2000]. The effective Snell's law is shown to be nonlinear, and the transients at the head of the beam are described. 3D particle-in-cell simulations are performed for parameters corresponding to the experiment. Additionally, the experiment to measure the refraction and internal reflection at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is described.

  6. Le changement de croyances extrêmes

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvayre, Romy

    2012-01-01

    Dans le domaine de l’adhésion et de la désadhésion à un mouvement marginal – appelé «secte» par les uns et «Nouveaux Mouvements Religieux» par les autres –, il semble mystérieux de voir un individu accepter des croyances et des pratiques perçues comme irrationnelles, alors que la désadhésion est vue comme un retour «normal» à la raison. Nous nous proposons d’examiner différentes facettes du changement de croyances en abordant successivement le processus d’adhésion, l’apparente «résistance au ...

  7. Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RSI

    2008-03-01

    for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs; (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS evaluation results; and (4) Describe the RAs performed in Zone 2. The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into 7 geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the DQOs of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowed identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed, and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program was executed and completed in FY 2007 for the 11 EUs addressed in this document. The main body of this report describes both the DVS process and scope of work performed and the RAs completed. The scope and approach for performing DVS activities performed in FY 2007 that lead to action/no further action decisions are presented in Sects. 2 through 4. RAs performed in FY 2007 are presented in Sects. 5 through 10. Future land use is described in Sect. 11, and the status of all Zone 2 EUs as of this PCCR is presented in Sect. 12.

  8. High resolution x-ray Thomson scattering measurements from cryogenic hydrogen jets using the linac coherent light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Zastrau, U.; Galtier, E.; Gamboa, E. J.; Goede, S.; Schumaker, W.; Ravasio, A.; Gauthier, M.; MacDonald, M. J.; Chen, Z.; Granados, E.; Lee, H. J.; Fry, A.; Kim, J. B.; Roedel, C.; Mishra, R.; Pelka, A.; Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first spectrally resolved measurements of x-rays scattered from cryogenic hydrogen jets in the single photon counting limit. The 120 Hz capabilities of the LCLS, together with a novel hydrogen jet design [J. B. Kim et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)], allow for the ability to record a near background free spectrum. Such high-dynamic-range x-ray scattering measurements enable a platform to study ultra-fast, laser-driven, heating dynamics of hydrogen plasmas. This measurement has been achieved using two highly annealed pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometers to spectrally resolve 5.5 keV x-rays elastically and inelastically scattered from cryogenic hydrogen and focused on Cornell-SLAC pixel array detectors [S. Herrmann et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 718, 550 (2013)].

  9. Religious Diversity in the Middle East before Christianity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩宇

    2012-01-01

      The Middle East is so religiously diverse that the three major religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are intercon⁃nected and each originated within the Middle East. Islam in its many forms is by far the most heavily represented religion in the region though many branches and sects diversify and segment it. In addition to the widely acknowledged religions, smaller, mi⁃nority religions such as Bahá’í, Druze, Yazidi, Mandean, Gnosticism, Yarsanism, Shabakism, Zoroastrianism are also prevalent throughout the Middle East. This article begins with Mideast civilization and attempts at outlining a religious map of the region. Finally, the study concludes that Hellenistic culture, Jewish religion system and Roman polity all had found their way into spread⁃ing the influence of Christianity before Christianity, the missionary religion established itself in the Middle East.

  10. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kilean; Qiang, Ji

    2017-04-01

    A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015, 10.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056)] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  11. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  12. A NEW SPECIES AND A COMBINATION IN CARDIOSPERMUM (SAPINDACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE Y UNA NUEVA COMBINACION EN CARDIOSPERMUM (SAPINDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvia Ferrucci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Cardiospermum heringeri Ferrucci, a new species from Brazil is
    described and illustrated. It shares the sect. Ceratadenia ·RadJk.· with C. grandiflorum Sw. and C. integerrimum Radlk., a key for recognizing them is given. C. integerrimum is closely related with the new taxa, observations on the morphology of seed tegument and pollen of both species, complement this study.
    Based on Paullinia urvilleoides Radlk., the new combination
    Cardiospermum urvilleoides (Radlk. Ferrucci is established; it belongs to the sect. Cardiospermum. Fruit characters and a detailed palynological description provides evidence in favour of its removal from Paullinia L. Cardiospermum L. comparte la subtribu Paulliniinae Radlk. con los géneros Serjania Miller, Houssayanthus Hunz., Paullinia L., Urvillea Kunth y Lophostigma Radlk. Los caracteres comunes a todos los géneros son las flores zigomorfas, con las escamas de los pétalos en forma de capucha, y los frutos, que pueden ser esquizocárpicos o bien cápsulas. Dentro de la subtribu, Cardiospermum es el género más heterogéneo e interesante
    por la variabilidad morfológica y cromosómica.
    El estudio de una colección de Sapindáceas procedentes de Brasil (Bahia, Minas Gerais y Espírito Santo, permite presentar una especie nueva para la ciencia: C. heringeri Ferrucci que en este trabajo se compara
    con la especie afín C. integerrimum Radlk. También se establece una nueva
    combinación en la sección Cardiospermum
    Cardiospermum heringeri Ferrucci, una nueva especie de Brasil es describe e ilustra.  Comparte la sect. Ceratadenia Radlk. con C.grandiflorum Sw. y C.integerrimum Radlk., se da una clave para su reconocimiento.  C.integerrimum está estrechamente relacionado con los nuevos taxones, observaciones sobre la

  13. 雷公藤非生物碱成分对菜青虫杀虫活性研究%Insecticidal Activities of the Non-alkaloid Extracts from Tripterygium wilfordii against Piers rapae L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗都强; 张兴

    2000-01-01

    The non-alkaloid contents were extracted from the root bark o f Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. The results of bioassy showed that the non- alkaloid extracts has abviously insectidal activities to imported cabbage worm ( Pieris rapae L.).LC50 values of poisoning to the 5th instarts of Pie ris rapae is 7.23 mg.L-1. The values of medium antifeeding concentratio n (AFC50) of the non-alkaloid extracted against the 5th larval of Pieris rape is 11.34 mg.L-1. Median narcosis dose (ND50) is 15.54 μg/g.Me dian contact dose (LD50) is 3.1079 μg/head. The non-alkaloid extract s have no fumigant to insect. The main poisoning symptoms are that the tested in sect showed paralysis and the epiderm of the larval turns black, the larval are dead at last.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the arthrostylidioid bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae: Arthrostylidiinae) and new genus Didymogonyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Christopher D; Santos-Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Londoño, Ximena; Clark, Lynn G

    2012-10-01

    We present the first multi-locus chloroplast phylogeny of Arthrostylidiinae, a subtribe of neotropical woody bamboos. The morphological diversity of Arthrostylidiinae makes its taxonomy difficult and prior molecular analyses of bamboos have lacked breadth of sampling within the subtribe, leaving internal relationships uncertain. We sampled 51 taxa, chosen to span the range of taxonomic diversity and morphology, and analyzed a combined chloroplast DNA dataset with six chloroplast regions: ndhF, trnD-trnT, trnC-rpoB, rps16-trnQ, trnT-trnL, and rpl16. A consensus of maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses reveals monophyly of the Arthrostylidiinae and four moderately supported lineages within it. Six previously recognized genera were monophyletic, three polyphyletic, and two monotypic; Rhipidocladum sect. Didymogonyx is here raised to generic status. When mapped onto our topology, many of the morphological characters show homoplasy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation instead of filling up. Why does the EEG know only one rated power; Aufsplitten statt Auffuellen. Warum das EEG nur eine Bemessungsleistung kennt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollprecht, Jens [Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Kahl, Hartmut [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany). Forschungsbereich Internationales Umweltenergierecht

    2013-02-15

    The new EEG 2012 distinguishes between rated power with respect to paragraph 3 No. 2a EEG and installed power with respect to paragraph No. 6 EEG 2012. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the significance of the performance of a facility and use the calculation of the KWK bonus according paragraph 66 Sect. 1 No. 3 sentence 3 EEG 2009 in order to show that there only exist the two legally defined terms of performance. The selected example only is valid for plants which where brought on line before 1st January, 2009. However, the underlying fundamental considerations also have an enhanced relevance for the application of the EEG 2012.

  16. Symbolic Interactionism, Mass Panics and Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The constructionist approach to social problems has developed a thesis about mass panics and urban legends as "unconstructed social problems". This thesis, advanced by the American sociologist Joel Best, and his analysis of the urban legend of Halloween sadism, have provided the model for studying three mass panics and two urban legends. The three panics in question are the mass exodus from Kraljevo because of a prophesy that the town would be destroyed in an earthquake, the mass fear of body parts thieves in three villages in Srem, and the panic over the appearance of a cannibal sect in the town of Šabac. The two urban legends involve the rich old emigrant whose acquaintance a child from a poor family made while dialling phone numbers at random, and the thieving postman who set up his own business in Russia with the stolen pension money he had been supposed to deliver.

  17. Koranic education and militant Islam in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Clyde Ahmad

    1987-06-01

    In this article the author outlines and discusses the influence of Koranic schools, and their students ( almagiri) on the rise of fundamentalism and the spreading of militant Islam in Northern Nigeria. The author contends that while Islamic fundamentalism is the banner of both the Western-oriented Muslims and traditional Nigerian Muslims, it differs in expression in Northern Nigeria. The article shows that these differences result from the influence of the Koranic schools on the traditional teachers ( ulama) and their students on the one hand, and Western universities, Wahhabi Arabs, and Western-oriented teachers and their students on the other. The origins of the Koranic school curriculum in Nigeria, the training of traditional Muslim teachers, and the lifestyle of the students are discussed. The author shows how certain socialization patterns found in the Koranic schools and `almagiri' system seem congruent with the political attitudes and values stressed by spokesmen of militant Islamic sects in Northern Nigeria.

  18. [Double ritual murder by the Satanist cult members based on the casuistry of the Forensic Medicine Department in Katowice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Jałfoński, Christian; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława; Kobek, Mariusz; Rygol, Krystian

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, an increased activity of various sects, especially Satanist ones, has been observed in Poland. This is associated with an increase in the number of various crimes, including offences against life and health. The ideology of Satanism came to Poland in the early eighties of the last century, along with heavy metal music and its variants. In 1999, two cases of the murders of a 21-year-old woman and a 19-year-old man committed by Satanist cult members during their ritual mass were reported at the Forensic Medicine Department in Katowice. In the report, the authors present some issues associated with Satanism, the circumstances of these two murders and the results of medico-legal examinations of the victims.

  19. Library analytics and metrics using data to drive decisions and services

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book will enable libraries to make informed decisions, develop new services and improve user experience by collecting, analysing and utilising data. With the wealth of data available to library and information services, analytics are the key to understanding your users and your field of operations better and improving the services that you offer. This book sets out the opportunities that analytics present to libraries, and provides inspiration for how they can use the data within their systems to help inform decisions and drive services. Using case studies to provide real-life examples of current developments and services, and packed full of practical advice and guidance for libraries looking to realise the value of their data, this will be an essential guide for librarians and information professionals. This volume will bring together a group of internationally recognised experts to explore some of the key issues in the exploitation of data analytics and metrics in the library and cultural heritage sect...

  20. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).