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Sample records for lycium barbarum goji

  1. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

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    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach.

  2. Optimization of Micropropagation Protocol for Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum L.

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    Alexandru Fira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of Lycium barbarum cv. 'Ningxia N1' was achieved. The cultures were by initiated by axenical seed germination. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained on the MS media with 1.33 or 2.22 µM benzyl adenine, gelled with wheat starch as an agar alternative. The treatments with 2.22 µM benzyl adenine ensured proliferation rates superior to the ones with 1.33 μM benzyl adenine, but the latter provided longer and more robust shoots. Use of large microcuttings as an explant onto the multiplication media ensured higher in vitro explant survival, higher number of shoots regeneration and more vigorous plantlets. The microcuttings inserted vertically into the media yielded superior growth and multiplication as compared to the microcuttings placed horizontally. The non-rooted, elongated shoots from the treatment 1.33 μM benzyl adenine were either rooted in vitro on a hormone-free MS medium with starch or used for direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization. The optimal number of microcuttings/vessel for in vitro rooting was 40 and the rooted plantlets were efficiently acclimatized ex vitro by three methods: float hydroculture in floating cell trays, floating perlite, and in Jiffy7 pellets.

  3. Speciation analysis and bioaccessibility evaluation of trace elements in goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.).

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    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Ruzik, Lena

    2017-04-07

    Goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.) are known for their nutritional potential as a great source of trace metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) which are present in the form of highly bioaccessible compounds. In order to assess the bioaccessibility of trace elements and to identify compounds responsible for better bioaccessibility of copper and zinc, an in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was used in this study. The total content of trace metals was evaluated using sample digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility of trace elements was estimated by size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These analytical methods were used to analyse samples of goji berries to determine the highest amount of elements. For total trace metal content in goji berries, Zn had the highest level of the three studied (10.6μgg(-1)), while the total content of manganese and copper was 9.9μgg(-1) and 6.1μgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, the analysed metals were found to be highly bioaccessible to the human body (about 56% for Mn, 72% for Cu and 64% for Zn in the gastric extract and approximately 35% for Mn, 23% for Cu and 31% for Zn in the case of gastrointestinal extract). To obtain information about metal complexes present in goji berries, extraction treatment using different solutions (ionic liquid, HEPES, SDS, Tris-HCl, ammonium acetate, water) was performed. Enzymatic treatment using pectinase and hemicellulase was also checked. Extracts of berries were analysed by SEC-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. The ionic liquid and pectinase extraction helped efficiently extract copper (seven compounds) and zinc (four compounds) complexes. Compounds identified in goji berries are most likely to be responsible for better bioaccessibility of those elements to the human organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NMR-based identification of the phenolic profile of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries). Isolation and structural determination of a novel N-feruloyl tyramine dimer as the most abundant antioxidant polyphenol of goji berries.

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    Forino, Martino; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Ciminiello, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    Biological properties of fruits of Lycium barbarum (goji berries) have been ascribed to their high content of nutrients and phenolics. Comprehensive studies aimed at unambiguously identifying the phenolic components in goji berries are still lacking. In this paper, we report on the isolation and NMR-based identification of the major phenolics in commercially available goji berries. Together with already known phenolics, including caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, and N-cis-feruloyl tyramine, an unreported N-feruloyl tyramine dimer was characterized as the most abundant polyphenol isolated from the berries. Usually divalent molecules show enhanced biological activities than their corresponding monomers.

  5. STUDY ON THE VALORIFICATION OF LYCIUM BARBARUM FRUIT (GOJI IN PASTRY PRODUCTS

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    Anamaria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research refers to the development of new recipes of fabricating tow different muffins and spritz cookies, using Goji whole fruits rehydrated and Goji ground powder type fruits, in different proportions and after, by sensory analysis proving the consumer preferences in relation to Goji fruit intake in the products. Also has been studied the total carotenoid content by spectrophotometric measurements from finished products comparing with whole goji berry fruit. The products are obtained by baking dough made ​​from flour, sugar, eggs, vegetable fat, milk, goji berries, friable chemical. The raw material and auxiliary material (white flour and Goji berries and the pastry products obtain with addition of goji was submitted to the physio-chemical exam, following: moisture content, ash content, gluten content, acidity content, vitamin C content, carotenoids content in accordance with applicable standards. Therefore we obtained 3 types of muffins (simple muffins, muffins with addition of 10% whole goji fruit, muffins with addition of 10% fruit goji powder ground type and 4 types of spritz cookies (simple cookies, cookies with addition of 3 %, 5 %, 10 % of goji powder.

  6. Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum: Composition and Health Effects – a Review

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    Kulczyński Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Goji berries contain many nutrients and bioactive compounds which allowed to classify them as superfruits. A short description of the fruits is presented together with cultivation requirements. The chemical composition of the berries and their health-promoting properties are described later in this literature review. Based on the available data, their potentially beneficial application in dietary prevention of diseases of affluence, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, is elaborated. We also refer to the safety of Goji consumption in the context of ingredients potentially harmful for human health, allergic reactions and the interactions with other substances.

  7. Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum) protects sciatic nerve function against crush injury in a model of diabetic stress.

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    Simonyan, K V; Avetisyan, L G; Chavushyan, V A

    2016-09-01

    Excess fructose consumption causes changes in functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which increase the vulnerability of peripheral nerves to traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electrophysiological parameters of responses of motoneurons of the spinal cord at high-frequency stimulation of the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve in a model of diabetic stress under action of Lycium barbarum (LB). Male albino rats were given with drinking water with 50% concentration of dietary fructose for 6 weeks. Starting on the 7th week a crush injury of the left sciatic nerve was carried out. Some of the animals received fructose post-injury for 3 weeks and some of the animals received fructose+dry LB fruits for 3 weeks. In the fructose+crush+LВ group a relatively proportional division of tetanic and posttetanic potentiation and depression in responses of ipsilateral and contralateral motoneurons was observed, which would suggest the modulatory role of LB in short-term synaptic plasticity formation. Generally, LB fruit is able to modulate central nervous system reorganization, amplifying positive adaptive changes that improve functional recovery and promote selective target reinnervation in high fructose-diet rats with sciatic nerve crush-injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

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    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. The effects of postharvest application of lecithin to improve storage potential and quality of fresh goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries.

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    Jatoi, Mushtaque Ahmed; Jurić, Slaven; Vidrih, Rajko; Vinceković, Marko; Vuković, Marko; Jemrić, Tomislav

    2017-09-01

    To enhance storage life and post-storage quality of fresh goji berries, three treatments with lecithin (1, 5, 10g·L(-1)) and two storage times (8, 16days) were evaluated. The significant effects on the physiological and biochemical parameters were varied. 1g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage by reduction in total weight loss and decay, SSC/TA ratio (also at 16days), and chlorophyll content and with highest scores of sensory attributes (also at 16days). 5g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 16days of storage: highest SSC, highest TA (also at 8days), highest TPC, only significant reduction in DPPH antioxidant activity, and highest total flavonoid content. 10g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage with highest SSC, chlorophyll content, total flavonoid, DPPH, and ABTS antioxidant activity (also at 16days), but with least scores of sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reversal of the Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Cytotoxicity Pathway by Taurine from Lycium barbarum (Goji Berry in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Benefit in Diabetic Retinopathy

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    M. K. Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a preventable microvascular diabetic complication and a leading cause of vision loss. Retinal pigment epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in diabetic retinopathy. Taurine is reportedly beneficial for diabetic retinopathy and is abundant in the fruit of Lycium barbarum (LB. We have investigated the effect of pure taurine and an extract of LB rich in taurine on a model of diabetic retinopathy, the retinal ARPE-19 cell line exposed to high glucose. We demonstrate for the first time that LB extract and the active ligand, taurine, dose dependently enhance cell viability following high glucose treatment in the ARPE-19 retinal epithelial cell line. This cytoprotective effect was associated with the attenuation of high glucose-induced apoptosis, which was shown by characteristic morphological staining and the dose-dependent decrease in the number of apoptotic cells, determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, we have shown that LB extract and taurine dose dependently downregulate caspase-3 protein expression and the enzymatic activity of caspase-3. We conclude that taurine, a major component of LB, and the LB extract, have a cytoprotective effect against glucose exposure in a human retinal epithelial cell line and may provide useful approaches to delaying diabetic retinopathy progression.

  11. Studies on Sulfation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides

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    YI,Jian-Ping; YAN,Hong; ZHONG,Ru-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Polysaccharides can anti-virus, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1),[1] herpes simplex virus (HSV-1,HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus. Some of them are sulfates, e.g. dextran sulfate, heparin, sulfonation of chitosan and sulfated derivatives of Lentinan. Our results showed that sulfated derivatives of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP)have anti-HIV activity. Because the anti-HIV activity of LBP was deeply dependent on the molecular weight, the sulfation pattern and glycosidic branches besides degree of sulfation (DS), so we emphasized our work on the factors of DS.

  12. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

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    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  13. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

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    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  14. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

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    Hou, Dandan; Liu, Qinfu; Cheng, Hongfei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Sen

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials.

  15. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

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    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  16. Anti-ulcer effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in rats

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    YE Rui-dong; YANG Qian-zi; XIAO Wei; LIU Fang-e; CHEN Jian-kang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The ulcers were induced by water-immersion restraint stress, acetic acid and pylorus-ligation in rats. In each model, animals were divided randomly into 4 groups and administrated with LBP of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, ranitidine 100 mg/kg (as a reference standard) and saline respectively. Mucosal lesions were scored as ulcer index. In the pylorus-ligation model, we also compared the gastric juice volume, total acidity, acid output and pepsin activity among groups. Results: Oral administration of LBP inhibited the formation of the acute gastric lesions induced by physical stress such as water-immersion restraint (P<0.05), and accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid (P<0.05 to P<0.01). In the pylorus-ligated rats, significant decrease was also seen in ulcer index (P<0.05 to P<0.01), total acidity (P<0.05), acid output (P<0.05 to P<0.01). LBP 300 mg/kg even showed marked reduction of the volume (P<0.05) and pepsin activity (P<0.05) in the gastric juice. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: LBP has protective effects on treating gastric ulcer and this action may relate to the reduction of acid output and pepsin activity in the gastric juice.

  17. Antioxidative mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes repair and regeneration following cavernous nerve injury

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    Zhan-kui Zhao; Hong-lian Yu; Bo Liu; Hui Wang; Qiong Luo; Xie-gang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum exhibit antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that these polysaccharides resist oxida-tive stress-induced neuronal damage following cavernous nerve injury. In this study, rat models were intragastrically administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides for 2 weeks at 1, 7, and 14 days after cavernous nerve injury. Serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities signiifcantly increased at 1 and 2 weeks post-injury. Serum malondialdehyde levels decreased at 2 and 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, peak intracavernous pressure, the number of myelinated axons and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-pos-itive nerve ifbers, levels of phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein and 3-nitrotyrosine were higher in rats administered at 1 day post-injury compared with rats administered at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These ifndings suggest that application of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides following cavernous nerve crush injury effectively promotes nerve regeneration and erectile functional recovery. This neu-roregenerative effect was most effective in rats orally administered Lycium barbarum polysaccharides at 1 day after cavernous nerve crush injury.

  18. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 2. Characterisation of arabinogalactan-proteins

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    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum) and purified by anion-exchange chromatography and precipitation with Yariv reagent. Linkage and NMR analysis established the structure of Wolfberry AGP as typical of AGP reported from other sources. The data were

  19. Goya (Lycium barbarum) fruits as bioactive components source in food – a literature review

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    Bartosz Kulczyński; Barbara Groszczyk; Anna Cerba; Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2014-01-01

    Goya (Lycium barbarum) berries belong to a group called “superfruits”, because they contain many nutritional value components with high biological activity. The present paper focused on short characteristic and chemical components, and on the nutritional and health value of goya fruits. Results of numerous scientific investigations confirm their hypoglycemic effect, lowering cholesterol and triglycerides level in blood, immunostimulative, anticancer and antioxidative activity. Sin...

  20. Determination of eight pesticides in Lycium barbarum by LC-MS/MS and dietary risk assessment.

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    Fu, Yan; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ruoxia; Wu, Yinliang

    2017-03-01

    A LC-MS/MS method for determination of eight pesticides (triadimefon, sulfoxaflor, flusilazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, amitraz, azoxystrobin, and thiophanate-methyl) in Lycium barbarum was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up by primary secondary amine. The extracts were diluted with 0.1% formic acid in water. The results showed that at the fortified levels of 0.01-10mg/kg, the average recoveries of these pesticides ranged from 82.1% to 96.2% with the relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The half-lives of eight pesticides were 1.3-5.0days in Lycium barbarum fruits. The pre-harvest interval of all pesticides mentioned above were investigated. Tebuconazole (14days), sulfoxaflor (14days) and flusilazole (28days) have longer pre-harvest interval than the others which have 7days. The dietary risks, assessed as hazard quotients, were far below 100%. The results showed that the eight pesticides applied to Lycium barbarum were comparably safe for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Densitometric TLC analysis for the control of tropane and steroidal alkaloids in Lycium barbarum.

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    Kokotkiewicz, A; Migas, P; Stefanowicz, J; Luczkiewicz, M; Krauze-Baranowska, M

    2017-04-15

    Thin layer chromatographic methods for quantitative determination of nightshade-specific tropane (l-hyoscyamine, scopolamine) and steroidal alkaloids (α-solanine, α-chaconine) in goji berries (L. barbarum L., Solanaceae) were developed. The analysis of tropane derivatives included separation on silica gel-coated HPTLC plates using mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:acetone:25% ammonium hydroxide (75:15:10:1.6 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Dragendorff reagent and scanning densitometry at λ - 520nm in reflectance/absorption mode. Steroidal alkaloid analysis employed silica gel-coated TLC plates, mobile phase composed of chloroform:methanol:water:25% ammonium hydroxide (70:30:4:2 v/v/v/v), derivatization with Carr-Price reagent and video densitometry under white light in the reflectance mode. Both methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity, enabling reliable detection of tropane derivatives and α-solanine at 1.20 and 7.84mgper100g fresh material, respectively. None of the analyzed compounds were detected in fruits, leaves, stems and roots of three L. barbarum varieties ('No. 1', 'New Big' and 'Amber Sweet Goji').

  2. Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.

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    Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

    2015-04-15

    Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation.

  3. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  4. Cell wall polysaccharides of Chinese Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) : Part 1. Characterisation of soluble and insoluble polymer fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redgwell, Robert J.; Curti, Delphine; Wang, Juankuan; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Gerwig, Gerrit J.; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Bucheli, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) and insoluble cell wall material (CWM) were isolated from Wolfberry fruit (Lycium barbarum). WSP were fractionated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt and anion-exchange chromatography. Pectic polysaccharides were major components but a glucan, xylan and

  5. Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell

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    Huizhen Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1.

  6. Effects of a dark-septate endophytic isolate LBF-2 on the medicinal plant Lycium barbarum L.

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    Zhang, Hai-Han; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous root associated fungi; however, our understanding of their ecological function remains unclear. Here, we investigated the positive effect of a DSE fungus on its host plant Lycium barbarum L. A DSE isolate, LBF-2, isolated from the roots of L. barbarum, was inoculated onto the roots of plants, which were grown under greenhouse conditions for five weeks. The result of molecular analyses of internal transcribed spacer regions indicated that LBF-2 was 96% similar to Paraphoma chrysanthemicola. Melanized septate hyphae were observed in the root cortical cells of L. barbarum using a light microscope. Inoculation with LBF-2 increased the total biomass by 39.2% and also enhanced chlorophyll fluorescence. Inoculation increased the concentration of total chlorophyll by 22.8% and of chlorophyll a by 21.3%, relative to uninoculated controls. These data indicate that the LBF-2 isolate might be used to facilitate the cultivation of L. barbarum, which has medicinal applications.

  7. An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides

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    Cheng J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiang Cheng,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou,2 Hui-Ping Sheng,3 Lan-Jie He,4 Xue-Wen Fan,1 Zhi-Xu He,5 Tao Sun,6 Xueji Zhang,7 Ruan Jin Zhao,8 Ling Gu,9 Chuanhai Cao,2 Shu-Feng Zhou2,5 1Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, 4Department of Endocrinology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 5Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 6Key Laboratory of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 7Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 8Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sarasota, FL, USA; 9School of Biology and Chemistry, University of Pu’er, Pu’er, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People’s Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of

  8. [Screening and identification of antioxidant endophytes from Lycium barbarum of Ningxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-ning; Dai, Jin-xia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, 29 endophytes were isolated from different organs and tissues of Lycium barbarum of Ningxia by tablet coating method, 18 of them was fungi, and 11 of them was actinomycetes. The endophytes quantity in the different tissues were leaves > flowers > roots >fruits; The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of 11 endophytes were investigated by Fenton reaction, and total antioxidant capacities of them were examined by a. total antioxidant capacity test kit; culture features and strain-specific sequence analysis were employed to explore the diversity of the 11 endophytes. The result showed that 5 fungi and 6 actinomycetes that having antioxidant activity could be phylogenetically classified into 3 genera, 3 genera and 3 families, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the 11 endophytes showed distinct difference. The antioxidant activity of Aspergillus were stronger, among which total antioxidant capacity of fL1 was (188.5 ± 0.549) U · mL⁻¹ and the IC₅₀ was 0.3 mg · L⁻¹; the IC₅₀ of strain fL1 was 0.42 mg · L⁻¹ and the total antioxidant capacity of fL9 was (113.63 ± 1.021) U · mL⁻¹, all of them were stronger than the positive control Vit C. The experimental results indicated that endophytic fungi of L. barbarum of Ningxia have a great developing and application prospect for the development of antioxidant agent.

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Bixuang; Nance, Dwight M

    2009-10-01

    Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.

  10. Reversal of Apoptotic Resistance by Lycium barbarum Glycopeptide 3 in Aged T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG-GUO YUAN; HONG-BIN DENG; LI-HUI CHEN; DIAN-DONG LI; QI-YANG HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study whether Lycium barbarian glycopeptide 3 (LBGP3) affects T cell apeptosis in aged mice. Methods LBGP3 was purified with DEAE cellulose and Sephadex columns. Apoptotic "sub-Gl peak" was detected by flow cytometry and DNA ladder was resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. Levels of IFN-γ, and IL-10 were measured with specific kits and mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. Apoptosis-related proteins of FLIP, FasL, and Bcl-2 were determined by Western blotting. Resdts LBGP3 was purified from Fructus Lycii water extracts and identified as a 41 kD glycopeptide.Treatment with 200 μg/mL LBGP3 increased the apoptotic rate of T cells from aged mice and showed a similar DNA ladder pattern to that in young T ceils. The reversal of apoptotic resistance was involved in down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and FLIP, and up-regulating the expression of FasL. Conclusion Lycium barbarum glycopeptide 3 reverses apoptotic resistance of aged T cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related molecules.

  11. Calabrian Goji vs. Chinese Goji: A Comparative Study on Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosa Ruffo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum (Goji fruits are mainly cultivated in northwestern China and are well known for their beneficial and healthy effects. In this work, the biological and functional properties of Calabrian Goji extract, obtained from Goji berries cultivated in the Sibari Plain (in the Italian region of Calabria, were demonstrated. In order to evaluate the use of this extract as a food supplement for cognitive and mental disorders, the quantification of Carotenoids as Zeaxanthin equivalents was made. The antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating the scavenging properties against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals and by performing the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was quantified by bleaching test and the ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme and to scavenge nitric oxide radical was also evaluated. All the results were compared to those obtained from a Chinese Goji extract used as a reference. Based on the reported data, Calabrian Goji might be used as a food supplement with a possible application in cognitive disorders, mental impairments and other neurodegenerative diseases, due to its biological properties and the high levels of Carotenoids.

  12. Comparative Profiling of miRNAs and Target Gene Identification in Distant-Grafting between Tomato and Lycium (Goji Berry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldun, A. B. M.; Huang, Wenjun; Lv, Haiyan; Liao, Sihong; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill.) to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels) and 163 (33 known and 130 novels) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28). Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology) analysis. Additionally, “metabolic pathways” was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the medicinal plant

  13. Comparative profiling of miRNAs and target gene identification in distant-grafting between tomato and Lycium (goji berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill. to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels and 163 (33 known and 130 novels miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28. Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology analysis. Additionally, ‘metabolic pathways’ was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the

  14. Studies on Chemistry and Immuno-modulating Mechanism of a Glycoconjugate from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); HUANG,Lin-Juan(黄琳娟); QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed structure of an O-glycan derived from the fruitof Lyciun barbariun L.was elucidated based on glycosidiclinkage analysis,comnplete and partial acid hydrolysis,1H-NMR amd 13C NMR spectroscopy.According to the experi-ments,the carbohydrate was in the form of polysacchride(arabinogalactan) chains with highly branched 3,4-galactans and terminal arabinofuranosyl substituents.``The irmmmo-modulating mechanism of glycoconjugate ami its glycan were investigated using tritium thymidine lucor-poration assay,flow cytometry assay and electrophoreticalmobility shift assay (EMSA).The results suggested that theimmunoncfive components of the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.could enlance the splenocyte proliferation in normal mice andthe effects of glycan chain were stronger than those of glyco-conjugate.The target cell was most likely to be B-lympho-cyte,on which existed receptor binding site acting with theglycan.In addition,the immuno-stimulatory effect of glyco-conjugate (LbGp4) amd its glycan (LbGp4-OL) was associat ed with activating the expression of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1 (AP-l).``

  15. The Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Transient Retinal Ischemia

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    Di Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury leads to irreversible neuronal death, glial activation, retinal swelling and oxidative stress. It is a common feature in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and amaurosis fugax. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP in a murine retinal I/R model. Mice were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1mg/kg daily for 1 week before induction of retinal ischemia. Retinae were collected after 2 hours ischemia and 22 hours reperfusion. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared for immunohistochemical analyses. Significantly fewer viable cells were found in vehicle-treated retinae comparing to LBP group. This finding was further confirmed by TUNEL assay where significantly fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated retinae. Additionally, retinal swelling induced by retinal I/R injury in the vehicle-treated group was not observed in LBP-treated group. Moreover, intense GFAP immunoreactivity and IgG extravasation were observed in vehicle-treated group but not in LBP treated group. The results showed that pre-treatment with LBP was protective in retinal I/R injury via reducing neuronal death, apoptosis, retinal swelling, GFAP activation and blood vessel leakage. LBP may be used as a preventive agent for retinal ischemia diseases.

  16. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides protected human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stressinduced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian; Liu; Wei; Lao; Qing-Shan; Ji; Zhi-Hao; Yang; Guo-Cheng; Yu; Jing-Xiang; Zhong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of lycium barbarum polysaccharides(LBP)against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.METHODS: ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines, were exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 for 24h, then cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay to get the properly concentration of H2O2 which can induce half apoptosis of APRE-19. With different concentrations of LBP pretreatment, the ARPE-19 cells were then exposed to appropriate concentration of H2O2, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis. Expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) technique.RSULTS: LBP significantly reduced the H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cells’ apoptosis. LBP inhibited the H2O2-induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax.CONCLUSION: LBP could protect ARPE-19 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 family had relationship with the protective effects of LBP.

  17. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides regulate phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Zhao, Lu-Hang; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions including activation of T cells, B cells and NK cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of the primary immune response. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of LBPs on murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC). In the present study, the effects of LBPs on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC were investigated in vitro. Compared to the BMDC that were only subjected to treatment with RPMI1640, the co-expression of I-A/I-E, CD11c and secretion of IL-12 p40 by BMDC stimulated with LBPs (100 microg/ml) were increased. In addition, the endocytosis of FITC-dextran by LBPs-treated BMDC (100 microg/ml) was impaired, whereas the activation of proliferation of allogenic lymphocytes by BMDC was enhanced. Our results strongly suggest that LBPs are capable of promoting both the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BMDC in vitro.

  18. 适宜干燥方法提高干制枸杞品质%Optimal drying method improving quality ofLycium barbarum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 高月; 王颉; 姚思远; 王伟华; 冉国伟; 刘瑜; 郭雪霞; 张慧媛

    2015-01-01

    为缩短鲜枸杞的干制时间,获得高品质的干制枸杞,该文通过比较自然晾晒、燃煤烘干房以及太阳能干燥设备对枸杞的干燥效率的差异以及测定并分析3种干燥方式获得干果的主要功能性成分(总糖、总黄酮、多糖、甜菜碱,类胡萝卜素)含量及外观品质和出糖率的差异。试验结果表明,采用太阳能干燥设备干燥枸杞的时间最少约为26 h,功能性成分总质量分数约71.71 g/(100 g),与其他2种干燥方式相比功能性成分损失降低,干枸杞色泽更接近鲜枸杞的色泽,出糖率约为1.53%,低于其他2种干燥方式。太阳能干燥设备对于枸杞干燥具有显著的优势,应用前景广阔。%Lycium barbarum Lis the fruit with rich sweet and sour taste. It is not only the traditional medicinal material, but also a kind of nutritional supplement.Lycium barbarum L has seasonal and regional characteristics for harvest and short storage period. So the drying ofLycium barbarum L becomes a kind of important processing. At present, the drying ofLycium barbarum Lis mainly traditional natural drying. This method needs long drying time and the mildew rate is high, so it has no guarantee to the quality of the products. It is difficult to meet the needs of the modern production. The drying in coal-fired drying room needs high energy consumption and produces severe pollution during the drying process. The temperature and humidity is not easy to control. The fireworks affect the quality of the dried Chinese wolfberry seriously. The solar drying equipment appears in Ningxia region in recent years. It uses solar energy and electrical energy to dryLycium barbarum L. It is able to not only save energy and protect environment but also dry fast. TheLycium barbarum L was dried by natural drying, coal-fired drying room and solar drying equipment separately, and the drying rates ofLycium barbarum L were compared by weighing method. Their main

  19. Comparison and Characterization of Compounds with Antioxidant Activity in Lycium barbarum Using High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Coupled with DPPH Bioautography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Luo, Zhen; Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Hu, De-Jun; Xia, Zu-Meng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Methanol extracts from 50 batches of Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum, wolfberry) in China were compared and characterized using high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bioautography (HPTLC-DPPH) and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS), respectively. Results showed that similar components occupying the major antioxidant activity existed in L. barbarum collected from different origins. However, the average antioxidant capacities of methanol extracts of L. barbarum collected in Ningxia were significantly higher than those of Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu, which may contribute to rational use of L. barbarum in China. Furthermore, the chemical structure of compound with the highest antioxidant capacity was tentatively identified as 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid using ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis, which possessed high potentials to be used as an antioxidant biomarker for the quality control of L. barbarum. Results are helpful for the bioactivity-based quality control of L. barbarum, and beneficial for the improvement of their performance in functional/health foods area, suggesting that HPTLC-DPPH bioautography with ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS could be used as a routine approach for quality control of antioxidant components in L. barbarum. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of goji fruits jam and jelly during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ISTRATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, when the news about antioxidants and their benefits to health has begun to spread to the general public, statements about the benefits of antioxidants ranged from preventing colds to cancer treatment. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of antioxidants. Since the beginning of the 21st century, goji berries have become increasingly popular in Europe and North America and have been promoted in advertisements and in the media as an anti-aging remedy. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium Barbarum and Lycium chinense, two nearby species, with a long history of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, particularly in China. In the present paper are presented analysis results of Goji fruits and food products made from goji fruits (jam and jelly. Storage conditions are important factors for jams and jelly quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability, antioxidant activity and sensorial profile of goji fruits jam and jelly. Special attention was paid to total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sensorial characteristics. Our results showed the antioxidant activity of the goji fruit, values which correlate well with the results obtained for total phenolic (351±7.25 mg GAE/100g and flavonoid content (53.06±1.23 mg QE/100g. The antioxidant activity of the goji fruits was maintained also in the finished products obtained in the present study jam (60.98 % and jelly (41.96 %. Both goji fruits jam and goji fruits jelly showed no significant variations of physico-chemical characteristics and sensorial parameter scores after storage at refrigeration temperature for 10 days.

  1. Inhibiting effect of lycium barbarum polysaccoharide on angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Xi Zhang; Kai Xue; Wei Gao; Tan Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of lycium barbarum polysaccoharide on angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice.Methods: C57BL/6 mice were selected and divided into control group, diabetes group and lycium barbarum polysaccoharide group (LBP group), diabetes group and LBP group received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to establish diabetes model, and LBP group received intragastric administration of LBP for intervention. The levels of angiogenesis molecules, oxidative stress indexes and inflammatory cytokines in retinal tissue of three groups were determined.Results:VEGF165, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-1, Tie-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, P-selectin, ROS, AOPP, MDA and 8-OHdG levels in retina tissue of diabetes group were significantly higher than those of control group, and T-AOC level was significantly lower than that of control group; VEGF165, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie-1, Tie-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, P-selectin, ROS, AOPP, MDA and 8-OHdG levels in retina tissue of LBP group were significantly lower than those of diabetes group, and T-AOC level was significantly higher than that of diabetes group.Conclusion:LBP can inhibit angiogenesis as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in retina of diabetic mice, and has therapeutic effect on diabetic retinopathy.

  2. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with circadian disruption. Our previous experimental results have showed that dietary Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide (LBP-4a) exhibited hypoglycemic and improving insulin resistance (IR) activities. This study was to explore the mechanisms of LBP-4a for improving hyperglycemia and IR by regulating biological rhythms in T2DM rats. Materials and Methods: The rats of T2DM were prepared by the high-sucrose-fat diets and injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of insulin, leptin and melatonin were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of LBP-4a on mRNA expression of melatonin receptors (MT2) in epididymal adipose tissue was evaluated by RT-PCR. The expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells was detected by Western blotting. Results: Our data indicated that the 24-hr rhythm of blood glucose appeared to have consistent with normal rats after gavaged administration of LBP-4a for each day of the 4 weeks, and the effects of hypoglycemia and improving hyperinsulinemia in T2DM rats treated at high dose were much better than that at low dose. The mechanisms were related to increasing MT2 level in epididymal adipose tissue and affecting circadian clocks gene expression of CLOCK and BMAL1 in pancreatic islet cells. Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:27803791

  3. 沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻配方的研究%The Research of Sugarless Jelly of Seabuckthorn and Lycium barbarum L Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芝杨

    2012-01-01

    Seabuckthom juice, Lycium barbarum L juice and xylitol were used to produce sugarless jelly. Optimal formula of jell is 1.0% gelatin, 11% xylitol, 9% seabuckthorn juice and 8% Lycium barbarum L juice. The color of jelly is orange. It tastes smooth, sweet and sour. Sugarless jelly is rich in flavor of seabuckthom and Lycium barbarum L fruit.%以沙棘汁、枸杞子汁、木糖醇为主要原料,并配以其它辅料,研究沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻的最佳配方。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了果冻的最佳配方:明胶1.0%,木糖醇11%,沙棘汁9%和枸杞汁8%,得到桔黄色,口感爽滑,酸甜可口的沙棘枸杞子无糖果冻,具有浓郁的沙棘和枸杞子风味。

  4. 枸杞多糖的提取及其抗衰老的研究%Research on the Extraction and Anti-aging of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 潘晓秋; 周晖; 张海林; 齐宏亮; 廖丹; 倪雪松

    2016-01-01

    目的:优选枸杞多糖的最佳提取工艺,通过建立D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠模型,研究枸杞多糖的抗衰老作用。方法:采用正交设计法对提取工艺进行研究;应用D-半乳糖连续注射,造成实验性衰老小鼠模型,通过测定血液丙二醛(MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-PX)和过氧化氢酶( CAT)的含量及超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)的活力和皮肤中SOD、MDA及羟脯氨酸( Hyp)的水平来检测枸杞多糖抗衰老的能力。结果:通过正交设计确定的枸杞多糖的最佳提取方案为:料液比为1∶30,提取2次,1次90 min,功率为100 kHz。通过研究可见,枸杞多糖可提高小鼠血液中SOD、CAT、GSH-px水平,降低MDA值;可提高小鼠皮肤SOD活力,降低皮肤MDA含量,提高Hyp含量。结论:本研究建立的提取方法简单、易行,枸杞多糖的提出率高。枸杞多糖具有抗D-半乳糖所致小鼠衰老的作用。%OBJECTIVE:To optimize the optimum extraction technology of lycium barbarum polysaccharide and establish senile mice model by D-galactose , so as to research the anti-aging effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide . METHODS:Orthogonal design method was adopted to research the extraction technology .The senile mice model was established by injection of D-galactose .The anti-aging capacibility of lycium barbarum polysaccharide were determined by the detection of malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), the content of catalase (CAT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of SOD, MDA and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in the skin.RESULTS:The optimum extraction technology scheme by orthogonal design method were : the ratio of solid to liquid was 1∶30, 2 times of extraction, 90 min for once, the power was 100 kHz.Lycium barbarum polysaccharide could increase the level of SOD , CAT and GSH-px in rats , decrease MDA , improve the SOD activity , decrease MDA and increase the content of Hyp

  5. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  6. Crude Extracts from Lycium barbarum Suppress SREBP-1c Expression and Prevent Diet-Induced Fatty Liver through AMPK Activation

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    Wang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine that, has beneficial effects. Previous study reported that LBP reduced blood glucose and serum lipids. However, the underlying LBP-regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether LBP prevented fatty liver through activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or 100 mg/kg LBP-treatment diet for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with LBP in the presence of palmitic acid. In our study, LBP can improve body compositions and lipid metabolic profiles in high-fat diet-fed mice. Oil Red O staining in vivo and in vitro showed that LBP significantly reduced hepatic intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation. H&E staining also showed that LBP can attenuate liver steatosis. Hepatic genes expression profiles demonstrated that LBP can activate the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppress nuclear expression of SREBP-1c, and decrease protein and mRNA expression of lipogenic genes in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, LBP significantly elevated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α expression of brown adipose tissue. In summary, LBP possesses a potential novel treatment in preventing diet-induced fatty liver.

  7. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  9. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers.

  10. Study on the Relationship between the Main Secondary Metabolites and Polysaccharide in Fruits of Lycium barbarum at Different Application Amounts of Nitrogen%不同施氮水平下枸杞主要次生代谢产物与多糖的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建宏; 吴宏亮; 杨涓; 杨剑涛

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the optimum application amount of nitrogen in Lycium barbarum based on considering the re-lationship between main secondary metaholites and polysaccharide. [Method] Under field conditions, the effects of different application amounts of nitro-gen on main secondary metabolites of betaine, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum and the relationship between main secondary metabolites and pol-ysaccharide. [Result] The main secondary metabolites of betainc, carotenoid and flavone of Lycium barbarum varied under different application amounts of nitrogen. The proper application amuant of nitrogen (600 -900 kg/hm2) was beneficial to the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Correlation analysis results showed that polysaccharide were negatively correlated with betaine, carotenoid and flavone at significant probability level. [Conclusion] Considering the relationship between the output and quality of the fruits of Lycium barbarum, the optimum nitrogen application a-mount should be 600 -900 kg/hm2.

  11. Bleeding due to a probable interaction between warfarin and Gouqizi (Lycium Barbarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what is widely anticipated by the public, herbal medicines are not always safe despite being natural. We describe a 65-year-old Chinese man taking a prolonged maintenance dose of warfarin who experienced an elevated international normalized ratio (INR with associated bleeding after drinking Gouqizi (goji berry wine. This report illustrates that large doses (more than 6–12 g of Gouqizi can significantly enhance the anticoagulant action of warfarin and may cause similar adverse effects in keeping with three previous reports. Therefore, the use of herbal medicines must adhere to pharmacopoeia-recommended guidelines, including dosage regimes. Doctors should advise patients regarding possible interactions between herbs and warfarin when prescribing and should increase the frequency of INR monitoring for those patients concurrently receiving warfarin and medicinal herbs. Further study is needed to do for the mechanism of interaction between Gouqizi and warfarin.

  12. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  13. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

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    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  14. Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension.

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    Xue-Song Mi

    Full Text Available Acute ocular hypertension (AOH is a condition found in acute glaucoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP and its protective mechanisms in the AOH insult. LBP has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effect in the chronic ocular hypertension (COH experiments. AOH mouse model was induced in unilateral eye for one hour by introducing 90 mmHg ocular pressure. The animal was fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg or vehicle daily from 7 days before the AOH insult till sacrifice at either day 4 or day 7 post insult. The neuroprotective effects of LBP on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and blood-retinal-barrier (BRB were evaluated. In control AOH retina, loss of RGCs, thinning of IRL thickness, increased IgG leakage, broken tight junctions, and decreased density of retinal blood vessels were observed. However, in LBP-treated AOH retina, there was less loss of RGCs with thinning of IRL thickness, IgG leakage, more continued structure of tight junctions associated with higher level of occludin protein and the recovery of the blood vessel density when compared with vehicle-treated AOH retina. Moreover, we found that LBP provides neuroprotection by down-regulating RAGE, ET-1, Aβ and AGE in the retina, as well as their related signaling pathways, which was related to inhibiting vascular damages and the neuronal degeneration in AOH insults. The present study suggests that LBP could prevent damage to RGCs from AOH-induced ischemic injury; furthermore, through its effects on blood vessel protection, LBP would also be a potential treatment for vascular-related retinopathy.

  15. Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke.

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    Di Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke is a destructive cerebrovascular disease and a leading cause of death. Yet, no ideal neuroprotective agents are available, leaving prevention an attractive alternative. The extracts from the fruits of Lycium barbarum (LBP, a Chinese anti-aging medicine and food supplement, showed neuroprotective function in the retina when given prophylactically. We aim to evaluate the protective effects of LBP pre-treatment in an experimental stroke model. METHODS: C57BL/6N male mice were first fed with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 or 10 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Mice were then subjected to 2-hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO by the intraluminal method followed by 22-hour reperfusion upon filament removal. Mice were evaluated for neurological deficits just before sacrifice. Brains were harvested for infarct size estimation, water content measurement, immunohistochemical analysis, and Western blot experiments. Evans blue (EB extravasation was determined to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption after MCAO. RESULTS: LBP pre-treatment significantly improved neurological deficits as well as decreased infarct size, hemispheric swelling, and water content. Fewer apoptotic cells were identified in LBP-treated brains by TUNEL assay. Reduced EB extravasation, fewer IgG-leaky vessels, and up-regulation of occludin expression were also observed in LBP-treated brains. Moreover, immunoreactivity for aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly decreased in LBP-treated brains. CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day oral LBP pre-treatment effectively improved neurological deficits, decreased infarct size and cerebral edema as well as protected the brain from BBB disruption, aquaporin-4 up-regulation, and glial activation. The present study suggests that LBP may be used as a prophylactic neuroprotectant in patients at high risk for ischemic stroke.

  16. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L..

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    Rui Zheng

    Full Text Available Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX, putative glutamine synthetase (GS, ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS, CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3. Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1, and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

  17. Co-administration of the polysaccharide of Lycium barbarum with DNA vaccine of Chlamydophila abortus augments protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yong; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Junjing; Yuan, Jilei; He, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) can stimulate moderate immune responses therefore could potentially be used as a substitute for oil adjuvants in veterinary vaccines. In the present study, it was shown that the isolated active component of LBP3a, combined with a DNA vaccine encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, induced protection in mice against challenge. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Sub-fractions of polysaccharide LBP3a, at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg concentrations, respectively, were mixed with a pCI-neo::MOMP (pMOMP) vaccine. Mice administrated with pCI-neo + LBP3a were served as a control. All mice were inoculated at day 0, 14, and 28, and challenged on day 44. The effects of LBp3a on serum antibody levels, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, the activity of interleaukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)and chlamydia clearance were determined. A combination of DNA vaccine and LBP3a induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice, higher T cell proliferation and higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Mice immunized with DNA and LBP3a also showed significantly higher levels of chlamydia clearance in mice spleens and a greater Th1 immune response. The immunoenhancement induced by 25 mg/kg LBP3a is more effective than that induced by a 12.5 and 50 mg/kg. This implies that LBP3a at 25 mg/kg has a high potential to be used as an effective adjuvant with a DNA vaccine against swine Chlamydophila abortus.

  18. Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors in an ocular hypertension model of rat glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Song Mi; Kin Chiu; Geoffrey Van; Justin Wai Chung Leung; Amy Cheuk Yin; Sookja Kim Chung; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Kwok-Fai So

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese anti-aging herb, has been shown to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model.Here, we investigated the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a strong vasoconstrictor, and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in the COH model and assessed the effects of Lycium barbarum on the ET-1 axis.Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was induced in the right eye of SD rats using argon laser photocoagulation.(1) The expression of ET-1, ETA and ETB in normal and COH retinas was studied.(2) Some COH rats were fed daily with Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides (LBP) using 1 mg/kg or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 3 weeks (started 1 week before photocoagulation).The effects of LBP on the expression of ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB, in COH retina were evaluated.A semi-quantitative analysis of staining intensity was used to evaluate the expression levels of ET-1, ETA and ETB in retinal vasculature.We found that (1) Under COH condition, the immunoreactivity of ET-1 was increased in retina associated with an increase of ETB receptor immunoreactivity and a decrease of ETA receptor immunoreactivity.(2) After feeding COH rats with LBP, the expression of ET-1 was decreased with an increase of ETA expression and a decrease of ETB expression in the retina, especially in RGCs.(3) By comparing the staining intensity in the vasculature of COH retina in LBP-fed group with PBS-fed group, there was a decrease in the expression of ET-1 and ETA and an increase in ETB.In summary, ET-1 expression was up-regulated in the retina in COH model.LBP could decrease the expression of ET-1 and modulate the expression of its receptors, ETA and ETB, under the condition of COH.The neuroprotective effect of LBP on RGCs might be related to its ability to regulate the ET-1-mediated biological effects on RGCs and retinal vasculature.

  19. Characterization and comparison of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum in China using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Deng, Yong; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Wei, Feng; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Long, Ze-Rong; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-10

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from 51 batches of fruits of L. barbarum (wolfberry) in China were investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partial acid hydrolysis, single and composite enzymatic digestion, followed by polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively. Results showed that multiple PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysates of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in China were similar, respectively. In addition, results indicated that β-1,3-glucosidic, α-1,4-galactosiduronic and α-1,5-arabinosidic linkages existed in polysaccharides from L. barbarum collected in China, and the similarity of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China was pretty high, which are helpful for the improvement of the performance of polysaccharides from L. barbarum in functional/health foods area. Furthermore, polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were successfully distinguished from those of L. barbarum based on their PACE fingerprints. These results were beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from L. barabrum and their products, which suggested that saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC analysis could be a routine approach for quality control of polysaccharides.

  20. fraction from Lycium barbarum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (Zhao and Liu, ... Mr. king Li, a botanist of Qujing Normal University. A ... immersed in tenfold dH2O, boiled at 100℃ for 12 h .... 22.00. 24.00. 26.00. 28.00. 30.00. 0. 7. 14. 21. 28 time (d) body w eight (g. ) NC.

  1. Preparation of carotenoid extracts and nanoemulsions from Lycium barbarum L. and their effects on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. J.; Huang, R. F.; Kao, T. H.; Inbaraj, B. S.; Chen, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v). Nine carotenoids, including neoxanthin (4.47 μg g-1), all-trans-zeaxanthin and its cis-isomers (1666.3 μg g-1), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (51.69 μg g-1), all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers (20.11 μg g-1), were separated within 45 min and quantified using a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water (9:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B). A highly stable carotenoid nanoemulsion composed of CapryolTM 90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water was prepared with a mean particle size of 15.1 nm. Characterization of zeaxanthin standard, blank nanoemulsion, carotenoid extract and carotenoid nanoemulsion by differential scanning calorimetry curves and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed a good dispersion of zeaxanthin-dominated carotenoid extract with no significant chemical change after incorporation into nanoemulsion. The in vitro release kinetic study showed a higher release profile at pH 5.2 than at physiological pH 7.4, suggesting a rapid release of carotenoids in the acidic environment (pH 4.5-6.5) characteristic of tumors. Both the carotenoid nanoemulsion and the extract were effective at inhibiting growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.5 and 4.9 μg ml-1, respectively. Also, both treatments could up-regulate p53 and p21 expression and down-regulate CDK2, CDK1, cyclin A and cyclin B expression and arrest the cell cycle at G2/M. The

  2. Changes of the Main Carotenoid Pigment Contents During the Drying Processes of the Different Harvest Stage Fruits of Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wen-ping; NI Zhi-jing; LI He; CHEN Min

    2008-01-01

    The test analyzed the regularity of biosynthesis and degradation of the main functional components,such as zeaxanthin,β-carotene,and esterified carotenoids in the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.in order to provide theoretical basis for improvement of processing condition,appearance quality,and preservation of carotenoids.RP-HPLC was adapted to assay the changes of the main carotenoids of the different harvested stage fruit during the drying processing.Quantification was realized using external standard with gradient elution.The results showed that zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents in fruits increased dramatically,2-22 times that of fresh fruits at the beginning of the drying period.In the middle of drying period,degradation occurred to a some extent,and the fall fruit degraded to a large extent.At the end of drying period, zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents increased to a little extent until a balanced state is obtained.Zeaxanthin dipalmitate content had a total degradation to more than 40%at the beginning of the drying period,and increased a little at the middle period,then reached a balanced state finally.The total carotenoid content analysis showed that the summer fruit had higher carotenoid content than the fall fruit.The experiments demonstrated zeaxanthin and β-carotene contents in fruits increased and zeaxanthin dipalmitate decreased during the drying process,which had an effect on the production appearance.

  3. Study on Microwave Extraction Technology of Betaine from Lycium barbarum Leaves%微波法提取枸杞叶甜菜碱工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党军; 王瑛; 陶燕铎; 邵赞; 梅丽娟; 王启兰

    2011-01-01

    研究微波法提取枸杞叶中甜菜碱的最佳工艺,考察工艺参数对枸杞叶中甜菜碱提取率的影响.以甜菜碱提取率为指标,通过L9(3(4))正交实验与方差分析优选出枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取工艺条件.结果表明,最佳工艺为固液比为(g:ml)1:10,20 min,微波功率200 w.枸杞叶中甜菜碱最佳提取率平均值可高达4.48%.该工艺简单、稳定、可行.%The optimum microwave extraction technology of betaine from Lycium, barbarum leaves was studied and the impacts of every technology parameter on extraction rate of betaine were investigated. Extraction rate of betaine was taken as index. L9(34) orthogonal design and analysis of variance were adopted to optimize the technological conditions of microwave extraction of betaine. The results sbowed that the rate of solid and liquid, extraction time and microwave power were 1:10 ( g:ml) , 20min, 200w, respectively, and the average of betaine extraction rate was up to 4.48%. The technology was simple, stable and feasible.

  4. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved.

  5. Lycium barbarum Reduces Abdominal Fat and Improves Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Zagonel de Souza Zanchet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants present in fruits have attracted considerable interest due to their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals of goji berry (GB in patients with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. In this study, we examined anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome after the consumption of GB. The patients were divided into two groups, control (C and supplemented (S, and followed up for 45 days. Participants were individually instructed to carry out a healthy diet, but additionally, an inclusion of 14 g of the natural form of goji berry in the diet during 45 days for the S group was proposed. After 45 days of study, a significant reduction in transaminases as well as an improvement in lipid profile in the S group was observed. Likewise, a significant reduction in the waist circumference of the S group was observed when compared with that of the C group, and increased glutathione and catalase levels associated with a reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that this is an effective dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Physico-chemical Properties and Bioactivities of a Glycoconjugate LbGp5B from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); PENG,Xue-Mei; QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); QI,Chun-Hui; TIAN,Geng-Yuan (田庚元); TIAN,Geng-Yuan; ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang

    2001-01-01

    A glycoconjugatedesignated as LbGp5B was isolated from the fruit of Lyciun barbarum L. and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration .LbGp5B is composed of rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), galacturonic acid (GalA) and seveateen amino acids. The molecular weight of LbGp5B was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by matrix-asisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of fight (T OF) mass spectrometry (MS). The preliminary experiments showed that LbGp5B promoted splenocyte proliferation in mice and inhihited the peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL).

  7. 枸杞果实总RNA提取方法的比较研究%Comparison for the Extraction of the Total RNA from Lycium barbarum L.fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 姚新灵; 冯秀娟; 马丽华

    2011-01-01

    The performances of the five extraction of the total RNA, the Trizol, the guanidinium isothiocyanate, the CTAB, the TransZol plant kit and the improved CTAB from Lycium barbarum L. Fruits tissue that is rich in polysaccharides polyhenolics and the pigments are compared in this paper. The yields,the quality and the integrity of RNA are tested by ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis(A260/280) and 1. 0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The RNA can be used for reverse transcription and PCR amplification efficiently. Therefore,the improved CTAB extraction would be the fast and the efficient for the total RNA isolation from Lycium barbarum L. Fruits.%以枸杞果实为植物材料,比较研究Trizol试剂快速提取法、异硫氰酸胍法、TransZol plant试剂盒法、CTAB法和改良CTAB法提取枸杞果实RNA的可行性.结果表明,改良CTAB法能有效地抑制酚类物质、多糖及皂苷等次级代谢产物对RNA的影响,可从枸杞果实获得质量高、完整性好的总RNA;RT-PCR分析显示提取的总RNA具有反转录活性;该方法具有高效、简单和经济的特点.

  8. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway contributes to the protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the rodent retina after ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua He

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. The antioxidant response element (ARE-mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg, an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and inner nuclear layer (INL in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression.

  9. Neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sing Lam

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, which induces hippocampal injuries mediated by oxidative stress. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP against CIH-induced spatial memory deficits. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxic treatment resembling a severe OSA condition for a week. The animals were orally fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg daily 2 hours prior to hypoxia or in air for the control. The effect of LBP on the spatial memory and levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis and neurogenesis in the hippocampus was examined. There was a significant deficit in the spatial memory and an elevated level of malondialdehyde with a decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx-1 in the hypoxic group when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, redox-sensitive nuclear factor kappa B (NFКB canonical pathway was activated with a translocation of NFКB members (p65, p50 and increased expression levels of NFКB-dependent inflammatory cytokines and mediator (TNFα, IL-1β, COX-2; also, a significantly elevated level of ER stress (GRP78/Bip, PERK, CHOP and autophagic flux in the hypoxic group, leading to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal subfields (DG, CA1, CA3. Remarkably, LBP administration normalized the elevated level of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, ER stress, autophagic flux and apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Moreover, LBP significantly mitigated both the caspase-dependent intrinsic (Bax, Bcl2, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and extrinsic (FADD, cleaved caspase-8, Bid signaling apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, LBP administration prevented the spatial memory deficit and enhanced the hippocampal neurogenesis induced by hypoxia. Our results suggest that LBP is neuroprotective against CIH-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis

  10. 采用ISSR-PCR分子标记法鉴别黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞%Identification of Lycium ruthenicum Murr and Male Sterility of Lycium barbarum L. by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    思彬彬; 张靠稳; 刘国迪

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To identify Lycium ruthenicum and male sterility of Lycium barbarum by inter-simple sequence repeat markers. [ Method] Primers suitable for routine analysis were screened from 100 inter-simple sequence repeat primers, then, they were used in PCR and separated of 2 samples of L. Ruthenicum and male sterility of /- barbarum L. [ Results] Four of the 100 primers amplified polymorphic bands and suitable for the identification of L ruthenicum and male sterility oft. Barbarum. [Conclusion] Inter-simple sequence repeat markers provide a quick, reliable molecular marker for identification of L ruthenicum and male sterility of L barbarum.%[目的]探索用ISSR分子标记方法在核酸分子水平上鉴别黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞.[方法]从100条ISSR引物中筛选合适的引物对黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞样品进行PCR扩增及电泳分析,寻找特征位点.[结果]有4条ISSR引物扩增出较为明显的多态性特征条带,可单独应用于黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞的鉴别.[结论]ISSR作为一种简便、可靠的分子标记方法,可用于黑果枸杞与雄性不育枸杞的鉴别.

  11. A Simple HPLC-ELSD Method for Sugar Analysis in Goji Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were identified and quantified in commercial samples of Lycium barbarum L. fruits (goji berries by high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method. This study described a rapid, simple, sensitive, selective, and reliable HPLC method suitable for the profiling of major sugars in berries, the evaluation of the nutritional/energetic properties, and assessment of the maturation stage. The proposed analytical method was validated and the results showed good precision, accuracy, and linearity. In all analyzed goji fruits, glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars, while sucrose content was about ten times lower than each monose. It was observed that glucose and fructose were detected in comparable quantities in all considered samples. Quantitative analysis showed that fructose, glucose, and sucrose content ranged from 154.20 to 259.13 mg g−1, from 152.92 to 284.60 mg g−1, and from 13.75 to 36.43 mg g−1, respectively.

  12. Mechanism simulation analysis and prototype experiment ofLycium barbarum harvest by vibration mode%振动式枸杞采摘机理仿真分析与样机试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张最; 肖宏儒; 丁文芹; 梅松

    2015-01-01

    为了实现枸杞机械化采摘,该文研究了枸杞振动采摘机理,并建立振动采摘力学模型,分析求解得到枸杞挂果枝条受迫振动时各节点处枸杞和花朵所受惯性力的通解。运用 MATLAB 对振动式枸杞采摘机工作参数进行优化和仿真试验,优化得到合理的迫振载荷和驱动轮转速组合,仿真试验得到受迫振动枸杞挂果枝条各节点处枸杞与花朵所受采摘惯性力随转速变化规律仿真曲线,对转速取值进行调整。最后进行了枸杞采摘试验,试验得到合理的驱动轮转速为2870 r/min,该转速水平在仿真得到的合理的转速区间为2868.84~2871.21 r/min。试验转速为2870 r/min时,成熟枸杞采摘效率为815颗/min,成熟枸杞采净率为86.70%,未成熟枸杞采摘率为7.36%,花朵采摘率为7.43%,成熟枸杞损伤率为8.62%,机采人采效率比为5.43,试验结果与仿真结论一致。研究结果可为枸杞振动采摘机的研制提供参考。%Recently, as scientific research has been further explored, the health care functions of theLycium barbarum (L. barbarum) in anti-oxidation, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, protecting liver, improving body immunity, eye protection and other aspects have been further confirmed. Its unique and nutrient-rich health function is recognized gradually in western countries, and the market demand of theL. barbarum is expanding each year. TheL. barbarum blooms and bears fruit continuously during the growing season which begins in mid-May. Depending on the picking time around the year, theL. barbarum fruit can be divided into spring, summer and autumn fruit. In order to make driedL. barbarum keep good commodity characters, the L. barbarum is harvested at 80 percent maturity. The full bearing period ofL. barbarum is from May to September every year, which is the picking peak ofL. barbarum. It must be picked once about every 7 days. For centuries, the mechanized harvesting of

  13. Correlation Between the Total Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Lycium barbarum L.Leaves%宁夏枸杞叶中总黄酮含量与抗氧化活性关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东玲; 马婷婷; 张自萍

    2012-01-01

    为进一步开发宁夏枸杞叶资源,研究宁夏枸杞叶抗氧化活性部位中总黄酮含量与抗氧化活性间关系.以乙醇做提取溶剂,再以不同极性溶剂对醇提液进一步萃取分离;并用DPPH法(DPPH·)测定不同极性萃取部分的抗氧化能力,用分光光度法测定不同极性萃取部分中的总黄酮含量.结果表明,除石油醚萃取部位外,其他各萃取部分在一定质量浓度时,对DPPH自由基(DPPH·)清除率均达到90%,且与总黄酮含量有极显著的相关性(P<0.01),其中,正丁醇萃取部分中的总黄酮含量最高,达到77.32mg/g,其清除自由基ρ(SC50 )=0.048 3 mg/mL,活性与维生素C相当.可为枸杞叶的深度开发提供参考.%To study the correlation between the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts from the leaves of Lycium barbarum L., to provide the reference for further development and utilization of the leaves of Lycium barbarum L. . Ethanol extract from the leaves of Lycium barbarum L. Was fractioned by different solvents, the antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts were evaluated by DPPH, flavonoid content was determined by Colorimetry. Except of petroleum ether extracts, free radical scavenging rate of other solvent extracts in a certain concentration are up to 90% , and there are the significant correlations (P<0. 01) between DPPH free radical scavenging activities and the total flavonoid content. Total flavoniod content of n-Butanol extract is the highest with 77. 32 mg/g, its free radical scavenging activity is equal to Vitamin C, SC50 value is 0. 0483 mg/mL.

  14. 种植枸杞对干旱区荒漠缓冲带土壤质量的影响%Research on Soil Quality of Planting Lycium barbarum in Arid Desert Buffer Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟宗江; 何学敏; 孙景鑫; 吕光辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] A comparative analysis was conducted about the soil pH, organic matter, total soil N and C/N before and after planting Lycium barbarum in Arid Desert Buffer Zone of National Nature Reserve in the Ebinur Wetland and the condition of soil comprehensive quality changes was evaluated in order that the basis for protecting areas soil and water conservation and planting economic crops could be provided. [Method] Through artificial cultivation and indoor experiments, the physical and chemical properties and comprehensive quality status of soil samples before and after planting the Lycium barbarum and the surrounding natural control samples were evaluated and analyzed. [ Result ] Short - term weather changes insignificantly impacted on soil pH, total salt and total nitrogen, while the influence on surface soil organic matter was stronger; Effects of Artificial cultivation, planting and irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties were strong, such as reducing the soil pH and total salt, which was helpful to the improvement of soil salinization, while reducing soil organic matter and total nitrogen at the same time; The orders about integrated soil quality index of April, August, the experimental group and contrast group were that August test group < April < August contrast group. [ Conclusion ] Newly planted Lycium barbarum plantation played a certain role in the improvement of soil salinization in arid desert buffer zone, but exacerbated the soil poor degree. Under natural conditions, soil quality showed increasing trend from spring to summer, and Lycium barbarum cultivation reduced the soil quality to some extent.%[目的]对艾比湖湿地国家级自然保护区荒漠边缘缓冲带枸杞种植前后土壤的pH、总盐、有机质、全氮及C/N进行比较分析,评价其土壤综合质量变化情况,为保护区水土保持和经济作物种植提供依据.[方法]通过人工栽培和室内试验,对枸杞种植前后及周边自然对照土

  15. Determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L. extract powder containing malt dextrin%含麦芽糊精枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾东升; 崔施展; 谢晓亮; 温春秀; 李荣乔; 刘铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立含麦芽糊精的枸杞提取物干粉中多糖含量的测定方法。方法采用糖化酶水解麦芽糊精,醇沉后苯酚硫酸法测定多糖含量,优化糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的工艺,比较酶解麦芽糊精后测定多糖含量、直接测定多糖含量与样品中多糖含量真实值之间的差异。并考察糖化酶对枸杞多糖的水解能力。结果糖化酶水解麦芽糊精的最佳工艺条件为:酶解温度60℃、酶与底物比例为1∶5,反应时间为30 min。与样品中枸杞多糖含量的真实值相比,直接测定值显著偏高,组间比较数据有显著统计学差异(P<0.01),酶解麦芽糊精后测定值无显著性差异(P>0.05);与直接测定值相比,酶解麦芽糊精后测定值显著降低(P<0.01),且糖化酶对枸杞多糖无水解能力。结论糖化酶水解法可消除麦芽糊精对枸杞提取物干粉中多糖测定的影响,且方法简单、有效。%Objective To establish a method for determination of polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum L . extract powder containing with malt dextrin. Method Maltodextrin was treated with glucoamylase hydrolysis and ethanol precipitation successively;then the phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to determine the content of polysaccharide. The glucoamylase hydrolysis technolgy of malt dextrin was optimized, and the variation of polysaccharide content before and after hydrolysis, the difference of polysaccharide contents between direct determination and truth were compared. Morever, the hydrolysis effect of glucoamylase on Lycium barbarum L. was investigated. Results The optimum hydrolysis condition was: temperature 60℃, the ratio of enzyme to substrate 1∶5, hydrolysis time 30 min. The polysaccharide content determined directly was significantly higher than the real value (P0.05). Glucoamylase showed no hydrolysis effects on Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide. Conclusion Glucoamylase hydrolysis can deplete the

  16. The effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men%枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国琴; 翁锡全; 彭燕群; 蓝道忠

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of lycium barbarum juice to serum testosterone and sexual function in adult men. METHODS:40 adult men of 30-70 years old were recruited, and given lycium barbarum juice 100 mL at night for 32 days. The serum testosterone and cortisol were measured and sexual function of adult men were evaluated by the IIEF and BMSFI before and af⁃ter the study. RESULTS: After drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days, the serum testosterone, serum testosterone/cortisol ratio were significantly higher than before, while sexual satisfac⁃tion was significantly increased, libido, erectile function and sex⁃ual function total score were significantly improved, all with statis⁃tically significant difference(P<0.05), especially in men of 41-65 years old. CONCLUSION: Drinking lycium barbarum juice for 32 days can increase serum testosterone and testosterone/corti⁃sol ratio in adult men, improve sexual satisfaction, sexual desire and overall satisfaction with erectile function, and enhance sexual function of adult men.%目的:探讨枸杞汁对成年男性血清睾酮及性功能的影响.方法:招募30~70岁成年男性共40人,每晚睡前饮用枸杞汁100 mL,持续32 d,测试研究前后血睾酮和皮质醇含量,并通过勃起功能国际指数问卷( IIEF)和简明男性性功能量表( BMSFI)评价性功能状况.结果:饮用32 d枸杞汁后,成年男性血睾酮升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血睾酮/皮质醇比值出现显著性升高现象,同时,性交满意度显著性增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);性欲、勃起功能总体满意度提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),性功能评分总分有显著性的提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),尤其是41-65岁年龄组成年男性血清激素水平和性功能评价指标提高更加明显.结论:饮用32 d枸杞汁可提高成年男性血清睾酮浓度和睾酮/皮

  17. 枸杞子糖缀合物及其糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用%STUDIES ON THE GLYCOCONJUGATES AND GLYCANS FROM LYCIUM BARBARUM L IN INHIBITING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) PEROXIDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琳娟; 田庚元; 王仲孚; 董继斌; 吴满平

    2001-01-01

    的 研究枸杞子糖缀合物及其糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用。方法 在Cu2+诱导的LDL氧化模型中测定了脂质过氧化产物硫代巴比妥酸反应物质(TBARS)的含量及LDL在琼脂糖凝胶电泳上的迁移率以反映从枸杞子中分离、纯化得到的糖缀合物及糖链对LDL氧化修饰的抑制作用。结果 枸杞子糖缀合物及糖链抗LDL氧化的能力是不同的,其中LbGp5可明显的抑制LDL的氧化。结论 枸杞子糖缀合物具有抗LDL氧化作用,而糖链不具有抗LDL氧化的作用。%AIM To determine the effects of glycoconjugates and their glycans from Lycium barbarum L. on inhibiting low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation. METHODS Using Cu2+-induced oxidation as a model, the oxidative production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the LDL electrophoresis migration on agarose gel were measured. RESULTS The effects of glycoconjugates and their glycans from Lycium barbarum L. on inhibiting LDL peroxidation were different, among them, glycoconjugate LbGp5 showed the best effect on inhibiting LDLperoxidation. CONCLUSION The glycoconjugates can inhibit LDL peroxidatin while their glycans showed no effects on inhibiting LDL peroxidation.

  18. Effects of Covering on Growth Potential and Chlorophyll Content of Hardwood Cutting of Lycium barbarum%覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巨琼; 蔺海明; 林楠

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of plastic Him covering, straw covering, plastic film covering in greenhouse and no-covering cutting on growth and Chlorophyll content of Lycium barbarian hardwood cutting seedlings. Methods: Single factor randomized block design method was used in this research. Results: The effect of different covering treatments on germination rate, seedling rate and growth potential were all plastic film covering in greenhouse > plastic film covering > straw covering > no-covering cutting. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll a + b content and Ca/Cb were significantly different with different coverings in different periods. Conclusion: The optimal covering on hardwood cutting of Lycium barbarum is plastic film covering in greenhouse. Both plastic film and straw covering are better than no-covering cutting.%目的:研究地膜覆盖、麦草覆盖、地膜+弓棚覆盖和露地扦插对枸杞硬枝扦插苗生长势及叶绿素含量的影响.方法:采用单因素随机区组设计.结果:覆盖对枸杞硬枝扦插苗萌芽率、成苗率及生长势的影响均为地膜+弓棚覆盖>地膜覆盖>麦草覆盖>露地扦插;不同处理及不同时期的叶绿素a、b、(a+b)含量和叶绿素(a/b)值均差异显著.结论:枸杞硬枝扦插育苗的最佳覆盖方式为地膜+弓棚覆盖,地膜覆盖和麦草覆盖亦优于露地扦插.

  19. A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, HongJuan; Ji, BaoPing; Cai, ShengBao; Wang, RuoJun; Zhou, Feng; Yang, JunSi; Liu, HuiJun

    2014-05-01

    According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.

  20. Analysis of total flavonoids and free radical scavenging activities in different Lycium barbarum cultivars%宁夏枸杞不同品种叶的总黄酮含量及清除自由基能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东玲; 马婷婷; 张永梅; 吴春丽; 张自萍

    2013-01-01

    采用紫外分光光度法和DPP H法分别对宁夏枸杞不同品种叶的总黄酮含量及其清除自由基能力进行分析.结果表明:宁夏枸杞不同品种的叶总黄酮含量和清除自由基能力之间均存在显著性差异.其中宁杞菜1号叶的总黄酮含量极显著高于其它几个品种(**P<0.01),并且其清除自由基能力也最强,与其它品种之间差异显著(*P<0.05).说明宁杞菜1号是开发枸杞茶的优良品种.%The content of total flavoniods and free radical scavenging activities of different Lycium barbarum cultivars were respectively evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and DPPH.The results showed the content of total flavoniods of Ningqicai No.1 was significantly higher than other cultivars (?? P <0.01),and its free radical scavenging activity was much stronger than other cultivars (? P <0.05).It was suggested that Ningqicai No.1 was an excellent cultivar to develop Gouqi tea.

  1. 枸杞成熟与干制过程中多糖积累的蛋白质组学研究进展%Progress of proteomics of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide accumulation in the process of maturing and drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房想; 魏超昆; 刘关瑞; 王旭; 龚媛; 刘敦华

    2015-01-01

    随着后基因组时代的到来,蛋白质组学越来越广泛地应用到生命科学领域,目前主要应用于医学、生物学、植物学,近些年在食品科学方面也进行了相关研究。应用蛋白质组学在植物生长发育和成熟衰老方面的研究比较常见,但在加工环节中的应用并不多见。该方法能通过研究植物体相关蛋白质而在本质上动态地揭示植物从生长发育到成熟衰老过程的机制,为研究枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累提供了新的思路和理论支撑。本文综述了枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累的研究进展,简单介绍蛋白质组学、蛋白质组学的研究技术及其在植物及加工环节中的研究进展,并展望蛋白质组学技术在枸杞果实成熟及干制过程中多糖积累的研究前景,为今后蛋白质组学的应用与发展提供一定的参考和理论依据。%With the advent of the post genomic era, proteomics is becoming more and more widely used in the field of life sciences especially in medicine, biology and botany. Proteomics has also been used in the area of food science in recent years. Application of proteomics in plant growth and ripening research is more common; however, there are little researches in applications in process. This method focuses on the related proteins revealing the mechanism of plant growth and ripening naturedly, and provides a new way of ideas and theoretical support for the research on the development ofLycium barbarum ripening and drying process. This article summarized the process ofLycium barbarum polysaccharide accumulation in the maturing and drying, and briefly introduced proteomics, proteomics technology and its research progress in plant and processing. The researches of proteomics ofLycium barbarumpolysaccharide accumulation in the maturing and drying were prospected, which provided some references and theoretical basis for the application and development

  2. Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Extract Against MPP + -induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and PC12 Cells%枸杞提取物对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓黎; 吴婉玲; 郑民缨; 李伟; 叶城辉; 卢锡林

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察枸杞提取物对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性的保护作用并探讨其作用机制。方法:以不同浓度枸杞提取物预处理MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞多巴胺能神经损伤模型,计算线虫的存活率和选择性表达绿色荧光的多巴胺能退行性变神经元的数量,以MTT法和核形态检测PC12细胞的损伤,检测PC12细胞的胞内的氧自由基、线粒体膜电位、总GSH水平。结果:枸杞提取物明显提高了MPP+处理过的线虫的存活率和保护了多巴胺能神经元,对MPP+诱导的PC12细胞的具有明显的保护作用,作用呈量效关系。枸杞提取物通过减少MPP+诱导PC12细胞胞内ROS的过量积聚,减少线粒体损伤,恢复GSH水平而发挥其保护作用。结论:枸杞提取物主要通过抗氧化及恢复GSH水平而发挥其对MPP+诱导的线虫和PC12细胞神经毒性保护作用。%Objective;To investigate the neuroprotective effects of lycium barbarum extract against MPP + -induced neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegant and PCI2 cells and its mechanism. Methods; Pretreated MPP + -induced nearotoxicity in C. elegans and PC 12 cells with Lycium barbarum at differert dosages. The viability and DA neurodegeneralion was assessed in C. elegans selectively expressing green fluorescent protein (CFP) in DA neurons. PC 12 cell damage was measured using MTT and nuclear morphology. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) , mitochondrial membrane potential and total CSH were assessed. Results; Lycium barbarum extract protected against MPP + -induced loss of viability and DA neurodegeneration in C. elegans in a dose-dependent manner. Similar neuropro-tection was replicated in MPP + PC 12 cell model. Lycium barbarum extract attenuated MPP + -induced intracellular ROS accumulation,loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and restored total GSH levels in PC12 cells. Conclusions: Lycium barbarum extract protects against MPP + -induced neurotoxicity

  3. Parameter Difference of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Leaves of Different Cultivars of Lycium barbarum%不同枸杞品种叶绿素荧光参数差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 王有科; 李捷; 陈娜; 李小刚; 张晓娜

    2014-01-01

    In this research,some cultivars of Lycium barbarum were taken as the materials.In the field experiment,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the chlorophyll contents in the cultivars of L.barbarum were studied using the chlorophyll fluorescence measuring technique.The results revealed that the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm) and potential activity of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fo) of Ningqi No.2 were remarkably higher than those of other three cultivars.The actual photosynthesis yield (Y(Ⅱ)),activity photosynthesis yield (Fv'/ Fm'),photochemical quenching (qP) and electron transport rate (ETR) were significantly different from different cultivars under a photo synthetically active radiation of 0-2 847 μmol · m-2 · s-1,and they were the highest in Ningqi No.2,followed by Mengqi No.1 and Damaye,and the lowest in Ningqi No.1.The initial slope α of fitting parameter ETR was similar to the change trend of ETR.The content of Chlorophyll a,Chlorophyll b and Chlorophyll a + b in Ningqi No.2 were the highest.There was an extremely significant or a significant positive correlation between chlorophyll a + b and Y(Ⅱ),Fv'/Fm',qP and ETR,but a negative correlation with NPQ.So it could be concluded that Ningqi No.2 had a higher physiological activity of PS Ⅱ and physiological basis of potential biomass,the photosynthesis capability of all the four cultivars was strong.The photochemical efficiency of Ningqi No.1 was weaker,and it was easy to suffer from photo inhibition at high light intensity.%在田间试验条件下,以宁杞1号、宁杞2号、大麻叶和蒙杞l号为材料,采用叶绿素荧光技术测定了不同枸杞品种的叶绿素荧光参数,并测定供试品种的叶绿素含量.结果表明:宁杞2号的PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ潜在活性(Fv/Fo)值显著高于其他3个品种.在不同光照强度(PAR,0~2 847 μmol·m-2·s-1)下,实际光合量子产量[Y(Ⅱ)]、有效光合量子产量(Fv'/Fm')、光化学淬灭系数(qP)

  4. Impact of lycium barbarum polysaccharides supplementation on immune function in students major in basketball%枸杞多糖对篮球专业大学生免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对篮球专业大学生免疫功能的影响.方法 将20名男子篮球专业大学生随机分为对照组和试验组,每组10人,2组运动员均进行心率每分钟180~190次强度的运动训练,正常饮食.连续训练21 d,期间试验组每日早晚各服用LBP,每次2粒,每日2次;对照组每日早晚各服用等剂量安慰剂(内含淀粉).训练前后分别检测免疫指标IgA、IgG、IgM和CD4+、CD8+、CD4+/CD8+值.结果 试验组训练后IgA及IgM浓度明显高于训练前,并且高于对照组训练后IgA及IgM值,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).试验组训练后CD4+及CD4+/CD8+比值较训练前均明显升高,且明显高于对照组训练后CD4+及CD4+/CD8+比值,差别均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP能改善篮球运动员的免疫功能.%Objective To study the impact of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on immune function in college students major in basketball. Methods Twenty men's basketball subject college students were randomly divided into control group and experimental group,and each group for 10 persons. Athletes were trained by 180 - 190 times per minute heart rate of exercise training in two group .normal diet. All players performed exercise everyday for 21 days. LBP 4 g were took experimental group and placebo (containing starch) 4 g were took in control group during the each day of the daily morning and evening. Values of immune parameters IgA,IgG,IgM,and CD4+ ,CD8+ ,CD4+/CD8+ were measured before and after experiment. Results Values of IgA and IgM after the experiment were significantly higher than those before the experiment in experimental group,and higher than those in control group;The difference was statistically significant(P <0.05). CD4+ and CD4VCD8+ ratio after the experiment were significantly higher than those before the experiment in experimental group,and were significantly higher CD4 + and CD4 V CD8 + ratio in control group, the difference was statistically

  5. Function of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells%枸杞多糖对人肺腺癌A549细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡珍; 江涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth inhibition and proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma AS49 cells induced by Lycium bar-barum polysaccharide( LBP) in vitro,and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods A549 cells cultured in vitro were divided into control group and experimental group ( I/ZICjo for 48 hours) by the different concentrations of LBP treatment. The inhibitory effects of LBP on proliferation of A549 were determined by MTT assay at 24 h ,48 h ,72 h after the addition of LBP to A549 culture. Growth curve were generated by MTT assay,doubling time were calculated by cell counting,Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by Flow cytometry(FCM) ,Sur-vivin mRNA changes were detected by RT-PCR,CyclinBl protein changes were detected by Western blot ,Tramwell assay in vitro was utilized to evaluate the invasive activity. Results MTT assay demonstrated that different concentrations of LBP significantly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner,the doubling time and the rate of apoptosis of cells in experimental group is dramatically different from the control group. ( P < 0. 05 ) , It was found that LBP arrested A549 cells at G2 phase; Survivin mRNA expression and CyclinBl protein expression were lower,compared with that in the control group( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion The present study suggests that LBP can significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells. The mechanism may be related to an arrest effect on cell cycle,reducing Survivin mRNA and CyclinBl protein expression and inhibiting tumour invasion.%目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对体外培养的人肺腺癌细胞A549的增殖抑制作用及其可能的作用机制.方法 用不同浓度的LBP处理A549细胞,MTT法检测24、48、72h时间点LBP对A549细胞的生长抑制率,实验设为对照组和实验组(1/2IC50作用48小时),MTT法绘制生长曲线、细胞计数计算倍增时间、流式细胞仪检测凋亡率及其细胞周期、RT-PcR检测Survivin m

  6. 枸杞多糖的热裂解及其在卷烟中的应用%Pyrolysis of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide and its application in cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全; 周肇峰; 陆建南; 李江宁; 黄文忠; 陆炳高

    2015-01-01

    为研究枸杞多糖的热裂解行为及其对卷烟感官质量的影响,利用水提醇沉法对枸杞多糖进行了提取分离,应用热裂解-气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析了枸杞多糖在不同裂解氛围,即无氧条件(N2)和有氧条件(10% O2和90% N2),以及不同温度(300℃,600℃,750℃ 和 900℃)下的热裂解产物,利用归一化法进行定量分析。结果表明:枸杞多糖在卷烟中起到了掩盖杂气、去除刺激、改善余味的作用,使香气细腻程度有所提升,烟气状态、圆润感及香气的谐调性较好;枸杞多糖在卷烟中的适宜添加量为(5~10)×10-6 g;枸杞多糖在热裂解过程中可以释放出小分子的醛类、酮类物质等具有特殊香味的化合物,可产生花香、烘烤香、甜香、奶香、果香等香韵。%In order to study the pyrolysis behavior of Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide and influence on the cigarette sensory quality,the polysaccharide was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method. The pyrolysates were analyzed in different atmosphere(10% O2 and 90% N2 )and at temperature levels(300 ℃,600 ℃,750 ℃ and 900 ℃). The pyrolysates were directly introduced into Py-GC-MS spectrometer,quantitative analysis was made by area normalization. The results showed that cigarette sen-sory quality was improved by polysaccharide,the smoke of cigarette was mild and glomerate,polysaccha-rides offered enhanced sweety aroma,as well as the aroma quantity,improve after-tasting and reduce offensive taste and irritation of cigarette. The optimum application amount was(5 ~ 10)× 10 - 6 g. The py-rolysis of polysaccharide could release micromolecule aldehydes and ketones containing special odor having floral,toast,sweet,milk and fruity notes.

  7. 枸杞多糖提取物对顺铂诱发大鼠肾毒性的影响%Protective Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide against Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海莲; 高丽萍; 冷洪涛; 李贞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the protective effect and possible mechanism ofLycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) against cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: A total of 50 rats were randomly divided into blank control group, CDDP model group, and high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose LBP groups (orally administered at doses of 277, 554, 1008 g/(kg ~ d) respectively once daily for 15 days). The blank control and CDDP model groups were both orally administered with distilled water during the adminstrtion period. After 10 days of administration, the blank control group was given normal saline by intraperito- neal injection while a single injection of CDDP in the remaining groups was carried out to establish a mouse model of renal injury. At the end of the administration period, all rats were sacrificed to determine serum BUN and Ser contents as well as NO and MDA contents and NOS and SOD activities in the kidney. Results: In the rats with CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity LBP pretreatment could significantly reduce the increase in serum BUN and Scr levels and kidney MDA and NO levels and NOS activity caused by CDDP (P〈0.05 or P〈0.01). Conclusions: Oral intake of LBP ameliorates CDDP-induced renal dysfunction. The mechanism may be related to the decreased NOS activity and NO and MDA contents.%目的:观察枸杞多糖(LBP)对顺铂所致肾毒性的防护作用,并初步探讨其作用机制。方法:将50只大鼠随机分为空白对照组、顺铂(CDDP)模型组、LBP低、中、高剂量组(277、554、1008g/(kg·d))(以体质量计)。空白对照组和CDDP组每天灌胃蒸馏水,LBP组每天灌胃LBP,每日1次,灌胃10d后,空白对照组腹腔注射生理盐水,其余各组一次性腹腔注射CDDP7.0mg/kg建立肾损伤动物模型,之后继续灌胃5d。腹腔注射后第5天宰杀大鼠,检测大鼠血清尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Scr)的含量、肾组织中一氧化

  8. 干旱胁迫对宁夏枸杞叶片蔗糖代谢及光合特性的影响%Sugar Metabolism and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Leaf of Lycium barbarum L.under Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华; 李浩霞; 安巍; 石志刚; 王亚军; 王华芳

    2013-01-01

    A study of the response of sugar content,enzyme activities of sugar metabolism and photosynthetic parameters in leaf of Lycium barbarum under water stress aimed at providing theoretical basis for highyield planting of this plant in the arid regions.The results showed that:(1)The sucrose and starch contents in leaves were reduced under water stress at the green fruit stage,but their contents increased under light drought at the color fruit stage.The starch content in leaves gradually increased with drought aggravated.(2) The activities of neutral invertase(NI),sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in leaves were gradually reduced under drought stress at the green fruit stage.The activities of acid invertase (AI) and SS were reduced at the color fruit and maturing stages,but the activities of NI was increased at these two stages.(3) With the increasing of drought stress,the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were gradually lowering.The water use efficiency (WUE)was light drought (LD)>normal irrigation (CK)>severe drought (SD)>moderate drought (MD).It is therefore suggested that light drought can promote the sucrose content and WUE in leaf and transport more photoassimilates to the fruit.%以宁夏枸杞品种‘宁杞1号’为材料,采用防雨棚内盆栽控水法研究了轻度干旱(LD)、中度干旱(MD)、重度干旱(SD)和正常灌水(CK)4种土壤水分条件下枸杞叶片糖分含量、蔗糖代谢酶活性和光合参数的响应规律,为宁夏枸杞在干旱地区高产栽培提供参考依据.结果显示:(1)干旱胁迫降低了枸杞青果期叶片蔗糖和淀粉含量,轻度干旱胁迫可提高枸杞色变期叶片果糖和蔗糖含量,而成熟期叶片淀粉含量则随着干旱加重而升高.(2)干旱胁迫降低了青果期枸杞叶片中性转化酶(NI)、蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)和蔗糖合成酶(SS)的活性,降低了色变期和成熟期叶片酸性转化

  9. The Intervention Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Adulthood Lower Fertility Reproduction Induced by Neonatal Exposed to Methylmercury Chloride in Rats%枸杞多糖对新生鼠氯化甲基汞慢暴露染毒致成年期生育能力下降的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹池; 刘香; 陈海斌; 罗迈; 崔静; 张华; 王米佳; 王丹; 田建英

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨早期低剂量接触氯化甲基汞( Methyl Mercury Chloride , MMC)对大鼠生殖功能和生长发育的影响以及枸杞多糖( Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides ,LBP)的早期干预。方法:将60只健康7日龄大鼠随机分为对照组( CON)、MMC组、MMC+LBP组、LBP组,MMC组和MMC+LBP组均颈部皮下注射MMC,CON组颈部注射相同剂量的生理盐水, MMC+LBP组同时喂养LBP,雌雄合笼,自然观察各组体重发育以及生殖繁育能力以及子代仔鼠早期生长发育和存活状况。再将已孕母鼠哺乳期仔鼠染毒,观察母鼠产仔情况。结果:1)MMC组毛色萎缩,精神状态倦怠、动作不活泼、食欲不振。2)MMC组生长较缓慢且随染毒时间的延长而明显。3)MMC组染毒大鼠未产仔,MMC+LBP组有产仔,但产死率高、出生后存活率低于CON;LBP组产死率较CON低。4)MMC+LBP组有畸胎,且仔鼠出生体重与正常CON和LBP组仔鼠出生体重有统计学意义(P<0.01)。5)染毒仔鼠影响其已孕母鼠再次生育。结论:MMC对大鼠有生殖发育毒性,LBP可抑制MMC引起的生殖毒性。%Objective:To detect the toxicity of neonatal exposed to methylmercury chloride on the adulthood reproduction ,as well as ear-ly growth and development in rats and the intervention of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide .Methods:Sixty SD of 7 d rats were randomly divided into saline Control , MMC, MMC+LBP, LBP.The natural development , weight growth and fertilities were observed .Healthy pregnant female rats and MMC exposed neonatal rats and were also observed .Results:1) Compared with the control group , the rats in MMC group was dropping, inactivity, loss of appetite;2) The weights of rats in MMC group grew slower than in control rats with the ex-posure time dependently;3) MMC group were infertility after exposure to the methyl mercury .There remained offspring in MMC+LBP group and their after-born death rates

  10. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide attenuates cisplatin- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Li-Qiong Huang1,2, Yuan-Zhen Zhang1,2*, Bo Zheng3, Yi He3 .... Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted from the cultured GCs ... China), and reverse-transcribed into cDNA using ... transcripts was calculated on the basis of CP .... The follicle is the fundamental structure and.

  11. Anti-tumor effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on pancreatic cancer cells by polarization of macrophages%枸杞多糖通过诱导巨噬细胞极化抗胰腺癌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青; 白光; 王巍; 包翠芬; 翟振华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on restraining the mouse pancre⁃atic cancer cells LTPA by the polarization of macrophages to type 1 macrophages (M1). Methods LTPA tumor model of the subcutaneous CB-17SCID mice was constructed. Model mice were randomly divided into tumor-bearing model group (n=10) and LBP treatment group (n=10). The LBP treatment group was fed 10mg/kg LBP every day, and the tumor-bearing model group was fed the same dose of normal saline. The same amount of macrophages Raw264.7 was randomly divided into the control group and experimental groups (different concentrations of LBP). MTT assay was used to detect the optical density (OD) of Raw264.7 in experimental groups and control group. ELISA was used to detect the levels of the interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 in experimental group (LBP was 100 mg/L) and the control group. Flow cytometry was used to test the levels of the membrane protein CD16/32 and CD206 in experimental group (LBP was 100 mg/L) and the control group. The tumor mass was weighted and the volume was calculated after three weeks. The effects of LBP on the growth of subcutaneous tumor were detected. HE staining and KI-67 staining were used to detect the microscopic changes of tumor and the proliferation of the LTPA. Results The dose of 100 mg/L LBP can promote the growth of the macrophages Raw264.7 (P<0.01), and induced the high expression of CD16/32 and low expression of CD206, high secretion of IL-12 and low secretion of IL-10. The weight, volume of the tumor and the expression of KI-67 were significantly lower in experimental group than those in the con⁃trol group (P<0.01). The microscopic necrosis area range of tumor was larger than that of control group. Conclusion The LBP has the effect of restraining LTPA by the polarization of macrophages to M1.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)通过诱导巨噬细胞极化成一型巨噬细胞(M1)抗小鼠胰腺癌细胞LTPA的

  12. Head-space Gas Chromatography Comparison of Volatile Organic Compounds from Packing Materials and Packaged Lycium barbarum Pieces%包装材料与枸杞子饮片中挥发性有机物的顶空气相色谱比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宇; 银玲; 刘友平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare volatile organic compounds in nine samples including three blank packaging materials ( composite membrane of polyethylene and aluminum foil, polyethylene plastic membrane, leather condensate membrane paper) , these three kinds of materials have packaged and Lycium barbarum pieces have packaged for 12 months using these three kinds of packaged materials. Method: Component analysis of volatile organic compounds in these nine samples was determined by head-space gas chromatography, the relative content of each compound was gained by area normalization method. Result: Vvolatile organic compounds in each sample were mainly oxidation terpenoids, aldoketones and fatty acids compounds, among them, blank polyethylene bag peculiarly included volatile dissolvent (ethanol and acetone) ; Isopropyl alcohol and n-pentanol were only being in leather condensate membrane paper; polyethylene bag and leather condensate membrane paper which packaged L. barbarum pieces for 12 months all contained benzaldehyde. Three blank packaging material all contained BHT which was additive antioxidant usually used in plastic packaging materials, only blank leather condensate membrane bag contained BHA which was additive antioxidant usually used in plastic packaging materials; furfuraldehyde was the main ingredient in L. barbarum which packaged for 12 months. Conclusion: Compositions and relative content of L. barbarum pieces using different packing materials were different, it showed that packaging materials had an important effect on volatile organic compounds in the pieces.%目的:对3种空白包装材料(聚乙烯铝箔复合膜、聚乙烯塑料膜、牛皮凝膜纸)、3种已包装材料及采用3种包装材料包装12月的枸杞子饮片共9个样品中的挥发性有机物进行比较研究.方法:采用顶空气相色谱法对9个样品中的挥发性有机物进行成分分析,用面积归一化法获得各化合物的相对含量.结果:各样品中挥发性有机

  13. Comparative analysis of anthocyanin biosynthesis during fruit development in two Lycium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaohua; Wu, Min; Zou, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Hayward, Alice; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    Dietary consumption of functional foods enriched in anthocyanins benefit for human health by protection against far-ranging human diseases. Delphinidin-derived anthocyanins (valuable as blue pigments and antioxidants) are accumulated specifically in the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum but not in the fruits of Lycium barbarum, suggesting the differences of anthocyanin biosynthesis between the two species. In this study, anthocyanin profiling confirmed that anthocyanins were increasingly accumulated during fruit ripening in L. ruthenicum, and sharply increased at full expanded mature fruit, while no anthocyanin were detected at any stage of L. barbarum fruit development. Several genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were characterized in L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum fruits. Expression profiling of these genes during fruit development showed a significant positive correlation between transcript abundance and anthocyanin accumulation in L. ruthenicum fruit. Meanwhile, transcripts in L. barbarum fruit were either undetectable or were downregulated during fruit ripening, before increasing slightly in the final stages of maturation. In addition, the ratio of LrF3'5H/LrF3'H transcription showed a gradual increase before 6 days after breaker (DAB) and a sharp enhancement at 10 DAB. Our results suggest that the expression patterns of both regulatory and structural genes and the transcriptional ratio of branch-node structural genes F3'5'H/F3'H may determine the phenotypic difference in anthocyanin biosynthesis between L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum fruits.

  14. 木虱啮小蜂对枸杞、枸杞木虱的行为反应%Behavior responses of Tetrastichus sp., an ectoparasitiod wasp, to its host,Paratrioza sinica Yang & Li and host plant, Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段立清; 刘宽余; Imre S.OTVOS; 冯淑军; 李海平; 单艳敏

    2005-01-01

    木虱啮小蜂Tetrastichus sp.是枸杞木虱Paratrioza sinica Yang& Li若虫外寄生蜂,是控制枸杞木虱种群数量动态的重要因子之一.为查明其寻找寄主的信息素,应用四臂嗅觉仪、培养皿两种方法测定了枸杞Lycium barbarum L.的健康叶、虫伤叶、枸杞木虱若虫、若虫与叶复合体、卵与叶复合体和若虫分泌物等不同物质对木虱啮小蜂行为反应的影响.结果证明枸杞木虱若虫分泌物对木虱啮小蜂有明显的吸引作用,四臂嗅觉仪测定时有73%的雌蜂趋向分泌物材料区(P=O.0000).枸杞健康叶,虫伤叶及其水、正丁烷提取物,卵与枸杞叶复合体对木虱啮小蜂无明显吸引作用.木虱若虫水提物及正丁烷提取物在培养皿中可吸引木虱啮小蜂并可引起刺探行为,但嗅觉仪测定时单独若虫并不吸引木虱啮小蜂,只有活体若虫与枸杞叶片复合体才对木虱啮小蜂有吸引作用(P=0.0004).木虱啮小蜂通过与寄主若虫的接触,可提高其搜索效率.接触过寄主若虫的雌蜂第一次找到寄主的时间显著少于未曾接触寄主若虫的雌蜂,前者只用后者1/4的时间,说明该寄生蜂能对其寄主若虫进行学习.

  15. 分子修饰后枸杞多糖对睾丸生精功能保护作用%Protective Effects of Molecularly Modified Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Testicular Spermatogenic Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李环; 张晶; 赵宏伟; 于敬红

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察硒化枸杞多糖对邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)所致的雄性大鼠睾丸组织氧化损伤的保护作用,并确定枸杞硒多糖的最佳反应条件.方法 在醋酸催化作用下,利用亚硒酸钠对枸杞多糖进行分子修饰.将48只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组、DBP+硒化枸杞多糖组、DBP+硒组、DBP+枸杞多糖组、DBP染毒组,连续灌胃30d,检测睾丸组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量.结果 硒化枸杞多糖的最佳条件是室温(20℃),亚硒酸钠与枸杞多糖用量为1∶1,反应时间为48h.硒化枸杞多糖组与除对照组的其他组比较脂质过氧化指标均有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时硒化枸杞多糖可显著提高体内SOD,T-AOC以及GSH-Px含量,降低MDA水平.结论 硒化修饰枸杞多糖后的抗氧化作用要强于普通枸杞多糖和无机硒.%Objective To observe the protective effect of selenium lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-induced male rat testicular oxidative tissue damage and determine the best reaction condition for obtaining selenium LBP. Method On the basis of the catalytic effect of acetic acid, sodium selenite was used for the molecular modification of LBP.48 Healthy male SD rats were divided into control group,DBP + selenium group,LBP group,DBP + selenium group,DBP + LBP group and DBP-infected group at random. They were given the corresponding agents in intragastric administration for 30 days. Contents of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) , total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)and malondialdehyde (MDA)in testicular tissues of the rats were measured. Results The best conditions for making the selenium LBP included that the best temperature was room temperature (20 ℃), the proportion of sodium selenite and LBP was 1 :1 ,and the reaction time was 48 h. Compared with those in the other groups except the control group,the lipid

  16. Neuroprotective effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharides after cavernous nerve crush injury in a rat model%枸杞多糖对大鼠海绵体神经钳夹损伤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 丁协刚; 赵颀涵; 罗琼; 李世文; 王行环

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨使用枸杞多糖(LBP)修复钳夹损伤的海绵体神经(CN),恢复自主勃起功能的可行性.方法 21只雄性SD大鼠随机分成3组,即假手术组、LBP组、损伤对照组,于术后3个月电刺激CN测定海绵体内压(ICP)及平均动脉压(MAP),取CN进行甲苯胺蓝染色检测有髓轴突数目,取阴茎组织进行烟酰胺腺嘌呤二核苷酸磷酸(NADPH)染色检测一氧化氮合酶(NOS)阳性神经纤维数目.结果 LBP组ICP/MAP比值(0.44 ±0.05)明显高于损伤对照组(0.26 ±0.03,P<0.05),但低于假手术组(0.68 ±0.08,P<0.05).LBP组CN有髓轴突数目(106.8 ±17.9),与假手术组(180.9 ±15.3)和损伤对照组(64.9±l3.9)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).阴茎背神经NOS阳性神经纤维数目(164.2±12.2),与假手术组(263.3 ±15.0)和损伤对照组(85.6±14.7)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 LBP可促进CN钳夹损伤后的神经再生及勃起功能的恢复.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of erectile function recovery by repairing crushed cavernous nerves (CN) with lyceum barbarum polysaccharides (LBP).Methods Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:sham group,LBP group,and control group.Erectile function was assessed by cavernous nerve electrostimulation at 3rd month after operation and nerve regeneration was assessed by toluidine blue staining of CN and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase staining of penile tissue.Results The peak ICP/MAP ratio in LBP group (0.44 ± 0.05) was significantly higher than in control group (0.26 ± 0.03,P < 0.05),but lower than in sham group (0.68-± 0.08,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more myelinated axons of CNs (106.8 ± 17.9) than the control group (64.9 ± 13.9,P < 0.05),but fewer than the sham group (180.9 ± 15.3,P < 0.05).The LBP group had more NOS diaphorase positive nerve (164.2 ± 12.2) than the control group (85.6 ±14.7,P<0.05),but fewer than the sham group

  17. 枸杞多糖对雏鸡淋巴细胞体外增殖及分泌IL-2的影响%Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide on Cell Proliferation of Chicken Lymphocytes and IL-2 Excretion in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占云; 秦睿玲; 褚耀诚; 李国辉; 李春红; 王丽

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on cell proliferation of chicken Lymphocytes in vitro. Different concentrations of LBP were added into cultured with plants hemagg-lutinin (PHA) stimulated chicken thymus, spleen and peripheral blood lymphocyte, and cultured with bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated chicken bursa of Fabricius, peripheral blood lymphocyte, spleen, MTT method and ELISA method were used to determine the lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion respectively. The results showed that: (1) LBP could stimulate T, B lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion in certain concentration range and with the increase of the concentration of polysaccharide increase; (2) The OD value of T, B lymphocyte with the source of the same organ were significantly growth trend with chickens dayage growth in same concentration of LBP. (3) The OD value of thymus T lymphocyte and bursa of Fabricius B lymphocyte were higher than in peripheral blood and the spleen T, B lymphocytes with the same concentration LBP and the same day age of chicken. These results indicated that LBP could stimulate T, B lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 excretion, and the promoting function of lymphocyte proliferation have certain concentration-response, time relationship and organizational correlation.%为探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)对雏鸡T、B淋巴细胞体外增殖的影响,将不同浓度的LBP分别加入到用植物血凝素(PHA)刺激的体外培养的雏鸡胸腺、外周血、脾脏淋巴细胞中,以及用细菌脂多糖(LPS)刺激的体外培养的雏鸡法氏囊、外周血、脾脏淋巴细胞中,分别用MTT比色法和ELISA法测定淋巴细胞增殖的变化以及IL-2的分泌量.结果显示:(1)LBP在一定浓度范围内时,均能刺激T、B淋巴细胞的增殖和促进IL-2的分泌,且随着多糖浓度的增加而增加;(2)LBP对同一器官来源的T、B淋巴细胞的OD值随着雏鸡日龄的

  18. Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid and Oxidative Stress of the Liver in Hyperlipidemic Mice%枸杞多糖对高脂血症小鼠血脂及肝脏氧化应激的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓丹; 李光华; 周旭; 丁娟; 罗彦

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨枸杞多糖(lycium barbarum polysaccharides,LBP)对高脂血症小鼠肝脏胆固醇7α-羟化酶(cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase,CYP7A1)mRNA表达及氧化应激功能的影响.方法 选取健康雄性昆明种小鼠26只,随机分为正常对照组、高脂血症组、高脂血症+ LBP组;除正常对照组给予正常饮食,高脂血症组、高脂血症+ LBP组采用高脂饲料喂养法建立小鼠高脂血症模型;模型建立成功后,高脂血症+LBP组于每天上午9:00按80mg·(kg·d)-1 LBP灌胃;正常对照组、高脂血症组在同样时间以同样容量生理盐水灌胃,持续灌胃30d.采用酶联免疫法测定血清总胆固醇(total cholesterol,TC)、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)、热休克蛋白70(heat shock protein 70,HSP 70)水平;采用吸光光度法测定肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(super oxide dismutase,SOD)、肝脏丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)表达水平;采用实时荧光定量PCR技术测定肝脏CYP7A1mRNA表达水平.结果 与正常对照组比较,高脂血症组小鼠血清TC、TG、肝脏MDA均升高(P<0.01),肝脏SOD、肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平均下降(P<0.01),高脂饮食+LBP组血清TC、TG、HSP70升高(P<0.01),而肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平则降低(P<0.05);与高脂血症组比较,高脂血症+LBP组小鼠血清TC、肝脏MDA均下降(P<0.01),肝脏SOD、肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA表达水平、HSP 70升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 LBP可提高高脂血症小鼠抗氧化应激能力,并可能通过上调高脂血症小鼠肝脏CYP7A1 mRNA的表达降低胆固醇.

  19. Goji Berry: Quality Assessment and Crop Adaptation of Plants Cultivated in Tuscany (Italy) by Combination of Carotenoid and DNA Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecchi, Giada; Goti, Emanuele; Nicolai, Elena; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Monnanni, Roberto; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-06-01

    In this study HPLC analysis for the evaluation of carotenoids and DNA barcoding are reported for three different samples of Lycium cultivated in Tuscany (Italy). These two analytical methods can represent integrative methods for quality control of goji, giving also crucial information on the plant adaptation to different environments. Hence, carotenoids represent the quality markers proposed by the monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia, while DNA barcoding can differentiate between species and populations and is useful for the detection of the homogeneity of the samples.

  20. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Naman, C. Benjamin; Deng, Ye; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2?8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value ...

  1. Effects of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum in alloxan-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Diabetes was induced in fasted mice (12 h) by intraperitoneal inject- tion of 200 mg/kg ... was confirmed by the determination of tail vein blood glucose levels ... 400 mg/kg to different groups of mice (5 mice in each group). The.

  2. A Study on Polar Extracts from Lycium barbarum L Fruits on the Thermal Stability of Oil%宁夏枸杞子极性提取物在食用油高温氧化中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芝杨

    2011-01-01

    L.barbarum L fruits were extracted with 95% ethanol.Antioxidative activity of polar extracts was studied in the system of lard and sunflower seeds oil by examining POV.Extracts showed good antioxidation ability for lard and sunflower seeds oil.%利用95%乙醇提取宁夏枸杞子的极性物质。采用Schaal法研究了宁夏枸杞子极性提取物在食用油高温氧化过程中的作用。研究表明,枸杞子极性提取物对猪油、葵花籽油的氧化均具有良好抑制作用。

  3. Soil Salinity Changes Under Cropping with L ycium barbarum L.and Irrigation with Saline-Sodic Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Chao-Yin; KANG Yao-Hu; WAN Shu-Qin; HU Wei

    2011-01-01

    In order to utilize the wasted saline-sodic soils under shallow groundwater condition,a 3-year field study was carried in a field cropped with Lycium barbarum L.and irrigated by drip irrigation with saline groundwater under the water table depth of 30-40 cm in the northern Yinchuan Plain,China.Effects of cropping duration (one,two,and three years) on soil salinity,soil solution composition,and pH in three adjacent plots were investigated in 2008.Results showed that a high irrigation frequency maintained high soil water potential and subsequently facilitated infiltration and downward movement of water and salt in the crop root zone.Salt accumulated on the edges of the ridges,and soil saturated-paste electrical conductivity (ECe) was higher in the edge.Concentrations of Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+,Cl-,and SO42- in the soil increased with the soil depth as did the ECe,while HCO3- and pH had a relative uniform distribution in soil profile.As planting year increased,the ECe and soil salts in the field had a decreasing tendency,while in the root zone they decreased immediately after irrigation and then remained relatively stable in the following growing seasons.HCO3- and pH had little change with the planting year.Results suggested that the application of drip irrigation with saline water could ameliorate saline-sodic soil and provide a relatively feasible soil environment for the growth of salt-tolerant plant Lycium barbarum L.under the saline-sodic soils with shallow groundwater.

  4. Effect of Dry Goji Berry and Pumpkin Powder on Quality of Cooked and Smoked Beef with Reduced Nitrite Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira S. Serikkaisai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The colorant and antioxidant activity of dried fruits of Goji Berry (GB (Lycium chinense and/or butternut Pumpkin Powder (PP (Cucurbita moschata can be used for reduction of part of nitrites in cooked and smoked meat products. Since many of these natural biological active substances are consumed together and probably have the potential for synergistic interactions. The objective of this study was to establishe the potential of to concentrations 0.5 and 1.0% of GB and/or PP separately or in combinations, as additives for processing of cooked and smoked beef striploin with 1/2 reduced nitrite content. The separate use of GB or PP leads to certain abnormalities in sensory quality and technological properties but the addition to the pikle a combination containing 1.0% of GB and 0.5% PP guarantee good quality, nise sensory properties and colour characteristics and inhibite the oxidative changes in cooked and smoked beef striploin with a half reduced amounts of nitrites.

  5. Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries - The effect on bioactive compound content and sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducruet, Julien; Rébénaque, Pierrick; Diserens, Serge; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Héritier, Isabelle; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2017-07-01

    Goji berries, traditionally used in Chinese medicine, are nowadays gaining popularity in the Western world. Efforts are made to enlarge the offer of goji containing foods. In this study, goji berries were added to ale type beer at different stages of the production process in order to develop a beverage with desirable sensory characteristic and high antioxidant capacity. The obtained beers differed significantly in terms of appearance, taste and antioxidant activity. Consumers preferred beers to which goji berries were added at the beginning of the brewing process. These beers were also characterized by lower turbidity, high color intensity, caramel- and coffee-like taste, high antioxidant activity and high content of bioactives such as rutin and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid. To conclude, an addition of goji berries to traditional brewing process creates a perspective to enlarge the range of goji containing foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Goji Berries and Honey on Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability and Shelf Life Stability of Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Ancuţa M. Rotar; Dan Cristian VODNAR; Florina BUNGHEZ; Giorgiana Mihaela CĂTUNESCU; Carmen R. POP; Mirela JIMBOREAN; Semeniuc, Cristina A.

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic properties and the viability of lactic acid bacteria of fermented dairy products can be improved by addition of bioactive compounds originating from natural sources (e.g. goji berries). This study aimed to evaluate how goji berries and honey affect the sensorial quality of yoghurt, the chemical properties, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the concurrent microflora development. Two types of yoghurts (yoghurt with goji berries and yoghurt with honey and goji berries...

  7. Effects of Lycium barbarum. polysaccharide on type 2 diabetes mellitus rats by regulating biological rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: LBP-4a administration could treat T2DM rats. These observations provided the background for the further development of LBP-4a as a potential dietary therapeutic agent in the treatment of T2DM.

  8. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  9. Effect of Different Storage Period on Lactic Acid Bacterias from Goji Yogurt and Goji Yogurt with Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta M. Rotar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacterias (LAB: Streptococcus thermophilus-ST, Lactobacillus bulgaricus-LB are well known in the food technology area for their ability to produce lactic acid (LA from carbohydrates throught fermentation. In case of goji yogurt the interaction between the two species of LAB has influence on the fermentation period and LA quantity. LAB’s are widely used in the food industry because their growth in the dairy products lowers the carbohydrate content, they can also drop the pH values under 4.0, values were common pathogens are inhibited, and because of all these properties they are capable to prolong the shelf life. The present study aims to observe the evolution of LAB’s – ST and LB, from goji yogurt (7% (A and goji yogurt (7% with honey (B during the shelf life in corelation with other physico-chemical properties such as sugar content, fat content and dry matter. The samples for the evaluation were taken in the first day of storage, at the middle of storage period and in the last day of storage.

  10. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi,Geisson Marcos; Farias Januario, Adriana Graziele; Freire, Cassio Geremia; Megiolaro, Fernanda; Schneider, Kétlin; Perazzoli, Marlene Raimunda Andreola; Do Nascimento, Scheley Raap; Gon, Ana Cristina; Mariano, Luísa Nathália Bolda; Wagner, Glauber; Niero, Rivaldo; Locatelli, Claudriana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. Objective: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). Materials and Methods: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by hi...

  11. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  12. 银耳、枸杞多糖联合啤酒酵母的体外抑菌研究%Experiment on in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Beer Yeast Combined with Tremella,and Lycium bararum Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英英; 张莹; 李翠莲

    2012-01-01

    采用水提法制取银耳、枸杞多糖提取液,通过生长曲线研究2种提取液对啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)体外增殖的影响,同时以抑菌圈直径为指标研究其联合啤酒酵母的体外抑菌作用.结果表明,枸杞提取液抑制啤酒酵母的生长,但效果不显著;银耳提取液促进啤酒酵母的生长,效果也不显著.枸杞提取液及银耳提取液对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、沙门氏菌(Salmonella)有显著的抑菌效果;枸杞提取液及银耳提取液分别联合啤酒酵母对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌的抑菌效果强于啤酒酵母,显示出协同作用.银耳提取液可与啤酒酵母组成合生元.%Water extracts of Tremella and Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in different concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 2.5% were used to inspect the effect of proliferation on beer yeast with the grow curve. Antibacterial activities of beer yeast combined with the two water extracts respectively were detected by inhibition zone in vitro. The results showed that water extract of L. barbarum could inhibit growth of beer yeast with no significant difference while Tremella could promote the growth of beer yeast but not significantly. Data of inhibition zone in vitro showed that S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella were inhibited significantly after being treated with water extracts from L. barbarum and Tremella respectively, compared with negative control. Beer yeast combined with L. barbarum and Tremella water extract respectively could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella significantly, compared to positive control. In conclusion, L. barbarum and Tremella water extract combined with beer yeast could enhance the antibacterial activity in vitro. And Tremella water extracts and beer yeast can compose synbiotics.

  13. Pyrolysates of Polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum%枸杞多糖的热裂解产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖萌萌; 郭春生; 王政; 祈林; 张峻松

    2012-01-01

    利用裂解气相—色谱质谱联用(Py-GC/MS)对卷烟燃烧过程进行模拟,研究枸杞多糖在无氧条件下的热裂解,以期为枸杞多糖在卷烟中的应用提供一些理论基础.用GC-MS定性定量测定分析热裂解产物.比较了不同温度(300,600,900℃)下的裂解产物差异,对裂解产物进行了归类分析,并分析了主要裂解产物致香成分的致香效果,为卷烟评吸提供了理论依据.

  14. 基于数据挖掘的枸杞研究热点分析%Analysis on the Research Hotspots of Lycium L. Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭栋; 童元元; 黄生权; 邢鹏; 赵英凯

    2016-01-01

    about breeding were “genetic diversity”, “male sterile”, “its sequence”, “callus issue”, and“anther culture”. Key words about planting were“output”,“quality”,“hard twig cuttage”,“irrigation amount”. Key words about harvesting and processing were“picking machine of Lycium L.”,“drying kiln of Lycium L.”,“hot air drying”, and “combined drying”. Key words about storage were “pesticide residue”, “heavy metal”, and“organophosphorus pesticide”. Co-occurrence network of high-frequency key words showed that the research hotspots were pesticide residue, test of heavy metal and the storage of fresh fruits. Dendrogram of high-frequency key words showed that the high-frequency key words were “package”, “refreshment”, and “lycium barbarum polysaccharide”. Conclusion The research hotspots of planting of Lycium L. are planting skills effecting the output and quality of Lycium L.; In the field of harvesting and processing of Lycium L., design and research of picking machine has replaced traditional manual picking. Modern hot air drying has already replaced traditional drying in the sun or drying skills; In the aspect of storage of Lycium L., the study on the refreshment of Lycium L. has attached attention.

  15. Effects of leaves ofLycium barbarumon estrogen receptor in ovariectomized rats%宁夏枸杞叶对去势模型大鼠雌激素受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锋; 马敬祖; 巩凡; 高俊; 吕金悍

    2016-01-01

    背景:前期实验发现枸杞叶主要成分枸杞多糖对成年去势雌性大鼠骨质疏松有明显的骨质改善作用。  目的:观察宁夏枸杞叶对去势大鼠血清雌激素和骨组织雌激素受体表达的影响。  方法:SD雌性未孕6月龄大鼠32只,分为3组。模型组和治疗组切除大鼠卵巢建立绝经后骨质疏松症动物模型。假手术组仅切除卵巢周围少许脂肪组织立即关闭切口。造模后8周后治疗组大鼠随机分为2组,分别饮水服枸杞叶500 mg/kg(治疗低剂量组)和枸杞叶1000 mg/kg(治疗高剂量组),每天1次,连续12周;模型组和假手术组给予等量的蒸馏水。用放射免疫法(RIA 法)检测大鼠血清中的雌二醇的水平变化,运用免疫组织化学方法检测雌性大鼠各组骨组织中雌激素受体的变化。  结果与结论:与假手术组比较,模型组大鼠血清雌二醇明显降低(P OBJECTIVE:To explore effects of leaves ofLycium barbarum on serum estradiol and bone estrogen receptor expressions in adult oxariectomized female rats. METHODS: Thirty-two 6-month-od female rats were randomized into sham-surgery, model, and treatment groups, respectively. Rat models of postmenopausal osteoporosis were induced by ovariotomy folowed by oraly administration of water solution of leaves ofLycium barbarum (500 or 1 000 mg/kg) or distiled water once daily for consecutive 12 weeks in treatment and model groups, respectively. Serum estradiol level was detected by radiation immunoassaymethod. Estrogen receptor α, β immunoreactivities in bone tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Serum estradiol level in the model group was significantly decreased compared with the sham-surgery group (P < 0.01), but that was significantly increased in the treatment groups, particularly at high dose, compared with the model group (P< 0.01). Estrogen receptor α, βimmunoreactivities were weaker in the

  16. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guanshen; Ren, Jie; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Liying; Wang, Mengze; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bolin; Zhu, Baoqing

    2016-10-02

    This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E)-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  17. Effect of Raw Material, Pressing and Glycosidase on the Volatile Compound Composition of Wine Made From Goji Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshen Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of raw material, pressing, and glycosidase on the aromatic profile of goji berry wine. The free-run and the pressed juice of dried and fresh goji berries were used for wine production, whereas glycosidase was applied to wine after fermentation. Dried goji berry fermented wine exhibited much stronger fruity, floral, caramel, and herbaceous odors due to higher levels of esters, β-ionone and methionol. However, fresh berry fermented wine possessed stronger chemical notes due to higher levels of 4-ethylphenol. Pressing treatment reduced the fruity and caramel odors in these fermented wines, and fresh berry free-run juice fermented wine exhibited the least floral aroma. Glycosidase addition did not alter the aromatic composition of wines. The principal component analysis indicated that goji raw material played a primary role in differentiating the aromatic profiles of the wines due to the difference on the content of 20 esters, nine benzenes, eight aldehydes/ketones, three acids, two alcohols and six other volatiles. The content differences on isopentyl alcohol, styrene, benzyl alcohol, 1-octanol, (E-5-decen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, and β-cyclocitral resulted in the segregation of the wines with and without the pressing treatment, especially for fresh berry fermented wine.

  18. Identification of microRNAs and target genes in the fruit and shoot tip of Lycium chinense: a traditional Chinese medicinal plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    Full Text Available Although Lycium chinense (goji berry is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, little genome information is available for this plant, particularly at the small-RNA level. Recent findings indicate that the evolutionary role of miRNAs is very important for a better understanding of gene regulation in different plant species. To elucidate small RNAs and their potential target genes in fruit and shoot tissues, high-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used followed by qRT-PCR and RLM 5'-RACE experiments. A total of 60 conserved miRNAs belonging to 31 families and 30 putative novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 62 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, of which 15 (14 known and 1 novel were shoot-specific, and 12 (7 known and 5 novel were fruit-specific. Additionally, 28 differentially expressed miRNAs were recorded as up-regulated in fruit tissues. The predicted potential targets were involved in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory pathways. GO (Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that "metabolic pathways" is the most significant pathway with respect to the rich factor and gene numbers. Moreover, five miRNAs were related to fruit maturation, lycopene biosynthesis and signaling pathways, which might be important for the further study of fruit molecular biology. This study is the first, to detect known and novel miRNAs, and their potential targets, of L. chinense. The data and findings that are presented here might be a good source for the functional genomic study of medicinal plants and for understanding the links among diversified biological pathways.

  19. Assessing phylogenetic relationships of Lycium samples using RAPD and entropy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lin YIN; Kai-tai FANG; Yi-zeng LIANG; Ricky NS WONG; Amber WY HA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among related species of Lycium samples. Methods: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting and lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis techniques were used to analyze the characteristics of Lycium species. Seven species and 3 varieties of Lycium were studied.Based on RAPD fingerprint data obtained from 11 primers, we proposed a new index, called dispersivity, using entropy theory and projection methods to depict the diversity of the DNA fingerprints. Results: Using the proposed dispersivity,primers were sorted and the dendrograms of the 7 species and 3 varieties of Lycium were constructed synthetically by merging primer information. Conclusion:Phylogenetic relationships among Lycium samples were constructed synthetically based on RAPD fingerprint data generated from 11 primers.

  20. 枸杞花药培养的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Anther Culture in Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽君; 周军; 曹有龙

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the culture technique in anther of Chinese wolfberry, we optimized the culture medium(including hormone combination) and cul-ture conditions. The results showed that calluses were induced from all the six tested Chinese wolfberry materials, hut the induction rate of callus varied to-ward the materials with different genotypes. When the experimental materials were cuhured on medium appended with 2,4-D 1.0 mg/L and KT 1.0 mg/L un-der dark, the callus induction rate reached 20.0 % in this study, and this hormone combination should be the optimum for anther culture of Chinese wolf-berry. With MS appended with 6-BA 0.5 mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L as differentiation medium and that appended with NAA 0.1 mg/L, the plants could be yielded in 20 days.

  1. Flowering Biological Characteristics of Lycium barbarum in Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region%宁南固原枸杞开花生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗术东; 王彪; 褚忠桥; 吴杰; 杨文寿; 张俊丽

    2011-01-01

    为明确宁夏南部山区枸杞的开花生物学特性,以当地枸杞主栽品种“宁杞一号”为材料,于2008-2010年对枸杞的开花物候、花粉活力、柱头可授性、泌蜜规律、花粉胚珠比和杂交指数等进行研究.结果表明,宁杞1号单花花期一般为3d左右,老眼枝花期在4月下旬至5月上旬,七寸枝花在5月下旬至7月上旬,盛花期在5月下旬至6月下旬.花后2h开始散粉,但花粉在散粉前就具有活力,花后6h活性最强,72 h时花粉基本散尽且残余花粉活力很低.花后27 h内,5 a生树七寸枝花粉活力高于同时期10 a生树的花粉活力,其他时间段花粉活力基本一致.柱头在松蕾期和花后3h内均不具备可授性,花后3h开始具有可授性,18~36 h达最强,36 h候后可授性逐渐下降,花后60 h时基本丧失可授性.一天当中,枸杞单花蜜量7:00最大,此后在蜜量上逐渐减少,但含糖量上升,到15:00以后蜜量开始出现回升趋势.七寸枝初花期的蜜量显著高于老眼枝,而5a生七寸枝在盛花期的蜜量显著高于10 a生树.枸杞单花花粉量约为241 000粒,花粉胚珠比介于4 918~6 694之间,杂交指数(OCI)为5,因而可以断定枸杞的繁育系统为专性异交类型,需要传粉媒介为其传粉.%To identify the flowering biological characteristics of Chinese wolf berry in the southern of Ningxia Hui autonomous region, the floral biological characteristics, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, nectar secretion rhythm, pollen ovule ratio and outcrossing index of "Ningqi 1" were investigated in this paper. The results suggested that the old branches flowered from the late of April to the first ten days of May, but the new branches flowered from the late of May to the first ten days of July, and the full-bloom stage started from the late of May to the late of June, and most of flowers bloom about 3 days. The pollen can maintain viability since the late of bud stage, the flower has the strongest viability at 6 hours after flowering, the flower diverging over its pollen 72 hours later and the residuary pollen has low viability. The pollen viability of the five years old Chinese wolfberry is stronger than 10 years old trees during the first 27 hours, and has the same strong viability since the flowers bloom for27 hours later. The stigma had no receptivity during the bud stage and the first 3 hours, with the passage of time, the stigma receptivity become more and more strong, and the stigma has the strongest receptivity since the flower flowered for 18 to 36 hours, the stigma decreased its receptivity after 36 hours and loss the receptivity after 60 hours. The nectar secretion rhythm is also investigated in this paper, the results showed that the maximum volume of nectar was appeared at 7-00, since then? The volume of nectar become less and less until 15:00, but the concentration of the sugar for the flower raised with the time. At the same time, new branches secreted more nectar than the old ones, the new branches of five years old tree secreted more nectar than ten years old tree during the full-bloom stage. The pollen quantity of whole flower is about 241 000, and the pollen ovule ratio is about 4 918 ~6 694, the outcrossing index is five, so the breeding system is obligate xenogamy, this suggested that insect pollination will benefit to the pollination of Chinese wolfberry.

  2. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  3. Breeding systems in some representatives of the genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Minne

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the ovule and the embryo sac of five of the 17 species of Lycium and of one hybrid, recorded for southern Africa, was investigated. All specimens of four of the species and the hybrid (between a hermaphroditic and a functionally dioecious species were found to be functionally dioecious: they express only one sex, although both male and female organs are present in the same tlower. One species was hermaphroditic. The embryo sacs of all species, and of the hybrid, were of the normal eight-nucleate Polygonum type. The structure of the ovary and the development of the embryo sac are similar to those of L europaeum L. The absence of unreduced embryo sacs indicates that apomixis does not occur at any ploidy level in the species studied.

  4. Isolationand structure elucidation of coumarin and cinamate derivatives from Lycium ruthenicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Valizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lyciumspecies is a popular medicinal plant in the traditional Chinese medicine and Lycium ru-thenicum is a native medicinal plant of Iran. Lycium genus has several biologically important properties too. Investigation of chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of this plant is the goal of this study. Two coumarins (Scopoletin and Sculetin and Methyl-2-hydroxy-4-undecanoxy-trans-cinamate were isolated and characterized as the major constituents using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic data, MS spectrometry, elemental analysis and by comparison with the literature values. Phytochemical investigation of Lyciumruthenicum demonstrated the presence of important biologically active compounds. This is the first phyto-chemical study of this species in Iran.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Lycium chinense Juice and in Lycium chinense Wine by HS-GC-MS%采用HS-GC-MS法对枸杞汁发酵前后香气成分的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 张惠玲; 周广志

    2015-01-01

    The volatile compounds in Lycium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine were extracted by HS-SPME, the aroma compounds among them were then analyzed by GC-MS, and the aroma composition and their relative content between Lycium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine were compared. The results suggested that, there was significant different in aroma varieties and aroma composition between Ly-cium chinense juice and Lycium chinense wine, 31 peaks in Lycium chinense juice and 58 peaks in Lycium chinense wine were detected respec-tively, and 13 kinds of compounds in Lycium chinense juice and 32 kinds of compounds in Lycium chinense wine were identified respectively. The facts proved that after the fermentation, the varieties and the content of flavoring compounds in Lycium chinense juice got increased.%采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)法提取枸杞汁和枸杞酒样品中的挥发性成分,采用气相色谱质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对其中的香气化合物进行鉴定,并对二者香气组成和相对含量进行对比。结果表明,枸杞汁和枸杞酒中香气种类和组成具有明显差异,在枸杞汁和枸杞酒中分别检测出31个和58个峰,鉴定出13种和32种化合物。枸杞汁经过发酵,其风味物质的种类和含量得到增加。

  6. The Fermentation of Dry Goji & V.davidii Foex Wine%干枸杞刺葡萄酒发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘斌

    2015-01-01

    采用闽东地区产的刺葡萄和宁夏干枸杞为原料,加入适量的蜂蜜调整糖度,经混合控温发酵,然后冷冻澄清处理,无菌灌装等工艺处理得成品酒。研究表明,干枸杞∶刺葡萄为1∶10,发酵温度25~27℃,主发酵时间10 d,在12℃条件下后发酵21 d得成品枸杞刺葡萄酒。成品酒清亮透明,酒体色泽呈宝石红,有光泽,无沉淀物,无悬浮物,酒体感官醇香,果香明显,口感细腻,具有枸杞、刺葡萄和蜂蜜特有的风味,产品特色明显。%In this study, wine was produced as follows:V.davidii Foex (planted in Mindong region) and dry goji (planted in Ningxia) used as raw materials, proper amount of honey added to adjust sugar degree, mixed temperature-controlling fermentation applied, and frozen clarifica-tion and aseptic filling adopted. The research showed that, the ratio of dry goji and V.davidii Foex was 1∶10, fermentation temperature was at 25~27℃, chief fermentation time was 10 d, after 21 d fermentation at 12℃, product wine was finally obtained. The product wine was clear and transparent, shiny, and ruby red in color with no precipitate and no suspended solids. The wine had mellow and delicate taste, with the unique flavor of goji, V.davidii Foex and honey.

  7. 吡虫啉在枸杞中的残留动态%Residues Dynamics of Imidacloprid in Lycium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 王晓菁; 牛艳; 吴燕

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate residues dynamics of imidacloprid in lycium, field trials for imidacloprid residue in lycium were conducted in Ningxia, Neimenggu and Gansu. The results showed that the residues and degradation dynamics of imidacloprid in lycium completely fitted to the first-order reaction kinetic equation. The half-life of degradation for imidacloprid was 3. 0 to 3. 4 d in fresh lycium berries,2. 9 to 5. 0 d in dry fruits. According to the recommended application dosage, the final residue ranged from 0. 004 2 to 0. 403 mg/kg of imidacloprid in lycium. The maximum residue limit was recommended 1 mg/kg in lycium.%为了评价吡虫啉在枸杞上使用后的残留动态,在宁夏、内蒙古和甘肃同时进行残留动态试验.结果表明,吡虫啉在枸杞中的残留消解完全符合一级反应动力学方程式,在枸杞鲜果上的半衰期为3.0~3.4 d,在枸杞干果上的半衰期为2.9~5.0 d;按推荐剂量施用的情况下,在枸杞中的残留为0.004 2~0.403mg/kg.吡虫啉在枸杞中最高残留限量(MRL值)推荐值为1 mg/kg.

  8. Breaking the resistance of Escherichia coli: Antimicrobial activity of Berberis lycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Ahad, Shazia; Tantry, Mudasir A; Hussain, P R; Johri, R K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of root bark of Berberis lycium and its principal component berberine was tested against a panel of microbial strains using agar well diffusion test and further analyzed using micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary analysis, on the basis of zone of Inhibition (ZOI) showed that the methanolic extract of B. lycium was highly effective against Escherichia coli (ZOI 41 ± 1 mm). Among the bacterial strains E. coli was found to be most susceptible and among fungi Candida albicans was the most susceptible for berberine as well as the crude methanolic extract of the plant. Methanolic extract of the plant was more effective for E. coli (MIC 1.7 ± 1.18; MBC 2.4 ± 1.18) than berberine (MIC 3.5 ± 0.57) (p resistant colonies after 72 h when tested with berberine but the development of such colonies was not observed with the methanolic extract of the plant. This could be due to the presence of resistance breaking molecules in the crude methanolic extract of B. lycium. Also the MIC index of crude methanolic extract was 1.39 for E. coli, which showed the mode of action to be bactericidal. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of berberine at highest concentration in methanolic extract of the plant, followed by aqueous extract. Potentiation of this berberine by resistance breaking molecules in the crude extract could be a possible explanation for its strong effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 响应面法优化枸杞多糖提取的研究%Study on Optimization of the Extraction Technology of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 鄢瑞明; 曾凡骏

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the method of polysaccharide extraction was hot water extraction and discussing the crushing of raw materials, decolor, pre-soaked in the three factors of pre-experimental extraction to the effect of the follow-up. With anthrone - sulfuric acid method, the content of LBP was tested under the 620nm and the yield was calculated. Box - Behnken statistical design technology was used to optimize the method of LBP extraction. With the response surface optimization, the optimum conditions were: extraction temperature 87℃, liquid ratio 1:26, extraction time 7h. On the condition, the highest yield of LBP was 8.2%. The results were not only had the best extraction conditions for LBP, but also the results of response surface design experiment was much higher the traditional orthogonal in the degree of accuracy. The reference was provided for flarge-scale factory production in the future.%实验采用热水浸提法提取多糖,以蒽酮—硫酸法在620nm下检测枸杞多糖的含量,计算出得率.采用Box -Behnken统计设计技术优化枸杞多糖提取方法,得到的最佳工艺条件是:提取温度87℃,料液比1∶26,提取时间7h,一次提取枸杞多糖得率最高可达8.2%.不仅得出了枸杞多糖的最佳提取条件,而且采用响应面设计实验得到的结果相对传统的正交实验准确度更高,为以后大规模工厂化生产提供了参考.

  10. Studies of polyamine metabolism in somatic embryo-genesis of Lycium barbarum%枸杞体细胞胚发生过程中内源多胺代谢动态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢更妹; 黄惠英; 王亚馥

    2002-01-01

    完全脱分化的枸杞继代愈伤组织在转入分化培养后第1天就开始启动分化,接着体细胞转变为胚性细胞,继而分裂形成多细胞原胚、球形胚和成熟胚等.与此同时,Put含量迅速上升形成第1个峰值,随后有所下降,但到多细胞原胚期Put含量又上升,并达到最高峰,为对照的6倍.Spd只在胚性细胞分化早期出现,Spm仅在体细胞胚发育晚期存在.外源Put不仅可提高体细胞胚发生频率,而且使3种内源多胺含量均有所提高.加入多胺生物合成抑制剂DFMA后,多胺水平下降,体细胞胚发生几乎完全被抑制.补充外源Put后,多胺的生物合成得到部分恢复,DFMA对体细胞胚发生的抑制效应也被部分解除.结果表明,维持一定量的多胺水平是枸杞体细胞胚发生的必要因素.

  11. 宁夏枸杞蚜虫发生规律及其气象等级预报%Occurrence of Aphis sp. on Lycium barbarum L. and Its Meteorological Grades Forecast in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 张宗山; 马力文; 黄峰; 卫建国; 张玉兰

    2015-01-01

    根据人工气候箱内不同温度条件下2次枸杞蚜虫饲养试验,确定枸杞蚜虫发育起始温度,建立蚜虫发育速率与温度的关系方程,以5.0℃作为枸杞蚜虫发育的起点温度,利用该方程对1991-2012年宁夏枸杞蚜虫繁衍动态和全年可繁殖世代数进行推算。根据2006-2008年田间蚜虫调查的虫口密度与气象因子建立的统计关系,确定枸杞蚜虫发生程度的气象指标和为害等级预报模型,并用2012年中宁田间调查情况进行验证。结果表明,宁夏枸杞蚜虫平均起始发生期为3月27日,终止时间为10月下旬,全年可繁殖21~25代,为害高峰时段为第3~12代,干旱、晴天条件下枸杞蚜虫更易发展,多雨、高湿环境抑制枸杞蚜虫的发展。预报模型回代准确率88.2%,异地检验准确率100%,效果良好,说明模型和气象指标可用于监测、预测枸杞蚜虫的繁殖世代数和为害的气象等级。%The initial growth temperature of aphis sp. was defined according to 2 feeding experiments under different temperature treatments in the HGP ̄280H type climatic cabinet,the equation between growth rate of aphis sp. and temperature was established based on the initial growth temperature. The breeding date of each generation and annual total generations from 1991 to 2012 were estimated by using the equation,taking 5. 0℃ as aphis sp. initial growth threshold temperature. The meteorological indicators and prediction model on aphis sp. hazard grades were determined, according to the statistic relationship between population density and its meteorological factors from 2006 to 2008,and verified by using investigated data in Zhongning in 2012. The result showed that the average initial occurring date of aphis sp. was on March 27 and ending date was in later of October. Aphis sp. could breeding 21 ̄23 generations each year, of which 3 ̄12 generations was serious damaged. Drying and sunshine was benefit to them growth and development,and rainy and high humidity inhibited them development. The accuracy of the model and meteorological indicators was 88. 2% and the accuracy of off ̄site observed data was 100% . Those models and meteorological indexes were suitable for monitoring aphis sp. growth state and forecasting hazard grades.

  12. 枸杞蔗糖合成酶基因cDNA分离及表达分析%Isolation and Expression Analysis of Sucrose Synthase Gene cDNA from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 石晶; 王彦才

    2013-01-01

    以“宁杞1号”为试材,根据已知植物物种蔗糖合成酶基因(Susy)保守区序列设计引物,进行Lb Susy基因保守区的克隆,并根据保守片段核苷酸序列,利用RACE技术扩增基因全长.然后分析Lb Sus基因生物学信息,同时利用Real-time PCR检测Susy基因在枸杞不同组织器官中的表达量.结果表明:经RT-PCR扩增得到长度为2 926 bp的基因片段,克隆到pGM-TEasy载体中,命名为Lb Susy(GenBank:KC907702).推导氨基酸序列与番茄、欧洲桤木等蔗糖合成酶基因氨基酸序列同源性为100%~84%.运用PSORT服务器亚细胞定位分析表明,Lb Susy编码的蔗糖合成酶蛋白质定位于线粒体.Real-time PCR表达分析显示,Lb Susy基因在枸杞茎中表达量最高,在根中表达水平较低.

  13. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  14. Untersuchungen zum Inhaltsstoffspektrum der Blätter und Stängel von Lycium anatolicum (A. Baytop et R. Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegl, Regina

    2009-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit sollte mit Lycium anatolicum, eines in der Türkei endemischen Nachtschattengewächses, der bisherige Kenntnisstand zum Inhaltsstoffspektrum der Gattung Lycium bestätigt und erweitert werden. Hierzu wurden Extrakte aus getrockneten Stängeln und Blättern hergestellt und umfassend phytochemisch aufgearbeitet. Die Auftrennung der Extrakte erfolgte über offene Säulenchromatographie mit den stationären Phasen Kieselgel, Sephadex LH-20 und RP-18. Die abschließende Auftre...

  15. Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Chandra Paul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Actin (ACT for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant.

  16. New glycosidic constituents from fruits of Lycium chinense and their antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential biologically active new constituents labd-3β, 9β-diol-3α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2a → 1b-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2b → 1c-α-d-glucopyranosyl-(2c → 1d-α-d-arabinofuranosyl-2d-p-hydroxybenzoate (1 and α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2 → 1′-α-d-glucuronopyranosyl (2′ → 1″-α-d-glucopyranosyl-2″-n-octadec-9‴-enoate (2 along with β-sitosterol-β-d-glucoside were isolated from the fruits of Lycium chinense. Their chemical structures were elucidated using detailed spectroscopic studies. The structure assignments are based on two-dimensional (2D-NMR techniques including COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for antioxidant activities with three assay protocols such as diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the phosphomolybdenum activity, compound 2 showed more potential as compared with 1.

  17. Cloning and Characterization of a Lycium chinense Carotenoid Isomerase Gene Enhancing Carotenoid Accumulation in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李招娣; 季静; 王罡

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid isomerase(CRTISO)is a key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cis-lycopene to all-trans lycopene. In this study, we isolated and characterized the CRTISO gene from Lycium chinense (LcCRTISO) for the first time. The open reading frame of LcCRTISO was 1 815 bp encoding a protein of 604 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66.24 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the LcCRTISO had a high level of simi-larity to other CRTISO. Phylogenetic analysis displayed that LcCRTISO kept a closer relationship with the CRTISO of plants than with those of other species. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis indicated that LcCRTISO gene was expressed in all tissues tested with the highest expression in maturing fruits. The overexpression of LcCRTISO gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase of total carotenoids in the leaves withβ-carotene and lutein being the predominants. The results obtained here clearly suggested that the LcCRTISO gene was a promising candidate for carotenoid production.

  18. Protective Effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Against Radiation Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabin Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. against radiation injury was examined in mice. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a control group, model group, positive drug group and L. ruthenicum high dose (8 g/kg, L. ruthenicum middle dose (4 g/kg, L. ruthenicum low dose (2 g/kg treatment groups, for which doses were administered the third day, seventh day and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum extract was administered orally to the mice in the three treatment groups and normal saline was administered orally to the mice in the control group and model group for 14 days. The positive group was treated with amifostine (WR-2721 at 30 min before irradiation. Except for the control group, the groups of mice received a 5 Gy quantity of X-radiation evenly over their whole body at one time. Body weight, hemogram, thymus and spleen index, DNA, caspase-3, caspase-6, and P53 contents were observed at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could significantly increase the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin count and DNA contents (p < 0.05. The spleen index recovered significantly by the third day and 14th day after irradiation (p < 0.05. L. ruthenicum low dose group showed a significant reduction in caspase-3 and caspase-6 of serum in mice at the third day, seventh day, and 14th day after irradiation and L. ruthenicum middle dose group experienced a reduction in caspase-6 of serum in mice by the seventh day after irradiation. L. ruthenicum could decrease the expression of P53. The results showed that L. ruthenicum had protective effects against radiation injury in mice.

  19. The Extract of Lycium depressum Stocks Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Siamak; Zarei, Leila; Pourjabali, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2017-06-01

    In diabetes, impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered major concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of methanolic extracts of the extract of Lycium depressum leaves. A total of 60 healthy male Wistar diabetic rats weighing approximately 160 to 180 g and 7 weeks of age were randomized into 10 groups for incision and excision wound models: sham surgery group (SHAM), including creation of wounds and no treatment; base formulation group (FG) with creation of wounds and application of base formulation ointment; treatment group 1 (TG1) with 1 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment; treatment group 2 (TG2) with 2 g; and treatment group 4 (TG3) with 4 g of powder extract of the plant material in ointment. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in male rats. The mature green leaves of L depressum were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out. For wound-healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, and biomechanical and biochemical studies. The extract of L depressum leaves enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, and improved mechanical indices and histological characteristics in treatment groups compared with SHAM and FG ( P < .05). These findings permit the conclusion the extract of L depressum benefits parameters of wound healing in a diabetes induced model.

  20. Transcriptome profiling of the UV-B stress response in the desert shrub Lycium ruthenicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haikui; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lina; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Crabbe, M James C; Zhang, Xiu; Zhong, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is a natural component of the solar radiation. Due to its high energy, low dosages of UV-B can bring huge potential damage effect to organisms. Despite much research that has analyzed the gene expression changes of plants that under UV-B radiation, the transcriptome response of Lycium ruthenicum under the UV-B induction is still un-available. The aim of our study was to identify UV-B responsive genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of the pathobiology of UV-B related damage. We collected leaf samples from L. ruthenicum with and without UV-B exposure, and then performed a transcriptome profiling to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. By employing the high throughput RNA-sequencing analysis of samples with and without UV-B exposure, we identified 1,913 up-regulated and 536 down-regulated genes at least by twofold changes. The activity of antioxidant enzyme related genes, including the superoxide dismutase, was decreased, genes related to the synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense responses, such as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, chalcone-flavanone isomerase and dihydroflavonol reductase were also downregulated. The expression patterns of 14 randomly selected genes resulted from quantitative real-time PCR were basically consistent with their transcript abundance changes identified by RNA-sequencing. We found that several biological pathways related to biotic and abiotic stresses, including cell defense, photosynthesis processes, energy metabolism, were involved in the process of UV-B stress response. A genome-wide screening of gene deregulation under UV-B induction would provide an insight into the understanding of the molecular bases and pathogenesis of UV-B responses.

  1. 枸杞在低温香肠中的应用%The Application of Lycium chinense Mill to the Making of Low Temperature Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立红; 李凤英; 肖月娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the nutritional value of low temperature sausage, the Lycium chinense Mill was added in making low temperature sausage. NO2- remnant of low temperature sausage added with different dos- age of l_/ycium chinense Mill was determined using the spectrophotometer. The best adding method and optimum adding dose of Lycium chinense Mill were confirmed by measuring red value and light value of the sausage com- bined with sense test. The results showed that the best addition form of Lycit~m chinense Mill was pasty; the optimum adding dose of Lycium chinense Mill was 50 g/kg of meat. While the adding amount of sodium nitrite was 0.150 g/kg,the residue of sodium nitrite in Lycium chinense Mill sausage was 0.031 4 g/kg. Lycium chinense Mill can not only improve the sensory quality and nutrition of low temperature sausage, but also improve the safety by reducing the NO2- remnant.%为了增加香肠制品的营养保健功能,以瘦猪肉为主要原料,将功能性食品原料枸杞添加于肉中制成枸杞香肠。运用WSC-S测色色差仪测定枸杞香肠的亮度、红度、黄度值,用分光光度计测定枸杞香肠的亚硝酸钠残留量,并结合感官鉴评,确定枸杞的最佳添加状态和最佳添加量。结果表明:枸杞的最佳添加状态为浆状液,最佳添加量为50 g/kg(肉馅中,以下同);当亚硝酸钠添加量为0.15 g/kg时,枸杞香肠中的亚硝酸钠残留量仅为0.031 4 g/kg。枸杞的添加,既能增加香肠的感官品质,又能增加营养功能,还能在一定程度上降低亚硝酸钠的残留,增加了肉制品的安全性。

  2. Effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup in patients with oral ulcer%复方杞菊汤漱口治疗化疗所致口腔溃疡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玲; 戴正香; 戴新娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup on chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods Totally, 60 multiple myeloma patients complicated with chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 30 cases in each group. The observation group took compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup as mouth gargle, while their counterparts in the control group gargled their mouth with cetylpyridinium chloride. The treatment effects of oral ulcers in both groups were compared. Results The severity of pain was significantly lower, and the sizes of the ulcers were significantly smaller in the observation group at different time points than those in the control group; the healing length was significantly shorter and the treatment effect was significantly better in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion Compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup has very significant effect on patients with oral ulcer. It eases the pain, boosts healing of ulcers, shortens healing length, and improves the effect.%目的 探讨复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡的效果.方法 将住院化疗并发口腔溃疡的多发性骨髓瘤患者60例,随机分为观察组和对照组各30例.观察组给予复方杞菊汤漱口,对照组给予西吡氯胺漱口,观察两组治疗口腔溃疡疗效.结果 观察组不同时间口腔溃疡疼痛评分、口腔溃疡面积显著低于或小于对照组,愈合时间显著短于对照组,治疗效果显著优于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡可行且效果显著,能有效减轻患者疼痛,加快创面愈合,缩短口腔溃疡的愈合时间,提高疗效.

  3. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  4. Mapeo de genes ribosómicos y heterocromatina en seis especies de Lycium de sudamérica (solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El clado Lycieae (Solanaceae reune 92 especies, actualmente agrupadas en un único género, Lycium. Se realizó un estudio citogenético en seis especies sudamericanas de este género, usándose por primera vez en el grupo la técnica de FISH, además de la técnica de bandeo CMA/DAPI. Se emplearon ápices radicales de las siguientes especies: L. boerhaviifolium (previamente Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previamente Phrodus, el tetraploide L. chilense y los diploides L. cestroides, L. ciliatum y L. tenuispinosum. Se confirmó el número básico x=12. La técnica de bandeo reveló la presencia de una banda CMA+/DAPI- asociada a NORs en el primer par metacéntrico en las especies diploides, y en los dos primeros pares m en la tetraploide. Además, L. tenuispinosum mostró una banda intercalar CMA+/DAPI- en uno de sus cromosomas, en tanto que en L. bridgesii se encontraron bandas terminales e intercalares en todos los cromosomas. Con la técnica de FISH se observó que los loci 18-5,8-26S fueron consistentes con los bloques CMA+/DAPI-/NORs. Las especies diploides presentaron siempre un par cromosómico m portador de genes ADNr 5S, mientras que la especie tetraploide presentó dos pares, concordando con su nivel de ploidía. En las especies estudiadas, la diversificación no fue acompañada por rearreglos cromosómicos estructurales significativos, excepto L. bridgesii, que se destaca por poseer una fórmula cariotípica distinta y un mayor porcentaje de heterocromatina.Mapping of ribosomal genes and heterochromatin in Lycium of South America (Solanaceae. The clade Lycieae (Solanaceae embraces 92 species, currently gathered in a single genus, Lycium. A study was conducted in six South American species of this genus, using the FISH technique for the first time in the group, in addition to the CMA/DAPI banding technique. Root tips of the following species were employed: L. boerhaviifolium (previously Grabowskia, L. bridgesii (previously Phrodus, the

  5. Cloning of a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase gene from Lycium chinense Mill. and enhanced salt tolerance by overexpressing in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxia; Wang, Gang; Ji, Jing; Gao, Hailing; Guan, Wenzhu; Wu, Jiang; Guan, Chunfeng; Wang, Yurong

    2014-06-10

    To evaluate the physiological importance of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system, a full-length cDNA clone, named LmAPX, encoding a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was isolated from Lycium chinense Mill. using homologous cloning, then the expression of LmAPX under salt stress was investigated. After sequencing and related analysis, the LmAPX cDNA sequence was 965 bp in length and had an open reading frame (ORF) of 750 bp coding for 250 amino acids. Furthermore, the LmAPX sequence was sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a and the recombinant proteins had a high expression level in Escherichia coli. Results from a southern blot analysis indicated that three inserts of this gene existed in the tobacco genome encoding LmAPX. Compared with the control plants (wild-type and empty vector control), the transgenic plants expressing the LmAPX gene exhibited lower amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and relatively higher values of ascorbate peroxidase activity, proline content, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the same salt stress. These results suggested that overexpression of the LmAPX gene could decrease ROS production caused by salt stress and protect plants from oxidative stress.

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of Lycium chinense Miller fruit and its constituent betaine in CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Meejung; Park, Jong Sang; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Hyun, Jin Won; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-07-01

    The hepatoprotective activities of Lycium chinense Miller (LC) fruit extract and its component betaine were investigated under carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The treatment of LC fruit extract significantly suppressed the increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the sera of CCl4 injured rats, and restored the decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. To visualize the potential activity of betaine, a component of LC fruit, betaine was substituted for LC extract in CCl4 injured rats. The biochemical profile in CCl4 injured rats co-treated with betaine matched those of LC fruit treated CCl4 injured rats. The ameliorative effects of LC extract, as well as betaine, were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Collectively, the present findings imply that LC fruit, via its component betaine, mitigate CCl4-induced hepatic injury by increasing antioxidative activity and decreasing inflammatory mediators including iNOS and COX-1/COX-2.

  7. Chemical Constituents of the Fruits of Lycium ruthenicum%黑果枸杞果实化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳发; 吉腾飞; 苏亚伦; 李进; 刘华

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究黑果枸杞Lycium ruthenicum Murr.果实的化学成分.方法:采用大孔树脂层析、Sephadex LH-20和高效液相色谱法对其化学成分进行分离纯化,通过理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定化合物结构.结果:从黑果枸杞果实中分离得到9个化合物,分别为:N-mono-cinnamoyl-putrescine(1)、petunidin-3-trans-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside(2),4-(p-cumaroyl)-methyl-L-rhamnoside(3)、p-香豆酸(4)、阿魏酸(5)、芦丁(6)、槲皮素(7)、原儿茶酸(8)、锦葵花素(9).结论:化合物1~9均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective:To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr..Methods :Isolation and purification were carried out on macroporous resin column,Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC.The structures of the compounds were identified by physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results:Nine compounds were isolated and identified as N-mono-cinnamoyl-putres-cine(l) ,petunidin-3-traras-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside(2) ,4-(p-cumaroyl)-methyl-L-rhamnoside(3) ,p-coumarinic acid(4) ,ferulic acid(5),rutin(6) ,quercetin(7) ,protocatechuric acid(8) ,malvidin(9).Conclusion:Compound 1-9 are obtained from Ly-cium ruthenicum for the first time.

  8. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  9. The Diterpenoid 7-Keto-Sempervirol, Derived from Lycium chinense, Displays Anthelmintic Activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jennifer; Brown, Martha; Peak, Emily; Bartholomew, Barbara; Nash, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke) and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke). These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA) (praziquantel for schistosomiasis) or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis) programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. Methodology/ Principle Findings Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB), this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines) and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM) against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening), oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental integrity and

  10. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  11. Characterization of Polyphenols from Lycium ruthenicum Fruit by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS(E) and Their Antioxidant Activity in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Lv, Haiyang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-23

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRF) has long been used in folk medicine. Nevertheless, detailed information related to its polyphenol compositions remains scarce. In this study, we confirmed that the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of LRF fruit extracts (LRFEs) were 4906.5 ± 60.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g DW and 787.6 ± 34.1 mg of cyanindin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW, respectively. A characterization of LRFEs was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry using an MS(E) data acquisition. A total of 26 polyphenols were tentatively identified, of which 19 represent the first reports of these polyphenols in LRFEs. Furthermore, the cellular antioxidant array showed that LRFEs could protect Caco-2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage based on microscopic fluorometric imaging.

  12. Study on anti-aging effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.%黑果枸杞抗衰老作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊; 蒋宝平; 樊晓峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. on the learning,memory and antioxi-dant ability of aging mice induced by D-galactose. Methods Aging model was induced by subcutaneously injecting mice with D-galactose. At 6 weeks after administration of aqueous extract of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.,the water maze was used to determine the function of learning and memory,the analytic kit was used to measure the activity of super-oxide dismutase ( SOD),the contents of malondialdehyde ( MDA) and lipid peroxidation ( LPO) in brain of mice,as well as the activity of SOD,the contents of MDA and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) in serum of mice. Results Lycium ruthenicum Murr. could reduce the escape latency,swimming total path,shorten the time in the near station,sig-nificantly shorten the time and swimming path in the distant station area to stay,increase the residence swimming path in the area close to the table and the average swimming speed of aging model mice in a water maze. Besides,it could reduce MDA content and increase GSH-Px content and SOD activity in serum,increase SOD activity and reduce LPO and MDA contents in brain (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion Lycium ruthenicum Murr. has anti-aging effect on ag-ing model mice,and the mechanism may be related to improving learning and memory and enhancing antioxidant ability in aging mice.%目的 观察黑果枸杞对D-半乳糖诱导的小鼠衰老模型的学习记忆力及抗氧化能力的影响. 方法 注射5% D-半乳糖制备小鼠衰老模型,灌胃给予黑果枸杞6周后,水迷宫法测定模型小鼠的空间学习记忆能力,试剂盒法测定脑中丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化脂质(LPO)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力,以及血清中谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-Px)、MDA含量及SOD活力. 结果 黑果枸杞能缩短衰老模型小鼠在水迷宫的逃避潜伏期、游泳总路程、近台区停留时间、远台区停留时间、远台区游泳路程,增加衰老小鼠平均游泳速度

  13. 枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及机制的初步研究%Study on the Protective Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide (LBP) on Kidney and Its Mechanism in Obese Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 马卫成; 徐锦龙; 徐爱仁

    2013-01-01

    Object we: To investigate the protective effect of kidney and mechanism of LBP in obese rats. Methods: LBP continuous gavage for 12 weeks in obese rats,then serum levels of TC,TG,HDL,LDL,FBG,FINS,Cr,BUN and kidney LDL, Ox — LDL were all determined, and the ISI was calculated. Results: LBP could lower lipid and blood glucose, and improve insulin resistance, improve kidney function, reduce the role of the kidney tissue LDL and Ox - LDL. Conclusion: LBP had a protective role for kidney in obese rats and its mechanism might be associated with reducing kidney tissues of Ox - LDL.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及其机制.方法:制备肥胖大鼠模型,枸杞多糖连续灌胃12周,测定血清TC、TG、HDL、LDL、FBG、FINS、Cr、BUN及肾脏LDL与Ox-LDL,并计算ISI.结果:枸杞多糖具有降脂、降糖、改善胰岛素抵抗、改善肾功能、降低肾脏组织LDL与Ox-LDL的作用.结论:枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏具有一定的保护作用,其机制可能与减少肾脏组织Ox-LDL有一定的关系.

  14. Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides on Blood Pressures and Fetus Development of Hypertensive Pregnant Mice%枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠血压和胎鼠发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘正军; 张晓蕾; 周建武; 王建成

    2009-01-01

    目的:检测枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠血压和胎鼠发育的影响.方法:提取宁夏枸杞多糖;冷刺激诱导建立孕小鼠高血压模型.将小鼠分为5组:正常妊娠对照组(A组)、冷刺激妊娠组(模型组,B组)、冷刺激+不同浓度多糖组(实验组,C-E组).C、D、E组分别灌胃给予枸杞多糖5 mg/kg、10mg/kg、20mg/kg,qd×18 d;A组、B组相应地给予等量生理盐水,连续饲养18 d.妊娠小鼠颈动脉插管记录血压,剖宫检测胎盘、胎鼠重,全长、体长.结果:B组血压显著高于A组(P0.05).B组胎盘、胎鼠重,全长、体长显著低于A组(P0.05).结论:枸杞多糖对实验性高血压妊娠小鼠有降低血压、保护胎儿发育的作用.

  15. The Aphrodisiac Effect of Honey-Lycium Barbarum-Tomato Juice in D-galactose Induced Aging Mice Models%蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈有军; 孙秀婷; 严群超; 刘均

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠的壮阳作用.方法 取NIH小鼠50只随机分为对照组、模型组、蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高(24.804 g/kg)、中(12.402 g/kg)、低(6.201 g/kg)剂量组,分别灌胃给样40 d.考察蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖衰老模型小鼠血清中丙二醛(MDA)水平、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、血清和睾丸组织中睾酮水平、精液乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)水平以及精子活动率的影响.结果 模型组小鼠血清中MDA水平高于对照组,血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁高剂量组小鼠血清中睾酮水平高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁中剂量组小鼠血清中MDA水平低于模型组,SOD活性高于模型组,精囊腺中LDH水平及精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁低剂量组小鼠血清中SOD活性、血清及睾丸中睾酮水平、精囊腺中精子活动率高于模型组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 蜂蜜枸杞番茄汁对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠具有壮阳作用.

  16. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce {alpha}-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Musa [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prinz, Sonja [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Herbaceck, Irene; Hoelzl, Christine [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mikulits, Wolfgang [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Knasmueller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Kopp, Brigitte [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Krupitza, Georg, E-mail: georg.krupitza@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-05

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H{sub 2}O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 {mu}g BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 {mu}g berberine and 0.3 {mu}g/ml palmatine. 1.2 {mu}g/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 {mu}g/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of {alpha}-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  17. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  18. Molecular cloning and identification of a flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene from Lycium chinense, and its overexpression enhances drought stress in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyu; Diao, Jinjin; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Guan, Chunfeng; Jin, Chao; Wang, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, as plant secondary metabolites, are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. Drought resistance is attributed to flavonoids with respect to protective functions in the cell wall and membranes. The flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) gene which encodes flavanone 3-hydroxylase, is essential in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway. Lycium chinense (L. chinense) is a deciduous woody perennial halophyte that grows under a large variety of environmental conditions and survives under extreme drought stress. A novel cDNA sequence coding a F3H gene in Lycium chinense (LcF3H, GenBank: KJ636468.1) was isolated. The open reading frame of LcF3H comprised 1101 bp encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 42 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.32. The deduced LcF3H protein showed high identities with other plant F3Hs, and the conserved motifs were found in LcF3H at similar positions like other F3Hs. The recombinant protein converted naringen into dihydrokaempferol in vitro. Since studies have shown that amongst flavonoids, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) have direct free radical scavenging activity to maintain the normal physiological function of cells in vivo, these data support the possible relationship between the oxidative damage and the regulation of LcF3H gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. In order to better understand the biotechnological potential of LcF3H, gene overexpression was conducted in tobacco. The content of flavan-3-ols and the tolerance to drought stress were increased in LcF3H overexpressing tobacco. Analysis of transgenic tobacco lines also showed that antioxidant enzyme activities were increased meanwhile the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the content of H2O2 were reduced comparing to nontransformed tobacco plants. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate was less decreased in the transgenetic plants. These results suggest that LcF3H

  19. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic tobacco by transcriptional upregulation of ethylene responsive transcription factor gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN; JING JI; XIAOZHOU LI; CHAO JIN; GANG WANG

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an important phytohormone in the regulation of plant growth, development and stress response. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been observed in plants exposed to Cd stress and was suggested to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We hypothesized that there may be a link between MAPK cascades and ethylene signalling in Cd-stressed plants. To test this hypothesis, the expression of LcMKK, LchERF and LcGSH1 genes, endogenous ethylene accumulation, GSH content and Cd concentration in Lycium chinense with or without Cd stress treatment were studied. Our results showed that LcMKK gene expression can be induced by the treatment of Cd in L. chinense. The transgenic tobacco expressing 35S::LcMKK showed greater tolerance to Cd stress and enhanced expression of NtERF and NtGSH1 genes, indicating that LcMKK is associated with the enhanced expression level of ERF and GSH synthesis-related genes in tobacco. We also found that endogenous ethylene and GSH content can be induced by Cd stress inL. chinense, and inhibited by cotreatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase. Evidences presented here suggest that under Cd stress, GSH accumulation occurred at least partially by enhanced LcMKK gene expression and the ethylene signal transduction pathways might be involved in this accumulation.

  20. [Effect of lycium bararum polysaccharides on angiotensin II-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and expressions of P53 and P16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Xue-ni; Liu, Ze; Wang, Lu-ni; Wu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Feng, Ju-xiang

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the role of lycium bararum polysaccharides (LBP) on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and expressions of P53 and P16 and explore the mechanism of LBP against aging. HUVECs cultured in vitro were stimulated with 1×10(-6) mmol/L AngII to induce cell senescence, which was identified using β-gal staining. Flow cytometry was used for analyzing the cell cycle changes, and the cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 method. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of P53 and P16 in the exposed cells. Compared with the control cells, the cells positive for β-gal staining was significantly increased in AngII group, and showed cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase with decreased S-phase cell percentage and cell viability. The expression levels of P53 and P16 were significantly increased in the cells with AngII exposure (PP16 (P<0.05). LBP can delay AngII-induced aging of HUVECs possibly by down-regulating the expression of P53 and P15.

  1. Chemical composition of Lycium europaeum fruit oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and cell absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Maxia, Andrea; Putzu, Danilo; Atzeri, Angela; Era, Benedetta; Fais, Antonella; Sanna, Cinzia; Piras, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We studied the total phenols and flavonoids, liposoluble antioxidants, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles, and oxidative status of oil obtained from Lycium europaeum fruits following supercritical CO2 extraction (at 30MPa and 40°C). Linoleic (52%), palmitic (18%), oleic (13%), and α-linolenic (6%) were the main oil fatty acids, while trilinolein and palmitodilinolein/oleodilinolein represented the main triacylglycerols. The oil was characterized by high levels of all-trans-zeaxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene (755 and 332μg/g of oil, respectively), α-tocopherol (308μg/g of oil), total phenols (13.6mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil), and total flavonoids (6.8mg quercetin equivalents/g of oil). The oil showed radical scavenging activities (ABTS and DPPH assays) and inhibited Caco-2 cell growth. Moreover, the incubation of differentiated Caco-2 cells with a non-toxic oil concentration (100μg/mL) induced a significant intracellular accumulation of essential fatty acids. The results qualify L. europaeum oil as a potential source for food/pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Determination of Antioxidant and Lipid-lowering Ingredients in Flavonoids of Lycium Ruthenicum Murr. leaf%黑果枸杞叶总黄酮抗氧化和降血脂成分测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海英; 林丽; 潘云; 李淑珍; 李志成

    2012-01-01

    黄酮类化合物属于植物次生代谢产物,具有多种生物活性。其中一些兼有抗氧化和降血脂作用,对预防动脉粥样硬化具有广阔的应用前景。本实验以黑果枸杞(LyciumruthenicumMurr.)叶为材料,从中提取叶总黄酮,利用薄层层析和高效液相色谱法检测黑果枸杞叶总黄酮中的具有抗氧化和降血脂功能的化学成分。结果表明:其中包含有芦丁0.8870%、槲皮素0.0414%、木犀草素0.0411%、异鼠李素0.0258%和山奈素0.0448%,这5种黄酮成分总量为1.04%,占黑果枸杞叶总黄酮含量的37.14%。说明黑果枸杞叶总黄酮的抗氧化和降血脂活性可能是这5种黄酮成分发挥作用的结果。%Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites, with a variety of biological activity. Some fal- conoid effected on both antioxidant and lipid--lowering, therefore, they have broad application prospects on the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this study, falconoid were extracted from the leaf of Lycium rutheni- cum Murr. and their antioxidant and lipid--lowering components were measured, using thin--layer chro- matography and high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that. flavonoids in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. contained rutin of 0. 8870%, quercetin of 0. 0414%, luteolin of 0. 0411%, is or hamnet in of 0. 0258% and kaempferol of 0. 0448 %, the total amount of five falconoid was 1.04%, accounting for 37.14% of total falconoid in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Antioxidant and lipid--lowering activity in fla- vonoids of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Maybe the result of these five falconoid having played an effect.

  4. 黑果枸杞果醋发酵工艺研究%Study on Fermentation Technology of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海魁; 刘雅琴

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to dicuss fermentation technology parameters of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.vinegar.[Method] Alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation technology were studied using ofrthogonal test, and the best condition were confirmed. [Result] The study showed that the optimal fermentation technology of alcohol fermentation was sugar concentration of 15%,yeast inoculum of 0.1%,fermentation temperature of 30 ℃.The optimal fermentation technology of acetic fermentation was alcohol content of 10%,fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,shaker speed of 150 r/min. [Conclusion] The fruit vinegar had a good flavor with fruit aroma and was a kind of healthy fruit vinegar.%[目的]探讨黑果枸杞果醋发酵工艺参数.[方法]采用正交试验设计分别对酒精发酵和醋酸发酵工艺进行研究 ,确定了最优发酵条件.[结果]酒精发酵最佳工艺组合为:糖含量15%,酵母接种量0.1%,发酵温度30 ℃;醋酸发酵最佳工艺组合为:初始酒度10%,发酵温度30 ℃,摇床转速150 r/min.[结论]该条件下制得的黑果枸杞果醋风味纯正,具有水果香味,是一种价值较高的营养保健型果醋.

  5. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND, Infectious bronchitis (IB and Infectious bursal disease (IBD according to locally adopted vaccination schedule keeping the other subgroup as non vaccinated control. Experimental birds in groups A, B, and C were provided with mentioned infusion @ 20, 10 and 5ml per liter of drinking water while group D was maintained as control. Relevant data were recorded throughout the experiment and or at the termination of the experiment and subjected to statistical analysis. Significantly low mean feed intake (3258.3g and better FCR (1.87 was recorded in group A. Other parameters like weight gain (1739.7g, antibody titer against ND (7.1, IBD (3300.5 and high density lipoprotein (71.6 g/dl were significantly increased in chicks from group A. Similarly, blood cholesterol (145.6 g/dl, triglyceride (145.8 g/dl and low density lipoprotein (57.5 g/dl were significantly reduced in group A. Overall vaccinated group had higher (P<0.05 antibody titer 7.2, 1796.2, 3202.8 against ND, IB and IBD, respectively compared to non-vaccinated group and had no influence on lipid profile. It was concluded that the infusion from the above plants in mentioned composition may not only be effectively used for improved broiler performance and better immunity but also to reduce the cholesterol level.

  6. Chemical constituents of endophytic fungi RER4 from Lycium ruthenicum%黑果枸杞内生真菌RER4化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀芳; 王鹏飞; 马养民

    2015-01-01

    根据形态学特征和ITS序列对分离自黑果枸杞根部的内生真菌RER4进行鉴定,结果该真菌鉴定为米曲霉(Aspergillus oryzae)。采用大米固体培养基对RER4进行发酵,利用多种色谱方法从乙酸乙酯提取物中分离纯化得到8个化合物,借助ESI‐MS、NMR等波谱技术鉴定其结构分别为:麦角甾醇(1)、尿黑酸内酯(2)、6‐柠檬酸甲酯(3)、琥珀酸(4)、1,5‐柠檬酸二甲酯(5)、赤薛醇(6)、甘露醇(7)、阿拉伯糖醇(8)。其中化合物尿黑酸内酯首次从米曲霉发酵物中分离得到。%The fungus strain RER4 isolated from the root of Lycium ruthenicum .Was identi‐fied as A spergillus oryz ae by its morphological characteristics and internal transcrised spacer (ITS) sequence analyses .Solid state fermentation was used to culture the endophytic fungi RER4 on the rice medium ,8 compounds were isolated and purified from the eyhyl acetate ex‐tract of endophytic fungi RER4 by various chromatographic methods and their structures were ergosterol ,5‐hydroxy‐benzofuran‐2 (3H )‐one ,3‐hydroxy‐3‐(methoxycarb onyl) pen‐tanedi‐oic acid ,succinic acid ,2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxy‐2‐(2‐meth oxy‐2‐oxoethyl )‐4‐oxobutan‐oic acid ,erythritol ,mannitol ,adonitol by ESI‐MS and NMR .Among compound 5‐hydroxy‐benzofuran‐2(3H)‐one was firstly isolated from the medium of Aspergillus oryzae .

  7. The effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and growth of Lycium ruthenicum Murr subjected to NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-yu; Li, Qing-mei; Jiang, Ze-ping; Liu, Duo; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a study on the effects of exogenous antioxidant germanium (Ge) on seed germination and seedling growth, and its role as a radical scavenger that regulates related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), under salt stress. Seeds were incubated in 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM NaCl to determine the salt tolerance of the Lycium ruthenicum Murr seedlings and from the results, the critical and ultimate salt concentrations were chosen for the next experiment. Subsequently, two treatments (seeds soaked in Ge and Ge added to salt) with four concentrations of GeO2 (0, 5, 10 and 20 μM) were used with the critical (150 mM) and ultimate salt concentrations (250 mM). The results demonstrated that salt alone inhibited seed germination significantly (≥150 mM) and reduced seedling growth (≥200 mM). The addition of exogenous Ge to the salt solution, as well as soaking the seeds in Ge, attenuated the salt stress effects in a manner dependent on the dose of Ge, as indicated by the increased percentage of seeds that germinated and improved seedling growth. The addition of Ge also showed a significant reversal of salt stress on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, with a decrease in SOD and POD activity, but an increase in CAT activity with 150 mM NaCl, and enhancement of SOD, POD and CAT with 250 mM NaCl. Correspondingly, the level of malondialdehyde was decreased significantly by each Ge treatment under salt stress. Further, for L. ruthenicum, adding 10 Ge and seeds soaked in 5 Ge were the most effective treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the protective effects of exogenous Ge against salt-induced oxidative damage in L. ruthenicum seed germination and seedling growth. Thus, L. ruthenicum can be used in areas with salty soil and Ge can promote the plants' salt tolerance.

  8. 枸杞色素抑制脂多糖致大鼠葡萄膜炎作用与机制的研究%Study on inhibitory effect of lycium pigment on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 赵飞飞; 白双; 郑婕; 郑萍; 戴贵东

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inhibitory effect of lycium pigment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced uveitis in rats and its mechanism.Method:The rat uveitis model was established by 30-day oral administration of lycium pigment (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) and footpad injection of LPS.Ocular tissues were collected for a histopathological inspection.The protein,nitric oxide and ADMA in aqueous humor,level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in retina,activities of serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX),and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by using Western blot,ELISA and biochemical methods.Result:According to the pathological study,lycium pigment (50,100,200 mg · kg-1) could notably reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration around corpus ciliare matrix of uveitis rats,and the concentration of protein and nitric oxide,and increased ADMA in aqueous humor.Lycium pigment (100,200 mg· kg-1) could significantly inhibit the expression of iNOS in ocular tissues.In addition,lycium pigment (100,200 mg · kg-1) also decrease the activities of serum T-AOC,SOD,GSH-PX,and the content of lipid peroxide MDA.Conclusion:Lycium pigment has the inhibitory effect on LPS-induced uveitis in rats.Its mechanism is related to the regulation of nitric oxide/ADMA pathway and the improvement of oxidation resistance.%目的:探讨枸杞色素(lycium pigment)抑制脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠葡萄膜炎的作用及其机制.方法:枸杞色素(50,100,200 mg·kg-1)灌胃给药30 d后,足跖注射LPS建立大鼠葡萄膜炎模型.眼组织进行病理学检测;房水蛋白、一氧化氮和非对称性二甲基精氨酸(ADMA),眼组织诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)以及血清总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和脂质过氧化物丙二醛(MDA)分别采用Western blot、酶联免疫(ELISA)和生物化学等方法进行测定.结果:病理

  9. A Study on Relativity Between Dielectric Properties of Lycium Chinense and Storage Period%枸杞果实介电特性与贮藏时间相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓龙; 康宁波; 李丹; 刘晓丽; 贾永华; 李锋; 王永忠; 潘志广

    2015-01-01

    The correlation analyse were used to research the relation between electrical properties and test frequency of Lycium chinense varieties .Then , it were also be used to research the relation between electrical properties and storage time.it found the well-kept foundation for research the relation between electrical properties and internal quality of ly -cium chinense.The result showed:The electrical properties changed regularly with test frequency.The complex impendence,inductance, resistance decreased with the increase of test frequency .It showed some difference only in the stage of low frequency among Lycium chinense varieties .The complex impendence , resistance , loss factor were positively correlated with storage time .Capacity , dielectric constant wew negative correlated with storage time .At the same time , capacity , dielectric constant , loss factor showed a big difference among varieties when it been storaged .%研究了不同枸杞品种果实介电参数与测定频率、贮藏时间的相关性,并就此相关性进行了探讨,为下一步研究枸杞果实介电参数与内部品质间的相关性打下良好理论基础。研究结果表明:枸杞果实介电参数值会随测试频率的增加而呈规律性变化,阻抗Z、电感 L、电阻R 值随测试频率的增加而减小;在全频率段,各处理组介电参数值无明显差异性,其显著差异性主要表现在低频阶段。3.98 MHz 频率下,阻抗 Z、电阻 R、介质损耗因子ε″与贮藏时间线性正相关,电容C、介电常数ε′与贮藏时间线性负相关。各枸杞品种的电容 C、介电常数ε′、介质损耗因子ε″随贮藏时间的变化值均存在显著差异性。

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of cis-trans anthocyanin isomers from wild Lycium ruthenicum Murr. employing a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Liu, Yanfang; Guo, Zhimou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jixia; Li, Xiaolong; Peng, Xiaojun; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-21

    The cis-trans isomerism is a common phenomenon for acylated anthocyanins. Nevertheless, few studies reported effective methods for the preparation of isomeric anthocyanins from natural products. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to efficiently purify anthocyanin isomers from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. based on a mixed-mode reversed-phase/strong anion-exchange column (named XCharge C8SAX). Four commercially available columns were evaluated with a pair of isomeric anthocyanins, and the results demonstrated that the XCharge C8SAX column exhibited improved selectivity and column efficiency for the isomers. The chromatographic parameters, including pH, organic content, and ionic strength, were investigated. Optimal separation quality for the anthocyanin isomers was achieved on the XCharge C8SAX column. Six pure anthocyanins, including two pairs of cis-trans isomeric anthocyanins with one new anthocyanin, were purified from L. ruthenicum and identified. All of the results indicated that this method is an effective way to separate anthocyanins, especially for cis-trans isomers.

  11. Microbial Biodiversity in Rhizosphere ofLycium bararumL. Relative to Cultivation History%不同种植年限宁夏枸杞根际微生物多样性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳小凡; 郑国琦; 彭励; 雷川怡; 杨红艳; 马玉; 赵强; 石硕矾

    2016-01-01

    为了解长期人工种植枸杞根际土壤微生物的种群结构变化特征,利用Illumina MiSeq测序平台分别对种植5 a、10 a和15 a宁夏枸杞根际土壤微生物基因组总DNA中16S和18S rDNA基因的部分区域进行测序,经UPARSE pipeline和RDP classifier软件进行聚类分析和物种注释.结果表明,长期种植宁夏枸杞不会改变其根际土壤pH,但会导致根际土壤全磷、有效磷、全盐含量和电导率升高.测序结果表明,不同种植年限枸杞根际土壤细菌群落α多样性无显著变化,但真菌群落多样性在种植10 a枸杞中较种植5 a时显著降低(p<0.05),表明根际细菌群落多样性受种植年限影响较小.从门的分类水平看,酸杆菌门、放线菌门、拟杆菌门、厚壁菌门、绿弯菌门、泉古菌门、蓝菌门、芽单胞菌门、变形菌门以及真菌子囊菌门、担子菌门、接合菌门的比例在不同种植年限的枸杞根际土壤中显著改变(p<0.05).属水平的分析也表明,共有27个细菌属和16个真菌属的比例发生改变(p<0.05),这些结果表明枸杞根际土壤微生物群落组成受种植年限的影响更大.相关性分析结果表明,种植年限、土壤全磷及有效磷含量是影响枸杞根际微生物群落结构的主要因子.%The rhizosphere is a critical interface where exchange of substance takes place between plants roots and their surrounding soil. In the rhizosphere,interactions between the plant and soil microbes, though affected by a series of factors,such as physic-chemical properties of the rhizospheric soil,genotype of their host plant,can be beneficial to growth of the plant,the microbes or both. However,it is still not very clear how long-term cultivation ofLycium bararumL. would affect soil microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of the plant. Therefore,rhizospheric soil samples were collected fromLycium bararum L. fields different in cultivation history(5 a,10 a and 15 a)in a farm of

  12. 枸杞多糖的功能性及应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹东恢; 郭宏文

    2015-01-01

    枸杞多糖是枸杞的主要活性成分之一,近年来因其具有抗肿瘤和抗氧化等功能作用成为研究的热点。本文论述了枸杞多糖所具有的生物活性的研究进展,对枸杞多糖目前的研究中存在的问题及相关产业的开发进行探讨与展望。%As the major biological activity components, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides have attracted tremendous attentions due to their antitumor and immunoregulation functions. Current research progress in the structure characterization and biological activities of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum are reviewed in this paper.Meanwhile, problems encountered during the investigations ofLycium barbarum polysaccharidesare also discussed, which will provide a useful guidance for future studies.

  13. Study on Natural Distribution and Biological Characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Yanqi Basin%焉耆盆地黑果枸杞自然分布特点及其生物特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文革; 那松曹克图; 吾其尔; 吴春焕; 赵洁; 王瑛; 李玉霞

    2015-01-01

    对新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞的自然分布及其生物特性进行了研究,结果表明:黑果枸杞是典型的根蘖类无性系植物,并兼具有性和无性两套繁殖系统,其自然分布涵盖了焉耆盆地平原荒漠和低地草甸2类8个亚类的草地类型,占盆地10个亚类草地类型的80%,并在农区广泛分布,为焉耆盆地的广布种;其根系由水平根和地下垂直茎以及季节性分生存在的不定根组成;其有性繁育系统为异交型,并具花的色泽变化和“两花两果”特性;其无性繁育由水平根以根蘖克隆的形式繁殖;其单体群落中看似独立的植株个体,却是由地下由水平根相连的一个有机“整体”,并具有相同的遗传基因;其植株具有夏眠及被掩埋后仍能存活并变性的特性。%Natural distribution and biological characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Xinjiang Yanqi Basin was studied.The results showed that Lycium ruthenicum was typical clonal plant which belonged to root sucker class,and had two sets of reproductive system,sexual and asexual.Its natural distribution covered 2 classes and 8 subclasses of the desert plains of Yanqi Basin and lowland meadow grassland types,accounting for 80%of the 10 subgenera grassland types in basin,and widely distributed in rural areas in Yanqi Basin.The root was composed of horizontal root and vertical underground stem and adventitious root which meristematic existed seasonal.The sexual breeding system were outcrossing,with flowers color change and "two flowers of two fruit" characteristics,the asexual breeding system reproduction by cloning root suckers with horizontal root.The monomer seemed independent individual plants in the community,but connected by underground horizontal root of an organic"whole",and had the same genetic. Plant with properties that after aestivation and buried still could survive and degeneration.

  14. Natural Distribution and Biological Characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang%新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞自然分布特点及其生物特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Natural distribution and biological characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum in Xinjiang Yanqi Ba-sin were studled. The results shows: Lycium ruthenicum is a typical clonal plant which belongs to root sucker class, and has two sets of reproductive system, sexual and asexual. Its natural distribution covers 2 classes and 8 subclasses of the desert plains of Yanqi basin and lowland meadow grassland types, ac-counting for 80% of the 10 subgenera grassland types in basin, and widely distributed in rural areas, in Yanqi Basin. The root is composed of horizontal root and vertical underground stem and adventitious root which meristematic existing seasonal; the sexual breeding system are outcrossing, with flowers color change and"two flowers of two fruit" characteristics, the asexual breeding system reproduction by cloning root suckers with horizontal root. The monomer seemingly independent individual plants in the communi-ty, but connected by underground horizontal root of an organic integrity, and have the same genetic. It has summer hibernation properties and can survive after buried.%对新疆焉耆盆地黑果枸杞的自然分布及其生物特性进行了研究。结果表明:黑果枸杞是典型的根蘖类无性系植物,并兼具有性和无性两套繁殖系统,其自然分布涵盖了焉耆盆地平原荒漠和低地草甸2类8个亚类的草地类型,占盆地10个亚类草地类型的80%,并在农区广泛分布,为焉耆盆地的广布种;其根系由水平根和地下垂直茎以及季节性分生存在的不定根组成;其有性繁育系统为异交型,并具花的色泽变化和“两花两果”特性;其无性繁育由水平根以根蘖克隆的形式繁殖;其单体群落中看似独立的植株个体,却是由地下由水平根相连的一个有机“整体”,并具有相同的遗传基因;其植株具有夏眠及被掩埋后仍能存活并变性的特性。

  15. Cloning and Expression Analysis of LmP5CS Gene from Lycium chinense Miller%枸杞LmP5CS基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯远航; 王罡; 季静; 关春峰; 金超

    2013-01-01

    Proline is the important osmotic regulation substances in plants and plays a critical role in improving the stress tolerance of plants. The materials is Lycium chinense Miller, which proline content changes significantly after salt stress. After 1.5% NaCl stress, full length cDNA sequence of a putative Al-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene( P5CS) was cloned from Lycium chinense Miller leaves using RT-PCR and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends ( RACE), named LmP5CS, and construct expression vector pH7m24GW, 3rc -LmP5CS. Sequence analysis showed that the complete open reading frame (ORF) of this gene is 2154 bp, encoding for a protein of 717 amino acids with an isoelectric point of 6.07 and a molecular weight of 77.5 kDa. After 200 mmol / L NaCl stress, protein expression level increased at first and decreased subsequently, proline content changed in accordance with that. The semi-quantitative PCR result suggests that LmP5CS plays an important role in proline content change responses to salt stress.%目的:为进一步研究枸杞抗逆境胁迫的机制,并为转基因育种,提供理论依据.提高农作物的抗逆性提供优质的基因资源.方法:提选取盐胁迫后脯氨酸含量变化较大的耐盐植物枸杞为材料,用1.5% NaCl处理后,提取枸杞叶片总RNA,利用RT-PCR及3′RACE方法克隆获得吡咯啉-5-羧酸合成酶(delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase,P5CS)基因的全长cDNA,命名为LmP5 CS,构建pH7m24GW,3 rc-LmP5 CS植物表达载体.结果:LmP5 CS基因的ORF长2 154 bp,编码1个等电点为6.07、分子量为77.5kDa、由717个氨基酸组成的蛋白.枸杞在200 mmol/LNaCl盐胁迫下,LmP5CS基因表达量随处理时间,有先升高后降低的趋势,9h基因表达量最高,脯氨酸含量变化与之一致.结论:LmP5 CS基因在盐胁迫下脯氨酸含量的变化中起关键作用.

  16. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption Behavior of AB-8 Resin for Anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murray%AB-8大孔树脂吸附黑枸杞中花青素行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 付燕秋; 韩静; 赵宇明; 刘栋

    2016-01-01

    通过平衡吸附实验、等温吸附实验及柱吸附实验,研究了黑枸杞中花青素在AB-8大孔树脂中的吸附行为及吸附机理。结果表明:AB-8大孔树脂对花青素的吸附可用Elovich动力学模型描述,且吸附符合Freundlich及Langmuir等温吸附模型,Freundlich模型的线性拟合性更好;此外,花青素的等温吸附焓变为正值且绝对值小于40 kJ/mol,吉布斯自由能为负值,熵变为正,说明吸附过程为多层物理吸附,吸附可自发进行;由粒子内部扩散模型和Boyd模型可知吸附机理很复杂,主要受粒子扩散的影响;Adams-Bohart模型分析表明,在柱吸附分离纯化花青素过程中,应减小流动相的流量和床层高度,增加花青素质量浓度。%The adsorption performance of AB-8 resin for anthocyanin from Lycium ruthenicum Murray and adsorption mechanism were analyzed by equilibrium adsorption experiment, isothermal adsorption experiment and column adsorption experiment. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics process of AB-8 resin for anthocyanin could well fit with Elovich kinetic model. The linear straight of regression displayed that the Freundlich model was more suitable. Moreover, the enthalpy changes were positive and the absolute value was less than 40 kJ/mol. This indicated the adsorptions of AB-8 resin for anthocyanins were endothermic and physical changes. The Gibbs free energy changes were negative. It indicated that the adsorption process occurred spontaneously. The positive value of entropy changes indicated the increased randomness during the adsorption process. The adsorption mechanism was complicated and the adsorption process was mainly affected by particle diffusion. Adams-Bohart model analysis showed that in the process of column adsorption purification anthocyanins, the flow of mobile phase and the bed height should be reduced and the quality of anthocyanin concentrations should be increased.

  18. 枸杞多糖的超滤分级及理化性质的研究%The physicochemical properties of lycium barbanan polysaccharide fractions obtained by ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 唐秀丽; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of separation methods on physicochemical properties of lycium barbanan polysaccharide (LBP) ,the LBP was separated by ultrafiltration membranes with different ranges of molecular weight,the physicochemical properties of fractions such as composition,micro shape and thermodynamic property were studied. Results showed that the molecular weight of fractions obtained by ultrafiltration were 2. 03 × 106 ( LBP - 8) ,3. 62 × 106 (LBP3-1),3.10 ×104 ( LBP1 -4). And the monosaccharide composition were fucose,rhamonose,arabi-nose,xylose,glucose,mannose and galactose,except that LBP1 - 4 with no rhamonose and LBP - 8 have no rhamonose or glucose. They were also different in content of total carbohydrate,uronic acid,protein,neutral sugar and micro shape and thermodynamic property.%探究了超滤法分离对枸杞多糖理化性质的影响.采用截留分子量不同的超滤膜分离枸杞多糖,检测各个组分的分子量范围、多糖组成、多糖形貌和热力学性质,探究超滤分级对枸杞多糖理化性质的影响.超滤方法可以实现枸杞多糖的分级分离,得到分子量大小分别为2.03×106(LBP-8),3.62×106(LBP3-1),3.10×104(LBPI-4)的多糖组分,主要有岩藻糖、鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、木糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖和半乳糖组成,都不含有核糖,LBP1-4不含有鼠李糖,LBP-8不含鼠李糖和葡萄糖.其总糖含量、半乳糖醛酸含量、中性糖含量、蛋白质含量,多糖形貌和热力学性质均显示差异性.

  19. 枸杞对乳酸杆菌体外保存活力及体内定植的影响%Effects of Chinese wolfberry(Lycium chinense Mill.)on the preservation and colonization of Lactobacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of Chinese wolfberry on the preservation and colonization of Lactobarillus. Preservation effect of Chinese wolf-berry on Lactobacillus cells were observed when MRS broth was supplemented with different concentration hydrolysate of Chinese wolfberry. Mice received orally antibiotics in the drinking water ad lib to induce microflora dysbiosis. On the sixth day, the mice cured by Lactobacillus or Lactobacillus combined Lycium chinense. After five days, indicator bacteria were counted to determine the effect Lydutn chinense on colonization of Lactobacillus. Cell grown on MRS containing hydrolysate of Chinese wolfberry showed a cell concentration is significantly higher than control group. Results demonstrated that the number of Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the feces of the mice fed Lactobacillus and Chinese wolfberry. Chinese wolfberry can promote the preservation and colonization of Lactobacillus.%研究了枸杞对乳酸杆菌保存和体内定植的影响.采用MRS液体培养基中添加不同浓度的枸杞水解产物,观察一个月内常温下培养基中乳酸杆菌活菌数的变化.实验小鼠用抗生素脱污染,导致菌群失调后,分别用单一乳酸杆菌治疗、乳酸杆菌与枸杞联合治疗5d后,统计不同治疗组中指示菌的变化,确定枸杞对乳酸杆菌在体内定植的影响.结果表明,添加不同体积分数的枸杞水解产物后,MRS液体培养基中乳酸杆菌的存活数高于对照组;实验小鼠用不同方式治疗后,联合治疗组乳酸杆菌的数量高于单一乳酸杆菌治疗组.枸杞对乳酸杆菌的保存及体内定植具有促进作用.

  20. 不同产地野生黑果枸杞资源果实多酚组成分析%The Polyphenols Composition of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. from Different Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫亚美; 戴国礼; 冉林武; 罗青; 李晓莺; 秦垦; 巫鹏举; 曾晓雄; 曹有龙

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] Lycium ruthenicum Murr. is grown in the northwest of China, and its fruits is used in medicinal foods for treatments of heart disease, abnormal menstruation and menopause. In the past few years, the polyphenols (especially anthocyanins) are proved to be the main effective components in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. Composition determination and evaluation of anthocyanin and other polyphenols of wild L. ruthenicum fruit in different origin, so as to provide the basis for the breeding and utilization of it.[Method]The contents of total polyphenols, total flavones and total anthocyanins were analyzed using spectrophotometer and the composition of the polyphenol extracts was analyzed using HPLC and HPLC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also used to classify the tested results.[Result]Total contents of polyphenols, flavones and anthocyanins of the L. ruthenicum Murr.s were 8.25-87.77 mg GAE·g-1 dry fruit, 18.03-60.44 mg RE·g-1 dry fruit, and 8.21-31.46 mg·g-1 dry fruit, respectively. The samples from Wutumeiren Gomud of Qinghai, Ganhezi of Xinjiang, Baluntai town of Xinjiang, and Helan12-1 of Ningxia had the higher value of total polyphenols, total flavones and total anthocyanins. Through HPLC-ESI-MS analysis, a total of 19 polyphenols were identified in the tested L. ruthenicum Murr, including 7 acylated anthocyanins, and petunidin-3-O-rutinoside (cis-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-glucoside was found to be the main anthocyanin in L. ruthenicum Murr. Twenty polyphenols were found in all kinds of L. ruthenicum Murr, while Petunidin-3-O-rutinoside (cis-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-glucoside was the main composition of the polyphenols in fruits of L. ruthenicum Murr. The polyphenols fingerprints of L. ruthenicum Murr. from 26 different places were similar, excluding a few of samples. The results of HCA according to the contents of polyphenols, flavones and anthocyanins in L. ruthenicum Murr. were clustered into7 kinds. In the sixth and seventh kinds, all the contents of

  1. 柴达木盆地不同盐生境下黑果枸杞形态结构比较%Morphological Structure Comparison of Lycium ruthenium at Different Salt Habitats in Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛菊平; 朱春云

    2015-01-01

    对柴达木盆地5个盐生境的黑果枸杞进行了形态结构比较,探讨黑果枸杞为适应环境的响应。结果表明,不同盐分生境植株形态特征差异明显。全盐含量高、 K+含量高、 Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比大的氯化物-硫酸盐型土壤中植株高大,冠幅小而紧凑,叶片长条形,横切面圆形,高度肉质化,叶肉栅栏组织形成“环栅型”结构,叶脉不明显,无叶柄,枝刺尖利、坚硬;全盐含量低、 Na+含量高、 Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比值小的硫酸盐-氯化物型土壤中植株形态反之。但人工栽培后, K+为主, Cl-/SO42-毫克当量比大的硫酸盐-氯化物型土壤中植株较高,叶变为披针形,栅栏组织呈条形,叶脉明显,具短小叶柄,枝刺变长、变软。%For understanding the morphological structure changes of Lycium ruthenium to adapt to the environment , the plant morphological structure and soil salt of L.ruthenium which grew at 5 different environment was studied in Qaidam Basin.The results showed that the plant morphological characteristics under different saline environment were significantly different.The high salt content, high content of K+, Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio and chloride-sulfate in the soil plant tall, the crown was small and compact, the leaf shape was long and thin strip, the transver sesection was circular , leaves became highly succulent , palisade tissue in mesophyll was “ring fence” type structure , leaf veins were not obviously, no petiole, branches were sharp, hard branch spines; Low salt content, high content of Na+and small Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio, type of sulfate-chloride in soil , the plant was contrary to the above.How-ever, after artificial cultivation, in high content of K+, high Cl-/SO4 2-mEq ratio, type of sulfate-chloride in soil, the plant was higher, lanceolate leaf with white short nap, normal palisade tissue structure with obvious veins, short petiole, longer and

  2. 不同灌溉定额对枸杞光合特性及产量的影响%Effects of Different Irrigation Quota on Photosynthesis Characteristics and Yield of Lycium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 尹娟; 郑艳军

    2016-01-01

    针对宁夏灌溉水资源紧缺的生产实际,以覆膜滴灌枸杞为研究对象,设置不同灌溉定额进行田间试验,研究了不同灌溉定额对枸杞光合特性及产量的影响。结果表明:①净光合速率日变化,低水分呈双峰型,高水分呈抛物线型;蒸腾速率日变化呈单峰型,不同水分处理的蒸腾速率峰值出现时间点不同;胞间CO2浓度随着灌水量的增加而降低;②灌溉定额2700 m3/hm2时叶绿素相对含量最大,为67.2,灌溉定额3600 m3/hm2时最小,为64;③灌溉定额2700 m3/hm2时产量最高,为10440 kg/hm2,灌溉定额3600 m3/hm2时产量最低,为7126.2kg/hm2,灌水量在一定范围内可增产,但超出2700 m3/hm2,产量与灌溉定额不呈正相关关系。%Aim at the production practice of irrigation water resources shortage in Ningxia.The study was conducted to research the effect of different irrigation quota on photosynthesis characteristics and yield of lycium.The results showed that:①the net photo-synthetic rate of the low and high water treatment respectively showed the double peak and parabola type;the transpiration rate vari-ation showed a single-peak curve,the peak value appeared at different time for different treatments;intercellular CO2 concentration decreased with soil water content threshold increased.②The minimum value of the chlorophyll relative content was 67.2,when the irrigation quota was 2700 m3/hm2 ,and the maximum value was 64,when the irrigation quota was 3 600 m3/hm2;③The optimal yield was 10 440 kg/hm2 ,when the irrigation quota was 2 700 m3/hm2 ,and the lowest yield was 7 126.2 kg/hm2 when the irrigation quota was 3 600 m3/hm2;the irrigation could increase yield,but the yield was not positively correlated with irrigation when the irri-gation amount was more than 2700 m3/hm2 .

  3. Application of Digupi in Toothache Treatment%小议地骨皮在治疗牙痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓娜; 张敏芬; 李江全

    2012-01-01

    Digupi is the dry velamen of solanaceae plant Lycium ( Lyciutn chinensis Mill. )or Lycium barbarum L. And it has been regarded as a taste of efficient Chinese traditional medicine to clear away deficiency-heat and remove bone-heat and hectic fever. In addition, Digupi can also effectively improve the symptoms of toothache, especially for those caused by wind-pathogen, dental caries or deficiency-fire. Pharmacological studies indicate that Digupi has analgesic and bacteriostatic action. According to the literature and modern pharmacology study reports, Digupi can be used in most common toothache and various dental pathological changes.%地骨皮为茄科植物枸杞Lycium chinensis Mill.或宁夏枸杞L.barbarumL.的干燥根皮,一直被视为清虚热、除骨蒸之佳品.此外,地骨皮还具有治疗牙痛的功效,针对风虫牙痛及虚火牙痛疗效尤佳.现代药理研究表明,地骨皮具有镇痛、抑菌等作用.根据文献和现代药理研究报道,地骨皮可用于治疗各型常见牙痛及多种牙痛变.

  4. Thioredoxin-interacting Protein as a Common Regulation Target for Multiple Drugs in Clinical Therapy/Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initially identified in HL60 cells treated with Vitamin D3, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP is considered as a major redox regulator and a potential connector between cellular redox state and metabolism. TXNIP plays an important role in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism, and it has been defined as a tumor suppressor gene in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. This review gives an overview of the mechanism of various medicines including Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Quercetin, trans-resveratrol, metformin, purple sweet potato color, nobiletin, taurine, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and Theophylline, and their potential applications in the clinical treatment of many diseases.

  5. 新疆产药用植物黑果枸杞有性生殖产出差异的繁殖生态学研究%Reproductive Ecology Research on Populations of a Medicinal Plant (Lycium ruthenicum Murr.) from Xinjiang Reveals Factors Affecting Fruit Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿力同·其米克; 金晓芳; 叶忠铭; 王青锋; 陈进明; 杨春锋

    2014-01-01

    由于黑果枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)果实具有重要的保健价值,近年来倍受关注,但其野生资源正遭受着前所未有的采伐压力.目前关于影响黑果枸杞果实产量的有性生殖过程研究较少,本实验对新疆库尔勒地区6个不同生境的野生黑果枸杞居群开展了繁殖生态学观察,并对各居群的访花频率、访花昆虫种类、柱头花粉落置、胚珠数、座果率、结实率和单株果实产量等指标进行了比较分析.结果表明,访花频率与结实率、座果率具有显著正相关关系,说明传粉者是限制黑果枸杞有性生殖的关键因素之一;传粉者种类越丰富的居群其有性生殖产出越高,揭示了传粉昆虫的多样性和丰富度是影响黑果枸杞繁殖成功的重要限制因子.此外,和静县华侨农场和焉耆县霍拉山河沟的黑果枸杞居群生殖产出明显与其传粉成功率相偏离,进一步分析表明,风沙侵蚀和人为采伐对植株的破坏是影响这两个居群果实产量的重要原因.本研究结果对于野生黑果枸杞居群的保护及其人工规模栽培提供了重要的参考依据.%Recently,Lycium ruthenicum attracted substantial attention due to the high value of its fruits to human health.As a result,the wild resources are at high risk of loss and detailed studies on the sexual reproductive ecology of this important medicinal plant should be conducted for better conservation.We investigated factors affecting reproductive output of the plant using six wild populations from Xinjiang.We compared differences in pollination frequency,pollinator composition,stigmatic pollen load,and ovule production among the populations,as well as correlations with reproductive output namely,fruit set,seed set and fruit production per plant.Results indicated that pollination frequency was significantly correlated with fruit set and seed set,and populations with high diversity in pollinator types had higher reproductive output

  6. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang, a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine, lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol, gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid, biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine, and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH, and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS.

  7. Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Wui-Man Lau

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis.

  8. Progress of Wolfberry Wine Nutritional Value and Health Functions%枸杞果酒的营养价值及保健功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维芯; 蔡树东

    2016-01-01

    枸杞果酒作为一种饮品,不仅口感深受不同人群的喜欢,并且具有丰富的营养价值和良好的保健效果,本文主要针对枸杞果酒丰富的营养价值和保健功能进行综述,以期为新型枸杞果酒的研发及其功能因子的研发奠定一定的理论基础。%With the improvement of people’s living standards,today,health has become a central issue. Lycium barbarum wine as a beverage,is not only a beverage preferred by different group of people,but also has a wealth of good nutritional value and health effects. This paper focuses on reviews on the rich of nutritive value and health function in lycium barbarum fruit wine,in order to offer the theoretical basis for new medlar fruit wine research and detect functional factors.

  9. A Survey of Studies on Anti-tumor Effects of LBP and Its Mechanisms%枸杞多糖的抗肿瘤作用及其机理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭培培

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum is a traditional Chinese medicine,which owns many medical values.LBP is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum,which can benefit health in anti-aging,antifatigue and so on.LBP'anti-tumor effects are introduced in the treatment of liver cancer,cervical cancer,prostate cancer,liver ascites cancer,ovarian cancer,colon cancer,cancer of the esophagus,leukemia and lung cancer,the mechanisms of which are also stated,mainly containing adjusting inmmune system and inducing the apoptosis,regulating genes and anti-oxidization.All of these are expected to be referred to for Lycium barbarum's further exploitation.%枸杞是传统常用中药,具有多种药用价值。枸杞多糖是枸杞中的主要活性成分,具有抗衰老、抗疲劳等多种保健功能,本文概述了其在肝癌、宫颈癌、前列腺癌、肝腹水癌、卵巢癌、大肠癌、食管癌、血癌、肺癌等方面的抗肿瘤作用并对其可能存在的机制如免疫系统调节机制、细胞凋亡诱导机制、基因表达调控机制、抗氧化机制做了阐述,以期为枸杞的进一步开发利用提供参考。

  10. Mycorrhizal status of Lycium europaeum in the coastal dunes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... This portion of the Atlantic coastal contains also the reserve of Sidi ..... landside by a dense forest of Juniperus phoenicea that is extended through the .... fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and.

  11. Research advances on the usage of traditional Chinese medicine for neuroprotection in glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-song Mi; Jing-xiang Zhong; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang; Kwok-Fai So

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons is the main pathogenesis of glaucoma.The cause of glaucoma is not fully understood,but the neurodegeneration of glaucoma involves many mechanisms such as oxidative stress,glutamate toxicity and ischemia/reperfusion insult.In order to target these mechanisms,multiple neuroprotective interventions have been investigated to prevent the death of RGCs.Of note are some tonic herbs from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmacopeia that have shown neuroprotective effects in glaucoma.TCM differs from Western medicine in that TCM exhibits complicated bioactive components,triggering many signaling pathways and extensive actions on vital organs.Modern scientific approaches have demonstrated some of their underlying mechanisms.In this review,we used Lycium barbarum and Ginkgo biloba as examples to elaborate the characteristics of TCM and their potential applications in neuroprotection in glaucoma.

  12. Identification of monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate in nature by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiserodt, Richard D; Adedeji, Jide; John, T V; Dewis, Mark L

    2004-06-01

    Menthol, menthone, and other natural compounds provide a cooling effect and a minty flavor and have found wide application in chewing gum and oral care products. Monomenthyl succinate, monomenthyl glutarate, and dimenthyl glutarate provide a cooling effect without the burning sensation associated with menthol. Additionally, because they do not have a distinct flavor, they can be used in applications other than mint flavors. Because these menthyl esters have not been reported in nature, we undertook to identify a natural source for these cooling compounds. Using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, monomenthyl succinate was identified in Lycium barbarum and Mentha piperita, and monomenthyl glutarate and dimenthyl glutarate were identified in Litchi chinesis. The identifications were based on the correlation of mass spectrometric and chromatographic retention time data for the menthyl esters in the extracts with authentic standards which resulted in a 99.980% confidence in the identifications.

  13. A combination of various functional food ingredients as a weight management program: randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunobu Amagase

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Lycium barbarum increased the postprandial energy expenditure (PPEE. Negative energy balance caused by the systematic procedure (TAIslim® System, including increasing metabolic rate through physical activity, use of Lycium barbarum-containing TAIslim (Product A, and decreasing caloric intake by consuming a chewable confection (TAIslim SKINNY=Product B, and a meal replacement shake (TAIslim SHAKE=Product C, would be successful for weight loss.Methods: We examined TAIslim System on anthropometrics, appetite in Study 1 and PPEE in Study 2, both in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind manner. 1 A total of 67 participants were randomized into 2 groups (placebo or TAIslim System. Intake procedures were: Product A, 60 ml (20 kcal b.i.d. immediately before breakfast and lunch, Product B, 1 chew (20 kcal t.i.d. between meals and after dinner; Product C, 40.5 g (158 kcal as breakfast. A calorie-restricted diet with multi-vitamin supplementation and daily exercise was required. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 w. 2 Appetite was measured using a subjective visual analog scale during the initial 3-7 days of intake. 3 For PPEE evaluation, 12 participants consumed a single bout of TAIslim System products or placebo, and took part in 6 study sessions. EE was measured by an indirect calorimeter immediately before (baseline and at 1, 2, and 4 h post-intake of samples.Results: 1 Body weight was significantly reduced by 6.2±0.7%, compared to pre-intervention with TAIslim System (P<0.01. Waist circumference, total body fat, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced by TAIslim System, in a range of 3.8-9.9%. TAIslim System was significantly more effective than the placebo (P<0.05. The placebo group showed -0.1-3.9% reduction from pre-intervention with no significant difference. 2 TAIslim Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011, 1(12:555-573System also

  14. 不同贮藏方式对河西走廊四种茄科植物种子萌发的影响%Effects of storage condition on the seed germination of four Solanaceae species in Hexi Corridor, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桔红; 陈文; 马瑞君

    2013-01-01

    The storage condition of plant seeds after their dispersal is critical to the seed germination.This paper studied the effects of four storage conditions (dry-stored at room temperature,and placed on litter,covered with litter,and covered with soil in winter) on the seed germination of four Solanaceae species (Lycium ruthenicumr,L.barbarum var.auranticarpum,Solanum alatum,and Darura stramonium) in Hexi Corridor,aimed to better understand the seed germination characteristics of these species and how these species adapting to their habitats.Covering seeds with soil (1 cm) and litter in winter could significantly increase the germination percentage of L.ruthenicumr and L.barbarum var.auranticarpum seeds up to 96.5% and 75.5%,and 65.3% and 53.7%,respectively,and accelerate the germination.In the meantime,the non-germinated seeds of L.ruthenicumr and L.barbarum var.auranticarpum could still keep higher viability.Placing on litter in winter and dry-storing at room temperature could increase the germination percentage of L.ruthenicumr seeds by 57.5%,while the non-germinated seeds could loss their viability by 47.5% and 31%,respectively.Placing on litter in winter made the germination percentage of L.barbarum var.auranticarpum seeds being 39.3%,and partial non-germinated seeds (38%) lost their viability.Atter stored under the four storage conditions,the germination percentage of S.alatum seeds was more than 90% while that of D.stramonium seeds was less than 10%,but the non-germinated seeds of D.stramonium still kept 50.5%-81.5% viability.Both L.ruthenicumr and L.barbarum var.auranticarpum displayed the consistency in the responses of seed germination to various storage conditions,i.e.,the seeds of the two species under soil-and litter cover in winter had a significantly higher germination percentage,the germination was accelerated,and the germination duration was shortened,as compared with those under placed on litter in winter or dry-stored at

  15. Environ: E00323 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00323 Lycium leaf (non-JP) Lycii folium Crude drug Betaine [CPD:C00719] Lycium chinense [TAX:112883] Same as: D09221 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Lycium leaf; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ...

  16. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction.

  17. Protein and alkaloid patterns of the floral nectar in some solanaceous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, András; Darók, Judit; Bacskay, Ivett; Felinger, Attila; Jakab, Gábor; Farkas, Ágnes

    2015-09-01

    The family Solanaceae includes several melliferous plants, which tend to produce copious amounts of nectar. Floral nectar is a chemically complex aqueous solution, dominated by sugars, but minor components such as amino acids, proteins, flavonoids and alkaloids are present as well. This study aimed at analysing the protein and alkaloid profile of the nectar in seven solanaceous species. Proteins were examined with SDS-PAGE and alkaloids were analyzed with HPLC. The investigation of protein profile revealed significant differences in nectar-protein patterns not only between different plant genera, but also between the three Nicotiana species investigated. SDS-PAGE suggested the presence of several Nectarin proteins with antimicrobial activity in Nicotiana species. The nectar of all tobacco species contained the alkaloid nicotine, N. tabacum having the highest nicotine content. The nectar of Brugmansia suaveolens, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger and Lycium barbarum contained scopolamine, the highest content of which was measured in B. suaveolens. The alkaloid concentrations in the nectars of most solanaceous species investigated can cause deterrence in honeybees, and the nectar of N. rustica and N. tabacum can be considered toxic for honeybees.

  18. Identification and determination of carboxylic acids in food samples using 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (APIETS) as labeling reagent by HPLC with FLD and APCI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao; Song, Cuihua; Xia, Lian

    2011-08-15

    A new labeling reagent for carboxylic acids, 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (APIETS) has been designed and synthesized. It was used to label eight fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and four hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and maslinic acid), successfully. APIETS could easily and quickly label carboxylic acids in the presence of K(2)CO(3) catalyst at 85°C for 35 min in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent. The carboxylic acids derivatives were separated on a C(8) reversed-phase column with gradient elution and fluorescence detection at λ(ex)/λ(em)=315/435 nm. Identification of these derivatives was carried out by online mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. The detection limits obtained were 13.37-30.26fmol (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The proposed method has been applied to the quantification of carboxylic acids in sultana raisin (Thompson seedless), hawthorn flake (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.), Lycium barbarum seed oil and Microula sikkimensis seed oil with recoveries over 95.3%. It has been demonstrated that APIETS is a prominent labeling reagent for determining carboxylic acids with high performance liquid chromatography.

  19. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of wolfberry infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Rukeya, Japaer; Tao, Wenyang; Sun, Peilong; Ye, Xingqian

    2017-01-01

    An infusion of the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is a traditional Asian herbal tea. This is the most commonly consumed form of dried wolfberry worldwide, yet little scientific information on wolfberry infusions is available. We investigated the effects of making infusions with hot water on the color, the content of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) and the antioxidant ability of wolfberry infusions. The contents of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of a wolfberry infusion increased with increased infusion temperature and time. Total polysaccharides content (TPOC), total polyphenols (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and total carotenoids contents (TCC) were important for determining the antioxidant capacity of wolfberry infusions with the contribution to antioxidant activity in the order TPC > TFC > TCC > TPOC. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated preparation conditions of 100 °C for 1~3 h, 90 °C for 2~3 h and 80 °C for 2.5~3 h were equivalent as regards the value of TPC, TPOC, TFC, TCC, FRAP, DPPH and ABTS. The results of this study suggest the length of time of making a wolfberry infusion in actual real life practice is too short and different dietary habits associated with the intake of wolfberry infusion might provide the same bioactive nutrients. PMID:28102295

  20. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  1. Effect of a complex lutein formula in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin-Pin; Ke, Chia-Ying; Kuo, Chih-Chieh; Lee, Yih-Jing

    2016-08-31

    Several retinal degenerative diseases cause vision loss and retinal cell death. Currently, people face prolonged exposure to digital screens, rendering vision protection from light exposure a critical topic. In this study, we designed a complex lutein formula (CLF) by combining several natural compounds: Calendula officinalis, Lycium barbarum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Cassia obtusifolia, and Rhodiola rosea. In addition, we evaluated the protective effects of the formula on retinal functions in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration. We employed electroretinography to analyse retinal function, and conducted a histological examination of the morphological changes in the retina treated under various conditions. We revealed that the retinal function in animals exposed to light for 7 days decreased significantly; however, the retinal function of animals that had received the CLF exhibited superior performance, despite light exposure. In addition, a greater portion of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) (i.e. the nuclei of photoreceptors) in these animals was preserved compared with the animals that had not received the formula after 7 days of light exposure. These results revealed that our dietary CLF supplement attenuated retinal function loss resulting from long-term light exposure.

  2. 枸杞提取液复合营养素运动饮料的研究%Study on Complex Nutrients Sports Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞洪; 管宗辉; 陈惠连

    2011-01-01

    Exacted by hot water extraction lyceum barbarum polysaccharides(LBP) from Lycium barbarum,using LB,amino acides,and vitamins as main materials mixture,a complex nutrients sports drink was developed.The optional extraction process condition and optional formula were determined by L9(34) orthogonal test.The results showed optional extraction process condition were: the addition of Lycium barbarum,was 9.9%,treatment temperature was 800C,treatment time was 75min.The optional formula of complex nutrients sports drinks were: the LBP 250ml/L,glucose was 80g /L,citric acid content was lg/L,Nac1 was 0.5g/L,aspartic acid was 0.593g/L,Glycine was 0.841g/L,Valine was 0.255g/L,Lysine was 0.400g/L,IIoleucine was 0.225g/L,VB6 was 0.010g/L,VB12 was 0.0002g/L,VC was 1.5g/L.%采用热水浸提法提取枸杞提取液,将枸杞提取液与氨基酸、维生素等原料复配,制成复合营养素运动饮料。采用L9(34)正交试验的方法对枸杞的提取温度、提取时间及料液比的正交试验来确定枸杞提取液的最佳提取条件,对加入的枸杞提取液、蔗糖、柠檬酸和氯化钠用量的正交试验来确定复合营养素运动饮料的最佳配比。实验表明,最佳的枸杞提取液提取工艺为料液比1:10,温度80℃,时间75min,最佳的复合营养素运动饮料配方为枸杞提取液250mL/L、糖量80g/L、柠檬酸量1g/L、氯化钠0.5g/L,天冬氨酸0.593g/L、甘氨酸0.841g/L、缬氨酸0.255g/L、赖氨酸0.400g/L、异亮氨酸0.225g/L。维生素B60.010g/L、维生素B120.0002g/L、维生素C1.5g/L。

  3. In vitro Screening and Evaluation of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicines for Their Potential to Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Zhang, Yonglan; Yang, Fengqing; Lin, Yexin; Zhang, Qihui; Xia, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ is widely used as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones, the agonists of PPARγ, has been popularly utilized as insulin sensitizers in the therapy of type 2 diabetes whereas numerous severe side-effects may also occur concomitantly. Objective: The PPARγ activation activity of different polar extracts, including petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, residual of ethanol, the precipitate part of water and the supernatant of water extracts, from 37 traditional Chinese medicines were systematically evaluated. Materials and Methods: HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with the re-constructed plasmids of GAL4-PPARγ-ligand binding domain and pGL4.35. The activation of PPARγ by different polarity extracts were evaluated based on the PPARγ transactivation assay and rosiglitazone was used as positive control. Results: Seven medicines (root bark of Lycium barbarum, Anoectochilus sroxburghii, the rhizome of Phragmites australis, Pterocephalus hookeri, Polygonatum sibiricum, fruit of Gleditsia sinensis, and Epimedium brevicornu) were able to significantly activate PPARγ. Conclusion: As seven medicines were able to activate PPARγ, the anti-diabetic activity of them is likely to be mediated by this nuclear receptor. SUMMARY Lots of the tested medicinal products had activation effects on activating PPARγEthyl acetate extracts of root bark of L.barbarum, rhizome of P.saustralis and fruit of G.siasinensis showed good PPARγ activation effect similar or higher than that of positive control, 0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazonePetroleum ether extracts of A.roxburghii, P. hookeri, P. sibiricum, E.brevicornu also can significantly activate PPARγ, the effects of them were higher than t0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazoneSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., the fruit Cornus officinalis Siebold and Zucc., Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and the root of Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maxim

  4. 晋北风沙区引种灌木成活与生长情况分析%Survival Rate and Growth of Shrub Introduced in the Windy Desert Regions of Northern Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀瑞; 奥小平; 张彩红

    2012-01-01

    在晋北风沙区引种栽植沙枣、沙地柏、连翘、文冠果、丽豆、枸杞6种生态经济型灌木树种,从成活率、保存率,及树高、地径、冠径的生长量等方面分析了不同灌木的适生性,初步筛选出了沙地柏、沙枣、文冠果、连翘和枸杞5种适宜的灌木树种。这5种灌木当年造林成活率均达92%以上,3 a保存率均达85%以上;连翘、枸杞、沙枣的树高年平均生长量达40.0 cm;沙枣地径年均生长量最大,为0.63 cm;连翘的冠径年均生长量最大,为67.0 cm.%Six tree species of ecology-economy shrub including elaeagnus angustifolia L.and Sabina vulgeris were introduced in the windy desert regions of Northern Shanxi.The adaptability of different shrubs was analyzed in the aspects of survival rate,preserving rate,tree height,ground diameter and crown diameter increment,etc.Five suitable shrubs(Sabina vulgeris,Elaeagnus angustifolia L.,Xanthoceras sorbifolia bunge,Forsythia suspense and Lycium barbarum) were preliminary screened.The survival rate of 5 kinds of shrubs in the planting year reached 92% above;the preserving rate in the third years after planting reached 85% above;the tree height annual average of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.,Forsythia suspense and Lycium barbarum reached 40cm.The ground diameter growth of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.is the fastest,about 0.63 cm.And the crown diameter growth of Forsythia suspense is the largest,average 67.0 cm.

  5. The Effects of LBP on Lymphocyte Subsets in Echinococcus Granulosus Mice%枸杞多糖对细粒棘球蚴小鼠T淋巴细胞亚群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华; 王元; 王娅娜; 赵巍; 赵嘉庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore effects of LBP (Lycium barbarum polysaccharide) on lymphocyte subsets in echinococcus granulosus mice and to disscuss the immune role of LBP in echinococcus infected body. Methods LBP solution was injected subcutaneous to BALB/c mice 3 times at 2w interval. Mice were infected with E chinococcus granulosus larva at 8th w. IFN - γ + , IL - 4 + and CD4 +/CD8 + in mice were detected with Flow cytometry before and after the LBP administration and Echinococcus granulosus infection. Results compared with no LBP group,LBP made IFN - "y increase,IL -4 reduce,CD4 +/CD8 + increase significantly in BALB/c mice's lymphocyte's T cell. Compared with Echinococcus granulosus mice, LBP made IFN - "y increase (2,15 w) ,IL-4 reduce(2, lOw) ,CD4 +/CD8 + increase(2, lOw) ,then reduce( 15 ,20w) in Echinococcus granulosus mouse models lymphocyte's T cell. Conclusion it shows that LBP has the positive role of immune regulation by promoting T lymphocytes in Echinococcus granulosus infected mice to Thl differentiation , inhibiting Th2 differentiation in BALB/c mouse.%目的 研究枸杞多糖(Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides,LBPs)对细粒棘球蚴小鼠脾脏T细胞亚群的影响,初步探讨LBP对细粒棘球蚴感染后机体免疫功能变化的影响.方法 枸杞多糖溶液皮下给药3次,每次间隔2周,于第3次给药后2周,用细粒棘球蚴原头蚴攻击感染BALB/c小鼠,使用流式细胞仪动态检测给药前后、感染前后不同时间点小鼠脾脏IFN-γ+CD3+T细胞、IL-4+CD3+T细胞占总T细胞的比例以及CD4+/CD8+T细胞的比值变化.结果 与给药前比较,枸杞多糖给药后7周,小鼠脾脏分泌IFN-γ的T细胞比例增加,分泌IL-4的T细胞比例减少,CD4+/CD8+的比例明显增加;与感染对照组相比,枸杞多糖能使细粒棘球蚴感染小鼠脾脏分泌IFN-γ的T细胞比例增加(感染后2、15周);分泌IL-4的T细胞比例减少(感染后2、10周),CD4+/CD8+的比例先升高(2、10周),后降低(15、20

  6. Ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1 and three extracts of traditional Chinese medicine attenuate ultraviolet B-induced G1 growth arrest in HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts involve down-regulating the expression of p16, p21 and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Yun-Gui; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to confirm whether traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), polygonum multiflorum (PM), ginkgo extract (GE) and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) can attenuate G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts induced by 10 subcytotoxic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposures, and to explore the possible mechanism in terms of the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p16, p21 and p53. Ten subcytotoxic exposures to UVB induced G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts. Cell-cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry, and mRNA levels of p16, p21 and p53 were detected by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein levels were detected using Western blot analysis. Five types of traditional Chinese medicine attenuated UVB-induced G1 growth arrest. The mRNA and protein levels of p16, p21 and p53 in HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts increased after UVB irradiation, but pretreatment with five types of traditional Chinese medicine decreased the expression of p16, p21 and p53. These results indicated that five types of traditional Chinese medicine can attenuate G1 growth arrest of HaCaT cells and dermal fibroblasts induced by UVB exposures, which was caused by down-regulating the expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins p16, p21 and p53. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. 牡丹反转录转座子RT基因的分离与序列分析%Isolation and Characterization of Ty1-copia Retrotransposon Sequence from Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾甜甜; 郭大龙; 侯小改; 刘改秀; 王丽娜; 张修铭; 李双双

    2012-01-01

    以牡丹基因组为模板,利用简并引物进行PCR扩增,得到了编码Ty1-copia类反转录转座子反转录酶(RT基因)的序列,测序后所得序列长度为240 bp,包含2个开放读码框,共编码63个氨基酸.经NCBI中BLAST比对结果显示,洛阳红牡丹RT基因与枸杞、甜菜等RT基因的同源性均在70%以上.经MEGA和DNAstar软件分析表明,该片段在进化上与梅、杨、茶和苹果等落叶木本植物的同源性序列存在更高的同源性和更近的亲缘关系,与枸杞、鹰嘴豆、番茄、草莓等草本植物的同源性序列亲缘性较远.%With degenerate primer,the Tyl-copio-like retrotransposon sequence fragments were amplified from peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews. ) genomic DNA and sequemced, getting a 240-bp PCR fragment which contains two open reading frames and encodes 63 amino acids. The results of BLAST in CenBank showed that the RT gene sequence of peony had more than 70% similarity with those of Lycium chinense and Beta vulgaris ,etc. A phylo-genetic analysis by MEGA and DNAstar software showed that the sequence had higher homology and closer paternity with those of deciduous woody trees such as Prunus mume, Populus ciliate, Camellia sinensis and Malus x domestica than those of herbaceous plants such as L. barbarum ,Cicer arietinum,Lycopersicon esculenlum and Fragaria viridis.

  8. Drug: D06709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Lycium mature fruit Major component: Betaine [CPD:C00719] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06709 Lycium fruit Crude drugs

  9. 枸杞水浸提液色泽稳定性的研究%Study on Color Stability of Water Extract of Lucium Barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建芬; 籍保平; 陈云

    2003-01-01

    色泽的稳定性影响到枸杞产品外观品质.本文针对不同的温度、pH值、金属离子及光照条件,研究了枸杞水浸提液色泽的稳定性.研究结果表明都会对枸杞水浸提液的色泽的稳定性产生影响.

  10. 黑果枸杞的花部结构及繁育系统特征%Characteristics of floral dynamic and breeding system of Lycium ruthenicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴国礼; 秦垦; 曹有龙; 焦恩宁; 张波

    2013-01-01

      以宁夏、青海野生分布的黑果枸杞硬枝扦插苗为试验材料,对其开花动态与花部形态特征进行观察,并运用 T TC 法、联苯胺‐过氧化氢法、P/O 、OCI 和套袋试验等方法针对黑果枸杞花部结构及繁育系统进行研究.结果表明:黑果枸杞5~9月开花,单花持续期2~3 d ;黑果枸杞花粉活力在花药开裂时处于最强的状态,达到93.02%,15d 后,为2.97%;开花当日黑果枸杞柱头都具有可授性,在散粉后0~36 h 内,为传粉受精的最佳时间;杂交指数 OCI 为3或4,P/O(花粉量与胚珠比)为8750~10652,结合坐果率判断黑果枸杞不存在无融合生殖现象,部分自交亲和,繁育系统属于异交,需要传粉者.黑果枸杞的繁育系统以异交为主,但其仍保留着一定的自交花部综合特征.%Field investigation was performed on the floral syndrome ,pollination characteristics and breeding system of L ycium ruthenicum by continuous observations and analyzing data of out‐crossing index ,pollen‐ovule ratio ,fruit‐set ratio and seed‐set ratio .The results were as follows :under natural conditions ,the flowering stage of populations was about 120 days from May to September ,the life span of a single flower was about 2 - 3 days .The results showed that pollen viability of L .ruthenicum was more than 93 .2% during the period after flowering .Pollen viability decreased 2 .97% after the 15th day ,stigma receptivity was in the strongest condition on the first and second day after bloom ‐ing ,and then decreased after the third day .It showed that the breeding system was out‐crossing ,part self‐compatibili‐ty ,when comparing the results of pollination experiments with the results of out‐crossing index and pollen‐ovule rati‐o .Hand pollinations improved reproductive success ,suggesting that sexual reproduction may be influenced by pollen limitation and less pollinators in nature .

  11. Method for Separation and Purification of Carotenoids from Lycium Chinensis%枸杞类胡萝卜素的分离纯化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛

    2014-01-01

    本文对枸杞类胡萝卜素的浸提条件进行了研究,得到的最佳参数是:浸提液为石油醚-丙酮(1:3,v/v)混合溶剂,料液比为90(g/mL),在常温下分3次浸提,总浸提时间为1.5h。枸杞总类胡萝卜素的含量为552.57mg/kg。洗脱剂选择正己烷:丙酮=90:10(v/v),吸附剂选择为氧化镁:硅藻土=1:2(w/w),薄层展开剂选择为石油醚-丙酮=17:4,此条件下对枸杞色素提取液、枸杞总类胡萝卜素样品有很好的分离效果。%In this paper, the carotenoids extraction conditions were studied. We can use petroleum ether and acetone(1:3,v)as extract solvent, and select the solid-liquid ratio of 90 (g/mL). Then we extract lycii carotenoids three times spending 1.5h under this condition. We select hexane acetone(90:10,v)as eluent, magnesium oxide diatomite(1:2,w/w)as adsorbent. Besides, we select petroleum ether and acetone as the developing solvent of TLC. Under this condition, the separation effect for pigment of Fructus Lycii extract and total carotenoid sample is superior.

  12. Study on honey and lycium juice acetic acid fermented drink%蜂蜜、枸杞汁醋酸发酵饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖国仁; 孔繁东; 刘阳; 季英; 李明

    2005-01-01

    研究了蜂蜜、枸杞醋酸发酵饮料的制作工艺及酵母菌、醋酸菌接种量、发酵温度和发酵时间对产品感官质量和发酵速度的影响.结果表明:蜂蜜含量为40%,枸杞汁含量为5%的蜂蜜混合液为主要原料,接种2%的酵母菌种子液,28℃发酵4d.再接种5%的醋酸菌种子液,32℃条件下发酵6d得到的醋酸饮料,具有蜂蜜和枸杞清香味.

  13. Lycium-seed-oil on the effect metabolism of organism lipid%枸杞油对机体脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓薇; 姜怡邓; 董泉洲; 速恩杰

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨枸杞油是否具有改善机体脂质代谢、降低血浆胆固醇、预防动脉粥样硬化(AS)的作用.方法分别以高胆固醇饲料加用生理盐水、脂比妥,低、高剂量枸杞油饲养哈白兔,在第15、25、35、45、56天时耳中央动脉取血,检测血浆总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)值.结果高脂模型组血浆TC、TG、LDL-C明显高于各实验组,而HDL-C明显低于各实验组;各实验组LDL/HDL、TG/HDL-C水平下降,而高脂模型组LDL/HDL、TG/HDL-C水平则上升.结论枸杞油能降低机体血浆TC、TG、LDL水平,而升高血浆HDL,具有预防动脉粥样硬化作用.

  14. A nutrients comparative analysis of wild and cultivated wolfberry lycium%野生枸杞与栽培枸杞营养成分对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫斌颉

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比分析野生枸杞与栽培枸杞营养成分。方法:在常压微沸条件下实验采用浓硝酸-双氧水消解枸杞样品,并采用火焰原子吸收法对枸杞中所含的金属元素的含量进行测定。结果:栽培枸杞柠檬酸、Vc、氨基酸、蛋白质、总糖含量显著高于野生枸杞,但醛糖、还原糖、果胶、粗脂肪的含量显著低于野生枸杞,而栽培枸杞中所含的 Mn、Co、Na、Ca、Fe、Mg、Cu、Zn 显著低于野生枸杞。结论:栽培枸杞中的矿质元素 K、氨基酸、柠檬酸、Vc、蛋白质以及糖分含量较高,但野生枸杞中则含有较高的矿质元素Mn、Co、Na Fe、Mg、Cu、Zn、醛糖、还原糖、果胶含量较高,检测方法简便易行,检测结果准确可靠。%Objective: A comparative analysis of wild and cultivated wolfberry nutrients was done. Methods: Micro-boiling conditions at atmospheric pressure experiments was applied for concentrated nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide wolfberry sample digestion, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for measuring the content of wolfberry contained metal elements. Results: Wolfberry cultivation of citric acid, Vc, amino acids, protein, total sugar content was significantly higher than the wild medlar, but aldose, sugar, pectin, crude fat content was significantly lower than that of wild wolfberry, wolfberry cultivated contained Mn, Co, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn were significantly lower than the wild medlar. Conclusion:Wolfberry cultivation contain more mineral elements K, higher amino acid, citric acid, Vc, protein and sugar content, but in the wild wolfberry contains a high mineral elements Mn, Co, Na Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, sugar, pectin content is high, the detection method is simple, accurate and reliable.

  15. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    -natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora. Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

  16. Tonic Herbs and Herbal Mixtures in Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review results from a PubMed-based data-mining of scientific literature concerning typical tonic herbs and formulas of Chinese herbal medicine and their application principle under the theory of CM. We have focused on two aspects of tonic activity: body tonification against qi气-, blood血-, yin阴- and yang阳-deficiency, respectively, and organ (Zang 脏and Fu腑 tonification against heart-, liver-, spleen/stomach-, lung-, and kidney-deficiency, respectively. Body-tonifying herbs are: Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪 and Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 for qi-tonification; Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归 and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix Preparata (Shu-di熟地 for blood-tonification; Ophiopogon Japonicus Radix (Mai-dong麦冬 and Scrophularia Ningpoensis Radix (Xuan-shen玄参 for yin-deficiency; Myristica Fragrans Semen (Rou-dou-kou肉豆蔻 and Psoralea Corylifolia Fructus (Bu-gu-zhi补骨脂 for yang-deficiency. The corresponding CM formulas are: Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction (补中益气汤 for qi-tonification; Si-wu decoction (四物汤 for blood-tonification; Zeng-ye decoction (增液汤 for yin-tonification; Si-shen pill (四神丸 for yang-tonification. Organ-tonifying herbs are: Glycyrrhizae Uralensis Radix Preparata (Zhi-gan-cao炙甘草 and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix (Di-huang地黄 for heart-tonification; Lycium Barbarum Fructus (Gou-qi-zi枸杞子 and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归 for liver-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 and Atractylodis Macrocephala Rhizoma (Bai-zhu白术 for spleen/stomach-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参 and Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪 for lung-tonification; Cornus Officinalis Fructus (Shan-zhu-yu山茱萸 and Dioscorea Opposite Rhizoma (Shan-yao山药 for kidney-tonification. The corresponding CM formulas are: Zhi-gan-cao decoction (炙甘草汤 for heart-tonification; Yi-guan decoction (一贯煎 for liver

  17. 21种野菜抗氧化性的分析比较%Comparative Analysis on Antioxidant Activity of 21 Species of Wild Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤英; 李润丰; 肖月娟; 刘素稳

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from edible portion of 21 species of wild vegetables in east Hebei province were determined using DPPH free radical scavenging method to compare the antioxidant activities of different wild vegetables,and the correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavones was analyzed. The results showed that wild vegetables was good source of polyphenols and flavones, and had higher antioxidant activity, among them, Toona sinensis, Sonchus brachyotus DC. and Rumex patientia Linn had higher antioxidant activity followed by Lycium barbarum L., Gypsophila oldhamina Miq, Lepidium apetalum, Cirsium setosum, Kochia scoparia (L.), Salsola collina pall, Herba portulacae, Radix Rehmanniae and Amaranthus mangostanus; correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavones was not significant.(the correlative coefficients were 0.146 and 0.007 respectively); short time blanch treatment increased the antioxidant activity of wild vegetables.%为比较不同野菜的抗氧化活性,采用DPPH法对冀东地区21种野菜可食部位水提取液的抗氧化活性进行比较研究,分析其抗氧化活性和多酚、黄酮含量之间的相关性.结果表明:野菜中多酚和黄酮类物质含量丰富,具有较强的抗氧化活性,其中抗氧化较强的野菜有香椿、长裂苦苣菜、巴天酸模,其次为枸杞叶、霞革、独行菜、刺儿菜、地肤、猪毛菜、马齿苋、地黄、苋菜.野菜抗氧化活性和多酚、黄酮含量之间的相关性不显著(r分别为0.146、0.007).野菜经短时热烫处理,其抗氧化活性增强.

  18. 8种硫酸化多糖对新城疫病毒感染鸡胚成纤维细胞能力的影响%Effects of eight sulfated polysaccharides on infecting chicken embryo fibroblast of Newcastle disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君敏; 胡元亮; 张帆; 王德云; 赵晓娜; 张靖; 刘静; 赵彪; 郝丽华

    2011-01-01

    Chinese angelica polysaccharide (CAPS)and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBPS)were modified by chlrulfonicpyridine method to obtain four sulfated CAPS, sCAPS0.6, sCAPS1.1, sCAPS1.9 and sCAPS2.2 , and four sulfated LBPS, sLBPS0.7,sLBPS1.1 ,sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9. The effects of eight sulfated polysaccharides on cellular infectivity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were compared by MTT method taking the non-modified CAPS and LBPS as controls. The results showed that sulfated modification could significantly enhance the anti-virus activity of CAPS and LBPS,which was correlated with the degree of sulfation of sulfated polysaccharide. sCAPS2.2, sLBPS1.5, sCAPS1.9 and sLBPS1.9 possessed better activity and would be as the materials for further research.%用氯磺酸一吡啶法修饰当归多糖(CAPS)和枸杞多糖(LBPS),得到4种硫酸化当归多糖sCAPS06、sCAPS11、sCAPS1.9、sCAPS2.2和4种硫酸化枸杞多糖sLBPS07、sLBPS11、sLBPS15和sLBPS19.分别以CAPS和LBPS为埘照,采用MTT法比较了这8种硫酸化多糖对新城疫病毒感染鸡胚成纤维细胞能力的影响.结果表明:硫酸化修饰能显著提高当归多糖和枸杞多糖的抗病毒活性,且与硫酸基取代度有一定的相关性.sCAPS2.2、sLBPS1.5、sCAPS1.9和sLBPS1.9的活性较好,可以作为进一步研究的材料.

  19. FastLane: An Agile Congestion Signaling Mechanism for Improving Datacenter Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Cloudera, Ericsson, Facebook, General Electric, Hortonworks, Huawei , Intel, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, Quanta, Samsung, Splunk, VMware and Yahoo...Web Services, Google, SAP, Blue Goji, Cisco, Clearstory Data, Cloud- era, Ericsson, Facebook, General Electric, Hortonworks, Huawei , Intel, Microsoft

  20. Drug: D09221 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hinense [TAX:112883] Same as: E00323 Solanaceae (nightshade family) Lycium leaf; Standards for non-pharmacop...oeial crude drugs Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Solanaceae (nightshade family) D09221 Lycium leaf PubChem: 96025901 ...

  1. 转雪花莲凝集素酶基因枸杞对蚜虫的抑制作用%Inhibition effects of the transgenic Lycium plants expressing snowdrop lectin on development of aphid population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青; 巫鹏举; 李晓莺; 贝盏临; 曲玲; 曹有龙

    2007-01-01

    利用农杆菌介导法将雪花莲外源凝集素酶基因导入枸杞叶片,获得了完整的转基因植株.对36个经PCR检测为阳性的转基因株系进行了两年抗蚜虫筛选试验,结果表明:蚜口密度抑制率在13.19%~95.4%,平均蚜口密度抑制率为78.59%.

  2. Clinical Research of Lycium Tea Drink Combined with Comprehensive Nursing on Patients of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease%枸杞茶饮联合综合护理对非酒精性脂肪肝临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐越; 秦杰; 邱坤鹏; 陈楠; 柳迪

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨枸杞荼饮联合综合护理治疗非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)的临床效果.方法:选取60例NAFLD患者,随机分为照组和试验组,其中对照组30例,给予常规综合护理;试验组30例,在对照组基础上采用枸杞茶饮口服干预.比较两组患者的治疗效果,观察两组患者干预前后肝功能、血脂、胰岛素抵抗、脂联素、TNF-α的指标.结果:实施干预后,试验组治疗总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05),两组患者ALT、AST、GGT、CHOL、TG、LP、HOMA-IR水平均有所下降,脂联素、TNF-α均有所升高,但试验组改善的更明显,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:枸杞茶饮联合综合护理能较好的改善NAFLD患者的生化指标,起到较好的治疗作用.

  3. Determination of Total Phenolic Acid in the Fruits of Lycium barabarum L.by Folin-Ciocalteu Colorimetric Method%Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定枸杞子中总酚酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓宇; 陈鸿平; 银玲; 刘友平

    2012-01-01

    目的:采用Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定枸杞子中总酚酸的含量.方法:以绿原酸作为对照品,以Folin-Ciocalteu试剂为显色剂,检测波长为761nm.结果:浓度为0.00318~0.0212mg/mL时与吸光度呈良好线性关系,测定方法的平均回收率为100.8%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.71%.结论:此法操作简便,准确可靠,为枸杞子药材的质量控制、综合开发利用提供了一定的方法和依据.

  4. Spatial Distribution and Speciation of Selenium in Alkaline Soils and Agricultural Products of Lanzhou%兰州碱性土壤与农产品中硒分布及形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 李飞; 毕德; 王华魁; 李海勇; 周守标; 赵其国; 尹雪斌

    2012-01-01

    To know the spatial distribution of soil total Se and Se speciation in agricultural products, totally 473 Lanzhou soils and 122 agricultural products were sampled and analyzed. The results showed that the average total Se concentration of the topsoil in Lanzhou was (0.179± 0.066) mg/kg (n=473), which ranked in middle level of China. Soil pH value was 8.39+0.26. Soil Se varied significantly among sampling sites, and the highest averaged soil Se was found in Yuzhong Area. The bioavailable Se of soils ranged from 4.63% to15.8%, averagely 8.27% of the total Se. A significantly positive correlation between bioavilable Se and toal Se in soils was observed. For the agricultural products, the total Se in rose (Rosa rugosa), Chinese wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var.italica) and celery (Apium graveolens) exceeded 0.01S mg/kg (a standard value for Se-enriched products in China). The organic Se covered averagely 73.4% of the total Se in these agricultural products. Generally, the areas with higher soil Se in Lanzhou could grow higher Se products. Because of alkaline properties of Lanzhou soil, it has a significant advantage in developing Se biofortiflcation agricultural products.%通过对兰州市主要农业区表层土壤总硒有效硒调查和部分农产品总硒有机硒测定,研究了兰州市碱性农田土壤与农产品中硒的积累特征和分布规律.结果表明,兰州市农田表层土壤pH 8.39±0.26,总硒含量为(0.179±0.066) mg/kg(n=473),处于全国中等水平.全市土壤总硒含量区域性差别较大,市辖区明显低于三县,榆中县居全市之首.土壤有效硒与总硒含量显著正相关,有效硒占比为4.63%~15.8%,平均8.27%.农产品中玫瑰(Rosa rugosa),部分西兰花(Brassicaoleracea var.italica)和芹菜(Apium graveolens)样品硒含量高于0.015 mg/kg,为该市天然富硒农产品.农产品中有机硒占总硒比例较高,均值为73.4%.从区域整体来看,土壤硒含量较高的

  5. 多糖联合对辐照大鼠睾丸组织损伤保护作用%Effect of combined polysaccharides on radiation-induced damage of testis tissue in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周银柱; 罗琼; 李菁菁; 刘军; 闫俊; 崔晓燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the combined effect of the Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) and Lycium barbarum polysaccharides(LBP) on male rats' testicular tissue oxidative damage induced by chronic local ionizing radiation.Methods Four weeks old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control, model, LBP, LJP, and LBP + LJP group.After one week adaptable rearing,apart from the control group,all groups were exposed to 60Coγ-ray local irradiation everyday for 20 days in four weeks ( except the weekend) at a total radiation dose of 2.3 Gy for each rat.During the radiation, the rats were given intragastral administration according to the grouping everyday.Seven days after the cessation of exposure, the testicular tissue was observed and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX) and content of malonodialdehyde (MDA) in testicular tissue were determined.Results Testicular tissue in LBP + LJP was normal.LBP + LJP increased the contents of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH ( P < 0.01 ) and reduced MDA content( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The radioprotective effects of combined LBP and LJP on testicular tissue are obvious and the combined effect is better than LBP or LJP independently.%目的 探讨枸杞多糖(LBP)和海带多糖(LJP)联合作用对慢性电离辐射致大鼠睾丸组织氧化损伤的影响.方法 将4周雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组、LBP组、LJP组和LBP+LJP联合组;灌胃7 d后进行连续4周(周六、周日除外)60Coy照射,剂量2.3 Gy/只,照射期间每天灌胃;照射结束7d后进行组织切片观察睾丸形态改变,测定睾丸组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力和还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)、丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果 对照组MDA含量为(1.30±O.27)nmol/mg,与模型组、LBP组、LJP组的(2.16±0.34),(1.86±0.29),(1.70±0.09)nmol/mg比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.Ol或P<0.05);LBP+LJP联合组MDA含量为(0.82±0.34)nmoL/mg

  6. Effects of Naotan Pill on repair of neural cells and cognitive disorders in juvenile rats following hypoxia and ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang Wei; Huiqing Zhang; Shenglu Lu; Bingrong Dang; Jianping Hong; Qingxiang Gao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Hypoxia and ischemia induce neuronal damage,decreased neuronal numbers and synaptophysin levels,and deficits in learning and memory functions.Previous studies have shown that lycium barbarum polysaccharide,the most effective component of barbary wolfberry fruit,has protective effects on neural cells in hypoxia-ischemia.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of Naotan Pill on glutamate-treated neural cells and on cognitive function in juvenile rats following hypoxia-ischemia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The randomized,controlled,in vivo study was performed at the Cell Laboratory of Lanzhou University,Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences,and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Gansu Provincial Rehabilitation Center Hospital,China from December 2005 to August 2006.The cellular neurobiology,in vitro experiment was conducted at the Institute of Human Anatomy,Histology,Embryology and Neuroscience,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Lanzhou University,and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Gansu Provincial Rehabilitation Center Hospital,China from March 2007 to January 2008.MATERIALS:Naotan Pill,composed of barbary wolfberry fruit,danshen root,grassleaf sweetflag rhizome,and glossy privet fruit,was prepared by Gansu Provincial Rehabilitation Center,China.Rabbit anti-synaptophysin,choline acetyl transferase polyclonal antibody,streptavidin-biotin complex kit and diaminobenzidine kit (Boster,Wuhan,China),as well as glutamate (Hualian,Shanghai,China) were used in this study.METHODS:Cortical neural cells were isolated from neonatal Wistar rats.Neural cell damage models were induced using glutamate,and administered Naotan Pill prior to and following damage.A total of 54 juvenile Wistar rats were equally and randomly assigned into model,Naotan Pill,and sham operation groups.The left common carotid artery was ligated,and then rat models of hypoxic-ischemic injury were assigned to the model and Naotan Pill groups.At 2 days

  7. Immune-based Therapeutic Intervention and Treating AIDS with TCM%免疫干预疗法与中医药治疗艾滋病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关崇芬

    2004-01-01

    -based intervention is regression of natural medicine, it reevaluates the effect of organic immune system in treating HIV/AIDS. which coincides with holistic approach and syndrome differentiation theory in TCM. As tragalus membanaceus contains many jmmuno-modulatory active substances,which could reverse the immunosuppressor induced immunosuppression, promote the production of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum and Ligusticum lucidum could reproduce the splenic activating cells, displays mitogenoid action. And the polysaccharide of Angelica sinensis, Embellatus polyporus could stimulate lymphocytereproduction. Ginsenoside and polysaccharide could obviously induce IL-2 and its gene expression. Some compound recipes(802,806,809) could increase plaque forming cells(PFC), serum rosette formling cells(SRFC) and delayed-type hypersensitivity(DTH), promote IL-1 and IL-2 production, and increase the CD4 cell count and reverse the CD4/CD8 ratio. Zhongyan-2 could raise CD4 cell count for 50 cells/mm3 , IL-2 and IFN have increasing tendency, Neopterin and β2 microglobulin also showed elevation.

  8. 制干用枸杞新品种‘宁杞 7 号’%A New Wolfberry Cultivar‘Ningqi 7’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦垦; 戴国礼; 曹有龙; 焦恩宁; 唐慧锋; 闫亚美; 何军; 李瑞鹏

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ningqi 7’is a new wolfberry cultivar from the‘Ningqi 1’production garden which planted by nature hybridization seedlings,but its plant shape characteristic is shape difference with‘Ningqi 7’,and the genetic background is unclear. Because of that‘Ningqi 7’has very strong self-incompatibility,so it can be construct the plantation with the only variety,It shows good characteristics such as vigorous growth,high yield,the fruit-bearing branch is thickly and long,growing trend to be opened.‘Ningqi 7’just has lateral flower buds primarily,and that its output is mainly depending on the branch which the same year produced to provide. Because of that the fresh fruit which has very thick fruit pulp,so it easy for drying,at the same time,the feeling in the mouth is sweet,but does not lose the Ningxia wolfberry unique medicine fragrance. The fruit average vertical diameter 2.2 cm,transverse diameter 1.18 cm,and the ratio of vertical diameter/transverse diameter are 2.0,fruit pulp thick 1.2 mm,average content 29 grain seeds;The ratio of fresh or dry fruit are 4.1–4.6. In dry fruit,lycium barbarum polysaccharide content,betaine content,and carotenoid content are 39.7 mg · g^-1,10.8 mg · g^-1,1.385 mg · g^-1. It can cultivate in Ningxia,Qinghai,Gansu,Xinjiang where shows good characteristics and economic efficiency.%枸杞新品种‘宁杞7号’自交亲和,可单一品种建园,腋花芽为主。当年生枝为产量的主要负载单位,成枝力中等,果枝粗长,植株生长旺盛,树姿开张。鲜果粒大,肉厚,易制干。干果药香浓郁,口感好。平均鲜果单果质量0.72 g,横径1.18 cm,纵径2.2 cm,果肉厚1.2 mm,含籽数29个,鲜干比4.1 -4.6。干果枸杞多糖含量39.7 mg · g^-1;甜菜碱10.8 mg · g^-1,胡萝卜素1.385 mg · g^-1。适宜在宁夏、青海、甘肃、新疆等宁夏枸杞适生区栽植。

  9. 枸杞多糖对树突状细胞的成熟及免疫学功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝习; 赵明耀

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究枸杞多糖(lycium barbarum polysaccharides,LBP)对小鼠骨髓来源的树突状细胞(dendritic cell,DC)的成熟和免疫学功能的影响.方法:运用体外大量扩增培养小鼠骨髓来源的DC的技术,在DC的分化,成熟、活化这一系列过程中加入枸杞多糖观察其影响.在BMDC体外培养时加入低、中、高3种浓度(5,10,20 mg/L) 的LBP进行干预,同时设生理盐水对照组,培养至第6天,以流式细胞仪(flow cytometer,FCM)分析各组细胞的免疫表型及T 细胞的增殖情况;用Western-Blot方法测定其分泌的白介素-12P40(interleukin-12P40,IL-12P40)水平;MTT法检测体外经冻融的H22肝癌细胞冲击后的DC刺激同种反应性T细胞的杀伤活性.结果:体外加入LBP培养后,DC表达高水平共刺激分子CD86和CD11a(加药组与NS组对比,差别有统计学意义,P<0.05);其分泌的IL-12P40水平升高;DC刺激同种反应性T细胞的杀伤活性增加,其中以10 mg/L LBP培养时上述指标增加最为明显,与其他组对比,差别有统计学意义(P<0.05);而以LBP 5 mg/L,20 mg/L培养时,共刺激分子CD86和CD11a以及IL-12P40并没有高表达(加药组与NS组对比,差别无统计学意义,P>0.05).DC刺激同种反应性T细胞的杀伤活性也没有变化(加药组与NS组对比,差别无统计学意义,P>0.05).结论: LBP能够促进体外培养的DC的分化、成熟,提高其表面表达CD86(B7-2)以及CD11a(LFA-1)的水平;能够促进DC分泌IL-12P40;提高CTL的特异性杀伤能力,并且这种作用有其最佳剂量.

  10. Niebla ceruchis from Laguna Figueroa: dimorphic spore morphology and secondary compounds localized in pycnidia and apothecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzien, M; Margulis, L

    1988-01-01

    During and after the floods of 1979-80 Niebla ceruchis growing epiphytically on Lycium brevipes was one of the dominant aspects of the vegetation in the coastal dunal complex bordering the microbial mats at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The lichen on denuded branches of Lycium was far more extensively distributed than Lycium lacking lichen. Unusual traits of this Niebla ceruchis strain, namely localization of lichen compounds in the mycobiont reproductive structures (pycnidia and apothecia) and simultaneous presence of bilocular and quadrilocular ascospores, are reported. The abundance of this coastal lichen cover at the microbial mat site has persisted through April 1988.

  11. Dietary wolfberry supplementation enhances protective effect of flu vaccine against influenza challenge in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current vaccines for influenza do not fully protect the aged against influenza infection. Wolfberry, or goji berry, has been shown to improve immune response including enhanced antibody production in response to vaccination in the aged; however, it is not known if this effect of wolfberry would tran...

  12. Multi-Resource Fair Queueing for Packet Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    Huawei , Intel, MarkLogic, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, Quanta, Splunk, VMware and by DARPA (contract #FA8650-11-C-7136). Multi-Resource Fair Queueing for...Google PhD Fellowship, gifts from Amazon Web Services, Google, SAP, Blue Goji, Cisco, Cloud- era, Ericsson, General Electric, Hewlett Packard, Huawei

  13. Characterization of proanthocyanin-related leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase genes in Lycium ruthenicum Murr.%黑果枸杞原花青素合成相关无色花色素还原酶基因和花青素还原酶基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈笑飞; 曾少华; 吴敏; 刘春朝; 王瑛

    2014-01-01

    原花青素是黑果枸杞中一类重要的植化产物,但其生物合成机制仍不清楚.本研究利用黑果枸杞EST数据库,克隆了无色花色素还原酶基因(LrLAR)和花青素还原酶基因(LrANR).PCR结果表明,LrLAR和LrANR分别由333个氨基酸残基、338个氨基酸残基组成的蛋白编码.进化分析表明,相应蛋白LrLAR、LrANR分别聚类于LAR和ANR簇.实时定量PCR结果表明,从果实未成熟时期到变色期,LrLAR、LrANR的表达量均急剧上升,但在随后的发育时期中逐渐下降;与在果实中相比,在嫩叶、成熟叶、茎、根中,两基因的表达量极低.植化分析发现,果实中总原花青素含量高于嫩叶、成熟叶、茎、根中的含量,并且在果实成熟过程中呈现先增加后基本趋于稳定的趋势.本研究将为揭示黑果枸杞原花青素生物合成机制及促进其工程改良奠定基础.

  14. Vananemise vastu toiduga / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Toitumisteaduste magistri David Wolfe poolt soovitatud vananemise märke aeglustavatest ning pidurdavatest supertoitudest ja toidulisanditest: kasekäsn e must pässik, reishi-seen,kakao, assai, avokaado, brokoli, sidrun, õun, õunamahl, õunasiider, õunaäärikas, maka e mugulkress, goji ja mooruspuu marjad; vetikad klorella ja spirulina; toidulisandid EDTA – etüleendiamiin-tetraäädikhape (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), humiin- või fulvohape, MSM – metüülsulfonüülmetaan

  15. Vananemise vastu toiduga / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Toitumisteaduste magistri David Wolfe poolt soovitatud vananemise märke aeglustavatest ning pidurdavatest supertoitudest ja toidulisanditest: kasekäsn e must pässik, reishi-seen,kakao, assai, avokaado, brokoli, sidrun, õun, õunamahl, õunasiider, õunaäärikas, maka e mugulkress, goji ja mooruspuu marjad; vetikad klorella ja spirulina; toidulisandid EDTA – etüleendiamiin-tetraäädikhape (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), humiin- või fulvohape, MSM – metüülsulfonüülmetaan

  16. Fermentation of Plant Material - Effect on Sugar Content and Stability of Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reis Bruno A. dos; Kosińska-Cagnazzo Agnieszka; Schmitt Rudolf; Andlauer Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Extraction is a method often used to obtain products rich in bioactive compounds from plant material. Most of the solvents used for the poly-phenols extraction simultaneously extract also sugars, undesirable as a component of health-promoting food. Fermentation might be a simple, cheap and efficient way of sugar elimination. In our study, black tea and goji berries, both known for their health benefits, were used and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to elimin...

  17. Aceria kuko Mites: a Comprehensive Review of Their Phytosanitary Risk, Pathways and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ciceoi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to identify the phytosanitary risk, the pathways and the possible control methods of a new eryophid alien species mentioned for the first time in Romania in 2010. The pest is Aceria kuko, the goji-berries gall mite, imported in Europe from China via orders by mail possibly in 2007 or 2008. Although the import from third countries into the European Union of Solanaceae intended for planting is prohibited according to Dir. 2000/29/EC, as a protective measure against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community, the parcels ordered by mail escape the quarantine and pest & disease control services. Our field observations regarding the attack frequency, attack intensity and the losses indicate that the non-native plant pest is a potential threat also for Romania, although no attention has been given to it until the present moment. We consider that monitoring the presence of the mite in the Romanian Goji plantations and the changes in the A. kuko biology and ecology has a strategic importance and should be regarded as a biosafety measure not only for Romania, but for entire Europe, as the Goji fruits produced in Romania are mainly exported in the European countries.

  18. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  19. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  20. Three novel species of Stemphylium from Sinkiang, China: their morphological and molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of Stemphylium were isolated from diseased leaves of Luffa cylindrica, Lycium chinense and Cucumis melo growing in the Sinkiang province of Northwest China. Stemphylium luffae, S. lycii and S. cucumis are described by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. The principal...

  1. Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herb on Growth and Immunization of Laying Chicks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA De-ying; SHAN An-shan; LI Qun-dao; DU Juan

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate effects of Chinese medicinal herb (CMH) on growth and immunization of laying male chicks,eleven CMHs were used in this study,which are Astragalus membranacens (AM),Schisandra chinensis (SC),Ligustrum Lucidum(LL), Codonopsis, Scutellaria baicalensis (SB),Atractylodes macrocephala(AMA),Haw,Ginger,Acanthopanax scenticosns (AS),Angelica and Lycium, added to basal diet as 1%,respectively,with the basal diet supplemented with 50 mg*kg-1 bacitracin zinc(BZ) as the control.The body weight (BW) of birds were recorded at 1,21 and 42 days after birth,individually.The birds were vaccinated 0.50 mL against Newcastle disease (ND) with La sota vaccinel (containing mineral oil as adjuvant) by I.m.inoculation at 21 d of age.All of birds was vaccinated with F48E9 NDV by I.m.inoculation at 49 day of age.Blood samples were taken via wing vein from each bird on the day receiving the vaccination (Day-1) and on 14,21,28,30 and 34 d after vaccination (Days 14,21,28,30 and 34).Results showed that bodyweight (BW) and bodyweight gain(BWG) of the trial groups are similar to the control group.No significant differences of relative weight (RW) of bursa and spleen were observed among trial groups except for AS (P<0.05).Serum antibody titers of SC,LL,Codonopsis,SB,AMA and Lycium groups were significantly increased (P<0.05) in contrast to these control group on day-21 or 28 after immunized ND La sota vaccinel,which suggested that SC,LL,Codonopsis,SB,AMA and Lycium could augment antibody formulation.Furthermore,Compared with the control,antibody titers in SC,Codonopsis,AS,Lycium,SB and AMA group were higher (P<0.05) after vaccinated with F48E9 NDV,which suggested that SC,Codonopsis,AS,Lycium,SB and AMA have activity of antivirus.In conclusion,CMH used in the present study have similar effect on BW and BWG of chicks compared with the control.Moreover,these eleven CMH have little influence on RW of immunized organ except AS.However,SC,Codonopsis,LL,Lycium,SB and AMA could

  2. A experiment research of beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung injury and the protective effects of LBP in rats%氧化铍致大鼠肺氧化损伤与枸杞多糖的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志宏; 张庆锋; 王瑶; 魏丛慧; 严青; 龚爱红; 郭雄

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨氧化铍(BeO)诱发的肺损伤及枸杞多糖(lycium barbarum polysaccharides,LBP)的保护作用.方法 选用SPF健康雄性大鼠128只,随机分为空白对照组(8只)、生理盐水组(24只)、BeO染毒组(32只,染毒剂量10 mg/kg)、BeO+LBP低剂量(10 mg/kg,32只)、BeO+LBP高剂量组(40 mg/kg,32只).动物染毒选用非暴露式气管一次注人法,LBP干预采用灌胃法.试剂盒检测大鼠肺组织中缺氧诱导因子-1(HIF-1)、血管内皮生长因子(VGEF)和血红素氧合酶(HO-1)的含量.制作肺组织病理切片观察病理改变,电子显微镜观察肺脏超微结构改变.结果 BeO染毒组大鼠肺组织出现炎性细胞浸润,间质增厚以及细胞、细胞器超微结构等病理学改变;经LBP干预后上述病理变化减轻.染毒40d,与对照组比较,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP低剂量组HO-1的含量升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);染毒80 d,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP低剂量组HO-1的浓度与对照组比较降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).染毒40 d,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP干预组,染毒60、80 d,BeO染毒组HIF-1含量均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);染毒40、80 d,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP干预组,染毒60 d,BeO染毒组VEGF含量与对照组比较升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).经LBP干预40d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组HO-1的含量低于BeO染毒组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预80 d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组HO-1的含量高于BeO染毒组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预60 d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组、干预80 d后,BeO+LBP干预组HIF-1含量低于BeO染毒组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);干预40 d后,BeO+LBP干预组、干预60 d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组VEGF的含量与BeO染毒组比较降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 BeO可引起大鼠肺组织中氧化损伤相关基因表达异常,LBP具有保护作用.%Objective To explore beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung

  3. Environmental Assessment: For the Testing and Evaluation of Directed Energy System Using Laser Technology, Edwards Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    properties also have been recorded (Norwood 2003). 12 The most common prehistoric site types are lithic scatters, temporary camps, hearth features, and...woodlands; 16 • Hymenoclea-Lycium scrub; 17 • Artificial aquatic habitats; 18 • Urban landscape; 19 • Rock outcrops and hillsides; 20 • Caves and... artificial ponds supporting 18 aquatic habitat and recreation, dry lakes, and ephemeral streams. The AFFTC purchases potable water 19 from the AVEK

  4. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea. PMID:28154492

  5. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2016-12-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea.

  6. Fermentation of Plant Material - Effect on Sugar Content and Stability of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Bruno A. dos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction is a method often used to obtain products rich in bioactive compounds from plant material. Most of the solvents used for the poly-phenols extraction simultaneously extract also sugars, undesirable as a component of health-promoting food. Fermentation might be a simple, cheap and efficient way of sugar elimination. In our study, black tea and goji berries, both known for their health benefits, were used and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to eliminate sugars. In the course of fermentation the concentration of polyphenols, L-theanine and carotenoids was evaluated in order to verify the preservation of selected bioactive compounds. Decreases in sugar content, formation of ethanol and yeasts growth were monitored during fermentation. The fermentation of black tea decreased the sugar concentration by 84% within 6 h without decreasing total polyphenols and L-theanine contents. Goji berry fermentation yielded a sugars decrease of 87% within 24 h, without decrease in poly-phenol content. However, carotenoid content was reduced by 17%. The study showed that fermentation was an effective way to decrease sugar content in plant extracts, and therefore it might be a pertinent step to concentrate bioactives.

  7. Study on Effect of Different Irrigation Amount on Photosynthesis Characteristics and Yield of Lycimn%不同灌水量对枸杞光合特性和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金霞; 张源沛; 郑国保; 孔德杰

    2012-01-01

    Through different irrigation amount test of Lycium in the test pit under anti-canopy, the Photosynthesis characteristics of Lycium was studied. The results showed that the amount of irrigation had effect on the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters of Lycium, and with the increase of irrigation amount, the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, including photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration, of Lycium all showed the trend of increased first then decreased later; the fluorescence parameters, including Fm、Fv、Fv/Fm、Ft/Fo and Fm/Fo had the trend of increased first then'decreased later; the chlorophyll content of all the treatments were higher than the control, and the difference among the different treatments were significantly. The water use efficiency(WUE)was gradually decreased with the increase of irrigation amount. According to the analysis result of economic benefit and sustainable use of soil water of Lycium under different irrigation amount, it is concluded that the optimum irrigation amount is 675mm.%通过对防雨棚下测坑中种植的枸杞进行不同灌水量控制试验,研究了不同灌水量对枸杞生理特性的影响。结果表明:不同灌水量对枸杞光合气体交换参数有显著的影响,随着灌水量的增加,枸杞光合气体交换参数(光合速率、气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度)均呈现先增加后减弱的趋势;荧光参数(Fm、Fv、Fv/Fm、Ft/Fo和Fm/Fo)随着灌水量的增加呈先增加后减少的趋势;枸杞叶绿素含量较对照相比均上升,且处理间差异显著;水分利用率随着灌水量的增加而逐渐减少;根据不同灌水处理下经济效益和土壤水分的可持续利用原则,最佳灌水量为675mm。

  8. Brand strengthening plan based on customer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sammanfattning Detta examensarbete är i huvudsak gjort som ett försök för att förstärka GreenStreet brandet genom att implementera svar, från kunder som deltagit i en konsument beteende undersökning, i brand förstärknings planen. GreenStreet är ett finskt företag som grundades år 2012 av Johannes Laine. Det började då sin verksamhet med att sälja ekologisk kosmetik och kläder samt ”superfoods” som är t.ex. torkade goji och mullbär, kakao fett och pulver etc. I början av år 2015 märkte...

  9. Textual Research on the Archaic Chinese Name of Solanaceae (Ⅱ)%茄科植物古汉名考证(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素婷

    2008-01-01

    采用训诂学与现代植物学相结合的方法,对从我国古代典籍中收集到的茄科植物枸杞(Lycium chinense Mill.)、天仙子(Hyoscyamus nigerL.)、酸浆(Physalis alkekengiL)、苦 (Physalis angulata L.)的古汉名进行了考证,从一个侧面反映了中华民族对植物学的认识.

  10. In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf; Ahmady-Asbchin, Salman

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants were evaluated. The active constituents of the edible plants were extracted using boiling water or 80% methanol. Results demonstrated that extraction of antioxidants by boiling water was more efficient. Lycium depressum and Berula angustifolia had the highest antioxidant activities and, therefore, could be rich sources of natural antioxidants. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Entrococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Further research is needed to isolate, characterize, and identify the bioactive compounds present in these plants.

  11. The surface pollen and relative pollen production of the desert vegetation of the Alashan Plateau, western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Herzschuh; H. Kürschner; MA Yuzhen

    2003-01-01

    This preliminary investigation focuses on the comparison of the recentpollen precipitation and its related vegetation of eight different plant communities in the Alashan Region, the most western part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Most zonal and azonal communities can be well identified by their pollen spectra. Relative pollen production factors of various plant taxa have beencalculated and the following sequences from over- to under represented taxa have been found for zonal vegetation: Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia, Ephedra, Nitraria,Reaumuria, Calligonum, Zygophyllum; and for azonal vegetation: Peganum, Populus, Tamarix, Lycium.

  12. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.

  13. 枸杞子的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 邱阳; 等

    1998-01-01

    从宁夏枸杞(Licium barbarum L.)的果实(枸杞子)中分离得到13个化合物,经光谱等方法鉴定其结构为8个长链脂肪酸(1-8),对羟基桂皮酸(p-coumaric acid,9),胡萝卜甙(daucosterol,10),β-谷甾醇-(β-sitosterol,11),甜菜碱(betaine,12),莨菪亭(scopoletin,13)。其中化合物1-10为首次从枸杞了中得到。

  14. Determination of Imidacloprid Residue in Barbary Wolfberry Fruit by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法检测枸杞子中吡虫啉残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娟; 谢云

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立测定枸杞子中吡虫啉残留量的高效液相色谱法.方法 采用AT.ChromC18(250mm×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-水为流动相进行梯度洗脱,流速为1.0mL/min,检测波长为269nm,柱温为25℃.在样品前处理中采用固相萃取法.结果 在0.01-5.0μg/mL间,吡虫啉峰面积与浓度的线性方程为y=30697x+598(r=0.9990),线性关系良好,检测限为0.008μg/mL,且枸杞子中吡虫啉能得到良好分离,重现性好,回收率高.结论 本方法简单,快速,结果准确,灵敏度高,且无污染.%Te establish a method for the determination of imidacloprid in lycium by high performance liquid chromatography. Methods The analytical column was AT. Chrom C18 (250mm × 4.6mm,5μm),the mobile phase was acetonitrile - water with gradient elution, a flow rate of 1.0mL/min; detection wavelength of 269nm; column temperature 25℃. SPE was used to pre -process the samples. Resuits Within the range of 0.01 -5.0μg/mL,the imidacloprid peak area was observed to be in good linear relationship with its concentration( r = 0.9990), the LOD was 0.0081μg/mL, and the imidacloprid in lycium samples can be better separated , with good repeatability and good recovery. Conclusions The method is simple, rapid, accurate and pollution free, therefore is suitable for the determination of imidacloprid in lycium.

  15. Polyphenols from wolfberry and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng-Qun; Xiao, Jia; Fan, Hong-Xia; Yu, Yang; He, Rong-Rong; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Kurihara, Hiroshi; So, Kwok-Fai; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Nine new phenylpropanoids, one new coumarin, and 43 known polyphenols were isolated from wolfberry. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, chemical methods, and comparison of NMR data. Polyphenols, an important type of natural products, are notable constituents in wolfberry. 53 polyphenols, including 28 phenylpropanoids, four coumarins, eight lignans, five flavonoids, three isoflavonoids, two chlorogenic acid derivatives, and three other constituents, were identified from wolfberry. Lignans and isoflavonoids were firstly reported from wolfberry. 22 known polyphenols were the first isolates from the genus Lycium. This research presents a systematic study on wolfberry polyphenols, including their bioactivities. All these compounds exhibited oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and some compounds displayed DPPH radical scavenging activity. One compound had acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The discovery of new polyphenols and their bioactivities is beneficial for understanding the scientific basis of the effects of wolfberry.

  16. 植物天然色素研究进展(Ⅱ)%Progresses on Natural Pigments of Plant(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 胡国胜

    2012-01-01

    介绍了近年来研究报道较多的马铃薯色素、紫玉米色素、黑果枸杞色素、红苋草色素、火龙果色素、红树莓色素、蓝莓色素等7种植物色素的最新研究状况,为开发利用新的植物天然色素来源提供理论依据。%The research progresses of natural pigments of plant were introduced.The pigments of potato,purple corn,lycium ruthenicum,alternanthera bettzickiana,hylocereus undutus,raspberry and blueberry were explained,which could provide theory basis in order to further expilot and use new pigments resources of plant in China.

  17. Drug: D06971 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06971 Formula, Drug Jiinshihoto Cyperus rhizome [DR:D06719], Bupleurum root [DR:D06727], Lycium bark [DR:D06737], Peony root [DR:D06739], Anemarrhena rhizome [DR:D06761], Citrus unshiu peel [DR:D06764], Japanese angelica root [DR:D06768], Ophiopogon tuber [DR:D06775], Atractylodes rhizome [DR:D06780], Poria sclerotium [DR:D06783], Fritillaria bulb [DR:D06774], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Peppermint [DR:D05431] Chronic sputum and cough Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06971 Jiinshihoto Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for replenishing Ying Formulas for replenishing Ying D06971 *Jiinshihoto Formulas for dampness Cough suppressant and expectorant formulas D06971 *Jiinshihoto PubChem: 51091313 ...

  18. Eland browsing of Grewia occidentalis in semi-arid shrubland: the influence of bush clumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia occidentalis plants in the study area generally occurred in bush clumps with other shrub species. Grewia occidentalis commonly occurred with Diospyros austro-africana, Rhus longispina and Rhus pollens (nurse shrubs, but seldom with Acacia kar-roo and Lycium cinereum (non-nurse shrubs. Eland browsed G. occidentalis plants at higher levels than other shrub species, but browsing was not evenly spread across all plants. Grewia occidentalis plants associated with nurse shrubs had lower levels of browsing than those growing alone and those growing with non-nurse shrubs, while G. occidentalis plants in the centre of nurse shrubs experienced the lowest levels of browsing. The latter group of plants also produced the most fruit. Eland browsing is consid-ered an important factor determining the distribution of G. occidentalis plants in the study area, while the presence of nurse shrubs is considered essential for the establishment and maintenance of the G. occidentalis population in the study area.

  19. Biofilm inhibition activity of traditional medicinal plants from Northwestern Argentina against native pathogen and environmental microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Mariana Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plants have been commonly used in popular medicine of most cultures for the treatment of disease. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of certain Argentine plants used in traditional medicine has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-cell adherence activities of native plants (Larrea divaricata, Tagetes minuta, Tessaria absinthioides, Lycium chilense, and Schinus fasciculatus collected in northwestern Argentina. METHODS: The activities of the five plant species were evaluated in Bacillus strains and clinical strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from northwestern Argentina and identified by 16S rDNA. RESULT: Lycium chilense and Schinus fasciculatus were the most effective antimicrobial plant extracts (15.62µg/ml and 62.50µg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 and Bacillus sp. Mcn4, respectively. The highest (66% anti-biofilm activity against Bacillus sp. Mcn4 was observed with T. absinthioides and L. divaricate extracts. The highest (68% anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 was observed with L. chilense extract. T. minuta, T. absinthioides, and L. divaricata showed percentages of anti-biofilm activity of between 55% and 62%. The anti-adherence effects of T. minuta and L. chilense observed in Bacillus sp. Mcn4 reflected a difference of only 22% and 10%, respectively, between anti-adherence and biofilm inhibition. Thus, the inhibition of biofilm could be related to cell adherence. In Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1, all plant extracts produced low anti-adherence percentages. CONCLUSION: These five species may represent a source of alternative drugs derived from plant extracts, based on ethnobotanical knowledge from northwest Argentina.

  20. Iris and periocular adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Minako Shiokawa1, Michitaka Sugahara1, Risako Higa1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively investigate adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We also examined patient attitudes to adverse reactions via a questionnaire.Methods: Fifty-two Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were enrolled. Iridial, eyelid, and eyelash photographs were taken before and at 6 months after bimatoprost treatment. Increase in eyelid pigmentation, iridial pigmentation, eyelash growth and bristle, and vellus hair of the lid was assessed from the photographs. Questionnaires completed by patients provided insight into their subjective judgment of adverse reactions.Results: Increase in eyelash bristle (53.8%, iris pigmentation (50.0%, eyelash growth (46.2%, vellus hair of the lid (40.4%, and eyelid pigmentation (7.7% was evident after bimatoprost treatment. The objective and subjective assessments were in agreement in terms of increase in eyelash bristle, eyelash growth, and increase in vellus hair of the lid.Conclusion: Most patients were conscious of these adverse reactions. Before administering bimatoprost, sufficient explanation of potential adverse reactions should be provided; after initiating treatment, careful observation is required.Keywords: bimatoprost, adverse reaction, eyelid pigmentation, changes in eyelashes, iris pigmentation 

  1. Herb-drug Interactions: An insight into cardiovascular diseases based on case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maria; Batista, C; Jesus, N R; Silva, C M; Silva, T P

    2016-10-07

    Cardiovascular patients frequently use herbal medicinal products, in order to contribute to the improvement of their chronic condition without medical intervention. However, they are likely to suffer from adverse effects from natural products and herb-drug interactions. This work aimed to alert cardiovascular patients and healthcare providers of the potential of occurrence of herb-drug interactions with cardiovascular therapy. Information obtained from the campaign "Aprender Saúde Entre as Plantas e os Medicamentos", carried out by the Observatory of Herb-Drug Interactions (www.oipm.uc.pt), was accessed in order to exemplify some selected interactions. From data received during the campaign, it was highlighted the prevalence of certain natural products particularly goji berries, green tea, mangosteen and rooibos that have significant cardiovascular effects. For this reason their intake should be carefully monitored in cardiovascular patients. This prevalence of use suggests a pattern in their use in Portugal. The ending results also indicate that there is still a lack of knowledge about the possible risks of herbal products, which may adversely affect the health of any patient. Thus becomes clear the value of the role of health professionals in the screening of such interactions.

  2. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  3. Effects of unoprostone on diurnal variation of intraocular pressure in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Kei Noguchi1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo; 22nd Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the diurnal variation of intraocular pressure (IOP during unoprostone treatment in 13 healthy volunteers.Method: IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry by the same observer every 3 hours from 9 am to 9 am the next morning. Unoprostone was then instilled at 9 am and 9 pm daily for 1 month. After 1 month, IOP was measured again with unoprostone instilled at 9 am and 9 pm during IOP measurement. We then compared the average daily IOP before and after the treatment (paired t-test.Results: After 1 month of treatment, the average IOP decreased at every time point but one (12 pm, 3 pm, 6 pm, 9 pm, 12 am, 3 am, and 9 am, but not at 6 am. There were no adverse reactions and none of the subjects discontinued unoprostone.Conclusion: The hypotensive effects of unoprostone persist throughout the day, but this study suggests that the effects may be weaker at nighttime and early in the morning.Keywords: unoprostone, intraocular pressure, diurnal variation, healthy volunteer

  4. Mycotoxins in Plant-Based Dietary Supplements: Hidden Health Risk for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprikova, Zdenka; Zachariasova, Milena; Dzuman, Zbynek; Zachariasova, Alena; Fenclova, Marie; Slavikova, Petra; Vaclavikova, Marta; Mastovska, Katerina; Hengst, Daniel; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-07-29

    Mycotoxin contamination of dietary supplements represents a possible risk for human health, especially in the case of products intended for people suffering from certain health conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of this problem based on analyses of a wide set of herbal-based dietary supplements intended for various purposes: (i) treatment of liver diseases (milk thistle); (ii) reduction of menopause effects (red clover, flax seed, and soy); and (iii) preparations for general health support (green barley, nettle, goji berries, yucca, etc.) The analytical method including 57 mycotoxins was based on a QuEChERS-like (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) approach and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The main mycotoxins determined were Fusarium trichothecenes, zearalenone and enniatins, and Alternaria mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of enniatins, HT-2/T-2 toxins, and Alternaria toxins was observed in many cases. The highest mycotoxin concentrations were found in milk thistle-based supplements (up to 37 mg/kg in the sum).

  5. Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Kohut, Marian L; Nguyen, Norah A; Perera, M Ann d N

    2014-01-01

    Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and its isomers, theobromine and paraxanthine; (c) ginger alkaloids including gingerols and shogaol; and (d) ephedra alkaloids such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Emerging or prospective alkaloid sources (Goji berry, Noni berry, and bloodroot) were also considered. Human in vitro and in vivo studies on alkaloids and immune function were often conflicting. Caffeine may be immunomodulatory in vivo depending on subject characteristics, exercise characteristics, and immune parameters measured. Caffeine may exhibit antioxidant capacities. Ginger may exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in certain populations, but it is unclear whether these effects are due to alkaloids or other biochemicals. Evidence for an immunomodulatory role of alkaloids in energy drinks, cocoa, or ephedra products in vivo is weak to nonexistent. For alkaloid sources derived from plants, variability in the reviewed studies may be due to the presence of unrecognized alkaloids or non-alkaloid compounds (which may themselves be immunomodulatory), and pre-experimental factors such as agricultural or manufacturing differences. Athletes should not look to alkaloids or alkaloid-rich sources as a means of improving immune function given their inconsistent activities, safety concerns, and lack of commercial regulation.

  6. The marketing of dietary supplements in North America: the emperor is (almost) naked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J

    2010-07-01

    Many different dietary supplements are being sold in North America. The quality of the evidence supporting their efficacy covers a wide spectrum: Some are based on solid science (such as vitamin D and fish oil), whereas with most supplements there is little or no supporting evidence. Types of supplements commonly sold include exotic fruit juices (such as goji juice) and single herbs or mixture of herbs. Common claims made in support of particular supplements are that they are rich in antioxidants, induce detoxification, stimulate the immune system, and cause weight loss. Supplements are commonly sold through health food stores and by multilevel marketing. Sales may be promoted using bulk mail ("junk mail"), spam e-mails, and Web sites. A large part of marketing is based on claims that are blatantly dishonest. Whereas supplements for which good supporting evidence exists generally cost around $3-$4 per month, those that are heavily promoted for which there is little supporting evidence cost about $20-$60 per month. The major cause of this problem in the United States is weakness of the law. There is an urgent need for stricter regulation and for giving better advice to the general public.

  7. Application of Bioactive Natural Materials-based Products on Five Women's Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sun Shin; Hwang, Eunmi; Baek, Hye Kyung; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Jun, Hyun Sik; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-12-01

    Women's health has been threatened by various diseases mainly including heart disease, breast cancer, osteoporosis, depression, and autoimmune disease. But development of medication for these diseases has been restricted by high development costs and low success rates. Herein the attempt to develop valid bioactive materials from a traditional natural material has been made. Resveratrol has been reported to be effective in treatment of breast cancer and heart disease. Goji berry has received attention as a natural based therapeutic material to treat a diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. Leonurus family has been reported to be effective particularly in pregnant women due to high contents of vitamin as well as stimulation of uterine contraction. Annona family has effects such as anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant and recently it is proposed to be as a therapeutic material to cure depression based on its strong antidepressant effect. Shiraia bambusicola has been utilized to cure angiogenesis-related disease from ancient China and furthermore recently it was proved to be effective in rheumatoid arthritis. Getting an understanding of utilization of these traditional natural materials not only enhances the interest in development of therapeutic materials for preventing and treating various women's diseases, but also makes it possible to develop novel therapeutic materials.

  8. Windbreak and sediment ̄keeping effects of different desert vegetation in lower Tarim River, in China%塔里木河下游不同荒漠植被防风阻沙效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依努尔•艾尼; 玉米提•哈力克; 塔依尔江•艾山; 买尔当•克依木; 麦迪娜•穆赫塔尔

    2016-01-01

    以胡杨、多枝柽柳、铃铛刺和黑刺4种天然荒漠植物为研究对象,对植株单株周围风速以及输沙量的变化进行了观测。结果表明,胡杨对地表风速和输沙量的防阻作用不明显,多枝柽柳、铃铛刺和黑刺灌丛对地表风速和输沙量的影响较明显;不同灌丛的迎风面2倍树高( TH)处的风速大于迎风面1TH处风速,输沙量大小与风速大小成正比;灌丛两侧1TH处的风速与输沙量大于迎风面1TH和2TH处风速与输沙量;背风面1TH处的风速最小,背风面风速达到一定距离后渐渐恢复原来的风速;背风面输沙量1TH处最小,距离越远越大;这4种植物的防风效益依次为多枝柽柳B1>胡杨A1>多枝柽柳B2>铃铛刺C1>黑刺D1>铃铛刺C2>黑刺D2>胡杨A2。%Wind speed around the single plant ( Populus euphratica, Tamarix ramosissima, Halimodendron halodendron, Lycium ruthenicum) as well as the change of sediment ̄transport were observed. It was discovered that the role of Populus euphratica was insignificant for decreasing surface wind speed, but the role of shrub was significant. The wind speed at 2 times the tree height was higher than that at the tree height in the windward side of different shrub, and sediment ̄transport rate was in proportion to the wind speed. Wind speed and sediment transport at the tree height in two sides of shrub were higher than those at 2 times the tree height and at the tree height in the windward side of shrub. Wind speed was minimum at the tree height in the lee side of shrub, and the wind speed in the lee side gradually returned to original wind speed in a certain distance away from the shrub. Sediment transport was minimum at the tree height in the lee side of shrub but increased with the distance away from the shrub. The efficiency of wind prevention in these 4 species of plants were ranked downward as Tamarix ramosissima B1> Populus euphratica A1> Tamarix ramosissima B2> Halimodendron

  9. Effects of treatment with bimatoprost 0.03% for 3 years in patients with normal-tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Minako Shiokawa,1 Takayuki Fujimoto,1 Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 22nd Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To evaluate the effects of bimatoprost 0.03% single treatment for 3 years on intraocular pressure (IOP and visual field performance.Methods: We monitored the IOP of 62 patients with normal-tension glaucoma every 1–3 months. The Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and the results obtained were compared to those before treatment. In addition, visual field performance was evaluated using trend and event analysis.Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD of IOP after treatment with bimatoprost for 3 years (13.6±3.1 mmHg was significantly lower than that before treatment (16.8±2.4 mmHg, P<0.0001. No change was observed in the mean deviation and pattern SD values of the Humphrey visual field before and 3 years after treatment. Worsening of visual field performance was observed in one patient (3.0% by using trend analysis and in four patients (12.1% by using event analysis. Treatment was discontinued in 17 patients (27.4% because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Bimatoprost 0.03% single treatment was effective in reducing the IOP at least during the 3 years of treatment, but visual field performance worsened by 3.0%–12.1% in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.Keywords: IOP, visual field, trend analysis, event analysis

  10. Effects of tafluprost treatment for 3 years in patients with normal-tension glaucoma

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    Inoue K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Ayumi Tanaka,1 Goji Tomita2 1Inouye Eye Hospital, 22nd Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the effects of tafluprost treatment for 3 years on intraocular pressure (IOP and visual field performance. Methods: The IOP of 55 patients with normal-tension glaucoma was monitored every 1–3 months for 3 years. The Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and results compared with before-treatment results. Visual field performance was also evaluated by trend and event analysis. Results: After 3 years’ tafluprost single-use vials treatment, the IOP (12.8 ± 2.8 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] was significantly lower than before treatment (15.7 ± 2.2 mmHg; P < 0.0001. When comparing before-treatment Humphrey visual field test findings with those after 3 years of treatment, no change was found in the mean deviation and pattern standard deviation. Visual field performance had worsened in four patients and three patients according to trend analysis and event analysis, respectively. Adverse reactions appeared in ten cases and one patient (1.8% discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction. Conclusion: Tafluprost single-use vials treatment was effective in reducing IOP over the 3 years of this study, but visual field performance worsened by 10.3%–13.8% in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. Safety was satisfactory. Keywords: intraocular pressure, visual field, trend analysis, event analysis

  11. Ocular hypotensive effect, preservation of visual fields, and safety of adding dorzolamide to prostaglandin therapy for twelve months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Inoue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1,3, Mieko Masumoto1,3, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita2, On behalf of the Ochanomizu Ophthalmology Study Group31Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ochanomizu Ophthalmology, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the safety, hypotensive effect, and preservation of visual fields of dorzolamide when added to latanoprost.Subjects and methods: This study included 46 patients (46 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma who had been treated with latanoprost. Dorzolamide (1% was added to latanoprost, and the intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored before and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean deviation shown by Humphrey perimetry was compared before and after twelve months of treatment. Adverse reactions were monitored over the 12-month study period.Results: The mean baseline IOP was 17.2 ± 3.0 mmHg while those after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment were 14.9 ± 3.0 mmHg, 14.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, and 14.6 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (P < 0.0001, 1-ß(power = 0.9999571. The absolute reduction of IOP and the percent reduction were similar after 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. The mean deviation on Humphrey perimetry was similar before and after twelve months of treatment. Three patients discontinued dorzolamide therapy due to elevation of IOP and one patient discontinued it because of adverse reactions.Conclusion: Dorzolamide is safe and effective when used for twelve months as add-on therapy to latanoprost for open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: dorzolamide, primary open-angle glaucoma, latanoprost 

  12. Effects of BAK-free travoprost treatment for 3 years in patients with normal tension glaucoma

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    Inoue K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Mayumi Iwasa,1 Masato Wakakura,1 Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, 2Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of benzalkonium (BAK-free travoprost monotherapy administered for 3 years on intraocular pressure and visual field performance.Methods: The intraocular pressure of 76 patients with normal tension glaucoma was monitored every 1–3 months. A Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and compared with the results before treatment. Visual field performance was also evaluated by trend and event analysis.Results: Thirty cases discontinued within 3 years. Mean intraocular pressure after 3 years of travoprost treatment (14.1 ± 2.4 mmHg was significantly lower than that before treatment (16.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, P ‹ 0.0001. There was no change in the mean deviation and pattern standard deviation as measured by Humphrey visual field test after 3 years of treatment compared with before treatment. Visual field performance was worse in one patient (2.8% by trend analysis and five patients (13.9% by event analysis. Treatment was discontinued in six cases (7.9% due to the appearance of adverse reactions.Conclusion: BAK-free travoprost monotherapy was effective in reducing intraocular pressure for at least 3 years; however, visual field performance worsened in 2.8%–13.9% of patients with normal tension glaucoma.Keywords: BAK-free travoprost, intraocular pressure, visual field, trend analysis, event analysis

  13. Exotic berries as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola

    2014-11-01

    Berries and berry extracts are known to possess properties (i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins) that make them important in disease prevention. Observational studies have shown that many berries may hold promise for public health. However, the long-term impact of berries intake on specific populations and their functionality claims has not been fully tested. In addition, although several biological effects which are based on epidemiological studies have been explained scientifically, the mechanism of their actions is not fully understood. Therefore, this review set out to address the issue of berries intake and their potential functionality. In addition, a glimpse of what the future may hold for the berries was highlighted. Many of the potential health benefits of berries have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to modulate enzymes as well as interact, and bind to proteins. General inspection of the literature suggests that berries, such as cranberries and goji, are efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract infection and seasonal influenza, respectively. Recent study on wild blueberries has shown that they possess protective effect against cardiovascular disease. In addition, other berries have been reported to possess the ability to inhibit cervical cells (HeLa cells), modulate postprandial glucose and insulin responses. However, there is a need to address the issue of safety, efficacy, and interactions of berries intake with other dietary components. Also, more research studies should be focused on the influence of biotechnology on the functionality of berries. http://links.lww.com/COCN/A8.

  14. A novel, micro, rapid and direct assay to assess total antioxidant capacity of solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Abderrahim, Fatima; Arriba, Silvia M; Carmen González, M

    2015-06-01

    A novel, micro, rapid and direct procedure to measure the total antioxidant capacity of solid foods using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (mR-QUENCHER-DPPH) was developed and validated. The mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay was performed in semi-aqueous medium (methanol-Tris buffer) using very small sample amounts (below 3.6 µg), as estimated by a Bradford reagent-based chemical predictor, and it was completed in 10 min at room temperature. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of solid foods was expressed as scavenging capacity index (SCI, mmol DPPH scavenged per kg sample), a theoretical and stoichiometric parameter deduced in this study. SCI values measured by mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay for cereals cous-cous (7.20±0.35), amaranth (7.99±0.35) and buckwheat (194.2±6.72); Goji fruit (91.27±3.98); lotus root (2402±168); and spices turmeric (3767±355), ginger (2493±283), and cinnamon (10461±2133) were further validated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Bland-Altman analysis showed that there were not statistically significant differences in TAC values as measured by both assays. In the same way, TAC values measured by mR-QUENCHER-DPPH were correlated with free (r=0.8088, P=0.0151), bound (r=0.9668, P<0.0001) and total (r=0.9067, P=0.0019) reducing capacity of extracts from solid foods as assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay allows to measure TAC values using micro-gram amounts in solid food samples with a wide content range of antioxidants (low, high and very high), and omitting the time-consuming dilution cellulose-step commonly employed in the traditional QUENCHER procedures.

  15. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  16. Traditional preference of Wild Edible Fruits (WEFs) for digestive disorders (DDs) among the indigenous communities of Swat Valley-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2015-11-04

    Digestive disorders (DDs) causes indisposition and lead to death, especially in the underdeveloped world where hygienic conditions are scarce. A major proportion of the human populace depends on the use of traditional knowledge about the consumption of medicinal plants for many diseases, including DDs. The contemporary study summarizes the indigenous uses of Wild Edible Fruits (WEFs) of Swat Valley used for DDs and to evaluate the bio-efficacy of these pharmacologically essential fruit species from the available literature. An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in Swat valley, Northern Pakistan. Data was collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and local people by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires, giving value to both rural and urban communities. The ethnomedicinal knowledge was quantitatively analysed using various indices like Familiarity Index (FI), Consensus index (CI), Informant consensus factor (ICF) and the present data was compared with previous studies in the neighbouring areas using Jaccard similarity coefficient (JI). The present study recorded use reports on 53 WEFs of ethnomedicinal prominence in the treatment of DDs, belonging to 23 families. The recurrent growth forms were trees (51%) shrubs (38%) and herbs (11%). High consumption of fruits (50%), leaves (27%) and flowers (12%) was recorded. The traditional preparations were mostly in the form of unprocessed dried/fresh, powder, Juice and decoction and were usually taken orally. Almost 20-30% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while more than 75% were found in natural woodland and grassland vegetation. Family Berberidaceae dominated with highest FIV (41) followed by Punicaceae (38), Oxalidaceae (36) and Moraceae (35). ICF values for carminative (0.6) showed high consensus factor followed by anthelmintic, gastroenteritis and intestinal disorders (0.5). FI value is high for Berberis lycium (0.5), Morus alba (0.5), Morus nigra

  17. Investigation of traditional medicinal floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Farhana; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Inayat Ur; Alam, Jan; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Shah, Ghulam Mujtaba; Khan, Khalid; Afzal, Aftab

    2016-02-17

    Ethno medicinal traditional knowledge regarding the uses of indigenous medicinal plants for treating various human infectious diseases is totally in hold of the elder community members. The young generation is not much aware about such vital traditional medicinal practices. To document, accumulate and widely disseminate the massive indigenous knowledge of century's practiced therapeutic uses of medicinal plants by the local people living in this area. A total of 134 local inhabitants (78 male and 56 female) were interviewed through questionnaire method. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed through the use value, fidelity level index and relative frequency citation. Plants specimen were preserved and mounted on herbarium sheets and labeled, cataloged and deposited with voucher numbers in Hazara University Herbarium, Mansehra, Pakistan (HUP). 74 plant species belonging to 70 genera and 42 families were documented in the current study. These medicinal plant species are used commonly as an ethno medicine against 56 various diseases such as digestive disorder, cough, pain and skin diseases etc. Herbaceous plant species were the dominant among plants studied which were 57% of the total plants, followed by shrubs (23%) and trees (20%). Asteraceae was the leading family among collected medicinal plant species (10.81%). Maximum medicinal plant species were used for treatment of digestive disorders (9.09%) and cough (7.44%). Most widely part used is leaf (27.9%), followed by fruit (13.5%) and seed (13.5%) for the treatment of different ailments by the traditional healers. The medicinal plant species with greater use values were Berberis lycium (0.91) and Cannabis sativa (0.81). The medicinal plant species with maximum fidelity level were Ziziphus jujuba (100%) and Lonicera caprifolium (92.31%) whereas the medicinal with most relative frequency citation were B. lycium (0.313), Ziziphus nummularia (0.276). The comparative result reveals that 36% of medicinal plant

  18. Solanaceae diversity in the state of Jalisco, Mexico Diversidad de la familia Solanaceae en el estado de Jalisco, México

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    Carmen Teresa Cuevas-Arias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is a center of diversity for Solanaceae. Our objective is to analyze the species diversity and geographical distribution of the Solanaceae in Jalisco. The data come from 3 405 herbarium specimens. An analysis of these specimens indicates that the Solanaceae in Jalisco are represented by 20 genera, 138 species and 140 taxa. Four genera, Solanum (55 species, Physalis (35, Cestrum (10 and Lycianthes (9 represent 79% of the total number of species. In contrast, Brachistus, Browallia, Chamaesaracha, Jaltomata, Juanulloa, Lycium, Nectouxia, Nicandra and Nierenbergia have only 1 species each. In Jalisco, the Solanaceae are widely distributed throughout the state occurring at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3 400 m. Mostly, they grow in conifer and oak forest (81 species followed by tropical subdeciduous forest (57, tropical deciduous forest (54, and cloud forest (43. Fifty-one species are commonly found in disturbed and ruderal areas. Lycianthes jalicensis, Physalis lignesens, P. longipedicellata, P. longiloba and P. tamayoi are endemic to the state. These results indicate that Jalisco ranks fourth in species diversity for Solanaceae after the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz.México es un centro de diversificación de la familia Solanaceae. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la riqueza y distribución de las especies de Solanaceae en Jalisco. Se examinaron 3 405 ejemplares de herbario y como resultado se registra la presencia de 138 especies y 140 taxones agrupadas en 20 géneros. Los géneros con el mayor número de especies son Solanum (55 especies, Physalis (35, Cestrum (10 y Lycianthes (9. Estos representan el 79% de las especies. En contraste, Brachistus, Browallia, Chamaesaracha, Jaltomata, Juanulloa, Lycium, Nectouxia, Nicandra y Nierenbergia están representados por una especie. En Jalisco, las solánaceas crecen desde el nivel del mar hasta los 3 400 m. Las especies habitan con más frecuencia en el bosque de pino y

  19. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

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    Francine Rubin

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevation (1 800 m, and relatively high rainfall (406 mm montane grasslands occupy communities dominated by grasses (Merxmuellera disticha, Themeda triandra and woody species (Diospyros austro-africana, Elytropappus rhinocerotis, Euryops annae, Passerina montana. The increasing aridity away from the escarpment edge in a northerly direction is steep, and Montane Karoo dwarf shrublands replace these mesic communities. Species such as Eriocephalus ericoides, Rosenia oppositifolia and Pteronia tricephala dominate. At lower elevation (800 m the precipitation is very low (175 mm and uncertain (coefficient of variation of 78 . The substrata influence the vegetation, with the sandy substrata of the drainage lines supporting more woody taxa (Acacia karroo, Lycium cinereum and grasses (Hyparrhenia hirta, Stipagrostis namaquensis, Cenchrus ciliaris. Moving away from the mesic environment of the riparian zone, rapid desiccation occurs and the most xeric communities are encountered, dominated by Stipagrostis obtusa, S. ciliata and Pent-da incana. This document provides descriptions of the general communities and their associated landscape, lithology and soils.

  20. Biodiversity of Food Species of the Solanaceae Family: A Preliminary Taxonomic Inventory of Subfamily Solanoideae

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    John Samuels

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years there has been a continual reduction in horticultural and agricultural biodiversity of nutritionally important plants, including those of the Solanaceae family. To add to this, the broad range of traditional crops, previously grown on a sustainable scale in some parts of the world, has been replaced by a narrow range of major crops grown as large-scale monocultures. In order to counteract this trend, and to help maintain a broad wealth of genetic resources, conservation is essential. This, in turn, helps to safeguard food security. A taxonomic inventory, covering the diversity of species in a plant group, is an important first step in conservation. The Solanaceae is one of the major plant families providing food species. A survey of the biodiversity, ethnobotany and taxonomy of subfamily Solanoideae was undertaken and is presented here as an inventory of food species. Fifteen genera provide species that are utilised for food across the world. Of these, only four genera contain economically significant cultivated food cropspecies. The majority of these are in the genus Solanum, whilst Capsicum, Physalis and Lycium contribute the remainder of cultivated crop species. These genera and others also comprise species that are semi-cultivated, tolerated as useful weeds, or gathered from the wild.

  1. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  2. Characteristics of Vegetation Succession on Salinized Abandoned Fields in Lower Reaches of Shiyang River%石羊河下游盐渍化弃耕地植被演替特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治元; 李昌龙; 王多泽; 郭树江

    2010-01-01

    以石羊河下游不同年代盐渍化弃耕地自然群落为对象,利用重要值、物种多样性理论研究植被演替的特征.结果显示,石羊河下游盐渍化弃耕地植被演替一般经历一年生田间杂草、多年生荒漠草本和荒漠灌木三个阶段.群落演替规律:藜(Chenopodium album)+田旋花(Convolvulus arvensis)群落(1~2年)→骆驼蒿(Peganum nigellastrum)+骆驼蓬(Peganum harmala)群落(3~10年)→苏枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)+黄毛头(Kalidium cuspidatum var.sinicum)群落(10~40年)→黄毛头群落(顶级群落).研究表明,随着群落演替时间的增加,物种丰富度呈下降趋势,而物种多样性呈先下降后上升,最后略有下降并趋于稳定,群落结构趋于简单.

  3. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  4. Sensitive Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Medicinal Plants Using Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Sweeping Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Ji; Cao, Ji-Liang; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng

    2016-02-03

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) combined with sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) has been developed for the determination of nine organophosphorus pesticides (chlorfenvinphos, parathion, quinalphos, fenitrothion, azinphos-ethyl, parathion-methyl, fensulfothion, methidathion, and paraoxon). The important parameters that affect the UA-DLLME and sweeping efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided 779.0-6203.5-fold enrichment of the nine pesticides compared to the normal MEKC method. The limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 mg kg(-1). The relative standard deviations of the peak area ranged from 1.2 to 6.5%, indicating the good repeatability of the method. Finally, the developed UA-DLLME-sweeping-MEKC method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the investigated pesticides in several medicinal plants, including Lycium chinense, Dioscorea opposite, Codonopsis pilosula, and Panax ginseng, indicating that this method is suitable for the determination of trace pesticide residues in real samples with complex matrices.

  5. Orally administered betaine reduces photodamage caused by UVB irradiation through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Lee, Hee Jeong; Youn, Ui Joung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Betaine is widely distributed in plants, microorganisms, in several types of food and in medical herbs, including Lycium chinense. The administration of 100 mg betaine/kg body weight/day is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet irradiation‑induced skin damage. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of betaine on ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation‑induced skin damage in hairless mice. The mice were divided into three groups: Control (n=5), UVB‑treated vehicle (n=5) and UVB‑treated betaine (n=5) groups. The level of irradiation was progressively increased between 60 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 1 (one minimal erythematous dose = 60 mJ/cm2) and 90 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 7. The formation of wrinkles significantly increased following UVB exposure in the UVB‑treated vehicle group. However, treatment with betaine suppressed UVB‑induced wrinkle formation, as determined by the mean length, mean depth, number, epidermal thickness and collagen damage. Furthermore, oral administration of betaine also inhibited the UVB‑induced expression of mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9). These findings suggested that betaine inhibits UVB‑induced skin damage by suppressing increased expression of MMP‑9 through the inhibition of MEK and ERK.

  6. Screening of Uruguayan plants for deterrent activity against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 +/- 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 +/- 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts.

  7. Natural products of relevance in the prevention and supportive treatment of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Muszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbs or their parts: leaves, roots, rhizomes, flowers, seeds, natural strains, as well as extracts or isolated metabolites is becoming more and more popular. Natural remedies not only act prophylactically, but also help to alleviate symptoms of many diseases and enhance the overall functioning of the internal organs. Many raw materials of natural origin plays a role in treatment of health problems, and also in case of serious diseases such as depression. Depression (affective disorder now affects about 10% of the population, but in next few years due to the development of civilization and increasing pace of life, the probable number of people suffering from this disease can grow rapidly. Natural raw materials such as Bacopa monnieri, Crocus sativus, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Griffonia simplicifolia, Hypericum perforatum, Sceletium tortuosum, Piper methysticum, Rhodiola rosea, Aspalathus linearis, Camellia sinensis, Ficus carica, Lycium chinense, Cuminum cyminum, Panax Ginseng can effectively assist the prevention and treatment of depression. Daily diet may also have positive effect in prevention of this disease. It was found that 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, L-tryptophan (which are precursors of serotonin in the CNS, omega-3 fatty acids and anthranilic acid (vitamin L1 are able to improve mood. L-Tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan are present in the largest quantities in the fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in the flesh of fish, walnuts, soybeans, beans and chicken egg protein, while the anthranilic acid is commonly found in plants.

  8. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

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    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  9. Nutritional value of winter foods for whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.T.; Slack, R.D.; Gee, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    We measured metabolizable energy and digestibility of Whooping Crane (Grus americana) winter foods (blue crab [Callinectes sapidus]), common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn [wolfberry]), and live oak acorn (Ouercus virginiana [acorn])] with feeding trials to captive-reared Whooping Cranes. Apparent metabolizable energy coefficients (expressed as %) were for crab (34.1), Rangia clam (75.0), wolfberry (44.8), and acorn (43.2). Digestion coefficients for protein were lower for plant foods (48.9 and 53.4) than for animal foods (69.4 and 75.2). Digestion coefficients for total lipid differed among foods: highest and lowest lipid digestibility was for acorn (87.2) and wolfberry (60.0), respectively. We also determined total energy and percent protein and lipid of the four foods and stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius); gross energy was 2-5x higher for acorn and wolfberry on a dry-weight basis than for blue crab and stout razor clam. Crude protein was 2-3x higher for blue crab than for wolfberry and stout razor clam. Wolfberry ranked the highest of five foods for metabolic energy and total lipid nutrient availability per kg of food ingested, and blue crab ranked highest for crude protein availability.

  10. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  11. 枸杞栽培发展概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安巍

    2010-01-01

    @@ 枸杞系茄科(SOlanaceae)枸杞属(Lycium L)落叶灌木,是起源较古老的植物之一,日本学者Fukuda研究枸杞属植物叶绿体的DNA分子系统进化,认为枸杞属物种起源年代应该在29.4±9.7万年.枸杞还是一个世界性分布的物种,该属植物在全球呈离散性分布,约有80种,其中欧亚大陆约有10种,中亚种类较多,非洲南部20余种,北美洲南部20余种,南美洲南部分布多达30余种.中国自然分布枸杞属植物共有7个种、3个变种.

  12. Soil Organic C and N Destabilization and Decline Following a Decade of Free-air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) in an Aridland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, B. D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Arid and semiarid environments constitute ~40% of the earth’s land surface and are expected to be particularly susceptible to global change factors. As a result, there may be dramatic shifts in the biogeochemistry of soil C and N in these systems that will have implications on productivity and long-term C sink/source dynamics. We have observed a 14-32% decrease in soil organic C and N concentrations in response to a decade of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) in the Mojave Desert at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. The variability in the magnitude of change is largely driven by cover type. Soils under the dominant forms of vegetative cover, Larrea tridentata and Lycium sp. contained up to an order of magnitude more organic C and N than adjacent areas of bare ground, often colonized by biological soil crusts, and exhibited much larger shifts in the bioavailability of these pools in response to future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Although elevated CO2 resulted in a nearly universal decrease in active cycling organic C and N (40-88%) across all cover types, a decrease of up to 28% was observed in the resistant, or slowly cycling, organic C and N pools under the dominant vegetation. Such changes suggest that predicted future atmospheric CO2 concentrations may contribute to the significant destabilization of soil organic C and N stocks in arid ecosystems, resulting in declines in productivity and negative feedbacks to rising atmospheric C concentrations.

  13. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beikang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John’s wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I, three were estimated as probable (level II, and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III and doubtful (level IV, respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.

  14. Safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Minako Shiokawa,1 Kyoko Ishida,2 Goji Tomita2 1Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (DTFC eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (BTFC eye drops in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: A total of 35 eyes of 35 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension using DTFC eye drops were included. Participants discontinued DTFC drops and immediately began using BTFC drops. All other eye drops currently being used were continued. Intraocular pressure (IOP 1 and 3 months after switching medications was compared with baseline IOP. One month after switching medications, participant preference and adherence were evaluated. Adverse reactions were monitored at each study visit. Results: The IOP was 17.9±2.6 mmHg at baseline and 18.3±4.1 mmHg and 17.8±3.4 mmHg 1 month and 3 months after switching medications, respectively (P=0.633. The frequency of missing a dose was not different before (6.1% and after (6.1% switching to BTFC. Significantly fewer participants reported stinging after switching to BTFC (15.2% than while using DTFC (51.5%, P<0.01. Blurred vision was reported with the same frequency before (39.4% and after (42.4% switching to BTFC. A total of 33.3% and 27.3% of patients preferred DTFC and BTFC, respectively. Several patients withdrew from the study because of discomfort (n=2, 5.7%, discharge (n=1, 2.9%, dizziness (n=1, 2.9%, or increased IOP (n=2, 5.7%. Conclusion: Switching from DTFC to BTFC was well tolerated and did not result in IOP changes or a decreased patient adherence. When glaucoma patients complain of stinging with DTFC administration, switching to BTFC is an acceptable treatment option. Keywords: brinzolamide/timolol fixed

  15. Efficacy and safety of a switch to latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops from latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Takayuki Fujimoto,1 Risako Higa,1 Ryo Moriyama,1 Hiromi Kohmoto,1 Haruka Nagumo,1 Masato Wakakura,1 Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect and safety of latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops, now available in Japan.Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma who had an insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP decrease with latanoprost 0.005% eyedrop monotherapy were enrolled. The latanoprost 0.005% eyedrops were discontinued, and administration of latanoprost 0.005%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops was initiated without any washout period. IOP was compared before and at months 1, 3, and 6 after the switch. The incidence of adverse reactions was investigated at every follow-up visit.Results: Mean IOP was 17.3 ± 2.7 mmHg before the switch, 15.5 ± 2.6 mmHg one month after the switch, 14.9 ± 2.4 mmHg 3 months after the switch, and 15.1 ± 2.2 mmHg 6 months after the switch, indicating that IOP decreased significantly after the change. The IOP reduction rate was 9.9% ± 11.5% after one month, 13.1% ± 10.9% after 3 months, and 11.2% ± 11.8% after 6 months. Two patients (6.5% discontinued therapy due to adverse reactions (one case each of itchiness and bradycardia.Conclusion: When latanoprost 0.005% eyedrop monotherapy was replaced by latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops, IOP decreased significantly without increasing the frequency of administration, and safety was satisfactory.Keywords: latanoprost 0.005%, timolol maleate 0.5%, fixed combination, eyedrops, intraocular pressure, switch

  16. Ars saturae: misli o satiri in njenih obrazih. Uvodnik v tematski sklop „o satiri“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Golob

    2011-12-01

    Evropski in slovenski okvir – izkušnje niso tako vsaksebi, da ne bi prepoznali večnih in vesoljnih zakonov človekovega dejanja in nehanja. Vendar: ali se še kdaj spomnimo na Pudelbal Feliksa Antona Deva (1732–1786, kjer je prek pustnega, maškeradnega plesa na pahljačo vseh mogočih tipov prižebljal ljubljansko »purgarijo« v literarni ringaraja, tako da je začetno lahkotno šopirjenje izzvenelo v nelahkotni antitezi o sprenevedanju, večnem laganju in podobnih značajskih odličnostih. Obolos baročnemu času je jezikovno bogastvo, kopičenje satirično-parodičnih oznak, ki jih je Dev nalepil paradirajočim osebkom na odru, iz katerih dehti moralna sprijenost. To je satira o malih dušah. In še brezkončni izvir, namreč briljantno pletenje Ivana Cankarja in mnogoobraznih satiričnih motivov, v dobršni meri izvirajočih iz politične odvisnosti in narodno-zavedne neurejenosti, tako da je v resnici »kostanj posebne sorte«, ki so se mu v različnih tonalitetah pridružila najboljša peresa prve polovice 20. stoletja. Cankarjevo satiropisje je veljalo »zlasti farizeju, hlapcu, dogmatiku, renegatu,« pravi Franc Zadravec, »maske snema z vsakršnih duhovnih in moralnih spak nekdanjih in sedanjih časov.«7 Satirik je po definiciji svojega početja brezkompromisni opazovalec človekovih dejanj. Izhodišče za tematske prispevke v tej številki Ars et humanitas je dalo polju satire, satiričnega, satirikov itd. odprte poti. Kakršno koli je že naše vsakdanje delo, vsi smo se s temi temami srečavali v raznih konceptualnih in oblikovnih izrazih in pri razrešitvi vprašanja največkrat ni zadoščal pogled samo ene stroke. To povezovanje disciplin je temeljna lastnost te revije, ki goji načelo medkulturnih in interdisciplinarnih perspektiv, zato so bili prispevki dolžni spoštovati le nosilno besedo »satira«.

  17. Assessment of ocular hypotensive effect and safety 12 months after changing from an unfixed combination to a latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Ryoko Okayama1, Risako Higa1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, 4-3 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% combined eyedrops were recently made available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect, visual preservation effect, and adverse reactions of a one-year administration of this fixed combination.Methods: The subjects included 162 eyes from 162 patients diagnosed with either primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and using an unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%. The unfixed combination was discontinued and replaced with the latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination with no washout period. IOP was measured before (baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the change. The mean deviation value of Humphrey field analysis was compared. Adverse reactions were examined at every follow-up.Results: No significant differences were found between mean IOP values obtained at baseline (mean ± standard deviation, 15.2 ± 3.3 mmHg 3 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg, 6 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, 9 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, and 12 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg after the change from the unfixed to the fixed combination of eyedrops (P = 0.212. In addition, no significant differences were observed between mean deviation values obtained at baseline (–9.11 ± 6.94 dB and 12 months (–10.08 ± 7.24 dB after the change (P = 0.114. Thirty-one patients discontinued the fixed combination within 12 months of replacement, due to an insufficient IOP decrease (20 patients, 12.3% and adverse reactions (11 patients, 6.8%.Conclusion: Following replacement of two eyedrop medications (latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5% by one fixed combination (latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5%, IOP and visual field

  18. Efficacy and safety of switching to latanoprost 0.005%–timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination eyedrops from an unfixed combination for 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Ryoko Okayama,1 Risako Higa,1 Goji Tomita2 1Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP-reducing effect, the visual field-maintenance effect, and the adverse reactions caused by administration of ­latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed-combination eyedrops for 3 years.Subjects and methods: The subjects were 162 patients (162 eyes with glaucoma or ocular hypotension who were using latanoprost and timolol maleate eyedrops concomitantly. The latanoprost and timolol maleate eyedrop regimen was discontinued without any washout period and subsequently changed to a latanoprost–timolol maleate fixed-combination eyedrop regimen. IOP values before the change and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after the change were measured and compared. The Humphrey visual field test was conducted before the change and at 12, 24, and 36 months after the change, and mean-deviation values were compared. Adverse reactions were assessed at every checkup.Results: The IOPs before the change and at 6–36 months after the change were 15.2±3.3 mmHg and 14.3–15.2 mmHg, respectively, and a significant decrease was observed at 36 months after the change (P<0.01. Mean-deviation values before the change and at 12–36 months after the change were –9.11±6.94 dB and –10.08 to -9.22 dB, respectively, and these values were not significantly different (P=0.2148. Within the 36-month period, the eyedrops were discontinued because of insufficient IOP decrease in 33 cases (20.4% and adverse reactions in eleven cases (6.8%.Conclusion: IOP and the visual field were maintained for 3 years when a latanoprost and timolol maleate eyedrop regimen was changed to a latanoprost–timolol maleate fixed-combination eyedrop regimen. However, administration of the latanoprost–timolol maleate fixed-combination eyedrops was discontinued in

  19. Ocular hypotensive effect and safety of travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination after change of treatment regimen from ß-blockers and prostaglandin analogs

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    Inoue K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Akira Setogawa1, Risako Higa1, Ryo Moriyama1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 22nd Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanIntroduction: Travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops are available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP-decreasing effect of travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops and the adherence of patients to the administration protocol.Materials and methods: We studied 43 eyes from 43 patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma, who were using prostaglandin analogs and ß-blockers. The prostaglandin analogs and ß-blockers were discontinued, and the treatment regimen was changed to travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops without any washout period. IOP before and at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the treatment change was evaluated and compared. A questionnaire about protocol adherence was administered 1 month after the treatment change.Results: IOP was 15.7 ± 2.9 mmHg before the change, 15.5 ± 2.7 mmHg at 1 month after the change, 15.3 ± 3.6 mmHg at 3 months after the change, and 15.8 ± 3.2 mmHg at 6 months after the change, and none of the differences were significant (P = 0.191. The responses to the questionnaire showed that cases where eye drop administration was forgotten decreased after the treatment change. Moreover, because of changes in eye drops, 19.0% of patients had irritation. More than half (54.8% of the patients preferred travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops. Seven patients (16.3% discontinued eye drop use because of adverse reactions within 6 months after the change.Conclusion: When the treatment regimen was changed from prostaglandin analogs and ß-blockers to travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops, administration protocol adherence

  20. Incidence of outer retinal tubulation in eyes with choroidal neovascularization under intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in a Japanese population

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    Takagi S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiji Takagi,1–3 Michiko Mandai,1,4 Noriko Miyamoto,1,2 Akihiro Nishida,1,2 Yasuhiko Hirami,1,2 Hirofumi Uyama,1,2 Midori Yamamoto,1,2 Masayo Takahashi,1,2,4 Goji Tomita,3 Yasuo Kurimoto1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2Department of Translational Research, Division of Ophthalmology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 4RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of outer retinal tubulation (ORT among patients with different types of choroidal neovascularization (CNV over time. Materials and methods: In this retrospective chart review, disease type was classified as typical age-related macular degeneration (t-AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP, or myopic CNV (mCNV. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT images were evaluated for the appearance of ORT and subretinal fibrosis and fluid. Furthermore, the association of the presence of ORT with clinical data and OCT findings was investigated. Results: Among the 136 eyes studied, the overall rates of occurrence of ORT were 7.8%, 18.8%, and 31.6% after 12, 24, and 36 months from baseline, respectively. Among patients with t-AMD, RAP, and mCNV, the occurrence of ORT increased soon after the initial visit. In contrast, among patients with PCV, the occurrence of ORT increased slowly over time. Patients with and without ORT – ORT(+ and ORT(- groups, respectively – differed significantly in terms of sex ratio and presence of intraretinal fluid at the initial visit and presence of subretinal fibrosis at 3 years from baseline. The ORT(+ group exhibited lower visual acuity (VA; 0.67±0.43 than that of the ORT(- group (0.41±0.36; P<0.001.Conclusion: The occurrence of ORT tended to increase more slowly

  1. Estructura y estado de conservación de los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae en el noreste de Mendoza (Argentina Structure and conservative condition of the Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamily: Mimosoideae woodlands in northeast Mendoza (Argentina

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    JUAN AGUSTÍN ALVAREZ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La recomendación de normas de manejo que regulen el uso de los recursos forestales debe estar basada en el conocimiento de la estructura y dinámica de los mismos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la estructura poblacional de las principales unidades boscosas del bosque de Prosopis flexuosa del noreste de Mendoza, sus condiciones sanitarias y su potencial productivo. Se muestrearon un total de 1.471 algarrobos en las cuatro unidades boscosas más representativas. La densidad total de algarrobos fue la siguiente: bosque semicerrado de P. flexuosa con Atriplex lampa y Lycium tenuispinosum en valles intermédanos (Bosque 1: 181 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con Trichomaria usillo y Suaeda divaricata en ondulaciones (Bosque 2: 155 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con T. usillo (Bosque 3: 233 árboles ha-1 y bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con A. lampa en ondulaciones suaves (Bosque 4: 215 árboles ha-1. El análisis de componentes principales de la estructura diamétrica agrupó los sitios relevados en las distintas unidades boscosas según la proporción de árboles de diámetro basal mayor a 25 cm. Los sitios del Bosque 1 (mayor proporción de árboles grandes, se separaron de los sitios con mayor proporción árboles pequeños (bosques 2 y 4. Debido al hábito de crecimiento de los algarrobos, la cantidad de productos maderables de estos bosques es baja. Además, P. flexuosa presenta en el área un porcentaje alto de individuos con más de dos fustes, la forma en muchos casos es decumbente y la altura de los fustes es menor a un metro. Por lo tanto, el potencial forestal del bosque es bajo y el posible aprovechamiento debería realizarse a escala local, considerando la inclusión de otras actividades complementarias en zonas establecidas para tal finThe recommendation of management rules that regulate the use of forest resources must be based on the knowledge of the structure and dynamics of forests. This work

  2. Ecoanatomía foliar deárboles y arbustos delos distritos chaqueños occidental y serrano (Argentina Leaf ecoanatomy of trees and shrubs from Chacoan Occidental and Serrano Districts (Argentina

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    Ana M Arambarri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar parámetros micrográficos foliares que permitan comprender mejor la relación planta-ambiente y contribuyan al desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías para el aprovechamiento sustentable y conservación de los bosques de esta región. Se empleó material de hoja de ejemplares recolectados en la región subtropical seca de la provincia chaqueña y material fresco de especies creciendo en zona templado-húmeda para comparar las variaciones de la estructura foliar. Se determinaron densidades por mm-2 de células epidérmicas, estomas y tricomas, tipos de mesofilo y tipo y distribución de los tejidos vascular y de sostén. Se encontró que estos caracteres anatómicos de la hoja son influenciados por una combinación de factores intraespecíficos y del ambiente. Los caracteres xeromórficos puestos de manifiesto fueron: presencia de ceras epicuticulares, estrías cuticulares, estomas hundidos con reborde peristomático, de epidermis bistrata o pluristrata y/o de hipodermis, mesofilo en empalizada o isolateral y abundante esclerénquima. Algunas especies tales como: Celtis ehrenbergiana, C. iguanaea, Jodina rhombifolia, Lycium cestroides y Parkinsonia aculeata, muestran desde caracteres xeromórficos (e.g. hojas anfistomáticas, equifaciales hasta caracteres mesomórficos (e.g. hojas hipostomáticas, bifaciales incluyendo algunos hidromórficos como la ausencia de esclerénquima.The objective of this work was to evaluate foliar micrographic parameters to deepen our understanding of the plant-environment relationships, contributing to new technologies to preserve the forests of this area. Leaf material of specimens collected in chacoan biogeographic province with subtropical and dry climatic conditions, and from species growing in template and humid conditions were studied to compare leaf structure variations. Epidermal cells, stomata and trichomes by unit of area (mm-2, types of mesophyll, sclerenchymatic tissue

  3. 龟鹿二仙胶及其拆方对豚鼠软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原蛋白多糖合成的影响%Effects of Guilu Erxian Glue and its separate on collagen type Ⅱ and proteoglycan of guinea pig's chondrocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 尹玉彪; 雒焕生; 黄远鹏; 杜江; 李奕修; 赵诣; 王和鸣

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过观察龟鹿二仙胶及其拆方对豚鼠软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖合成的影响,探讨龟鹿二仙胶的配伍机制.方法:体外培养豚鼠膝关节软骨细胞,免疫组化染色检测龟鹿二仙胶及其拆方对软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原合成的影响,Alcian Blue染色检测软骨细胞蛋白多糖合成.结果:龟鹿二仙胶促进软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖表达极显著(P<0.01),龟板和鹿角均能显著提高Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖表达(P<0.05),但药效显著低于龟鹿二仙胶(P<0.05);人参和枸杞对Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖表达均无明显促进作用.结论:龟鹿二仙胶可显著促进软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖的表达,这是其保护软骨细胞,延缓软骨退变的作用机制之一.龟鹿二仙胶发挥此作用的主要药物是龟板和鹿角;人参和枸杞本身并不能促进Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖表达,而与龟板和鹿角配合,可明显增强龟板和鹿角的促进软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原和蛋白多糖表达的作用.%Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Guilu Erxian Glue compatibility by detecting the effect of Collagen type II and proteoglycan of guinea pig's Chondrocyte.Method: Extract chondrocyte from rat's knee and cultured in vitro. Detecting collagen type II by immunohistochemistry stain and proteoglycan by Alcian Blue stain. Result: GuiLu ErXian Glue can highly significantly enhance the expression of collagen type II and proteoglycan(P<0.01). Carapax testudinis and antlercan also significantly enhance the expression of collagen type II and proteoglycan(P<0.05), but is not better than Guilu Erxian Glue(P<0.05).Ginseng and Lycium has no obviously effect in the expression of collagen type II and proteoglycan. Conclusion: One of the main mechanism that Guilu Erxian Glue can protect cartilage from ageing is that it can highly significantly enhance the expression of collagen type D and proteoglycan secreted by rat's chondrocyte. The main

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Nadeem; Shah, Munir H

    2013-07-09

    Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  5. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  6. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

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    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  7. 中药中速灭威残留量的酶联免疫检测方法%Metolcarb Residue Analysis Using ELISA in Chinese Herbal Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光; 王俊平; 生威; 张燕; 王硕

    2012-01-01

    A direct competitive ELISA was established in detecting Metolcarb residues in Chinese herbal medicines, such as Lonicera chrysantha.Lycium chinense, Radix Ginseng, Radix Isatidis, Folium lsatidis and Yuanhu painkillers. After Lo-nicera chrysantha and so on were mashed and homogenized, methanolextraction, rotary steaming, and PBS were used to make up to volume. Moderate dilution then could eliminate the influence of matrix, which was detected by ELISA. In Chinese herbal medicines.the recovery rate was 66%-91%,with variation coefficient less than 30%. The method is simple, quick, sensitive and accurate in detecting the Metolcarb residues in Chinese herbal medicines.%建立了直接竞争酶联免寝法(ELISA)测定金银花、枸杞、人参、板蓝根、大青叶和圆弧止痛片为代表的中药中速灭威的残留量.金银花等经过粉碎,加入甲醇提取、旋蒸、PBS复溶等简单前处理之后,再经过适度的稀释可以达到消除基质影响,用ELISA进行测定.中药样品添加回收率为64.00% ~ 91.30%.变异系数均小于30.12%.结果表明,该方法可以简单、快速、灵敏、准确地检测出金银花、枸杞、人参、板蓝根、大青叶和圆弧止痛片等中药中速灭威的残留量.

  8. Vegetation description of the Doornhoek section of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP, South Africa

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    Hugo Bezuidenhout

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP has been extended over the last couple of years. One of the newly procured areas is the Doornhoek section, which had been adjacent to the park. To develop scientifically sound management programmes for conservation areas, it is essential that an inventory of their natural resources be undertaken. The aim of this study was to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the Doornhoek section of the park. The floristic data were analysed in accordance with the Braun-Blanquet procedures using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of eight communities, which can be grouped into seven major community types (Rhus lucida–Buddleja glomerata Shrubland, Rhigozum obovatum–Rhus longispina Shrubland, Helichrysum dregeanum–Aristida diffusa Grassland, Pentzia globosa–Enneapogon scoparius Grassland, Aristida adscensionus–Pentzia globosa Grassland, Cadaba aphylla–Acacia karroo Woodland and Lycium oxycarpum–Acacia karroo Woodland. Four of these communities occur on the higher-lying plateau, mid-slope and crest areas, while the other four communities are located on the lower-lying mid-plateau and foot slope, along drainage lines and in valley-bottom areas. The description of the plant communities, together with the vegetation map, can serve as a basis for formulating a management programme for the larger park. Although sections of Doornhoek have been overgrazed and degraded in the past, its recent addition to the MZNP contributes to the available habitat preferred by large herbivores, such as valley bottoms, foot-slopes and plateaux.

  9. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

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    Mahmood Zafar Alam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  10. CO2 efflux from a calcareous Mojave Desert soil: isotopic results from a laboratory and field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, P.; Stevenson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) represents a substantial C pool in arid ecosystems. The contribution of the SIC pool to net ecosystem C flux is poorly understood but has gained attention because there have been reports of anomalous C fluxes in some arid environments. In the context of climate change, altered precipitation patterns and changes in soil pCO2 values (from changes in vegetation density, plant water use efficiency, and belowground respiration) could potentially affect SIC storage in some ecosystems. The stable carbon isotope values of organic and inorganic carbon (e.g. carbonates) can differ substantially and may be useful in determining whether PIC influences C fluxes. However, variable rates of heterotrophic and root respiration and diffusion of atmospheric CO2 into the soil as well as the variation and complexity of the CaCO3-CO2-H2O system at different soil depths can complicate interpretation of isotopic data. We monitored soil CO2 concentrations and CO2 efflux from irrigated and non-irrigated plots in a calcareous soil at the Mojave Global Change Facility (MGCF). The site is on the northern part of the Mojave Desert with a mean annual precipitation of 71 mm and vegetation characterized by a Larrea tridentata, Lycium spp., Ambrosia dumosa plant community. We used a Keeling plot approach to determine source δ13C values from effluxed CO2-13C in a laboratory incubation experiment and from direct field measurements of soil CO2-13C. Data from the laboratory incubation experiment suggested that there was a contribution of PIC on effluxed CO2-13C in a closed system, but results from the field measurements were much more difficult to interpret and did not support a large contribution of SIC to CO2 fluxes in these soils. We discuss the usefulness of isotopic measure of CO2 on CO2 efflux in the context of the MGCF experiment.

  11. Estimation of root cohesion for desert shrub species in the Lower Colorado riparian ecosystem and its potential for streambank stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A. R.; Gautam, M. R.; Yu, Z.; Imada, S.; Acharya, K.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying mechanical properties of native vegetation for streambank stability has remained a critical need of the Lower Colorado riparian revegetation effort. In the present study we estimated root cohesion for four representative native desert shrub species: Artiplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.Watson, Lycium andersonii A. Gray, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville, and Allenrolfea occidentalis (S.Watson) Kuntze to understand their suitability in streambank stabilization in the framework of a revegetation campaign. Field experiments were conducted to measure root length, root length density, root area ratio, and root tensile strength. Finally, the root cohesion values were assessed using a simple perpendicular model. Root area ratio estimates showed that on average plant roots occupy 0.46 % of the area under the crown of the selected species. The root tensile strength (Tr) was greatest for L. tridentata (62.23 MPa) followed by L. andersonii (53.53 MPa), A. lentiformis (49.17 MPa), and A. occidentalis (35.03 MPa).The root cohesion values could be used to rank the species according to their potential for shallow bank slope stabilization in riparian ecosystems of a desert environment. The maximum root cohesion in the present study was estimated for A. lentiformis (97.6kPa) followed by L. andersonii (89.3kPa), L. tridentata (35.6 kPa), and A. occidentalis (34.8 kPa). Root cohesion values were also estimated using Fiber bundle model (FBM) and compared to the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979). The comparative root cohesion values for root diameter (> 0.5 mm) suggest that Wu's model estimates are greater than those of the FBM model by a reduction factor ranges between 0.35 and 0.56 for our studied species.

  12. Using the knowns to discover the unknowns: MS-based dereplication uncovers structural diversity in 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycoside production in the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiling, Sven; Khanal, Santosh; Barsch, Aiko; Zurek, Gabriela; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2016-02-01

    Exploring the diversity of plant secondary metabolism requires efficient methods to obtain sufficient structural insights to discriminate previously known from unknown metabolites. De novo structure elucidation and confirmation of known metabolites (dereplication) remain a major bottleneck for mass spectrometry-based metabolomic workflows, and few systematic dereplication strategies have been developed for the analysis of entire compound classes across plant families, partly due to the complexity of plant metabolic profiles that complicates cross-species comparisons. 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides (HGL-DTGs) are abundant defensive secondary metabolites whose malonyl and glycosyl decorations are induced by jasmonate signaling in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. The multiple labile glycosidic bonds of HGL-DTGs result in extensive in-source fragmentation (IS-CID) during ionization. To reconstruct these IS-CID clusters from profiling data and identify precursor ions, we applied a deconvolution algorithm and created an MS/MS library from positive-ion spectra of purified HGL-DTGs. From this library, 251 non-redundant fragments were annotated, and a workflow to characterize leaf, flower and fruit extracts of 35 solanaceous species was established. These analyses predicted 105 novel HGL-DTGs that were restricted to Nicotiana, Capsicum and Lycium species. Interestingly, malonylation is a highly conserved step in HGL-DTG metabolism, but is differentially affected by jasmonate signaling among Nicotiana species. This MS-based workflow is readily applicable for cross-species re-identification/annotation of other compound classes with sufficient fragmentation knowledge, and therefore has the potential to support hypotheses regarding secondary metabolism diversification.

  13. Assessment of Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status and Preparation of Management Plan for Medicinal Plants in the Catchment Area of Parbati Hydroelectric Project Stage -Ⅲ in Northwestern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Samant; Jitendra S. Butola; Aman Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The developmental activities, particularly the construction of hydroelectric projects are causing a great loss of biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan Region. The Himachal Pradesh, a part of IHR is well known for the development of hydroelectric projects.The Parbati H.E. Project is amongst the major projects of the State. The different stages of the project are all causing loss of biodiversity of the area.Stage Ⅲ of the Parbati H.E. Project is a run of the river scheme on the Sainj River downstream of Power House of Parbati H.E. Project Stage Ⅱ. The project shall utilize regulated discharge of Parbati H.E.Project Stage Ⅱ and inflow of River Sainj for power generation, and has been contemplated as a peaking station operating in tandem with Stage Ⅱ. The present study has been undertaken to see the impact of hydroelectric project on the biodiversity, particularly on medicinal plants. A total of 104 species of medicinal plants, belonging to different life forms, i.e.,trees (23 spp.), shrubs (22 spp.), herbs (57 spp.) and ferns (2 spp.) were recorded. The species have been analyzed and studied for their distribution,classification, altitudinal zones, part (s) used,indigenous uses, nativity, endemism and rarity.Different parts of these species, such as whole plants,roots (including rhizomes and tubers), leaves, flowers,fruits, seeds, stems, barks, spikes, nuts and insect galls are used by the inhabitants for curing various diseases and ailments. 30 species are native to the Himalayan region, 9 species native to the Himalayan region and adjacent countries also and 65 species are non-natives. 9 species are near endemics. Considering the whole Himalaya as a biogeographic unit (sensu lato),the near endemics are endemic to the Himalaya.Among these species, Zanthoxylum armatum is categorized as Endangered and Valeriana wallichii as Vulnerable. Hedychium spicatum, Rhus javanica,Berberis lycium, Thalictrum foliolossum, Salvia lanata, Rubia cordifolia and Bergenia

  14. Alto Patache fog oasis in the Atacama Desert: Geographical basis for a sustainable development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, M.; Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Pérez, L.; Ibáñez, M.

    2010-07-01

    Alto Patache coastal fog oasis is a protected area located south of Iquique, Northern Chile, being presently in charge of the Atacama Desert Center (ADC) research group of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, since 1997. On 2007, the Chilean Government bestowed a piece of land stretch covering 1,114 hectares to ADC scientific group for scientific research, ecosystem protection and environmental education. This oasis has been recently studied from different points of view: climate, biogeography, fog collection, geomorphology, soil survey and land use planning, plant distribution, conservation and archaeology. During 2009, a study of the geographical basis to elaborate a general management plan was undertaken to collect information to fulfill our planned out objectives. Through this study, georreferenciated strategic information was compiled to evaluate future actions conducting to a sustainable development within the protected area. This information was translated into thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of variables like: climate, geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation, fauna, archaeological sites and management zones. The methodology used is the analysis of satellite imagery, using GPS by creating a cartographic Data Base incorporated in GIS. Results show that the area starts at the littoral plain, ranging from 500 m to 2.000 m, being continued in parts by a piedmont intercepted by a very abrupt mega-cliff, or hectares of climbing sand dunes leading to a short high plateau limited by a soft hilly area to the East. Two soil types are characteristic: Entisols (Torriorthent) covering the coastal beach sediments, and Aridisols along the cliff and adjacent hills. Vegetation consists not only of a very rich lichen cover, but also of endangered vascular species associations constituting a very fragile sub-tropical coastal desert community, such as Eulychnia, Cumulopuntia, Eriosyce cacti, and Lycium - Nolana- Ephedra communities. Fog oasis

  15. 塔里木河下游绿洲-荒漠过渡带植物多样性特征及优势种群分布格局%Species Diversity and Dominance Population Distribution Pattern in Oasis-Desert Ecotone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪华; 陈亚宁; 李卫红

    2009-01-01

    结合10个断面的30个样地野外调查结果,采用物种丰富度指数(R)、Shannon-Wiener指数(H)、Simpson优势度指数(D)、物种均匀度指数(JSW)、Whittaker指数、Cody指数、扩散系数(C)、负二项参数(K)、平均拥挤度(m·)、丛生指标(I)、聚块性指标(PI)、Green指数(CA)、Cassie指标(GI) 综合分析了塔里木河下游绿洲-荒漠过渡带植物群落多样性及优势种群的空间分布格局.结果表明:塔里木河下游绿洲-荒漠过渡带优势种群为胡杨(Populus euphratica)、柽柳(Tamarix spp.)、黑果枸杞(Lycium ruthenicum)、盐穗木(Halostachys caspica)、花花柴(Karelinia caspica)、芦苇(Phragmites communis)、骆驼刺(Alhagi sparsifolia)、甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata)、罗布麻(Apocynum hendersonii),受生境中水分条件的影响,各种群均呈聚集分布格局;各群落α-多样性指数低,物种多样性呈梯度变化,受环境水土资源条件限制,物种丰富度变化为:绿洲内>交错区>荒漠区;受地下水埋深的影响,群落结构呈规律性变化:乔-灌-草结构-灌-草结构-单一灌木结构-灌-草结构-乔-灌-草结构;Whittaker指数、Cody指数显示群落β-多样性随着地下水埋深梯度发生变化,过渡带是绿洲和荒漠物种分布变化的分界地带.因此,地下水埋深是决定塔里木河下游绿洲-荒漠过渡带物种多样性和种群分布的决定因素.

  16. 硫酸钠盐析对萃取微量铜的增敏作用及其应用%Sensitizing effect of sodium-sulfate salting-out phase separation in extraction of trace amount of copper ions and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓祥; 李晖; 李延芳; 梁冰

    2011-01-01

    A new Na2SO4sahing-out extraction method has been developed for preconcentration trace amounts of copper as a prior step to its determination by UV-visible spectrophotometry, in which diethyldithiocarbamate(DDTC) was used as complexing agent,with chloroform as extraction solvent.Variables affecting salting-out extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized.Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.002 μg/mL ~ 0.08 μg/mLof copper, detection limit was 0.11 ng/mL in original solution (3Sbc/m) and the relative standard deviation for seven replicate determination of 0.002 μg/mL copper was ± 1.9%.The proposed method has been applied for determination of copper in Honeysuckle, Radix Glycyrrhiza,Lycium samples with satisfactory results, the recovery were 103%, 102% ,96%, RSD were 1.5%, 1.9%, 2.0%, respectively.%建立了以二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠(DDTC)为络合剂,硫酸钠-氯仿-水盐析萃取,紫外可见分光光度法测定痕量铜(Ⅱ)的新方法.研究了萃取的条件,共存离子的干扰.结果表明本法灵敏度高,选择性好,在最佳实验条件下,铜的线性范围为0.002~0.08μg/mL,0.002μg/mL铜标准液测定的RSD=1.9%(n=7),检出限为0.11ng/mL.应用于金银花、甘草、枸杞中铜的测定,回收率分别为103%、102%、96%,RSD分别为1.5%、1.9%、2.0%.

  17. Concentration of Plutonium in Desert Plants From Contaminated Area%钚在放射性污染区沙漠植物中的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉; 金玉仁; 田梅; 李伟平; 王耀芹; 王煜; 曾可

    2012-01-01

    研究沙漠植物中钚的含量,对于评估沙漠植物受钚污染状况,寻找钚指示和超积累植物有重要意义.本文采集某放射性污染区内的植物并分析其中239 Pu的含量,获得7种沙漠植物受239Pu污染的数据,据此分析影响植物体内核素含量的因素.所研究沙漠植物体内239 Pu含量平均值为(1.8士4.9)Bq/kg(干重),明显受到钚的污染.再悬浮是造成植物表面污染严重的重要因素之一.植物体内钚的含量与植物种类、生长期、地表污染程度等密切相关.所研究沙漠植物中钚含量的大小顺序为:河西苣>芦苇>盐穗木>盐生草>黑果枸杞>刚毛柽柳>沙拐枣,其中草本植物中钚的含量均大于木本植物.%The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyperaccumulator. The concentration of 239Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239Pu in plants was (1. 8 + 4. 9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites austra-lis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum ,Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum.

  18. 紫湖溪流域重金属污染风险与植物富集特征%Heavy metals pollution risk and characteristics of plant accumulation along Zihu River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勤; 沈羽; 方炎明; 严靖; 李萍萍; 张开梅

    2014-01-01

    annua, Ligustrum lucidum, Lycium chinense, Broussonetia papyrifera. An assessment of heavy-metal contamination was conducted by means of pollution index (Pi). Such data may provide information for screening of heavy metal accumulator, and for phytoremediation of heavy metals. The results indicated that serious contamination of Cd and Mn was found in the brook water, the concentrations for Cd and Mn were 0.003 mg/L and 0.124 mg/L, respectively. Among the heavy metals in the soil from the river silt, contamination of Zn, Cd and Cu was serious based on the Pi values (18.89, 8.53 and 6.25, respectively), with the order of potential ecological risk as:Zn>Cd>Cu>Pb>As>Ni> Cr>Mn. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significantly (p < 0.05) positive correlation among concentrations of heavy metals in the riparian soil, which indicated that they were mainly polluted by sewage and silt. High concentrations of Cd, Zn and Cu were investigated from the soil of the riverbank based on the Pi values (3.68, 3.61 and 3.41, respectively). The bioconcentration factor (BFs) to Cd, Cr and Pb were quite lower among all the nine species due probably to the selective absorption of the plants. Because Pb is toxic to all plants, the transfer factors (TF) to Pb for all the nine species were typically less than 1. This meant that they were all compartment types to Pb. Plants growing on the sites with heavy metal pollution can gradually evolve into differentiated ecotypes based on the survey of plant population and the result of heavy metal concentration. Wetland ecotypes, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Ranunculus ternatus, have an advantage for accumulating of heavy metals. Poa annua, Chenopodium glaucum and Lycium chinense can resistant to absorption heavy metals. Broussonetia papyrifera, a species of woody plants, will play a great function in the field of phytoremediation for soils contaminated by heavy metals in the future due to its higher bioconcentration factor and transfer factor to some

  19. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    Trolox[reg] (a water soluble Vitamin E analogue) conferred significant protection (P < 0.05) against subsequent oxidant challenge. Exposure of buccal cell in situ (i.e. in the mouth) to antioxidant-rich green tea led to an acute decrease in basal DNA strand breaks. In a controlled human intervention trial, buccal cells from 14 subjects after 28 days' supplementation with a carotenoid-rich berry (Fructus barbarum L.) showed a small but statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in DNA strand breaks. These data indicate that this buccal cell comet assay is a feasible and potentially useful alternative tool to the usual lymphocyte model in human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  20. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    gastro-intestinal, parasitic and hepatobiliary complaints (0.90). Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881) reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC. Conclusion Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries. PMID:28192466

  1. First Report of Longidorus kuiperi and Rotylenchus eximius from Coastal Sand Dunes in Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling was a coastal sand dune near the archeological site of Komos, southwest of Crete, Greece. Low soil populations of a needle and a spiral nematode were detected (3 and 8 individuals/1,000 cm3 of soil, respectively), which prompted us to undertake a detailed morphological and molecular comparative study with previous reported data. Nematodes were extracted from soil with the wet sieving and decanting method (Cobb, 1918). Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified these species as Longidorus kuiperi Brinkman, Loof and Barbez, 1987, and Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964. The morphology of L. kuiperi females (six specimens studied) was characterized by having a slender body; very broad lip region (27 ± 1.5 [25 to 30] μm in width); short, hemispherical tail; body length of (7.1 ± 0.8 [6.5 to 8.5] mm); vulva position at 47% to 55% of body length; odontostyle length of (105 ± 6.5 [90 to 115] μm); males very common (but less frequent than females [45% vs 55%]); tail region with 15 to 20 supplements and bulged terminal cuticle. The morphology of R. eximius females (four specimens studied) was characterized by having a hemispherical lip region clearly set off; with four annuli; body without longitudinal striations; lateral fields areolated in the pharyngeal region only; stylet 36 to 38 μm; and broadly rounded tail. The morphology of the isolated nematodes agreed with previous descriptions of L. kuiperi (Brinkman et al., 1987; De Luca et al., 2009), and R. eximius

  2. 西北黄土高原区路域乡土植物资源筛选研究%Selection of Indigenous Plants in Roads in Northwestern Loess Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁军; 王春玲

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过对路用乡土植物区资源利用研究,解决生物工程所需的乡土植物资源不足问题。[方法]以西北黄土高原区为研究范围,以调查研究为主、试验研究为辅开展了乡土植物资源筛选的研究工作,调查了该区域能在恶劣条件下生长的植物种类及其在路域的适应状况,对有望大规模应用的植物组合模式进行了综合观测及评定。[结果]研究确定了该区中央分隔带可栽种乔木有4种,分别为侧柏、桧柏、圆柏、榆树;灌木有9种,分别为枸杞、柽柳、刺枚、连翘、四翅滨藜、榆叶梅、沙棘、紫穗槐、丁香。另皂荚、刺槐、沙枣、火炬、垂柳、旱柳及白腊树形高大饱满、景观效果好,适宜作为行道树种植;灌木分枝多、树形散乱、高度有限不宜单植,与植株比较高大的树种配合栽种可达到较好的景观效果;山桃、榆树易受虫害,宜和其他树种间植,在空间上阻隔传播。【结论】该研究为路域乡土植物资源筛选研究奠定了基础,为解决生物工程所需的乡土植物资源不足问题提供了帮助。%[Objective] The aim was to study on resource utilization of indigenous plants in roads in order to solve resource shortage of indigenous plant in bioengi- neering. [Method] Based on northwestern loess plateau area, we conducted research on selection of indigenous plants and survey on the species which could live in adverse condition, mainly by surveying, with frequent tests as a supplement, to make a comprehensive observation and evaluation on plant combinations which are to be extensively applied. [Result] The research indicated that in central dividing strips, four arbors, including Platycladus orientalis (Linn.)Franco, Sabina chinensis, Sabinachinen- sis(Linn.)Ant., and Ulmus purnila L., and nine frutices, including Lycium chinense, Tamarix austromongolica, Rosa xanthina Lindl., Forsythia suspense

  3. Selection of Indigenous Plants in Roads in Northwestern Loess Plateau Area%西北黄土高原地区路域乡土植物资源筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁军; 王春玲

    2012-01-01

    [ Object] Hie aim was to study on resource utilization of indigenous plants in roads in order to solve resource shortage of indigenous plant in bioengineering. [ Method ] Based on northwestern loess plateau area, we conducted research on selection of indigenous plants and survey on the species which could live in adverse condition, mainly by surveying, with frequent tests as a supplement, to make a comprehensive observation and evaluation on plant combinations which are to be extensively applied. [ Result] The research indicated that in central dividing strips, four arbors, including Platycladus orientnlis (Linn. ) Franco, Sabina chinensis, Sabinachinensis ( Linn. ) Ant. , and Ulmus pumila L. , and nine frutices, including Lycium chinense, Tamarix austromongolica, Rosa xanthina lindl. , Forsythia suspense, Atriplex canescens, Amygdalus triloba, Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. , Amorpha fruticosa L. , and Syzygium aromaticum could be planted. In addition, Gleditsia sinensis Lam, Robinia pseudoacacia L, Elaeagnus angustifolia L. , Rhus typhina, Salix babylonica, Salixmatsudana and Fraxinus chinensU, tall and strong, are suitable to be planted as border trees, presenting a good vision. Frutices, limited by height, are usually with more branches, which will provide a good landscape if grown with tall plants. Prunus dacidiana and Ulmus pumila L. , prone to be damaged by insects, should be planted with other species to stop the infestation in space. [ Conclusion ] The research laid foundation for selection of indigenous plants in roads, providing references for resource shortage of indigenous plant for bioengineering.%[目的]通过对路用乡土植物区资源利用研究,解决生物工程所需的乡土植物资源不足问题.[方法]以西北黄土高原区为研究范围,以调查研究为主、试验研究为辅开展了乡土植物资源筛选的研究工作,调查了该区域能在恶劣条件下生长的植物种类及其在路域的适应状况,对有望大规

  4. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope

    2010-05-01

    diversity and nuclei of population expansion during climatic ameliorations of the Pleistocene. The floristic composition, location and structure of glacial tree populations and communities may have been a primary control on these developments and on the origin and composition of Holocene scenarios. Refugial populations would have been a source, but not the only one, for the early Lateglacial oak expansions for example. From Middle to Late Holocene, inertial, resilient, and rapid responses of vegetation to climatic change are described, any time with regional and local differences. The role of fire, pastoralism, agriculture and other anthropogenic disturbances such as mining during the Copper, Bronze, Iberic, and Roman times must be also considered as an important factor of the current vegetation distribution. In fact, the Iberian Peninsula constitutes a territory where climatic, geological, biogeographical and historical conditions have converged to produce environmental heterogeneity, large biological diversity and ecosystem richness. A note of singularity: in comparison with other Mediterranean peninsulas, Iberia was, doubtless, particularly suitable for the survival and permanence of sclerophyllous elements of any kind (including Ibero-Maghrebian scrubs such as Maytenus, Periploca, Ziziphus,Withania, Lycium, and Calicotome), currently, during the Holocene, and even during glacial stages of the Pleistocene. However, no macro-remains of these taxa have been documented until Late Holocene chronologies, but the survival of other thermophilous species, such as Olea, reveals the existence of glacial refugia in the southernmost areas of Iberia. Over all, and dealing with plant species, the Iberian Peninsula is a land of survival.

  5. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRW Environmental Safety

    2000-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to investigate the feasibility of various techniques for reclaiming lands disturbed during site characterization at Yucca Mountain. As part of this program, two studies were conducted in 1997 to assess the effects of combinations of seeding date (date that seeds are planted) and supplemental irrigation on densities of native plant species at Yucca Mountain. Study objectives were to (1) determine whether the traditional seeding window (October-December) could be extended through combinations of seeding date and irrigation date, (2) determine which combination of seeding date and irrigation was most successful, and (3) assess the effects of irrigation versus natural precipitation on seedling establishment. In the first study, a multi-species seed mix of 16 native species was sown into plots on four dates (12/96, 2/97, 3/97, and 4/97). Irrigation treatments were control (no irrigation) or addition of 80 mm of supplemental water applied over a one month period. Plant densities were sampled in August and again in October, 1997. In the second study, Larrea tridentata and Lycium andersonii, two species that are common at Yucca Mountain, but difficult to establish from seed, were sown together into plots in January and August, 1997. Half the plots were irrigated with approximately 250 mm of water between August 18 and September 11, while the remaining plots received no irrigation (control). Plant densities were sampled in October, 1997. The August census for the multi-species mix study showed irrigated plots that were sown in February, March and April had higher plant densities and more species than plots that were not irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on plant densities on plots that were seeded in December. Plots were used again in October following 18 mm of precipitation in September. Densities of three species, Ambrosia dumosa, Hymenoclea salsola, and L. tridentata, (warm-season species) were lower on irrigated

  6. 圣女果分段式变温变湿热风干燥特性%Dried characteristics of cherry tomatoes using temperature and humidity by stages changed hot-air drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆惠; 李忠新; 杨劲松; 谢龙; 张世湘; 高振江

    2014-01-01

    Cherry tomato decays easily. Generally, it can be preserved only for 5-7days under normal pressure and temperature. The dehydration of cherry tomatoes into dried or preserved fruits can prolong their shelf life and enrich the market of the fruit. Currently, cherry tomatoes is dehydrated through natural drying. The advantage of this method is simple, and low cost. But the drying time is long and is affected by the climate and sanitary conditions. The product quality is difficult to control. In order to shorten the drying time and prevent mildew, cherry tomatoes are often soaked or sprayed with the alkaline solution. These chemicals are bad for our health. Multi-stage temperature-and-humidity drying is conducted through the material drying characteristics. This method can speed up the drying rate, improve drying quality, and reduce energy consumption. It has been successfully applied for apricot,lyceum barbarum, grapes and other materials. In this study, internal recycling hot-air drying technology was employed for the drying of cherry tomatoes. The effects of drying temperatures, humidity, drying stages and slicing forms on the drying characteristics and the appearance quality of the cherry tomatoes were investigated. Each experiment was composed of four drying stages. The drying temperatures were fixed, the humidity of the environment was changed in processⅠ,Ⅱ andⅢ. The drying temperature was low, the humidity was high at the beginning of processⅣ. Gradually, the temperature was raised, the humidity was reduced. At the end of the process, the drying temperature was higher, the humidity was lower compared with their values at the beginning. The experimental results indicated that pre-heated and falling rate periods exist during the drying of cherry tomato. Previous studies only shown falling rate period. The increase in temperature and humidity has bad effects on the nutrition, color and the appearance quality of cherry tomato. Even though cherry tomato can

  7. Advances and expectations of researches on saline soil reclamation by freezing saline water irrigation%咸水结冰灌溉改良盐碱地的研究进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 巨兆强; 封晓辉; 李晓光; 刘小京

    2016-01-01

    恢复以及咸水利用等方面的作用,并就其未来发展趋势进行了展望。%The use of freezing saline water to irrigate saline lands has proven an effective method of using highly saline water and reclaiming saline lands in coastal regions. The method was based on the basic principle of desalination during melting of frozen saline water in combination with soil water and salt movement characteristics and crop growth pattern in coastal region. In winter, the saline groundwater was pumped and irrigated saline farmlands. The low air temperature forced the irrigated saline water on the top soil to freeze into saline ice. With increasing air temperature in spring, water of high salt concentration melted firstly and infiltrated into the soil, and the slightly saline melting water and freshwater infiltrated into the soil late and effectively facilitated leaching of soil salt. From the above process, freezing saline water irrigation induced soil salt leaching in spring, the period of soil salt accumulation. This, in combination with mulching in spring to control soil salt concentration and rainfall leaching in summer, lowed soil salt content to levels conducive for normal crop growth throughout the growth stages of the crops and plants. The natural characteristics of soil water and salt movement were modified by freezing saline water irrigation, which changed soil salt accumulation into soil salt leaching in spring after irrigation. Thus the remaining soil salinity in the root zone effectively decreased from 12 g·kg-1 to 4 g·kg-1 and the rate of salt leaching exceeded 66%. This facilitated the cultivation of crops including cotton, oil-sunflower and sugar beet in saline coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, and increased the survival rates ofTamarix ramosissima, Lycium barbarumand Fraxinus chinensistransplanted seedlings in the region. After first year freezing saline water irrigation, the yields of seed cotton, oil-sunflower and sugar beet were 3 t×hm-2, 1