WorldWideScience

Sample records for lycium barbarum goji

  1. Quality control of goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill.): A value chain analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Zigui; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-06-14

    Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted during five months of fieldwork in the main production areas in China with a total of 65 stakeholders. Quality of goji, behaviour and financial performance of stakeholders was documented and analysed for different VCs. Ten different types of VCs were identified. VCs with vertical integration and horizontal collaboration were found to have a more coherent quality control and better goji quality as well as improved stakeholders' financial performance. Vertical integration at different levels was found for independent farmer-based VCs, horizontal collaboration was found in the cooperative-based VCs. Full vertically integrated VCs were found in large-scale production. Goji quality and stakeholders' revenues are linked with different types of VCs which mirror stakeholders' behaviour driven by target markets. Considering their positive influence on quality and revenues, well-developed vertically integrated value chains are likely to become more important in the near future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. STUDY ON THE VALORIFICATION OF LYCIUM BARBARUM FRUIT (GOJI IN PASTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research refers to the development of new recipes of fabricating tow different muffins and spritz cookies, using Goji whole fruits rehydrated and Goji ground powder type fruits, in different proportions and after, by sensory analysis proving the consumer preferences in relation to Goji fruit intake in the products. Also has been studied the total carotenoid content by spectrophotometric measurements from finished products comparing with whole goji berry fruit. The products are obtained by baking dough made ​​from flour, sugar, eggs, vegetable fat, milk, goji berries, friable chemical. The raw material and auxiliary material (white flour and Goji berries and the pastry products obtain with addition of goji was submitted to the physio-chemical exam, following: moisture content, ash content, gluten content, acidity content, vitamin C content, carotenoids content in accordance with applicable standards. Therefore we obtained 3 types of muffins (simple muffins, muffins with addition of 10% whole goji fruit, muffins with addition of 10% fruit goji powder ground type and 4 types of spritz cookies (simple cookies, cookies with addition of 3 %, 5 %, 10 % of goji powder.

  3. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction by response surface methodology of Goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) phenolic bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodo, Giusy; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Fanali, Chiara

    2018-01-03

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time in this work to extract phenolic compounds from Goji berries according to a multilevel factorial design using response surface methodology. The global yield (% w/dw, weight/dry-weight), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid (TF) and antioxidant activity (determined via ABTS assay, expressed as TEAC value) were used as response variables to study the effects of temperature (50-180°C) and green solvent composition (mixtures of ethanol/water). Phenolic compounds characterization was performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The optimum PLE conditions predicted by the model were as follows: 180°C and 86% ethanol in water with a good desirability value of 0.815. The predicted conditions were confirmed experimentally and once the experimental design was validated for commercial fruit samples, the PLE extraction of phenolic compounds from three different varieties of fruit samples (Selvatico mongolo, Bigol, and Polonia) was performed. Nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these extracts, including phenolic acids and their derivatives, and flavonols. The optimized PLE conditions were compared to a conventional solid-liquid extraction, demonstrating that PLE is a useful alternative to extract phenolic compounds from Goji berry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The effects of postharvest application of lecithin to improve storage potential and quality of fresh goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Mushtaque Ahmed; Jurić, Slaven; Vidrih, Rajko; Vinceković, Marko; Vuković, Marko; Jemrić, Tomislav

    2017-09-01

    To enhance storage life and post-storage quality of fresh goji berries, three treatments with lecithin (1, 5, 10g·L -1 ) and two storage times (8, 16days) were evaluated. The significant effects on the physiological and biochemical parameters were varied. 1g·L -1 lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage by reduction in total weight loss and decay, SSC/TA ratio (also at 16days), and chlorophyll content and with highest scores of sensory attributes (also at 16days). 5g·L -1 lecithin showed its main effects after 16days of storage: highest SSC, highest TA (also at 8days), highest TPC, only significant reduction in DPPH antioxidant activity, and highest total flavonoid content. 10g·L -1 lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage with highest SSC, chlorophyll content, total flavonoid, DPPH, and ABTS antioxidant activity (also at 16days), but with least scores of sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Quality Variation of Goji (Fruits of Lycium spp. in China: A Comparative Morphological and Metabolomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyu Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. has been used in China as food and medicine for millennia, and globally has been consumed increasingly as a healthy food. Ningxia, with a semi-arid climate, always had the reputation of producing best goji quality (daodi area. Recently, the increasing market demand pushed the cultivation into new regions with different climates. We therefore ask: How does goji quality differ among production areas of various climatic regions? Historical records are used to trace the spread of goji production in China over time. Quality measurements of 51 samples were correlated with the four main production areas in China: monsoon (Hebei, semi-arid (Ningxia, Gansu, and Inner Mongolia, plateau (Qinghai and arid regions (Xinjiang. We include morphological characteristics, sugar and polysaccharide content, antioxidant activity, and metabolomic profiling to compare goji among climatic regions. Goji cultivation probably began in the East (Hebei of China around 100 CE and later shifted westward to the semi-arid regions. Goji from monsoon, plateau and arid regions differ according to its fruit morphology, whereas semi-arid goji cannot be separated from the other regions. L. chinense fruits, which are exclusively cultivated in Hebei (monsoon, are significantly lighter, smaller and brighter in color, while the heaviest and largest fruits (L. barbarum stem from the plateau. The metabolomic profiling separates the two species but not the regions of cultivation. Lycium chinense and samples from the semi-arid regions have significantly (p < 0.01 lower sugar contents and L. chinense shows the highest antioxidant activity. Our results do not justify superiority of a specific production area over other areas. Instead it will be essential to distinguish goji from different regions based on the specific morphological and chemical traits with the aim to understand what its intended uses are.

  7. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  8. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum) Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Xu, Baojun

    2013-01-01

    The fruit (goji berry) of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25%) would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65%) would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji. PMID:28239094

  9. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China ... Keywords: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Splenic lymphocytes, ROS, Caspase-3, Bax, Nrf2. Tropical Journal of .... and 5′- TCC ACT GTC TGC TTC AAT ACC -3′.

  10. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com; Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn; Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com; Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com

    2017-02-15

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of reduced graphene by Lycium barbarum extract. - Highlights: • The Lycium barbarum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.

  11. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on apoptosis in Mycoplasma-infected splenic lymphocytes (SLs), and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: SLs isolated from C57BL/6J mice were infected with Mycoplasma. The infected SLs were administered at different concentrations of LBP for ...

  12. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  13. Determination of Betaine in Lycium Barbarum L. by High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haixing; Wang, Chunyan; Peng, Xuewei

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the determination of betaine content in Lycium barbarum L. by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method. The borax solution was chosen as buffer solution, and its concentration was 40 mmol at a constant voltage of 20kV and injecting pressure time of 10s at 20°C. Linearity was kept in the concent ration range of 0.0113∼1.45mg of betaine with correlation coefficient of 0.9. The recovery was in the range of 97.95%∼126% (n=4). The sample content of betaine was 29.3mg/g and RSD 6.4% (n=6). This method is specific, simple and rapid and accurate, which is suitable for the detection of the content of betaine in Lycium barbarum L.

  14. Protective effect of Lycium Barbarum polysaccharides on dextromethorphan-induced mood impairment and neurogenesis suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Kevin Kai-Ting; Leung, Joseph Wai-Hin; Chan, Jackie Ngai-Man; Fung, Timothy Kai-Hang; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Sin, Emily Lok-Lam; So, Kwok-Fai; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Siu, Andrew Man-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior. In the present study, we investigated the role of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) to alleviate DXM-induced emotional distress. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6 per group), including the normal control (vehicles only), DXM-treated group (40 mg/kg DXM), LBP-treated group (1 mg/kg LBP) and DXM+ LBP-treated group (40 mg/kg DXM and 1 mg/kg LBP). After two-week treatment, the DXM-treated group showed increased depression-like and social anxiety-like behaviors in the forced swim test and social interaction test respectively. On the other hand, the adverse behavioral effects induced by DXM were reduced by LBP treatment. Histological results showed that LBP treatment alone did not promote hippocampal neurogenesis when compared to the normal control, but LBP could lessen the suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by DXM. The findings provide insights for the potential use of wolfberry as an adjunct treatment option for alleviating mood disturbances during rehabilitation of cough syrup abusers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhen Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1.

  16. Fraction From Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduces Immunotoxicity and Enhances Antitumor Activity of Doxorubicin in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangliang; Luo, Shuang; Luo, Xia; Hu, Minghua; Ma, Fangli; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lian; Huang, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fraction from Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) could reduce immunotoxicity and enhance antitumor activity of doxorubicin (Dox) in mice. A water-soluble LBP fraction, designated LBP3, was isolated from edible Chinese herbal Lycium barbarum and used in this study. To investigate the effect of LBP3 on Dox-induced immunotoxicity, tumor-free mice were used and treated with either normal saline, Dox, or Dox plus LBP3. To investigate the effect of LBP3 on antitumor activity of Dox, H22 tumor-bearing mice were used and treated with either normal saline, Dox, LBP3, or Dox plus LBP3. The results showed that LBP3 did not protect against the body weight loss caused by Dox, but it promoted the recovery of body weight starting at day 5 after Dox treatment in tumor-free mice. LBP3 also improved peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, promoted cell cycle recovery in bone marrow cells, and restored the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. Furthermore, in H22 tumor-bearing mice, LBP3 enhanced antitumor activity of Dox and improved peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and the cytotoxicity of splenocytes. In brief, our results demonstrated that LBP3 could reduce the immunotoxicity and enhance antitumor activity of Dox.

  17. [Risk assessment and control strategies of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Zhang, Rong; He, Da-Han; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zong-Shan

    2009-04-01

    In the risk assessment of pests, both the community structure and the environmental factors should be considered at the same time, because of their mutual effects on the outbreak of disaster pests. This paper established a comprehensive assessment system, including 2 sub-systems, 5 respects, and 14 indices. In the meanwhile, risk assessment indices and experience formula were used to analyze the risk degree of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements. It was found that using risk assessment indices and experience formula could obtain similar results. In abandoned field, Aceria palida, Aphis sp., and Paratrioza sinica were the frequent disaster pests, Lema decempunctata, Neoceratitis asiatica, Jaapiella sp., and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests, and Psylliodes obscurofaciata and Phthorimaea sp. were general pests. In organic field, the frequent disaster pests were the same species as those in abandoned field, while P. indicus, Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. In chemical control field, A. palida, Aphis sp., P. sinica, and P. indicus were the frequent disaster pests, while Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. Optimal 5 separations most fitted the division of pest sub-communities in L. barbarum fields, which were infancy period (from March 28 to April 15), outbreak I period (from April 15 to July 18), dormancy period (from July 18 to September 8), outbreak II period (from September 8 to October 15), and recession period (after October 15). The matrix of correlation coefficient showed that the dynamics of pests in L. barbarum fields under different managements were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that the dynamics of pest populations was similar in different L. barbarum fields, which had two population establishment stages and one exponential growth stage in every year. The optimal controlling stages were from late infancy period to early and

  18. An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiang Cheng,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2 Hui-Ping Sheng,3 Lan-Jie He,4 Xue-Wen Fan,1 Zhi-Xu He,5 Tao Sun,6 Xueji Zhang,7 Ruan Jin Zhao,8 Ling Gu,9 Chuanhai Cao,2 Shu-Feng Zhou2,5 1Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, 4Department of Endocrinology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 5Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 6Key Laboratory of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 7Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sarasota, FL, USA; 9School of Biology and Chemistry, University of Pu’er, Pu’er, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People’s Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of

  19. [Study on membrane type leaf water evaporation inhibitors for improving effect of preventing diseases and pest controlling of Lycium barbarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Lv, Zhe; Xu, Chang-Qing; Liu, Sai; Chen, Jun; Peng, Xiao; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Through indoor and field comparative experiments, the properties of membrane type leaf evaporation inhibitors and its effects on photosynthesis of Lycium barbarum and compatibility and synergistic of pesticide were studied. The evaporation inhibitors and L. barbarum were chosen to investigate the suppression of water evaporation and the compatibility with pesticides. The effect of evaporation inhibitors on photosynthesis of L. barbarum leaves was determined by the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system. The results showed that water evaporation of L. barbarum leaves of different leaf age were evidently suppressed after treated with evaporation inhibitor. The inhibitor was well compatible with pesticide and effectively improved the pesticide efficacy,and had no significant effect on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. It is concluded that the evaporation inhibitor has good compatibility with the pesticide, and has remarkable effect of restraining moisture evaporation, which make it can be used for reducing the dosage and improving the efficacy of the pesticide in the field of L. barbarum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Comparative profiling of miRNAs and target gene identification in distant-grafting between tomato and Lycium (goji berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill. to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels and 163 (33 known and 130 novels miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28. Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology analysis. Additionally, ‘metabolic pathways’ was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the

  1. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1mg/kg daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  3. Lybatides from Lycium barbarum Contain An Unusual Cystine-stapled Helical Peptide Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Liang; Wong, Ka H; Lei, Jian; Sakai, Naoki; Tan, Hong Wei; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Tam, James P

    2017-07-12

    Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of 2-6 kDa are generally thermally and proteolytically stable because of their multiple cross-bracing disulfide bonds. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel cystine-stapled CRPs, designated lybatide 1 and 2 (lyba1 and lyba2), from the cortex of Lycium barbarum root. Lybatides, 32 to 33 amino acids in length, are hyperstable and display a novel disulfide connectivity with a cysteine motif of C-C-C-C-CC-CC which contains two pairs of adjacent cysteines (-CC-CC). X-ray structure analysis revealed the presence of a single cystine-stabilized (α + π)-helix in lyba2, a rare feature of CRPs. Together, our results suggest that lybatides, one of the smallest four-disulfide-constrained plant CRPs, is a new family of CRPs. Additionally, this study provides new insights into the molecular diversity of plant cysteine-rich peptides and the unusual lybatide scaffold could be developed as a useful template for peptide engineering and therapeutic development.

  4. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Suk-Yee; Yeung, Chung-Man; Yu, Wing-Yan; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1mg/kg) daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  5. Identification and characterization of miRNAs in ripening fruit of Lycium barbarum L. using high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua eZeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are master regulators of gene activity documented to play central roles in fruit ripening in model plant species, yet little is known of their roles in Lycium barbarum L. fruits. In this study, miRNA levels in L. barbarum fruit samples at four developmental stages, were assayed using Illumina HiSeqTM2000. This revealed the presence of 50 novel miRNAs and 38 known miRNAs in L. barbarum fruits. Of the novel miRNAs, 36 were specific to L. barbarum fruits compared with L. chinense. A number of stage-specific miRNAs were identified and GO terms were assigned to 194 unigenes targeted by miRNAs. The majority of GO terms of unigenes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs are ‘intracellular organelle’, ‘binding’, ‘metabolic process’, ‘pigmentation’, and ‘biological regulation’. Enriched KEGG analysis indicated that nucleotide excision repair and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis were over-represented during the initial stage of ripening, with ABC transporters and sulfur metabolism pathways active during the middle stages and ABC transporters and spliceosome enriched in the final stages of ripening. Several miRNAs and their targets serving as potential regulators in L. barbarum fruit ripening were identified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA-target interactions were predicted for L. barbarum ripening regulators including miR156/157 with LbCNR and LbWRKY8, and miR171 with LbGRAS. Additionally, regulatory interactions potentially controlling fruit quality and nutritional value via sugar and secondary metabolite accumulation were identified. These include miR156 targeting of fructokinase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and miR164 targeting of beta-fructofuranosidase. In sum, valuable information revealed by small RNA sequencing in this study will provide a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanism of fruit ripening and quality in this

  6. Changes in extra-virgin olive oil added with Lycium barbarum L. carotenoids during frying: Chemical analyses and metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, F; Rocchetti, G; Montesano, D; Lucini, L; Chiodelli, G; Ghisoni, S; Baccolo, G; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2018-03-01

    In this work, an Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) sample and the same sample added with a carotenoid-rich nutraceutical extract from Lycium barbarum L. (EVOOCar) were subjected to a frying process to comparatively assess chemical and physical changes and heat stability. Oxidation progress was monitored by measuring oil quality changes such as peroxide value, free acidity, K232, K268, and fatty acid composition as well as minor compound content, phenols, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids. An UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics approach discriminated the two oil samples based on their chemical changes during frying, identifying also the phenolic classes most exposed to statistically significant variations. Partial least square discriminant analysis and volcano analysis were applied together to identify the most significant markers allowing group separation. The decrease in total phenolic content was lower in EVOOCar than in EVOO during frying. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant percentage loss, 3.7% and 17.2%, respectively, in EVOO after 180min frying at 180°C, while they remained constant or slightly changed in EVOOCar. Zeaxanthin added to the oil rapidly decreased during the frying process. These findings showed that the addition of a carotenoid extract from L. barbarum can help to improve the oxidative stability of extra-virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide and Danshensu on vascular endothelial growth factor in the process of retinal neovascularization of rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Min Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the impact of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide (LBP and Danshensu purified from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF of rabbits with retinal neovascularization.METHODS:Forty rabbits were divided into normal control group, model control group, LBP group and Danshensu group. Animals in the normal control group were fed in the normal oxygen environment. Animals in the other three groups were put into the environment with 70% oxygen for 5 days in order to build the model of oxygen-induced vascular proliferation retinopathy. And then different TCM extract was injected into the abdominal cavities of these annimals. After 7 days, the VEGF content of in the serum of rabbit was measured by double antibody sandwich method.RESULTS:Data analysis indicated that VEGF content was as follows:Danshensu group was lower than model control group (12.92±3.84ng/L vs 19.32±4.15ng/L, Pvs 19.32±4.15ng/L, P<0.01; total blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, cholesterol content, fibrinogen content and triacylglycerol content after peritoneal injection of LBP and Danshensu were obviously lower than before injection.CONCLUSION:TCM extract-LBP and Danshensu can prominently reduce the content of VEGF in the process of vascular proliferative retinopathy of rabbit; can prevent the occurrence of retinal microvascular disease by improving partial oxygen-deficient environment or affecting all kinds of new growth factor.

  8. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  9. Bleeding due to a probable interaction between warfarin and Gouqizi (Lycium Barbarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what is widely anticipated by the public, herbal medicines are not always safe despite being natural. We describe a 65-year-old Chinese man taking a prolonged maintenance dose of warfarin who experienced an elevated international normalized ratio (INR with associated bleeding after drinking Gouqizi (goji berry wine. This report illustrates that large doses (more than 6–12 g of Gouqizi can significantly enhance the anticoagulant action of warfarin and may cause similar adverse effects in keeping with three previous reports. Therefore, the use of herbal medicines must adhere to pharmacopoeia-recommended guidelines, including dosage regimes. Doctors should advise patients regarding possible interactions between herbs and warfarin when prescribing and should increase the frequency of INR monitoring for those patients concurrently receiving warfarin and medicinal herbs. Further study is needed to do for the mechanism of interaction between Gouqizi and warfarin.

  10. Use of UHPLC-TripleQ with synthetic standards to profile anti-inflammatory hydroxycinnamic acid amides in root barks and leaves of Lycium barbarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA are the secondary metabolites ubiquitously exist in flowering plants, formed by condensation between hydroxycinnamates and mono or polyamines. HCAA species not only serve multiple functions in plant growth and development, but also exert significant positive effects on human health. In this study, we combined organic synthesis and UPHLC-TripleQ-MS/MS specifically targeting at HCAA species. The method was fully validated with respect to specificity, linearity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, recovery, and reproducibility. We applied this method to identify and quantify HCAAs from the root barks and leaves of Lycium barbarum. HCAA species were reported in leaves for the first time, and 10 new HCAA species were further identified in root barks in addition to the ones reported in the literature. We also examine anti-inflammatory properties of identified HCAAs species. Seven HCAA compounds had a potent NO inhibitory effect with IC50 as low as 2.381 μM (trans-N-caffeoyl phenethylamine. Our developed method largely improved analytical sensitivity of HCAAs species that potentially contributes to plant metabolomics studies. Keywords: Hydroxycinnamic acid amide, Lycium barbarum, UHPLC-MS/MS, Quantification, Anti-inflammatory

  11. Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Apoptosis, Cellular Adhesion, and Oxidative Damage in Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells of Mice Exposed to Ionizing Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Pang, Hua; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Qiong; Xu, Lu; Liu, Qian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Lycium barbarum has been used for more than 2500 years as a traditional herb and food in China. We investigated the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on apoptosis, oxidative damage, and expression of adhesion molecules in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC) of mice injured by ionizing radiation. Kunming mice were exposed to X-rays; then mice in the LBP groups were continuously injected with various concentrations of LBP intraperitoneally for 14 days. Mice in the control group were continuously injected with normal saline (NS) by the same route for 14 days. A normal group was set up. After 1, 7, and 14 days of treatment, mice were killed and BMNC were extracted. Cell cycle, apoptosis, and the expression of adhesion molecules CD44 and CD49d were detected by flow cytometry. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were identified by colorimetric analyses. LBP significantly decreased the percentage of G0/G1 phase, apoptosis, MDA level, and expression of CD44 and CD49d and distinctly increased the activity of SOD. LBP showed a protective effect on BMNC against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage and altered the expression of adhesion molecule.

  12. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  13. Co-administration of the polysaccharide of Lycium barbarum with DNA vaccine of Chlamydophila abortus augments protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yong; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Junjing; Yuan, Jilei; He, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) can stimulate moderate immune responses therefore could potentially be used as a substitute for oil adjuvants in veterinary vaccines. In the present study, it was shown that the isolated active component of LBP3a, combined with a DNA vaccine encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, induced protection in mice against challenge. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Sub-fractions of polysaccharide LBP3a, at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg concentrations, respectively, were mixed with a pCI-neo::MOMP (pMOMP) vaccine. Mice administrated with pCI-neo + LBP3a were served as a control. All mice were inoculated at day 0, 14, and 28, and challenged on day 44. The effects of LBp3a on serum antibody levels, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, the activity of interleaukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)and chlamydia clearance were determined. A combination of DNA vaccine and LBP3a induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice, higher T cell proliferation and higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Mice immunized with DNA and LBP3a also showed significantly higher levels of chlamydia clearance in mice spleens and a greater Th1 immune response. The immunoenhancement induced by 25 mg/kg LBP3a is more effective than that induced by a 12.5 and 50 mg/kg. This implies that LBP3a at 25 mg/kg has a high potential to be used as an effective adjuvant with a DNA vaccine against swine Chlamydophila abortus.

  14. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  15. Lycium barbarum Extracts Protect the Brain from Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Cerebral Edema in Experimental Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Li, Suk-Yee; Yeung, Chung-Man; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP), a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. Methods C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB) extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after MCAO. Results LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. Conclusions Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke. PMID:22438957

  16. Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry) Reduces Secondary Degeneration and Oxidative Stress, and Inhibits JNK Pathway in Retina after Partial Optic Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Liang, Yuxiang; Chiu, Kin; Yuan, Qiuju; Lin, Bin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP) are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT) model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT) model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina. PMID:23894366

  17. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2–8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample. PMID:24792835

  18. Hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jane C-J; Chiang, Shih-Wen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Wu, Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum (LBE) and Rehmannia glutinosa (RGE) on cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat and/or human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: Rat (H-4-II-E) and human HCC (HA22T/VGH) cell lines were incubated with various concentrations (0-10 g/L) of hot water-extracted LBE and RGE. After 6-24 h incubation, cell proliferation (n = 6) was measured by a colorimetric method. The apoptotic cells (n = 6) were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of p53 protein (n = 3) was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. RESULTS: Crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (2-10 g/L) dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of H-4-II-E cells by 11% (P < 0.05) to 85% (P < 0.01) after 6-24 h treatment. Crude LBE at a dose of 5 g/L suppressed cell proliferation of H-4-II-E cells more effectively than crude RGE after 6-24 h incubation (P < 0.01). Crude LBE (2-10 g/L) and RGE (2-5 g/L) also dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of HA22T/VGH cells by 14%-43% (P < 0.01) after 24 h. Crude LBE at a dose of 10 g/L inhibited the proliferation of HA22T/VGH cells more effectively than crude RGE (56.8% ± 1.6% vs 70.3% ± 3.1% of control, P = 0.0003 < 0.01). The apoptotic cells significantly increased in H-4-II-E cells after 24 h treatment with higher doses of crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (5-10 g/L) (P < 0.01). The expression of p53 protein in H-4-II-E cells was 119% and 143% of the control group compared with the LBE-treated (2, 5 g/L) groups, and 110% and 132% of the control group compared with the RGE -treated (5, 10 g/L) groups after 24 h. CONCLUSION: Hot water-extracted crude LBE (2-5 g/L) and RGE (5-10 g/L) inhibit proliferation and stimulate p53-mediated apoptosis in HCC cells. PMID:16874858

  19. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibiting Effects of Achyranthes Bidentata Polysaccharide and Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Nonenzyme Glycation in D-galactose Induced Mouse Aging Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-BIN DENG; DA-PENG CUI; JIAN-MING JIANG; YAN-CHUN FENG; NIAN-SHENG CAI; DIAN-DONG LI

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the inhibiting effects and mechanism of achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model. Methods Serum AGE levels were determined by AGE-ELISA, MTT method was used to determine lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 activity was determined by a bioassay method. Spontaneous motor activity was used to detect mouse's neuromuscular movement, latency of step-through method was used to examine learning and memory abilities of mouse, colormetric assay was used to determine hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin, pyrogallol autoxidation method was used to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of erythrocytes. Results Decreased levels of serum AGE, hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin and spontaneous motor activity in D-galactose mouse aging model were detected after treated with ABP or LBP, while lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 activity, learning and memory abilities,SOD activity of erythrocytes, were enhanced. Conclusions ABP and LBP could inhibit nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model in vivo and ABP has a better inhibiting effect than LBP.

  1. Functional analysis of multiple carotenogenic genes from Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L. for their effects on beta-carotene production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiehua; Wang, Ping

    2009-02-01

    Carotenoids are red, yellow and orange pigments, which are widely distributed in nature and are especially abundant in yellow-orange fruits and vegetables and dark green leafy vegetables. Carotenoids are essential for photosynthesis and photoprotection in plant life and also have different beneficial effects in humans and animals (van den Berg et al. 2000). For example, beta-carotene plays an essential role as the main dietary source of vitamin A. To obtain further insight into beta-carotene biosynthesis in two important economic plant species, Lycium barbarum and Gentiana lutea L., and to investigate and prioritize potential genetic engineering targets in the pathway, the effects of five carotenogenic genes from these two species, encoding proteins including geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase and delta-carotene desaturase gene, lycopene beta-cyclase, lycopene epsilon-cyclase were functionally analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. All transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing these genes showed enhanced beta-carotene contents in their leaves and flowers to different extents. The addictive effects of co-ordinate expression of double transgenes have also been investigated.

  2. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Protect Rat Corneal Epithelial Cells against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis by Attenuating the Mitochondrial Pathway and Inhibiting JNK Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs have been shown to play a key role in protecting the eyes by reducing the apoptosis induced by certain types of damage. However, it is not known whether LBPs can protect damaged corneal cells from apoptosis. Moreover, no reports have focused on the role of LBPs in guarding against ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of LBPs against UVB-induced apoptosis in rat corneal epithelial (RCE cells. The results showed that LBPs significantly prevented the loss of cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis induced by UVB in RCE cells. LBPs also inhibited UVB-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2, and upregulation of Bax and caspase-3. Finally, LBPs attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK triggered by UVB. In summary, LBPs protect RCE cells against UVB-induced damage and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanism involves the attenuation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation.

  3. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Zanchet, Mayara Zagonel; Nardi, Geisson Marcos; de Oliveira Souza Bratti, Letícia; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB) in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C) and supplemented (S), and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Zagonel de Souza Zanchet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C and supplemented (S, and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects against oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wu, Xiuquan; Pu, Jingnan; Luo, Peng; Ma, Wenke; Wang, Jiu; Wei, Jialiang; Wang, Yuanxin; Fei, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum, which exhibits several beneficial effects, including neuroprotection, anti-aging and anti-oxidation. However, the mechanism by which LBP protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury remains obscure. In this study, we found that LBP pretreatment greatly attenuated oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. LBP also suppressed OGD/R-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and ameliorated oxidative stress. In addition, LBP significantly reduced OGD/R-induced apoptosis and autophagic cell death. LBP caused the down-regulation of cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3, LC3II/LC3I and Beclin 1, as well as up-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax and p62. Furthermore, mechanistic studies indicated that LBP pretreatment increased p-Akt and p-mTOR levels after OGD/R. In summary, our results indicated that LBP protects against OGD/R-induced neuronal injury in primary hippocampal neurons by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharides on high glucose-induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, gene expression and delayed rectifier potassium current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on high glucoseinduced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, gene expression and delayed rectifier potassium current. Methods: RGC-5 retinal ganglion cell lines were cultured and divided into control group, high glucose group and LBP group that were treated with normal DMEM, highglucose DMEM as well as high-glucose DMEM containing 500 ng/mL LBP respectively. After treatment, the Annexin V-FITC/PI kits were used to measure the number of apoptotic cells, fluorescence quantitative PCR kits were used to determine the expression of apoptosis genes and antioxidant genes, and patch clamp was used to test delayed rectifier potassium current. Results: 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after intervention, the number of apoptotic cells of high glucose group was significantly higher than that of control group, and the number of apoptotic cells of LBP group was significantly lower than that of high glucose group (P<0.05; 24 and 48 h after intervention, c-fos, c-jun, caspase-3, caspase-9, Nrf-2, NQO1 and HO-1 mRNA expression as well as potassium current amplitude (IK and maximum conductance (Gmax of high glucose group were significantly higher than those of control group while half maximum activation voltage (V1/2 was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05; c-fos, c-jun, caspase-3 and caspase-9 mRNA expression as well as IK and Gmax of LBP group were significantly lower than those of high glucose group, while Nrf-2, NQO1 and HO-1 mRNA expression as well as V1/2 of LBP group were significantly higher than those of high glucose group (P<0.05. Conclusions: LBP can reduce the high glucose-induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and inhibit the delayed rectifier potassium current amplitude.

  7. Neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sing Lam

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which induces hippocampal injuries mediated by oxidative stress. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP against CIH-induced spatial memory deficits. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxic treatment resembling a severe OSA condition for a week. The animals were orally fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg daily 2 hours prior to hypoxia or in air for the control. The effect of LBP on the spatial memory and levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the hippocampus was examined. There was a significant deficit in the spatial memory and an elevated level of malondialdehyde with a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx-1 in the hypoxic group when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B (NFКB canonical pathway was activated with a translocation of NFКB members (p65, p50 and increased expression levels of NFКB-dependent inflammatory cytokines and mediator (TNFα, IL-1β, COX-2; also, a significantly elevated level of ER stress (GRP78/Bip, PERK, CHOP and autophagic flux in the hypoxic group, leading to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal subfields (DG, CA1, CA3. Remarkably, LBP administration normalized the elevated level of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, ER stress, autophagic flux and apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Moreover, LBP significantly mitigated both the caspase-dependent intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and extrinsic (FADD, cleaved caspase-8, Bid signaling apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, LBP administration prevented the spatial memory deficit and enhanced the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by hypoxia. Our results suggest that LBP is neuroprotective against CIH-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis

  8. Dietary Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Induces Nrf2/ARE Pathway and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High-Fat via Activation of PI3K/AKT Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP, an antioxidant from wolfberry, displays the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on experimental models of insulin resistance in vivo. However, the effective mechanism of LBP on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance is still unknown. The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism involved in LBP-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 axis against high-fat-induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells were incubated with LBP for 12 hrs in the presence of palmitate. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with LBP for 24 weeks. We analyzed the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β involved in insulin signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. First, LBP significantly induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 through PI3K/AKT signaling. Second, LBP obviously increased detoxification and antioxidant enzymes expression and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS levels via PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 axis. Third, LBP also regulated phosphorylation levels of GSK3β and JNK through PI3K/AKT signaling. Finally, LBP significantly reversed glycolytic and gluconeogenic genes expression via the activation of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective effects. In summary, LBP is novel antioxidant against insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 pathway.

  9. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway Contributes to the Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in the Rodent Retina after Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The antioxidant response element (ARE)–mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 mg/kg) once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg), an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression. PMID:24400114

  10. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides improve CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, inflammatory response and TLRs/NF-kB signaling pathway expression in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Fang; Liu, Qing; Liu, Yunhuan; Huang, Da; Pan, Cuiling; Song, Suquan; Huang, Kehe

    2018-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have multiple biological and pharmacological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. This research was conducted to evaluate whether LBPs could alleviate carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver fibrosis and the underlying signaling pathway mechanism. Fifty male wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups (n=10): control, CCl 4 and CCl 4 with 400, 800 or 1600mg/kg LBPs, respectively. Each wistar rat from each group was used for blood and tissue collections at the end of experiment. The results showed that CCl 4 induced liver fibrosis as demonstrated by increasing histopathological damage, α-smooth muscle actin expression, aspartate transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase activities and alanine aminotransferase activities. LBPs supplementation alleviated CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis as demonstrated by reversing the above parameters. In addition, CCl 4 treatment induced the oxidative injury, increased the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-1β, and up-regulated the protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) and p-p65. LBPs supplementation alleviated CCl 4 -induced oxidative injury, inflammatory response and TLRs/NF-kB signaling pathway expression by reversing the above some parameters. These results suggest that the alleviating effects of LBPs on CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis in wistar rats may be through inhibiting the TLRs/NF-kB signaling pathway expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Promotes Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function by Modulating PTEN/AKT/mTOR Pathway in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Murine Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Xu, Jiang; Ding, Dongyi; Yang, Tianli; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Fan; Li, Fei; Meng, Haiwei; Yu, Duonan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on pathological symptoms and behavioral deficits in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. The therapeutic effects of LBP were monitored with an Open field test, a Rotarod test and a Morris water maze test. We also investigated the mechanisms with qRT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. After a relatively short-term LBP treatment, the total distance and walking time of PD mice significantly increased. The staying duration on the rod of PD mice increased in the Rotarod test. LBP can up-regulate levels of SOD2, CAT and GPX1 and inhibit the abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein induced by MPTP. LBP treatment can also up-regulate the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR, and may play its protective role by activating the PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling axis. These results suggest that LBP can effectively alleviate the degeneration in the nigrostriatal system induced by MPTP treatment. It may be a potential candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12 mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60 d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05 ml/10 g body weight. At 72 h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates cisplatin- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects on the life quality of cancer patients. Cisplatin is ... response and hormone balance [12,13]. However not ..... through facilitation of cytochrome C across the mitochondrial ... No conflict of interest associated with this work. Contribution of ...

  14. [Resources of Lycium species and related research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ying

    2008-09-01

    Solanaceae Lycium speices are deciduous shrubs. In ancient Chinese medicine works, Lycium plants are described to work well in nourshing liver and kidney, enhancing eyesight, enriching blood, invigorating sex, reducing rheumatism and so on. More of their functions such as immunity improvement, anti-oxydation, anti-aging, anti-cancer, growth stumulation, hemopoiesis enhancing, incretion regulating, blood sugar reducing, bearing improvement and many other new functions are conformed in modern clinic researches. Lycium is also widely used in brewing, beverage and many other products. The world Lycium-related researches are mostly on Lycium species genesis and evolution, sexual evolution, active ingredient separation and pharmacological effects. The future research direction is indicated in this article, molecular evolution and systematics rather than traditional taxonomy will do better in explanation of present global distribution of Lycium species; comparative genomics research on Lycium will be a whole new way to deep gene resources exploration; relationship of genetic diversity and active ingredient variation on L. barbarum and L. chinense will lay theory basis for new germplasm development, breeding, cultivation and production regionalization.

  15. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  16. Efficacy of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide and synergism with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cisplatin in ovarian cancer in mice. ... in the chemotherapy and combination therapy groups, while organ index increased significantly in co-CH group. Morphological structure of tumor, liver and kidney became normal after combination therapy.

  17. Efficacy of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide and synergism with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toxicity when used for the treatment of ovarian malignant tumor in mice, ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals ..... field; the keap1/Nrf2 pathway as a target for treatment of.

  18. Effects of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum in alloxan-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    8613170662021. (Zhi et al., 2004; Gan et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2004). LBP have been recently studied for their physiological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of LBP in alloxan-induced.

  19. Goji

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people who are not taking medicine for diabetes. Dry eyes. Early research shows that using eye drops and ... ingredients for one month can improve symptoms of dry eyes better than using eye drops alone. It's not ...

  20. The genus Lycium as food and medicine: A botanical, ethnobotanical and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-02-15

    Lycium is widely distributed in the arid to semi-arid environments of North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia. In recent years, Lycium barbarum and L. chinense have been advertised as "superfood" with healthy properties. Despite of its popularity, there is a lack of an integrated and critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the use of Lycium. There is a need to understand: 1) Which species were used and how the uses of Lycium developed spatially and over time, 2) how uses differ among regions with different culture backgrounds, and 3) how traditional and current therapeutic and preventive health claims correlate with pharmacological findings. Information was retrieved from floras, taxonomic, botanical, and ethnobotanical databases, research articles, recent editions of historical Chinese herbals over the last 2000 years, and pharmacopoeias. Of totally 97 species, 31 have recorded uses as food and/or medicine worldwide. Usually the fruits are used. While 85% of the Lycium species occur in the Americas and Africa, 26% of them are used, but 9 out of 14 species in Eurasia. In China, seven species and two varieties of the genus Lycium occur, of which four species have been used by different ethnic groups. Only L. barbarum and L. chinense have been transformed into globally traded commodities. In China, based on the name ", their use can be traced back over the last two millennia. Lycium fruits for anti-aging, improving eyesight and nourishment were documented already in 500C.E. (Mingyi Bielu). Recent findings explain the pharmacological foundations of the traditional uses. Especially polysaccharides, zeaxanthin dipalmitate, vitamins, betaine, and mixed extracts were reported to be responsible for anti-aging, improving eyesight, and anti-fatigue effects. The integration of historical, ethnobotanical, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological data has enabled a detailed understanding of Lycium and its wider potential. It highlights that the focus so far has

  1. 75 FR 76284 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... scabrum Mill 8-10A Goji berry, Lycium barbarum L 8-10A Groundcherry, Physalis alkekengi L., P. 8-10A grisea (Waterf.) M. Martinez, P. peruviana L., P. pubescens L. Martynia, Proboscidea louisianica 8-10B, 8... aethiopicum L. 8-10B, 8-10C Sunberry, Solanum retroflexum Dunal..... 8-10A Tomatillo, Physalis philadelphica...

  2. Validated method for the analysis of goji berry, a rich source of zeaxanthin dipalmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Vincieri, Franco F; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2014-12-31

    In the present study an HPLC-DAD method was developed for the determination of the main carotenoid, zeaxanthin dipalmitate, in the fruits of Lycium barbarum. The aim was to develop and optimize an extraction protocol to allow fast, exhaustive, and repeatable extraction, suitable for labile carotenoid content. Use of liquid N2 allowed the grinding of the fruit. A step of ultrasonication with water removed efficiently the polysaccharides and enabled the exhaustive extraction of carotenoids by hexane/acetone 50:50. The assay was fast and simple and permitted the quality control of a large number of commercial samples including fruits, juices, and a jam. The HPLC method was validated according to ICH guidelines and satisfied the requirements. Finally, the overall method was validated for precision (% RSD ranging between 3.81 and 4.13) and accuracy at three concentration levels. The recovery was between 94 and 107% with RSD values <2%, within the acceptable limits, especially if the difficulty of the matrix is taken into consideration.

  3. Effect of Different Storage Period on Lactic Acid Bacterias from Goji Yogurt and Goji Yogurt with Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta M. Rotar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacterias (LAB: Streptococcus thermophilus-ST, Lactobacillus bulgaricus-LB are well known in the food technology area for their ability to produce lactic acid (LA from carbohydrates throught fermentation. In case of goji yogurt the interaction between the two species of LAB has influence on the fermentation period and LA quantity. LAB’s are widely used in the food industry because their growth in the dairy products lowers the carbohydrate content, they can also drop the pH values under 4.0, values were common pathogens are inhibited, and because of all these properties they are capable to prolong the shelf life. The present study aims to observe the evolution of LAB’s – ST and LB, from goji yogurt (7% (A and goji yogurt (7% with honey (B during the shelf life in corelation with other physico-chemical properties such as sugar content, fat content and dry matter. The samples for the evaluation were taken in the first day of storage, at the middle of storage period and in the last day of storage.

  4. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis, E-mail: pamela.gallo@outlook.com, E-mail: amandaramosk@gmail.com, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara, E-mail: flaviot@ymail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Inhumas, GO (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  5. Analysis of physical properties of color and texture in goji-berry processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pâmela Galo da; Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Rodrigues, Flavio Thihara

    2017-01-01

    Goji-berry is fruit native from China, found on a red berry form and keeps an excellent source of antioxidants, such as carotenoids. The consumption of goji-berry is growing on the Brazilian commerce. To allow the commercialization of this foods its necessary of these foods are free of contaminants agents which may cause damages to the consumers health. For this warranty it's required of this method does not harm the food properties and quality. For this check was made the study using goji-berry. Irradiation is one of the methods that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of some foods. Food irradiation is a technology process of exposing a particular food to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation. This study aimed compares the effects of ionizing radiation processing on physical properties of color and texture in goji-berries at different irradiation doses. Samples were bought on the retail market in the city of São Paulo and processed by ionizing radiation on Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) at doses of 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0 kGy and the control group. Then the samples were followed by color and texture analyses. The color assay's results showed that the irradiation process decreased red and yellow pigments. On the other hand, the sample's luminosity increased after being processed by ionizing radiation. On the texture assay was verified a decrease of the fruit compressive force, turning the fruit more softened. (author)

  6. Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung Yuen; Chung, Wai Yuen; Szeto, Yim Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disorder that causes irreversible loss of central vision. Increased intake of foods containing zeaxanthin may be effective in preventing AMD because the macula accumulates zeaxanthin and lutein, oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and blue light-absorbing properties. Lycium barbarum L. is a small red berry known as Fructus lycii and wolfberry in the West, and Kei Tze and Gou Qi Zi in Asia. Wolfberry is rich in zeaxanthin dipalmitate, and is valued in Chinese culture for being good for vision. The aim of this study, which was a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, human intervention trial of parallel design, was to provide data on how fasting plasma zeaxanthin concentration changes as a result of dietary supplementation with whole wolfberries. Fasting blood was collected from healthy, consenting subjects; fourteen subjects took 15 g/d wolfberry (estimated to contain almost 3 mg zeaxanthin) for 28 d. Repeat fasting blood was collected on day 29. Age- and sex-matched controls (n 13) took no wolfberry. Responses in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. After supplementation, plasma zeaxanthin increased 2.5-fold: mean values on day 1 and 29 were 0.038 (sem 0.003) and 0.096 (sem 0.009) micromol/l (P0.05), respectively, for the control group. This human supplementation trial shows that zeaxanthin in whole wolfberries is bioavailable and that intake of a modest daily amount markedly increases fasting plasma zeaxanthin levels. These new data will support further study of dietary strategies to maintain macular pigment density.

  7. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  8. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  9. The effect of the halophytic shrub Lycium ruthenium (Mutt) on selected soil properties of a desert ecosystem in central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholam Ali Jalali; Hossein Akbarian; Charles Rhoades; Hamed Yousefzadeh

    2012-01-01

    We compared soil properties beneath naturally-occurring patches of Lycium ruthenicum Murray (fam. Solanaceae) to evaluate the shrub’s potential to improve the fertility of saline soils. Soil pH, total nitrogen and carbon and extractable potassium, magnesium and phosphorus were respectively significantly higher in the A and B horizons of Lycium shrub patches...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, H.-W. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Chung, H.-P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.-I. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Lin, I-H. [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, P.-C. [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (China)

    2006-05-15

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1x10{sup 3}-1.7x10{sup 5} CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD{sub 9}) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D{sub 1} doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, {beta}-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.-W.; Chung, H.-P.; Chou, F.-I.; Lin, I-H.; Hsieh, P.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1x10 3 -1.7x10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 9 ) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 1 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, β-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life

  12. Isolationand structure elucidation of coumarin and cinamate derivatives from Lycium ruthenicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Valizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lyciumspecies is a popular medicinal plant in the traditional Chinese medicine and Lycium ru-thenicum is a native medicinal plant of Iran. Lycium genus has several biologically important properties too. Investigation of chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of this plant is the goal of this study. Two coumarins (Scopoletin and Sculetin and Methyl-2-hydroxy-4-undecanoxy-trans-cinamate were isolated and characterized as the major constituents using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic data, MS spectrometry, elemental analysis and by comparison with the literature values. Phytochemical investigation of Lyciumruthenicum demonstrated the presence of important biologically active compounds. This is the first phyto-chemical study of this species in Iran.

  13. Lycium chinense leaves extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by suppressing hyperglycemia mediated renal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious and most frequently encountered diabetic complication, accounting for the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. This present study was aimed at exploring the protective/attenuative effect of Lycium chinense leaf extract (MELC) on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental Sprague Dawley rats. The oral administration of diabetic rats with MELC markedly ameliorated renal dysfunction as observed in the significant reduction in the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and TGF-β1 as compared to the untreated diabetic control rats. In addition, the elevated levels of renal oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory parameters (GSH, SOD, CAT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly reduced in MELC treated diabetic rats. The results obtained in this study suggests that L. chinense leaf might have the potential as possible pharmacological agent against diabetic nephropathy by suppressing renal oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Siamak; Zarei, Leila; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2017-06-01

    In diabetes, impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered major concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of methanolic extracts of the extract of Lycium depressum leaves. A total of 60 healthy male Wistar diabetic rats weighing approximately 160 to 180 g and 7 weeks of age were randomized into 10 groups for incision and excision wound models: sham surgery group (SHAM), including creation of wounds and no treatment; base formulation group (FG) with creation of wounds and application of base formulation ointment; treatment group 1 (TG1) with 1 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment; treatment group 2 (TG2) with 2 g; and treatment group 4 (TG3) with 4 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in male rats. The mature green leaves of L depressum were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out. For wound-healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, and biomechanical and biochemical studies. The extract of L depressum leaves enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and improved mechanical indices and histological characteristics in treatment groups compared with SHAM and FG ( P healing in a diabetes induced model.

  15. Genetic population structure of the desert shrub species lycium ruthenicum inferred from chloroplast dna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Yonezawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae), a spiny shrub mostly distributed in the desert regions of north and northwest China, has been shown to exhibit high tolerance to the extreme environment. In this study, the phylogeography and evolutionary history of L. ruthenicum were examined, on the basis of 80 individuals from eight populations. Using the sequence variations of two spacer regions of chloroplast DNA (trnH-psbA and rps16-trnK) , the absence of a geographic component in the chloroplast DNA genetic structure was identified (GST = 0.351, NST = 0.304, NST< GST), which was consisted with the result of SAMOVA, suggesting weak phylogeographic structure of this species. Phylogenetic and network analyses showed that a total of 10 haplotypes identified in the present study clustered into two clades, in which clade I harbored the ancestral haplotypes that inferred two independent glacial refugia in the middle of Qaidam Basin and the western Inner Mongolia. The existence of regional evolutionary differences was supported by GENETREE, which revealed that one of the population in Qaidam Basin and the two populations in Tarim Basin had experienced rapid expansion, and the other populations retained relatively stable population size during the Pleistocene . Given the results of long-term gene flow and pairwise differences, strong gene flow was insufficient to reduce the genetic differentiation among populations or within populations, probably due to the genetic composition containing a common haplotype and the high number of private haplotypes fixed for most of the population. The divergence times of different lineages were consistent with the rapid uplift phases of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the initiation and expansion of deserts in northern China, suggesting that the origin and evolution of L. ruthenicum were strongly influenced by Quaternary environment changes. (author)

  16. Mapeo de genes ribosómicos y heterocromatina en seis especies de Lycium de sudamérica (solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El clado Lycieae (Solanaceae reune 92 especies, actualmente agrupadas en un único género, Lycium. Se realizó un estudio citogenético en seis especies sudamericanas de este género, usándose por primera vez en el grupo la técnica de FISH, además de la técnica de bandeo CMA/DAPI. Se emplearon ápices radicales de las siguientes especies: L. boerhaviifolium (previamente Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previamente Phrodus, el tetraploide L. chilense y los diploides L. cestroides, L. ciliatum y L. tenuispinosum. Se confirmó el número básico x=12. La técnica de bandeo reveló la presencia de una banda CMA+/DAPI- asociada a NORs en el primer par metacéntrico en las especies diploides, y en los dos primeros pares m en la tetraploide. Además, L. tenuispinosum mostró una banda intercalar CMA+/DAPI- en uno de sus cromosomas, en tanto que en L. bridgesii se encontraron bandas terminales e intercalares en todos los cromosomas. Con la técnica de FISH se observó que los loci 18-5,8-26S fueron consistentes con los bloques CMA+/DAPI-/NORs. Las especies diploides presentaron siempre un par cromosómico m portador de genes ADNr 5S, mientras que la especie tetraploide presentó dos pares, concordando con su nivel de ploidía. En las especies estudiadas, la diversificación no fue acompañada por rearreglos cromosómicos estructurales significativos, excepto L. bridgesii, que se destaca por poseer una fórmula cariotípica distinta y un mayor porcentaje de heterocromatina.Mapping of ribosomal genes and heterochromatin in Lycium of South America (Solanaceae. The clade Lycieae (Solanaceae embraces 92 species, currently gathered in a single genus, Lycium. A study was conducted in six South American species of this genus, using the FISH technique for the first time in the group, in addition to the CMA/DAPI banding technique. Root tips of the following species were employed: L. boerhaviifolium (previously Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previously Phrodus, the

  17. Lycium chinense Improves Post-Menopausal Obesity via Regulation of PPAR-γ and Estrogen Receptor-α/β Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun-Jung; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-01

    The fruit of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) is used as a functional food and a medicinal herb for treating many specific health concerns. Weight gain induced by estrogen deficiency is a problem for post-menopausal women around the globe. The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of L. chinense (LC) on post-menopausal obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce post-menopausal obesity. LC extract (1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was orally administrated for 6 weeks with continuous HFD feeding. Ovarian adipose tissues and uterus were weighed. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were analyzed. The expressions of adipocyte-specific factors and estrogen receptors (ERs) were investigated. Additionally, lipid accumulation was confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased body weight due to post-menopausal obesity was ameliorated about 14.7% and 17.76% by treatment of 1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg LC, respectively. LC treatment reduced both of serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels. Adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty liver were ameliorated in LC-treated groups. In LC-treated adipocyte cells, lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited. The expression of perilipin in adipose tissues was decreased by LC. In addition, expression of PPAR-[Formula: see text] protein was down-regulated in adipose tissues and differentiated adipocytes, while GLUT4 expression was increased in adipose tissues by LC treatment. Moreover, LC treatment up-regulated the expressions of ER-[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] accompanied with increased uterine weight. These results showed the ameliorative effects of LC on overweight after menopause. Post-menopausal obesity may be improved by LC treatment.

  18. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  19. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  20. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce α-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Musa; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle; Prinz, Sonja; Herbaceck, Irene; Hoelzl, Christine; Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H 2 O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 μg BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 μg berberine and 0.3 μg/ml palmatine. 1.2 μg/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 μg/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of α-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  1. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  2. Simultaneous optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction for phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. fruit using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Zeng, Zhi; Hu, Na; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2018-03-01

    Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LR) is a functional food that plays an important role in anti-oxidation due to its high level of phenolic compounds. This study aims to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts from LR using response surface methodology (RSM). A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to discuss the following extracting parameters: extraction time (X 1 ), ultrasonic power (X 2 ), solvent to sample ratio (X 3 ) and solvent concentration (X 4 ). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the solvent to sample ratio had a significant influence on all responses, while the extraction time had no statistically significant effect on phenolic compounds. The optimum values of the combination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were obtained for X 1 =30min, X 2 =100W, X 3 =40mL/g, and X 4 =33% (v/v). Five phenolic acids, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were analyzed by HPLC. Our results indicated that optimization extraction is vital for the quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in LR, which may be contributed to large-scale industrial applications and future pharmacological activities research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis GQJK49, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinjin; Liu, Hu; Liu, Kai; Wang, Chengqiang; Li, Yuhuan; Hou, Qihui; Yao, Liangtong; Cui, Yanru; Zhang, Tongrui; Wang, Haide; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Yun; Ge, Ruofei; Xu, Baochao; Yao, Gan; Xu, Wenfeng; Fan, Lingchao; Ding, Yanqin; Du, Binghai

    2017-08-31

    Bacillus velezensis GQJK49 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antifungal activity, which was isolated from Lycium barbarum L. rhizosphere. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis GQJK49. Twelve gene clusters related to its biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including antifungal and antibacterial antibiotics, were predicted. Copyright © 2017 Ma et al.

  4. Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous root extract plays an important role in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and treated. Aqueous root extract of S. miltiorrhiza was introduced intraperitoneally to the treated group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan rating scale (BBB) was used to ... extract has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuronal degeneration following SCI. ..... effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting retinal.

  5. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang, a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine, lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol, gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid, biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine, and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH, and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS.

  7. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  8. Kinetics of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Lycium arabicum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Dysfunction in Mice ... Therefore, there is urgent need to develop new ..... Development of Research in Health (ANDRS). ... New. York: Academic Press; 1965 ; pp 32-191. 6. Markham KR. Techniques of ...

  9. Treatment of D-galactose induced mouse aging with Lycium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group, the model group, the high-dose LBP group, and the low-dose LBP group. Except the control group, D-galactose was used for modelling. The drug was administrated when modelling. Mouse behavioural, learning and memory changes were observed, and the ...

  10. Sunbirds hover at flowers of Salvia and Lycium | Wester | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here I present detailed observations of foraging behaviour in two sunbird species (Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa and Southern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris chalybeus) at flowers of three Salvia species (Salvia africana-lutea, S. lanceolata and S. africana-caerulea; Lamiaceae) and one natural hybrid as well as ...

  11. Mycorrhizal status of Lycium europaeum in the coastal dunes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... to fix the mobile dunes and to protect the reserve of Sidi Boughaba threatened by the progress of sand. Mycorrhization probably .... 90°C in the water bath until the roots became white. Roots were then rinsed, after this; ..... early in the vegetation succession on degraded soil and promote subsequently the ...

  12. [Preliminary studies on critical control point of traceability system in wolfberry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sai; Xu, Chang-Qing; Li, Jian-Ling; Lin, Chen; Xu, Rong; Qiao, Hai-Li; Guo, Kun; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) has a long cultivation history and a good industrial development foundation. With the development of wolfberry production, the expansion of cultivation area and the increased attention of governments and consumers on food safety, the quality and safety requirement of wolfberry is higher demanded. The quality tracing and traceability system of production entire processes is the important technology tools to protect the wolfberry safety, and to maintain sustained and healthy development of the wolfberry industry. Thus, this article analyzed the wolfberry quality management from the actual situation, the safety hazard sources were discussed according to the HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) and GAP (good agricultural practice for Chinese crude drugs), and to provide a reference for the traceability system of wolfberry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-05-01

    Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress.

  14. Characterization and profiling of phenolic amides from Cortex Lycii by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Guan, Shuhong; Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Tian; Chen, Pei; Feng, Ruihong; Chen, Xin; Wu, Wanying; Yang, Min; Guo, De-An

    2015-01-01

    Cortex Lycii, the root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. or Lycium barbarum L., is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that phenolic amides are not only characteristic compounds but also abundant ones in this plant. In the present study, an effective method was developed for structural characterization of phenolic amides from Cortex Lycii by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. The fragmentation of 14 compounds including six cinnamic acid amides, six neolignanamides, and two lignanamides were studied systematically for the first time. It was found that, in the positive ion mode, neutral loss of the tyramide moiety (137 Da) or N-(4-aminobutyl)acetamide moiety (130 Da) were characteristic for these compounds. At least 54 phenolic amides were detected in the extract and 48 of them were characterized, among which 14 known compounds were identified unambiguously by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of reference compounds, and 34 components were tentatively identified based on the fragmentation patterns, exact mass, UV spectra, as well as retention time. Fifteen compounds were characterized as potential new ones. Additionally, the developed method was applied to analyze eight batches of samples collected from the northwest of China, and it was found that cinnamic acid amides were the main type of phenolic amides in Cortex Lycii. In conclusion, the identification of these chemicals provided essential data for further phytochemical studies, metabolites identification, and the quality control of Cortex Lycii.

  15. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  16. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an ..... 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM Na3VO4) at room temperature for. 30 min ..... a time-dependent manner following exposure to Cu and .... copper and cadmium. .... signaling mechanisms.

  17. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN

    Around the world water and soil are increasingly being con- taminated with cadmium (Cd) due to some anthropogenic activities, such as nickel–Cd battery ... This process in turn affects the distribution of the activity of. Ca2+-binding proteins ..... diflorum Shinn enhances its tolerance to salt and high light intensity. Mol. Breed.

  18. Identification of Neoceratitis asiatica (Becker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on morphological characteristics and DNA barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaokun; He, Jia; Zhao, Zihua; Liu, Lijun; Gao, Liyuan; Wei, Shuhua; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Rong; Li, Zhihong

    2017-12-12

    Neoceratitis asiatica (Becker), which especially infests wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.), could cause serious economic losses every year in China, especially to organic wolfberry production. In some important wolfberry plantings, it is difficult and time-consuming to rear the larvae or pupae to adults for morphological identification. Molecular identification based on DNA barcode is a solution to the problem. In this study, 15 samples were collected from Ningxia, China. Among them, five adults were identified according to their morphological characteristics. The utility of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence as DNA barcode in distinguishing N. asiatica was evaluated by analysing Kimura 2-parameter distances and phylogenetic trees. There were significant differences between intra-specific and inter-specific genetic distances according to the barcoding gap analysis. The uncertain larval and pupal samples were within the same cluster as N. asiatica adults and formed sister cluster to N. cyanescens. A combination of morphological and molecular methods enabled accurate identification of N. asiatica. This is the first study using DNA barcode to identify N. asiatica and the obtained DNA sequences will be added to the DNA barcode database.

  19. Protein and alkaloid patterns of the floral nectar in some solanaceous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, András; Darók, Judit; Bacskay, Ivett; Felinger, Attila; Jakab, Gábor; Farkas, Ágnes

    2015-09-01

    The family Solanaceae includes several melliferous plants, which tend to produce copious amounts of nectar. Floral nectar is a chemically complex aqueous solution, dominated by sugars, but minor components such as amino acids, proteins, flavonoids and alkaloids are present as well. This study aimed at analysing the protein and alkaloid profile of the nectar in seven solanaceous species. Proteins were examined with SDS-PAGE and alkaloids were analyzed with HPLC. The investigation of protein profile revealed significant differences in nectar-protein patterns not only between different plant genera, but also between the three Nicotiana species investigated. SDS-PAGE suggested the presence of several Nectarin proteins with antimicrobial activity in Nicotiana species. The nectar of all tobacco species contained the alkaloid nicotine, N. tabacum having the highest nicotine content. The nectar of Brugmansia suaveolens, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger and Lycium barbarum contained scopolamine, the highest content of which was measured in B. suaveolens. The alkaloid concentrations in the nectars of most solanaceous species investigated can cause deterrence in honeybees, and the nectar of N. rustica and N. tabacum can be considered toxic for honeybees.

  20. Herbal distillates: A new era of grape marc distillates with enriched antioxidant profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Vasiliki; Strati, Irini F; Fotakis, Charalambos; Liouni, Maria; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J

    2018-07-01

    Grape marc distillates are traditional alcoholic beverages, produced mostly in the Mediterranean countries. The present study proposes the enrichment of a Greek traditional grape marc distillate (tsikoudia) with selected herbs to enhance its natural antioxidants and functional properties. Total phenolic content, the antiradical and antioxidant activities, as well as the phenolic and sugar profiles using NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy were evaluated. The enrichment of distillates with Syzygium aromaticum L., Jasminum officinale L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. exhibited the highest total phenolic content as well as the highest antioxidant and antiradical activities, whereas the lowest values were observed with Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Lycium Barbarum Mill. The implementation of NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies attested to the presence of phenolic compounds and of specific carbohydrates in herbal distillates, postulating their migration from selected herbal species to tsikoudia and probably contributing to their organoleptic characteristics. The target of this approach leads to new added-value distillates with enhanced characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of CE-ICP-MS and CE-ESI-MS/MS for identification of Zn-binding ligands in Goji berries extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, Lena; Kwiatkowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    The identification of groups of ligands binding metals is a crucial issue for the better understanding of their bioaccessibility. In the current study, we have intended an approach for identification of Zn-binding ligands based on using capillary electrophoresis combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS/MS). The approach, which featured the use of the coupling of capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allows to separate and observe zinc ions present in complexes with respect to their size and charge and to identify nine compounds with zinc isotopic profile. CE-ICP-MS provides us with information about presence of zinc species and elemental information about zinc distribution. CE-ESI-MS/MS provide us with information about the most favorable Zn binding ligands: amino acids, flavonols, stilbenoids, fenolic acids and carotenoids. The presented work is the continuation of previous studies based on using LC-ESI-MS/MS, though, now we presented a new solutions with the possibility of changing detectors without changing the separation techniques, what is important without re-optimizing the method. The new presented method allows to identify the zinc-binding ligands in shorter time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro Screening and Evaluation of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicines for Their Potential to Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Zhang, Yonglan; Yang, Fengqing; Lin, Yexin; Zhang, Qihui; Xia, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ is widely used as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones, the agonists of PPARγ, has been popularly utilized as insulin sensitizers in the therapy of type 2 diabetes whereas numerous severe side-effects may also occur concomitantly. The PPARγ activation activity of different polar extracts, including petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, residual of ethanol, the precipitate part of water and the supernatant of water extracts, from 37 traditional Chinese medicines were systematically evaluated. HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with the re-constructed plasmids of GAL4-PPARγ-ligand binding domain and pGL4.35. The activation of PPARγ by different polarity extracts were evaluated based on the PPARγ transactivation assay and rosiglitazone was used as positive control. Seven medicines (root bark of Lycium barbarum, Anoectochilus sroxburghii, the rhizome of Phragmites australis, Pterocephalus hookeri, Polygonatum sibiricum, fruit of Gleditsia sinensis, and Epimedium brevicornu) were able to significantly activate PPARγ. As seven medicines were able to activate PPARγ, the anti-diabetic activity of them is likely to be mediated by this nuclear receptor. Lots of the tested medicinal products had activation effects on activating PPARγEthyl acetate extracts of root bark of L.barbarum, rhizome of P.saustralis and fruit of G.siasinensis showed good PPARγ activation effect similar or higher than that of positive control, 0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazonePetroleum ether extracts of A.roxburghii, P. hookeri, P. sibiricum, E.brevicornu also can significantly activate PPARγ, the effects of them were higher than t0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazoneSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., the fruit Cornus officinalis Siebold and Zucc., Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and the root of Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maxim., traditional anti-diabetic mediciness in China, had no effects on the

  3. [Chinese medicinal monomer and compound for 60Co-gamma-induced spermatogenic disturbance in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-xing; Wang, Hua-li; Wang, Rui; Li, Rui; He, Wei; Zhang, Tian-biao

    2010-05-01

    To explore the effects of the monomer and compound of the Chinese herbal drugs resveratrol, lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and icariin on 60Co-gamma-induced spermatogenic disturbance in mice based on the theory of modern Chinese medicine. A total of 105 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into seven groups, with 15 in each. Group A were normally raised and Groups B, C, D, E, F and G irradiated by 60Co-gamma 6 Gy followed by 60Co-gamma 4 Gy at the interval of 7 days. A week later, Groups C, D, E, F and G received intragastrically the suspension of resveratrol, resveratrol + LBP, resveratrol + icariin, resveratrol + LBP + icariin and resveratrol + LBP + icariin + L-carnitine, respectively, at the dose of 80 mg/(kg x d) for 60 days. The general condition, physical signs and body weight changes of the mice were recorded, and 24 hours after the intragastric medication, their testes were harvested to obtain the testicular weight and indexes, the levels of FSH, LH, T and E2 determined by ELISA, the T/E2 ratio calculated, and the histology of the testis tissues observed under the microscope. The testicular indexes of the mice were decreased by radiation-induced damage, but restored to some extent after intragastric medication, especially in Groups E, F and G. The levels of FSH, LH and T were obviously improved by LBP. The T level and testis weight were increased by Icariin. The level of T/E2 was elevated in Groups E, F and G. The best results were achieved in Group F, which exhibited almost complete recovery from reproductive endocrine disorder and spermatogenic damage. The Chinese medicinal monomer is effective for 60Co-gamma-induced spermatogenic disturbance in mice, and the compound suspension of resveratrol + LBP + icariin produces the best result.

  4. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    -natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora. Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

  5. Effect of composition and processing conditions on selected characteristics of extruded corn instant gruels enriched with fruits addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kręcisz Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries and goji berries were used as natural supplements in extruded instant corn gruels. The effects of additive type and level, as well as extrusion-cooking screw speed on selected properties of extrudates were tested. Corn grit was used as the base raw materials and dry and ground goji berries and cranberries were added at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. Extrusion-cooking of blends was performed with a single screw extruder at temperature ranged 125-135°C using various screw speed during processing. Extrudates were ground below 1 mm for instant gruels. Water absorption, water solubility, as well as colour profile were tested. The results showed that the highest water absorption was evaluated for instant gruels consist the highest amount of goji berries extruded at the highest screw speed during processing, while cranberries addition have no significant effect on water absorption. Increasing amount of dry cranberries and goji berries in the recipe affected on lowering the water solubility of the extrudates. Significant effect of fruits on color coordinates was observed. Increasing amount of dry berries lowered lightness L* and yellowness of instant gruels, especially when goji berries were used in the recipe. Increasing the screw speed during processing decreased intensity b* values.

  6. Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzien, M.; Margulis, L.

    1988-01-01

    During and after the floods of 1979-80 Niebla ceruchis growing epiphytically on Lycium brevipes was one of the dominant aspects of the vegetation in the coastal dunal complex bordering the microbial mats at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The lichen on denuded branches of Lycium was far more extensively distributed than Lycium lacking lichen. Unusual traits of this Niebla ceruchis strain, namely localization of lichen compounds in the mycobiont reproductive structures (pycnidia and apothecia) and simultaneous presence of bilocular and quadrilocular ascospores, are reported. The abundance of this coastal lichen cover at the microbial mat site has persisted through April 1988.

  7. Cytological evidences of pollen abortion in Ornithogalum caudatum Ait

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... sterility. INTRODUCTION. Genus Ornithogalum caudatum Ait, with common name ..... chromosome association in F1 hybrids Triticum aestivum × Secale ... nutrient metabolism and pollen abortion of male sterile lines in Lycium.

  8. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-22

    Jan 22, 2016 ... Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel ... angiosperms and may also influence pollination mechanism. (Buchmann 1983 ..... is seed set very low? Sex. Plant Reprod.

  9. Vananemise vastu toiduga / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Toitumisteaduste magistri David Wolfe poolt soovitatud vananemise märke aeglustavatest ning pidurdavatest supertoitudest ja toidulisanditest: kasekäsn e must pässik, reishi-seen,kakao, assai, avokaado, brokoli, sidrun, õun, õunamahl, õunasiider, õunaäärikas, maka e mugulkress, goji ja mooruspuu marjad; vetikad klorella ja spirulina; toidulisandid EDTA – etüleendiamiin-tetraäädikhape (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), humiin- või fulvohape, MSM – metüülsulfonüülmetaan

  10. Preliminary investigations of the digestive processes of the white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulacaria afra. Diospyros dichrophyl/a. Rhigozum obovatum. Lycium campanulatum. Hypoesta verticil/ata. Rhus sp. Scutia myrtina. Fruits and seeds. May tenus capitata. Asparagus africanus. Grewia robusta. Acacia karoo. Scutia myrtina. Rhus sp. Insects. Tenebrionid beetles. Tenebrio molitor. Mimorista pulchel/alis.

  11. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To test this hypothesis, the expression of LcMKK, LchERF and LcGSH1 genes, endogenous ethylene accumulation, GSH content and Cd concentration in Lycium chinense with or without Cd stress treatment were studied. Our results showed that LcMKK gene expression can be induced by the treatment of Cd in L. chinense.

  12. Preliminary investigations of the digestive processes of the white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asparagus africanus. Elitropappus rhinoceratus. Shrubs. Grewia robusta. Portulacaria afra. Diospyros dichrophyl/a. Rhigozum obovatum. Lycium campanulatum. Hypoesta verticil/ata. Rhus sp. Scutia myrtina. Fruits and seeds. May tenus capitata. Asparagus africanus. Grewia robusta. Acacia karoo. Scutia myrtina. Rhus sp.

  13. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  14. Effects of drought on shrub survival and longevity in the northern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2005-01-01

    Permanent vegetation plots in the northern Sonoran Desert, USA, provided an opportunity to assess the effects of recent drought on desert shrubs and to examine survival in relation to rainfall variability during the past 76 years. Survival and maximum longevity of six species were determined for eight intercensus periods between 1928 and 2004. Average annual survival was Ambrosia deltoidea, 0.9167 ?? 0.0415; Encelia farinosa, 0.7952 ?? 0.0926; Janusia gracilis, 0.9334 ?? 0.0247; Krameria grayi, 0.9702 ?? 0.0270; Larrea tridentata, 0.9861 ?? 0.0174; and Lycium berlandieri, 0.9910 ?? 0.0077. The longest-lived species were Larrea, Lycium, and Krameria, with average maximum life spans of 330, 211, and 184 years. Janusia, Ambrosia, and Encelia were much shorter lived, with average maximum longevity of 53, 40, and 16 years. Winter rain equalled or exceeded 90% of the long-term average accumulation except during 1948 to 1959 (65% of average) and from 2001 to 2003 (49% of average). Summer rain did not drop below 90% of the average accumulation in any period. The 1950s drought caused modest declines in survival of Ambrosia, Encelia, Janusia, Krameria, and Lycium. The effects of the recent drought were much more pronounced, resulting in sharp declines in survival and maximum longevity of Ambrosia, Encelia, Krameria, and Larrea, and modest declines for Lycium. Despite heightened mortality during the recent severe drought, 72% of the deaths observed between 1928 and 2004 occurred during periods of average or better-than-average rain, providing support for the idea that demography of shrubs in arid regions is influenced by continuous as well as episodic processes.

  15. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    SUCCULENTS Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Table 4 .(cont’d.) Scientific Name Common Name Family Name Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae...Lycium halimitolium Matrim~ony Bush Solanceae Salix exigua Coyote Willow Salicaceae CACTI AND SUCCULENTS Coryphantha vivipara Ball Cactus Cactaceae ...Qpuntia compressa Prickly Pear Cactus Cactaceae Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae cq Nl Nl Co~ V c0

  16. Profiling and Quantification of Regioisomeric Caffeoyl Glucoses in Berry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Maria A; Jaiswal, Rakesh; McDougall, Gordon J; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2018-02-07

    On the basis of a recently developed tandem mass spectrometry-based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled, including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currant, black currant, lingonberries, gooseberries, and juices of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranates, were investigated. 1-Caffeoyl glucose was found to be the predominant isomer in the majority of samples, with further profiling revealing the presence of additional hydroxycinnamoyl glucose esters and O-glycosides with p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and sinapoyl substituents. A quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated, and all caffeoyl glucose isomers were quantified for the first time in edible berries.

  17. Flora apícola primaveral en la región del Monte de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Springtime beekeeping flora in the Monte region of La Pampa province (Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Naab

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la flora utilizada por Apis mellifera L. fueron analizadas muestras de miel inmadura y cargas corbiculares de dos apiarios demostradores ubicados en la Provincia Fitogeográfica del Monte, Provincia de La Pampa. Las muestras se extrajeron periódicamente durante la primavera y fueron analizadas aplicando las técnicas melisopalinológicas convencionales. La vegetación arbustiva nativa presentó la mayor abundancia y el mayor número de especies en óptima floración en noviembre. Las familias más representadas en los espectros polínicos de mieles inmaduras y de cargas corbiculares fueron: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae ( Lycium sp., Asteraceae ( Senecio subulatus Don ex Hook. & Arn. y Verbenaceae ( Glandularia sp. - Junellia sp. - Verbena sp.. Los análisis polínicos evidenciaron que las especies nativas ofrecieron al mismo tiempo recursos nectaríferos y poliníferos sin embargo se observó una alta selección de pocos recursos florales. La oferta floral produjo mieles monoflorales de L. divaricata , C. microphylla y Lycium sp. Ambos apiarios pudieron diferenciarse teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de tipos polínicos y la presencia de ciertos taxones en las categorías de polen dominante y secundario.In order to evaluate the utilized flora by Apis mellifera L. we analized inmmature honey samples and corbicular pollen loads from two demonstrative apiaries located in the Monte Phytogeographical Province of La Pampa. The samples were periodically collected during springtime and were analyzed using the conventional melissopalynological techniques. The native flora presented the major abundance and the highest number of species at an optimum flowering level in november. The most represented families in the pollen spectrum of immature honeys and corbicular loads were: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae

  18. Phytosociological Survey on the Central Coastal Lowlands of Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghali, Kotb Amer; Zareh, Moumn Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The vegetation composition of the central coastal low lands of Eastern Saudi Arabia was analyzed. The appearance and distribution of the studied plant groupings were affected by atmospheric, by edaphic conditions as well as topography. Eighty seven species belonging to (33) families of flowering plants were recorded in the following seven plant communities which are dominated and co-dominated by (Zygophyllum qatarense), (Lasiurus scindicus and Lycium shawii), (Alhagi graecorum and Cynodon dactylon), (Phoenix dactelifera and Tamarix aphylla),(Aeluropuslagopoides and Sporobolous ioclados), ( Halocnemum strobilacium and Arthrocenemum macrostachyum) and (Avicennia marina). (author)

  19. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.

  20. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous plants in Kel village, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khawaja Shafique; Hamid, Abdul; Nawaz, Fahim; Hameed, Mansoor; Ahmad, Farooq; Deng, Jiabin; Akhtar, Noreen; Wazarat, Ambreen; Mahroof, Sehrish

    2017-12-01

    This explorative study was undertaken for the first time in Kel village located in the Upper Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The purpose was to document the indigenous knowledge of the native people used in the preparation of herbal medicines. To get the data on traditional uses of medicinal plants, 20 informants were interviewed. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, i.e., use value (UV), relative frequencies of citation (RFC), informant consensus factor (Fic), fidelity level (FL), data matrix ranking (DMR), preference ranking (PR), and jaccard index (JI), were calculated for the recorded medicinal plants. A total of 50 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families used in 13 disease categories were documented. Leaves were the frequently used plant parts, and decoction was the commonly used method for herbal medicine. Plants with high use value were Berberis lycium (2.05), Impatiens glandulifera (1.95), Artemisia scoparia (1.75), Ageratum conozoides (1.75), and Achillea millefolium (1.7). The highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis lycium (0.75), Cynoglossum lanceolatum (0.65), and Impatiens glandulifera and Achillea millefolium (0.60 each). The maximum informant consensus factor was for urinary system, cardiac diseases, baldness, and abortion and miscarriage (1.00). Berberis lyceum (95%) used in jaundice, hepatitis, typhoid, fever, and tuberculosis disorders. Plants with maximum fidelity level (FL) were Berberis lycium (95%) followed by Dioscorea bulbifera, Impatiens glandulifera, and Artemisia vulgaris (90%). Olea ferruginea was the most multipurpose plant and exports (21.2%) was the leading threat in the area. The pearson correlation coefficient (0.500) showed a positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The present study provides useful information about traditional uses of medicinal plants used by local communities in different ailments. The plants with the highest use values could be employed in pharmacological

  1. Effects of superfoods on risk factors of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driessche, José J; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2018-04-25

    Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters. First, an Internet search was performed to identify foods described as superfoods. For these superfoods, controlled human intervention trials were identified until April 2017 investigating the effects of superfood consumption on metabolic syndrome parameters: waist circumference or BMI, blood pressure, or concentrations of HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol or glucose. Seventeen superfoods were identified, including a total of 113 intervention trials: blueberries (8 studies), cranberries (8), goji berries (3), strawberries (7), chili peppers (3), garlic (21), ginger (10), chia seed (5), flaxseed (22), quinoa (1), cocoa (16), maca (1), spirulina (7), wheatgrass (1), acai berries (0), hemp seed (0) and bee pollen (0). Overall, only limited evidence was found for the effects of the foods described as superfoods on metabolic syndrome parameters, since results were not consistent or the number of controlled intervention trials was limited. The inconsistencies might have been related to intervention-related factors, such as duration or dose. Furthermore, conclusions may be different if other health benefits are considered.

  2. Superfruits: Phytochemicals, antioxidant efficacies, and health effects - A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sui Kiat; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-01-23

    The term "superfruit" has gained increasing usage and attention recently with the marketing strategy to promote the extraordinary health benefits of some exotic fruits, which may not have worldwide popularity. This has led to many studies with the identification and quantification of various groups of phytochemicals. This contribution discusses phytochemical compositions, antioxidant efficacies, and potential health benefits of the main superfruits such as açai, acerola, camu-camu, goji berry, jaboticaba, jambolão, maqui, noni, and pitanga. Novel product formulations, safety aspects, and future perspectives of these superfruits have also been covered. Research findings from the existing literature published within the last 10 years have been compiled and summarized. These superfruits having numerous phytochemicals (phenolic acids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, iridoids, coumarins, hydrolysable tannins, carotenoids, and anthocyanins) together with their corresponding antioxidant activities, have increasingly been utilized. Hence, these superfruits can be considered as a valuable source of functional foods due to the phytochemical compositions and their corresponding antioxidant activities. The phytochemicals from superfruits are bioaccessible and bioavailable in humans with promising health benefits. More well-designed human explorative studies are needed to validate the health benefits of these superfruits.

  3. Iris and periocular adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Minako Shiokawa1, Michitaka Sugahara1, Risako Higa1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively investigate adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We also examined patient attitudes to adverse reactions via a questionnaire.Methods: Fifty-two Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were enrolled. Iridial, eyelid, and eyelash photographs were taken before and at 6 months after bimatoprost treatment. Increase in eyelid pigmentation, iridial pigmentation, eyelash growth and bristle, and vellus hair of the lid was assessed from the photographs. Questionnaires completed by patients provided insight into their subjective judgment of adverse reactions.Results: Increase in eyelash bristle (53.8%, iris pigmentation (50.0%, eyelash growth (46.2%, vellus hair of the lid (40.4%, and eyelid pigmentation (7.7% was evident after bimatoprost treatment. The objective and subjective assessments were in agreement in terms of increase in eyelash bristle, eyelash growth, and increase in vellus hair of the lid.Conclusion: Most patients were conscious of these adverse reactions. Before administering bimatoprost, sufficient explanation of potential adverse reactions should be provided; after initiating treatment, careful observation is required.Keywords: bimatoprost, adverse reaction, eyelid pigmentation, changes in eyelashes, iris pigmentation 

  4. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  5. Finding of pesticides in fashionable fruit juices by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E

    2012-10-15

    Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from açaí, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 μg/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine açaí that was harvested in the state of Pará and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Cis–Trans Configuration of Coumaric Acid Acylation Affects the Spectral and Colorimetric Properties of Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Sigurdson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The color expression of anthocyanins can be affected by a variety of environmental factors and structural characteristics. Anthocyanin acylation (type and number of acids is known to be key, but the influence of acyl isomers (with unique stereochemistries remains to be explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cis–trans configuration of the acylating group on the spectral and colorimetric properties of anthocyanins. Petunidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside (Pt-3-rut-5-glu and Delphinidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside (Dp-3-rut-5-glu and their cis and trans coumaroylated derivatives were isolated from black goji and eggplant, diluted in pH 1–9 buffers, and analyzed spectrophotometrically (380–700 nm and colorimetrically (CIELAB during 72 h of storage (25 °C, dark. The stereochemistry of the acylating group strongly impacted the spectra, color, and stability of the Dp and Pt anthocyanins. Cis acylated pigments exhibited the greatest λmax in all pH, as much as 66 nm greater than their trans counterparts, showing bluer hues. Cis acylation seemed to reduce hydration across pH, increasing color intensity, while trans acylation generally improved color retention over time. Dp-3-cis-p-cou-rut-5-glu exhibited blue hues even in pH 5 (C*ab = 10, hab = 256° where anthocyanins are typically colorless. Cis or trans double bond configurations of the acylating group affected anthocyanin spectral and stability properties.

  7. Application of case teaching in genetics courses to students majoring in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin-Mei; Cui, Jian-Guo; Yu, Chang-Zhi; Zhang, Zhi; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lin, Mei

    2017-10-20

    Undergraduate students majoring in forestry generally reflect that genetics is one of the most difficult compul-sory courses, because the traditional teaching method is difficult to satisfy their needs. According to the theoretical charac-teristics of forestry and actual demands of the students, in the light of teaching and research experience in recent years, we adopted a series of typical genetic cases such as 'opening coffin to identify relatives', stem-throne of Lycium ruthenicum Murr, and magic powers in Harry Potter. Our practices revealed that the case teaching in genetics could train good personality traits, learning abilities and creativity of the students, stimulate their interests and initiatives in learning, and increase systematic learning.

  8. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.

  9. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Jin Yuren; Tian Mei; Li Weiping; Zeng Ke; Wang Yaoqin; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239 Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239 Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  10. Biofilm inhibition activity of traditional medicinal plants from Northwestern Argentina against native pathogen and environmental microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Mariana Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plants have been commonly used in popular medicine of most cultures for the treatment of disease. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of certain Argentine plants used in traditional medicine has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-cell adherence activities of native plants (Larrea divaricata, Tagetes minuta, Tessaria absinthioides, Lycium chilense, and Schinus fasciculatus collected in northwestern Argentina. METHODS: The activities of the five plant species were evaluated in Bacillus strains and clinical strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from northwestern Argentina and identified by 16S rDNA. RESULT: Lycium chilense and Schinus fasciculatus were the most effective antimicrobial plant extracts (15.62µg/ml and 62.50µg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 and Bacillus sp. Mcn4, respectively. The highest (66% anti-biofilm activity against Bacillus sp. Mcn4 was observed with T. absinthioides and L. divaricate extracts. The highest (68% anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 was observed with L. chilense extract. T. minuta, T. absinthioides, and L. divaricata showed percentages of anti-biofilm activity of between 55% and 62%. The anti-adherence effects of T. minuta and L. chilense observed in Bacillus sp. Mcn4 reflected a difference of only 22% and 10%, respectively, between anti-adherence and biofilm inhibition. Thus, the inhibition of biofilm could be related to cell adherence. In Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1, all plant extracts produced low anti-adherence percentages. CONCLUSION: These five species may represent a source of alternative drugs derived from plant extracts, based on ethnobotanical knowledge from northwest Argentina.

  11. Using polysaccharides against cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Azarnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nowadays cancer is one of the most important concerns of the society. The adverse effects of common therapeutics and resistance of some cancerous cells to treatment have brought the necessity of new approaches towards the issue. Polysaccharides are a group of carbohydrates found in natural sources. In the present article, our goal was to show the positive effects of carbohydrates (especially polysaccharides in cancer treatment, based on literature review. Methods: The literature review was carried out between 1990 and 2017 inclusive using the following search terms: cancer, carbohydrate and polysaccharide and was performed with use of Google scholar, Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier and other similar data banks, related to medicine and pharmaceutical fields. Results: Plants like Lyceum barbarum, Astragalus membrannceous, Panax ginseng, and Antrodia camphorate have been studied with promising effects in combating cancerous cells. The polysaccharides from these plants have benefits with numerous mechanisms such as apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-proliferation, immunomodulation, tumor suppression, and increase in macrophage activity. Other studies showed over 200 mushrooms with anticancer effects, especially basidiomycetes (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum. Sulfated polysaccharides found in sea and animals or even a few bacteria like E. coli showed to be useful in cancer. Conclusion: Scientists are realizing the importance of natural drugs and polysaccharide as good and available sources that could give a bright future for prevention, cure and palliative therapy in cancer.

  12. Seasonal changes in morphophysiological traits of two native Patagonian shrubs from Argentina with different drought resistance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M Celeste; Reinoso, Herminda; Luna, Virginia; Cenzano, Ana M

    2018-06-01

    In semi-arid regions, plants develop various biochemical and physiological strategies to adapt to dry periods. Understanding the resistance mechanisms to dry periods under field conditions is an important topic in ecology. Larrea divaricata and Lycium chilense provide various ecological services. The aim of this work is to elucidate new morpho-histological, biochemical and hormonal traits that contribute to the drought resistance strategies of two native shrubs. Green leaves and fine roots from L. divaricata and L. chilense were collected in each season for one year, and various traits were measured. The hormone (abscisic acid, ABA-glucose ester, gibberellins A 1 and A 3 , and indole acetic acid) contents were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Rainfall data and the soil water content were also measured. A multivariate analysis showed that green leaves from L. divaricata showed high values for the leaf dry weight, blade leaf thickness and ABA content in the summer compared with those from L. chilense. Fine roots from L. divaricata had high RWC and high IAA levels during the autumn-dry period compared with those from L. chilense, but both had similar levels during the winter and spring. Our results support the notion that species with different drought resistance mechanisms (avoidance or tolerance) display different responses to dry periods throughout the year. Larrea divaricata, which exhibits more xerophytic traits, modified its morphology and maintained its physiological parameters (high RWC in leaves and roots, high ABA levels in leaves during summer, high GA 3 in leaves and high IAA in roots during autumn) to tolerate dry periods, whereas Lycium chilense, which displays more mesophytic traits, uses strategies to avoid dry periods (loss of leaves during autumn and winter, high RWC in leaves, high ABA-GE and GA 3 in leaves during summer, high GA 1 and GA 3 in roots during summer, and high IAA in roots during autumn and summer) and

  13. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  14. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Rubin

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  15. The ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the Kuihe River basin (Xuzhou section) and the characteristics of plant enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zheng, Lei

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate Kuihe River basin of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) pollution, the determination of the Kuihe River water body, the bottom of the river silt, riparian soil plants and heavy metal content of 9 kinds of riparian plants, investigate the pollution situation, so as to screen out the plants that has potential of enrichment and rehabilitation of heavy metal pollution. The results showed that Cd and Mn in the water body exceed bid; The pollution of Zn and Cu in the bottom mud is serious, potential ecological risk of heavy metals is Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cd>As>Cr>Mn Riparian soil affected by sewage and overflow of sediment has significant positive correlation with soil heavy metals, among them, the Zn and Cu are heavy pollution; The selective absorption of heavy metals by 9 kinds of dominant plant leads to its bio concentration factor (BCF) of Cr and Pb on the low side, are all less than 1, from the translocation factor (TF), Setcreasea purpurea and Poa annua showed obvious roots type hoarding. Poa annua and Lycium chinense have a resistance on the absorption of heavy metals, Lythrum salicaria, Photinia serrulata and Broussonetia papyrifera have a unique advantage on enrichment of heavy metals, Broussonetia papyri era on a variety of strong ability of enrichment and transfer of heavy metals suggests that the woody plants in the vast application prospect in the field of rehabilitation technology of heavy metals.

  16. Sensitive Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Medicinal Plants Using Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Sweeping Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Ji; Cao, Ji-Liang; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng

    2016-02-03

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) combined with sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) has been developed for the determination of nine organophosphorus pesticides (chlorfenvinphos, parathion, quinalphos, fenitrothion, azinphos-ethyl, parathion-methyl, fensulfothion, methidathion, and paraoxon). The important parameters that affect the UA-DLLME and sweeping efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided 779.0-6203.5-fold enrichment of the nine pesticides compared to the normal MEKC method. The limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 mg kg(-1). The relative standard deviations of the peak area ranged from 1.2 to 6.5%, indicating the good repeatability of the method. Finally, the developed UA-DLLME-sweeping-MEKC method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the investigated pesticides in several medicinal plants, including Lycium chinense, Dioscorea opposite, Codonopsis pilosula, and Panax ginseng, indicating that this method is suitable for the determination of trace pesticide residues in real samples with complex matrices.

  17. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  18. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  19. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of berberis lyceum and terminalia chebula: possible role in curing diabetes and slowing aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ahmad, H.; Ahmad, B.; Azam, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown to possess a great potential to benefit mankind. Extracts from plants that have antiglycation and antioxidation abilities can be of great therapeutic value in reducing complication of diabetes and slowing down aging. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE's) formation due to non-enzymatic glycation and oxidative stress has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and aging processes. In this study we investigated the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis lyceum and Terminalia chebula. Results indicated that the methanolic extract of B. lyceum had more antiglycation ability with a Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 123 meu g/mL as compared to the MIC50 of 110 meu g/ml of T. chebula. While the results of antioxidation assay showed that T. chebula has more antioxidation potential than B. lyceum. T. chebula had 46.55, 35.01 and 32.81% antioxidation potential at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg respectively as compared to the 16.53, 16.09 and 15.10 % oxidation inhibition at same mass values by B. lycium. (author)

  20. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  1. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) by Chinese herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R D; Hou, W C; Yen, K Y; Lee, M H

    2003-11-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines accompaned by the release of H2O2. Two subtypes, MAO-A and MAO-B, exist on the basis of their specificities to substrates and inhibitors. The regulation of MAO-B activity is important in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Twenty-seven species of plants used in traditional Chinese medicines, selected from an enthnobotanical survey, were used in an investigation of their inhibitory effect on MAO-B in rat brain homogenates. The 50% aqueous methanol extracts of four active extracts, Arisaema amurense, Lilium brownii var. colchesteri, Lycium chinense, and Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibited the best activity and selectivity towards MAO-B with IC50 values of 0.44, 0.29, 0.40, and 0.03 mg/ml, respectively. A kinetic study of MAO-B inhibition by the four extracts using the Lineweaver-Burk plot for each active extract revealed the IC50 concentrations, and results show that: Ki = 0.59 mg/ml for A. amurense for the mixed-type mode, Ki = 0.58 mg/ml for L. brownii var. colchesteri for the mixed-type mode, Ki = 5.01 mg/ml for L. chinense for the uncompetitive mode, and Ki = 0.02 mg/ml for U. rhynchophylla for the uncompetitive mode. These may therefore be candidates for use in delaying the progressive degeneration caused by neurological diseases.

  2. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  3. Ars saturae: misli o satiri in njenih obrazih. Uvodnik v tematski sklop „o satiri“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Golob

    2011-12-01

    Evropski in slovenski okvir – izkušnje niso tako vsaksebi, da ne bi prepoznali večnih in vesoljnih zakonov človekovega dejanja in nehanja. Vendar: ali se še kdaj spomnimo na Pudelbal Feliksa Antona Deva (1732–1786, kjer je prek pustnega, maškeradnega plesa na pahljačo vseh mogočih tipov prižebljal ljubljansko »purgarijo« v literarni ringaraja, tako da je začetno lahkotno šopirjenje izzvenelo v nelahkotni antitezi o sprenevedanju, večnem laganju in podobnih značajskih odličnostih. Obolos baročnemu času je jezikovno bogastvo, kopičenje satirično-parodičnih oznak, ki jih je Dev nalepil paradirajočim osebkom na odru, iz katerih dehti moralna sprijenost. To je satira o malih dušah. In še brezkončni izvir, namreč briljantno pletenje Ivana Cankarja in mnogoobraznih satiričnih motivov, v dobršni meri izvirajočih iz politične odvisnosti in narodno-zavedne neurejenosti, tako da je v resnici »kostanj posebne sorte«, ki so se mu v različnih tonalitetah pridružila najboljša peresa prve polovice 20. stoletja. Cankarjevo satiropisje je veljalo »zlasti farizeju, hlapcu, dogmatiku, renegatu,« pravi Franc Zadravec, »maske snema z vsakršnih duhovnih in moralnih spak nekdanjih in sedanjih časov.«7 Satirik je po definiciji svojega početja brezkompromisni opazovalec človekovih dejanj. Izhodišče za tematske prispevke v tej številki Ars et humanitas je dalo polju satire, satiričnega, satirikov itd. odprte poti. Kakršno koli je že naše vsakdanje delo, vsi smo se s temi temami srečavali v raznih konceptualnih in oblikovnih izrazih in pri razrešitvi vprašanja največkrat ni zadoščal pogled samo ene stroke. To povezovanje disciplin je temeljna lastnost te revije, ki goji načelo medkulturnih in interdisciplinarnih perspektiv, zato so bili prispevki dolžni spoštovati le nosilno besedo »satira«.

  4. A novel survey of the ethno medicinal knowledge of dental problems in Manoor Valley (Northern Himalaya), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Inayat Ur; Ijaz, Farhana; Iqbal, Zafar; Afzal, Aftab; Ali, Niaz; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Muhammad, Said; Qadir, Ghulam; Asif, Muhammad

    2016-12-24

    Juglans regia having (RFCs=0.69) and Rumex dentatus (0.58). CI results show that most respondents percentage was for Juglans regia having CI%=69%, followed by Rumex dentatus (57.7%). Medicinal plants with high fidelity level and reported for one dental disorder were Berberis lycium, Geranium wallichianum, Lathyrus aphaca, Platanus orientalis, Sedum spp. and Urtica dioica for toothache. Further, new medicinal uses of Abies pindrow, Ajuga integrifolia, Berberis lycium, Urtica dioica, Indigofera heterantha were recorded for the first time from Pakistan and Astragalus grahamianus, Corydalis cornuta, Prunella vulgaris, Ranunculus muricatus, Rumex hastatus, Stellaria media, Tagetes minuta, Taraxacum officinale and Lathyrus aphaca, across the world for the current reported medicinal uses. All mentioned plant species are reported for the first time ever for dental disorders from Manoor Valley. Nonetheless, this is a novel study as no single ethno medicinal study on dental disorder up-till now has been reported from Pakistan. The present study is the first ever documentation of ethno medicinal practices aiming at the dental disorders in Pakistan, which resulted in 64% of medicinal uses new claims. So, the reported species of remote valley should be further evaluated for proper experimentation and pharmacological activities to authenticate their current traditional usage. Field observation revealed vegetation of the area was generally threatened due to its unwise use by the local communities. Trends like deforestation, over grazing, habitat fragmentation and introduction of the exotic taxa were the visible threats. So conservation of such an important natural God gifted treasure is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecoanatomía foliar deárboles y arbustos delos distritos chaqueños occidental y serrano (Argentina Leaf ecoanatomy of trees and shrubs from Chacoan Occidental and Serrano Districts (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Arambarri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar parámetros micrográficos foliares que permitan comprender mejor la relación planta-ambiente y contribuyan al desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías para el aprovechamiento sustentable y conservación de los bosques de esta región. Se empleó material de hoja de ejemplares recolectados en la región subtropical seca de la provincia chaqueña y material fresco de especies creciendo en zona templado-húmeda para comparar las variaciones de la estructura foliar. Se determinaron densidades por mm-2 de células epidérmicas, estomas y tricomas, tipos de mesofilo y tipo y distribución de los tejidos vascular y de sostén. Se encontró que estos caracteres anatómicos de la hoja son influenciados por una combinación de factores intraespecíficos y del ambiente. Los caracteres xeromórficos puestos de manifiesto fueron: presencia de ceras epicuticulares, estrías cuticulares, estomas hundidos con reborde peristomático, de epidermis bistrata o pluristrata y/o de hipodermis, mesofilo en empalizada o isolateral y abundante esclerénquima. Algunas especies tales como: Celtis ehrenbergiana, C. iguanaea, Jodina rhombifolia, Lycium cestroides y Parkinsonia aculeata, muestran desde caracteres xeromórficos (e.g. hojas anfistomáticas, equifaciales hasta caracteres mesomórficos (e.g. hojas hipostomáticas, bifaciales incluyendo algunos hidromórficos como la ausencia de esclerénquima.The objective of this work was to evaluate foliar micrographic parameters to deepen our understanding of the plant-environment relationships, contributing to new technologies to preserve the forests of this area. Leaf material of specimens collected in chacoan biogeographic province with subtropical and dry climatic conditions, and from species growing in template and humid conditions were studied to compare leaf structure variations. Epidermal cells, stomata and trichomes by unit of area (mm-2, types of mesophyll, sclerenchymatic tissue

  6. Estructura y estado de conservación de los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae en el noreste de Mendoza (Argentina Structure and conservative condition of the Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamily: Mimosoideae woodlands in northeast Mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN AGUSTÍN ALVAREZ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La recomendación de normas de manejo que regulen el uso de los recursos forestales debe estar basada en el conocimiento de la estructura y dinámica de los mismos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la estructura poblacional de las principales unidades boscosas del bosque de Prosopis flexuosa del noreste de Mendoza, sus condiciones sanitarias y su potencial productivo. Se muestrearon un total de 1.471 algarrobos en las cuatro unidades boscosas más representativas. La densidad total de algarrobos fue la siguiente: bosque semicerrado de P. flexuosa con Atriplex lampa y Lycium tenuispinosum en valles intermédanos (Bosque 1: 181 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con Trichomaria usillo y Suaeda divaricata en ondulaciones (Bosque 2: 155 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con T. usillo (Bosque 3: 233 árboles ha-1 y bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con A. lampa en ondulaciones suaves (Bosque 4: 215 árboles ha-1. El análisis de componentes principales de la estructura diamétrica agrupó los sitios relevados en las distintas unidades boscosas según la proporción de árboles de diámetro basal mayor a 25 cm. Los sitios del Bosque 1 (mayor proporción de árboles grandes, se separaron de los sitios con mayor proporción árboles pequeños (bosques 2 y 4. Debido al hábito de crecimiento de los algarrobos, la cantidad de productos maderables de estos bosques es baja. Además, P. flexuosa presenta en el área un porcentaje alto de individuos con más de dos fustes, la forma en muchos casos es decumbente y la altura de los fustes es menor a un metro. Por lo tanto, el potencial forestal del bosque es bajo y el posible aprovechamiento debería realizarse a escala local, considerando la inclusión de otras actividades complementarias en zonas establecidas para tal finThe recommendation of management rules that regulate the use of forest resources must be based on the knowledge of the structure and dynamics of forests. This work

  7. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  8. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  9. Screening of potential medicinal plants from District Sawat specific for controlling women diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwat, A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Ahmad, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnobotany provides a scientific rationale to identify medicinally important plant species, especially for finding new drugs that play vital role in the treatment of different diseases. This ethnobotanical survey of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was carried out to identify medicinally important plant species that are traditionally used to treat gynecological disorders and infectious diseases, and to study their antimicrobial potential against pathogens that cause infections in females. The antimicrobial activities were investigated using the well diffusion method against four different bacterial strains and one fungal strain. Results showed that out of 12 plants studied, seven plants exhibited inhibitory effects against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Erythrina variegata, Ficus religiosa and Berberis lycium showed high antifungal activity against C. albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 1.25, 0.3125 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 2.5, 0.625 mg/ml, respectively. Both Woodfordia fruticosa and Quercus dilatata showed antimicrobial potential against E. coli and K. pneumoniae with similar MIC values of 2.5 mg/ml and MBC values of 5 mg/ml. Plants exhibiting inhibitory potential against S. aureus were Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa and all of them possessed similar MIC values of 5 mg/ml and MBC values of 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. None of the plants showed antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proximate analysis showed that in comparative assessment of the various species, Zanthoxylum alatum had the highest fat and energy values. (author)

  10. Oriental medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko prevents and alleviates dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    Full Text Available Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK, a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey, has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine as a vitalizing medicine or as the prescription for patients with age-associated disorders such as amnesia and stroke. However, the potential protective value of KOK for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is largely unknown. We investigated whether pre-administration (daily from 2 hours before PCOS induction and post-administration (daily after induction of PCOS of KOK (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. could have a protective effect in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, s.c.-induced PCOS rat model. Pre-administration of KOK significantly decreased the elevated body weight and ovary weight, elevated size and number of follicular cysts, elevated level of serum glucose, and estradiol after DHEA injection. KOK reduced the elevated percentage of CD8 (+ T lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the elevated mRNA expression of CD11b and CD3 in ovaries, and infiltration of macrophages in ovarian tissue with PCOS. KOK diminished the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, and iNOS in the ovaries, and increased the reduced mRNA expression of growth factors (EGF, TGF-β by DHEA injection. Post-administration of KOK also improved the DHEA-induced PCOS-like symptoms, generally similar to those evident from pre-administration of KOK. KOK may effectively prevent and improve DHEA-induced PCOS via anti-inflammatory action, indicating its preventive and therapeutic potential for suppressing PCOS.

  11. Vegetation description of the Doornhoek section of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bezuidenhout

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP has been extended over the last couple of years. One of the newly procured areas is the Doornhoek section, which had been adjacent to the park. To develop scientifically sound management programmes for conservation areas, it is essential that an inventory of their natural resources be undertaken. The aim of this study was to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the Doornhoek section of the park. The floristic data were analysed in accordance with the Braun-Blanquet procedures using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of eight communities, which can be grouped into seven major community types (Rhus lucida–Buddleja glomerata Shrubland, Rhigozum obovatum–Rhus longispina Shrubland, Helichrysum dregeanum–Aristida diffusa Grassland, Pentzia globosa–Enneapogon scoparius Grassland, Aristida adscensionus–Pentzia globosa Grassland, Cadaba aphylla–Acacia karroo Woodland and Lycium oxycarpum–Acacia karroo Woodland. Four of these communities occur on the higher-lying plateau, mid-slope and crest areas, while the other four communities are located on the lower-lying mid-plateau and foot slope, along drainage lines and in valley-bottom areas. The description of the plant communities, together with the vegetation map, can serve as a basis for formulating a management programme for the larger park. Although sections of Doornhoek have been overgrazed and degraded in the past, its recent addition to the MZNP contributes to the available habitat preferred by large herbivores, such as valley bottoms, foot-slopes and plateaux.

  12. Phenolic compounds as indicators of drought resistance in shrubs from Patagonian shrublands (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M Celeste; Arslan, Idris; Reginato, Mariana A; Cenzano, Ana M; Luna, M Virginia

    2016-07-01

    Plants exposed to drought stress, as usually occurs in Patagonian shrublands, have developed different strategies to avoid or tolerate the lack of water during their development. Production of phenolic compounds (or polyphenols) is one of the strategies used by some native species of adverse environments to avoid the oxidative damage caused by drought. In the present study the relationship between phenolic compounds content, water availability and oxidative damage were evaluated in two native shrubs: Larrea divaricata (evergreen) and Lycium chilense (deciduous) of Patagonian shrublands by their means and/or by multivariate analysis. Samples of both species were collected during the 4 seasons for the term of 1 year. Soil water content, relative water content, total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, tartaric acid esters, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were measured. According to statistical univariate analysis, L. divaricata showed high production of polyphenols along the year, with a phenolic compound synthesis enhanced during autumn (season of greatest drought), while L. chilense has lower production of these compounds without variation between seasons. The variation in total phenols along the seasons is proportional to the antioxidant capacity and inversely proportional to lipid peroxidation. Multivariate analysis showed that, regardless their mechanism to face drought (avoidance or tolerance), both shrubs are well adapted to semi-arid regions and the phenolic compounds production is a strategy used by these species living in extreme environments. The identification of polyphenol compounds showed that L. divaricata produces different types of flavonoids, particularly bond with sugars, while L. chilense produces high amount of non-flavonoids compounds. These results suggest that flavonoid production and accumulation could be a useful indicator of drought tolerance in native species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  13. Induced mutagenesis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Ojiewo, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    The Solanaceae are a cosmopolitan family containing many essential vegetables and fruits such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), paprika, chillies, green and red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), jasmine nightshade (Solanum jasminoides Paxt.), winter cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum L.), and Cape gooseberry, ornamentals such as Petunia, Schizanthus, and Lycium species, and medicinal plants such as bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.) and Solanum viarum Dun., both used as sources of corticosteroids. It also contains tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) - one of the most harmful yet economically important plants in the world - together with many other plants of both poisonous and medicinal value such as belladonna (Atropa belladona L.), stramonium (Datura stramonium L.), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.), and African nightshade (Solanum villosum). Composed of approximately 90 genera and between 2000 and 3000 species, the family is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world, with centers of diversity occurring in Central and South America, Australia, and Africa (EDMONDS 1978; SYMON 1981; D'ARCY 1991). Work to develop new varieties of improved solanaceous crops started more than 2 centuries ago. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in various aspects of varietal improvement of solanaceous vegetables through mutation breeding. Mutational work reported here includes the alteration of plant reproductive or vegetative growth and the development of locally adapted cultivars and popular breeding lines, or the induction of novel alleles. The potential for direct application of the mutants as new improved cultivars, their use in cross-breeding schemes, and their application in, for example, marker technology in genetic research are discussed. Specific examples of novel mutants developed in our laboratory that have the potential for application in improving solanaceous fruits

  14. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  15. Anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effect of a traditional herbal medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Kyoung Mee; Hong, Nam Doo; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-02-03

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, contains six main ingredients; Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey. KOK has been widely taken as a traditional oriental medicine for improving blood circulation or age-related symptoms, such as dementia and stroke. However, the effect of KOK on platelet activity has not been clarified. To evaluate the effect of KOK on platelet function, we evaluated its effect on functional markers of platelet activation such as aggregation and shape change. As a mechanism study for the effect of KOK, we examined its effect on granule secretion, intracellular Ca(2+) increase, and PLCγ and Akt activation. To investigate the effect of orally administered KOK (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg), we examined its ex vivo effect on platelet aggregation in rat, and its in vivo anti-thrombotic effect in mice thromboembolism model. Furthermore, the effect of KOK on bleeding time was examined to estimate its potential side effect. KOK (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/ml) inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shape change in rat platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism for the anti-platelet effect of KOK seems to involve the inhibition of ATP release, intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, and the phosphorylation of PLCγ and Akt. In rat ex vivo study, KOK (2 g/kg, p.o. for 1 day, and 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg, p.o. for 7 days) also had significant inhibitory effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, KOK showed a significant protective effect against thrombosis attack in mice. The prolongation of bleeding time by KOK was much less than that by ASA, suggesting a beneficial potential of KOK than ASA in view of side effect. These findings suggest that KOK elicits remarkable anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects with less side effect of bleeding, and therefore, it may have a therapeutic potential for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases

  16. Alto Patache fog oasis in the Atacama Desert: Geographical basis for a sustainable development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, M.; Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Pérez, L.; Ibáñez, M.

    2010-07-01

    Alto Patache coastal fog oasis is a protected area located south of Iquique, Northern Chile, being presently in charge of the Atacama Desert Center (ADC) research group of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, since 1997. On 2007, the Chilean Government bestowed a piece of land stretch covering 1,114 hectares to ADC scientific group for scientific research, ecosystem protection and environmental education. This oasis has been recently studied from different points of view: climate, biogeography, fog collection, geomorphology, soil survey and land use planning, plant distribution, conservation and archaeology. During 2009, a study of the geographical basis to elaborate a general management plan was undertaken to collect information to fulfill our planned out objectives. Through this study, georreferenciated strategic information was compiled to evaluate future actions conducting to a sustainable development within the protected area. This information was translated into thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of variables like: climate, geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation, fauna, archaeological sites and management zones. The methodology used is the analysis of satellite imagery, using GPS by creating a cartographic Data Base incorporated in GIS. Results show that the area starts at the littoral plain, ranging from 500 m to 2.000 m, being continued in parts by a piedmont intercepted by a very abrupt mega-cliff, or hectares of climbing sand dunes leading to a short high plateau limited by a soft hilly area to the East. Two soil types are characteristic: Entisols (Torriorthent) covering the coastal beach sediments, and Aridisols along the cliff and adjacent hills. Vegetation consists not only of a very rich lichen cover, but also of endangered vascular species associations constituting a very fragile sub-tropical coastal desert community, such as Eulychnia, Cumulopuntia, Eriosyce cacti, and Lycium - Nolana- Ephedra communities. Fog oasis

  17. Traditional uses of medicinal plants reported by the indigenous communities and local herbal practitioners of Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Izatullah, Izatullah

    2017-02-23

    In the study area, knowledge related to the traditional uses of medicinal plants is totally in the custody of elder community members and local herbalists. The younger generation is unaware of the traditional knowledge, however with only few exceptions. Therefore, this study was planned with objective to document the medicinal importance of plants, conserve this precious indigenous knowledge, and share it among other communities through published literature. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from the community members and local herbalists. The reported plants were collected post interviews and later on pressed on herbarium vouchers for reference. Afterwards, the data was analyzed through Use value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In total, 79 medicinal plant species were used for the treatment of different ailments in the study region. Out of the total plant species, 28 species were not reported from any other mountainous communities across the country. In this study, the ethno-medicinal value of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell and Viola indica W.Becker was reported for the first time, which have moderate confidential level in terms of their medicinal uses in the study area. Important medicinal plants of the region with high UV are Berberis lycium Royle (0.94), V. indica (0.90), Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd (0.88), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (0.87), Peganum harmala L (0.86), Solanum virginianum L. (0.85), and Cassia fistula L. (0.79). Medicinal plants with higher RFC values are Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (0.86), Cannabis sativa L. (0.82), Mentha piperita L. (0.82), Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (0.76), Allium sativum L. (0.73), Coriandrum sativum L. (0.73), and F. vulgare (0.72). Traditional knowledge on folk medicines is directly linked to the local culture, faith and perception. This knowledge is gaining high threat of extinction because of its limitation to a small portion of the society in the region

  18. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    Trolox[reg] (a water soluble Vitamin E analogue) conferred significant protection (P < 0.05) against subsequent oxidant challenge. Exposure of buccal cell in situ (i.e. in the mouth) to antioxidant-rich green tea led to an acute decrease in basal DNA strand breaks. In a controlled human intervention trial, buccal cells from 14 subjects after 28 days' supplementation with a carotenoid-rich berry (Fructus barbarum L.) showed a small but statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in DNA strand breaks. These data indicate that this buccal cell comet assay is a feasible and potentially useful alternative tool to the usual lymphocyte model in human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  19. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, Y.T.; Benzie, I.F.F.; Collins, A.R.; Choi, S.W.; Cheng, C.Y.; Yow, C.M.N.; Tse, M.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    [reg] (a water soluble Vitamin E analogue) conferred significant protection (P < 0.05) against subsequent oxidant challenge. Exposure of buccal cell in situ (i.e. in the mouth) to antioxidant-rich green tea led to an acute decrease in basal DNA strand breaks. In a controlled human intervention trial, buccal cells from 14 subjects after 28 days' supplementation with a carotenoid-rich berry (Fructus barbarum L.) showed a small but statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in DNA strand breaks. These data indicate that this buccal cell comet assay is a feasible and potentially useful alternative tool to the usual lymphocyte model in human biomonitoring and nutritional work

  20. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRW Environmental Safety

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to investigate the feasibility of various techniques for reclaiming lands disturbed during site characterization at Yucca Mountain. As part of this program, two studies were conducted in 1997 to assess the effects of combinations of seeding date (date that seeds are planted) and supplemental irrigation on densities of native plant species at Yucca Mountain. Study objectives were to (1) determine whether the traditional seeding window (October-December) could be extended through combinations of seeding date and irrigation date, (2) determine which combination of seeding date and irrigation was most successful, and (3) assess the effects of irrigation versus natural precipitation on seedling establishment. In the first study, a multi-species seed mix of 16 native species was sown into plots on four dates (12/96, 2/97, 3/97, and 4/97). Irrigation treatments were control (no irrigation) or addition of 80 mm of supplemental water applied over a one month period. Plant densities were sampled in August and again in October, 1997. In the second study, Larrea tridentata and Lycium andersonii, two species that are common at Yucca Mountain, but difficult to establish from seed, were sown together into plots in January and August, 1997. Half the plots were irrigated with approximately 250 mm of water between August 18 and September 11, while the remaining plots received no irrigation (control). Plant densities were sampled in October, 1997. The August census for the multi-species mix study showed irrigated plots that were sown in February, March and April had higher plant densities and more species than plots that were not irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on plant densities on plots that were seeded in December. Plots were used again in October following 18 mm of precipitation in September. Densities of three species, Ambrosia dumosa, Hymenoclea salsola, and L. tridentata, (warm-season species) were lower on irrigated

  1. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    hepatobiliary complaints (0.90. Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881 reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC.Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries.

  2. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza Faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    hepatobiliary complaints (0.90). Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881) reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC. Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries.

  3. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope

    2010-05-01

    diversity and nuclei of population expansion during climatic ameliorations of the Pleistocene. The floristic composition, location and structure of glacial tree populations and communities may have been a primary control on these developments and on the origin and composition of Holocene scenarios. Refugial populations would have been a source, but not the only one, for the early Lateglacial oak expansions for example. From Middle to Late Holocene, inertial, resilient, and rapid responses of vegetation to climatic change are described, any time with regional and local differences. The role of fire, pastoralism, agriculture and other anthropogenic disturbances such as mining during the Copper, Bronze, Iberic, and Roman times must be also considered as an important factor of the current vegetation distribution. In fact, the Iberian Peninsula constitutes a territory where climatic, geological, biogeographical and historical conditions have converged to produce environmental heterogeneity, large biological diversity and ecosystem richness. A note of singularity: in comparison with other Mediterranean peninsulas, Iberia was, doubtless, particularly suitable for the survival and permanence of sclerophyllous elements of any kind (including Ibero-Maghrebian scrubs such as Maytenus, Periploca, Ziziphus,Withania, Lycium, and Calicotome), currently, during the Holocene, and even during glacial stages of the Pleistocene. However, no macro-remains of these taxa have been documented until Late Holocene chronologies, but the survival of other thermophilous species, such as Olea, reveals the existence of glacial refugia in the southernmost areas of Iberia. Over all, and dealing with plant species, the Iberian Peninsula is a land of survival.

  4. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    with a mean temperature of 24.5oc. Plant cover, mainly comprises Populus euphratica Olivie and Tamarix arceuthoides Bge and Lycium shawii Roemer & Schultes. Soil macrofauna were sampled using 175 sampling point along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river. The distance between transects was 100m. We considered distance between samples as 50 m. tree canopy were measured in 5* 5 plots. soil macrofauna were extracted from 50 cm×50 cm×10 cm soil monolith by hand-sorting procedure. All soil macrofauna were identified to family level. Evenness (Sheldon index, richness (Menhinich index and diversity (Shannon H’ index by using PAST version 1.39, were determined in each sample. Classical statistical parameters, i.e. mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, minimum and maximum, were calculated using SPSS17 software. For analysis of the relationship between Soil macrofauna diversity indices and tree canopy (Total canopy, Populous canopy, Tamarix canopy and Serim canopy we calculated the correlation among soil properties and macrofauna using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Next, to determining the spatial structure, we calculated the semivariances. Semivariance quantifies the spatial dependence of spatially ordered variable values. In order to gather information about the spatial connection between any two variables, and to compare the similarity of their spatial structure patterns, cross-variograms were constructed. Cross-variograms are plots of cross-semivariance against the lag distance. Results and Discussion: Soil macrofauna communities were dominated by earthworm, diplopods, coleoptera, gastropoda, araneae, and insect larvae. Correlation analysis of soil macrofauna and tree canopy indicated weak relationships between them. Weak, but significant relationships were found between macrofauna diversity, evenness, richness and total canopy, Populous canopy and Tamarix canopy (positive. Macrofauna indices and tree canopy(excepted Tamarix canopy were